WorldWideScience

Sample records for prunus persica fruit

  1. Assessment of Prunus persica fruit softening using a proteomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P, Ricardo Nilo; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Orellana, Ariel

    2012-02-16

    Fruit ripening in Prunus persica involves a number of physiological changes, being one of the most significant the mesocarp softening in melting varieties. In order to get a better understanding of the molecular processes involved in this phenomenon, the protein accumulation patterns in firm and soft fruit of three peach and two nectarine melting flesh varieties were assessed using 2D gel analysis. A General Linear Model (GLM) two-way analysis of variance determined that 164 of the 621 protein spots analyzed displayed a differential accumulation associated with the softening process. Among them, only 14 proteins changed their accumulation in all the varieties assessed, including proteins mostly involved in carbohydrates and cell wall metabolism as well as fruit senescence. The analysis among varieties showed that 195 and 189 spots changed within the firm and soft fruit conditions, respectively. Despite the changes in relative abundance in the spot proteins, the proteome is conserved among varieties and during the transition from firm to soft fruit. Only two spots proteins exhibited a qualitative change in all the conditions assessed. These results are in agreement with the notion that Prunus persica commercial varieties have a narrow genetic background. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Treated Dixiland Prunus persica Fruits: Common and Distinct Response to Heat and Cold

    OpenAIRE

    Lauxmann, Martin Alexander; Brun, Bianca; Borsani, Julia; Bustamante, Claudia Anabel; Budde, Claudio; Lara, Maria Valeria; Drincovich, Maria Fabiana

    2017-01-01

    Cold storage is extensively used to slow the rapid deterioration of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit after harvest. However, peach fruit subjected to long periods of cold storage develop chilling injury (CI) symptoms. Post-harvest heat treatment (HT) of peach fruit prior to cold storage is effective in reducing some CI symptoms, maintaining fruit quality, preventing softening and controlling post-harvest diseases. To identify the molecular changes induced by HT, which may be associated ...

  3. Phenotypic diversity among peach and nectarine (Prunus persica L.) fruit in the national prunus collection at the USDA-ARS, National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diversity and relationships of fruit quality traits peach and nectarine (Prunus persica L.) in the National Prunus collection were studied using comprehensive phenotyping methods. The collection was re-propagated in 2013 and planted in 2014 providing a unique opportunity to evaluate an even-aged...

  4. Transcriptome analysis of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) during the late stage of fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H F; Sheng, Y; Gao, Z H; Chen, H L; Qi, Y J; Yi, X K; Qin, G H; Zhang, J Y

    2016-12-23

    Fruit ripening is a complex developmental process, the details of which remain largely unknown in fleshy fruits. In this paper, the fruit flesh of two peach varieties, "Zhongyou9" (a nectarine; Prunus persica L. Batsch) and its mutant "Hongyu", was analyzed by RNA-seq technology during two stages of ripening at 20-day intervals. One hundred and eighty significant upregulated and two hundred and thirty-five downregulated genes were identified in the experiment. Many of these genes were related to plant hormones, chlorophyll breakdown, accumulation of aroma and flavor volatiles, and stress. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome analysis of peach ripening, and our data will be useful for further studies of the molecular basis of fruit ripening.

  5. Peach (Prunus persica) fruit response to anoxia: reversible ripening delay and biochemical changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, María V; Budde, Claudio O; Porrini, Lucía; Borsani, Julia; Murray, Ricardo; Andreo, Carlos S; Drincovich, María F

    2011-02-01

    The use of modified atmospheres has been successfully applied in different fruits to delay the ripening process and to prevent physiological disorders. In addition, during normal ripening, hypoxic areas are generated inside the fruit; moreover, anaerobic conditions may also arise during fruit post-harvest storage and handling. In consequence, the fruit is an interesting model to analyze the metabolic modifications due to changes in oxygen levels. In this work, a 72 h anoxic treatment by using an N(2) storage atmosphere was applied to peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch) after harvest. Ripening was effectively delayed in treated fruits, preventing fruit softening, color changes and ethylene production. Metabolic changes induced by anoxia included induction of fermentative pathways, glycolysis and enzymes involved in both sucrose synthesis and degradation. Sucrose, fructose and glucose contents remained unchanged in treated fruit, probably due to sucrose cycling. Sorbitol was not consumed and citrate was increased, correlating with citric acid cycle impairment due to O(2) deprivation. Malate content was not affected, indicating compensation in the reactions producing and consuming malate. Changes in malic enzymes and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase may provide pyruvate for fermentation or even act to regenerate NADP. After fruit transfer to aerobic conditions, no signs of post-anoxia injury were observed and metabolic changes were reversed, with the exception of acetaldehyde levels. The results obtained indicate that peach fruit is an organ with a high capacity for anoxic tolerance, which is in accord with the presence of hypoxic areas inside fruits and the fact that hypoxic pre-treatment improves tolerance to subsequent anoxia.

  6. Glucitol dehydrogenase from peach (Prunus persica) fruits is regulated by thioredoxin h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Matías D; Figueroa, Carlos M; Piattoni, Claudia V; Iglesias, Alberto A

    2014-06-01

    Glucitol (Gol) is a major photosynthetic product in plants from the Rosaceae family. Herein we report the molecular cloning, heterologous expression and characterization of Gol dehydrogenase (GolDHase, EC 1.1.1.14) from peach (Prunus persica) fruits. The recombinant enzyme showed kinetic parameters similar to those reported for orthologous enzymes purified from apple and pear fruits. The activity of recombinant GolDHase was strongly inhibited by Cu(2+) and Hg(2+), suggesting that it might have cysteine residues critical for functionality. Oxidizing compounds (such as diamide, hydrogen peroxide and oxidized glutathione) inactivated the enzyme, whereas its activity was restored after incubation with reduced glutathione and thioredoxin from Escherichia coli. Recombinant thioredoxin h from peach fruits also recovered the activity of oxidized GolDHase. Our results suggest that peach fruit GolDHase could be redox regulated in vivo and this would be of relevance to determine carbon assimilation and partitioning in plants accumulating sugar alcohols. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Comparative population genomics reveals the domestication history of the peach, Prunus persica, and human influences on perennial fruit crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ke; Zheng, Zhijun; Wang, Lirong; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Gengrui; Fang, Weichao; Cheng, Shifeng; Zeng, Peng; Chen, Changwen; Wang, Xinwei; Xie, Min; Zhong, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhao, Pei; Bian, Chao; Zhu, Yinling; Zhang, Jiahui; Ma, Guosheng; Chen, Chengxuan; Li, Yanjun; Hao, Fengge; Li, Yong; Huang, Guodong; Li, Yuxiang; Li, Haiyan; Guo, Jian; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun

    2014-07-31

    Recently, many studies utilizing next generation sequencing have investigated plant evolution and domestication in annual crops. Peach, Prunus persica, is a typical perennial fruit crop that has ornamental and edible varieties. Unlike other fruit crops, cultivated peach includes a large number of phenotypes but few polymorphisms. In this study, we explore the genetic basis of domestication in peach and the influence of humans on its evolution. We perform large-scale resequencing of 10 wild and 74 cultivated peach varieties, including 9 ornamental, 23 breeding, and 42 landrace lines. We identify 4.6 million SNPs, a large number of which could explain the phenotypic variation in cultivated peach. Population analysis shows a single domestication event, the speciation of P. persica from wild peach. Ornamental and edible peach both belong to P. persica, along with another geographically separated subgroup, Prunus ferganensis. Our analyses enhance our knowledge of the domestication history of perennial fruit crops, and the dataset we generated could be useful for future research on comparative population genomics.

  8. Changes in biochemical compounds in flesh and peel from Prunus persica fruits grown in Tunisia during two maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbou, Samia; Lussiana, Carola; Maatallah, Samira; Gasco, Laura; Hajlaoui, Hichem; Flamini, Guido

    2016-03-01

    Plants can synthesize tens to hundreds of thousands of primary and secondary metabolites with diverse biological properties and functions. Fatty acids (FA), phenolic compounds (PC) and volatile compounds (VC) of flesh and peel from three Prunus persica cultivars were evaluated at the Regional Centre of Agricultural Research--Experimental Farm (Sidi Bouzid, Tunisia) during two maturation stages. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids are the most abundant FA in Prunus persica cultivars. A genetic effect on FA composition was observed throughout the two sampling periods. Peel was rich in oleic acid with the highest content (31.3% on total FA) in 'O'Henry' cultivar at the commercial ripening date; flesh was rich in linoleic acid with the highest content (44.7% on total FA) in 'Sweet Cap' cultivar at the full ripening date. The monounsaturated/polyunsaturated fatty acids ratios were higher in the commercial ripe than in the full ripe fruits. The analysis of the composition of the VC led to the characterization of 98 different compounds, showing a very high variability among the cultivars. The full ripe fruit (peel and flesh) exhibited the highest total number of terpenoids. Commercial ripe peels were richest in the percentage of hydrocarbons. Comparing cultivars, 'Sweet Cap' cultivar showed the lowest contents of alcohols in peel and flesh of full ripe fruit but highest in peel of commercial ripe fruit, and lowest content of aldehydes in peel and flesh of commercial ripe fruit but highest in peel of ripe ones and the highest ones of lactones. Among PC, the highest contents were observed for o-diphenols and the values showed varietal influence. Total phenols contents decreased during ripening process (p peel and flesh tissues, except found for 'Sweet Cap' cultivar. In conclusion, to achieve better FA composition and greater VC and PC production of the peach fruit, P. persica cultivars should be harvested at the commercial ripening date. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS

  9. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profile Analysis of Prunus persica in Response to Low Sink Demand after Fruit Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Hongguo; Liu, Guotian; Fan, Peige; Liang, Zhenchang; Li, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Prunus persica fruits were removed from 1-year-old shoots to analysis photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and genes changes in leaves to low sink demand caused by fruit removal (-fruit) during the final stage of rapid fruit growth. A decline in net photosynthesis rate was observed, accompanied with a decrease in stomatal conductance. The intercellular CO2 concentrations and leaf temperature increased as compared with a normal fruit load (+fruit). Moreover, low sink demand significantly inhibited the donor side and the reaction center of photosystem II. 382 genes in leaf with an absolute fold change ≥1 change in expression level, representing 116 up- and 266 down-regulated genes except for unknown transcripts. Among these, 25 genes for photosynthesis were down-regulated, 69 stress and 19 redox related genes up-regulated under the low sink demand. These studies revealed high leaf temperature may result in a decline of net photosynthesis rate through down-regulation in photosynthetic related genes and up-regulation in redox and stress related genes, especially heat shock proteins genes. The complex changes in genes at the transcriptional level under low sink demand provided useful starting points for in-depth analyses of source-sink relationship in P. persica.

  10. Pomological and biochemical peculiarities of peach hybrids and varieties for genus Persica Mill. (Prunus persica Borkh. with anthocyanidin Persica vulgaris Mill, pigmentation of fruits pulp and leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Ріхтер

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and the links between different groups of substances (content of dry substances, monosaccharides, saccharose, sum of sugars, titratable acids, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanidins, water soluble pectine, protopectin, sum of pectines and sugar-acid index have been studied in hybrids fruits of Persica vulgaris Mill, subsp. erytrocarpa Zajats and Persica vulgaris Mill, subsp. atropurpurea (Schneid. Zajats. The obtained data were compared with the characteristics typical for fruits of P. vulgaris Mill, subsp. nectarina (Ait. Shof. and P. vulgaris Mill. Brief information about the biology of obtained distant hybrids forms have been given. The content of anthocyanine pigments (Cy-3-Glu, Cy-3- Ara, Cy-3-(6-Kum- Glu in fruits and leaves of different taxons for genus Persica Mill, has been analysed.

  11. Towards further understanding on the antioxidative activities of Prunus persica fruit: A comparative study with four different fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Naveen; Sharma, Rajesh; Kar, Anand

    2014-11-01

    In the present study we have evaluated the antioxidant activities of different fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions) of Prunus persica fruit. For extraction simple warring blender method was employed and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were correlated with different antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H2O2 scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, iron chelating and their reducing power properties). Different in vitro antioxidant studies showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions had the maximum activities that were well correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Maximum yield (25.14 ± 2.2%) was obtained in its aqueous fraction. Both ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed significant inhibitory effects on different antioxidant activities. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between total antioxidant activities and with total phenolic as well as total flavonoid contents. It appears that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. persica may serve as new potential sources of natural antioxidants and could be of therapeutic use in treating several diseases.

  12. Peach (Prunus persica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbadini, Silvia; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Girolomini, Luca; Molesini, Barbara; Navacchi, Oriano

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the application of genetic transformation techniques in peach has been limited by the difficulties in developing efficient regeneration and transformation protocols. Here we describe an efficient regeneration protocol for the commercial micropropagation of GF677 rootstock (Prunus persica × Prunus amygdalus). The method is based on the production, via organogenesis, of meristematic bulk tissues characterized by a high competence for shoot regeneration. This protocol has also been used to obtain GF677 plants genetically engineered with an empty hairpin cassette (hereafter indicated as hp-pBin19), through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. After 7-8 months of selection on media containing kanamycin, we obtained two genetically modified GF677 lines. PCR and Southern blot analyses were performed to confirm the genetic status.

  13. Proanthocyanidin monomers and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside accumulation in blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Juan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the characteristics and mechanisms of proanthocyanidin monomers and anthocyanin synthesis in blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch, the accumulation of catechin, epicatechin and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was determined, and the expression patterns of structural genes associated with biosynthesis of those compounds were investigated in the blood-flesh peach fruit of cultivar “Dahongpao” during fruit development. Our results show that catechin concentration remained low and comparatively stable throughout fruit development. The concentration of epicatechin remained low at the early stages of fruit development and rapidly accumulated during ripening. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was not detected in theearly stages. Epicatechin started to rapidly accumulate during the ripening period, reaching a maximum at the mature stage. The expressions of the early and common genes, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone isomerase, were less associated with proanthocyanidin monomers and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside accumulation. The expression of other flavonoid ‘early’ biosynthetic genes, including chalcone synthase (CHS, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX, were partly associated with proanthocyanidin monomers and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside levels, with expression quantities peaking synchronously at the mature stage. Leucoanthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin reductase, which were the key genes for proanthocyanidin monomer synthesis, correlated during fruit development with catechin and epicatechin accumulation respectively; UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UGFT, the key gene for anthocyanin synthesis, was correlated with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside levels. The synchronous accumulation of epicatechin and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside in blood-flesh peach could not be explained by the current theory of competitive distribution mechanism of common substrate.

  14. Increased levels of IAA are required for system 2 ethylene synthesis causing fruit softening in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuki, Miho; Nakajima, Naoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Shimada, Takehiko; Nakano, Michiharu; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Hayama, Hiroko; Yoshioka, Hirohito; Nakamura, Yuri

    2013-02-01

    The fruit of melting-flesh peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars produce high levels of ethylene caused by high expression of PpACS1 (an isogene of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase), resulting in rapid fruit softening at the late-ripening stage. In contrast, the fruit of stony hard peach cultivars do not soften and produce little ethylene due to low expression of PpACS1. To elucidate the mechanism for suppressing PpACS1 expression in stony hard peaches, a microarray analysis was performed. Several genes that displayed similar expression patterns as PpACS1 were identified and shown to be indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-inducible genes (Aux/IAA, SAUR). That is, expression of IAA-inducible genes increased at the late-ripening stage in melting flesh peaches; however, these transcripts were low in mature fruit of stony hard peaches. The IAA concentration increased suddenly just before harvest time in melting flesh peaches exactly coinciding with system 2 ethylene production. In contrast, the IAA concentration did not increase in stony hard peaches. Application of 1-naphthalene acetic acid, a synthetic auxin, to stony hard peaches induced a high level of PpACS1 expression, a large amount of ethylene production and softening. Application of an anti-auxin, α-(phenylethyl-2-one)-IAA, to melting flesh peaches reduced levels of PpACS1 expression and ethylene production. These observations indicate that suppression of PpACS1 expression at the late-ripening stage of stony hard peach may result from a low level of IAA and that a high concentration of IAA is required to generate a large amount of system 2 ethylene in peaches.

  15. Copigmentation triggers the development of skin burning disorder on peach and nectarine fruit [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantín, Celia M; Tian, Li; Qin, Xiaoqiong; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2011-03-23

    Skin burning is a new type of skin damage related to exposure to high pH values during the brushing-waxing postharvest operations that has been observed recently on some newly released peach and nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars. In this work, we described this skin disorder for the first time and studied its triggers and biological basis. Different skin burning susceptibility was observed after screening 21 peach and nectarine cultivars. The stability of the skin phenolic extracts to pH in the range 7-10 was studied by UV-visible spectroscopy. This study demonstrated that fruit skin phenolics are not stable at high pH and that the transformations occurring at high pH are reversible and time-dependent. The changes on the UV-visible absorption spectra at different pH values pointed out the copigmentation of anthocyanins as the mechanism beyond the skin burning disorder. Finally, some recommendations to minimize this postharvest damage are also discussed.

  16. Anti-allergic inflammatory activity of the fruit of Prunus persica: role of calcium and NF-kappaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Tae-Yong; Park, Seung-Bin; Yoo, Jin-Su; Kim, In Kyeom; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kim, Moon Kyu; Kim, Jung Chul; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2010-10-01

    Mast cell-mediated allergic symptoms are involved in many diseases, such as asthma and sinusitis. In this study, we investigated the effect of ethanol extract of fruits of Prunus persica (L) Batsch (FPP) on the mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation and studied the possible mechanism of action. FPP dose-dependently inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis and immunoglobulin E-mediated local allergic reactions. Histamine releasing from mast cells was reduced by FPP, which was mediated by modulation of intracellular calcium. In addition, FPP attenuated the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human mast cells. The inhibitory effect of FPP on pro-inflammatory cytokines was nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB dependent. Our findings provide evidence that FPP inhibits mast cell-derived allergic inflammation and involvement of calcium and NF-kappaB in these effects. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New insights into the properties of pubescent surfaces: the peach fruit (prunus persica batsch) as a model

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Victoria; Khayet, Mohamed; Montero Prado, Pablo; Heredia Guerrero, Alejandrio; Liakopulos, Georgios; Karabourniotis, George; del Río, Víctor; Domínguez, Eva; Tacchini, Ignacio; Nerín, Csritian¡a; Heredia, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The surface of peach (Prunus persica ‘Calrico’) is covered by a dense indumentum, which may serve various protective purposes. With the aim of relating structure to function, the chemical composition, morphology, and hydrophobicity of the peach skin was assessed as a model for a pubescent plant surface. Distinct physicochemical features were observed for trichomes versus isolated cuticles. Peach cuticles were composed of 53% cutan, 27% waxes, 23% cutin, and 1% hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives...

  18. Rootstock and fruit canopy position affect peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] (cv. Rich May) plant productivity and fruit sensorial and nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Gregorio; Motisi, Antonio; Zappia, Rocco; Dattola, Agostino; Diamanti, Jacopo; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2014-06-15

    The right combination of rootstock and training system is important for increased yield and fruit sensorial and nutritional homogeneity and quality with peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]. We investigated the effects of rootstock and training system on these parameters, testing the effect of vigorous GF677 and weaker Penta rootstock on 'Rich May' peach cultivar. Fruit position effects regarding photosynthetically active radiation availability, along the canopy profile using the Y training system, were investigated. The positive relationships between total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity according to canopy vigour and architecture were determined for the two scion/stock combinations. Changes in fruit epicarp colour and content of bioactive compounds were also determined. Lower-vigour trees from Penta rootstock grafting yielded larger fruit with improved skin overcolour, and greater total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity. GF677 rootstock produced more vigorous trees with fruit with lower sensorial and nutritional parameters. Canopy position strongly affects fruit sensorial and nutritional qualities. These data define potential for improvements to peach production efficiency and fruit quality, particularly for southern Europe peach cultivation conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcriptomic profiling during the post-harvest of heat-treated Dixiland Prunus persica fruits: common and distinct response to heat and cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauxmann, Martin A; Brun, Bianca; Borsani, Julia; Bustamante, Claudia A; Budde, Claudio O; Lara, María V; Drincovich, María F

    2012-01-01

    Cold storage is extensively used to slow the rapid deterioration of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit after harvest. However, peach fruit subjected to long periods of cold storage develop chilling injury (CI) symptoms. Post-harvest heat treatment (HT) of peach fruit prior to cold storage is effective in reducing some CI symptoms, maintaining fruit quality, preventing softening and controlling post-harvest diseases. To identify the molecular changes induced by HT, which may be associated to CI protection, the differential transcriptome of peach fruit subjected to HT was characterized by the differential display technique. A total of 127 differentially expressed unigenes (DEUs), with a presence-absence pattern, were identified comparing peach fruit ripening at 20°C with those exposed to a 39°C-HT for 3 days. The 127 DEUs were divided into four expression profile clusters, among which the heat-induced (47%) and heat-repressed (36%) groups resulted the most represented, including genes with unknown function, or involved in protein modification, transcription or RNA metabolism. Considering the CI-protection induced by HT, 23-heat-responsive genes were selected and analyzed during and after short-term cold storage of peach fruit. More than 90% of the genes selected resulted modified by cold, from which nearly 60% followed the same and nearly 40% opposite response to heat and cold. Moreover, by using available Arabidopsis microarray data, it was found that nearly 70% of the peach-heat responsive genes also respond to cold in Arabidopsis, either following the same trend or showing an opposite response. Overall, the high number of common responsive genes to heat and cold identified in the present work indicates that HT of peach fruit after harvest induces a cold response involving complex cellular processes; identifying genes that are involved in the better preparation of peach fruit for cold-storage and unraveling the basis for the CI protection induced by HT.

  20. Characterization and expression analysis of AGAMOUS-like, SEEDSTICK-like, and SEPALLATA-like MADS-box genes in peach (Prunus persica) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Polidoros, Alexios N; Flemetakis, Emmanouil; Stedel, Catalina; Kalloniati, Chrissanthi; Demetriou, Kyproula; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios S

    2009-08-01

    MADS-box genes encode transcriptional regulators that are critical for flowering, flower organogenesis and plant development. Although there are extensive reports on genes involved in flower organogenesis in model and economically important plant species, there are few reports on MADS-box genes in woody plants. In this study, we have cloned and characterized AGAMOUS (AG), SEEDSTICK (STK) and SEPALLATA (SEP) homologs from peach tree (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and studied their expression patterns in different tissues as well as in fruit pericarp during pit hardening. AG- STK- and SEP-like homologs, representative of the C-, D-, E-like MADS-box gene lineages, respectively, play key roles in stamen, carpel, ovule and fruit development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Sequence similarities, phylogenetic analysis and structural characteristics were used to provide classification of the isolated genes in type C (PPERAG), type D (PPERSTK) and type E (PPERSEP1, PPERSEP3, PPERFB9) organ identity genes. Expression patterns were determined and in combination with phylogenetic data provided useful indications on the function of these genes. These data suggest the involvement of MADS-box genes in peach flower and fruit development and provide further evidence for the role of these genes in woody perennial trees that is compatible with their function in model plant species.

  1. LA RELACIÓN HOJA: FRUTO AFECTA LA PRODUCCIÓN, EL CRECIMIENTO Y LA CALIDAD DEL FRUTO EN DURAZNERO (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. ‘Rubidoux’ LEAF TO FRUIT RATIO AFFECTS YIELD, FRUIT GROWTH AND FRUIT QUALITY OF PEACH (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. ‘Rubidoux’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El raleo de frutos es un práctica agrícola común en los árboles de melocotón con miras a una cosecha moderada a abundante. Sin embargo, a pesar de las muchas ventajas del raleo, demostradas a lo largo de años de experiencia en la zona templada, esta práctica es a menudo una de las operaciones conducidas de manera ineficiente en el cultivo del duraznero. Árboles de duraznero (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. ‘Rubidoux’ se ralearon manualmente con el objeto de mejorar la calidad comercial del fruto. Se evaluaron los cambios en el crecimiento del fruto, los sólidos solubles totales, la relación pulpa: semilla, la producción, la calidad del fruto y el diámetro de la fruta, durante una temporada de crecimiento de los frutos según el efecto de la relación hoja: fruto (10; 20; 30; 40 y 50 hojas por fruto, en Guasca - Cundinamarca - Colombia. El raleo se realizó 85 días después de plena floración. Los árboles del tratamiento control no se ralearon. Se observaron diferencias en las curvas de crecimiento del fruto, en el promedio de fruto cosechado, en el peso fresco de los frutos y en su calidad comercial. El contenido de sólidos solubles totales en los frutos y la relación pulpa:semilla aumentaron con el raleo. Al momento de la cosecha, la producción se redujo en los árboles raleados, pero se mejoró la cantidad del fruto comercial. Los tratamientos con 40 y 50 hojas por fruto tuvieron la mayor proporción de frutos de mejor calidad en comparación con los árboles control.Fruit thinning is a standard practice on peach trees carrying a moderate to heavy crop. However, in spite of the many benefits from thinning demostrated through long years of experience in the temperate zone, fruit thinning is too often one of the most unefficiently conducted operations in peach growing. With a view to improve marketable yield and fruit quality, trees of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. ‘Rubidoux’ were subjected to hand thinning. Changes

  2. Effect prediction of identified SNPs linked to fruit quality and chilling injury in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Pedro J; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Parfitt, Dan E; Gradziel, Thomas M; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are a fundamental source of genomic variation. Large SNP panels have been developed for Prunus species. Fruit quality traits are essential peach breeding program objectives since they determine consumer acceptance, fruit consumption, industry trends and cultivar adoption. For many cultivars, these traits are negatively impacted by cold storage, used to extend fruit market life. The major symptoms of chilling injury are lack of flavor, off flavor, mealiness, flesh browning, and flesh bleeding. A set of 1,109 SNPs was mapped previously and 67 were linked with these complex traits. The prediction of the effects associated with these SNPs on downstream products from the 'peach v1.0' genome sequence was carried out. A total of 2,163 effects were detected, 282 effects (non-synonymous, synonymous or stop codon gained) were located in exonic regions (13.04 %) and 294 placed in intronic regions (13.59 %). An extended list of genes and proteins that could be related to these traits was developed. Two SNP markers that explain a high percentage of the observed phenotypic variance, UCD_SNP_1084 and UCD_SNP_46, are associated with zinc finger (C3HC4-type RING finger) family protein and AOX1A (alternative oxidase 1a) protein groups, respectively. In addition, phenotypic variation suggests that the observed polymorphism for SNP UCD_SNP_1084 [A/G] mutation could be a candidate quantitative trait nucleotide affecting quantitative trait loci for mealiness. The interaction and expression of affected proteins could explain the variation observed in each individual and facilitate understanding of gene regulatory networks for fruit quality traits in peach.

  3. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Il-Doo; Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Kim, Mi-Ok; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample. The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid ( ˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities. Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively. The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health.

  4. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Il-Doo; Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Kim, Mi-Ok; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample. Methods The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid ( ˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities. Results Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health. PMID:25182279

  5. Variation in Minerals, Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Peel and Pulp of Different Varieties of Peach (Prunus persica L.) Fruit from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Ashraf; Zahed Mahmood; Umer Rashid; Maleeha Manzoor; Farooq Anwar

    2012-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica L.), being a potential source of bioactive compounds, has been demonstrated to have medicinal benefits. In this study variation of minerals and antioxidant characteristics (total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of peroxidation using linoleic acid system and DPPH free radical scavenging activity) between peel and pulp parts of different peach varieties, namely Golden, Shireen, and Shahpasand were investigated. T...

  6. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases in the mesocarp of ripening fruit of Prunus persica genotypes with different flesh characteristics: changes in activity and protein and transcript levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabotti, Damiano; Negrini, Noemi; Morgutti, Silvia; Nocito, Fabio F; Cocucci, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    Development of fruit flesh texture quality traits may involve the metabolism of phenolic compounds. This study presents molecular and biochemical results on the possible role played by cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195) during ripening [S3, S4 I (pre-climacteric) and S4 III (climacteric) stages] of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] fruit with different flesh firmness [non-melting flesh (NMF) 'Oro A'/melting flesh (MF) 'Springcrest' and 'Sanguinella'] and color (blood-flesh Sanguinella). A total of 24 putative full-length PRUPE_CAD genes were identified (in silico analysis) in the peach genome. The most abundant CAD isoforms, encoded by genes located on scaffolds 8 and 6, were probed by specifically developed anti-PRUPE_CAD sc8 and by anti-FaCAD (PRUPE_CAD sc6) polyclonal antibodies, respectively. PRUPE_CAD sc8 proteins (SDS-PAGE and native-PAGE/western blot) appeared responsible for the CAD activity (in vitro/in-gel assays) that increased with ripening (parallel to PRUPE_ACO1 transcripts accumulation and ethylene evolution) only in the mesocarp of Oro A and blood-flesh Sanguinella. Accumulation of PRUPE_CAD sc8 transcripts (semi-quantitative RT-PCR) occurred in all three cultivars, but in Oro A and Springcrest it was not always accompanied by that of the related proteins, suggesting possible post-transcriptional regulation. Flesh firmness, as well as levels of lignin, total phenolics and, where present (Sanguinella), anthocyanins, declined with ripening, suggesting that, at least in the studied peach cultivars, CAD activity is related to neither lignification nor differences in flesh firmness (NMF/MF). Further studies are necessary to clarify whether the high levels of CAD activity/expression in Sanguinella play a role in determining the characteristics of this blood-flesh fruit. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  7. Molecular characterization of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is an important medicinal fruit with immense health benefits and antioxidant activity. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as DNA fingerprinting tools for the identification and characterization of peach germplasm in the United States. Eleven microsatel...

  8. Variation in minerals, phenolics and antioxidant activity of peel and pulp of different varieties of peach (Prunus persica L.) fruit from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Maleeha; Anwar, Farooq; Mahmood, Zahed; Rashid, Umer; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2012-05-30

    Peach (Prunus persica L.), being a potential source of bioactive compounds, has been demonstrated to have medicinal benefits. In this study variation of minerals and antioxidant characteristics (total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of peroxidation using linoleic acid system and DPPH free radical scavenging activity) between peel and pulp parts of different peach varieties, namely Golden, Shireen, and Shahpasand were investigated. The peel and pulp extracts, derived from the varieties analyzed, exhibited an appreciable amount of total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF), ranging from 1,209.3-1,354.5, 711.7-881.3 mg GAE/100 g and 599.7-785.5, 301.3-499.7 mg CE/100 g on a dry weight basis, respectively. Reducing power of peel and pulp extracts (12.5 mg/mL concentration) ranged from 2.57-2.77 and 1.54-1.99.The inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts varied from 70.8-80.9% and 66.8-76.5% in peels, and 51.9-60.1% and 43.4-49.1% in pulps. The mineral analysis revealed that the content of K was highest in both parts of the peach fruit followed by Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn and Zn. The results of our present study indicate that peach peel had significantly higher levels of minerals, antioxidant capacity and phenolics than those of the pulp, suggesting the intake of unpeeled peach as a potential source of high-value components. The peach peel can be a useful as a viable source of natural antioxidants for functional foods and nutraceutical applications.

  9. Variation in Minerals, Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Peel and Pulp of Different Varieties of Peach (Prunus persica L. Fruit from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashraf

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L., being a potential source of bioactive compounds, has been demonstrated to have medicinal benefits. In this study variation of minerals and antioxidant characteristics (total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of peroxidation using linoleic acid system and DPPH free radical scavenging activity between peel and pulp parts of different peach varieties, namely Golden, Shireen, and Shahpasand were investigated. The peel and pulp extracts, derived from the varieties analyzed, exhibited an appreciable amount of total phenolics (TP and total flavonoids (TF, ranging from 1,209.3–1,354.5, 711.7–881.3 mg GAE/100 g and 599.7–785.5, 301.3–499.7 mg CE/100 g on a dry weight basis, respectively. Reducing power of peel and pulp extracts (12.5 mg/mL concentration ranged from 2.57–2.77 and 1.54–1.99.The inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts varied from 70.8–80.9% and 66.8–76.5% in peels, and 51.9–60.1% and 43.4–49.1% in pulps. The mineral analysis revealed that the content of K was highest in both parts of the peach fruit followed by Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn and Zn. The results of our present study indicate that peach peel had significantly higher levels of minerals, antioxidant capacity and phenolics than those of the pulp, suggesting the intake of unpeeled peach as a potential source of high-value components. The peach peel can be a useful as a viable source of natural antioxidants for functional foods and nutraceutical applications.

  10. Prunus domestica, Prunus persica and Prunus avium extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    water emulsions. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) ... Test formulations containing fruit extracts (6%) showed good stability compared to control formulations and pH and conductivity were found as desired. Formulations were studied for patch ...

  11. Identification of Known and Novel microRNAs and Their Targets in Peach (Prunus persica) Fruit by High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Zhang, Binbin; Ma, Ruijuan; Yu, Mingliang; Guo, Shaolei; Guo, Lei; Korir, Nicholas Kibet

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs that have functions in post-transcriptional gene regulation in plants. Although the most important economic component of peach trees (Prunus persica) is the fruit, not much is known about miRNAs in this organ. In this study, miRNAs and their targets were identified and characterized from libraries of small RNAs of peach fruit through Solexa based-sequencing and bioinformatics approaches. A total of 557 known peach miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified, and some of these miRNAs were found to be highly conserved in at least four other plant species. Using the most current criteria for miRNA annotation, 275 putative novel miRNAs were predicted, and the sequencing frequencies of these novel miRNAs were less than those of the conserved miRNAs. In total, 3959 and 1614 target genes for 349 known and 193 novel miRNAs, respectively, were predicted with the criteria that a single target gene can be targeted by different miRNAs and that a single miRNA can also have a large number of target genes. Three targets were even found to be targeted by 13 novel miRNAs that contained the same complete miRNA sequence at different locations and had different scaffolds. The proteins predicted to be targeted by the miRNAs identified in this study encompass a wide range of transcription factors and are involved in many biological processes and pathways, including development, metabolism, stress responses and signal transduction. A total of 115 and 101 target genes were identified to be cleaved by 60 known miRNAs and 27 novel miRNAs through degradome sequencing, respectively. These miRNAs induce cleavage of their targets precisely at the position between nucleotides 10 and 11 of the miRNA sequences from the 5' to the 3' end. Thirty conserved miRNAs and 19 novel miRNAs exhibited differential expression profiles in the peach, and the expression patterns of some miRNAs appeared to be tissue- or developmental stage-specific. The

  12. Identification of Known and Novel microRNAs and Their Targets in Peach (Prunus persica) Fruit by High-Throughput Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs that have functions in post-transcriptional gene regulation in plants. Although the most important economic component of peach trees (Prunus persica) is the fruit, not much is known about miRNAs in this organ. In this study, miRNAs and their targets were identified and characterized from libraries of small RNAs of peach fruit through Solexa based-sequencing and bioinformatics approaches. A total of 557 known peach miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified, and some of these miRNAs were found to be highly conserved in at least four other plant species. Using the most current criteria for miRNA annotation, 275 putative novel miRNAs were predicted, and the sequencing frequencies of these novel miRNAs were less than those of the conserved miRNAs. In total, 3959 and 1614 target genes for 349 known and 193 novel miRNAs, respectively, were predicted with the criteria that a single target gene can be targeted by different miRNAs and that a single miRNA can also have a large number of target genes. Three targets were even found to be targeted by 13 novel miRNAs that contained the same complete miRNA sequence at different locations and had different scaffolds. The proteins predicted to be targeted by the miRNAs identified in this study encompass a wide range of transcription factors and are involved in many biological processes and pathways, including development, metabolism, stress responses and signal transduction. A total of 115 and 101 target genes were identified to be cleaved by 60 known miRNAs and 27 novel miRNAs through degradome sequencing, respectively. These miRNAs induce cleavage of their targets precisely at the position between nucleotides 10 and 11 of the miRNA sequences from the 5’ to the 3’ end. Thirty conserved miRNAs and 19 novel miRNAs exhibited differential expression profiles in the peach, and the expression patterns of some miRNAs appeared to be tissue- or developmental stage

  13. LA RELACIÓN HOJA: FRUTO AFECTA LA PRODUCCIÓN, EL CRECIMIENTO Y LA CALIDAD DEL FRUTO EN DURAZNERO (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. ‘Rubidoux’) LEAF TO FRUIT RATIO AFFECTS YIELD, FRUIT GROWTH AND FRUIT QUALITY OF PEACH (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. ‘Rubidoux’)

    OpenAIRE

    Fánor Casierra-Posada; José Israel Rodríguez Puerto; Julián Cárdenas Hernández

    2007-01-01

    El raleo de frutos es un práctica agrícola común en los árboles de melocotón con miras a una cosecha moderada a abundante. Sin embargo, a pesar de las muchas ventajas del raleo, demostradas a lo largo de años de experiencia en la zona templada, esta práctica es a menudo una de las operaciones conducidas de manera ineficiente en el cultivo del duraznero. Árboles de duraznero (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. ‘Rubidoux’) se ralearon manualmente con el objeto de mejorar la calidad comercial del frut...

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of fruit stored under cold conditions using controlled atmosphere in Prunus persica cv. ‘Red Pearl’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayan eSanhueza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cold storage (CS can induce a physiological disorder known as chilling injury (CI in nectarine fruits. The main symptom is mealiness that is perceived as non-juicy fruit by consumers. Postharvest treatments such as controlled atmosphere (CA; a high CO2 concentration and low O2 have been used under cold conditions to avoid this disorder. With the objective of exploring the mechanisms involved in the CA effect on mealiness prevention, we analyzed transcriptomic changes under six conditions of ‘Red Pearl’ nectarines by RNA-Seq. Our analysis included just harvested nectarines, juicy non-stored fruits, fruits affected for CI after CS and fruits stored in a combination of CA plus CS without CI phenotype. Nectarines stored in cold conditions combined with CA treatment resulted in less mealiness; we obtained 21.6% of juice content compared with just CS fruits (7.7%; mealy flesh. RNA-Seq data analyses were carried out to study the gene expression for different conditions assayed. During ripening, we detected that nectarines exposed to CA treatment expressed a similar number of genes compared with fruits that were not exposed to cold conditions. Firm fruits have more differentially expressed genes than soft fruits, which suggest that most important changes occur during CS. On the other hand, gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment mainly in metabolic and cellular processes. Differentially expressed genes analysis showed that low O2 concentrations combined with cold conditions slows the metabolic processes more than just the cold storage, resulting mainly in the suppression of primary metabolism and cold stress response. This is a significant step toward unraveling the molecular mechanism that explains the effectiveness of CA as a tool to prevent CI development on fruits.

  15. Carotenoids, Phenolic Profile, Mineral Content and Antioxidant Properties in Flesh and Peel of Prunus persica Fruits during Two Maturation Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbou, Samia; Maatallah, Samira; Castagna, Antonella; Guizani, Monia; Sghaeir, Wala; Hajlaoui, Hichem; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    Carotenoids and phenolic profile, antioxidant activity as well as concentrations of selected macronutrients (K, N, Mg, Ca and Na) and micronutrients (Zn, Cu and Mn) in flesh and peel of peach fruit were recorded at two harvest dates. Predominant mineral was potassium, followed by calcium, magnesium and sodium. The concentration of most micronutrients was greater in the peel than in the flesh especially in early season. The concentration of most elements in flesh and peel decreased during fruit maturation. Total carotenoids content varied with respect to the cultivar. β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene were the major carotenoids in both tissues and flesh contain the lowest amounts. Neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, rutin, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, were detected in both peel and flesh, with chlorogenic acid and catechin being the predominant components. Peel extracts showed markedly higher antioxidant activities, when estimated by ABTS or DPPH assays, than the flesh counterparts, consistent with the observed higher phenolic content. Overall, total phenolics levels increased at full ripening stage in both peel and flesh. The results found herein provide important data on carotenoids, phenolic and macro- and micronutrient changes during fruit growth, and emphases peach fruit as a potential functional food.

  16. The study of a SPATULA-like bHLH transcription factor expressed during peach (Prunus persica) fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Tsaballa, Aphrodite; Stedel, Catalina; Kalloniati, Chrissanthi; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Polidoros, Alexios; Darzentas, Nikos; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Flemetakis, Emmanouil; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios

    2011-06-01

    Extensive studies on the dry fruits of the model plant arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have revealed various gene regulators of the development and dehiscence of the siliques. Peach pericarp is analogous to the valve tissues of the arabidopsis siliques. The stone (otherwise called pit) in drupes is formed through lignification of the fruit endocarp. The lignified endocarp in peach can be susceptible to split-pit formation under certain genetic as well as environmental factors. This phenomenon delays processing of the clingstone varieties of peach and causes economical losses for the peach fruit canning industry. The fruitfull (FUL) and shatterproof (SHP) genes are key MADS-box transcription protein coding factors that control fruit development and dehiscence in arabidopsis by promoting the expression of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors like Spatula (SPT) and Alcatraz (ALC). Results from our previous studies on peach suggested that temporal regulation of PPERFUL and PPERSHP gene expression may be involved in the regulation of endocarp margin development. In the present study a PPERSPATULA-like (PPERSPT) gene was cloned and characterized. Comparative analysis of temporal regulation of PPERSPT gene expression during pit hardening in a resistant and a susceptible to split-pit variety, suggests that this gene adds one more component to the genes network that controls endocarp margins development in peach. Taking into consideration that no ALC-like genes have been identified in any dicot plant species outside the Brassicaceae family, where arabidopsis belongs, PPERSPT may have additional role(s) in peach that are fulfilled in arabidopsis by ALC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Gene regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in two blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) cultivars during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yun; Ma, Rui-juan; Shen, Zhi-jun; Yan, Juan; Yu, Ming-liang

    2014-09-01

    The blood-flesh peach has become popular in China due to its attractive anthocyanin-induced pigmentation and antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation by examining the expression of nine genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway found in the peach mesocarp. Expression was measured at six developmental stages in fruit of two blood-flesh and one white-flesh peach cultivars, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results show that the expression of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene was closely related to anthocyanin accumulation in both of the blood-flesh peaches. In the white-flesh peach, we found that the transcription level of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) during fruit development was much lower than that in the blood-flesh peach, even though all other genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were highly expressed, suggesting that the PAL gene may be limiting in anthocyanin production in the white-flesh peach. Moreover, the transcription levels of the CHS and UDP-glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) genes were markedly up-regulated at three days after bag removal (DABR) in the blood-flesh peach, suggesting that CHS and UFGT are the key genes in the process of anthocyanin biosynthesis for both of the blood-flesh peaches. The present study will be of great help in improving understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in anthocyanin accumulation in blood-flesh peaches.

  18. Acyl-CoA oxidase 1 is involved in γ-decalactone release from peach (Prunus persica) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Li, Haiyan; Gao, Ling; Qi, Yujie; Fu, Wanyi; Li, Xiongwei; Zhou, Xiang; Gao, Qikang; Gao, Zhongshan; Jia, Huijuan

    2017-06-01

    γ-Decalactone accumulation in peach mesocarp was highly correlated with ACX enzyme activity and natural PpACX1 content. Adding the purified recombinant PpACX1 induced γ-decalactone biosynthesis in cultured mesocarp discs in vitro. Previous gene expression studies have implied that acyl coenzyme A oxidase (ACX) is related to lactones synthesis, the characteristic aroma compounds of peach. Here, we analysed the correlation between γ-decalactone content and ACX enzyme activity in mesocarp of five different types of fully ripe peach varieties. Furthermore, 'Hu Jing Mi Lu' ('HJ') and 'Feng Hua Yu Lu' ('YL'), which have strong aroma among them, at four ripening stages were selected to study the role of ACX in lactone biosynthesis. The result showed that γ-decalactone was the most abundant lactone compound. γ-Decalactone accumulation was highly correlated with ACX enzyme activity. Mass spectrometry (MS) showed that PpACX1 was the most abundant PpACX protein in fully ripe mesocarp of cv. 'HJ'. To further elucidate the function of the PpACX1 protein, the PpACX1 gene was heterologously expressed in a bacterial system and characterized in vitro. MS identification gave the molecular weight of the recombinant PpACX1 as 94.44 kDa and the coverage rate of the peptide segments was 47.3%. In cultured mesocarp discs in vitro, adding the purified recombinant PpACX1 and C16-CoA substrate induced the expected γ-decalactone biosynthesis. Using a sandwich ELISA based on mixed mono- and polyclonal antibodies against recombinant PpACX1, PpACX1 content in mesocarp was found to be highly correlated with γ-decalactone accumulation in mesocarp of five fully ripe varieties and four ripening stages of 'HJ' and 'YL'. This study revealed the vital function of PpACX1 in γ-decalactone biosynthesis in peach fruit.

  19. Controle da infestação natural de ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 (Diptera, Tephritidae em pêssegos(Prunus persica através das radiações gama Control of naturally infested peaches (Prunus persica by mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata through the use of gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Arthur

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a dose desinfestante de radiações gama para pêssegos, Prunus persica, infestados com larvas da mosca do Mediterrâneo, Ceratitis capitata. Utilizaram-se frutas de procedência conhecida no campo fazendo-se uma amostragem prévia, constatando-se que cada fruta continha em média nove larvas do último ínstar da mosca praga. As frutas foram irradiadas em uma fonte de Cobalto-60 com as seguintes doses de radiação gama: 0 (test., 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 e 1200 Gy, sob uma taxa de 58 Gy por minuto. Após a irradiação as frutas foram colocadas em câmaras climatizadas com a temperatura variando entre 23 e 27°C e a umidade relativa variando entre 65 e 75%. Aguardou-se que as larvas deixassem as frutas e se transformassem em pupas e adultos. A dose letal para larvas, pelos resultados obtidos no experimento, concluiu-se ser de 600 Gy. A dose letal para pupas provenientes de larvas irradiadas dentro das frutas foi de 50 Gy, impedindo totalmente a emergência de adultos.Determination of the dose of gamma radiation to disinfest peaches, Prunus pérsica infested with larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 was made. Fruits were collected in the field, each one holding about nine larvae of the last instar of the fruit-fly. The fruits were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation source at the following doses: 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 Gy; at a dose rate of 58 Gy per minute. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted between 23 and 27°C, and relative humidity between 65 and 75 percent, until the larvae left the fruits and were transformed into pupae and adults. It was concluded that the lethal dose of gamma radiation for larvae at the last instar, in naturally infested peaches, was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the emergency of adults.

  20. Variation in resistance mechanisms to the green peach aphid among different Prunus persica commercial cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, J A; Méndez, T; Ortiz-Martínez, S A; Cumsille, R; Ramírez, C C

    2012-10-01

    ABSTRACT Peaches and nectarines are frequently attacked by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer), with significant negative impacts on fruit production. The genetic variability of resistance to this aphid among commercial cultivars of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch and Prunus persica variety nectarina was evaluated in this study. In total, 16 cultivars of P. persica were selected to evaluate the occurrence and population growth rate of M. persicae in commercial orchards, as well as in no-choice and probing behavior laboratory assays. The results showed variability between cultivars in resistance and susceptibility to M. persicae, with three cultivars exhibiting different signatures of resistance. The peach cultivar 'Elegant Lady' exhibited a low occurrence of aphids in the orchard, a low rate of growth, moderate leaf-rejection in a no-choice test and a higher number and longer period of salivation into sieve elements, suggesting resistance at the phloematic level. The nectarine cultivar 'August Red' also exhibited low aphid occurrence in the orchard, a low rate of growth, and resistance at the prephloem and phloem levels. Finally, the nectarine 'July Red-NS92' exhibited a low occurrence of aphids in the orchard, a higher number of rejections in no-choice assays and no ingestion of phloem during the probing behavior experiments, suggesting prephloematic resistance. The rest of the cultivars studied exhibited clear susceptibility. Hence, different resistance mechanisms are apparent among the studied cultivars. The information gathered in this study regarding the resistance to M. persicae may assist breeding programs aimed at increasing aphid resistance to peaches and nectarines.

  1. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bliss Fredrick A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a

  2. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica) progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a valuable tool for dissecting the

  3. Changes in fruit sugar concentrations in response to assimilate supply, metabolism and dilution: a modeling approach applied to peach fruit (Prunus persica)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Génard, M; Lescourret, F; Gomez, L; Habib, R

    2003-01-01

    ...) fruit during the main stage of fruit enlargement was analyzed with the SUGAR model of Génard and Souty (1996). The model predicts the partitioning of carbon into sucrose, sorbitol, glucose and fructose in the mesocarp of peach fruit...

  4. DIAGNOSTICS OF VIRUS PHYTOPATHOGENS FRUIT TREE PLUM POX VIRUS, PRUNUS NECROTIC RINGSPOT VIRUS AND PRUNUS DWARF VIRUS BY BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Rozák

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of viral phytopathogen Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus in selected localities of Slovakia and diagnose them using a molecular and biological methods. Forty samples of fruit trees of the genus Prunus, twenty samples from intensive plantings and twenty samples from wild subject were analysed. Biological diagnostic by using biological indicators Prunus persica cv. GF 305, Prunus serrulata cv. Schirofugen and molecular diagnostic by mRT-PCR were applied. Five samples with Plum pox virus were infected. The two samples positive for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and one sample for Prunus dwarf virus were confirmed. The two samples were found to be infected with two viruses Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus. This work focuses on two techniques, their application to the diagnosis of stone fruit viruses and their routinely used for sanitary and certification programmes.

  5. Cianamida hidrogenada no raleio químico de flores e frutos de pessegueiros (Prunus persica, L. Batsch cv. Eldorado Hydrogen cyanamide on chemical thinning of peach-tree (Prunus persica, L. Batsch Flowers and fruits of Eldorado cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Couto Rodrigues

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da cianamida hidrogenada (CH2N2 no raleio de flores e frutos de pessegueiros do cultivar Eldorado. Utilizaram-se plantas com idade de 6 anos, conduzidas sob a forma de vaso e espaçamento de 6,0 x 4,0m, localizadas no Centro Agropecuário da Palma - UFPel. Os tratamentos (0; 0,15; 0,3; 0,45 e 0,6% de CH2N2 foram pulverizados em cobertura sobre ramos selecionados aleatoriamente, até o início de gotejamento, quando 100% das flores encontravam-se totalmente abertas. O produto comercial utilizado foi o Dormex (52% de CH2N2. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. As variáveis avaliadas foram: percentual de flores raleadas 36 dias após a aplicação do produto e percentual de frutos raleados, peso médio, coloração, diâmetro, firmeza da polpa e sólidos solúveis totais por ocasião da colheita. A maior intensidade de raleio de flores (50,96% foi obtida com utilização de 0,5% de CH2N2. Na percentagem de frutos raleados, observou-se valor máximo de 9,53%, utilizando-se CH2N2 a 0,6%. O peso dos frutos aumentou com o raleio químico, porém, este não interferiu nos sólidos solúveis totais, firmeza de polpa e índice de cor dos frutos.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of hydrogen cyanamide (CH2N2 on the chemical thinning of peach-tree flowers and fruits of Eldorado cultivar. Six-year plants localized at Agricultural Center of Palma - UFPel were used and conducted in vase with spacing of 6.0 x 4.0m. Treatments with 0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.45 and 0.6% of CH2N2 were sprayed on randomly selected shoots until drip point, when 100% of the flowers were totally blown. Dormex (52% of hydrogen cyanamide was the commercial chemical used. A completely randomized experimental design was used, with three replications. Percentage of flowers thinned 36 days after chemical application and percentage of thinned fruits, mean fruit weight

  6. Exceso de agua en el suelo: efecto sobre la calidad del fruto del duraznero prunus persica (L. batsch Excess water in the soil: effect on fruit quality of peach prunus persica (l. batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta G. González

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available El duraznero es un cultivo perenne que requiere para su crecimiento un suelo sin limitaciones, en base a ello el objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los cambios químicos producidos en el suelo en condiciones de anegamiento, desde floración hasta fructificación, relacionándolo a la calidad y cantidad de la fruta. Se trabajó con un suelo Argiudol de características vérticas, con un destacado horizonte Bt que posee 35-38% de arcilla. Se realizaron dos tratamientos: control, sin anegamiento (C y con anegamiento (T. En el tratamiento (C, la disponibilidad hídrica de los mismos estuvo sujeta a las condiciones climáticas que se presentaron durante el ensayo, incluyendo la realización de riego complementario permitiendo en todo momento que el suelo se mantenga en condiciones óptimas de humedad. Los resultados del ensayo estuvieron relacionados a los cambios en las características químicas del suelo, planta y fruto. Los suelos anegados tuvieron, contenidos de fósforo y potasio deficientes que repercutió en un menor rendimiento (peso del fruto fresco y seco. Los análisis químicos en planta siguieron la misma tendencia en relación a los contenidos de nitrógeno total, fósforo y potasio que disminuyeron sustancialmente como así también el contenido de materia seca. Estas variables determinaron la disminución de la calidad de fruta en relación a su firmeza y tamaño.Peach is a perennial culture that requires for its growth soils without limitations, on the basis of it the objective of this work was to study the chemical changes produced in soils on flooding conditions, from flowering to fruit production, relating it to the quality and amount of the fruit. The experiment was a done at an Argiudoll soil of vertic characteristics, with an outstanding Bt horizon that has 35- 38% of clay. Two treatments were made: control, without flooding (c and with flooding (T. In the treatment (C, the hydric availability was subject to the climatic

  7. Association between Chloroplast and Mitochondrial DNA sequences in Chinese Prunus genotypes (Prunus persica, Prunus domestica, and Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, Tariq; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Yanyi; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Junhuan; Fang, Jinggui

    2015-01-16

    The nuclear DNA is conventionally used to assess the diversity and relatedness among different species, but variations at the DNA genome level has also been used to study the relationship among different organisms. In most species, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes are inherited maternally; therefore it is anticipated that organelle DNA remains completely associated. Many research studies were conducted simultaneously on organelle genome. The objectives of this study was to analyze the genetic relationship between chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA in three Chinese Prunus genotypes viz., Prunus persica, Prunus domestica, and Prunus avium. We investigated the genetic diversity of Prunus genotypes using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers relevant to the chloroplast and mitochondria. Most of the genotypes were genetically similar as revealed by phylogenetic analysis. The Y2 Wu Xing (Cherry) and L2 Hong Xin Li (Plum) genotypes have a high similarity index (0.89), followed by Zi Ye Li (0.85), whereas; L1 Tai Yang Li (plum) has the lowest genetic similarity (0.35). In case of cpSSR, Hong Tao (Peach) and L1 Tai Yang Li (Plum) genotypes demonstrated similarity index of 0.85 and Huang Tao has the lowest similarity index of 0.50. The mtSSR nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that each genotype has similar amplicon length (509 bp) except M5Y1 i.e., 505 bp with CCB256 primer; while in case of NAD6 primer, all genotypes showed different sizes. The MEHO (Peach), MEY1 (Cherry), MEL2 (Plum) and MEL1 (Plum) have 586 bps; while MEY2 (Cherry), MEZI (Plum) and MEHU (Peach) have 585, 584 and 566 bp, respectively. The CCB256 primer showed highly conserved sequences and minute single polymorphic nucleotides with no deletion or mutation. The cpSSR (ARCP511) microsatellites showed the harmonious amplicon length. The CZI (Plum), CHO (Peach) and CL1 (Plum) showed 182 bp; whileCHU (Peach), CY2 (Cherry), CL2 (Plum) and CY1 (Cherry) showed 181 bp amplicon lengths. These results

  8. Bioactive compounds contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities during ripening of Prunus persica L. varieties from the North West of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj, Feten; Somrani, Imen; Aissaoui, Neyssene; Messaoud, Chokri; Boussaid, Mohamed; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2016-08-01

    Bioactive molecules from fruits of four varieties of Prunus persica at different stages of ripening (green, small orange, red) were studied. For example, contents on polyphenols (20.36mg GAE/g FW) and flavonoids (0.764mg RE/g FW) were high and varied according variety. The antioxidant activity, using four different tests (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, β carotene bleaching system and TBARS assay) showed that the variety Chatos exhibited the highest antioxidant activity comparing with others varieties. The antibacterial activity of Prunus persica varieties studied seems to be more sensitive against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The capacity of peach DMSO extracts to inhibit Candida albicans growth was more pronounced, especially, in the presence of Chatos DMSO extract. Enzymes inhibition gives results which correlate with polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins contents, and so, confirm the fascinating bioactivity of this fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Accelerated solvent extraction of carotenoids from: Tunisian Kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoudi, Khalil; Pontvianne, Steve; Framboisier, Xavier; Achard, Mathilde; Kudaibergenova, Rabiga; Ayadi-Trabelsi, Malika; Kalthoum-Cherif, Jamila; Vanderesse, Régis; Frochot, Céline; Guiavarc'h, Yann

    2015-10-01

    Extraction of carotenoids from biological matrices and quantifications remains a difficult task. Accelerated solvent extraction was used as an efficient extraction process for carotenoids extraction from three fruits cultivated in Tunisia: kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Based on a design of experiment (DoE) approach, and using a binary solvent consisting of methanol and tetrahydrofuran, we could identify the best extraction conditions as being 40°C, 20:80 (v:v) methanol/tetrahydrofuran and 5 min of extraction time. Surprisingly and likely due to the high extraction pressure used (103 bars), these conditions appeared to be the best ones both for extracting xanthophylls such as lutein, zeaxanthin or β-cryptoxanthin and carotenes such as β-carotene, which present quite different polarities. Twelve surface responses were generated for lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in kaki, peach and apricot. Further LC-MS analysis allowed comparisons in carotenoids profiles between the fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of the aroma of commercial peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) types by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and sensory analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso Ferreira Pinhancos de Bianchi, Tiago; Weesepoel, Yannick; Koot, Alex; Iglesias, Ignasi; Eduardo, Iban; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Guerrero, Luis; Hortós, Maria; Ruth, van Saskia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the aroma and sensory profiles of various types of peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch.). Forty-three commercial cultivars comprising peaches, flat peaches, nectarines, and canning peaches (pavías) were grown over two consecutive harvest years. Fruits were

  11. Seasonal CO[sub 2] exchange patterns of developing peach (Prunus persica) fruits in response to temperature, light and CO[sub 2] concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavel, E.W.; DeJong, T.M. (Dept. of Pomology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    CO[sub 2] exchange rates per unit dry weight, measured in the field on attached fruits of the late-maturing Cal Red peach cultivar, at 1200 [mu]mol photons m[sup -2] s[sup -1] and in dark, and photosynthetic rates, calculated by the difference between the rates of CO[sub 2] evolution in light and dark, declined over the growing season. Photosynthetic rates per fruit increased with increasing fruit dry matter, but declined in maturing fruits, coinciding with the loss of chlorophyll. Slight net fruit photosynthetic rates were measured in midseason under optimal temperature and light conditions. Fruit photosynthetic rates increased with increasing temperatures and photon flux densities during fruit development. Dark respiration rates per unit dry weight doubled within a temperature interval of 10 deg. C; the mean seasonal Q[sub 10] value was 2.03 between 20 and 30 deg. C. Highest photosynthetic rates were measured at 35 deg. C. Fruit photosynthesis was stimulated by high internal CO[sub 2] concentrations via CO[sub 2] refixation. At 15 deg. C, fruit photosynthetic rates were saturated at about 600 [mu]mol photons m[sup -2] s[sup -1]. Young peach fruits responded to increasing ambient CO[sub 2] concentrations with decreasing net CO[sub 2] exchange rates in light, but mature fruits did not. Fruit CO[sub 2] exchange rates in the dark were uninfluenced by ambient CO[sub 2] concentrations. Photosynthetic rates of younger peach fruits approached saturation at 370 [mu]l CO[sub 2] l[sup -1]. In CO[sub 2]-free air, fruit photosynthesis was dependent on CO[sub 2] refixation. Young peach fruits were able to take up CO[sub 2] from the external atmosphere. CO[sub 2] uptake by peach fruits contributed between 28 and 16% to the fruit photosynthetic rate early in the season, whereas photosynthesis in maturing fruits was supplied entirely by CO[sub 2] refixation. (AB) (42 refs.)

  12. Genotypic differences in cyanogenic glycosides levels of compatible Prunus persica P. persica and incompatible P. persica P. mume combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan dos Santos Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Graft incompatibility is a phenomenon associated with complex physiological, biochemical, and genetic interactions between scion and rootstock. The main objective of this work was to assess the role of cyanogenic glycosides (CGs, amygdalin and prunasin, in the graft incompatibility of Prunus and possible biochemical effects in compounds of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Graft compatibility, amygdalin and prunasin content, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity, total phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity, were studied in different graft combinations (Chimarrita/Capdeboscq; Chimarrita/Tsukuba 1; Chimarrita/Umezeiro; Maciel/Capdeboscq; Maciel/’Tsukuba 1; Maciel/Umezeiro and ungrafted genotypes. The results indicate that there was graft incompatibility of Chimarrita and Maciel cultivars grafted into Umezeiro rootstock. Combinations identified as incompatible showed higher prunasin concentration and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL activity in rootstock and greater concentration of total phenolics compounds and antioxidant activity in scion and rootstock. The results indicate that large differences in CGs concentration, especially prunasin, can be the graft incompatibility cause between Prunus persic. and P. mume. The prunasin concentration may be considered a promising marker to predict graft compatibility between P. persica and P. mume.

  13. Deciphering the interplay among genotype, maturity stage and low-temperature storage on phytochemical composition and transcript levels of enzymatic antioxidants in Prunus persica fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganaris, George A; Drogoudi, Pavlina; Goulas, Vlasios; Tanou, Georgia; Georgiadou, Egli C; Pantelidis, George E; Paschalidis, Konstantinos A; Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Manganaris, Athanasios

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the antioxidant metabolic changes of peach (cvs. 'Royal Glory', 'Red Haven' and 'Sun Cloud') and nectarine fruits (cv. 'Big Top') exposed to different combinations of low-temperature storage (0, 2, 4 weeks storage at 0 °C, 90% R.H.) and additional ripening at room temperature (1, 3 and 5 d, shelf life, 20 °C) with an array of analytical, biochemical and molecular approaches. Initially, harvested fruit of the examined cultivars were segregated non-destructively at advanced and less pronounced maturity stages and qualitative traits, physiological parameters, phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity were determined. 'Big Top' and 'Royal Glory' fruits were characterized by slower softening rate and less pronounced ripening-related alterations. The coupling of HPLC fingerprints, consisted of 7 phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, neochlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, rutin, quecetin-3-O-glucoside, procyanidin B1) and spectrophotometric methods disclosed a great impact of genotype on peach bioactive composition, with 'Sun Cloud' generally displaying the highest contents. Maturity stage at harvest did not seem to affect fruit phenolic composition and no general guidelines for the impact of cold storage and shelf-life on individual phenolic compounds can be extrapolated. Subsequently, fruit of less pronounced maturity at harvest were used for further molecular analysis. 'Sun Cloud' was proven efficient in protecting plasmid pBR322 DNA against ROO attack throughout the experimental period and against HO attack after 2 and 4 weeks of cold storage. Interestingly, a general down-regulation of key genes implicated in the antioxidant apparatus with the prolongation of storage period was recorded; this was more evident for CAT, cAPX, Cu/ZnSOD2, perAPX3 and GPX8 genes. Higher antioxidant capacity of 'Sun Cloud' fruit could potentially be linked with compounds other than enzymatic antioxidants that further regulate peach

  14. PpYUC11, a strong candidate gene for the stony hard phenotype in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), participates in IAA biosynthesis during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Zeng, Wenfang; Niu, Liang; Lu, Zhenhua; Liu, Hui; Cui, Guochao; Zhu, Yunqin; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Weiping; Fang, Weichao; Cai, Zuguo; Li, Guohuai; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-12-01

    High concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are required for climacteric ethylene biosynthesis to cause fruit softening in melting flesh peaches at the late ripening stage. By contrast, the fruits of stony hard peach cultivars do not soften and produce little ethylene due to the low IAA concentrations. To investigate the regulation of IAA accumulation during peach ripening [the transition from stage S3 to stage S4 III (climacteric)], a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performed. The expression patterns of auxin-homeostasis-related genes were compared in fruits of the melting flesh peach 'Goldhoney 3' and the stony hard flesh peach 'Yumyeong' during the ripening stage. It is revealed here that a YUCCA flavin mono-oxygenase gene (PpYUC11, ppa008176m), a key gene in auxin biosynthesis, displayed an identical differential expression profile to the profiles of IAA accumulation and PpACS1 transcription: the mRNA transcripts increased at the late ripening stage in melting flesh peaches but were below the limit of detection in mature fruits of stony hard peaches. In addition, the strong association between intron TC microsatellite genotypes of PpYUC11 and the flesh texture (normal or stony hard) is described in 43 peach varieties, indicating that this locus may be responsible for the stony hard phenotype in peach. These findings support the hypothesis that PpYUC11 may play an essential role in auxin biosynthesis during peach fruit ripening and is a candidate gene for the control of the stony hard phenotype in peach. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Dormancy in Peach (Prunus persica L.) Flower Buds 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Virginia; Lorenzo, Eugenia; Reinoso, Herminda; Tordable, Maria C.; Abdala, Guillermina; Pharis, Richard P.; Bottini, Ruben

    1990-01-01

    Flower buds of peach (Prunus persica L.) trees, cv Novedad de Cordoba (Argentina), were collected near the end of the dormant period and immediately before anthesis. After removal of scale leaves, morphological observations of representative buds, made on transverse and longitudinal microtome sections, showed that all verticils making up the flower are present in an undifferentiated form during the dormant period (June). Flower buds collected at the end of dormant period (August) showed additional growth and differentiation, at which time formation of two ovules was beginning in the unicarpelar gynoecium. Dehiscence of anthers had not yet occurred 10 days before full bloom, and the ovules were still developing. Free endogenous gibberellin (GA)-like substances were quantified by bioassay (Tan-ginbozu dwarf rice microdrop) after SiO2 partition column chromatography, reversed phase C18-high performance liquid chromatography, and finally Nucleosil [N(CH3)2]high performance liquid chromatography. Bioactive fractions were then subjected to capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM). Gibberellins A1, A3, and A8 were tentatively identified in peach flower buds using GC-SIM and Kovat's retention indices, and relative amounts approximated by GC-SIM (2:8:6 for GA1, GA3, and GA8, respectively). The highest concentration (330 nanograms per gram dry weight) of free GA1/GA3 was found in dormant buds (June) and diminished thereafter. The concentration free of GA1/GA3 did not increase immediately prior to bud break. However, high GA1/GA3 concentrations occurred during stages where rate of growth and cellular differentiation of (mainly fertile) verticils can be influenced. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667435

  16. The potential of Prunus davidiana for introgression into peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] assessed by comparative mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulongne, M; Pascal, T; Arús, P; Kervella, J

    2003-07-01

    The potential for introgression of Prunus davidiana, a wild species related to peach, was evaluated with respect to problems of non-Mendelian segregation or suppressed recombination which often hamper breeding processes based on interspecific crosses. Three connected (F1, F2 and BC2) populations, derived from a cross between P. davidiana clone P1908 and the peach cultivar Summergrand were used. The intraspecific map of P. davidiana already established using the F1 progeny was complemented, and two interspecific maps, for the F2 and BC2 progenies, were built with a set of markers selected from the Prunus reference map. With the molecular data collected for the F2 map construction, regions with distorted marker segregation were detected on the genome; one third of all loci deviated significantly from the expected Mendelian ratios. However, some of these distorted segregations were probably not due to the interspecific cross. On linkage group 6, a skewed area under gametic selection was most likely influenced by the self-incompatibility gene of P. davidiana. Using anchor loci, a good colinearity between the three maps built and the Prunus reference map was demonstrated. Comparative mapping also revealed that homologous recombination occurred normally between P. davidiana and the Prunus persica genome. This confirmed the closeness of the two species. Higher recombination rates were generally observed between P. davidiana and P. persica than between Prunus amygdalus and P. persica. The consequences for plant breeding strategy are discussed. The three maps of the F1, F2 and BC2 progenies provide useful tools for QTL detection and marker-assisted selection, as well as for assessing the efficiency of the peach breeding scheme applied to introgress P. davidiana genes into peach cultivated varieties.

  17. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of different peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Wenna; Yin, Xueren; Su, Mingshen; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-03-12

    China is an important centre of diversity for Prunus persica. In the present study, 17 Chinese peach cultivars were evaluated for phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Neochlorogenic acid (NCHA), chlorogenic acid (CHA), procyanidin B1 (B1), catechin (CAT), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q3GAL), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3GLU), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Q3R), and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (K3R) were identified and quantified. CHA and CAT were the predominant components in both the peel and pulp of this fruit. In general, peel extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than the pulp counterparts, consistent with the observed higher phenolic content. The melting peach cultivar "Xinyu" showed the highest antioxidant potency composite (APC) index. The principal component analysis (PCA) of peel phenolics showed a clear distinction between the melting peach and nectarine. Overall, peach cultivars rich in hydroxycinnamates and flavan-3-ols showed relatively higher antioxidant activities and might be excellent sources of phytochemicals and natural antioxidants.

  18. Transcriptional Responses in root and leaf of Prunus persica Under Drought Stress Using RNA Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla Ksouri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prunus persica L. Batch, or peach, is one of the most important crops and it is widely established in irrigated arid and semi-arid regions. However, due to variations in the climate and the increased aridity, drought has become a major constraint, causing crop losses worldwide. The use of drought-tolerant rootstocks in modern fruit production appears to be a useful method of alleviating water deficit problems. However, the transcriptomic variation and the major molecular mechanisms that underlie the adaptation of drought-tolerant rootstocks to water shortage remain unclear. Hence, in this study, high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq was performed to assess the transcriptomic changes and the key genes involved in the response to drought in root tissues (GF677 rootstock and leaf tissues (graft, var. Catherina subjected to 16 days of drought stress. In total, 12 RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced. This generated a total of 315M raw reads from both tissues, which allowed the assembly of 22,079 and 17,854 genes associated with the root and leaf tissues, respectively. Subsets of 500 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in roots and 236 in leaves were identified and functionally annotated with 56 gene ontology (GO terms and 99 metabolic pathways, which were mostly associated with aminobenzoate degradation and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The GO analysis highlighted the biological functions that were exclusive to the root tissue, such as locomotion, hormone metabolic process, and detection of stimulus, indicating the stress-buffering role of the GF677 rootstock. Furthermore, the complex regulatory network involved in the drought response was revealed, involving proteins that are associated with signaling transduction, transcription and hormone regulation, redox homeostasis, and frontline barriers. We identified two poorly characterized genes in P. persica: growth-regulating factor 5 (GRF5, which may be involved in cellular expansion, and AtHB12

  19. Transcriptional Responses in Root and Leaf of Prunus persica under Drought Stress Using RNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksouri, Najla; Jiménez, Sergio; Wells, Christina E; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Gogorcena, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Prunus persica L. Batsch, or peach, is one of the most important crops and it is widely established in irrigated arid and semi-arid regions. However, due to variations in the climate and the increased aridity, drought has become a major constraint, causing crop losses worldwide. The use of drought-tolerant rootstocks in modern fruit production appears to be a useful method of alleviating water deficit problems. However, the transcriptomic variation and the major molecular mechanisms that underlie the adaptation of drought-tolerant rootstocks to water shortage remain unclear. Hence, in this study, high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to assess the transcriptomic changes and the key genes involved in the response to drought in root tissues (GF677 rootstock) and leaf tissues (graft, var. Catherina) subjected to 16 days of drought stress. In total, 12 RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced. This generated a total of 315 M raw reads from both tissues, which allowed the assembly of 22,079 and 17,854 genes associated with the root and leaf tissues, respectively. Subsets of 500 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in roots and 236 in leaves were identified and functionally annotated with 56 gene ontology (GO) terms and 99 metabolic pathways, which were mostly associated with aminobenzoate degradation and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The GO analysis highlighted the biological functions that were exclusive to the root tissue, such as "locomotion," "hormone metabolic process," and "detection of stimulus," indicating the stress-buffering role of the GF677 rootstock. Furthermore, the complex regulatory network involved in the drought response was revealed, involving proteins that are associated with signaling transduction, transcription and hormone regulation, redox homeostasis, and frontline barriers. We identified two poorly characterized genes in P. persica: growth-regulating factor 5 (GRF5), which may be involved in cellular expansion, and AtHB12

  20. Unique expression, processing regulation, and regulatory network of peach (Prunus persica) miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Xia, Rui; Zhao, Bingyu; An, Yong-qiang; Dardick, Chris D; Callahan, Ann M; Liu, Zongrang

    2012-08-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as important gene regulators in plants. MiRNAs and their targets have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis and rice. However, relatively little is known about the characterization of miRNAs and their target genes in peach (Prunus persica), which is a complex crop with unique developmental programs. We performed small RNA deep sequencing and identified 47 peach-specific and 47 known miRNAs or families with distinct expression patterns. Together, the identified miRNAs targeted 80 genes, many of which have not been reported previously. Like the model plant systems, peach has two of the three conserved trans-acting siRNA biogenesis pathways with similar mechanistic features and target specificity. Unique to peach, three of the miRNAs collectively target 49 MYBs, 19 of which are known to regulate phenylpropanoid metabolism, a key pathway associated with stone hardening and fruit color development, highlighting a critical role of miRNAs in the regulation of peach fruit development and ripening. We also found that the majority of the miRNAs were differentially regulated in different tissues, in part due to differential processing of miRNA precursors. Up to 16% of the peach-specific miRNAs were differentially processed from their precursors in a tissue specific fashion, which has been rarely observed in plant cells. The miRNA precursor processing activity appeared not to be coupled with its transcriptional activity but rather acted independently in peach. Collectively, the data characterizes the unique expression pattern and processing regulation of peach miRNAs and demonstrates the presence of a complex, multi-level miRNA regulatory network capable of targeting a wide variety of biological functions, including phenylpropanoid pathways which play a multifaceted spatial-temporal role in peach fruit development.

  1. Unique expression, processing regulation, and regulatory network of peach (Prunus persica miRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Hong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs have recently emerged as important gene regulators in plants. MiRNAs and their targets have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis and rice. However, relatively little is known about the characterization of miRNAs and their target genes in peach (Prunus persica, which is a complex crop with unique developmental programs. Results We performed small RNA deep sequencing and identified 47 peach-specific and 47 known miRNAs or families with distinct expression patterns. Together, the identified miRNAs targeted 80 genes, many of which have not been reported previously. Like the model plant systems, peach has two of the three conserved trans-acting siRNA biogenesis pathways with similar mechanistic features and target specificity. Unique to peach, three of the miRNAs collectively target 49 MYBs, 19 of which are known to regulate phenylpropanoid metabolism, a key pathway associated with stone hardening and fruit color development, highlighting a critical role of miRNAs in the regulation of peach fruit development and ripening. We also found that the majority of the miRNAs were differentially regulated in different tissues, in part due to differential processing of miRNA precursors. Up to 16% of the peach-specific miRNAs were differentially processed from their precursors in a tissue specific fashion, which has been rarely observed in plant cells. The miRNA precursor processing activity appeared not to be coupled with its transcriptional activity but rather acted independently in peach. Conclusions Collectively, the data characterizes the unique expression pattern and processing regulation of peach miRNAs and demonstrates the presence of a complex, multi-level miRNA regulatory network capable of targeting a wide variety of biological functions, including phenylpropanoid pathways which play a multifaceted spatial-temporal role in peach fruit development.

  2. Endogenous hormones response to cytokinins with regard to organogenesis in explants of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-11-01

    Organogenesis in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and peach rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis) has been achieved and the action of the regeneration medium on 7 phytohormones, zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA), has been studied using High performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Three scion peach cultivars, 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach × almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677' were cultured in two different media, Murashige and Skoog supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) (regeneration medium) and without PGRs (control medium), in order to study the effects of the media and/or genotypes in the endogenous hormones content and their role in organogenesis. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach × almond rootstocks and showed a lower content of Z, IAA, ABA, ACC and JA. Only Z, ZR and IAA were affected by the action of the culture media. This study shows which hormones are external PGRs-dependent and what is the weight of the genotype and hormones in peach organogenesis that provide an avenue to manipulate in vitro organogenesis in peach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Green synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets with use of Prunus persica for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atchudan, Raji, E-mail: atchudanr@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Perumal, Suguna [Department of Applied Chemistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • N-GCSs was synthesized from the unripe Prunus persica by direct hydrothermal method. • The resulting N-GCSs-2 exhibit an excellent graphitization with 9.33% of nitrogen. • N-GCSs-2 provide high C{sub s} of 176 F g{sup −1} at current density of 0.1 A g{sup −1} in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. • N-GCSs-2 have high capacitance retention and 20% capacity growth after 2000 cycles. • First time, N-GCSs resulted from peach via green route for flexible supercapacitors. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets (N-GCSs) were prepared from the extract of unripe Prunus persica fruit by a direct hydrothermal method. The synthesized N-GCSs were examined by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HRTEM showed that the synthesized carbon sheets were graphitic with lattice fringes and an inter-layer distance of 0.36 nm. Doping with the nitrogen moiety present over the synthesized GCSs was confirmed by XPS, FT-IR spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping. The fruit extract associated with hydrothermal-carbonization method is economical and eco-friendly with a single step process. The resulting carbon sheets could be modified and are promising candidates for nano-electronic applications, including supercapacitors. The synthesized N-GCSs-2 provided a high specific capacitance of 176 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.1 A g{sup −1}. This electrode material has excellent cyclic stability, even after 2000 cycles of charge-discharge at a current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1}.

  4. Anti-allergic inflammatory effects of cyanogenic and phenolic glycosides from the seed of Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geum Jin; Choi, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Ji Hyang; Kim, Sang Hyun; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Seung Ho

    2013-12-01

    A methanol extract of the seed of Prunus persica (Rosaceae) was found to inhibit histamine release in human mast cells. Activity-guided fractionation of the methanol extract yielded three cyanogenic glycosides (1-3) and other phenolic compounds (4-8). To evaluate their anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities, the isolates (1-8) were tested for their inhibitory effects on histamine release and on the gene expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 in human mast cells. Of these, phenolic glycosides 7 and 8 suppressed histamine release and inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6. These results suggest that isolates from P. persica are among the anti-allergic inflammatory principles in this medicinal plant.

  5. Variabilidad interspecifica de duraznos (Prunus persica L. Batsch.) y ciruelos (Prunus domestica) usando RAMs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado; Yacenia Morillo Coronado; Leonardo Ariel González Mendoza; Iván Adiel Ávila Morales

    2015-01-01

      A sample of 41 Prunus materials from the deciduous collection of the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia was selected to evaluate its genetic diversity using eight primers for Random...

  6. Transcriptome analysis of seed dormancy after rinsing and chilling in ornamental peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjana, Worarad; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Ishii, Kazuo; Kozaki, Toshinori; Iigo, Masayuki; Yamane, Kenji

    2016-08-08

    Ornamental peaches cv. 'Yaguchi' (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) can be propagated via seeds. The establishment of efficient seed treatments for early germination and seedling growth is required to shorten nursery and breeding periods. It is important, therefore, to identify potential candidate genes responsible for the effects of rinsing and chilling on seed germination. We hypothesized that longer rinsing combined with chilling of seeds can alter the genes expression in related to dormancy and then raise the germination rate in the peach. To date, most molecular studies in peaches have involved structural genomics, and few transcriptome studies of seed germination have been conducted. In this study, we investigated the function of key seed dormancy-related genes using next-generation sequencing to profile the transcriptomes involved in seed dormancy in peaches. De novo assembly and analysis of the transcriptome identified differentially expressed and unique genes present in this fruit. De novo RNA-sequencing of peach was performed using the Illumina Miseq 2000 system. Paired-end sequence from mRNAs generated high quality sequence reads (9,049,964, 10,026,362 and 10,101,918 reads) from 'Yaguchi' peach seeds before rinsed (BR) and after rinsed for 2 or 7 days with a chilling period of 4 weeks (termed 2D4W and 7D4W), respectively. The germination rate of 7D4W was significantly higher than that of 2D4W. In total, we obtained 51,366 unique sequences. Differential expression analysis identified 7752, 8469 and 506 differentially expressed genes from BR vs 2D4W, BR vs 7D4W and 2D4W vs 7D4W libraries respectively, filtered based on p-value and an adjusted false discovery rate of less than 0.05. This study identified genes associated with the rinsing and chilling process that included those associated with phytohormones, the stress response and transcription factors. 7D4W treatment downregulated genes involved in ABA synthesis, catabolism and signaling pathways, which

  7. Prokinetic Activity of Prunus persica (L. Batsch Flowers Extract and Its Possible Mechanism of Action in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The peach tree, Prunus persica (L. Batsch, is widely cultivated in China, and its flowers have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gut motility disorders. But few studies have explored the pharmacological effect of Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers on gastrointestinal motility. In this study, the activities of different extracts from Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated colon model, and the ethyl acetate extract (EAE showed the strongest effects in vitro. EAE (10−8–10−5 g/mL caused a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect in rat colonic tissue. Additionally, ketotifen (100 µM, cimetidine (10 µM, and pyrilamine (1 µM produced a significant inhibition of contractions caused by EAE. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and toluidine blue staining revealed increased numbers of mast cells in the EAE group, and EAE increased histamine release from the colonic tissues. These data indicate that EAE has significant prokinetic activity and acts by a mechanism that mainly involves mast cell degranulation. Our study provides a pharmacological basis for the use of an extract of Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers in the treatment of gut motility disorders.

  8. Cultivar identification, pedigree verification, and diversity analysis among Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) Cultivars based on Simple Sequence Repeat markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic relationships and pedigree inferences among peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) accessions and breeding lines used in genetic improvement were evaluated using 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 80 alleles were detected among the 37 peach accessions with an average of 5.53...

  9. Prokinetic activity of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers extract and its possible mechanism of action in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Xu, Jing Dong; Wei, Feng Xian; Zheng, Yong Dong; Ma, Jian Zhong; Xu, Xiao Dong; Wei, Zhen Gang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, You Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The peach tree, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, is widely cultivated in China, and its flowers have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gut motility disorders. But few studies have explored the pharmacological effect of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers on gastrointestinal motility. In this study, the activities of different extracts from Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated colon model, and the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) showed the strongest effects in vitro. EAE (10(-8)-10(-5) g/mL) caused a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect in rat colonic tissue. Additionally, ketotifen (100 µM), cimetidine (10 µM), and pyrilamine (1 µM) produced a significant inhibition of contractions caused by EAE. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and toluidine blue staining revealed increased numbers of mast cells in the EAE group, and EAE increased histamine release from the colonic tissues. These data indicate that EAE has significant prokinetic activity and acts by a mechanism that mainly involves mast cell degranulation. Our study provides a pharmacological basis for the use of an extract of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers in the treatment of gut motility disorders.

  10. Development of sequence-tagged site markers linked to the pillar growth type in peach (Prunus persica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], trees showing columnar [also termed pillar or broomy] growth habit are of interest for high density production systems. While the selection of the columnar homozygote (pillar) phenotype (brbr) can be carried out prior to field planting, the intermediate hetero...

  11. Genome-Wide Analysis Characterization and Evolution of SBP Genes in Fragaria vesca, Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica and Prunus mume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdullah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein (SBP-box proteins are plant-specific transcriptional factors in plants. SBP TFs are known to play important functions in a diverse development process and also related in the process of evolutionary novelties. SBP gene family has been characterized in several plant species, but little is known about molecular evolution, functional divergence and comprehensive study of SBP gene family in Rosacea. We carried out genome-wide investigations and identified 14, 32, 17, and 17 SBP genes from four Rosacea species (Fragaria vesca, Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica and Prunus mume, respectively. According to phylogenetic analysis arranged the SBP protein sequences in seven groups. Localization of SBP genes presented an uneven distribution on corresponding chromosomes of Rosacea species. Our analyses designated that the SBP genes duplication events (segmental and tandem and divergence. In addition, due to highly conserved structure pattern of SBP genes, recommended that highly conserved region of microsyneteny in the Rosacea species. Type I and II functional divergence was detected among various amino acids in SBP proteins, while there was no positive selection according to substitutional model analysis using PMAL software. These results recommended that the purifying selection might be leading force during the evolution process and dominate conservation of SBP genes in Rosacea species according to environmental selection pressure analysis. Our results will provide basic understanding and foundation for future research insights on the evolution of the SBP genes in Rosacea.

  12. Comparison between in toto peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) supplementation and its polyphenolic extract on rat liver xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canistro, Donatella; Vivarelli, Fabio; Cirillo, Silvia; Costa, Guglielmo; Andreotti, Carlo; Paolini, Moreno

    2016-11-01

    Over the past years, there has been a growing interest in the natural constituents of foods as a potential means of cancer control. To date, epidemiology studies seem to indicate an inverse association between regular consumption of fruit and vegetables and cancer risk. Here, the potential chemopreventive activity of the polyphenolic extract (PPE) of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and of the freeze-dried fruit in toto (LFT), focusing on the modulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) in vivo, was investigated. Rats were daily supplemented with LFT at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. or with the corresponding amount of PPE (2.5 and 5 mL/kg b.w., respectively) for either 7 or 14 days. While PPE treatment resulted in a widespread phase-I inactivation, a complex modulation pattern with drastic decreases (7α-testosterone hydroxylase, pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD)), coupled with marked up-regulations of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) after LFT administration, was seen. A notable down-regulation (over 50%) following LFT or PPE treatment for the phase-II enzymes was also recorded. The observed remarkable changes in XMEs, if reproduced in humans, might have public health implications. These data suggest caution in promoting peach fruit (mono-diet) consumption or its polyphenolic extract in the field of chemoprevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of aqueous sprays of ammonium fluoride on oxygen consumption and firmness of suture and dorsal tissues of Early Improved Elberta peaches. [Prunus persica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facteau, T.J.; Rowe, K.E.

    1976-06-01

    Aqueous ammonium fluoride (NH/sub 4/F) sprays on Early Improved Elberta peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) resulted in increased O/sub 2/ consumption of suture tissue and inconsistent changes in O/sub 2/ consumption of dorsal tissue as the spray concentration was increased. Flesh firmness on the suture side of treated fruit was less than non-sprayed fruit and decreased as either the NH/sub 4/F spray concentration or number of sprays increased. The effect of spray on the dorsal side differed from year to year. Levels of fluoride (F) in the fruit tissue were associated with F concentration and number of F sprays applied only within the same year. 3 references, 1 table.

  14. Discovery and Annotation of Plant Endogenous Target Mimicry Sequences from Public Transcriptome Libraries: A Case Study of Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakülah, Gökhan

    2017-06-28

    Novel transcript discovery through RNA sequencing has substantially improved our understanding of the transcriptome dynamics of biological systems. Endogenous target mimicry (eTM) transcripts, a novel class of regulatory molecules, bind to their target microRNAs (miRNAs) by base pairing and block their biological activity. The objective of this study was to provide a computational analysis framework for the prediction of putative eTM sequences in plants, and as an example, to discover previously un-annotated eTMs in Prunus persica (peach) transcriptome. Therefore, two public peach transcriptome libraries downloaded from Sequence Read Archive (SRA) and a previously published set of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were investigated with multi-step analysis pipeline, and 44 putative eTMs were found. Additionally, an eTM-miRNA-mRNA regulatory network module associated with peach fruit organ development was built via integration of the miRNA target information and predicted eTM-miRNA interactions. My findings suggest that one of the most widely expressed miRNA families among diverse plant species, miR156, might be potentially sponged by seven putative eTMs. Besides, the study indicates eTMs potentially play roles in the regulation of development processes in peach fruit via targeting specific miRNAs. In conclusion, by following the step-by step instructions provided in this study, novel eTMs can be identified and annotated effectively in public plant transcriptome libraries.

  15. Green synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets with use of Prunus persica for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Perumal, Suguna; Lee, Yong Rok

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets (N-GCSs) were prepared from the extract of unripe Prunus persica fruit by a direct hydrothermal method. The synthesized N-GCSs were examined by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HRTEM showed that the synthesized carbon sheets were graphitic with lattice fringes and an inter-layer distance of 0.36 nm. Doping with the nitrogen moiety present over the synthesized GCSs was confirmed by XPS, FT-IR spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping. The fruit extract associated with hydrothermal-carbonization method is economical and eco-friendly with a single step process. The resulting carbon sheets could be modified and are promising candidates for nano-electronic applications, including supercapacitors. The synthesized N-GCSs-2 provided a high specific capacitance of 176 F g-1 at a current density of 0.1 A g-1. This electrode material has excellent cyclic stability, even after 2000 cycles of charge-discharge at a current density of 0.5 A g-1.

  16. Genome-wide analysis and identification of KT/HAK/KUP potassium transporter gene family in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z Z; Ma, R J; Yu, M L

    2015-01-30

    The KT/HAK/KUP family members encoding high-affinity potassium (K(+)) transporters mediate K(+) transport across the plasma membranes of plant cells to maintain plant normal growth and metabolic activities. In this paper, we identified 16 potassium transporter genes in the peach (Prunus persica) using the Hidden Markov model scanning strategy and searching the peach genome database. Utilizing the Arabidopsis KT/HAK/KUP family as a reference, phylogenetic analysis indicates that the KT/HAK/KUP family in the peach can be classified into 3 groups. Genomic localization indicated that 16 KT/HAK/KUP family genes were well distributed on 7 scaffolds. Gene structure analysis showed that the KT/HAK/KUP family genes have 6-9 introns. In addition, all of the KT/HAK/KUP family members were hydrophobic proteins; they exhibited similar secondary structure patterns and homologous tertiary structures. Putative cis-elements involved in abiotic stress adaption, Ca(2+) response, light and circadian rhythm regulation, and seed development were observed in the promoters of the KT/HAK/KUP family genes. Subcellular localization prediction indicated that the KT/HAK/KUP members were mainly located in the plasma membrane. Expression levels of the KT/HAK/ KUP family genes were much higher in the fruit and flower than those in the other 7 tissues examined, indicating that the KT/HAK/KUP family genes may have important roles in K(+) uptake and transport, which mainly contribute to flower formation and fruit development in the peach.

  17. Archaeological evidence for peach (Prunus persica) cultivation and domestication in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yunfei; Crawford, Gary W; Chen, Xugao

    2014-01-01

    The cultivated/domesticated peach (Prunus persica var. persica; Rosaceae, subgenus Amygdalus; synonym: Amygdalus persica) originated in China, but its wild ancestor, as well as where, when, and under what circumstances the peach was domesticated, is poorly known. Five populations of archaeological peach stones recovered from Zhejiang Province, China, document peach use and evolution beginning ca. 8000 BP. The majority of the archaeological sites from which the earliest peach stones have been recovered are from the Yangzi River valley, indicating that this is where early selection for favorable peach varieties likely took place. Furthermore, peach stone morphology through time is consistent with the hypothesis that an unknown wild P. persica was the ancestor of the cultivated peach. The oldest archaeological peach stones are from the Kuahuqiao (8000-7000 BP) and Tianluoshan (7000-6500 BP) sites and both stone samples segregate into two size groups, suggesting early selection of preferred types. The first peach stones in China most similar to modern cultivated forms are from the Liangzhu culture (ca. 5300 to 4300 BP), where the peach stones are significantly larger and more compressed than earlier stones. Similar peach stones are reported from Japan much earlier (6700-6400 BP). This large, compressed-stone peach was introduced to Japan and indicates a yet unidentified source population in China that was similar to the Liangzhu culture peach. This study proposes that the lower Yangzi River valley is a region, if not the region, of early peach selection and domestication and that the process began at least 7500 years ago.

  18. Dinâmica populacional e incidência de moscas-das-frutas e parasitoides em cultivares de pessegueiros (Prunus Persica L. Batsch no município de presidente prudente-sp Population dynamic and occurrence of fruit flies and their parasitoids in peach cultivars (Prunus persica L. Batsch in presidente prudente municipality, sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Nalesso Marangoni Montes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos avaliar a dinâmica populacional e registrar a diversidade de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea em cultivares de pessegueiro Tropical, Talismã, Aurora 2, Aurora 1, Dourado 2 e Doçura 2, enxertadas sobre os porta-enxertos 'Okinawa' e Umê, em Presidente Prudente-SP. Foram realizadas as correlações da dinâmica populacional com a temperatura e a precipitação, e também a infestação com as características químicas dos frutos, Sólidos Solúveis e Acidez Titulável. No período de julho de 2004 a dezembro de 2006, a dinâmica populacional de moscas-das-frutas foi obtida através de coletas semanais de moscas-das-frutas em armadilhas McPhail, e a incidência foi determinada através da coleta de 30 frutos/planta/cultivar. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Ceratitis capitata foi predominante nas cultivares de pessegueiros estudadas. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre população de moscas-das-frutas e as variáveis de temperatura e precipitação, e sólidos solúveis e ácidez titulável. Entre as cultivares de pêssego, Aurora 2 apresentou maior infestação por C. capitata, da ordem de 22 e 23% nos anos 2004 e 2006, respectivamente. Também foi registrada a incidência de Neosilba spp. em frutos de pêssego. Doryctobracon areolatus (Braconidae, Tetrastichus giffardianus (Eulophidae e Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Pteromalidae foram recuperados de pupários de Tephritidae.The objectives of this research were evaluate the population dynamic and diversity of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea on peach cultivars Tropical, Talisma, Aurora 2, Aurora 1, Dourado 2 and Doçura 2, under the rootstocks 'Okinawa' and Umê, in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil. The dynamic population of fruit flies was correlated with temperature and precipitation. The fruit fly infestation was correlated with chemical characteristics of fruits

  19. Fluidized bed combustion residue as an alternative liming material and Ca source. [Prunus persica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J.H.; Horton, B.D.; White, A.W. Jr.; Bennett, O.L.

    1985-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion residue (FBCR), a by-product of fossil fuel fired boilers, was evaluated as a liming material and a source of calcium for peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch). Incubation studies involving a medium textured soil indicated that FBCR (calcite (FBCRC) or dolomitic (FBCRD) sources) was as effective a liming amendment as the respective agricultural limestone. Maximum soil pH occurred after 26 days incubation with FBCRC, but soil pH increased continuously throughout 137 days incubation with dolomitic limestone. Ammonium acetate extractable Ca was not affected by calcitic source, but Mg concentration increased with rates with the two dolomitic sources, and was highest in the FBCRD source after 137 days incubation. In greenhouse studies with Elberta peach seedlings, FBCRC was more effective in neutralizing soil acidity and increasing extractable soil Ca than calcitic limestone.

  20. Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shenghua; Bielenberg, Douglas G; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana N; Reighard, Gregory L; Okie, William R; Holland, Doron; Abbott, Albert G

    2010-03-01

    *Chilling requirement, together with heat requirement, determines the bloom date, which has an impact on the climatic distribution of the genotypes of tree species. The molecular basis of floral bud chilling requirement is poorly understood, despite its importance to the adaptation and production of fruit trees. In addition, the genetic nature of heat requirement and the genetic interrelationships among chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date remain unclear. *A peach (Prunus persica) F(2) population of 378 genotypes developed from two genotypes with contrasting chilling requirements was used for linkage map construction and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. The floral bud chilling and heat requirements of each genotype were evaluated over 2 yr and the bloom date was scored over 4 yr. *Twenty QTLs with additive effects were identified for three traits, including one major QTL for chilling requirement and two major QTLs for bloom date. The majority of QTLs colocalized with QTLs for other trait(s). In particular, one genomic region of 2 cM, pleiotropic for the three traits, overlapped with the sequenced peach EVG region. *This first report on the QTL mapping of floral bud chilling requirement will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for low chilling requirement cultivars and the map-based cloning of genes controlling chilling requirement. The extensive colocalization of QTLs suggests that there may be one unified temperature sensing and action system regulating chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date together.

  1. Transcriptional regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis in nectarine (Prunus persica) by a set of R2R3 MYB transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaglia, Daniela; Espley, Richard V; Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A; Andreotti, Carlo; Ziosi, Vanina; Hellens, Roger P; Costa, Guglielmo; Allan, Andrew C

    2013-04-25

    Flavonoids such as anthocyanins, flavonols and proanthocyanidins, play a central role in fruit colour, flavour and health attributes. In peach and nectarine (Prunus persica) these compounds vary during fruit growth and ripening. Flavonoids are produced by a well studied pathway which is transcriptionally regulated by members of the MYB and bHLH transcription factor families. We have isolated nectarine flavonoid regulating genes and examined their expression patterns, which suggests a critical role in the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis. In nectarine, expression of the genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid pathway correlated with the concentration of proanthocyanidins, which strongly increases at mid-development. In contrast, the only gene which showed a similar pattern to anthocyanin concentration was UDP-glucose-flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), which was high at the beginning and end of fruit growth, remaining low during the other developmental stages. Expression of flavonol synthase (FLS1) correlated with flavonol levels, both temporally and in a tissue specific manner. The pattern of UFGT gene expression may be explained by the involvement of different transcription factors, which up-regulate flavonoid biosynthesis (MYB10, MYB123, and bHLH3), or repress (MYB111 and MYB16) the transcription of the biosynthetic genes. The expression of a potential proanthocyanidin-regulating transcription factor, MYBPA1, corresponded with proanthocyanidin levels. Functional assays of these transcription factors were used to test the specificity for flavonoid regulation. MYB10 positively regulates the promoters of UFGT and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) but not leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR). In contrast, MYBPA1 trans-activates the promoters of DFR and LAR, but not UFGT. This suggests exclusive roles of anthocyanin regulation by MYB10 and proanthocyanidin regulation by MYBPA1. Further, these transcription factors appeared to be responsive to both

  2. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of an arginine decarboxylase gene from peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji Hong; Ban, Yusuke; Wen, Xiao-Peng; Nakajima, Ikuko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2009-01-15

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC), one of the enzymes responsible for putrescine (Put) biosynthesis, has been shown to be implicated in stress response. In the current paper attempts were made to clone and characterize a gene encoding ADC from peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, 'Akatsuki'). Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) gave rise to a full-length ADC cDNA (PpADC) with a complete open reading frame of 2178 bp, encoding a 725 amino acid polypeptide. Homology search and sequence multi-alignment demonstrated that the deduced PpADC protein sequence shared a high identity with ADCs from other plants, including several highly conservative motifs and amino acids. Southern blotting indicated that PpADC existed in peach genome as a single gene. Expression levels of PpADC in different tissues of peach (P. persica 'Akatsuki') were spatially and developmentally regulated. Treatment of peach shoots from 'Mochizuki' with exogenous 5 mM Put, an indirect product of ADC, remarkably induced accumulation of PpADC mRNA. Transcripts of PpADC in peach leaves from 'Mochizuki' were quickly induced, either transiently or continuously, in response to dehydration, high salinity (200 mM NaCl), low temperature (4 degrees C) and heavy metal (150 microM CdCl(2)), but repressed by high temperature 37 degrees C) during a 2-day treatment, which changed in an opposite direction when the stresses were otherwise removed with the exception of CdCl(2) treatment. In addition, steady-state of PpADC mRNA could be also transiently up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) in 'Mochizuki' leaves. All of these, taken together, suggest that PpADC is a stress-responsive gene and can be considered as a potential target that is genetically manipulated so as to create novel germplasms with enhanced stress tolerance in the future.

  3. Pattern recognition of peach cultivars (Prunus persica L.) from their volatile components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Prado, Pablo; Bentayeb, Karim; Nerín, Cristina

    2013-05-01

    The volatile compounds of four peach cultivars (Prunus persica L.) were studied: Sudanell, San Lorenzo, Miraflores and Calanda (two clones, Calante and Jesca). 17-23 Samples of each cultivar with the same maturity level were analyzed, measuring color, firmness, and soluble solids content. The pulp was crushed and mixed with water prior to HS-SPME analysis, and GC-MS was used to determine the volatile compounds. Sixty-five compounds were identified using spectral library matching, Kovat's indices and, when available, pure standards. The main components were lactones and C6 compounds. From the distribution of these compounds, Principal Component Analysis led to the clustering of the samples according to their different cultivars. Finally, Canonical Component Analysis was used to create a classification function that identifies the origin of an unknown sample from its volatile composition. The results obtained will help to avoid fraud and protect the European Designation of Origin 'Melocotón de Calanda'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of Proteins from Prunus persica That Interact with Peach Latent Mosaic Viroid▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Audrey; Bisaillon, Martin; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) is a small, single-stranded, circular RNA pathogen that infects Prunus persica trees. As with all other known viroids, the PLMVd genome does not encode any proteins. Consequently, it must interact with host cellular factors in order to ensure its life cycle. With the objective of identifying cellular proteins that interact with PLMVd, Northwestern hybridizations were performed using partially purified peach leaf extracts. Mass spectrometric analysis of the detected RNA-protein complexes led to the identification of six putative RNA-binding proteins. One of these was found to be elongation factor 1-alpha (eEF1A), and because of its known involvement in the replication and translation of various RNA viruses, further characterizations were performed. Initially, the existence of this interaction received support from an experiment that immunoprecipitated the eEF1A from a crude extract of infected peach leaves, coupled with reverse transcription-PCR detection of the PLMVd. Subsequently, eEF1A interaction with PLMVd strands of both polarities was confirmed in vitro by electrophoresis mobility shift assays, fluorescence spectroscopy, and the prediction of an altered PLMVd RNase mapping profile in the presence of the protein. The potential contribution of eEF1A to the molecular biology of PLMVd, including for viroid replication, is discussed. PMID:19759139

  5. Peach (Prunus persica) extract inhibits angiotensin II-induced signal transduction in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Ryohei; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Misa; Inada, Ken-ichi; Tokuda, Akihiko; Yamashita, Miki; Hidaka, Ryu; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi

    2013-08-15

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a vasoactive hormone that has been implicated in cardiovascular diseases. Here, the effect of peach, Prunus persica L. Batsch, pulp extract on Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and signal transduction events in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was investigated. Pretreatment of peach ethyl acetate extract inhibited Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation in VSMCs. Furthermore, Ang II-induced ROS generation, essential for signal transduction events, was diminished by the peach ethyl acetate extract. The peach ethyl acetate extract also attenuated the Ang II-induced phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, both of which are associated with atherosclerosis and hypertension. These results suggest that peach ethyl acetate extract may have clinical potential for preventing cardiovascular diseases by interfering with Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation, the generation of ROS, and then blocking signal transduction events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of genes associated with bud dormancy release in Prunus persica by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leida, Carmen; Terol, Javier; Martí, Gracia; Agustí, Manuel; Llácer, Gerardo; Badenes, María Luisa; Ríos, Gabino

    2010-05-01

    To better understand the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying maintenance and release of seasonal bud dormancy in perennial trees, we identified differentially expressed genes during dormancy progression in reproductive buds from peach (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch) by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and microarray hybridization. Four SSH libraries were constructed, which were respectively enriched in cDNA highly expressed in dormant buds (named DR), in dormancy-released buds (RD) and in the cultivars with different chilling requirement, 'Zincal 5' (ZS) and 'Springlady' (SZ), sampled after dormancy release. About 2500 clones picked from the four libraries were loaded on a glass microarray. Hybridization of microarrays with the final products of SSH procedure was performed in order to validate the selected clones that were effectively enriched in their respective sample. Nearly 400 positive clones were sequenced, which corresponded to 101 different unigenes with diverse functional annotation. We obtained DAM4, 5 and 6 genes coding for MADS-box transcription factors previously related to growth cessation and terminal bud formation in the evergrowing mutant of peach. Several other cDNAs are similar to dormancy factors described in other species, and others have been related to bud dormancy for the first time in this study. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed differential expression of cDNAs coding for a Zn-finger transcription factor, a GRAS-like regulator, a DNA-binding protein and proteins similar to forisome subunits involved in the reversible occlusion of sieve elements in Fabaceae, among others.

  7. Pegamento e crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas Tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o pegamento e o crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas. Realizaram-se dois experimentos, adotando-se a enxertia de borbulhia por escudo (março e borbulhia por escudo modificada (julho. Com os resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que é viável a realização da enxertia do 'Aurora-1' nos Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e no 'Okinawa', tanto em março quanto em julho, com as metodologias utilizadas. O 'Okinawa' induz crescimento mais rápido ao enxerto, de forma que o ponto máximo do comprimento é atingido em tempo menor.This study aimed to evaluate the tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings. Two experiments were carried out, being adopted the chip budding (March and chip budding modified (July. The results showed that accomplishment of 'Aurora-1' peach bud on mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 and 'Okinawa' is viable, in both periods, with the methodologies used. The 'Okinawa' induces faster growth to the bud and the maximum length point is reached in a short time.

  8. Electronic nose to detect volatile compound profile and quality changes in 'spring Belle' peach (Prunus persica L.) during cold storage in relation to fruit optical properties measured by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, Anna; Bianchi, Giulia; Vanoli, Maristella; Lurie, Susan; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2013-02-27

    The aim of this research was to study the relationships between electronic nose (E-nose) pattern, maturity class of peaches assessed at harvest by means of absorption coefficient at 670 nm (μ(a)670) measured in fruit pulp by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy (TRS), and quality evolution during a 4 week cold storage. 'Spring Belle' peaches were measured for μ(a)670 by TRS, ranked according to decreasing μ(a)670 value, divided into three TRS maturity classes (less (LeM), medium (MeM), and more (MoM) mature), and randomized into 9 samples of 30 fruit each, so that fruits from the whole μ(a)670 range were present in each sample. At harvest and after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of storage at 0 and 4 °C, fruits of each sample were evaluated for firmness, expressible juice, μ(a)670, and ethylene production. LeM and MoM peaches of each sample were analyzed for aroma pattern by a commercial electronic nose and by static HS-GC and for sugar (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol) and organic acid (quinic, malic, and citric acids) compositions by HPLC. Principal component analysis (PCA) of electronic nose data emphasized the ability of the E-nose to assess the ripening stage of fruit associated with maturity class, storage time, and storage temperature. The sensors having the highest influence on the pattern were W5S in PC-1, W1S in PC-2, and W2S in PC-3. From linear correlation analysis between PCs and firmness, flavor, and volatile compounds, it was found that PC-1 was related to ethylene production and volatile compounds (mainly acetate esters and ethanol); the highest PC-1 scores were found for fruit belonging to the MoM class after 2 weeks of storage at 4 °C, which showed the rise in ethylene production coupled with the highest total volatile production and sugar and acid composition of ripe peach fruits. PC-2 correlated with hexanal, ethyl acetate, and sugar composition, and PC-3 was mainly related to flavor compounds; both functions significantly changed with

  9. Evaluation of different doses of gamma radiation on physicochemical characteristics of peach Prunus persica (cv. Chimarrita) minimally processed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ana Claudia S.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Perecin, Thalita Neme; Arthur, Valter; Harder, Marcia N.C. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente], e-mail: acsoliveira@usp.br, e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br; Mansi, Debora N.; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2009-07-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the physico-chemical characteristics of peach Prunus persica (cv. Chimarrita) minimally processed, to increase the useful life of the fruit. The peaches were purchased at Ceasa of Campinas/SP and taken to the Laboratory of Radiobiology and Environment of CENA/USP (Piracicaba/SP), which were washed in tap water, peeled and cut into four pieces. The pieces of peach were dipped in sodium hypochlorite solution of 15 mL/L for 4 minutes and dry in a plastic support. Then it were placed in plastic containers (polypropylene). Subsequently, they were irradiated in a Cobalt-60 source, type Gammacell-220 (dose rate of 0,543 kGy/hour) with doses of: 0 (control), 1.0 and 2.0 kGy and stored at a temperature of 8 deg C. The experimental was developed entirely at random with 3 replicates for each treatment. For the statistic analysis was using the Tuckey test at 5% level of probability. Subsequently, analysis was carried out: color factors (l, a, b), pH, soluble solids (deg Brix), acidity and vitamin C. The tests were performed at 1, 3 and 6 days after irradiation. According to the results concluded that the analysis of color and acidity there was no significant difference between treatments, however, for the soluble solids (deg Brix), vitamin C and texture significant difference showing a decrease proportional to increasing doses of radiation and storage time. But the pH increased in relation to dose and during the analysis. (author)

  10. Heterogeneity in the entire genome for three genotypes of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] as distinguished from sequence analysis of genomic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Martínez-García, Pedro J; Parfitt, Dan E; Crisosto, Carlos H; Gradziel, Thomas M

    2013-11-01

    Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is an economically important fruit crop that has become a genetic-genomic model for all Prunus species in the family Rosaceae. A doubled haploid reference genome sequence length of 227.3 Mb, a narrow genetic base contrasted by a wide phenotypic variability, the generation of cultivars through hybridization with subsequent clonal propagation, and the current accessibility of many founder genotypes, as well as the pedigree of modern commercial cultivars make peach a model for the study of inter-cultivar genomic heterogeneity and its shaping by artificial selection. The quantitative genomic differences among the three genotypes studied as genomic variants, included small variants (SNPs and InDels) and structural variants (SV) (duplications, inversions and translocations). The heirloom cultivar 'Georgia Belle' and an almond by peach introgression breeding line 'F8,1-42' are more heterogeneous than is the modern cultivar 'Dr. Davis' when compared to the peach reference genome ('Lovell'). A pair-wise comparison of consensus genome sequences with 'Lovell' showed that 'F8,1-42' and 'Georgia Belle' were more divergent than were 'Dr. Davis' and 'Lovell'. A novel application of emerging bioinformatics tools to the analysis of ongoing genome sequencing project outputs has led to the identification of a range of genomic variants. Results can be used to delineate the genomic and phenotypic differences among peach genotypes. For crops such as fruit trees, the availability of old cultivars, breeding selections and their pedigrees, make them suitable models for the study of genome shaping by artificial selection. The findings from the study of such genomic variants can then elucidate the control of pomological traits and the characterization of metabolic pathways, thus facilitating the development of protocols for the improvement of Prunus crops.

  11. Unravelling early events in the Taphrina deformans-Prunus persica interaction: an insight into the differential responses in resistant and susceptible genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetaz, Laura A; Bustamante, Claudia A; Goldy, Camila; Rivero, Nery; Müller, Gabriela L; Valentini, Gabriel H; Fernie, Alisdair R; Drincovich, María F; Lara, María V

    2017-08-01

    Leaf peach curl is a devastating disease affecting leaves, flowers and fruits, caused by the dimorphic fungus Taphrina deformans. To gain insight into the mechanisms of fungus pathogenesis and plant responses, leaves of a resistant and two susceptible Prunus persica genotypes were inoculated with blastospores (yeast), and the infection was monitored during 120 h post inoculation (h.p.i.). Fungal dimorphism to the filamentous form and induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), callose synthesis, cell death and defence compound production were observed independently of the genotype. Fungal load significantly decreased after 120 h.p.i. in the resistant genotype, while the pathogen tended to grow in the susceptible genotypes. Metabolic profiling revealed a biphasic re-programming of plant tissue in susceptible genotypes, with an initial stage co-incident with the yeast form of the fungus and a second when the hypha is developed. Transcriptional analysis of PRs and plant hormone-related genes indicated that pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are involved in P. persica defence responses against T. deformans and that salicylic acid is induced in the resistant genotype. Conducted experiments allowed the elucidation of common and differential responses in susceptible versus resistant genotypes and thus allow us to construct a picture of early events during T. deformans infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Bioinformatics prediction of miRNAs in the Prunus persica genome with validation of their precise sequences by miR-RACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanping; Bai, Youhuang; Han, Jian; Chen, Ming; Kayesh, Emrul; Jiang, Weibing; Fang, Jinggui

    2013-01-01

    We predicted 262 potential MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belonging to 70 miRNA families from the peach (Prunus persica) genome and two specific 5' and 3' miRNA rapid amplification of cDNA ends (miR-RACE) PCR reactions and sequence-directed cloning were employed to accurately validate 61 unique P. persica miRNAs (Ppe-miRNAs) sequences belonging to 61 families comprising 97 Ppe-miRNAs. Validation of the termini nucleotides in particular can define the real sequences of the Ppe-miRNAs on peach genome. Comparison between predicted and validated Ppe-miRNAs through alignment revealed that 43 unique orthologous sequences were identical, while the remaining 18 exhibited some divergences at their termini nucleotides. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was further employed to analyze the expression of all the 61 miRNAs and 10 putative targets of 8 randomly selected Ppe-miRNAs in peach leaves, flowers and fruits at different stages of development, where both the miRNAs and the putative target genes showed tissue-specific expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Prunus persica crop management as step toward AMF diversity conservation for the sustainable soil management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Lozano, Z.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Roldan, A.

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in roots of Prunus persica under two fertilization treatments (CF: consisted of application of chicken manure (1400 kg.ha-1), urea (140 kg.ha-1), complex fertilizer 12-12-17/2 (280 kg.ha-1), and potassium sulfate (40 kg.ha-1) and IF: consisted of application of urea (140 kg.ha-1), complex fertilizer 12-12-17/2 (400 kg.ha-1) and potassium sulfate (70 kg.ha-1)) combined with integrated pest management (IM) or chemical pest management (CM), in a tropical agroecosystem in the north of Venezuela. Our goal was to ascertain how different fertilizers/pest management can modify the AMF diversity colonizing P. persica roots as an important step towards sustainable soil use and therefore protection of biodiversity. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty-one different phylotypes were identified, which were grouped in five families: Glomeraceae, Paraglomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, Gigasporaceae and Archaeosporaceae. Sixteen of these sequence groups belonged to the genus Glomus, two to Paraglomus, one to Acaulospora, one to Scutellospora and one to Archaeospora. A different distribution of the AMF phylotypes as consequence of the difference between treatments was observed. Thus, the AMF communities of tree roots in the (IF+CM) treatment had the lowest diversity (H'=1.78) with the lowest total number of AMF sequence types (9). The trees from both (CF+IM) and (IF+IM) treatments had similar AMF diversity (H'?2.00); while the treatment (CF+CM) yielded the highest number of different AMF sequence types (17) and showed the highest diversity index (H'=2.69). In conclusion, the crop management including combination of organic and inorganic fertilization and chemical pest control appears to be the most suitable strategy with respect to reactivate the AMF diversity in the roots of this crop and thus, the agricultural and environmental

  14. Genome wide identification of chilling responsive microRNAs in Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Abdelali; Sriram, Aditya; Park, Joseph; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Main, Dorrie; Abbott, Albert

    2012-09-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs (sRNAs) approximately 21 nucleotides in length that negatively control gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. Within this context, miRNAs and siRNAs are coming to the forefront as molecular mediators of gene regulation in plant responses to annual temperature cycling and cold stress. For this reason, we chose to identify and characterize the conserved and non-conserved miRNA component of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) focusing our efforts on both the recently released whole genome sequence of peach and sRNA transcriptome sequences from two tissues representing non-dormant leaves and dormant leaf buds. Conserved and non-conserved miRNAs, and their targets were identified. These sRNA resources were used to identify cold-responsive miRNAs whose gene targets co-localize with previously described QTLs for chilling requirement (CR). Analysis of 21 million peach sRNA reads allowed us to identify 157 and 230 conserved and non-conserved miRNA sequences. Among the non-conserved miRNAs, we identified 205 that seem to be specific to peach. Comparative genome analysis between peach and Arabidopsis showed that conserved miRNA families, with the exception of miR5021, are similar in size. Sixteen of these conserved miRNA families are deeply rooted in land plant phylogeny as they are present in mosses and/or lycophytes. Within the other conserved miRNA families, five families (miR1446, miR473, miR479, miR3629, and miR3627) were reported only in tree species (Populustrichocarpa, Citrus trifolia, and Prunus persica). Expression analysis identified several up-regulated or down-regulated miRNAs in winter buds versus young leaves. A search of the peach proteome allowed the prediction of target genes for most of the conserved miRNAs and a large fraction of non-conserved miRNAs. A fraction of predicted targets in peach have not been previously reported in other species. Several conserved and non

  15. Genome wide identification of chilling responsive microRNAs in Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barakat Abdelali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNAs (sRNAs approximately 21 nucleotides in length that negatively control gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. Within this context, miRNAs and siRNAs are coming to the forefront as molecular mediators of gene regulation in plant responses to annual temperature cycling and cold stress. For this reason, we chose to identify and characterize the conserved and non-conserved miRNA component of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch focusing our efforts on both the recently released whole genome sequence of peach and sRNA transcriptome sequences from two tissues representing non-dormant leaves and dormant leaf buds. Conserved and non-conserved miRNAs, and their targets were identified. These sRNA resources were used to identify cold-responsive miRNAs whose gene targets co-localize with previously described QTLs for chilling requirement (CR. Results Analysis of 21 million peach sRNA reads allowed us to identify 157 and 230 conserved and non-conserved miRNA sequences. Among the non-conserved miRNAs, we identified 205 that seem to be specific to peach. Comparative genome analysis between peach and Arabidopsis showed that conserved miRNA families, with the exception of miR5021, are similar in size. Sixteen of these conserved miRNA families are deeply rooted in land plant phylogeny as they are present in mosses and/or lycophytes. Within the other conserved miRNA families, five families (miR1446, miR473, miR479, miR3629, and miR3627 were reported only in tree species (Populustrichocarpa, Citrus trifolia, and Prunus persica. Expression analysis identified several up-regulated or down-regulated miRNAs in winter buds versus young leaves. A search of the peach proteome allowed the prediction of target genes for most of the conserved miRNAs and a large fraction of non-conserved miRNAs. A fraction of predicted targets in peach have not been previously reported in other

  16. Prunus persica crop management differentially promotes arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity in a tropical agro-ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Lozano, Zenaida; Torres, Maria Pilar; Roldán, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Due to the important role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in ecosystem functioning, determination of the effect of management practices on the AMF diversity in agricultural soils is essential for the sustainability of these agro-ecosystems. The objective of this study was to compare the AMF diversity in Prunus persica roots under two types of fertilisation (inorganic, with or without manure) combined with integrated or chemical pest management in a Venezuelan agro-ecosystem. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty-one different phylotypes were identified: 15 belonged to the genus Glomus, one to Claroideoglomus, two to Paraglomus, one to Acaulospora, one to Scutellospora and one to Archaeospora. The distribution of the AMF community composition differed as a consequence of the treatment effects. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control had the highest AMF richness and the treatment combining inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest had the lowest. The real causes and effects of these differences in the AMF community are very difficult to establish, since the crop management regimes tested were composed of several interacting factors. In conclusion, the crop management practices can exert a significant influence on the populations of AMF. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control appears to be the most suitable agricultural management strategy with respect to improving the AMF diversity in this crop under tropical conditions, and thus for maintaining the agricultural and environmental sustainability of this agro-ecosystem.

  17. Extrafloral nectaries alter arthropod community structure and mediate peach (Prunus persica) plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Clarissa R; Bottrell, Dale G; Brown, Mark W

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the role of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) in mediating plant defense for newly established peach (Prunus persica) trees. We used peaches of a single cultivar ("Lovell") that varied with respect to EFN leaf phenotype (with or without EFNs) to determine if the EFNs affected the structure of the arthropod community colonizing newly planted seedlings. We also tested if the plants producing EFNs benefited from reduced herbivory or enhanced productivity. In the first year following planting, the young peach trees with EFNs were dominated by ants, and arthropod community diversity was lower than for trees without EFNs. The young trees with EFNs harbored fewer herbivores and experienced a twofold reduction in folivory compared to trees without EFNs. Productivity was also enhanced for the trees with EFNs, which attained significantly higher rates of trunk growth, greater terminal carbon composition, and a threefold increase in buds produced in subsequent years. In the second year of the field study, ants remained numerically dominant on trees with EFNs, but arthropod community diversity was higher than for trees without EFNs. An additional study revealed that folivory rates in May increased dramatically for trees with EFNs if ants were excluded from their canopies, indicating that ants have a protective function when the perennial trees produce new leaves. However, in later months, regardless of ants' presence, the trees with EFNs suffered less folivory than trees lacking EFNs. The diversity and richness of the predator trophic group increased when ants were excluded from trees with EFNs, but overall community diversity (i.e., herbivores and predators combined) was not affected by the ants' presence. Our research indicates that the EFNs play an important role in attracting predators that protect the trees from herbivores, and the EFN host-plant characteristic should be retained in future peach cultivar selections. Furthermore, peach production programs aimed

  18. Polinização entomófila em pessegueiro (Prunus persica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Octávio Silveira da Mota

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento, realizado na região de Jaboticabal (SP, utilizou uma cultura de pêssego (Prunus persica L., durante a sua florada com a finalidade de verificar a atuação dos insetos visitantes nas flores na produção de frutos. A concentração média de açucares no néctar e a quantidade média produzida por dia de néctar é de 27,9% e de 3,2 mg, respectivamente. O peso médio das anteras por flor foi de 1,59 mg. A abelha Apis mellifera (73% foi o principal inseto visitante seguida da Trigona spinipes (17% e Xylocopa sp (4%. Observou-se a presença de beija-flores (6%, coletando néctar. A freqüência máxima das abelhas A. mellifera, para coleta de néctar e pólen, ocorreu as 12 horas. O número de frutos resultantes do tratamento em que as flores recebiam as visitas foi 14% maior que no tratamento em as flores não eram visitadas. Do total de frutos colhidos no tratamento coberto (sem visitas, 82% apresentaram-se perfeitos, com boa formação e simetria. No tratamento descoberto, 90,2% apresentaram-se com boa formação, havendo diferença estatística entre os dois tratamentos.

  19. A review on the complexity of insect-plant interactions under varying levels of resources and host resistance: the case of Myzus persicae-Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdugo, JA.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insect-plant interactions are affected directly or indirectly by stress factors. The effect of environmental resource availability on insect-plant interactions is here reviewed. Subsequently, the analysis focuses on aphid-host plant interactions, particularly in the system composed by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae and its primary host plant Prunus persica. Literature. Plant defenses arise in two ways: resistance and tolerance, both are affected by abiotic factors. The information gathered from studies (n = 29 on plant-aphid interactions addressing the reduction in water availability on plant resistance, showed that in 41,4% of the studies, drought stress elicits lower resistance, while 34.5%, 20.1% and 3.4%, showed higher, no change and conditional effects on plant resistance, respectively. Conclusions. Water stress elicits mixed effects on plant resistance to aphids. However, the literature review also suggests that cultural practices play a role in the fate of the peach-aphid interactions, whereas the development of predictive models aimed to assist crop-pest management systems still requires more basic information. Aphid responses to plant defenses under stressed conditions are still largely unexplored.

  20. The high-quality draft genome of peach (Prunus persica) identifies unique patterns of genetic diversity, domestication and genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Ignazio; Abbott, Albert G; Scalabrin, Simone; Jung, Sook; Shu, Shengqiang; Marroni, Fabio; Zhebentyayeva, Tatyana; Dettori, Maria Teresa; Grimwood, Jane; Cattonaro, Federica; Zuccolo, Andrea; Rossini, Laura; Jenkins, Jerry; Vendramin, Elisa; Meisel, Lee A; Decroocq, Veronique; Sosinski, Bryon; Prochnik, Simon; Mitros, Therese; Policriti, Alberto; Cipriani, Guido; Dondini, Luca; Ficklin, Stephen; Goodstein, David M; Xuan, Pengfei; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Aramini, Valeria; Copetti, Dario; Gonzalez, Susana; Horner, David S; Falchi, Rachele; Lucas, Susan; Mica, Erica; Maldonado, Jonathan; Lazzari, Barbara; Bielenberg, Douglas; Pirona, Raul; Miculan, Mara; Barakat, Abdelali; Testolin, Raffaele; Stella, Alessandra; Tartarini, Stefano; Tonutti, Pietro; Arús, Pere; Orellana, Ariel; Wells, Christina; Main, Dorrie; Vizzotto, Giannina; Silva, Herman; Salamini, Francesco; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2013-05-01

    Rosaceae is the most important fruit-producing clade, and its key commercially relevant genera (Fragaria, Rosa, Rubus and Prunus) show broadly diverse growth habits, fruit types and compact diploid genomes. Peach, a diploid Prunus species, is one of the best genetically characterized deciduous trees. Here we describe the high-quality genome sequence of peach obtained from a completely homozygous genotype. We obtained a complete chromosome-scale assembly using Sanger whole-genome shotgun methods. We predicted 27,852 protein-coding genes, as well as noncoding RNAs. We investigated the path of peach domestication through whole-genome resequencing of 14 Prunus accessions. The analyses suggest major genetic bottlenecks that have substantially shaped peach genome diversity. Furthermore, comparative analyses showed that peach has not undergone recent whole-genome duplication, and even though the ancestral triplicated blocks in peach are fragmentary compared to those in grape, all seven paleosets of paralogs from the putative paleoancestor are detectable.

  1. Characterization of cytokinin signaling and homeostasis gene families in two hardwood tree species: Populus trichocarpa and Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immanen, Juha; Nieminen, Kaisa; Duchens Silva, Héctor; Rodríguez Rojas, Fernanda; Meisel, Lee A; Silva, Herman; Albert, Victor A; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Helariutta, Ykä

    2013-12-16

    Through the diversity of cytokinin regulated processes, this phytohormone has a profound impact on plant growth and development. Cytokinin signaling is involved in the control of apical and lateral meristem activity, branching pattern of the shoot, and leaf senescence. These processes influence several traits, including the stem diameter, shoot architecture, and perennial life cycle, which define the development of woody plants. To facilitate research about the role of cytokinin in regulation of woody plant development, we have identified genes associated with cytokinin signaling and homeostasis pathways from two hardwood tree species. Taking advantage of the sequenced black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and peach (Prunus persica) genomes, we have compiled a comprehensive list of genes involved in these pathways. We identified genes belonging to the six families of cytokinin oxidases (CKXs), isopentenyl transferases (IPTs), LONELY GUY genes (LOGs), two-component receptors, histidine containing phosphotransmitters (HPts), and response regulators (RRs). All together 85 Populus and 45 Prunus genes were identified, and compared to their Arabidopsis orthologs through phylogenetic analyses. In general, when compared to Arabidopsis, differences in gene family structure were often seen in only one of the two tree species. However, one class of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, the CKI1-like family of two-component histidine kinases, was larger in both Populus and Prunus than in Arabidopsis.

  2. Characterization of cytokinin signaling and homeostasis gene families in two hardwood tree species: Populus trichocarpa and Prunus persica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Through the diversity of cytokinin regulated processes, this phytohormone has a profound impact on plant growth and development. Cytokinin signaling is involved in the control of apical and lateral meristem activity, branching pattern of the shoot, and leaf senescence. These processes influence several traits, including the stem diameter, shoot architecture, and perennial life cycle, which define the development of woody plants. To facilitate research about the role of cytokinin in regulation of woody plant development, we have identified genes associated with cytokinin signaling and homeostasis pathways from two hardwood tree species. Results Taking advantage of the sequenced black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and peach (Prunus persica) genomes, we have compiled a comprehensive list of genes involved in these pathways. We identified genes belonging to the six families of cytokinin oxidases (CKXs), isopentenyl transferases (IPTs), LONELY GUY genes (LOGs), two-component receptors, histidine containing phosphotransmitters (HPts), and response regulators (RRs). All together 85 Populus and 45 Prunus genes were identified, and compared to their Arabidopsis orthologs through phylogenetic analyses. Conclusions In general, when compared to Arabidopsis, differences in gene family structure were often seen in only one of the two tree species. However, one class of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, the CKI1-like family of two-component histidine kinases, was larger in both Populus and Prunus than in Arabidopsis. PMID:24341635

  3. Investigation of the aroma of commercial peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) types by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Tiago; Weesepoel, Yannick; Koot, Alex; Iglesias, Ignasi; Eduardo, Iban; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Guerrero, Luis; Hortós, Maria; van Ruth, Saskia

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the aroma and sensory profiles of various types of peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch.). Forty-three commercial cultivars comprising peaches, flat peaches, nectarines, and canning peaches (pavías) were grown over two consecutive harvest years. Fruits were assessed for chemical aroma and sensory profiles. Chemical aroma profile was obtained by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and spectral masses were tentatively identified with PTR-Time of Flight-MS (PTR-Tof-MS). Sensory analysis was performed at commercial maturity considering seven aroma/flavor attributes. The four types of peaches showed both distinct chemical aroma and sensory profiles. Flat peaches and canning peaches showed most distinct patterns according to discriminant analysis. The sensory data were related to the volatile compounds by partial least square regression. γ-Hexalactone, γ-octalactone, hotrienol, acetic acid and ethyl acetate correlated positively, and benzeneacetaldehyde, trimethylbenzene and acetaldehyde negatively to the intensities of aroma and ripe fruit sensory scores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mites fluctuation population on peach tree (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and in associated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosana Eichelberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch in Rio Grande do Sul, little is known about mites fluctuation population considered important to this crop. The objective of this study was to know the population diversity and fluctuation of mite species associated with Premier and Eldorado varieties in Roca Sales and Venâncio Aires counties, Rio Grande do Sul. The study was conducted from July 2008 to June 2009 when 15 plants were randomly chosen in each area. The plants were divided in quadrants and from each one a branch was chosen from which three leaves were removed: one collected in the apical region, another in the medium and the other in the basal region, totalizing 180 leaves/area. Five of the most abundant associated plants were collected monthly in enough amounts for the screening under the stereoscopic microscope during an hour. A total of 1,124 mites were found belonging to 14 families and 28 species. Tetranychus ludeni Zacher, 1913, Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836 and Mononychellus planki (McGregor, 1950 were the most abundant phytophagous mites, whereas Typhlodromalus aripo Deleon, 1967 and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 the most common predatory mites. The period of one hour under stereoscopic microscope was enough to get a representative sample. In both places evaluated the ecologic indices were low, but little higherin Premier (H' 0.56; EqJ: 0.43 when compared to Eldorado (H' 0.53; EqJ 0.40. In Premier constant species were not observed and accessory only Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939, T. ludeni and T. aripo. Higher abundance was observed in December and January and bigger amount in April. Already in Eldorado, T. ludeni and P. ulmi were constants. Greater abundance was observed in November and December, whereas grater richness in December and January. In both orchards were not found mites in buds. Tetranychus ludeni is the most abundant phytophagous mites with outbreak population in November, December and

  5. Genome-Wide Analysis Suggests the Relaxed Purifying Selection Affect the Evolution of WOX Genes in Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Meng, Dandan; Li, Guohui; Li, Dahui; Abdullah, Muhammad; Jin, Qing; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2017-01-01

    WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) family is one of the largest group of transcription factors (TFs) specifically found in plant kingdom. WOX TFs play an important role in plant development processes and evolutionary novelties. Although the roles of WOXs in Arabidopsis and rice have been well-studied, however, little are known about the relationships among the main clades in the molecular evolution of these genes in Rosaceae. Here, we carried out a genome-wide analysis and identified 14, 10, 10, and 9 of WOX genes from four Rosaceae species (Fragaria vesca, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Pyrus bretschneideri, respectively). According to evolutionary analysis, as well as amino acid sequences of their homodomains, these genes were divided into three clades with nine subgroups. Furthermore, due to the conserved structural patterns among these WOX genes, it was proposed that there should exist some highly conserved regions of microsynteny in the four Rosaceae species. Moreover, most of WOX gene pairs were presented with the conserved orientation among syntenic genome regions. In addition, according to substitution models analysis using PMAL software, no significant positive selection was detected, but type I functional divergence was identified among certain amino acids in WOX protein. These results revealed that the relaxed purifying selection might be the main driving force during the evolution of WOX genes in the tested Rosaceae species. Our result will be useful for further precise research on evolution of the WOX genes in family Rosaceae.

  6. Genome-Wide Analysis Suggests the Relaxed Purifying Selection Affect the Evolution of WOX Genes in Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Fragaria vesca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Cao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX family is one of the largest group of transcription factors (TFs specifically found in plant kingdom. WOX TFs play an important role in plant development processes and evolutionary novelties. Although the roles of WOXs in Arabidopsis and rice have been well-studied, however, little are known about the relationships among the main clades in the molecular evolution of these genes in Rosaceae. Here, we carried out a genome-wide analysis and identified 14, 10, 10, and 9 of WOX genes from four Rosaceae species (Fragaria vesca, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Pyrus bretschneideri, respectively. According to evolutionary analysis, as well as amino acid sequences of their homodomains, these genes were divided into three clades with nine subgroups. Furthermore, due to the conserved structural patterns among these WOX genes, it was proposed that there should exist some highly conserved regions of microsynteny in the four Rosaceae species. Moreover, most of WOX gene pairs were presented with the conserved orientation among syntenic genome regions. In addition, according to substitution models analysis using PMAL software, no significant positive selection was detected, but type I functional divergence was identified among certain amino acids in WOX protein. These results revealed that the relaxed purifying selection might be the main driving force during the evolution of WOX genes in the tested Rosaceae species. Our result will be useful for further precise research on evolution of the WOX genes in family Rosaceae.

  7. Prunus persica var. platycarpa (Tabacchiera Peach): Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Pulp, Peel and Seed Ethanolic Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica R; Pacetti, Deborah; Lucci, Paolo; Núñez, Oscar; Menichini, Francesco; Frega, Natale Giuseppe; Tundis, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    A comparative analysis of ethanol extracts from peel, pulp and seed of Prunus persica var. platycarpa (Tabacchiera peach) was done. The total phenol, flavonoid and carotenoid content as well as the antioxidant properties by using different in vitro assays (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, Fe-chelating, β-carotene bleaching test) were evaluated. Pulp extract was subjected to liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, protocatechualdehyde, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid were identified as main constituents. Pulp extract was characterized by the highest total phytonutrients content and exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in all in vitro assays (IC(50) values of 2.2 μg/mL after 60 min of incubation by using β-carotene bleaching test and 2.9 μg/mL by using Fe-chelating assay). Overall, the obtained results suggest that P. persica var. platycarpa displays a good antioxidant activity and its consumption could be promoted.

  8. Effects of different products of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) from a variety developed in southern Brazil on oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in vitro and ex vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Somensi, Nauana; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Girardi, Carolina Saibro; Klafke, Karina; Rabelo, Thallita Kelly; Morrone, Maurilio Da Silva; Vizzotto, Márcia; Raseira, Maria do Carmo Bassols; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant, anti-glycation and anti-inflammatory activities of fresh and conserved peach fruits (Prunus persica L. Batsch) were compared. Fresh peach pulps, peels, preserve peach pulps and the preserve syrup were prepared at equal concentrations. Rat liver, kidney and brain cortex tissue slices were pre-incubated with peach samples, subjected to oxidative stress with FeSO4 and hydrogen peroxide. Fresh peach pulps and peel conferred higher protection against cytotoxicity and oxidative stress than preserve peach pulps in most tissues. Release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β was also significantly decreased by Fresh peach pulps and peel, followed by preserve peach pulps. Total phenolic determination and HPLC analysis of carotenoids showed that the content of secondary metabolites in Fresh peach pulps and peel is significantly higher than in preserve peach pulps, while the syrup had only small or trace amounts of these compounds. Fresh peach pulps and Peel demonstrated high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects preventing against induced damage. PMID:25320458

  9. Firmness prediction in Prunus persica 'Calrico' peaches by visible/short-wave near infrared spectroscopy and acoustic measurements using optimised linear and non-linear chemometric models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Victoria; Herrera, Luis J; Pérez, María del Mar; Val, Jesús; Negueruela, Ignacio

    2015-08-15

    In this work, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and an acoustic measure (AWETA) (two non-destructive methods) were applied in Prunus persica fruit 'Calrico' (n = 260) to predict Magness-Taylor (MT) firmness. Separate and combined use of these measures was evaluated and compared using partial least squares (PLS) and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) regression methods. Also, a mutual-information-based variable selection method, seeking to find the most significant variables to produce optimal accuracy of the regression models, was applied to a joint set of variables (NIR wavelengths and AWETA measure). The newly proposed combined NIR-AWETA model gave good values of the determination coefficient (R(2)) for PLS and LS-SVM methods (0.77 and 0.78, respectively), improving the reliability of MT firmness prediction in comparison with separate NIR and AWETA predictions. The three variables selected by the variable selection method (AWETA measure plus NIR wavelengths 675 and 697 nm) achieved R(2) values 0.76 and 0.77, PLS and LS-SVM. These results indicated that the proposed mutual-information-based variable selection algorithm was a powerful tool for the selection of the most relevant variables. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Reductions in flesh discolouration and internal morphological changes in Nanhui peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, cv. Nanhui) by electrolysed water and 1-methylcyclopropene treatment during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ran; Zhang, Guixiang; Hu, Yunsheng; Wu, Hui; Xie, Jing; Luo, Yudan

    2012-12-01

    The effects of electrolysed water (EW) and EW in combination with 1-methylcyclopropene (EW/MCP) on flesh discolouration of Nanhui peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, cv. Nanhui) were examined during storage at 2°C. Changes in flesh colour, ethylene production, membrane permeability, malondialdehyde (MDA), total phenolic contents and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) were assayed periodically after harvest and during 44days of storage. The internal morphological characteristics of Nanhui peaches were monitored using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the beginning and end of storage. These data revealed that the EW/MCP treatment is more effective than the EW treatment for decreasing ethylene production and maintaining fruit cell membrane integrity, delaying increases in MDA and total phenolic contents, and lessening changes in PPO and POD activities and the internal morphology of peaches. Each of these effects contributes to suppressing flesh discolouration and maintaining the quality of Nanhui peaches during storage. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improvement of Root System Architecture in Peach (Prunus persica) Seedlings by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, Related to Allocation of Glucose/Sucrose to Root

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Guo-Huai LI; Zou, Ying-Ning

    2011-01-01

    Root system architecture (RSA) is used to describe the spatial configuration of a root system in the soil, which substantially determines the capacity of a plant to take up nutrients and water. The present study was to assess if arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Glomus mosseae, G. versiforme, and Paraglomus occultum would alter RSA of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) seedlings, and the alteration due to mycorrhization was related to allocation of glucose/sucrose to root (Aglucose/sucrose). ...

  12. Reação de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e cultivares de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] ao nematóide anelado Mesocriconema xenoplax (Nemata: Criconematidae Reaction of mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and peach tree cultivars [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] to ring nematode Mesocriconema xenoplax (Nemata: Criconematidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a reação de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e cultivares de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] ao nematóide anelado Mesocriconema xenoplax (Raski Loof & de Grise, realizou-se o presente estudo em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Fitossanidade da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de cerâmica com 6 litros de capacidade, contendo uma mistura de solo e areia (1:1, v/v, previamente autoclavada a 121°C e 1kgf.cm-2 por 2 horas. Cada planta foi inoculada com 10mL de uma suspensão de 200 M. xenoplax por mL. Com os resultados obtidos, após 105 dias da inoculação, pode-se concluir que os Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e as cultivares Okinawa e Aurora-1 de pessegueiro são suscetíveis a M. xenoplax. A cultivar Aurora-1 apresentou maior Fator de Reprodução (93,06.With the objective of evaluating the reaction of mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and peach tree cultivars [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] to ring nematode Mesocriconema xenoplax (Raski Loof & de Grise, was conducted the present study at a greenhouse, belonging to the Phytosanity Department of Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. The plants were maintained in ceramic boxes with 6 liters of capacity, contends a soil-sand mixture (1:1, v/v, previously autoclaved at 121°C and 1kgf.cm-2 for 2 hours. Each plant was inoculated with a 10mL suspension of 200 M. xenoplax/mL. With the results, after 105 days of inoculation, was verified that mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 and 'Okinawa' and 'Aurora-1' peach tree cultivars are susceptible to M. xenoplax. The cultivar 'Aurora-1' presented larger reproduction factor (93,06.

  13. UTILIZACION DE ISOENZIMAS DE EXTRACTOS DE HOJAS EN LA CARACTERIZACION DE CULTIVARES DE DURAZNERO (Prunus persica (L Batsch THE USE OF ISOZYME LEAF EXTRACTS IN THE CHARACTERIZATION OF PEACH CULTIVARS (Prunus persica L Batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HECTOR ABEL ALTUBE

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available La caracterización de cultivares de duraznero (Prunus persica (L Batsch se hace por medio de la descripción de caracteres agronómicos y morfológicos codificados por organizaciones internacionales, los cuales están fuertemente influenciados por el ambiente. Se han buscado métodos alternativos de caracterización y las isoenzimas han sido utilizadas por su independencia de las condiciones del ambiente, además de identificar individuos en etapas tempranas de su desarrollo. El objetivo del presente estudio es caracterizar cultivares de duraznero mediante el análisis isoenzimático de catecol oxidasas, fosfatasas ácidas, esterazas y peroxidazos en extractos de hojas. Los cultivares de duraznero analizados presentaron bajo polimorfismo isoenzimático, las esterazas caracterizaron diez cultivares, las catecol oxidasas un cultivar agrupándose el resto en cinco modelos, las fosfatasas ácidas caracterizaron dos cultivares agrupándose los otros en siete modelos y las peroxidazos formaron tres grupos. Ello puede explicarse ya que el duraznero es una especie autofértil y presenta una base genética muy reducida. Los evidentes límites discriminatorios de este tipo de análisis hacen que su aporte sea sólo complementario a los métodos de los caracteres agronómicos y morfológicos.Characterization of peach cultivars (Prunus persica (L Batsh was made by description of agronomical and morphological characters codified from international organizations, which are strongly affected by environmental conditions. Alternative methods of characterization have been searched, and isoenzymes have been used as independent of environmental conditions in addition to identify some individuals in early stages of development. The goal of this study is the peach cultivars characterization by isoenzymatic analysis of catecol oxidases, acid phosphatases, esterases and peroxidases within the leaf extracts. The peach cultivars analyzed have showed low isoenzymatic

  14. Procyanidins in fruit from Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) differ strongly in chainlength from those in Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus) and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus), and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) fruits are widely used in Turkey, both as food and as traditional medicines. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacities of these three cherry types were compared. Fruit flesh was

  15. Variation Of Odour Profile Detected In The Floral Stages of Prunus Persica (L) Batsch Using An Electronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeria, Messina; Silvia, Radice; Rosa, Baby; de Reca Noemí, Walsöe

    2009-05-01

    Bees use signals from plants to identify worthwhile visits. They learn quickly to differentiate mainly their floral odor than their colour. In some species the flowers remain open, intact and turgid until they are pollinated (anthesis) after which they are no longer attractive to pollinators (post-anthesis). Pollinators use fragrance for distance orientation, approach, landing, feeding and associative learning. The aim of this work was to study the variation of odor profile between anthesis and post-anthesis produced in flowers of different cultivars of Prunus Persica (L.) batsch, using an electronic nose since odor is a communication between flowering plants and bees. Visual results on field showed that peach flowers are generally more visited in the anthesis stage. Among all the analysed cultivars, Forastero cultivar was the only one visited in this floral stage. Statistical analysis of the electronic nose data showed that doped semiconductuvtive SnO2 sensors could differentiate between stages (anthesis and post-anthesis) only in case of Forastero cultivar.

  16. Chemometric evaluation of trace metals in Prunus persica L. Batech and Malus domestica from Minićevo (Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagić, Slađana Č; Tošić, Snežana B; Dimitrijević, Mile D; Petrović, Jelena V; Medić, Dragana V

    2017-02-15

    The samples of spatial soils and different organs of Prunus persica L. Batech and Malus domestica were analyzed by methods such as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), One-way ANOVA, and calculation of biological accumulation factors (BAFs) with the aim of investigating whether these methods may help in the evaluation of trace metals in plants, as well as in the estimation of plant bioaccumulation potentials. ICP-OES provided accurate data on present concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, and Ni which showed that most concentrations were in normal ranges, except in some cases for Cu, Zn, and As. HCA illustrated nicely various specifics in the distribution of metals in both investigated systems plant-soil. One-way ANOVA pointed successfully on the existing statistical differences between metal concentrations. Calculated BAFs showed that both plants had very low accumulation rates for all elements; they acted as metal excluders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical characterization and thermal properties of kernel oils from Tunisian peach and nectarine varieties of Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chamli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was conducted to determine the fatty acids, triacylglycerol compositions and thermal properties of Tunisian kernel oils from the Prunus persica varieties, peach and nectarine, grown in two areas of Tunisia, Gabes and Morneg. Qualitatively, the fatty acids composition and triacylglycerol species were identical for all samples. Oleic acid (67.7-75.0% was the main fatty acid, followed by linoleic (15.7-22.1% and palmitic (5.6-6.3% acids. The major triacylglycerol species were triolein, OOO (38.4-50.5%, followed by OOL (18.2-23.2%, POO (8.3-9.7% and OLL (6.3-10.1%. The thermal profiles were highly influenced by the high content of triolein due to the importance of oleic acid in these oils. Moreover, the fatty acids distribution in TAG external positions was determined as corresponding to an α asymmetry coefficient that was between 0.10 and 0.12, indicating a high asymmetry in the distribution of saturated fatty acids in the position sn-1 and sn-3 in the TAG species of all samples.

  18. Improvement of physicochemical properties and phenolic compounds bioavailability by concentrating dietary fiber of peach (Prunus persica) juice by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Sarahí; Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Amaya-Llano, Silvia; Rodríguez-García, Mario E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2017-12-06

    This study aimed to concentrate dietary fiber (DF) from peach (Prunus persica) juice by-product (PJBP), to improve its functional properties, and its polyphenols bioavailability. The dietary fiber concentrates (DFC) were obtained from PJBP using water/ethanol treatments (100:0, 20:80, 50:50, 80:20, and 0:100, v/v) at 1:5 ratio (wet weight/solvent, w/v) for 5 and 20 min at 21 °C. All treatments concentrated condensed tannins, total and insoluble DF, founding the highest content with 100% H2O treatment. The major polyphenols of DFC were 4-O-caffeoylquinic, chlorogenic, and 1,5-Di-O-caffeoylquinic acids. Water and oil retention capacity and maximum glucose diffusion rate were improved mainly with 100% H2O treatment. Healthy rats were fed with standard diet supplemented with 8% of PJBP, DFC obtained with 100% H2O for 5 min, or DFC obtained with 20% EtOH for 5 min. Gastrointestinal digesta weight and viscosity were increased in animals supplemented with 100% H2O DFC. Moreover, the urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites, mainly glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, was increased with this treatment, indicating a greater bioavailability of PJBP polyphenols, which was associated with an increased dietary fiber porosity. Water treatment could be used to potentiate PJBP functional properties and polyphenols bioavailability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. DETERMINATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE AREA AND DRY WEIGHT OF THE LEAF LIMBO OF Prunus persica CV. Jarillo DETERMINACIÓN DE UN MODELO MATEMÁTICO PARA LA ESTIMACIÓN DEL ÁREA FOLIAR Y PESO SECO DEL LIMBO DE Prunus persica CV. Jarillo

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Quevedo García; Martha Esperanza Arévalo González; Giovanni Orlando Cancino Escalante

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. A study was conducted to determine the variables that estimated the leaf limbo area and the leaf limbo dry weight of peach Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cv. Jarillo. Fifty leaves, aged 2.5 months, were selected and measured: leaf limbo length and width, petiole length, leaf length, petiole diameter, leaf limbo fresh weight, petiole fresh weight, leaf fresh weight, leaf limbo dry weight, petiole dry weight, leaf dry weight, length/width limbo, petiole length/limbo length and leaf limbo ...

  20. Determination of a mathematical model to estimate the area and dry weight of the leaf limbo of prunus persica cv. jarillo / determinación de un modelo matemático para la estimación del área foliar y peso seco del limbo de prunus persica cv. jarillo

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo García, Enrique; Arévalo González, Martha Esperanza; Cancino Escalante, Giovanni Orlando

    2013-01-01

    study was conducted to determine the variables that estimated the leaf limbo area and the leaf limbo dry weight of peach Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cv. Jarillo. Fifty leaves, aged 2.5 months, were selected and measured: leaf limbo length and width, petiole length, leaf length, petiole diameter, leaf limbo fresh weight, petiole fresh weight, leaf fresh weight, leaf limbo dry weight, petiole dry weight, leaf dry weight, length/ width limbo, petiole length/limbo length and leaf limbo area. Th...

  1. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez; César Ibarra-Alvarado; Alejandra Rojas-Molina; Juana I. Rojas-Molina; Elhadi M. Yahia; Dulce M. Rivera-Pastrana; Adriana Rojas-Molina; Ángel Miguel Zavala-Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits po...

  2. Evaluación productiva, económica y social del agua de riego de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch) en Zacatecas (México)

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Ríos-Flores; Miriam Torres-Moreno; José Ruiz-Torres; Marco Antonio Torres-Moreno; Jesús Enrique Cantú-Brito

    2015-01-01

    La escasez de agua limita la agricultura, por lo que su uso debe ser más eficiente en la producción de alimentos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la productividad económica, física y social del agua del cultivo de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch), en la región del Distrito de Desarrollo Rural 183 —correspondiente a Fresnillo, Zacatecas— para el ciclo 2012; se desarrollaron modelos matemáticos para estimar la productividad y eficiencia del agua. En Zacatecas se cosecharon 817 ha d...

  3. Genome-wide identification of miRNAs responsive to drought in peach (Prunus persica) by high-throughput deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldem, Vahap; Çelikkol Akçay, Ufuk; Ozhuner, Esma; Bakır, Yakup; Uranbey, Serkan; Unver, Turgay

    2012-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica L.) is one of the most important worldwide fresh fruits. Since fruit growth largely depends on adequate water supply, drought stress is considered as the most important abiotic stress limiting fleshy fruit production and quality in peach. Plant responses to drought stress are regulated both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. As post-transcriptional gene regulators, miRNAs (miRNAs) are small (19-25 nucleotides in length), endogenous, non-coding RNAs. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are involved in plant responses to drought. Therefore, Illumina deep sequencing technology was used for genome-wide identification of miRNAs and their expression profile in response to drought in peach. In this study, four sRNA libraries were constructed from leaf control (LC), leaf stress (LS), root control (RC) and root stress (RS) samples. We identified a total of 531, 471, 535 and 487 known mature miRNAs in LC, LS, RC and RS libraries, respectively. The expression level of 262 (104 up-regulated, 158 down-regulated) of the 453 miRNAs changed significantly in leaf tissue, whereas 368 (221 up-regulated, 147 down-regulated) of the 465 miRNAs had expression levels that changed significantly in root tissue upon drought stress. Additionally, a total of 197, 221, 238 and 265 novel miRNA precursor candidates were identified from LC, LS, RC and RS libraries, respectively. Target transcripts (137 for LC, 133 for LS, 148 for RC and 153 for RS) generated significant Gene Ontology (GO) terms related to DNA binding and catalytic activities. Genome-wide miRNA expression analysis of peach by deep sequencing approach helped to expand our understanding of miRNA function in response to drought stress in peach and Rosaceae. A set of differentially expressed miRNAs could pave the way for developing new strategies to alleviate the adverse effects of drought stress on plant growth and development.

  4. Genome-wide identification of miRNAs responsive to drought in peach (Prunus persica by high-throughput deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahap Eldem

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is one of the most important worldwide fresh fruits. Since fruit growth largely depends on adequate water supply, drought stress is considered as the most important abiotic stress limiting fleshy fruit production and quality in peach. Plant responses to drought stress are regulated both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. As post-transcriptional gene regulators, miRNAs (miRNAs are small (19-25 nucleotides in length, endogenous, non-coding RNAs. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are involved in plant responses to drought. Therefore, Illumina deep sequencing technology was used for genome-wide identification of miRNAs and their expression profile in response to drought in peach. In this study, four sRNA libraries were constructed from leaf control (LC, leaf stress (LS, root control (RC and root stress (RS samples. We identified a total of 531, 471, 535 and 487 known mature miRNAs in LC, LS, RC and RS libraries, respectively. The expression level of 262 (104 up-regulated, 158 down-regulated of the 453 miRNAs changed significantly in leaf tissue, whereas 368 (221 up-regulated, 147 down-regulated of the 465 miRNAs had expression levels that changed significantly in root tissue upon drought stress. Additionally, a total of 197, 221, 238 and 265 novel miRNA precursor candidates were identified from LC, LS, RC and RS libraries, respectively. Target transcripts (137 for LC, 133 for LS, 148 for RC and 153 for RS generated significant Gene Ontology (GO terms related to DNA binding and catalytic activities. Genome-wide miRNA expression analysis of peach by deep sequencing approach helped to expand our understanding of miRNA function in response to drought stress in peach and Rosaceae. A set of differentially expressed miRNAs could pave the way for developing new strategies to alleviate the adverse effects of drought stress on plant growth and development.

  5. Carbohydrate-free peach (Prunus persica and plum (Prunus domestica juice affects fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana D Noratto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growing evidence shows the potential of nutritional interventions to treat obesity but most investigations have utilized non-digestible carbohydrates only. Peach and plum contain high amounts of polyphenols, compounds with demonstrated anti-obesity effects. The underlying process of successfully treating obesity using polyphenols may involve an alteration of the intestinal microbiota. However, this phenomenon is not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obese Zucker rats were assigned to three groups (peach, plum, and control, n = 10 each, wild-type group was named lean (n = 10. Carbohydrates in the fruit juices were eliminated using enzymatic hydrolysis. Fecal samples were obtained after 11 weeks of fruit or control juice administration. Real-time PCR and 454-pyrosequencing were used to evaluate changes in fecal microbiota. Over 1,500 different Operational Taxonomic Units at 97% similarity were detected in all rats. Several bacterial groups (e.g. Lactobacillus and members of Ruminococcacea were found to be more abundant in the peach but especially in the plum group (plum juice contained 3 times more total polyphenolics compared to peach juice. Principal coordinate analysis based on Unifrac-based unweighted distance matrices revealed a distinct separation between the microbiota of control and treatment groups. These changes in fecal microbiota occurred simultaneously with differences in fecal short-chain acids concentrations between the control and treatment groups as well as a significant decrease in body weight in the plum group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that consumption of carbohydrate-free peach and plum juice has the potential to modify fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model. The separate contribution of polyphenols and non-polyphenols compounds (vitamins and minerals to the observed changes is unknown.

  6. Differences in cold hardiness, carbohydrates, dehydrins and related gene expressions under an experimental deacclimation and reacclimation in Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunsuk; Oh, Youngjae; Kim, Daeil

    2015-08-01

    To boost our understanding of a recent outbreak of freezing injury, we sought to confirm distinctive features between the shoot tissues of the peach (Prunus persica) cultivars Daewol and Kiraranokiwami by mimicking unseasonable changes of temperatures that occur in the early spring through repeated deacclimation and reacclimation treatments. Patterns of cold hardiness declined dramatically during the deacclimation and rose during the reacclimation in both cultivars. Our results indicated that 'Daewol' possessed higher capacity in response to repeated deacclimation and reacclimation treatments than 'Kiraranokiwami'. 'Daewol' showed more sensitive changes in the carbohydrates in response to warm and low temperatures compared with 'Kiraranokiwami'. 'Daewol' indicated almost similar repeated down- and up-patterns in soluble sugar content in response to repeated deacclimation and reacclimation, whereas it indicated repeated up- and down-patterns in starch content. However, 'Kiraranokiwami' showed a progressive increase in the soluble sugar content and a progressive decrease in starch content. Notably, patterns of accumulation of a 60-kDa dehydrin protein encoded by the PpDhn1 gene were confirmed through western blotting and paralleled fluctuations of cold hardiness in both cultivars. Expression of this dehydrin was weak in both cultivars during deacclimation but its band intensity increased during reacclimation. Changes in related genes (β-amylase, PpDhn1, PpDhn2 and PpDhn3) were positively correlated with changes in cold hardiness throughout the experiment. Our results indicate that recent repeated warm periods may cause premature deacclimation in the early spring, and that more cold-tolerant cultivar may be more resilient to freezing injury caused by unstable temperature conditions. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  7. Protective Effect of White-fleshed Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) on Chronic Nicotine-induced Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Chung, Won-Yoon; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Ki-Rim

    2017-03-01

    Nicotine is a major toxic component of tobacco smoke and has been recognized as a risk factor to induce oxidative tissue damage, which is a precursor to cardiovascular diseases, lung-related diseases, and cancers. Peaches (Prunus persica) have been used for the treatment of degenerative disorders, such as hypermenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and infertility in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of white-fleshed peach on the excretion of nicotine metabolites and 1-hydroxypyrene in smokers and chronic nicotine-induced tissue damages in mice. The concentrations of cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene were measured in urine of smokers before or after intake of white-fleshed peaches. In addition, ICR mice were injected with nicotine (5 mg/kg body weight) and then orally administered with white-fleshed peach extracts (WFPE) (250 or 500 mg/kg body weight) for 36 days. The oxidative stress parameters and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in liver and kidney tissues. Also, histological changes and nitrotyrosine expression were assessed. Intake of white-fleshed peaches increased the urinary concentration of nicotine metabolites and 1-hydroxypyrene in 91.67% and 83.33% of smokers, respectively. WFPE decreased the malondialdehyde levels and recovered the activities of antioxidant enzymes in nicotine-injected mice. In addition, WFPE inhibited nitrotyrosine expression and inflammatory responses in the liver, kidney, and lung tissues of nicotine-treated mice. White-fleshed peaches may increase the metabolism of toxic components in tobacco smoke in smokers and protect normal tissues against nicotine toxicity in mice. Therefore, supplementation of white-fleshed peaches might be beneficial to smokers.

  8. Evaluation of Antioxidant Compounds and Total Sugar Content in a Nectarine [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] Progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Gogorcena

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of fruit rich in phenolic compounds is associated with health-protective effects due to their antioxidant properties. For these reasons quality evaluation has become an important issue in fruit industry and in breeding programs. Phytochemical traits such as total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, L-ascorbic acid, sugar content and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC were analyzed over four years in flesh fruit of an F1 population “Venus” × “Big Top” nectarines. Other traits such as harvesting date, yield, fruit weight, firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC, pH, titratable acidity (TA and ripening index (RI were also determined in the progeny. Results showed high variability among genotypes for all analyzed traits. Total phenolics and flavonoids showed significant positive correlations with RAC implying that both are important antioxidant bioactive compounds in peaches. We found genotypes with enhanced antioxidant capacity and a better performance than progenitors, and in consequence the best marketability.

  9. Evaluation of antioxidant compounds and total sugar content in a nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Walid; Jiménez, Sergio; Moreno, María Ángeles; Gogorcena, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of fruit rich in phenolic compounds is associated with health-protective effects due to their antioxidant properties. For these reasons quality evaluation has become an important issue in fruit industry and in breeding programs. Phytochemical traits such as total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, L-ascorbic acid, sugar content and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC) were analyzed over four years in flesh fruit of an F1 population "Venus" × "Big Top" nectarines. Other traits such as harvesting date, yield, fruit weight, firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC), pH, titratable acidity (TA) and ripening index (RI) were also determined in the progeny. Results showed high variability among genotypes for all analyzed traits. Total phenolics and flavonoids showed significant positive correlations with RAC implying that both are important antioxidant bioactive compounds in peaches. We found genotypes with enhanced antioxidant capacity and a better performance than progenitors, and in consequence the best marketability.

  10. Flutuação populacional e previsão de gerações de Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em pessegueiro, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch = Populational fluctuation and generation prediction of Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in peach, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A mariposa-oriental, Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916, encontra-se distribuída em quase todas as partes do mundo, constituindo importante praga do pessegueiro, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch. Este estudo foi desenvolvido em pomar comercial de pessegueiro localizado em Taiúva, São Paulo, durante os anos 1997 a 2003, visando obter a flutuação populacional de adultos de G. molesta relacionando-a com fatores meteorológicos. O estudo também visou determinar uma data biofix adequada para prever a ocorrência de gerações da praga por meio de um modelo de graus-dia. A amostragem da mariposa-oriental e de insetos predadores foi efetuada com armadilha plástica com suco de pêssego e armadilha adesiva amarela, respectivamente. A influência de fatores físicos e biológicos foi avaliada por análise de correlação linear simples. Os maiores picos populacionais de G. molesta ocorreram nos meses de maio, julho e outubro. As correlações obtidas sugerem que a baixa umidade ambiental pode ter sido fator de mortalidade para G. molesta. O elevado número de pulverizações de inseticida pode ter causado impacto negativo sobre inimigos naturais contribuindo para a elevada densidade do inseto-praga no período de 1998 a 1999. A data de constatação dapresença de gemas vegetativas e de flor diferenciadas no pessegueiro mostrou-se adequada para se iniciar a contagem de graus-dia para prever gerações de G. molesta. Esses resultados devem ajudar aimplementação de programas para prever picos populacionais de adultos de G. molesta visando à aplicação de inseticidas. Recomenda-se a validação do modelo de graus-dia em outras localidades para comprovar os resultados obtidos.The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916, is spread around the world and is considered an important pest on peach, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch. This work was carried out at a commercial peach orchard located in Taiúva, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1997 to

  11. Two Types of New Natural Materials for Fruit Vinegar in Prunus Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica and P. domestica × P. armeniaca added value; three natural fruit vinegars were designed. The results showed the nutrition of Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca cultivar Fengweimeigui vinegar (T1 had high minerals and microelements, especially the Ca and Mg reached to the 150.00mg/L, 85.40 mg/L, respectively; the vinegar of Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica cultivar Zhongren No.1 (T2 not only have rich Na (2800.00 mg/L, P (123.00 mg/L, but also have plentiful amino acid that content reached to 200.08 mg/L. However, the mixture vinegar (T3 with pulps from Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca and Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica had the middle nutrient contents, but the property was balanced. We therefore conclude that solid fermentation is a suitable method to preserve nutrients and value-added for Prunus plants fruit, and three types vinegars are suitable for different age people, and the difference nutrient contents and typical characteristic indicate that three vinegars are competitive products in market.

  12. Mites fluctuation population on peach tree (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and in associated plants Flutuação populacional de ácaros na cultura do pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch e em plantas associadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosana Eichelberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch in Rio Grande do Sul, little is known about mites fluctuation population considered important to this crop. The objective of this study was to know the population diversity and fluctuation of mite species associated with Premier and Eldorado varieties in Roca Sales and Venâncio Aires counties, Rio Grande do Sul. The study was conducted from July 2008 to June 2009 when 15 plants were randomly chosen in each area. The plants were divided in quadrants and from each one a branch was chosen from which three leaves were removed: one collected in the apical region, another in the medium and the other in the basal region, totalizing 180 leaves/area. Five of the most abundant associated plants were collected monthly in enough amounts for the screening under the stereoscopic microscope during an hour. A total of 1,124 mites were found belonging to 14 families and 28 species. Tetranychus ludeni Zacher, 1913, Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836 and Mononychellus planki (McGregor, 1950 were the most abundant phytophagous mites, whereas Typhlodromalus aripo Deleon, 1967 and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 the most common predatory mites. The period of one hour under stereoscopic microscope was enough to get a representative sample. In both places evaluated the ecologic indices were low, but little higherin Premier (H' 0.56; EqJ: 0.43 when compared to Eldorado (H' 0.53; EqJ 0.40. In Premier constant species were not observed and accessory only Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939, T. ludeni and T. aripo. Higher abundance was observed in December and January and bigger amount in April. Already in Eldorado, T. ludeni and P. ulmi were constants. Greater abundance was observed in November and December, whereas grater richness in December and January. In both orchards were not found mites in buds. Tetranychus ludeni is the most abundant phytophagous mites with outbreak population in November, December and

  13. Response of early-peach [Prunus persica (L.)] trees to deficit irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrisqueta, I.; Tapia, L. M.; Conejero, W.; Sanchez-Toribio, M. I.; Abrisqueta, J. M.; Vera, J.; Ruiz-Sanchez, C.

    2010-07-01

    The effect of different irrigation strategies in water relations, vegetative growth and yield of early maturing peach trees, growing in Murcia, (Spain) was studied during two years. Treatments consisted on: a control T1, full irrigated (150% of ETc); T2, continuous deficit irrigation at 50% of ETc; T3, regulated deficit irrigation (RDI), irrigated at 100% of ETc only during stage III of fruit growth and 25% the rest of the growing season; and T4, with automatic control of irrigation based on capacitance FDR-type probe data, varying threshold values. The results indicated that irrigation deficits in T2 and T3 treatments induced the lowest soil water content and stem water potential(?stem) values during the post harvest period (e.g {psi}{sub s}tem up to -1.8 MPa in T3 during summer 2008); thus, a reduction in trunk growth and pruning weight, respect to control treatment values, was noted in both years. Also, peach yield was significantly reduced in both deficit irrigated treatments. The greatest irrigation water saving in T3 treatment (=60%) caused the higher water use efficiency values in this treatment. For these reasons, water deficit during the post harvest periods (extended in the early maturing varieties) must be limited if fruit yield is not to be reduced. Irrigation scheduling based on capacitance probes have become a useful tool in the control of soil water content. When threshold values were precisely defined, the slight water deficits limited only vegetative growth while maintaining similar peach yield to that of well irrigated trees. (Author) 31 refs.

  14. Carbohydrate metabolism changes in Prunus persica gummosis infected with Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Gao, L; Wang, Y T; Zhu, W; Ye, J L; Li, G H

    2014-05-01

    Peach gummosis represents a significant global disease of stone fruit trees and a major disease in the south peach production area of the Yangtze River of China. In this study, the carbohydrate composition of peach shoots during infection by Lasiodiplodia theobromae was examined. The expression of genes related to metabolic enzymes was also investigated. Control wounded and noninoculated tissue, lesion tissue, and wounded and inoculated surrounding lesion tissue of peach shoots were analyzed. Soluble sugars, glucose, mannose, arabinose, and xylose significantly increased in inoculated tissues of peach shoots compared with control tissues at different times after inoculation. Accumulation of polysaccharides was also observed by section observation and periodic acid Schiff's reagent staining during infection. Analysis using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that the abundance of key transcripts on the synthesis pathway of uridine diphosphate (UDP)-D-glucuronate, UDP-D-galactose, and UDP-D-arabinose increased but the synthesis of L-galactose and guanosine diphosphate-L-galactose were inhibited. After inoculation, the transcript levels of sugar transport-related genes (namely, SUT, SOT, GMT, and UGT) was induced. These changes in sugar content and gene expression were directly associated with peach gum polysaccharide formation and may be responsible for the symptoms of peach gummosis.

  15. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF superfamily in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C H; Shangguan, L F; Ma, R J; Sun, X; Tao, R; Guo, L; Korir, N K; Yu, M L

    2012-10-17

    We identified 131 AP2/ERF (APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor) genes in material from peach using the gene sequences of AP2/ERF amino acids of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) as probes. Based on the number of AP2/ERF domains and individual gene characteristics, the AP2/ERF superfamily gene in peach can be classified broadly into three families, ERF (ethylene-responsive factor), RAV (related to ABI3/VP1), and AP2 (APETALA2), containing 104, 5, and 21 members, respectively, along with a solo gene (ppa005376m). The 104 genes in the ERF family were further divided into 11 groups based on the group classification made for Arabidopsis. The scaffold localizations of the AP2/ERF genes indicated that 129 AP2/ERF genes were all located on scaffolds 1 to 8, except for two genes, which were on scaffolds 17 and 10. Although the primary structure varied among AP2/ERF superfamily proteins, their tertiary structures were similar. Most ERF family genes have no introns, while members of the AP2 family have more introns than genes in the ERF and RAV families. All sequences of AP2 family genes were disrupted by introns into several segments of varying sizes. The expression of the AP2/ERF superfamily genes was highest in the mesocarp; it was far higher than in the other seven tissues that we examined, implying that AP2/ERF superfamily genes play an important role in fruit growth and development in the peach. These results will be useful for selecting candidate genes from specific subgroups for functional analysis.

  16. Analysis of basic leucine zipper genes and their expression during bud dormancy in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming-Yue; Fu, Xi-Ling; Tan, Qiu-Ping; Liu, Li; Chen, Min; Zhu, Cui-Ying; Li, Ling; Chen, Xiu-De; Gao, Dong-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Dormancy is a biological characteristic developed to resist the cold conditions in winter. The bZIP transcription factors are present exclusively in eukaryotes and have been identified and classified in many species. bZIP proteins are known to regulate numerous biological processes, however, the role of bZIP in bud dodormancy has not been studied extensively. In total, 50 PpbZIP transcription factor-encoding genes were identified and categorized them into 10 groups (A-I and S). Similar intron/exon structures, additional conserved motifs, and DNA-binding site specificity supported our classification scheme. Additionally, chromosomal distribution and collinearity analyses suggested that expansion of the PpbZIP transcription factor family was due to segment/chromosomal duplications. We also predicted the dimerization properties based on characteristic features of the leucine zipper and classified PpbZIP proteins into 23 subfamilies. Furthermore, qRT-PCR results indicated that PpbZIPs genes may be involved in regulating dormancy. The same gene of different species might participate in different regulating networks through interactions with specific partners. Our expression profiling results complemented the microarray data, suggesting that co-expression patterns of bZIP transcription factors during dormancy differed among deciduous fruit trees. Our findings further clarify the molecular characteristics of the PpbZIP transcription factor family, including potential gene functions during dormancy. This information may facilitate further research on the evolutionary history and biological functions of bZIP proteins in peach and other rosaceae plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. A genome-wide analysis of MADS-box genes in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Christina E; Vendramin, Elisa; Jimenez Tarodo, Sergio; Verde, Ignazio; Bielenberg, Douglas G

    2015-02-07

    MADS-box genes encode a family of eukaryotic transcription factors distinguished by the presence of a highly-conserved ~58 amino acid DNA-binding and dimerization domain (the MADS-box). The central role played by MADS-box genes in peach endodormancy regulation led us to examine this large gene family in more detail. We identified the locations and sequences of 79 MADS-box genes in peach, separated them into established subfamilies, and broadly surveyed their tissue-specific and dormancy-induced expression patterns using next-generation sequencing. We then focused on the dormancy-related SVP/AGL24 and FLC subfamilies, comparing their numbers and phylogenetic relationships with those of other sequenced woody perennial genomes. We identified 79 MADS-box genes distributed across all eight peach chromosomes and frequently located in clusters of two or more genes. They encode proteins with a mean length of 248 ± 72 amino acids and include representatives from most of the thirteen Type II (MIKC) subfamilies, as well as members of the Type I Mα, Mβ, and Mγ subfamilies. Most Type I genes were present in species-specific monophyletic lineages, and their expression in the peach sporophyte was low or absent. Most Type II genes had Arabidopsis orthologs and were expressed at much higher levels throughout vegetative and fruit tissues. During short-day-induced growth cessation, seven Type II genes from the SVP/AGL24, AGL17, and SEP subfamilies showed significant changes in expression. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that multiple, independent expansions have taken place within the SVP/AGL24 and FLC lineages in woody perennial species. Most Type I genes appear to have arisen through tandem duplications after the divergence of the Arabidopsis and peach lineages, whereas Type II genes appear to have increased following whole genome duplication events. An exception to the latter rule occurs in the FLC and SVP/AGL24 Type II subfamilies, in which species-specific tandem

  18. Modelling of Peach Tree (Prunus persica) Full Blooming Dates Using APCC MME Seasonal Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jong; Kim, Sung; Lee, Hyojin; Han, Hyun-Hee; Son, In-Chang; Cho, Kyung Hwa

    2016-04-01

    Due to global warming, recently, bud-burst and flowering dates of fruit crops have become earlier and the abnormal climate increases the variabilities of temperature in spring, suggesting that the risk of frost damage has increased. However, the full blooming date prediction model for peach tree used by the Rural Developmental Administration (RDA) were developed using only one cultivar (Youmyeong) and observations from a station (Suwon). This model might not adequately reflect the characteristics of peach cultivars or local orchards. the objectives of this study were to develops the site-and cultivar-specific blooming date prediction models for major peach cultivation regions and cultivars and presents a framework for applications of the APEC Climate Center Multimodel Ensemble (APCC MME) seasonal datasets.Developmental rate (DVR), and Sequential dormancy models (Chill day, New chill day, and fraction-time models) were used to develop the locally tailored full blooming date prediction models for major peach cultivars. For the development of these models, bud-burst and full blooming dates of peach tree for 5 cultivars (Cheonhong, Youmyeong, Changbangjosaeng, Cheonjoongdo, and Janghowon) were collected from the 6 major peach cultivation sites: Chuncheon, Suwon, Cheongwon, Cheongdo, Naju, and Jinju. For the chill day model, those measures for the entire dataset regardless the location and cultivar were 2.31%, 0.79, and 3.36 day for MAPE, R2, RMSE, respectively. For the new chill day model, those values (2.19%, 0.82, and 3.16 day for MAPE, R2, RMSE, respectively) were slightly better than those of the chill day model. The model results showed that the new chill day model was found slightly highest performance than others. Based on the considerations of the predictability of the statistical downscaling method and the observed periods of the full blooming dates at each site, we determined that the APCC MME seasonal datasets were applied for the new chill day model for the

  19. Evidence of differences between the communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing galls and roots of Prunus persica infected by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Lozano, Zenaida; Roldán, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play important roles as plant protection agents, reducing or suppressing nematode colonization. However, it has never been investigated whether the galls produced in roots by nematode infection are colonized by AMF. This study tested whether galls produced by Meloidogyne incognita infection in Prunus persica roots are colonized by AMF. We also determined the changes in AMF composition and biodiversity mediated by infection with this root-knot nematode. DNA from galls and roots of plants infected by M. incognita and from roots of noninfected plants was extracted, amplified, cloned, and sequenced using AMF-specific primers. Phylogenetic analysis using the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) data set revealed 22 different AMF sequence types (17 Glomus sequence types, 3 Paraglomus sequence types, 1 Scutellospora sequence type, and 1 Acaulospora sequence type). The highest AMF diversity was found in uninfected roots, followed by infected roots and galls. This study indicates that the galls produced in P. persica roots due to infection with M. incognita were colonized extensively by a community of AMF, belonging to the families Paraglomeraceae and Glomeraceae, that was different from the community detected in roots. Although the function of the AMF in the galls is still unknown, we hypothesize that they act as protection agents against opportunistic pathogens.

  20. Perspectives of breeding fungal diseases resistant cultivars of nectarine (Prunus persica (L. Batsch. subsp. nectarina (Ait. Shof.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є. П. Шоферістов

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There are allocated some forms of distant hybrids with weak degree of fungal diseases lesion (Taphrina deformans (Berk. Tul., Sphaerotheca pannosa (Lev. var. persicae Woron., Clasterosporium carpophilum Aderh., Monilia cinerea Bonord. и Monilia fructigena Fr. that are of practical interest for breeding such cultivars of peach and nectarine that will resist these pathogens.

  1. Current-year and Subsequent-year Effects of Crop-load Manipulation and Epicormic-shoot Removal on Distribution of Long, Short and Epicormic Shoot Growth in Prunus persica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, D.; Dejong, T. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The distribution of canopy growth among different shoot types such as epicormic, long and short shoots is not well understood in the peach tree. In this experiment, the effects of crop load and early epicormic sprout removal on current and subsequent-year distribution of vegetative growth among epicormic, long and short shoots was investigated in Prunus persica. Methods Field trials were conducted in Winters, California, in 2003–2004. Crop load was manipulated with fruit thinning in 2003 to produce trees that were de-fruited, commercially thinned or full crop, and half of the trees in each cropping treatment had all current year epicormic sprouts removed at the time of fruit thinning. Yield was recorded and trunk and root carbohydrates were sampled to confirm the effect of 2003 crop load differences on tissue carbohydrate concentration. All current-season vegetative-shoot extension growth was harvested from half of the trees in each treatment in the autumn of 2003 and from the other half in the autumn of 2004. Epicormic, long and short shoots were separately evaluated for dry weight, node number and leaf-stem parameters. Key Results In 2003, long-shoot dry weight and node number were significantly affected by crop load; however, short-shoot dry weight and node number were not significantly affected. The 2003 crop-load treatments did not affect 2004 vegetative growth of any shoot type. Some re-growth of epicormic shoots followed early epicormic sprout removal: by the end of the 2003 season, trees in the early shoot-removal treatment had approximately one-third of the epicormic-shoot dry weight as unpruned trees. Conclusions Fruit thinning promoted distribution of growth similar to that of de-fruited trees. While thinning was effective in increasing fruit size, it exacerbated the problem of epicormic sprouting. Early epicormic sprout removal did not stimulate the excessive epicormic re-growth in the same or subsequent year relative to previously

  2. Effects of iron chlorosis and iron resupply on leaf xylem architecture, water relations, gas exchange and stomatal performance of field-grown peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichert, Thomas; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Heredia, Antonio; Fernández, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that iron (Fe) deficiency induces not only leaf chlorosis and a decline of photosynthesis, but also structural changes in leaf morphology, which might affect the functionality of leaves. In this study, we investigated the effects of Fe deficiency on the water relations of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.) leaves and the responses of previously chlorotic leaves to Fe resupply via the root or the leaf. Iron deficiency induced a decline of maximum potential photosystem II (PSII) efficiency (F(V)/F(M)), of rates of net photosynthesis and transpiration and of water use efficiency. Iron chlorosis was associated with a reduction of leaf xylem vessel size and of leaf hydraulic conductance. In the course of the day, water potentials in chlorotic leaves remained higher (less negative) than in green leaves. In chlorotic leaves, normal stomatal functioning was disturbed, as evidenced by the lack of opening upon withdrawal of external CO(2) and stomatal closure after sudden illumination of previously darkened leaves. We conclude that the Fe deficiency induced limitations of xylem conductivity elicited a water saving strategy, which poses an additional challenge to plant growth on high pH, calcareous soils. Fertilisation with Fe improved photosynthetic performance but the proper xylem structure and water relations of leaves were not fully restored, indicating that Fe must be available at the first stages of leaf growth and development.

  3. Identification of miRNAs and their target genes in peach (Prunus persica L.) using high-throughput sequencing and degradome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoyan; Gao, Zhihong; Shi, Ting; Cheng, Zongming; Zhang, Zhen; Ni, Zhaojun

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs play critical roles in various biological and metabolic processes. The function of miRNAs has been widely studied in model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. However, the number of identified miRNAs and related miRNA targets in peach (Prunus persica) is limited. To understand further the relationship between miRNAs and their target genes during tissue development in peach, a small RNA library and three degradome libraries were constructed from three tissues for deep sequencing. We identified 117 conserved miRNAs and 186 novel miRNA candidates in peach by deep sequencing and 19 conserved miRNAs and 13 novel miRNAs were further evaluated for their expression by RT-qPCR. The number of gene targets that were identified for 26 conserved miRNA families and 38 novel miRNA candidates, were 172 and 87, respectively. Some of the identified miRNA targets were abundantly represented as conserved miRNA targets in plant. However, some of them were first identified and showed important roles in peach development. Our study provides information concerning the regulatory network of miRNAs in peach and advances our understanding of miRNA functions during tissue development.

  4. Dormancy-associated MADS genes from the EVG locus of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] have distinct seasonal and photoperiodic expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Reighard, Gregory Lynn; Abbott, Albert Glenn; Bielenberg, Douglas Gary

    2009-01-01

    Mapping and sequencing of the non-dormant evg mutant in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] identified six tandem-arrayed DAM (dormancy-associated MADS-box) genes as candidates for regulating growth cessation and terminal bud formation. To narrow the list of candidate genes, an attempt was made to associate bud phenology with the seasonal and environmental patterns of expression of the candidates in wild-type trees. The expression of the six peach DAM genes at the EVG locus of peach was characterized throughout an annual growing cycle in the field, and under controlled conditions in response to a long day-short day photoperiod transition. DAM1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 were responsive to a reduction in photoperiod in controlled conditions and the direction of response correlated with the seasonal timing of expression in field-grown trees. DAM3 did not respond to photoperiod and may be regulated by chilling temperatures. The DAM genes in peach appear to have at least four distinct patterns of expression. DAM1, 2, and 4 are temporally associated with seasonal elongation cessation and bud formation and are the most likely candidates for control of the evg phenotype.

  5. Nutraceutical value of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits: antioxidant and antihypertensive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vázquez, Francisco J; Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rojas-Molina, Juana I; Yahia, Elhadi M; Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Rojas-Molina, Adriana; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2013-11-25

    In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Antioxidant Activities, Metabolic Profiling, Proximate Analysis, Mineral Nutrient Composition of Salvadora persica Fruit Unravel a Potential Functional Food and a Natural Source of Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Asha; Parida, Asish K; Rangani, Jaykumar; Panda, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Salvadora persica is a medicinally important plant mainly used in oral hygiene. However, little attention has been given towards the nutritional prominence of this plant. This study encloses the proximate and mineral nutrient contents, amino acid composition, metabolite profiling and antioxidant potential of S. persica fruit. The ripen fruit contained substantial amount of sugars, mineral nutrients, carotenoids, polyphenols and flavonoids. The metabolic profiling of the fruit extract by GC-MS revealed a total of 22 metabolites comprising of sugars, sugar alcohols, organic acids, organic base, and aromatic silica compound. The identified metabolites have been previously reported to have potential antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-hyperglycemic, and antitumor properties. The GC-MS analysis indicated high glucose and glucopyranose (247.62 and 42.90 mg g(-1) FW respectively) contents in fruit of S. persica. The fruit extract demonstrated a significantly higher antioxidant and ROS scavenging properties along with high contents of mineral nutrients and essential amino acids. HPLC analysis revealed presence of essential and non-essential amino acid required for healthy body metabolism. The cysteine was found to be in highest amount (733.69 mg 100 g(-1) DW) among all amino acids quantified. Specifically, compared to similar medicinal plants, previously reported as a source of non-conventional food and with some of the commercially important fruits, S. persica fruit appears to be a potential source of essential mineral nutrients, amino acids, vitamins (ascorbic acid and carotenoid) and pharmaceutically important metabolites contributing towards fulfilling the recommended daily requirement of these for a healthy human being. This is the first report establishing importance of S. persica fruit as nutraceuticals. The data presented here proposed that fruit of S. persica may be used as functional food or reinvigorating ingredient for processed food to reduce deficiency of

  8. Expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, by low temperature and dormancy-breaking reagent treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Yamane, Hisayo; Ooka, Tomomi; Jotatsu, Hiroaki; Hosaka, Yukari; Sasaki, Ryuta; Tao, Ryutaro

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, two of the six peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, in relation to lateral bud endodormancy. PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 were originally identified as homologues of Arabidopsis SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE/AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 identified in the EVERGROWING locus of peach. Furthermore, PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 have recently been suggested to be involved in terminal bud dormancy. In this study, seasonal expression analys...

  9. Fibra dietaria de durazno (Prunus persica L.): influencia de la técnica de obtención en las propiedades químicas, físicas y funcionales

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto Calvache, Jhon Edinson

    2013-01-01

    Se estudió la optimización de las condiciones de proceso en relación a la obtención de fracciones enriquecidas en fibra dietaria a partir de residuos de duraznos (Prunus persica L.). Se evaluó la influencia de la relación etanol/muestra durante la extracción de la fibra y de la temperatura de secado con microondas, sobre las propiedades funcionales evaluadas: capacidad de atrapamiento de agua, de retención de agua, de hinchamiento, porcentaje de retención de agua, capacidad de absorción de ac...

  10. Changes of quality in the fruits of Prunus mume during deacidification by fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Zhang, Yousheng; Chen, Weidong

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of quality attributes of Prunus mume fruits during deacidification using the fermentation of Lactobacillus fermentium. Results of HPLC analysis showed that the sucrose and glucose were dominant sugars, and citric acid was dominant organic acids in P. mume fruits. The level of citric acid reaches 39.3 g/kg, and yet the sucrose and glucose content in the P. mume fruits was very lower, which were 2.16 and 0.66 g/L, respectively. After 8 d of fermentation, sugar and citric acid in the P. mume fruits was completely consumed, and the total phenolics, antioxidant activity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity value), and sarcocarp firmness retained 64.4%, 70.0%, 62.6%, respectively. Also, the viability counts of L. fermentium in fermentation broth increased slowly, which were near 8.0 lg CFU/mL after 8 d of fermentation at 30 °C. Overall, fermentation with L. fermentium can be applied in deacidification of P. mume fruits, and also the fermented P. mume fruits can meet the standard to be further processed into prune or sauces, and the fermentation broth of P. mume fruits with L. fermentium have a good prospect in the development of probiotic beverage. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Differential responses of peach (Prunus persica) seedlings to elevated ozone are related with leaf mass per area, antioxidant enzymes activity rather than stomatal conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lulu; Li, Pin; Shang, Bo; Liu, Shuo; Yang, Aizhen; Wang, Younian; Feng, Zhaozhong

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the ozone (O3) sensitivity among peach tree (Prunus persica) cultivars widely planted in Beijing region and explore the possible eco-physiological response mechanisms, thirteen cultivars of peach seedlings were exposed to either charcoal-filtered air or elevated O3 (E-O3, non-filtered ambient air plus 60 ppb) for one growing season in open-top chambers. Leaf structure, stomatal structure, gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidation were measured in three replicated chambers. Results showed that E-O3 significantly reduced abaxial epidemis thickness, but no effects on the thicknesses of adaxial epidemis, palisade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma. Stomatal area, density and conductance were not significantly affected by E-O3. E-O3 significantly accelerated leaf senescence, as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation and more declines in light-saturated photosynthetic rate and pigments contents. The reduced ascorbate content (ASC) was decreased but antioxidant enzyme activity (CAT, APX and SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were significantly increased by E-O3 among cultivars. The cultivars with visible symptoms also had more reductions in net photosynthetic rate than those without visible symptoms. Ozone sensitivity among cultivars was strongly linked to leaf mass per area (LMA), antioxidant enzymes activity e.g. SOD, APX rather than stomatal parameters (stomatal area, density and conductance) and ASC. Results could provide a theoretical basis for selecting and breeding the ozone-resistant cultivars of peach trees grown in high O3-polluted regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dormancy in Peach (Prunus persica L.) Flower Buds : I. Floral Morphogenesis and Endogenous Gibberellins at the End of the Dormancy Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, V; Lorenzo, E; Reinoso, H; Tordable, M C; Abdala, G; Pharis, R P; Bottini, R

    1990-05-01

    Flower buds of peach (Prunus persica L.) trees, cv Novedad de Cordoba (Argentina), were collected near the end of the dormant period and immediately before anthesis. After removal of scale leaves, morphological observations of representative buds, made on transverse and longitudinal microtome sections, showed that all verticils making up the flower are present in an undifferentiated form during the dormant period (June). Flower buds collected at the end of dormant period (August) showed additional growth and differentiation, at which time formation of two ovules was beginning in the unicarpelar gynoecium. Dehiscence of anthers had not yet occurred 10 days before full bloom, and the ovules were still developing. Free endogenous gibberellin (GA)-like substances were quantified by bioassay (Tan-ginbozu dwarf rice microdrop) after SiO(2) partition column chromatography, reversed phase C18-high performance liquid chromatography, and finally Nucleosil [N(CH(3))(2)]high performance liquid chromatography. Bioactive fractions were then subjected to capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM). Gibberellins A(1), A(3), and A(8) were tentatively identified in peach flower buds using GC-SIM and Kovat's retention indices, and relative amounts approximated by GC-SIM (2:8:6 for GA(1), GA(3), and GA(8), respectively). The highest concentration (330 nanograms per gram dry weight) of free GA(1)/GA(3) was found in dormant buds (June) and diminished thereafter. The concentration free of GA(1)/GA(3) did not increase immediately prior to bud break. However, high GA(1)/GA(3) concentrations occurred during stages where rate of growth and cellular differentiation of (mainly fertile) verticils can be influenced.

  13. Elaboración de néctar de durazno (Prunus persica L., endulzado con sucralosa como aprovechamiento de pérdidas poscosecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Alberto Pinto Medina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el durazno (Prunus persica L, así como en la mayoría de los frutos climatéricos, la calidad y el tiempo de vida útil comercial son afectados por los inadecuados manejos durante la cosecha, transporte y empaque, evidenciados por una serie de daños y defectos que el consumidor rechaza a la hora de adquirir el producto en fresco y que representan cuantiosas pérdidas al final del proceso de mercadeo, esta investigación se basó principalmente en el aprovechamiento de las pérdidas en durazno en el eslabón de la poscosecha, agroindustrializando la materia prima; se realizaron pruebas sensoriales para determinar la variedad más aceptada de tres probadas: Rubidoux, Dorado y Rubidoux-Dorado, no se evidenciaron diferencias significativas entre las muestras. Para darle valor agregado al producto, se fabricó néctar de la variedad Rubidoux endulzado con sucralosa, se realizaron análisis fisicoquímicos, microbiológicos y bromatológicos siguiendo la normatividad vigente. Se encontró que la sucralosa contribuyó a disminuir considerablemente el aporte calórico en el néctar elaborado, pasando de 48 Kcal/100g a 38,69 Kcal/100g. Se concluye que el costo de producción unitario para envase de 350ml ($ 1.054 resulta favorable, puesto que la rentabilidad puede superar el 40%, para un precio de venta de $1.476, generando un producto competitivo en el mercado, dada la calidad y el valor agregado como alimento funcional

  14. Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of the under-utilised Prunus mahaleb L. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blando, Federica; Albano, Clara; Liu, Yazheng; Nicoletti, Isabella; Corradini, Danilo; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Kitts, David D

    2016-06-01

    The identification of novel plant-based functional foods or nutraceutical ingredients that possess bioactive properties with antioxidant function has recently become important to the food, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries. This study evaluates the polyphenolic composition, identifies bioactive compounds and assays the total antioxidant capacity of Prunus mahaleb L. fruits collected from different populations and sampling years in the countryside around Bari (Apulia Region, Italy). We identified nine polyphenolic compounds including major anthocyanins, coumaric acid derivatives and flavonols from P. mahaleb fruits. The anthocyanin content (in some populations > 5 g kg(-1) fresh weight; FW) in the fruit was comparable to that reported for so-called superfruits such as bilberries, chokeberries and blackcurrants. Coumaric acid derivatives comprised a large portion of the total polyphenolic content in the P. mahaleb fruits. Antioxidant activities, assessed using ORAC and TEAC assays, measured up to 150 and 45 mmol Trolox equivalents kg(-1) FW, respectively. Therefore antioxidant capacity of P. mahaleb fruits is relatively high and comparable to that of superfruit varieties that are often used in commercial nutraceutical products. Our findings suggest that mahaleb fruit (currently not consumed fresh or used in other ways) could serve as a source of bioactive compounds and therefore find interest from the functional food and nutraceutical industries, as a natural food colorant and antioxidant ingredient in the formulation of functional foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. DETERMINATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE AREA AND DRY WEIGHT OF THE LEAF LIMBO OF Prunus persica CV. Jarillo DETERMINACIÓN DE UN MODELO MATEMÁTICO PARA LA ESTIMACIÓN DEL ÁREA FOLIAR Y PESO SECO DEL LIMBO DE Prunus persica CV. Jarillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Quevedo García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A study was conducted to determine the variables that estimated the leaf limbo area and the leaf limbo dry weight of peach Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. Jarillo. Fifty leaves, aged 2.5 months, were selected and measured: leaf limbo length and width, petiole length, leaf length, petiole diameter, leaf limbo fresh weight, petiole fresh weight, leaf fresh weight, leaf limbo dry weight, petiole dry weight, leaf dry weight, length/width limbo, petiole length/limbo length and leaf limbo area. The results allowed to obtain regression equations for estimating the leaf area and the limbo dry weight. Using the lineal models LA = b1 + b2 (LLL x LLW and LA= b1+ b2LLL + b3LLW a leaf area equation was determined. Alternative models to calculate limbo dry weight were evaluated LLDW = -b1+ b2 LLFW and LLDW= - b1 + b2LLL + b3PL. The best equations found with an R2 of 0.99 were LA = 1.572 + 0.65169(LLL x LLW, LA=-23.106+2.8064LLW + 3.6761LLL and LLDW = -0.002+0.401(LLFW.Resumen. Se realizó un estudio para determinar las variables que estimaran el área del limbo foliar y el peso seco del limbo de durazno Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. Jarillo. Se seleccionaron cincuenta hojas con 2,5 meses de edad, fueron medidos: ancho del limbo, longitud del limbo, longitud del peciolo, longitud hoja, diámetro peciolo, peso fresco del limbo, peso fresco del peciolo, peso fresco de la hoja, peso seco del limbo, peso seco peciolo, peso seco de la hoja, longitud /ancho limbo, longitud del peciolo/longitud del limbo, área foliar del limbo. Los resultados alcanzados permitieron obtener ecuaciones de regresión para estimar el área foliar del limbo y el peso seco del limbo. Se halló una ecuación para la determinación del área foliar del limbo con los modelos lineales LA = b1 + b2 (LLL x LLW y LA= b1 + b2LLL + b3LLW. También se evaluaron modelos alternativas para calcular el peso seco del limbo, LLDW = -b1+ b2LLFW y LLDW= - b1 + b2LLL + b3PL. Las mejores ecuaciones

  16. Use of Genetic Diversity of the Genus Prunus L. in Selection of Clonal Rootstocks for Stone Fruit Crops and Features of Their Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremin Gennadiy V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of diversity of wild types of the genus Prunus L. (P. cerasifera, P. armeniaca, P. persica, P. fruticosa, P. lannesiana, P. maackii, P. tomentosa, P. pumila, and P. incana in the collection of the Krymsk Experiment Breeding Station, highly adaptive, medium or weak vigour clonal rootstocks for stone fruit crops with good compatibility with grafted cultivars were selected: for plum, apricot and peach - Kuban 86, VVA-1, Evrika 99, Zarevo (Glow, Alab 1, Speaker, Best, VSV-1; and for sweet cherries and sour cherries - L-2, LC-52, VSL-1, VSL-2, and RVL-9. Part of the rootstocks were tested and successfully used in different parts of Russia and some near and far countries. The applied integration of tissue culture in vitro in the selection process at the station considerably promoted the rapid introduction of new rootstocks into world production. Technologies were developed for microclonal reproduction, and green and woody cuttings. The revealed light rooting of woody cuttings of stocks Kuban 86, Evrika 99, Zarevo, Best, VSL-1, RVL-9 (50-80% allowed to develop technology for growing of young plants on these rootstocks directly in the first field of the nursery.

  17. Genetic diversity in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] at the University of Florida: past present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    The University of Florida (UF) stone fruit breeding and genetics program was created in 1952 to develop early ripening stone fruit cultivars with high quality, adaptation to summer rainfall, low chilling requirements, and the ability to withstand high disease pressure. Diverse germplasm sources were...

  18. Studies on enhancing the keeping quality of peach ( Prunus persica Bausch) Cv. Elberta by gamma-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, P. R.; Meena, R. S.; Dar, M. A.; Wani, A. M.

    2008-04-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on keeping quality of peach fruit was studied. The fruit, after harvesting at proper maturity stage, was irradiated in the dose range of 1.0-2.0 kGy, stored under ambient (temp. 25±2 °C, RH 70%) and refrigerated (temp. 3±1 °C, RH 80%) conditions and evaluated periodically for firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), anthocyanins, water-soluble pectic fractions, loss in weight and decay percentage. The anthocyanin evaluation of the fruits revealed that irradiation enhanced the colour development under both the storage conditions. The gamma-irradiation dose range of 1.2-1.4 kGy proved effective in maintaining higher TSS concentration, reducing weight loss and significantly ( p⩽0.05) delaying the decaying of the fruit by 6 days under ambient conditions and by 20 days under refrigerated storage conditions.

  19. Studies on enhancing the keeping quality of peach (Prunus persica Bausch) Cv. Elberta by gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, P.R.; Meena, R.S.; Dar, M.A. [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar-190006 (India); Wani, A.M. [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar-190006 (India)], E-mail: alimwani@yahoo.co.uk

    2008-04-15

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on keeping quality of peach fruit was studied. The fruit, after harvesting at proper maturity stage, was irradiated in the dose range of 1.0-2.0 kGy, stored under ambient (temp. 25{+-}2 deg. C, RH 70%) and refrigerated (temp. 3{+-}1 deg. C, RH 80%) conditions and evaluated periodically for firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), anthocyanins, water-soluble pectic fractions, loss in weight and decay percentage. The anthocyanin evaluation of the fruits revealed that irradiation enhanced the colour development under both the storage conditions. The gamma-irradiation dose range of 1.2-1.4 kGy proved effective in maintaining higher TSS concentration, reducing weight loss and significantly (p{<=}0.05) delaying the decaying of the fruit by 6 days under ambient conditions and by 20 days under refrigerated storage conditions.

  20. Carbohydrate-Free Peach (Prunus persica) and Plum (Prunus salicina) [corrected] Juice Affects Fecal Microbial Ecology in an Obese Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noratto, Giuliana D; Garcia-Mazcorro, Jose F; Markel, Melissa; Martino, Hercia S; Minamoto, Yasushi; Steiner, Jörg M; Byrne, David; Suchodolski, Jan S; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence shows the potential of nutritional interventions to treat obesity but most investigations have utilized non-digestible carbohydrates only. Peach and plum contain high amounts of polyphenols, compounds with demonstrated anti-obesity effects. The underlying process of successfully treating obesity using polyphenols may involve an alteration of the intestinal microbiota. However, this phenomenon is not well understood. Obese Zucker rats were assigned to three groups (peach, plum, and control, n = 10 each), wild-type group was named lean (n = 10). Carbohydrates in the fruit juices were eliminated using enzymatic hydrolysis. Fecal samples were obtained after 11 weeks of fruit or control juice administration. Real-time PCR and 454-pyrosequencing were used to evaluate changes in fecal microbiota. Over 1,500 different Operational Taxonomic Units at 97% similarity were detected in all rats. Several bacterial groups (e.g. Lactobacillus and members of Ruminococcacea) were found to be more abundant in the peach but especially in the plum group (plum juice contained 3 times more total polyphenolics compared to peach juice). Principal coordinate analysis based on Unifrac-based unweighted distance matrices revealed a distinct separation between the microbiota of control and treatment groups. These changes in fecal microbiota occurred simultaneously with differences in fecal short-chain acids concentrations between the control and treatment groups as well as a significant decrease in body weight in the plum group. This study suggests that consumption of carbohydrate-free peach and plum juice has the potential to modify fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model. The separate contribution of polyphenols and non-polyphenols compounds (vitamins and minerals) to the observed changes is unknown.

  1. Gamma irradiation induced enhancement of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in peach ( Prunus persica Bausch, Cv. Elberta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Peerzada R.; Wani, Ali M.; Meena, Raghuveer S.; Dar, Mohd A.

    2010-09-01

    Effect of medium dose gamma irradiation on PAL and antioxidant activity of peach fruit was investigated. Peach fruit after harvest at commercial maturity was irradiated in the dose range 1.0-2.0 kGy, stored under refrigerated conditions (3±1 °C, RH 80%) and evaluated at intervals of 7 days. The antioxidant activity as determined by DPPH and FRAP methods revealed significant ( p≤0.05) increase particularly in the dose range 1.6-2.0 kGy. During storage, maximum increase in both PAL and antioxidant activity was observed after 21 days. Positive correlation ( r=0.75) existed between antioxidant activity and total phenols. EC 50 values as obtained from DPPH and FRAP experiments were significantly ( p≤0.05) lower in irradiated fruits compared to control.

  2. Gamma irradiation induced enhancement of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in peach (Prunus persica Bausch, Cv. Elberta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Peerzada R., E-mail: hussainpr@rediffmail.co [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar 190006, Kashmir (India); Wani, Ali M.; Meena, Raghuveer S.; Dar, Mohd A. [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar 190006, Kashmir (India)

    2010-09-15

    Effect of medium dose gamma irradiation on PAL and antioxidant activity of peach fruit was investigated. Peach fruit after harvest at commercial maturity was irradiated in the dose range 1.0-2.0 kGy, stored under refrigerated conditions (3{+-}1 {sup o}C, RH 80%) and evaluated at intervals of 7 days. The antioxidant activity as determined by DPPH and FRAP methods revealed significant (p{<=}0.05) increase particularly in the dose range 1.6-2.0 kGy. During storage, maximum increase in both PAL and antioxidant activity was observed after 21 days. Positive correlation (r=0.75) existed between antioxidant activity and total phenols. EC{sub 50} values as obtained from DPPH and FRAP experiments were significantly (p{<=}0.05) lower in irradiated fruits compared to control.

  3. Development of the Potential for Cyanogenesis in Maturing Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, E; Li, C P; Poulton, J E

    1992-04-01

    Biochemical changes related to cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide production) were monitored during maturation of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits. At weekly intervals from flowering until maturity, fruits (or selected parts thereof) were analyzed for (a) fresh and dry weights, (b) prunasin and amygdalin levels, and (c) levels of the catabolic enzymes amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. During phase I (0-28 days after flowering [DAF]), immature fruits accumulated prunasin (mean: 3 micromoles/fruit) but were acyanogenic because they lacked the above enzymes. Concomitant with cotyledon development during mid-phase II, the seeds began accumulating both amygdalin (mean: 3 micromoles/seed) and the catabolic enzymes and were highly cyanogenic upon tissue disruption. Meanwhile, prunasin levels rapidly declined and were negligible by maturity. During phases II (29-65 DAF) and III (66-81 DAF), the pericarp also accumulated amygdalin, whereas its prunasin content declined toward maturity. Lacking the catabolic enzymes, the pericarp remained acyanogenic throughout all developmental stages.

  4. Development of the Potential for Cyanogenesis in Maturing Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Fruits 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Elisabeth; Li, Chun Ping; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    Biochemical changes related to cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide production) were monitored during maturation of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits. At weekly intervals from flowering until maturity, fruits (or selected parts thereof) were analyzed for (a) fresh and dry weights, (b) prunasin and amygdalin levels, and (c) levels of the catabolic enzymes amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. During phase I (0-28 days after flowering [DAF]), immature fruits accumulated prunasin (mean: 3 micromoles/fruit) but were acyanogenic because they lacked the above enzymes. Concomitant with cotyledon development during mid-phase II, the seeds began accumulating both amygdalin (mean: 3 micromoles/seed) and the catabolic enzymes and were highly cyanogenic upon tissue disruption. Meanwhile, prunasin levels rapidly declined and were negligible by maturity. During phases II (29-65 DAF) and III (66-81 DAF), the pericarp also accumulated amygdalin, whereas its prunasin content declined toward maturity. Lacking the catabolic enzymes, the pericarp remained acyanogenic throughout all developmental stages. ImagesFigure 2Figure 4 PMID:16668810

  5. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  6. Evaluación productiva, económica y social del agua de riego de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch en Zacatecas (México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ríos-Flores

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La escasez de agua limita la agricultura, por lo que su uso debe ser más eficiente en la producción de alimentos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la productividad económica, física y social del agua del cultivo de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch, en la región del Distrito de Desarrollo Rural 183 —correspondiente a Fresnillo, Zacatecas— para el ciclo 2012; se desarrollaron modelos matemáticos para estimar la productividad y eficiencia del agua. En Zacatecas se cosecharon 817 ha de durazno; mismas que produjeron 3,954.1 t; con un valor de $32.79 millones de pesos, utilizando un total de 8.17 Mm3 en todo el estado; mientras que en el DDR183-Fresnillo (compuesto por los municipios Fresnillo y Valparaíso se emplearon 3.39 Mm3. La determinación de la huella hídrica azul mostró que, por cada kg de durazno se emplearon 2,066 L en Zacatecas, 2,000 L en Fresnillo, y 1,851 L en Valparaíso. En cuanto al ingreso por metro cúbico, se determinó que en Zacatecas se obtuvo un ingreso de $4.01 m-3, $4.38 m-3 en Fresnillo y $4.83 m-3 en Valparaíso. Mientras, la productividad laboral en Zacatecas fue 97.53 h t-1, en Fresnillo 94.40 h t-1, y en Valparaíso 87.35 h t-1. El trabajador adscrito a la producción de durazno en Zacatecas generó $97.53 h-1, en Fresnillo $94.40 h-1, y $87.35 h-1 en Valparaíso. La producción de durazno en Valparaíso resultó altamente eficiente y productiva, lo que se tradujo en una menor huella hídrica; ello promueve la sustentabilidad del recurso agua en esa región.

  7. The early spring N uptake of young peach trees (Prunus persica) is affected by past and current fertilizations and levels of C and N stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Marie-Odile; Vercambre, Gilles; Gomez, Laurent; Pagès, Loïc

    2014-01-01

    In deciduous trees, shoot development in early spring is assumed to be achieved mainly at the expense of nitrogen (N) stores. Indeed, the possible compensation for poor autumn N storage by early spring N uptake has been little studied. We therefore determined the dynamics of spring N uptake in relation to spring N supply, carbon and N storage and shoot development. Young peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. 'GF305') were raised outdoors in a hydroponic set-up during the spring and summer, with an excessive N supply. During the autumn, half of the trees were then N limited. The following spring, the N supply remained either high or low, or changed from high to low or low to high. Between 6 March and 13 May, N uptake was measured automatically on an hourly basis, while shoot growth was monitored once a week. These in situ measurements were completed by three destructive harvests to assess organ composition in N and total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC). Until the end of April, N uptake was dependent on the autumn N treatment, being higher in trees that had been N limited in the autumn. Total non-structural carbohydrate mobilization was also higher in those trees that had lost at least 17 g TNC by 24 April, while TNC levels in non-limited trees remained stable or even rose. Shoot development, estimated by the number of elongated axes and leaves per axis, was also slightly delayed by an N limitation in autumn. After 24 April, N uptake rates increased notably under all treatments and was determined by the spring N supply. In trees receiving a high N supply in the spring, the uptake rates also displayed marked short-term variations. That reduced the differences between treatments and by 13 May no differences could be evidenced between the trees in terms of organ biomass and TNC and N contents, whatever the treatment. We concluded that in the early spring, N uptake may compensate for a deficit of N storage insofar as large quantities of TNC can be mobilized for

  8. The Impact of Maturity Stage on Cell Membrane Integrity and Enzymatic Browning Reactions in High Pressure Processed Peaches (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techakanon, Chukwan; Gradziel, Thomas M; Zhang, Lu; Barrett, Diane M

    2016-09-28

    Fruit maturity is an important factor associated with final product quality, and it may have an effect on the level of browning in peaches that are high pressure processed (HPP). Peaches from three different maturities, as determined by firmness (M1 = 50-55 N, M2 = 35-40 N, and M3 = 15-20 N), were subjected to pressure levels at 0.1, 200, and 400 MPa for 10 min. The damage from HPP treatment results in loss of fruit integrity and the development of browning during storage. Increasing pressure levels of HPP treatment resulted in greater damage, particularly in the more mature peaches, as determined by shifts in transverse relaxation time (T2) of the vacuolar component and by light microscopy. The discoloration of peach slices of different maturities processed at the same pressure was comparable, indicating that the effect of pressure level is greater than that of maturity in the development of browning.

  9. Antioxidant capacity, quality, and anthocyanin and nutrient contents of several peach cultivars [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] grown in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, G; Iglesias, I; Gatius, F; Alegre, S

    2013-07-03

    Antioxidant capacity, quality, and anthocyanin and nutrient contents of 106 peach cultivars from different breeding programs were evaluated at the Estació Experimental de Lleida, IRTA (Catalonia, Spain), during two growing seasons (2010 and 2011). High variability was found among cultivars within each quality trait, where different cultivars were scored as the best and the worst. For example, a 5-fold range (2.17-12.07 g of malic acid L⁻¹), 6-fold range (144.20-711.73 μg of Trolox g⁻¹ of FW), and 11-fold range (0.70-11.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside kg⁻¹ of FW) were observed in titratable acidity, relative antioxidant capacity, and anthocyanin content, respectively. The breeding program within each fruit type (melting peach, nectarine, and flat peach) and qualitative pomological traits also had significant effects on the quality. Nevertheless, each breeding program had specific characteristics that distinguished it from the others. Even so, within each breeding program, there is high variability among cultivars. Therefore, growers should not base their strategy exclusively on the choice of breeding program. Principal component analysis for each fruit type (melting peach, nectarine, nonmelting peach, and flat peach) allowed a selection of a set of cultivars from different breeding programs with the highest quality performance. For example, cultivars such as 'Azurite', 'IFF 1230', 'Amiga', 'Fire Top', 'African Bonnigold', 'Ferlot', 'Mesembrine', and 'Platifirst' had higher sweetness and flavor compared to the others. Therefore, this study could help breeders to make decisions for the selection of new cultivars able to improve the quality features of fruit intake, technicians to know better quality performance of peach cultivars, and consumers to meet their expectations for fruit with high health benefits and a specific taste.

  10. Phenolic composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the extracts from Prunus spinosa L. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Jasmina M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L. is commonly used in food industry and phytotherapy. The contents of phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidative activity in extracts of blackthorn fruit were determined using spectrophotometric methods. The content of total phenol compounds varies from 15.33 to 20.94 mg GAE g-1 of fresh fruit. The content of total flavonoids is very low, and ranges from 0.419 to 1.31 mg QE g-1 of fresh fruits. Anthocyanins content lies between 0.112 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside/g of fresh sample in ethanol extract and 0.265 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside g-1 of fresh blackthorn fruit in methanol-water 50/50 (v/v extract. The differences in total phenol compounds content depend on used extraction medium as a consequence of different polarity of used organic solvents and their mixtures, which selectively extract individual compounds. All explored extracts exhibited strong scavenging activity against DPPH radicals, which ranges from 32.05 to 89.10%. Phenolic acids (neochlorogenic and caffeic acids, flavonoids (quercetin and myricetin and anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside were identified in investigated ethanol extracts by HPLC analysis. Ethanol extract shows significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Salmonella abony NCTC 6017 and antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Blackthorn fruit extract exhibits a high phenolic content and a high antioxidant activity, and can be used as an antioxidant in food and pharmaceutical industries.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172047

  11. Comportamento do pessegueiro (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. Chimarrita em diferentes sistemas de condução Behavior of the peach tree (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. Chimarrita in different training systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clevison Luiz Giacobbo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A persicultura, no Brasil, é praticada há bastante tempo, porém poucos estudos foram realizados visando alternativas de manejo nos pomares para aumento de produtividade. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento anual do diâmetro do tronco e produção nos terceiro e quarto anos, em pessegueiro cv. Chimarrita, enxertado sobre o porta-enxerto Capdeboscq. Foram avaliados quatro sistemas de condução: I - espaçamento de 0,5 m entre plantas, conduzido em 'Áxis colunar'; II e III - 1,0 m e 2,0 m, respectivamente, conduzidos em 'Y' e IV - 4,0 m em 'Vaso' (sistema tradicional. Entre as linhas de plantio o espaçamento foi constante de 5,0 m para todos os sistemas de condução. O pomar foi implantado em julho de 1997 na Fazenda experimental do Centro Agropecuário da Palma, propriedade da Universidade Federal de Pelotas, localizada no município de Capão do Leão, RS. Avaliou-se a taxa de crescimento anual do diâmetro do tronco, produtividade, qualidade físico-química das frutas e ocorrência de podridão parda. Os resultados obtidos na taxa de crescimento foram semelhantes em ambos os anos, porém observou-se maior incremento relativo no período 2000/2001, no sistema de condução I. A produtividade foi superior no sistema I e II diferindo do sistema IV, no entanto, a qualidade físico-química e a ocorrência de podridão parda foram semelhantes em todos os sistemas.The peach culture has been practiced for a long time in Brazil but a few studies were performed aiming to define choices of orchard management for increasing productivity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate fruit production and annual growth rate of the trunk diameter in the third and fourth year after planting of peach-trees cv. "Chimarrita" on Capdeboscq rootstock. Four training systems were evaluated, as follow: I -spacing of 0,5 m among plants trained as "columnar axis"; II and III - spacing of 1 and 2 m, respectively trained as an "Y shape" and IV

  12. Atividade da peroxidase durante o período hibernal de plantas de pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch. cv. jubileu com e sem sintomas da morte precoce Peroxidase activity during the rest period of peach trees (Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. jubileu in plants with and without symptoms ofpeach-tree-short-life (PTSL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Carlos Marafon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A morte precoce do pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch é uma síndrome caracterizada por um colapso da planta durante a floração ou no início da brotação, após drástica redução da temperatura. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a atividade da peroxidase (UE min-1 g-1 MF durante o período hibernal, em gemas e ramos de plantas de pessegueiro cv. Jubileu, com e sem sintomas de morte precoce. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos separadamente, um para cada tipo de tecido, em dois pomares próximos, ambos com quatro anos de implantação, situados na região colonial de Pelotas - RS, nas localidades de Santa Helena e Cascata. As amostras foram constituídas por dois tipos de tecidos (gemas e ramos e foram coletadas em quatro datas (11-06, 11-07, 29-07 e 05-08 durante o inverno de 2003. As determinações da atividade da peroxidase nos tecidos foram realizadas no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Embrapa Clima Temperado. As plantas com sintomas de morte precoce apresentaram, durante a dormência, maior atividade da peroxidase nos dois tipos de tecidos, quando comparadas com as plantas sem sintomas da síndrome. Provavelmente, o desencadeamento da síndrome provoca alterações na dormência das plantas afetadas, que resultam na antecipação da retomada do crescimento das gemas e na exposição dos tecidos recém-formados aos danos causados pelas baixas temperaturas. Os níveis populacionais donematoide-anelado (Mesocriconema xenoplax e dos nematoides do gênero Helicotylenchus sp. foram superiores nas amostras de solo coletadas na rizosfera das plantas com sintomas de morte precoce do que os verificados nas amostras coletadas das plantas sem sintomas da síndrome, resultando também na maior atividade da peroxidase em ambos os tecidos (gemas e ramos, durante o período hibernal das plantas afetadas.Peach Tree Short Life (PTSL is a syndrome characterized by a collapse of the peach trees (Prunus persica (L. Batsch during the

  13. A simple model to predict the probability of a peach (Prunus persicae tree bud to develop as a long or short shoot as a consequence of winter pruning intensity and previous year growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bevacqua

    Full Text Available In many woody plants, shoots emerging from buds can develop as short or long shoots. The probability of a bud to develop as a long or short shoot relies upon genetic, environmental and management factors and controlling it is an important issue in commercial orchard. We use peach (Prunus persicae trees, subjected to different winter pruning levels and monitored for two years, to develop and calibrate a model linking the probability of a bud to develop as a long shoot to winter pruning intensity and previous year vegetative growth. Eventually we show how our model can be used to adjust pruning intensity to obtain a desired proportion of long and short shoots.

  14. Initial and final fruit set in some plum (Prunus domestica L. hybrids under different pollination types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glišić Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of two-year study (2009-2010 of initial and final fruit set in promising plum (Prunus domestica L. hybrids developed at Fruit Research Institute - Čačak, under different pollination conditions. The following hybrids were studied: 38/62/70 (‘Hall’ x ‘California Blue’, 32/21/87 (‘Stanley’ x ‘Scoldus’, IV/63/81 (‘Large Sugar Prune’ x ‘Scoldus’, 22/17/87 (‘Čačanska Najbolja’ x ‘Zh'lta Butilcovidna’, 29/29/87 (‘Stanley’ x ‘Scoldus’ and 34/41/87 (‘Valjevka’ x ‘Čačanska Lepotica’. Each of the hybrids was studied both under self- pollination and open pollination. In vitro pollen germination was also performed as well as characteristics of flowering phenophase and flowering abundance. Generally, the results suggest lower flowering abundance in the second year of the study. Pollen germination ranged from averagely 25.31% (29/29/87 to 40.01% (38/62/70. With averagely 31.59% final fruit set under self-pollination and 29.38% under open pollination variants, respectively, hybrid 34/41/87 gave the best results. The lowest performance was observed in hybrid 32/21/87 with 1.61% and 7.69% final fruit set under self- and open pollination variants, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31064

  15. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the Type-B Authentic Response Regulator Gene Family in Peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jingjue; Zhu, Xudong; Haider, Muhammad S; Wang, Xicheng; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    The type-B authentic response regulator (ARR-B) family members serve as DNA-binding transcriptional regulators, whose activities are probably regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, resulting in the rapid induction of type-A ARR genes. Type-B ARRs are believed to be involved in many biological processes, including cytokinin signaling, plant growth, and stress responses through a chaperone or by isomerization of proline residues during protein folding. The public availability of complete peach genome sequences allows the identification of 23 ARR-B genes by HMMER and blast analysis. Scaffold locations of these genes in the peach genome were determined, and the protein domain and motif organization of peach type-B ARRs were analyzed. The phylogenetic relationships between peach type-B ARRs were also assessed. The expression profiles of peach ARR-B genes revealed that most of the type-B ARRs showed high expression levels in tissues undergoing rapid cell division and may engage more cytokinins, like half-opened flowers, fruits at expansion stages, and young leaves. These findings not only contribute to a better understanding of the complex regulation of the peach ARR-B gene family, but also provide valuable information for future research in peach functional genomics. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. 'Candidatus Phytoplasmas pruni', a novel taxon associated with X-disease of stone fruits, Prunus spp.: multilocus characterization based on 16S rRNA, secY, and ribosomal protein genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-disease is one of the most serious diseases known in peach (Prunus persica). Based on RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, peach X-disease phytoplasma strains from eastern and western United States and eastern Canada were classified in 16S rDNA RFLP group 16SrIII, subgroup A. Phylogenetic a...

  17. Metabolism of gibberellins A1 and A3 in fruits and shoots of Prunus avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanpu, M; Blake, P S; Browning, G; Taylor, J M

    2001-01-01

    Isotope-labelled GA metabolites were identified by GC--MS, following HPLC fractionation of extracts derived from fruits or shoots, that had been incubated with [2H]- and [3H]- GA1 or [2H]- and [3H]- GA3. GA1 (1) was converted into GA8 (10) by developing fruits and vegetative shoots of sweet cherry (Prunus avium cv. 'Stella'), while GA3 (4) was converted into GA3-isolactone (17). Other metabolites of each GA were detected but were not identified unequivocally. These included a metabolite of GA1 (1) in fruitlets that was more polar (by reverse phase HPLC) than GA8 (10) and a metabolite of similar polarity to GA87 (6), was obtained after incubating fruitlets with GA3 (4). However, no evidence was obtained to suggest that GA87 (6) was a metabolite of GA3 (4) or that GA85 (2) was a metabolite of GA1 (1) in these tissues, under the conditions used. The pattern of metabolites obtained from vegetative tissues was similar to that from fruitlets. However, the results suggested that GA1 (1) and GA3 (4) were metabolised at a greater rate in shoots from mature trees than in shoots from seedlings, and that GA1 (1) was metabolised more rapidly than GA3 (4) in juvenile and mature shoots. We conclude from these observations that GA3 (4) is not a precursor of GA87 (6) and GA32 (5), also, that GA1 (1) is not a precursor of GA85 (2) and GA86 (3) in developing fruits or in vegetative shoots of sweet cherry.

  18. Effects of fertilization and rootstock on nutrient status and fruit set in sour cherry Prunus cerasus 'Stevnsbaer'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N. L.; Toldam-Andersen, Torben; Dencker, Ivar Blücher

    2007-01-01

    was ashed and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Fruit set percentage was recorded on spurs and extension shoots in 2002. The nutrient analyses showed that control trees on Prunus avium had a higher concentration of leaf potassium compared with control trees on 'Colt'. Leaf....... The nutrient analyses of flower buds, flowers and bracts showed some significant differences in the nutrient concentrations as an effect of both rootstocks and treatments. Fruit set on both spurs and extension shoots was significantly affected by rootstock whereas the fertilization treatment had no effect....... Prunus avium had the highest percentage of fruit set on both spurs and extension shoots....

  19. The role of polar auxin transport through pedicels of Prunus avium L. in relation to fruit development and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Mark A; Stankiewicz-Davies, Anna P; Crisp, Carol M; Atkinson, Christopher J

    2004-09-01

    It was investigated whether premature fruit abscission in Prunus avium L. was triggered by a reduction in polar auxin transport (PAT). The capacity of pedicels to transport tritiated IAA ([3H]-IAA) via the PAT pathway was measured at intervals throughout flower and fruit development. The extent of passive diffusion, assessed by concurrent applications of [14C]-benzoic acid ([14C]-BA), was negligible. Transported radioactivity recovered from agar blocks eluted at the same retention time as authentic [3H]-IAA during HPLC fractionation. The capacity for PAT was already high 7 d before anthesis and increased further following the fertilization of flowers at anthesis. PAT intensity was greatest immediately following fertilization and at the beginning of the cell expansion phase of fruit growth; the transport intensity in fruitlets destined to abscind was negligible. The amount of endogenous IAA moving through the PAT pathway was greatest during the first 3 weeks after fertilization and was again high at the beginning of the fruit expansion stage. IAA export in the phloem increased following fertilization then declined below detectable levels. ABA export in the phloem increased markedly during stone formation and at the onset of fruit expansion. TIBA applied to pedicels of fruit in situ promoted fruitlet abscission in 2000 but not in 2001, despite PAT capacity being reduced by over 98% in the treated pedicels. The application of TIBA to pedicels did not affect fruit expansion. The role of PAT and IAA in relation to the development and retention of Prunus avium fruit is discussed.

  20. PaCYP78A9, a Cytochrome P450, Regulates Fruit Size in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Qi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. is an important fruit crop in which fruit size is strongly associated with commercial value; few genes associated with fruit size have, however, been identified in sweet cherry. Members of the CYP78A subfamily, a group of important cytochrome P450s, have been found to be involved in controlling seed size and development in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, soybean, and tomato. However, the influence of CYP78A members in controlling organ size and the underlying molecular mechanisms in sweet cherry and other fruit trees remains unclear. Here, we characterized a P. avium CYP78A gene PaCYP78A9 that is thought to be involved in the regulation of fruit size and organ development using overexpression and silencing approaches. PaCYP78A9 was significantly expressed in the flowers and fruit of sweet cherry. RNAi silencing of PaCYP78A9 produced small cherry fruits and PaCYP78A9 was found to affect fruit size by mediating mesocarp cell proliferation and expansion during fruit growth and development. Overexpression of PaCYP78A9 in Arabidopsis resulted in increased silique and seed size and PaCYP78A9 was found to be highly expressed in the inflorescences and siliques of transgenic plants. Genes related to cell cycling and proliferation were downregulated in fruit from sweet cherry TRV::PaCYP78A9-silencing lines, suggesting that PaCYP78A9 is likely to be an important upstream regulator of cell cycle processes. Together, our findings indicate that PaCYP78A9 plays an essential role in the regulation of cherry fruit size and provide insights into the molecular basis of the mechanisms regulating traits such as fruit size in P. avium.

  1. The peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) genome harbours 10 KNOX genes, which are differentially expressed in stem development, and the class 1 KNOPE1 regulates elongation and lignification during primary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testone, Giulio; Condello, Emiliano; Verde, Ignazio; Nicolodi, Chiara; Caboni, Emilia; Dettori, Maria Teresa; Vendramin, Elisa; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice; Mele, Giovanni; Giannino, Donato

    2012-09-01

    The KNOTTED-like (KNOX) genes encode homeodomain transcription factors and regulate several processes of plant organ development. The peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) genome was found to contain 10 KNOX members (KNOPE genes); six of them were experimentally located on the Prunus reference map and the class 1 KNOPE1 was found to link to a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the internode length in the peach×Ferganensis population. All the KNOPE genes were differentially transcribed in the internodes of growing shoots; the KNOPE1 mRNA abundance decreased progressively from primary (elongation) to secondary growth (radial expansion). During primary growth, the KNOPE1 mRNA was localized in the cortex and in the procambium/metaphloem zones, whereas it was undetected in incipient phloem and xylem fibres. KNOPE1 overexpression in the Arabidopsis bp4 loss-of-function background (35S:KNOPE1/bp genotype) restored the rachis length, suggesting, together with the QTL association, a role for KNOPE1 in peach shoot elongation. Several lignin biosynthesis genes were up-regulated in the bp4 internodes but repressed in the 35S:KNOPE1/bp lines similarly to the wild type. Moreover, the lignin deposition pattern of the 35S:KNOPE1/bp and the wild-type internodes were the same. The KNOPE1 protein was found to recognize in vitro one of the typical KNOX DNA-binding sites that recurred in peach and Arabidopsis lignin genes. KNOPE1 expression was inversely correlated with that of lignin genes and lignin deposition along the peach shoot stems and was down-regulated in lignifying vascular tissues. These data strongly support that KNOPE1 prevents cell lignification by repressing lignin genes during peach stem primary growth.

  2. Size and Weight of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’) Fruit Treated with 3,5,6-TPA and GA3

    OpenAIRE

    Silvija Zeman; Zlatko Čmelik; Tomislav Jemrić

    2014-01-01

    The effect of 10 ppm 3,5,6-TPA (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyloxyocetic acid), 20 ppm GA 3 and their combination on size and weight of cherry fruit (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’) were studied. 3,5,6-TPA was applied 25 days after full bloom and GA 3 during stage of fruit color change from green to straw-yellow. Fruit height, width, thickness and weight were measured. Width, thickness and weight of control fruit were the smallest. Fruit from 3,5,6-TPA - treated trees did not show significant differe...

  3. The contribution of stored malate and citrate to the substrate requirements of metabolism of ripening peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) flesh is negligible. Implications for the occurrence of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiani, Franco; Farinelli, Daniela; Moscatello, Stefano; Battistelli, Alberto; Leegood, Richard C; Walker, Robert P

    2016-04-01

    The first aim of this study was to determine the contribution of stored malate and citrate to the substrate requirements of metabolism in the ripening flesh of the peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivar Adriatica. In the flesh, stored malate accumulated before ripening could contribute little or nothing to the net substrate requirements of metabolism. This was because there was synthesis and not dissimilation of malate throughout ripening. Stored citrate could potentially contribute a very small amount (about 5.8%) of the substrate required by metabolism when the whole ripening period was considered, and a maximum of about 7.5% over the latter part of ripening. The second aim of this study was to investigate why phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) an enzyme utilised in gluconeogenesis from malate and citrate is present in peach flesh. The occurrence and localisation of enzymes utilised in the metabolism of malate, citrate and amino acids were determined in peach flesh throughout its development. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (essential for the synthesis of malate and citrate) was present in the same cells and at the same time as PEPCK and NADP-malic enzyme (both utilised in the dissimilation of malate and citrate). A hypothesis is presented to explain the presence of these enzymes and to account for the likely occurrence of gluconeogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification and expression analysis of the SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein (SBP)-box gene family in Prunus mume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zongda; Sun, Lidan; Zhou, Yuzhen; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2015-10-01

    SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein (SBP)-box family genes encode plant-specific transcription factors that play crucial roles in plant development, especially flower and fruit development. However, little information on this gene family is available for Prunus mume, an ornamental and fruit tree widely cultivated in East Asia. To explore the evolution of SBP-box genes in Prunus and explore their functions in flower and fruit development, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in P. mume. Fifteen SBP-box genes were identified, and 11 of them contained an miR156 target site. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses revealed that different groups of SBP-box genes have undergone different evolutionary processes and varied in their length, structure, and motif composition. Purifying selection has been the main selective constraint on both paralogous and orthologous SBP-box genes. In addition, the sequences of orthologous SBP-box genes did not diverge widely after the split of P. mume and Prunus persica. Expression analysis of P. mume SBP-box genes revealed their diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns. Three duplicated SBP-box genes may have undergone subfunctionalization in Prunus. Most of the SBP-box genes showed high transcript levels in flower buds and young fruit. The four miR156-nontargeted genes were upregulated during fruit ripening. Together, these results provide information about the evolution of SBP-box genes in Prunus. The expression analysis lays the foundation for further research on the functions of SBP-box genes in P. mume and other Prunus species, especially during flower and fruit development.

  5. Characterization of polymorphic SSRs among Prunus chloroplast genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An in silico mining process yielded 80, 75, and 78 microsatellites in the chloroplast genome of Prunus persica, P. kansuensis, and P. mume. A and T repeats were predominant in the three genomes, accounting for 67.8% on average and most of them were successful in primer design. For the 80 P. persica ...

  6. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was used as an oviposition surrogate for the congeneric S. exitiosa (Say) to examine possible preference for Prunus germplasm. We assayed limbs of a peach cultivar (Prunus persica), peach rootstocks, plum-peach hybrid rootstocks, the...

  7. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (≅45% more anthocyanins and ≅20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries.

  8. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Angeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. "Orbis") grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  9. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. grown in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi eEl-Jendoubi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. ‘Orbis’ grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated and basal (untreated leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  10. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Ángeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. “Orbis”) grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs. PMID:24478782

  11. Expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, by low temperature and dormancy-breaking reagent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Hisayo; Ooka, Tomomi; Jotatsu, Hiroaki; Hosaka, Yukari; Sasaki, Ryuta; Tao, Ryutaro

    2011-06-01

    The present study investigated the expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, two of the six peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, in relation to lateral bud endodormancy. PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 were originally identified as homologues of Arabidopsis SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE/AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 identified in the EVERGROWING locus of peach. Furthermore, PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 have recently been suggested to be involved in terminal bud dormancy. In this study, seasonal expression analyses using leaves, stems, and lateral buds of high-chill and low-chill peaches in field conditions indicated that both genes were up-regulated during the endodormancy period and down-regulated with endodormancy release. Controlled environment experiments showed that the expression of both PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 were up-regulated by ambient cool temperatures in autumn, while they were down-regulated by the prolonged period of cold temperatures in winter. A negative correlation between expression levels of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 and bud burst percentage was found in the prolonged cold temperature treatment. Application of the dormancy-breaking reagent cyanamide to endo/ecodormant lateral buds induced early bud break and down-regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 expression at the same time. These results collectively suggest that PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 may function in the chilling requirement of peach lateral buds through growth-inhibiting functions for bud break.

  12. Promising sour cherry hybrids (Prunus cerasus L. developed at Fruit Research Institute Čačak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At Fruit Research Institute in Čačak, major objectives of the work on breeding new sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cultivars are high cropping, large, high-quality fruits and resistance to causal agents of diseases and pests. As a result of the planned hybridization, more than 10,000 hybrid seedlings have been developed from about 40 cultivars within more than 110 parental combinations, among which are 'Čačanski rubin' ('Shasse Morello' x 'Köröser Weichsel' and 'Šumadinka' ('Köröser Weichsel' x 'Heimanns Konserven Weichsel' which have been named and released. Ten-year study of 11 hybrids, selected from the population of about 3,000 hybrid seedlings, gave four hybrids which have been singled out as elite (III/23, III/31, II/40 i XII/57. These hybrids are currently under procedure of being released as new cultivars. The paper presents two-year results of the study of ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits, and field resistance to causal agents of diseases and pests attacking the above named genotypes which were compared to standard cultivar 'Heimanns Konserven Weichsel'. In the studied hybrids, fruit weight, soluble solids content and sugars content were higher than in standard cultivar. In addition, they exhibit substantial field resistance to causal agents of brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz., cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi L. attack.

  13. In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles using Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauthal, Preeti; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi

    2013-01-01

    In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold (Au-NPs) and silver (Ag-NPs) nanoparticles was investigated in the present study. Natural precursor Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract was used as a reducing agent for the nanoparticle synthesis. The free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were observed by modified 1,1'-diphynyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS assay. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Appearance of optical absorption peak at 537 nm (2.20 keV) and 435 nm (3 keV) within 0.08 and 0.5 h of reaction time was confirmed the presence of metallic Au and Ag nanoclusters, respectively. Nearly spherical nanoparticles with majority of particle below 20 nm (TEM) for both Au-NPs and Ag-NPs were synthesized. XRD pattern confirmed the existence of pure nanocrystalline Au-NPs while few additional peaks in the vicinity of fcc silver-speculated crystallization of metalloproteins of fruit extract on the surface of the Ag-NPs and vice versa. FTIR spectra was supported the role of amino acids of protein/enzymes of fruit extract for synthesis and stabilization of nanoparticles. Dose-dependent scavenging activity was observed for Au-NPs and Ag-NPs in both DPPH and ABTS in-vitro assay. 50 % scavenging activity for DPPH were 11.27 and 16.18 mg and for ABTS 3.40 and 7.12 mg with Au-NPs and Ag-NPs, respectively.

  14. Ecotopic expression of a novel peach (Prunus persica) CBF transcription factor in apple (Malus x domestica) results in short-day induced dormancy and increased cold hardiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulation of growth and dormancy in temperate perennials such as fruit trees is essential, as is the ability to acclimate to freezing temperatures. Depending on the species, the onset of either dormancy and or cold acclimation can be triggered to varying degrees by either or both low, non-freezing...

  15. Construction of a genetic linkage map for identification of molecular markers associated with resistance to Xanthomonas arboriciola pv. pruni in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni, is a serious disease that can affect peach fruit quality and production. The molecular basis of its tolerance and susceptibility is yet to be understood. To study the genetics of the peach in response to bacterial spot, an F2 population of ...

  16. Exceso de agua en el suelo: efecto sobre la calidad del fruto del duraznero prunus persica (L.) batsch Excess water in the soil: effect on fruit quality of peach prunus persica (l.) batsch

    OpenAIRE

    Mirta G González; Gisela Moreno; Giardina, Ernesto B.; Mariano Di Miro

    2006-01-01

    El duraznero es un cultivo perenne que requiere para su crecimiento un suelo sin limitaciones, en base a ello el objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los cambios químicos producidos en el suelo en condiciones de anegamiento, desde floración hasta fructificación, relacionándolo a la calidad y cantidad de la fruta. Se trabajó con un suelo Argiudol de características vérticas, con un destacado horizonte Bt que posee 35-38% de arcilla. Se realizaron dos tratamientos: control, sin anegamiento (C)...

  17. Effects of storage temperature, storage duration, and subsequent ripening on the physicochemical characteristics, volatile compounds, and phytochemicals of Western Red nectarine (Prunus persica L. Batsch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Christophe; Bony, Philippe; Chalot, Guillaume; Landry, Pierre; Lurol, Sebastien

    2014-05-21

    Western Red nectarines, harvested at commercial maturity, were stored for up to 20 days at 1, 4, or 8 °C and then transferred to 25 °C for 0 or 4 days. The main physicochemical attributes, phytochemicals, and volatile compounds were then determined. During storage and ripening, firmness, titratable acidity, organic acids, and C6 volatile compounds decreased, whereas ethylene production, lactones, and C13 norisoprenoids greatly increased. Soluble solids content, sugars, and polyphenols remained quite constant during both stages. During storage, vitamin C decreased and carotenoids did not significantly change, whereas both greatly increased during ripening. Increased time of low-temperature storage has been found to decrease lactones and C13 norisoprenoids in nectarine and, consequently, to limit its aroma during maturation. Finally, Western Red nectarine was found hardly chilling injury sensitive, and trends for sugars, polyphenols and lactones observed in this study were contrary to those generally reported in the literature for chilling-injured fruit.

  18. Aplicação de revestimentos comestíveis em pêssego (Prunus persica Use of edible coating in peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle de Assis Jacometti

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência de revestimentos comestíveis sobre a vida-de-prateleira, perda de massa, atividade metabólica e contaminação microbiológicas em pêssegos in natura. Foram utilizados pêssegos brancos cv. Perola de Mairinque (IAC 769-8 revestidos com soluções de 1% de goma gelana (p/v e 1% goma gelana + 1% sorbitol (p/v, embalados em caixas de papelão e armazenados a 10ºC / 80-85% UR por 16 dias. Frutos sem revestimento serviram de controle. Os revestimentos à base de goma gelana e gelana+sorbitol não alteraram a atividade fisiológica dos pêssegos, medida através da taxa de respiração, teor de sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável ao longo da armazenagem. Não houve diferença entre as taxas de perda de massa, que ficaram em torno de 1,4g/100g.dia. Os revestimentos não alteraram a aceitação dos pêssegos em termos de sabor e em termos de aparência, o controle obteve notas superiores aos revestidos devida a opacidade que o revestimento conferiu aos frutos. Na contagem total de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos e bolores e leveduras não houve diferença entre os tratamentos ao longo da armazenagem, mas em termos de microrganismos psicrotróficos os frutos revestidos apresentaram uma menor contagem em relação ao controle. Revestimentos à base de goma gelana e gelana+sorbitol não aumentaram a vida-de-prateleira de pêssegos armazenados sob refrigeração devido à composição do revestimento, que não reduziu a perda de massa nem a atividade fisiológica dos frutos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of edible coatings on shelf-life, weight loss, metabolic activity and microbial contamination of peaches in natura. White peaches cv. Perola de Mairinque (IAC 769-8 were coated with 1% gelan gum (p/v and 1% gelan gum + 1% sorbitol (p/v solutions, packed in paperboard box and stored at 10ºC/80-85% RH during 16 days. No coated fruits served as control. Gelan and gelan

  19. Growth and fruit bearing of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radunic

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... Die Flachkronen- Erziehung bei Zwetschen. Erwerbsobstbau, 32(2): 39-42. Kappel F, Bouthillier M (1995). Rootstock, severity of dormant pruning, and summer pruning influences on peach tree size, yield, and fruit quality. Can. J. Plant Sci. 75: 491-496. Lang GA (2001). Intensive Sweet Cherry Orchard ...

  20. An efficient viral vector for functional genomic studies of Prunus fruit trees and its induced resistance to Plum pox virus via silencing of a host factor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongguang; Wang, Aiming

    2017-03-01

    RNA silencing is a powerful technology for molecular characterization of gene functions in plants. A commonly used approach to the induction of RNA silencing is through genetic transformation. A potent alternative is to use a modified viral vector for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to degrade RNA molecules sharing similar nucleotide sequence. Unfortunately, genomic studies in many allogamous woody perennials such as peach are severely hindered because they have a long juvenile period and are recalcitrant to genetic transformation. Here, we report the development of a viral vector derived from Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), a widespread fruit tree virus that is endemic in all Prunus fruit production countries and regions in the world. We show that the modified PNRSV vector, harbouring the sense-orientated target gene sequence of 100-200 bp in length in genomic RNA3, could efficiently trigger the silencing of a transgene or an endogenous gene in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. We further demonstrate that the PNRSV-based vector could be manipulated to silence endogenous genes in peach such as eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E isoform (eIF(iso)4E), a host factor of many potyviruses including Plum pox virus (PPV). Moreover, the eIF(iso)4E-knocked down peach plants were resistant to PPV. This work opens a potential avenue for the control of virus diseases in perennial trees via viral vector-mediated silencing of host factors, and the PNRSV vector may serve as a powerful molecular tool for functional genomic studies of Prunus fruit trees. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The KNOTTED-like genes of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) are differentially expressed during drupe growth and the class 1 KNOPE1 contributes to mesocarp development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testone, Giulio; Condello, Emiliano; Di Giacomo, Elisabetta; Nicolodi, Chiara; Caboni, Emilia; Rasori, Angela; Bonghi, Claudio; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice; Giannino, Donato

    2015-08-01

    The Knotted-like transcription factors (KNOX) contribute to plant organ development. The expression patterns of peach KNOX genes showed that the class 1 members act precociously (S1-S2 stages) and differentially during drupe growth. Specifically, the transcription of KNOPE1 and 6 decreased from early (cell division) to late (cell expansion) S1 sub-stages, whilst that of STMlike1, 2, KNOPE2, 2.1 ceased at early S1. The KNOPE1 role in mesocarp was further addressed by studying the mRNA localization in the pulp cells and vascular net at early and late S1. The message signal was first diffuse in parenchymatous cells and then confined to hypodermal cell layers, showing that the gene down-tuning accompanied cell expansion. As for bundles, the mRNA mainly featured in the procambium/phloem of collateral open types and subsequently in the phloem side of complex structures (converging bundles, ducts). The KNOPE1 overexpression in Arabidopsis caused fruit shortening, decrease of mesocarp cell size, diminution of vascular lignification together with the repression of the major gibberellin synthesis genes AtGA20ox1 and AtGA3ox1. Negative correlation between the expression of KNOPE1 and PpGA3ox1 was observed in four cultivars at S1, suggesting that the KNOPE1 repression of PpGA3ox1 may regulate mesocarp differentiation by acting on gibberellin homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Polyphenolics from peach (Prunus persica var. Rich Lady) inhibit tumor growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noratto, Giuliana; Porter, Weston; Byrne, David; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2014-07-01

    The tumor growth inhibition and anti-metastatic effects of peach polyphenolics were investigated in vivo using a xenograft model and MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells. Results showed that tumor growth and lung metastasis were inhibited in vivo by peach polyphenolics in a dose range of 0.8-1.6 mg/day, and these effects were mediated by inhibition of metalloproteinases gene expression. Modulation of metalloproteinase-2, metalloproteinase-3 and metalloproteinase-13 gene expression may be some of the molecular targets for anti-metastatic activity of peach polyphenolics. Therefore, these compounds may constitute a novel chemopreventive tool to reduce the risk of metastasis in the combination therapy when primary cancer is diagnosed. Conversion to equivalent human intake for future clinical studies using the body surface area normalization method gave a dose of ~370.6 mg/day for a human adult of 60 kg, which can be supplied by consuming two to three peach fruit per day or alternatively using a dietary supplement peach polyphenol extract powder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genotyping by Sequencing for SNP-Based Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Chilling Requirement and Bloom Date in Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielenberg, Douglas Gary; Rauh, Bradley; Fan, Shenghua; Gasic, Ksenija; Abbott, Albert Glenn; Reighard, Gregory Lynn; Okie, William R; Wells, Christina Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Low-cost, high throughput genotyping methods are crucial to marker discovery and marker-assisted breeding efforts, but have not been available for many 'specialty crops' such as fruit and nut trees. Here we apply the Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS) method developed for cereals to the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a peach F2 mapping population. Peach is a genetic and genomic model within the Rosaceae and will provide a template for the use of this method with other members of this family. Our F2 mapping population of 57 genotypes segregates for bloom time (BD) and chilling requirement (CR) and we have extensively phenotyped this population. The population derives from a selfed F1 progeny of a cross between 'Hakuho' (high CR) and 'UFGold' (low CR). We were able to successfully employ GBS and the TASSEL GBS pipeline without modification of the original methodology using the ApeKI restriction enzyme and multiplexing at an equivalent of 96 samples per Illumina HiSeq 2000 lane. We obtained hundreds of SNP markers which were then used to construct a genetic linkage map and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BD and CR.

  4. Genotyping by Sequencing for SNP-Based Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Chilling Requirement and Bloom Date in Peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Gary Bielenberg

    Full Text Available Low-cost, high throughput genotyping methods are crucial to marker discovery and marker-assisted breeding efforts, but have not been available for many 'specialty crops' such as fruit and nut trees. Here we apply the Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS method developed for cereals to the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in a peach F2 mapping population. Peach is a genetic and genomic model within the Rosaceae and will provide a template for the use of this method with other members of this family. Our F2 mapping population of 57 genotypes segregates for bloom time (BD and chilling requirement (CR and we have extensively phenotyped this population. The population derives from a selfed F1 progeny of a cross between 'Hakuho' (high CR and 'UFGold' (low CR. We were able to successfully employ GBS and the TASSEL GBS pipeline without modification of the original methodology using the ApeKI restriction enzyme and multiplexing at an equivalent of 96 samples per Illumina HiSeq 2000 lane. We obtained hundreds of SNP markers which were then used to construct a genetic linkage map and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for BD and CR.

  5. Influence of antioxidant compounds, total sugars and genetic background on the chilling injury susceptibility of a non-melting peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Walid; Cantín, Celia M; Jiménez, Sergio; Giménez, Rosa; Moreno, María Ángeles; Gogorcena, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    To identify genotypes with good organoleptic properties, antioxidant-rich content and low susceptibility to chilling injury (CI), fruits from 130 peach cultivars were studied over three consecutive years. Pomological traits, l-ascorbic acid, flavonoids, total phenolics, relative antioxidant capacity (RAC) and sugars were determined. Major symptoms of CI developed at 5 °C, such as leatheriness, flesh browning, bleeding and loss of flavor, were evaluated. The population exhibited wide phenotypic variation in agronomic and biochemical traits. Six genotypes with high total phenolics, RAC, flavonoids and total sugars were selected. The progeny also showed variability for all evaluated CI symptoms, and 16 genotypes showed considerably lower susceptibility to CI. After 2 weeks of cold storage, leatheriness and bleeding were the main CI symptoms observed, whereas flesh browning was predominant after 4 weeks. It was possible to find varieties with high phenolic concentration and relatively low or intermediate CI susceptibility (22, 33, 68, 80, 81, 96 and 120). However, the correlations observed between CI and phenolic contents highlight their potential influence on susceptibility to internal browning. This relationship should be considered in the current breeding programs to select cultivars with high bioactive compound contents, health-enhancing properties and good postharvest performance. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response associated genes in seed stratification and bud endodormancy during chilling accumulation in Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xi Ling; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Dong Ling; Chen, Min; Tan, Qiu Ping; Li, Ling; De Chen, Xiu; Gao, Dong Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Dormancy mechanisms in seeds and buds arrest growth until environmental conditions are optimal for development. A genotype-specific period of chilling is usually required to release dormancy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. To discover transcriptional pathways associated with dormancy release common to seed stratification and bud endodormancy, we explored the chilling-dependent expression of 11 genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response signal pathways. We propose that endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response impact on seed as well as bud germination and development by chilling-dependent mechanisms. The emerging discovery of similarities between seed stratification and bud endodormancy status indicate that these two processes are probably regulated by common endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response signalling pathways. Clarification of regulatory pathways common to both seed and bud dormancy may enhance understanding of the mechanisms underlying dormancy and breeding programs may benefit from earlier prediction of chilling requirements for uniform blooming of novel genotypes of deciduous fruit tree species.

  7. Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response associated genes in seed stratification and bud endodormancy during chilling accumulation in Prunus persica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Ling Fu

    Full Text Available Dormancy mechanisms in seeds and buds arrest growth until environmental conditions are optimal for development. A genotype-specific period of chilling is usually required to release dormancy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. To discover transcriptional pathways associated with dormancy release common to seed stratification and bud endodormancy, we explored the chilling-dependent expression of 11 genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response signal pathways. We propose that endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response impact on seed as well as bud germination and development by chilling-dependent mechanisms. The emerging discovery of similarities between seed stratification and bud endodormancy status indicate that these two processes are probably regulated by common endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response signalling pathways. Clarification of regulatory pathways common to both seed and bud dormancy may enhance understanding of the mechanisms underlying dormancy and breeding programs may benefit from earlier prediction of chilling requirements for uniform blooming of novel genotypes of deciduous fruit tree species.

  8. Ectopic expression of a novel peach (Prunus persica) CBF transcription factor in apple (Malus × domestica) results in short-day induced dormancy and increased cold hardiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Michael; Norelli, John; Bassett, Carole; Artlip, Timothy; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2011-05-01

    Low, non-freezing temperatures and/or short daylength (SD) regulates cold acclimation and dormancy in fruit trees. Regarding cold acclimation, C-repeat binding factor (CBF/DREB) transcriptional activator genes have the well-documented ability to induce the expression of a suite of genes associated with increased cold tolerance. We isolated a full-length cDNA of a peach CBF gene, designated PpCBF1 (GenBank Accession HM992943), and constitutively expressed it using an enhanced 35S promoter in apple. Unexpectedly, constitutive overexpression of the PpCBF1 in apple resulted in strong sensitivity to short daylength. Growth cessation and leaf senescence were induced in transgenic lines exposed to SD and optimal growth temperatures of 25°C over a 4-week period. Following 1-4 weeks of SD and 25°C trees were returned to LD and 25°C in the greenhouse. Control (untransformed) plants continued to grow while transgenic lines receiving two or more weeks of SD remained dormant and began to drop leaves. Constitutive overexpression of the PpCBF1 in apple resulted in a 4-6°C increase in freezing tolerance in both the non-acclimated and acclimated states, respectively, compared with untransformed M.26 trees. This is the first instance that constitutive overexpression of a CBF gene has resulted in SD-induction of dormancy and to our knowledge the first time apple has been shown to strongly respond to short daylength as a result of the insertion of a transgene.

  9. Efficient synthesis of highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots for cell imaging using unripe fruit extract of Prunus mume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan, E-mail: mgsethu@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural Institute-Deemed University, Gandhigram 624 302, Tamilnadu (India); Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-30

    Graphical abstract: The green synthesis of highly fluorescent N-CDs was achieved using the extract of unripe P. mume fruit as a carbon precursor by a one-pot simple hydrothermal-carbonization method. The resulting N-CDs were used as a staining agent for the fluorescence imaging of MDA-MB-231 cells. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The green synthesis of highly fluorescent N-CDs using the extract of unripe P. mume. • The N-CDs were synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal-carbonization method. • This method of synthesis is a simple, cost effective and eco-friendly route. • N-CDs will be a good alternative for fluorescent dyes and SQDs for bio-applications. - Abstract: Highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) were synthesized using the extract of unripe Prunus mume (P. mume) fruit by a simple one step hydrothermal-carbonization method. The N-CDs were synthesized at different pH ranges, 2.3, 5, 7, and 9. The pH of the P. mume extract was adjusted using an aqueous ammonia solution (25%). The optical properties of N-CDs were examined by UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 emitted high fluorescence intensity compared to other obtained N-CDs. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 was further characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform-infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HR-TEM showed that the average size of the synthesized N-CDs was approximately 9 nm and the interlayer distance was 0.21 nm, which was validated by XRD. The graphitic nature of the synthesized N-CDs were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. XPS and FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the doping of the nitrogen moiety over the synthesized CDs. The synthesized nitrogen doped CDs (N-CDs) were low toxicity and were used as a staining probe for fluorescence cell imaging.

  10. Application of GFP-tagged Plum pox virus to study Prunus-PPV interactions at the whole plant and cellular levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansac, M; Eyquard, J P; Salvador, B; Garcia, J A; Le Gall, O; Decroocq, V; Schurdi-Levraud Escalettes, V

    2005-11-01

    The Sharka disease caused by the potyvirus Plum pox virus (PPV) is one of the most serious viral diseases affecting stone fruit trees. The study of PPV/Prunus interaction under greenhouse controlled conditions is space, time, labor consuming. While the PPV/Prunus interactions are now quite well known at the whole plant level, few data however are available on the interactions between the virus and the Prunus host plants at the cellular level. Using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged M type PPV strain, combined to an in vitro inoculation procedure, we developed a novel tool to track PPV invasion in Prunus persica (peach) cv. GF305 and Prunus armeniaca (apricot) cv. Screara susceptible hosts. Different graft combinations were performed using in vitro-maintained healthy or GFP-tagged PPV infected 'GF305' and 'Screara'. Contact for 30 days in grafts between the inoculum and the genotype to be tested were found sufficient to allow the systemic spread of the recombinant virus: fluorescence from GFP-tagged PPV could easily be detected in the entire plant under a binocular microscope allowing quick and reliable sorting of infected plants. Using a fluorescence stereomicroscopy or confocal microscopy, GFP could also be observed in stem cross-sections especially in epidermis and pith cells. In vitro grafting inoculation with GFP-tagged PPV provides a new and powerful tool to facilitate mid-term virus maintenance. Moreover, this tool will be of special importance in the study of PPV infection dynamics in Prunus, allowing as well precise observations of cellular events related to PPV/Prunus interactions.

  11. Field assessment of vulnerability to fungi diseases of varieties and forms of nectarine (Prunus persica (L. Batsch. subsp. nectarina (Ait. Shof. displaying male sterility characteristic from Niktskyi Botanic Garden collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. О. Іващенко

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The varieties and forms of nectarine resistant to fungi diseases (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lev. Aderh., Taphrina deformans Tul., Sphaerotheca pannosa (Wallr. Fr. Lev. var. persicae Woronich having the practical interest for modern technology growing and for breeding on these characteristics have been selected.

  12. Six-year performance of 14 Prunus rootstocks at 11 sites in the 2001 NC-140 peach trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with either ‘Redtop’, ‘Redhaven’ or ‘Cresthaven’ peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] were planted at 11 locations in North America in 2001 in a randomized block design with a tree spacing of 5 by 6 m and 8 replicates. This test planting was a...

  13. Role of Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Sulfide in the Vasodilator Effect of Ursolic Acid and Uvaol from Black Cherry Prunus serotina Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to isolate the non-polar secondary metabolites that produce the vasodilator effects induced by the dichloromethane extract of Prunus serotina (P. serotina fruits and to determine whether the NO/cGMP and the H2S/KATP channel pathways are involved in their mechanism of action. A bioactivity-directed fractionation of the dichloromethane extract of P. serotina fruits led to the isolation of ursolic acid and uvaol as the main non-polar vasodilator compounds. These compounds showed significant relaxant effect on rat aortic rings in an endothelium- and concentration-dependent manner, which was inhibited by NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, dl-propargylglycine (PAG and glibenclamide (Gli. Additionally, both triterpenes increased NO and H2S production in aortic tissue. Molecular docking studies showed that ursolic acid and uvaol are able to bind to endothelial NOS and CSE with high affinity for residues that form the oligomeric interface of both enzymes. These results suggest that the vasodilator effect produced by ursolic acid and uvaol contained in P. serotina fruits, involves activation of the NO/cGMP and H2S/KATP channel pathways, possibly through direct activation of NOS and CSE.

  14. Genome-wide association links candidate genes to resistance to Plum Pox Virus in apricot (Prunus armeniaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariette, Stéphanie; Wong Jun Tai, Fabienne; Roch, Guillaume; Barre, Aurélien; Chague, Aurélie; Decroocq, Stéphane; Groppi, Alexis; Laizet, Yec'han; Lambert, Patrick; Tricon, David; Nikolski, Macha; Audergon, Jean-Marc; Abbott, Albert G; Decroocq, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    In fruit tree species, many important traits have been characterized genetically by using single-family descent mapping in progenies segregating for the traits. However, most mapped loci have not been sufficiently resolved to the individual genes due to insufficient progeny sizes for high resolution mapping and the previous lack of whole-genome sequence resources of the study species. To address this problem for Plum Pox Virus (PPV) candidate resistance gene identification in Prunus species, we implemented a genome-wide association (GWA) approach in apricot. This study exploited the broad genetic diversity of the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) germplasm containing resistance to PPV, next-generation sequence-based genotyping, and the high-quality peach (Prunus persica) genome reference sequence for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification. The results of this GWA study validated previously reported PPV resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) intervals, highlighted other potential resistance loci, and resolved each to a limited set of candidate genes for further study. This work substantiates the association genetics approach for resolution of QTL to candidate genes in apricot and suggests that this approach could simplify identification of other candidate genes for other marked trait intervals in this germplasm. © 2015 INRA, UMR 1332 BFP New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Identification of Candidate Anthocyanin-related Genes by Transcriptomic Analysis of ‘Furongli’ Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. During Fruit Ripening Using RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhen Fang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are important pigments and are responsible for red coloration in plums. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation in plum fruits. In this study, the RNA-seq technique was used to analyze the transcriptomic changes during fruit ripening in the red-fleshed plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivar ‘Furongli’. Over 161 million high-quality reads were assembled into 52,093 unigenes and 49.4% of these were annotated using public databases. Of these, 25,681 unigenes had significant hits to the sequences in the NCBI Nr database, 17,203 unigenes showed significant similarity to known proteins in the Swiss-Prot database and 5,816 and 8,585 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and the Cluster of Orthologous Groups databases, respectively. A total of 3,548 unigenes were differentially expressed during fruit ripening and 119 of these were annotated as involved in ‘biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites’. Biological pathway analysis and gene ontology term enrichment analysis revealed that 13 differentially expressed genes are involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, transcription factors such as MYB and bHLH, which may control anthocyanin biosynthesis, were identified through coexpression analysis of transcription factors and structural genes. Real-time qPCR analysis of candidate genes showed good correlation with the transcriptome data. These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis in plum flesh. The transcriptomic data generated in this study provide a basis for further studies of fruit ripening in plum.

  16. Influence of Phosphate Compounds on Certain Fungi and Their Preservative Effects on Fresh Cherry Fruits (Prunus cerasus, L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, F. J.; Coblentz, W. S.; Chou, T. W.; Salunkhe, D. K.

    1968-01-01

    Studies were conducted to ascertain the retarding effects of four phosphate compounds (sodium hexametaphosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium tetraphosphate, and tetrasodium pyrophosphate) on molding of fresh cherries (Prunus cerasus, L.). In vitro studies on their antimycotic effects against the most common fungal spoilers, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus nigricans, and Botrytis sp., were also carried out. Sodium tetraphosphate appeared to be the most effective compound in preserving cherries and also had the greatest antimycotic effects in the in vitro studies. A 10% concentration, when applied as a dip, inhibited fungal growth on fresh cherries for up to 30 days of storage at 1.1 C (34 F) and a relative humidity of 94%, whereas untreated controls showed fungal growth at 14 days. Following in order of effectiveness were sodium hexametaphosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, and tetrasodium pyrophosphate. PMID:4295176

  17. Variation in minerals, phenolics and antioxidant activity of peel and pulp of different varieties of peach (Prunus persica L.) fruit from Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manzoor, Maleeha; Anwar, Farooq; Mahmood, Zahed; Rashid, Umer; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    .... In this study variation of minerals and antioxidant characteristics (total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of peroxidation using linoleic acid system and DPPH free radical scavenging activity...

  18. Caracterización con RAMs de la colección de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch) existente en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado; Yacenia Morillo Coronado; Elberth Hernando Pinzón Sandoval

    2014-01-01

    Utilizando ocho cebadores Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAMs) fue evaluada la diversidad genética de 31 materiales de Prunus de la colección de caducifolios existente en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia. Se generaron un total de 121 amplicones con pesos moleculares entre 260 y 1000 Kb. Con un coeficiente de similitud de 0.75, se formaron tres grupos, de acuerdo principalmente con las características del fruto, encontrando en el grupo 2 las variedades de importancia e...

  19. Caracterización con rams de la colección de durazno (prunus persica (l.) batsch existente en la universidad pedagógica y tecnológica de colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Morillo Coronado, Ana Cruz; Morillo Coronado, Yacenia; Pinzón Sandoval, Elberth Hernando

    2014-01-01

    Utilizando ocho cebadores Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAMs) fue evaluada la diversidad genética de 31 materiales de Prunus de la colección de caducifolios existente en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia. Se generaron un total de 121 amplicones con pesos moleculares entre 260 y 1000 Kb. Con un coeficiente de similaridad de a 0.75 se formaron tres grupos, de acuerdo principalmente con las características del fruto, encontrando en el grupo 2 las variedades de importan...

  20. Caracterización con RAMs de la colección de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch existente en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando ocho cebadores Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAMs fue evaluada la diversidad genética de 31 materiales de Prunus de la colección de caducifolios existente en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia. Se generaron un total de 121 amplicones con pesos moleculares entre 260 y 1000 Kb. Con un coeficiente de similitud de 0.75, se formaron tres grupos, de acuerdo principalmente con las características del fruto, encontrando en el grupo 2 las variedades de importancia económica. El número de loci polimórficos varió entre 5 y 16 para los cebadores GT y CCA, respectivamente. El valor promedio de heterocigosidad fue de 0.22, más bajo que los encontrados en otros estudios de diversidad genética en el género Prunus; por tanto, se deben buscar estrategias para incrementar la variabilidad genética de la colección como la introducción de nuevos materiales o híbridos interespecíficos. La técnica RAMs es útil para evaluar la diversidad genética en especies caducifolias.

  1. Plum pox virus induces differential gene expression in the partially resistant stone fruit tree Prunus armeniaca cv. Goldrich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurdi-Levraud Escalettes, Valérie; Hullot, Clémence; Wawrzy'nczak, Danuta; Mathieu, Elodie; Eyquard, Jean-Philippe; Le Gall, Olivier; Decroocq, Véronique

    2006-06-07

    We investigated the changes in the expression profiles of the partially resistant apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivar Goldrich following inoculation with Plum pox virus (PPV) using cDNA-amplification fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Altered expression patterns were detected and twenty-one differentially expressed cDNA had homologies with genes in databases coding for proteins involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense, stress and intra/intercellular connections. Seven of the modified expressed patterns were further investigated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR or Northern blotting. The expression patterns of five of these genes were confirmed in the partially resistant P. armeniaca cv. 'Goldrich' and assessed in a susceptible genotype. One of these cDNAs, coding for a putative class III chitinase, appeared to be repressed in infected plants of the partially resistant genotype and expressed in the susceptible one which could be related to the partially resistant phenotype. On the contrary, the expression patterns of the genes coding for a transketolase, a kinesin-like and an ankyrin-like protein, were clearly linked to the susceptible interaction. These candidate genes could play a role either in the compatible interaction leading to virus invasion or to the quantitative resistance of apricot to PPV.

  2. Ethanol extract of Prunus mume fruit attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis involving Nrf2/HO-1 activation in C2C12 myoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Sook Kang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The fruit of the Prunus mume (Siebold Siebold & Zucc., Rosaceae (Korean name: Maesil has long been used as a health food or valuable medicinal material in traditional herb medicine in Southeast Asian countries. In this study, we determined the potential therapeutic efficacy of the ethanol extract of P. mume fruits (EEPM against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the murine skeletal muscle myoblast cell line C2C12, and sought to understand the associated molecular mechanisms. The results indicated that exposure of C2C12 cells to H2O2 caused a reduction in cell viability by increasing the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and by disrupting mitochondrial membrane permeability, leading to DNA damage and apoptosis. However, pretreatment of the cells with EEPM before H2O2 exposure effectively attenuated these changes, suggesting that EEPM prevented H2O2-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, the increased ex-pression and phosphorylation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, a phase II antioxidant enzyme, were detected in EEPM-treated C2C12 cells. We also found that zinc protoporphyrin IX, an HO-1 inhibitor, attenuated the protective effects of EEPM against H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species accumulation and cytotoxicity. Therefore, these results indicate that the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway might be involved in the protection of EEPM against H2O2-induced cellular oxidative damage. In conclusion, these results show that EEPM contributes to the prevention of oxidative damage and could be used as a nutritional agent for oxidative stress-related diseases.

  3. Variance, genetic control and spatial phenotypic plasticity of morphological and phenological traits in Prunus spinosa and its large fruited forms (P. x fruticans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Vander Mijnsbrugge

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prunus spinosa is a highly esteemed shrub in forest and landscape plantings. Shrubs with larger organs occur often and are considered either as large fruited forms of P. spinosa or as P. x fruticans, involving a hybridization process with the ancient cultivated P. insititia (crop-to-wild gene flow. As climate change may augment hybridization processes in the future, a hybrid origin is important to detect. In addition, studying crop-to-wild gene flow can give insights in putative consequences for the wild populations. We studied the P. spinosa – P. x fruticans group, focusing on morphology and phenology in three experimental plantations. Two plantings harbored cuttings of P. spinosa (clone plantations. A third plantation comprised of a half-sib offspring from a population with both P. spinosa and P. x fruticans (family plantation. Several results point to a hybridization process as the origin of P. x fruticans. The clone plantation revealed endocarp traits to be more genetically controlled than fruit size, while this was the opposite in the family plantation, suggesting the control of fruit size being derived from the putative P. insititia parent. Bud burst, flower opening and leaf fall were genetically controlled in the clone plantation, whereas in the family plantation intrafamily variability was remarkably large for the bud burst and leaf fall, but not for the flower opening. This suggests there is a reduced genetic control for the first two phenophases, possibly caused by historic hybridization events. Pubescence on the long shoot leaves in the family plantation deviated from the short shoot leaves on the same plants and from long and short shoot leaves in the clone plantation, suggesting again a P. insititia origin. Finally, we quantified spatial phenotypic plasticity, indicating how P. spinosa may react in a changing environment. In contrast to the bud burst and leaf fall, flower opening did not demonstrate plasticity. The fruit size was

  4. The peach (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch) homeobox gene KNOPE3, which encodes a class 2 knotted-like transcription factor, is regulated during leaf development and triggered by sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testone, Giulio; Condello, Emiliano; Verde, Ignazio; Caboni, Emilia; Iannelli, Maria Adelaide; Bruno, Leonardo; Mariotti, Domenico; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice; Giannino, Donato

    2009-07-01

    Class 1 KNOTTED1-like transcription factors (KNOX) are known to regulate plant development, whereas information on class 2 KNOX has been limited. The peach KNOPE3 gene was cloned, belonged to a family of few class 2 members and was located at 66 cM in the Prunus spp. G1 linkage-group. The mRNA localization was diversified in leaf, stem, flower and drupe, but recurred in all organ sieves, suggesting a role in sap nutrient transport. During leaf development, the mRNA earliest localized to primordia sieves and subsequently to mesophyll cells of growing leaves. Consistently, its abundance augmented with leaf expansion. The transcription was monitored in leaves responding to darkening, supply and transport block of sugars. It peaked at 4 h after darkness and dropped under prolonged obscurity, showing a similar kinetic to that of sucrose content variation. Feeding leaflets via the transpiration stream caused KNOPE3 up-regulation at 3 h after fructose, glucose and sucrose absorption and at 12 h after sorbitol. In girdling experiments, leaf KNOPE3 was triggered from 6 h onwards along with sucrose and sorbitol raise. Both the phloem-associated expression and sugar-specific gene modulation suggest that KNOPE3 may play a role in sugar translocation during the development of agro-relevant organs such as drupe.

  5. Adaptability and stability of fruit set and production of peach trees in a subtropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idemir Citadin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian peach breeding programs have been established to improve peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] production, yield consistency, quality, and disease resistance. Every year several genotypes are selected and their traits must be assessed. This study aimed to evaluate adaptability and stability of fruit set and production of peach genotypes in a subtropical climate, using the GGE biplot methodology. The experimental design was completely randomized with three replicates (trees in a factorial arrangement of 29 × 3 for genotype and growing season, respectively. The genotypes 'Conserva 1129', 'Rubimel', 'Kampai', 'Tropic Beauty', and 'Cascata 967' had the greatest adaptability and stability for fruit set. The genotypes 'Conserva 681', 'Santa Áurea', 'Atenas', 'Kampai', 'Cascata 962', 'Tropic Beauty' and 'Cascata 967' had the greatest production adaptability and stability. The GGE-biplot methodology classified the peach tree genotypes with regard to adaptability and stability of fruit set and production.

  6. TRACE ELEMENTS IN FRUIT AND VEGETABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Papa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of six different trace metals [vanadium (V, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr,  lead (Pb, copper (Cu and cadmium (Cd] were determined in various fruit and vegetables [peach (Prunus persica L., plum (Prunus domestica L., tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., courgette or marrow (Cucurbita pepo L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.] provided by diverse farms. Metal distribution was also separately evaluated, in skin and pulp, where it was possible. Their contributions to human daily intake of trace metals were investigated. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of these metals in the fruit and vegetables. All traces of elements tested in peaches and tomatoes were higher in the skin than in the pulp except for Cd in the peaches; all traces of elements tested in plums and marrows were higher in the pulp than in the skin. The concentrations of Pb and Cd in lettuce were 1.3 and 2.7 times above the permissible levels, respectively. It is concluded that the regular monitoring of food trace metals is very important to prevent diseases that depend on their excessive accumulation in the human food chain.

  7. Role of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its secondary hosts in plum pox virus propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manachini, B; Casati, P; Cinanni, L; Bianco, P

    2007-08-01

    Plum pox virus (family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus, PPV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of plants in the genus Prunus, particularly Prunus persica L. The role of the Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as a vector of PPV-M, and its role in spreading PPV-M, was investigated. PPV-M-infected peach trees were used as inoculum sources, and transmission to 15 herbaceous species commonly present in and around peach orchards was evaluated. The presence of PPV-M in secondary hosts after aphid transmission was verified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests. The results indicate that Saponaria ocymoides L., Pisum sativum L., Trifolium repens L., Trifolium pratense L., Lepidium sativum L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Centaurea cyanus L., Bellis perennis L., Papaver rhoeas L., and Zinnia elegans L. became infected. Although Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley, Taraxacum officinale L., Achillea millefolium L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., and Linum rubrum L. did not become infected, they are hosts of M. persicae. Among the 10 positive species that were infected, the species most common in peach orchards, T. pratense, T. repens, B. perennis, and M. chamomilla, were used as source plants for the transmission studies to the peach tree. Our study reveals the ability of M. persicae to transmit PPV-M from herbaceous hosts to peach trees, describes PPV-M symptoms in herbaceous species, and discusses the role of M. persicae and its hosts as a source of PPV-M in peach orchards.

  8. Pós-colheita de pêssegos (Prunus pérsica L. Bastsch revestidos com filmes a base de amido como alternativa à cera comercial Postharvest of peaches (Prunus persica L. Bastsch covered with film-forming of cassava starch as alternative to the commercial wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alvares de Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou prolongar a conservação póscolheita de pêssegos, armazenando-os à temperatura ambiente. Inicialmente selecionou-se uma microemulsão à base de fécula de mandioca e cera de abelha. Posteriormente ela foi testada, aplicando-a na superfície dos frutos em comparação com "Fruit wax" (cera comercial, com o intuito de se verificar o efeito dos diferentes tratamentos na composição química, física e físico-química dos mesmos. Utilizaram-se pêssegos 'Biuti' colhidos manualmente em 14/01/1999, ao atingirem o ponto de maturação fisiológica. Do lote colhido foram selecionados 120 frutos sendo os mesmos analisados quanto a perda de massa fresca, taxa respiratória, textura, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável e pH, a cada 3 dias. Os frutos receberam os tratamentos: Testemunha, "Fruit Wax", Fécula e Microemulsão. Os tratamentos "Fruit Wax" e "Microemulsão" proporcionaram melhor eficiência em relação à perda de massa fresca que os frutos dos tratamentos Testemunha e Fécula. Quanto à taxa de respiração, verificou-se picos da ordem de 40mg de CO2.kg-1.h-1 . Quanto aos açúcares, verificou-se que a sacarose foi o açúcar encontrado em maior quantidade, com apenas traços de glicose e frutose em algumas amostras. Quanto aos teores de sólidos solúveis totais, os frutos tratados com "Fruit Wax" apresentaram valores inferiores aos do tratamento Testemunha. O efeito da Microemulsão mostrou-se similar ao da cera "Fruit Wax" em todos os atributos e, superior ao dos tratamentos Testemunha e Fécula na redução da perda de massa fresca.The main objective of this work was to prolong the shelf life of peaches at ambient conditions. Initially, the studies were to get a film forming of cassava starch and bee wax with similar properties of commercial waxes. The second pass was apply in the surface of the fruits, commercial wax (" Fruit wax" or film-forming of cassava starch and bee wax. The

  9. Development and Fecundity Performance of Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Reared on Shoots and Fruits of Peach and Pear in Different Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Li, Guangwei; Xu, Xiangli; Wu, Junxiang

    2015-12-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) is a globally important insect pest. In some parts of its geographic range, the oriental fruit moth shifts its attack from peach orchards to pear orchards late in the growing season. The phenological effects of host plants on the performance of the moth were evaluated by examining the development and fecundity of the moth reared on peach (Prunus persica variety "Shahong") and pear (Pyrus bretshneideri variety "Dangshan Su") collected at various times of the growing season under laboratory conditions. Results showed that the moth developed faster on shoots and fruits of peach than on those of pear. The preimaginal survival rate was the highest on peach shoots, and the moth could not survive on pear fruit collected on May 10. For both peach and pear, the boring rates of neonatal larvae were significantly higher on shoots than on fruits, and the pupal mass of females was significantly higher on fruits than on shoots. The boring rate increased with pear fruits growing during later days. Fecundity was significantly less on pear shoots than on the other plant materials. The results of this study suggest a possible host adaptation process in oriental fruit moth. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de quatro clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. durante o inverno ameno, em Jaboticabal-SP Rooting of herbaceous cuttings of four mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. during soft winter, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos realizados no Brasil com o umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. relatam promissoras perspectivas de utilização desta espécie como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro e nectarineira, em função de sua rusticidade, adaptação ao inverno brando, compatibilidade com Prunus persica, redução do vigor das plantas e melhoria da qualidade dos frutos. Entretanto, em função da propagação por sementes, tem sido observadas diferenças de vigor entre as plantas, resultando em pomares muito heterogêneos. Assim, o presente estudo teve por objetivo estudar o enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de quatro clones de umezeiro (Clones 02, 05, 10 e 15 durante o inverno ameno, em Jaboticabal-SP. O experimento foi conduzido entre os meses de junho e agosto, sendo avaliado aos 70 dias após a estaquia. Pelos resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que é viável a propagação dos clones estudados por enraizamento de estacas herbáceas durante o inverno. Foram observadas diferenças entre os clones quanto à porcentagem de enraizamento, porcentagem de estacas com calo, número e comprimento das raízes. No conjunto das variáveis analisadas, os melhores resultados foram obtidos com os Clones 10 e 15.Studies developed in Brazil with the mume (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. have shown promising perspectives of using this species as rootstock for peach and nectarine trees, in function of its rusticity, adaptation to soft winter, compatibility with Prunus persica, plant vigor reduction and improvement of the fruit quality. However, due to seed propagation, vigor differences have been observed among plants, resulting in very heterogeneous orchards. Thus, the present study had the objective of studying the rooting of herbaceous cuttings of four mume clones (Clones 02, 05, 10 and 15 in intermittent mist during the soft winter, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was carried out between June and August, being evaluated 70 days after the cutting

  11. Investigation on the pollen morphology of traditional cultivars of Prunus species in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Geraci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study pollen grains of 13 cultivars and 3 rootstocks belonging to 5 species (P. armeniaca, P. domestica, P. dulcis, P. persica, P. avium of the genus Prunus collected from North-East Sicily were examined for the micromorphological characterization through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The length of polar axis (P and the equatorial diameter (E of grain, P/E ratio, the length of colpi (C, diameter of perforations (DP and the number of perforations in 25 μm2 (PN, the width of muri (WM, the distance between muri (DM and their number in 25 μm2 (MN, the width of grooves (WG were measured and their variation was compared among studied taxa. Moreover multivariate statistical analysis was carried out to distinguish morphometric information from measured parameters. All pollen grains are trizonocolpate, isopolar, medium-large sized and their shape varies from prolate to perprolate. Regarding outline pollen grains are subtriangular in polar view and elliptic in equatorial view. Exine sculpturing is striate with perforations on grain surface. The arrangement of ridges appears roughly parallel but too sloped (sometimes curved compared to polar axis, or branched and oriented in different directions, or perfectly parallel or more irregular with bifurcated ridges often sinuous. The analyses showed a great variability (particularly in P. domestica cultivars related in some cases to the diversity in the morphological features of the leaves and the fruits of the investigated entities.

  12. Cadmium distribution in field-grown fruit trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korcak, R.F. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States))

    The effect of soil applied Cd on Cd distribution in and growth of five species of fruit trees was investigated. Cadmium was applied at three rates (0, 5, and 10 mg kg{sup {minus}1} soil) as CdSO{sub 4} to orchard plots established at two pH levels, low (5.5) and high (6.5). Five fruit tree types were planted: Gala apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) budded on M.26 (dwarfing) or MM.111 (semistandard) rootstocks, Redskin peach (Prunus persica L.) on Lovell rootstock, Stanley plum (Prunus domestica L.) on Myrobalon rootstock, and Seckel pear (Pyrus communis L.) on seedling rootstock. The trees were grown for 6 yr, 7 yr in the case of pear, and leaf, bark, wood, fruit, and root Cd concentrations were monitored. Gala apple on both rootstocks accumulated very small concentrations of Cd, usually 0.1 mg kg{sup {minus}1} dry wt. in all tissues tested. Peach and plum were intermediate in Cd accumulation, but both still relatively low. Seckel pear had high Cd concentrations in all tissues including fruit flesh and peel. Pear leaf Cd concentrations were 2.0 mg kg{sup {minus}1} from the 10 mg kg{sup {minus}1} soil Cd application after 5 yr. Pear fruit peel and flesh showed elevated, although nonsignificant, Cd concentrations with increased Cd applied. There was little difference between bark and wood tissue Cd concentrations independent of tree type. Root Cd concentrations were highest for pear followed by peach and plum, and lowest in apple.

  13. Gene flow in Prunus species in the context of novel trait risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cici, S Zahra H; Van Acker, Rene C

    2010-01-01

    Prunus species are important commercial fruit (plums, apricot, peach and cherries), nut (almond) and ornamental trees cultivated broadly worldwide. This review compiles information from available literature on Prunus species in regard to gene flow and hybridization within this complex of species. The review serves as a resource for environmental risk assessment related to pollen mediated gene flow and the release of transgenic Prunus. It reveals that Prunus species, especially plums and cherries show high potential for transgene flow. A range of characteristics including; genetic diversity, genetic bridging capacity, inter- and intra-specific genetic compatibility, self sterility (in most species), high frequency of open pollination, insect assisted pollination, perennial nature, complex phenotypic architecture (canopy height, heterogeneous crown, number of flowers produced in an individual plant), tendency to escape from cultivation, and the existence of ornamental and road side Prunus species suggest that there is a tremendous and complicated ability for pollen mediated gene movement among Prunus species. Ploidy differences among Prunus species do not necessarily provide genetic segregation. The characteristics of Prunu s species highlight the complexity of maintaining coexistence between GM and non-GM Prunus if there were commercial production of GM Prunus species. The results of this review suggest that the commercialization of one GM Prunus species can create coexistence issues for commercial non-GM Prunus production. Despite advances in molecular markers and genetic analysis in agroecology, there remains limited information on the ecological diversity, metapopulation nature, population dynamics, and direct measures of gene flow among different subgenera represented in the Prunus genus. Robust environmental impact, biosafety and coexistence assessments for GM Prunus species will require better understanding of the mechanisms of gene flow and hybridization

  14. Intensidade de raleio de frutos em pessegueiros 'flordaprince' conduzidos em pomar com alta densidade de plantio Intensity of fruit thinning in peaches 'flordaprince' conducted in orchard of high density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO ALEXIO SCARPARE FILHO

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o comportamento de pessegueiros (Prunus persica (L. Batsch. cultivar Flordaprince, conduzidos em pomar com alta densidade (3.333 plantas/ha, submetidos a diferentes intensidades de raleio manual de frutos. Os tratamentos utilizados foram 120, 100 e 80 frutos por planta, e o controle sem raleio (230 frutos por planta. As plantas submetidas ao raleio produziram frutos significativamente maiores e mais pesados do que os do controle. A produção por planta (kg e a produtividade estimada (t/ha foram maiores nas plantas sem raleio, mas a classificação comercial e a receita bruta (R$/ha desse tratamento foram menores, devido ao menor tamanho e peso dos frutos. Os tratamentos 100 e 80 frutos por planta (56,52% e 65,21% de raleio, respectivamente apresentaram os melhores resultadosThe objective of this paper was to test the behavior of peaches (Prunus persica (L. Batsch. cultivar Flordaprince carried out in high dense orchard (3,333 plants/ha submitted to different intensities of hand thinning of fruits. The treatments tested were 120, 100 and 80 fruits per plant and without thinning (230 fruits per plant. The thinned plants produced larger and weightier fruits if compared with control plants. The yield per plant (kg and estimated productivity (ton/ha were higher in plants not thinned, but marketing classification and gross income were lower in this treatment due to small fruit size and weight. The treatments 100 and 80 fruits per plant (56.52% and 65.21% of thinning, respectively presented the best results.

  15. Susceptibility of Some Stone and Pome Fruit Rootstocks to Crown Gall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rhouma

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of different fruit rootstocks to crown gall disease was investigated in greenhouse and field experiments with numerous strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens over three years. Plants were inoculated in the roots and shoots for pot experiments. Field experiments were performed in a naturally contaminated nursery plot. The genotypes Prunus dulcis and P. persica showed a high level of susceptibility to A. tumefaciens. Among the stone rootstocks, bitter almond was highly susceptible in all experiments. Apricot and Cadaman rootstocks displayed low susceptibility but larger galls, showing that there was no relation between rootstock susceptibility and gall size. Among pome rootstocks, quince BA29 was resistant to the disease, while MM106 was susceptible in potted trials; however, in the field essays, pome rootstocks did not become galled, possibly because the strains had selected for and adapted to stone rootstocks.

  16. The occurrence of the cicada Cicadatra persica on apple trees, Malus domestica, in Erneh, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardar, Marah A; Belal, Hamzeh M R; Basheer, Abedlnabi M

    2013-01-01

    An infestation of Cicadatra persica KirKaldy (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) on apple trees, Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosales: Rosaceae), was reported for the first time in the apple fruit orchards of Erneh, Syria. Nymphs, adults, exuvia, and exit holes in the soil were observed. The species was identified as C. persica based on morphological characters. Some biological observations and an acoustic analysis of the male's songs were also achieved.

  17. Occurrence of Stone Fruit Viroids in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matic

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-imprint hybridization (TIH assays were used to determine the occurrence and incidence of Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd and Hop stunt viroid (HSVd in stone fruit trees in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Our collections included trees of plum, peach, cherries, apricot, myrobalan and blackthorn from 33 commercial orchards and 2 nurseries, in the areas of Banja Luka, Gradacac, Sarajevo and Mostar. Of the 410 trees assayed, 44 (11% tested positive by TIH assays. PLMVd was detected in 39 peach trees, including two old (seed grown vineyard peach trees (Prunus persica subsp. vulgaris. Tests for HSVd were positive in 3 apricot and 2 plum trees. PLMVd was widely distributed throughout the country. In contrast, HSVd was found only in the northern part of the country. Both native and imported cultivars of Prunus were infected. This is the first record of PLMVd and HSVd in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In a separate experiment, peach trees with PLMVd were monitored in the autumn, winter and spring seasons, with tissue imprints of leaf petioles, dormant cuttings and forced sprouts from dormant cuttings. Irrespective of the tissues assayed, nearly all samples tested positive for PLMVd.

  18. Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Pino

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values (OAV. The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E-β-ionone, Γ-dodecalactone, (Z-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, Γ-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, Δ-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z-3-hexenol, (Z-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, Γ-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.

  19. Characterisation of Phenolic Compounds in South African Plum Fruits (Prunus salicina Lindl. using HPLC Coupled with Diode-Array, Fluorescence, Mass Spectrometry and On-Line Antioxidant Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalene de Beer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are abundant secondary metabolites in plums, with potential health benefits believed to be due to their antioxidant activity, amongst others. Phenolic characterisation of South African Prunus salicina Lindl. plums is necessary to fully evaluate their potential health benefits. An HPLC method using diode-array detection (DAD for quantification of phenolic compounds was improved and fluorescence detection (FLD was added for quantification of flavan-3-ols. Validation of the HPLC-DAD-FLD method showed its suitability for quantification of 18 phenolic compounds, including flavan-3-ols using FLD, and phenolic acids, anthocyanins and flavonols using DAD. The method was suitable for characterisation of the phenolic composition of 11 South African plum cultivars and selections, including various types with yellow and red skin and flesh. The method was used in conjunction with mass spectrometry (MS to identify 24 phenolic compounds. Neochlorogenic acid and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside were the major compounds in most of the plums, while cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was absent in Sun Breeze plums with yellow skin and flesh. Post-column on-line coupling of the ABTS•+ scavenging assay with HPLC-DAD enabled qualitative evaluation of the relative contribution of individual phenolic compounds to the antioxidant activity. The flavan-3-ols, neochlorogenic acid and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside displayed the largest antioxidant response peaks.

  20. Identification of woolliness response genes in peach fruit after post-harvest treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Agüero, Mauricio; Pavez, Leonardo; Ibáñez, Freddy; Pacheco, Igor; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Meisel, Lee A; Orellana, Ariel; Retamales, Julio; Silva, Herman; González, Mauricio; Cambiazo, Verónica

    2008-01-01

    Woolliness is a physiological disorder of peaches and nectarines that becomes apparent when fruit are ripened after prolonged periods of cold storage. This disorder is of commercial importance since shipping of peaches to distant markets and storage before selling require low temperature. However, knowledge about the molecular basis of peach woolliness is still incomplete. To address this issue, a nylon macroarray containing 847 non-redundant expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a ripe peach fruit cDNA library was developed and used. Gene expression changes of peach fruit (Prunus persica cv. O'Henry) ripened for 7 d at 21 degrees C (juicy fruit) were compared with those of fruit stored for 15 d at 4 degrees C and then ripened for 7 d at 21 degrees C (woolly fruit). A total of 106 genes were found to be differentially expressed between juicy and woolly fruit. Data analysis indicated that the activity of most of these genes (>90%) was repressed in the woolly fruit. In cold-stored peaches (cv. O'Henry), the expression level of selected genes (cobra, endopolygalacturonase, cinnamoyl-CoA-reductase, and rab11) was lower than in the juicy fruit, and it remained low in woolly peaches after ripening, a pattern that was conserved in woolly fruit from two other commercial cultivars (cv. Flamekist and cv. Elegant Lady). In addition, the results of this study indicate that molecular changes during fruit woolliness involve changes in the expression of genes associated with cell wall metabolism and endomembrane trafficking. Overall, the results reported here provide an initial characterization of the transcriptome activity of peach fruit under different post-harvest treatments.

  1. Growth and Yield of Peaches on Rootstocks of Prunus tomentosa and Prunus persica

    OpenAIRE

    中野, 幹夫; 島村, 和夫

    1983-01-01

    モモ栽培の省力化を目的に台木及び仕立方を異にした低木・密植栽培を試みた. すなわち,ユスラウメ台を用いた主幹仕立,共台を用いた架線仕立と平行並列仕立である. ユスラウメ台樹の生育は品種及び個体により大きく変異したが,共台に比べ強くわい化した. 収穫期は早く,果実の品質も良かった. 収量はほぼ生育と一致し,品種及び個体により大きく変異したが,生育の良い場合には共台樹より多収であった. したがって,台木の系統選抜などにより健全で均一な生育が得られれば,有望な栽培様式となりえよう. 共台樹では平行並列仕立の方が架線仕立より収量,品質とも優れた. その原因は,平行並列仕立の方が目標樹冠面積が大きく,自由に生長させられたのに対し,架線仕立樹はそれが狭く,しかも,主枝を早くから低く誘引したため,樹勢が強すぎ,徒長的な側枝が多発し,過繁茂となったためであろう。...

  2. Genetic resources of autochthonous fruit species and varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keserović Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the plentitude of genetic resources of indigenous varieties of fruit species and their importance for further development of fruit growing, especially from the aspect of breeding new varieties resistant to pathogens and abiotic stress conditions (frost, drought, sunburns, etc.. Economic significance and importance in the human nutrition, as a raw or processed fruitage, were stated as well. Based on the unique biodiversity, the Balkan Peninsula can be considered as a secondary center of divergence for a large number of fruit species, such as Malus x domestica, Malus sylvestris, Pyrus communis, Prunus cerasifera, P. persica, P. armeniaca, P. fruticosa, P. amygdalus, P. nana, Juglans regia, Corilus colurna, Corilus avellana, Castanea sativa, Fragaria vesca, Cornus mas. The old indigenous and domesticated varieties and natural populations of fruit species on the Balkan Peninsula have never been the subject of comprehensive research work on their collecting and studying. Serbia has no national scientific institution that takes care of genetic resources. Nowadays, the issue of preserving genetic resources is of great importance because, due to the intensification and modernization of plant production, many local populations have disappeared or are reduced to a small number of biotypes. The varieties with huge genetic and breeding value have disappeared forever without any possibility of their return. By importing high quality fruit varieties, we imported many diseases and various pests as well. New varieties intended for intensive cultivation require the application of expensive growing technologies. The systematic scientific work on the study of wild fruit species and autochthonous varieties is of the great interest for fruit science and practice in the future. The establishment of in situ collections with the aim to preserve valuable genetic material is mandatory. In the following period, indigenous and domesticated varieties

  3. The effects of fruit juices and fruits on the absorption of iron from a rice meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballot, D; Baynes, R D; Bothwell, T H; Gillooly, M; MacFarlane, B J; MacPhail, A P; Lyons, G; Derman, D P; Bezwoda, W R; Torrance, J D

    1987-05-01

    The effects of the chemical composition of fruit juices and fruit on the absorption of iron from a rice (Oryza sativa) meal were measured in 234 parous Indian women, using the erythrocyte utilization of radioactive Fe method. The corrected geometric mean Fe absorptions with different juices varied between 0.040 and 0.129, with the variation correlating closely with the ascorbic acid contents of the juices (rs 0.838, P less than 0.01). Ascorbic acid was not the only organic acid responsible for the promoting effects of citrus fruit juices on Fe absorption. Fe absorption from laboratory 'orange juice' (100 ml water, 33 mg ascorbic acid and 750 mg citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml water and 33 mg ascorbic acid alone (0.097 and 0.059 respectively), while Fe absorption from 100 ml orange juice (28 mg ascorbic acid) was better than that from 100 ml water containing the same amount of ascorbic acid (0.139 and 0.098 respectively). Finally, Fe absorption from laboratory 'lemon juice' (100 ml orange juice and 4 g citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml orange juice (0.226 and 0.166 respectively). The corrected geometric mean Fe absorption from the rice meal was 0.025. Several fruits had little or no effect on Fe absorption from the meal (0.013-0.024). These included grape (Vitis vinifera), peach (Prunus persica), apple (Malus sylvestris) and avocado pear (Persea americana). Fruit with a mild to moderate enhancing effect on Fe absorption (0.031-0.088) included strawberry (Fragaria sp.) (uncorrected values), plum (Prunus domestica), rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum), banana (Musa cavendishii), mango (Mangifera indica), pear (Pyrus communis), cantaloup (Cucumis melo) and pineapple (Ananas comosus) (uncorrected values). Guava (Psidium guajava) and pawpaw (Carica papaya) markedly increased Fe absorption (0.126-0.293). There was a close correlation between Fe absorption and the ascorbic acid content of the fruits tested (rs 0.738, P less

  4. Relationship between endogenous hormonal content and somatic organogenesis in callus of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and Prunus persica×Prunus dulcis rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Le-Disquet, Isabel; Guivarc'h, Anne; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between endogenous hormones content and the induction of somatic peach plant was studied. To induce multiple shoots from callus derived from the base of stem explants of the scion cultivars 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach×almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677', propagated plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog salts augmented with 0.1mgL(-1) of indolebutyric acid, 1mgL(-1) of 6-benzylaminopurine and 3% sucrose. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach×almond rootstocks. Endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) were analyzed in the organogenic callus. Lower levels of several hormones, namely Z, ZR, ABA, and ACC were found in the peach×almond rootstock compared to peach cultivars, while IAA and SA presented inconclusive returns. These results suggest that the difference in somatic organogenesis capacity observed in peach and peach×almond hybrids is markedly affected by the endogenous hormonal content of the studied genotypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of the Population Structure of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Peach Trees in China Using Microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Cao, Jinjun; Niu, Jianqun; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the genetic structure of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations in China using microsatellites. We expected that these data will reveal the genetic relationships among various populations of M. persicae and will be of value in the development of better methods for pest control. Four hundred sixty individuals from 23 areas over 13 provinces were collected in the early spring of 2010, all from their primary host, Prunus persicae. The markers analyzed were highly polymorphic, as demonstrated by the expected heterozygosity value (He = 0.861) and the Polymorphism Information Content (PIC = 0.847), which indicated that M. persicae maintains a high level of genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance revealed an intermediate level of population differentiation among M. persicae populations (F(ST) = 0.1215). Geographic isolation existed among these populations, and, consequently, the genetic structure of the populations was split into a southern group and a northern group divided by the Yangtse River. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  6. A model for temporal dynamics of brown rot spreading in fruit orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, Daniele; Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte; Bolzoni, Luca

    2017-11-28

    Brown rot, caused by Monilinia spp., is a major disease of stone fruits and, in favorable environmental conditions and in the absence of fungicide treatments, it causes important economic losses. In the present work, we propose a modification of classical susceptible, exposed, infectious and removed (SEIR) compartmental models to grasp the peculiarities of the progression of brown rot epidemics in stone fruit orchards in the last stage of the fruit growth (i.e. from the end of the pit hardening to harvest time). Namely, we took into account i) the lifespan of airborne spores, ii) the dependence of the latent period on the cuticle crack surface area, which itself varies in time with fruit growth, iii) the impossibility of recovery in infectious fruit, and iv) the abrupt interruption of disease development by the elimination of the host fruit at harvest time. We parametrized the model by using field data from a peach Prunus persica orchard infected by M. laxa and M. fructicola in Avignon (southern France). The basic reproduction number indicates that the environmental conditions met in the field were extremely favorable to disease development and the model closely fitted the temporal evolution of the fruit abundance in the different epidemiological compartments. The model permits us to highlight crucial mechanisms undergoing brown rot build up and to evaluate the consequences of different agricultural practices on the quantity and quality of the yield. We found that winter sanitation practices (which decrease the initial infection incidence) and the control of the fruit load (which affects the host fruit density and the single fruit growth trajectory) can be effective in controlling brown rot in conjunction with or in place of fungicide treatments.

  7. Genética de la introgresión de genes del almendro (prunus dulcis Mill.) en el melocotonero [P. persica (l.) Batsch]: desarrollo de una estrategia de selección de líneas casi isogénicas (Nils) con marcadores moleculares

    OpenAIRE

    Donoso Contreras, José M.

    2014-01-01

    El melocotonero es el frutal de hueso más importante a nivel mundial, y el tercer árbol de fruta dulce cultivada después del manzano y el peral. A nivel genético es una de las especies mejor caracterizadas de la familia Rosaceae. El melocotonero presenta un bajo nivel de variabilidad genética pero es sexualmente compatible con otras especies de Prunus, como el almendro, los cuales podrían ser una posible fuente de nuevos genes para enriquecer su pool genético. Estudiamos un conjunto de caract...

  8. Effects of orchard host plants (apple and peach) on development of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2007-04-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants (apple, Malus domestica Borkh., and peach, Prunus persica L.) on the development of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Oriental fruit moth larvae developed faster on peach than on apple, both on fruit as well as on growing terminal shoots. On fruit, these differences were shown to cause significant changes in both the rate (approximately 20-60 degree-days earlier emergence on peach than on apple) and patterns of adult emergence among several cultivars of peaches and apples. Slopes of female emergence plots varied by host in 2003, with emergence occurring over a longer period on peach cultivars than on apple cultivars (with one exception). Slopes of male emergence curves did not differ by cultivar in 2003. These host-driven effects could impact the efficacy of traditional pest management approaches and probably complicate efforts to predictively model G. molesta populations in mixed cultivar orchards. Such developmental effects may help to explain previously observed differences in patterns of pheromone trap captures in peach versus apple orchards. Host-associated effects should be incorporated into future models to develop more realistic predictive tools and thus improve integrated pest management efforts.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a TERMINAL FLOWER 1 homolog from Prunus serotina Ehrh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Pijut, Paula M

    2013-08-01

    Flowering control is one of the several strategies for gene containment of transgenic plants. TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) is known to be involved in the transcriptional repression of genes for inflorescence development. Two TFL1 transcripts with different 3' UTR were cloned from black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Corresponding to the two TFL1 transcripts, two PsTFL1 gene sequences, 1248 bp and 1579 bp, were obtained and both contained the same 519 bp coding region which encoded a putative protein of 172 amino acid residues. The phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences showed high identity of PsTFL1 to TFL1 orthologs of other Prunus species, including Yoshino cherry (Prunus × yedoensis Matsum.), peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch), apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.). The real-time quantitative PCR detected a single copy of PsTFL1 gene sequences in the black cherry genome with two alleles. The gene expression of PsTFL1 was examined in several tissues including the stems, leaves, shoot tips, and vegetative and floral buds. The highest mRNA level was detected in shoot tips, and the lowest level in the leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants overexpressing PsTFL1 showed significantly delayed flowering. These plants also showed largely increased vegetative growth, plant height, number of nodes, trichome density, and the conversion of flower to shoot was observed at each node and shoot apex.

  10. Differential Sensitivity of Fruit Pigmentation to Ultraviolet Light between Two Peach Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Dong, Weiqi; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Bo; Allan, Andrew C.; Lin-Wang, Kui; Chen, Kunsong; Xu, Changjie

    2017-01-01

    Anthocyanins provide nutritional benefits and are responsible for red coloration in many fruits. Light affects anthocyanin biosynthesis in peach (Prunus persica). However, some cultivars show differential sensitivity to light. In the present study, ‘Hujingmilu (HJ),’ a naturally deeply colored cultivar, and ‘Yulu (YL),’ showing low pigmentation, were used to study the mechanism underlying UV-light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. Both UVA and UVB induced fruit pigmentation of ‘HJ,’ but ‘YL’ was only sensitive to UVB. Transcriptomic analyses showed over 5000 genes were differentially expressed by pairwise comparisons of RNA libraries isolated from tissue of each cultivar treated with darkness, UVA and UVB. Twenty-three genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis were identified from the transcriptome data, which were coordinately up-regulated during accumulation of anthocyanins, and down-regulated in the dark. Altered expression of several light receptors, as well as CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC10 (COP10) and ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 homolog (HYH), and a specific anthocyanin transporter glutathione S-transferase (GST), in ‘YL’ fruit appears to be responsible for the insensitivity to UVA of this cultivar. Expression profiles of several transcription factors of the families MYB, bHLH, bZIP and NAC were highly correlated with those of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. The study provides a valuable overview of the underlying molecular mechanisms of UV-light induced anthocyanin response using peach cultivars with differing light sensitivities. PMID:28943881

  11. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, T E; Beckman, T G; Horton, D L

    2011-12-01

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious pest of peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, across the southeastern United States. We examined oviposition by S. pictipes on field-grown Prunus scion and rootstock cultivars and two endemic Prunus spp. when sawn limbs, not roots, were assayed in the laboratory. A choice test compared oviposition on the peach scion 'Harvester', peach rootstock 'Guardian', plum×peach hybrid rootstock 'MP-29', and the plum hybrid rootstock 'Sharpe'. A significantly lower percentage of eggs occurred on limbs of Sharpe rootstock than other choices. A choice test using two endemic hosts, black cherry (P. serotina Ehrh.) and Chickasaw plum (P. angustifolia Marsh.), along with Sharpe rootstock, found a lower percentage of eggs on limbs of Sharpe than either endemic host. However, when only limbs of Sharpe and a decoy were used, almost all eggs were laid on Sharpe. Interestingly, when Harvester and Sharpe limbs were paired side by side, a higher percentage of eggs were recovered from the Harvester limb than from the Sharpe limb. An analysis of volatiles from Sharpe may identify why fewer eggs were laid on it. Because S. pictipes attacks host trees above ground and Sharpe rootstock on grafted trees grows below ground, this rootstock might be a management option against the congeneric, root-attacking peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say). Our results suggest that high budding a peach scion onto Sharpe rootstock, thus allowing the rootstock to serve as the trunk, warrants further investigation against S. exitiosa under orchard conditions.

  12. In vitro anti-biofilm activity of Quercus brantii subsp. persica on human pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bahar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Quercus brantii subsp. persica is used in folk medicine to treat infections in Iran. There is not available report on the anti-biofilm activity of Quercus brantii subsp.  persica. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Quercus brantii subsp. persica against bacterial biofilms. Methods: Eighty biofilm producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected. Quercus brantii subsp. persica fruits aqueous extraction (QBAE was prepared though maceration method. Chemical analysis to distinguish the main components of the QBAE was carried out using thin-layer chromatography. The antibacterial effects of QBAE on bacterial isolates were determined by the Kirby-Bauer and broth microdilution methods. The antibiofilm effects of QBAE on bacterial isolates were determined using a microtiter assay. Results: The Quercus brantii subsp. persica exhibited bacterial growth inhibition and bactericidal activity on the majority of the strains at concentrations between 0.2 and 1.2 mg/mL. The average of biofilm formation inhibition by Quercus brantii subsp. persica at a minimum inhibitory concentration MIC50 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus strains were 35%, 45%, 57% and 61%, respectively. coumarins, phenols, terpenes and steroids were found in the QBAE by TLC. Conclusion: The results showed that Quercus brantii subsp. persica aqueous extraction was effective against the tested microorganisms and showed anti-biofilm activity which can be a basis for future studies to investigate for new anti-biofilm drugs.

  13. Evaluation of a Non-Destructive Impact Sensor to Determine On-Line Fruit Firmness Evaluación de un Sensor de Impacto No-Destructivo para la Determinación de la Firmeza de Frutos en Líneas de Manipulación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Homer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A non-destructive impact sensor to measure on-line fruit firmness was evaluated. This sensor is an adaptation of a static model used in the laboratory to measure fruit quality and was installed in an experimental fruit packing line with a commercial sizer chain. The firmness index is related to the acceleration-time curve supplied by an accelerometer attached to an impacting arm. The main objective of this study was to evaluate sensor performance and sources of variation. We made classification trials on three fruits: peaches (Prunus persica (L. Batsch, apples (Malus domestica Borkh., and pears (Pyrus communis L., as well as working trials, such as placing the fruit, orientation, and others. The sensor works correctly at a speed of 7 fruits s-1 (0.63 m s-1 and allows fruit classification at three levels of firmness using specific software. Good discrimination was obtained only for soft peaches. There were variations in results between different fruits and different parts of the same fruit mainly due to the non-uniformity of fruit shape and lack of ripeness homogeneity of each one.Se evaluó un sensor de impacto no destructivo para medir firmeza de frutas en líneas de manipulación. Este sensor es una adaptación de la versión estática utilizada en algunos laboratorios de calidad de frutas, el cual fue modificado e instalado en una línea experimental de manipulación de fruta que contaba con un calibrador comercial. La firmeza de los frutos está relacionada con la curva de aceleración-tiempo que suministra un acelerómetro unido a un brazo que impacta la fruta. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar funcionamiento y fuentes de variación del sensor. Para ello se realizaron ensayos de clasificación con duraznos (Prunus persica (L. Batsch, manzanas (Malus domestica Borkh., y peras (Pyrus communis L., y ensayos de funcionamiento como pruebas de posicionamiento del fruto, orientación, entre otras. El sensor funciona correctamente a una

  14. Efeito do comprimento de estacas herbáceas de dois clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. no enraizamento adventício Effect of the length of herbaceous cuttings of two clones of japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. in adventicious rooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEWTON ALEX MAYER

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O umezeiro (Prunus mumeSieb & Zucc. é uma rosácea de folhas caducas, nativa da China, cujos frutos e flores são muito apreciados pelos povos orientais. No Brasil, alguns estudos foram realizados visando a sua utilização como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro e nectarineira, dadas as suas características de adaptação, rusticidade, redução do porte da planta e compatibilidade com algumas cultivares de Prunus persica. O presente estudo foi conduzido em câmara de nebulização sob ripado, pertencente ao Departamento de Produção Vegetal da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP. Objetivou-se verificar a influência de quatro comprimentos de estacas herbáceas no enraizamento de dois clones de umezeiro. O material vegetal, identificado como Clone 10 e Clone 15, foi oriundo do Programa de Melhoramento Genético do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas-SP. O experimento foi constituido de fatorial 2 x 4, em blocos casualizados, sendo o fator clone em 2 níveis (Clone 10 e Clone 15 e o fator comprimento de estaca em 4 níveis (12; 15; 18 e 25cm. Pelos resultados observados, verificou-se diferença entre os clones somente na porcentagem de estacas brotadas e número de raízes por estaca. O comprimento da estaca influenciou na porcentagem de enraizamento e na mortalidade das estacas, sendo que estacas maiores tenderam a apresentar maiores porcentagens de enraizamento e menores de mortalidade. As estacas com 12cm, embora apresentando menor número de raízes por estaca, são recomendadas por permitirem a obtenção de um maior número de estacas por planta-matriz. Houve efeito significativo da interação entre os fatores para número e comprimento de raízes.The japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. is a Rosaceae of falling leaves, native of China, whose fruits and flowers are quite appreciated by the oriental people. In Brazil, some studies were accomplished seeking its use as rootstock for peach and nectarine trees, due its adaptation

  15. Adaptation to nicotine feeding in Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, John S; Elzinga, Dezi A; Sarkar, Pooja; Xin, Yi-Ran; Ghanim, Murad; Jander, Georg

    2014-08-01

    Lineages of the generalist hemipteran herbivore Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) that have expanded their host range to include tobacco often have elevated nicotine tolerance. The tobacco-adapted M. persicae lineage used in this study was able to reproduce on nicotine-containing artificial diets at concentrations that were 15-fold higher than those that were lethal to a non-adapted M. persicae lineage. Fecundity of the nicotine-tolerant M. persicae lineage was increased by 100 μM nicotine in artificial diet, suggesting that this otherwise toxic alkaloid can serve as a feeding stimulant at low concentrations. This lineage also was pre-adapted to growth on tobacco, exhibiting no drop in fecundity when it was moved onto tobacco from a different host plant. Although growth of the non-tobacco-adapted M. persicae lineage improved after three generations on tobacco, this higher reproductive rate was not associated with increased nicotine tolerance. Myzus persicae gene expression microarrays were used to identify transcripts that are up-regulated in response to nicotine in the tobacco-adapted lineage. Induced expression was found for CYP6CY3, which detoxifies nicotine in M. persicae, other genes encoding known classes of detoxifying enzymes, and genes encoding secreted M. persicae salivary proteins.

  16. The association between chromaticity, phenolics, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity of frozen fruit pulp in Brazil: an application of chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Ávila, Suelen; Ito, Vivian; Nogueira, Alessandro; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro

    2014-04-01

    A total of 19 Brazilian frozen pulps from the following fruits: açai (Euterpe oleracea), blackberry (Rubus sp.), cajá (Spondias mombin), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), coconut (Cocos nucifera), grape (Vitis sp.), graviola (Annona muricata), guava (Psidium guajava), papaya (Carica papaya), peach (Prunus persica), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pineapple and mint (A. comosus and Mentha spicata), red fruits (Rubus sp. and Fragaria sp.), seriguela (Spondias purpurea), strawberry (Fragaria sp.), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), umbu (Spondias tuberosa), and yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) were analyzed in terms of chromaticity, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and FRAP assays, which showed significant (P clusters also suggested by HCA, corroborated with PCA, in which cluster 3 was formed by strawberry, red fruits, blackberry, açaí, and grape pulps. This cluster showed the highest contents of total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Protein (Viridiplantae): 939130 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Prunus persica MGFHLPLIVAILSLAAVALANNAAQPAPQLYWNSVLPNTQMPRSISELLHPDSTNEEKSKPENIPL...ARSGYSRKRYGGGPPPSDEGKPESIPLRNSGYQRKNYGGRPPPSDEGKPESIPLRNSGYQRKNYGGRPPPSDEGKPESIPLRNSGYQRKNYGGRPPPSDEGKPESIPL...RNSGYQRKNYGGRPPPSDEGKPESIPLRNSGYQRKNYGGRPPPSDEEKPESIPLRNSGYQRKNYGGRPPPSDEGKPESIPLRNSGYQRKNYGGRPPPSDEGKPESVP

  18. Seasonal changes and content of sodium in main organs of European plum trees (Prunus domestica L., fruit size and yield as affected by rootstocks on acidic soilMudanças sazonais no teor de sódio dos órgãos, tamanho do fruto e produção da ameixeira européia (Prunus domestica L. em função de porta-enxertos em solo ácido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojsa Milosevic

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the seasonal changes of Na content of shoots, flower buds and flowers, and fruit weight and yield of two European plum cultivars (‘Cacanska Lepotica’ and ‘Cacanska Najbolja’ budded on Myrobalan (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. and Stanley rootstocks were analyzed after 6-8 years of planting on acidic sandy-loam soil. The Na content of the shoots and flower buds of each rootstock/cultivar combination varied during season, and the highest content in above organs was observed in May and August, respectively. The effect of rootstocks on the examined parameters was variable due to the strong rootstock/cultivar/year interaction observed. The shoots and flower buds of cultivars budded on Stanley and Myrobalan rootstocks gave the highest and lowest Na content, respectively, whereas the highest Na content in flowers registered in ‘Cacanska Lepotica’ on Myrobalan. The content of Na in the plum organs suggests the following trends: 1-year old shoots > 2-year-old shoots > flower buds > flowers. There were no statistically significant correlations among plum organs with respect to Na content. The Principal Component Analysis showed that Stanley rootstock had a higher Na accumulation and distribution capacity than Myrobalan rootstock in plum trees. Finally, content of Na in the main organs of plum trees and acidic soil have not a negative effect on fruit weight and yield of plum cultivars, since these properties were respectable. Neste estudo, foram analisadas as mudanças sazonais do teor de Na nos ramos, botões florais e flores, bem como no peso dos frutos e na produtividade de duas cultivares de ameixeiras européias (‘Cacanska lepotica’ e ‘Cacanska najbolja’ enxertadas sobre os porta-enxertos Myrobalan (Prunus cerasifera Ehch. e Stanley, aos 6-8 anos após o plantio em solo ácido areno-argiloso. O conteúdo de Na nos ramos e nos botões florais para cada combinação de copa/porta-enxerto teve a variação durante a

  19. A synonymic revision of the Prunus-infesting aphid genus Hyalopterus Koch 1854 (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three species of Hyalopterus Koch cause economic damage to various stone fruit trees of the genus Prunus L., H. pruni (Geoffroy), H. amygdali (Blanchard), and H. persikonus Miller et al. Although the third species was established recently, it has been suggested that one of the twelve older synon...

  20. Flavonoids from Prunus serotina Ehrh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Monika

    2005-01-01

    In the course of chemotaxonomic study of the genus Prunus, seven flavonol glycosides were isolated from the leaves of Prunus serotina Ehrh., characterized by UV and NMR spectroscopy, and identified finally as three quercetin monosides: hyperoside, avicularin, reynoutrin, three quercetin biosides: 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside as well isorhamnetin 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The presence of determined flavonoids in the flowers was confirmed by TLC.

  1. QTL mapping and breeding value estimation through pedigree-based analysis of fruit size and weight in four diverse peach breeding programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Frett, Terrence J.; Sandefur, Paul J.; Bink, Marco C.A.M.; Weg, van de Eric

    2016-01-01

    The narrow genetic base of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) challenges efforts to accurately dissect the genetic architecture of complex traits. Standardized phenotypic assessment of pedigree-linked breeding germplasm and new molecular strategies and analytical approaches developed and conducted

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06466-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .70 2 ( AJ824292 ) Prunus persica EST, clone S417J10. 34 0.87 2 ( CV050606 ) EST 10061 Half...U3_plate25_J06 PU3 Prunus persica cDNA similar t... 34 1.1 2 ( CV052260 ) EST 11708 Half-Ripe Apricot Fruit

  3. Convergent evolution at the gametophytic self-incompatibility system in Malus and Prunus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Aguiar

    Full Text Available S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI; tribe Pyreae, P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC; Amygdaleae, P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae, Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae, and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen.

  4. Convergent Evolution at the Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility System in Malus and Prunus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Ana E.; Fonseca, Nuno A.; Iezzoni, Amy; van Nocker, Steve; Vieira, Cristina P.

    2015-01-01

    S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus) revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI); tribe Pyreae), P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC); Amygdaleae), P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae), Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae), and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen. PMID:25993016

  5. Identification and differential expression dynamics of peach small GTPases encoding genes during fruit development and ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, Rachele; Cipriani, Guido; Marrazzo, Teresa; Nonis, Alberto; Vizzotto, Giannina; Ruperti, Benedetto

    2010-01-01

    The function of monomeric GTPases of the RAS superfamily in fruit development and ripening has been partially characterized. Here the identification of peach (Prunus persica) small GTPases of the RAS superfamily expressed in fruit and the characterization of their expression profiles during fruit development are described. Extensive searches on expressed sequence tag (EST) databases led to the selection of a total of 24 genes from peach encoding proteins with significant similarity to Arabidopsis small GTPases. Sequence similarity analyses and identification of conserved motifs, diagnostic of specific RAS families and subfamilies, enabled bona fide assignment of fourteen PpRAB, seven PpARF/ARL/SAR, two PpROP and one PpRAN GTPases. Transcriptional expression profiles of peach monomeric GTPases, analysed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, were obtained for mesocarp samples, collected in two consecutive years. Reproducible patterns of expression could be identified for five peach RAB-encoding genes (PpRABA1-1, PpRABA2, PpRABD2-1, PpRABD2-2, and PpRABC2), two ARFs (PpARFA1-1 and PpARLB1), and two ROPs (PpROP3 and PpROP4). Interestingly, the transient transcriptional up-regulation of PpARF genes and of PpRAB genes of the A and D clades, putatively controlling the exocytic delivery of cell wall components and modifying enzymes, appeared to coincide with peaks of growth speed and sugar accumulation and with the final phases of ripening. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the co-ordinated differential expression of a set of genes encoding small GTPases of the ARF and RAB families which takes place during key moments of fruit development and maturation. PMID:20501747

  6. Carbon metabolism of peach fruit after harvest: changes in enzymes involved in organic acid and sugar level modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsani, Julia; Budde, Claudio O; Porrini, Lucía; Lauxmann, Martin A; Lombardo, Verónica A; Murray, Ricardo; Andreo, Carlos S; Drincovich, María F; Lara, María V

    2009-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) is a climacteric fruit that ripens after harvest, prior to human consumption. Organic acids and soluble sugars contribute to the overall organoleptic quality of fresh peach; thus, the integrated study of the metabolic pathways controlling the levels of these compounds is of great relevance. Therefore, in this work, several metabolites and enzymes involved in carbon metabolism were analysed during the post-harvest ripening of peach fruit cv 'Dixiland'. Depending on the enzyme studied, activity, protein level by western blot, or transcript level by quantitative real time-PCR were analysed. Even though sorbitol did not accumulate at a high level in relation to sucrose at harvest, it was rapidly consumed once the fruit was separated from the tree. During the ripening process, sucrose degradation was accompanied by an increase of glucose and fructose. Specific transcripts encoding neutral invertases (NIs) were up-regulated or down-regulated, indicating differential functions for each putative NI isoform. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase was markedly induced, and may participate as a glycolytic shunt, since the malate level did not increase during post-harvest ripening. The fermentative pathway was highly induced, with increases in both the acetaldehyde level and the enzymes involved in this process. In addition, proteins differentially expressed during the post-harvest ripening process were also analysed. Overall, the present study identified enzymes and pathways operating during the post-harvest ripening of peach fruit, which may contribute to further identification of varieties with altered levels of enzymes/metabolites or in the evaluation of post-harvest treatments to produce fruit of better organoleptic attributes.

  7. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of an antibacterial compound from Ferula persica var. persica roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad-Reza Shahverdi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activities of the chloroform and water extracts of Ferula persica var. persica (Apiaceaeroots were studied by the disk diffusion method. While the chloroform extract of F. persica roots showed antibacterial activity, the water extract of the roots at the concentrations that tested did not show any activity. By bioassay-guided fractionation of the chloroform extract of the roots by preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC a compound was found which was active against some bacteria. By conventional spectroscopy methods the active fraction was identified as umbelliprenin. This coumarin was mostly active against B. subtillis, B. cereus, E. coli, K. ponumoniae, S. typhi, S. aureus, and S. epidermilis.

  8. Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma Estudo de compostos voláteis de ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin e estimativa da sua contribuição ao aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Pino

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values (OAV. The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E-β-ionone, Γ-dodecalactone, (Z-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, Γ-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, Δ-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z-3-hexenol, (Z-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, Γ-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.As técnicas de extração-destilação simultâneas (SDE e de headspace-microextração em fase sólida (HS-SPME combinadas com GC-FID e GC-MS foram usadas para analisar compostos voláteis da ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin e para estimar os compostos de aroma mais ativos, pela aplicação de valores de atividade olfativa (OAV, considerando os compostos voláteis presentes no headspace da fruta. As análises levaram à identificação de 148 componentes, incluindo 58 ésteres, 23 terpenoides, 14 aldeídos, 11 álcoois, 10 cetonas, 9 alcanos, 7 ácidos, 4 lactonas, 3 fenóis e 9 outros compostos de diferentes estruturas. De acordo om os resultados de SDE

  9. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, Ulrike; Crous, Pedro W; Fourie, Paul H

    2008-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone

  10. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of Prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone

  11. Season-long volatile emissions from peach and pear trees in situ, overlapping profiles, and olfactory attraction of an oligophagous fruit moth in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar-Rodriguez, A; Orschel, B; Dorn, S

    2013-03-01

    Insect herbivores that have more than one generation per year and reproduce on different host plants are confronted with substantial seasonal variation in the volatile blends emitted by their hosts. One way to deal with such variation is to respond to a specific set of compounds common to all host plants. The oriental fruit moth Cydia (=Grapholita) molesta is a highly damaging invasive pest. The stone fruit peach (Prunus persica) is its primary host, whereas pome fruits such as pear (Pyrus communis) are considered secondary hosts. In some parts of their geographic range, moth populations switch from stone to pome fruit orchards during the growing season. Here, we tested whether this temporal switch is facilitated by female responses to plant volatiles. We collected volatiles from peach and pear trees in situ and characterized their seasonal dynamics by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We also assessed the effects of the natural volatile blends released by the two plant species on female attraction by using Y-tube olfactometry. Finally, we related variations in volatile emissions to female olfactory responses. Our results indicate that the seasonal host switch from peach to pear is facilitated by the changing olfactory effect of the natural volatile blends being emitted. Peach volatiles were only attractive early and mid season, whereas pear volatiles were attractive from mid to late season. Blends from the various attractive stages shared a common set of five aldehydes, which are suggested to play an essential role in female attraction to host plants. Particular attention should be given to these aldehydes when designing candidate attractants for oriental fruit moth females.

  12. Supercritical fluid extraction of peach (Prunus persica) almond oil: process yield and extract composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Natália; Mileo, Bruna R; Friedrich, Maria T; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2010-07-01

    Peach kernels are industrial residues from the peach processing, contain oil with important therapeutic properties and attractive nutritional aspects because of the high concentration of oleic and linoleic acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw matter is critical for product quality definition. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare peach almond extraction yields obtained by different procedures: soxhlet extractions (Sox) with different solvents; hydrodistillation (HD); ethanolic maceration (Mac) followed by fractionation with various solvents, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 30, 40 and 50 degrees C and at 100, 200 and 300bar, performed with pure CO(2) and with a co-solvent. The extracts were evaluated with respect to fatty acid composition (FAC), fractionated chemical profile (FCP) and total phenolic content (TPC). The Sox total yields were generally higher than those obtained by SFE. The crossover pressure for SFE was between 260 and 280bar. The FAC results show oleic and linoleic acids as main components, especially for Sox and SFE extracts. The FCP for samples obtained by Sox and Mac indicated the presence of benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol, components responsible for almond flavor and with important industrial uses, whereas the SFE extracts present a high content of a possible flavonoid. The higher TPC values were obtained by Sox and Mac with ethanol. In general, the maximum pressure in SFE produced the highest yield, TPC and oleic acid content. The use of ethanol at 5% as co-solvent in SFE did not result in a significant effect on any evaluated parameter. The production of peach almond oil through all techniques is substantially adequate and SFE presented advantages, with respect to the quality of the extracts due to the high oleic acid content, as presented by some Sox samples. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification and validation of potential conserved microRNAs and their targets in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhihong; Luo, Xiaoyan; Shi, Ting; Cai, Bin; Zhang, Zhen; Cheng, Zongming; Zhuang, Weibing

    2012-09-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of small, endogenous, non-coding RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression at the transcriptional or the post-transcriptional level. Although a large number of miRNAs have been identified in many plant species, especially from model plants and crops, they remain largely unknown in peach. In this study, 110 potential miRNAs belonging to 37 families were identified using computational methods. A total of 43 potential targets were found for 21 families based on near-perfect or perfect complementarity between the plant miRNA and the target sequences. A majority of the targets were transcription factors which play important roles in peach development. qRT-PCR analysis of RNA samples prepared from different peach tissues for 25 miRNA families revealed that miRNAs were differentially expressed in different tissues. Furthermore, two target genes were experimentally verified by detection of the miRNA-mediated mRNA cleavage sites in peach using RNA ligase-mediated 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE). Finally, we studied the expression pattern of the two target genes in three different tissues of peach to further understand the mechanism of the interaction between miRNAs and their target genes.

  14. Detection of seed dormancy QTL in three F2 families of peach (Prunus persica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormancy is a condition that delays or inhibits growth in seed, vegetative buds, and floral buds. In peach, seed germination occurs when seed accumulate sufficient stratification and growing degree hours to break dormancy and begin growing. Correlations have been reported between mean seed stratifi...

  15. Some effects of fuel oil on plants. [Lycopericum esculentum; Prunus persica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, G.D.; Leadbeater, M.R.

    1935-01-01

    Commercial fuel oil has a harmful effect on plants when brought into contact with their roots, through the soil. The effect becomes fatal when the quantity is raised above the critical point for a species. The effect may or may not be due to penetration. If the oil has penetrated the tissues, it is most commonly found in the primary xylem; to a lesser extent it enters the secondary xylem, and the intercellular spaces of the pith and cortex. Contact does not seem to be a primary cause of death.

  16. The molecular basis for tree growth habit in Prunus persica (peach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The large size and spreading growth habit of trees requires excessive labor, land space, and pesticides. Genetically improving tree shapes so they can be planted at higher density and/or more readily adapted to mechanization would increase productivity and be more environmentally friendly. Current...

  17. Whole genome sequencing of peach (Prunus persica L.) for SNP identification and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Riaz; Parfitt, Dan E; Fass, Joseph; Ogundiwin, Ebenezer; Dhingra, Amit; Gradziel, Thomas M; Lin, Dawei; Joshi, Nikhil A; Martinez-Garcia, Pedro J; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2011-11-22

    The application of next generation sequencing technologies and bioinformatic scripts to identify high frequency SNPs distributed throughout the peach genome is described. Three peach genomes were sequenced using Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa technologies to obtain long contigs for alignment to the draft 'Lovell' peach sequence as well as sufficient depth of coverage for 'in silico' SNP discovery. The sequences were aligned to the 'Lovell' peach genome released April 01, 2010 by the International Peach Genome Initiative (IPGI). 'Dr. Davis', 'F8, 1-42' and 'Georgia Belle' were sequenced to add SNPs segregating in two breeding populations, Pop DF ('Dr. Davis' × 'F8, 1-42') and Pop DG ('Dr. Davis' × 'Georgia Belle'). Roche 454 sequencing produced 980,000 total reads with 236 Mb sequence for 'Dr. Davis' and 735,000 total reads with 172 Mb sequence for 'F8, 1-42'. 84 bp × 84 bp paired end Illumina/Solexa sequences yielded 25.5, 21.4, 25.5 million sequences for 'Dr. Davis', 'F8, 1-42' and 'Georgia Belle', respectively. BWA/SAMtools were used for alignment of raw reads and SNP detection, with custom PERL scripts for SNP filtering. Velvet's Columbus module was used for sequence assembly. Comparison of aligned and overlapping sequences from both Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa resulted in the selection of 6654 high quality SNPs for 'Dr. Davis' vs. 'F8, 1-42' and 'Georgia Belle', distributed on eight major peach genome scaffolds as defined from the 'Lovell' assembly. The eight scaffolds contained about 215-225 Mb of peach genomic sequences with one SNP/~ 40,000 bases. All sequences from Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa have been submitted to NCBI for public use in the Short Read Archive database. SNPs have been deposited in the NCBI SNP database.

  18. Uso de cuatro extractos organicos para el control del pulgon verde (Myzus persicae Sulz (ING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Rodríguez Navas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of leaves and stems of Neurolaena lobata; leaves, stems and fruits of Momordica charantia, wood of Quassia amara and seeds of Annona muricata, were tested regarding their effectiveness for control of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae. In a first stage, groups of 10 individuals of M. persicae were placed inside petri dishes together with a small and slight piece of synthetic cloth soaked with either substance extracted. Several concentrations were used. After two hours; more than 50% of the individuals had been killed in every petri dish, which allowed all extracts to pass on to the second stage. The second stage consisted of two experiments. The first one was done in spring at a greenhouse day temperature of 10°C,  using only the first three substances, each of them diluted 1:100. The second one was conducted in Summer at about 25°C with the four substances. Distilled water acted as a control in both experiments. Tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum infested with M. persicae were sprayed with the solutions and survivors counted 24 and 72 hours later. In the first experiment Q amara  and M. charantia had 78% and 77% effectiveness respectively, which were statiscally (P< 0.05 higher than that of N. lobata  (63%. In the second experiment, because of the warmer weather, they improved their performance, specially N. lobata (98%. This and A. muricata were found statistically (P< 0.05 higher than the others.

  19. Caracterização de três genótipos de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. por marcadores RAPD Characterization of three mume genotypes (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Um projeto de pesquisa visando à utilização de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. como porta-enxertos para pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] está sendo conduzido na FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, com promissoras perspectivas de sucesso. Três genótipos de umezeiro foram selecionados de acordo com características agronômicas desejáveis para esta finalidade. A distinção dos três genótipos entre si, baseada exclusivamente em características morfológicas, apresenta limitações. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar marcadores RAPD capazes de diferenciar e caracterizar os Clones 05, 15 e a cv. Rigitano (Clone 10 de umezeiro, utilizando-se das cultivares Aurora-1 e Okinawa de pessegueiro como outgroup. Dos 220 primers testados, foram selecionados 42, que amplificaram todos os cinco genótipos. Verificou-se que os marcadores RAPD permitiram a distinção entre o Clone 05, o Clone 15 e a cv. Rigitano de umezeiro, demonstrando a existência de variabilidade genética entre os mesmos. Dentre os três genótipos de umezeiro estudados, constatou-se que a similaridade genética é maior entre o Clone 05 e o Clone 15.A research project with the objective do develop mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., to be used as rootstocks for peach tree [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] is been carried out at the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. These project showed promising perspectives of success, with three clones that were selected according to their characteristics for peach rootstock. But the distinction of the three clones among them, based only in morphologic characteristics, has presented limitations. The objective of the present research was to identify RAPD markers able to characterize and differentiate the 05 and 15 Clones and Rigitano mume cultivar, using Aurora-1 and Okinawa peach tree as outgroup. Among the 220 tested

  20. Vasorelaxant effect of Prunus yedoensis bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kyungjin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus yedoensis Matsum. is used as traditional medicine—‘Yaeng-Pi’ or ‘Hua-Pi’—in Japan and Korea. However, no studies have examined the pharmacological activities of the P. yedoensis bark. Only the antioxidant and antiviral activities of P. yedoensis fruit and the anti-hyperglycaemic effect of P. yedoensis leaf have been investigated. While studying the antihypertensive effects of several medicinal plants, we found that a methanol extract of P. yedoensis bark (MEPY had distinct vasorelaxant effects on rat aortic rings. Methods The aortic rings were removed from Sprague–Dawley rats and suspended in organ chambers containing 10 ml Krebs-Henseleit solution. The aortic rings were placed between 2 tungsten stirrups and connected to an isometric force transducer. Changes in tension were recorded via isometric transducers connected to a data acquisition system. Results MEPY relaxed the contraction induced by phenylephrine (PE both in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings concentration dependently. However, the vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-denuded aortic rings were lower than endothelium-intact aortic rings. The vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-intact aortic rings were reduced by pre-treatment with l-NAME, methylene blue, or ODQ. However, pre-treatment with indomethacin, atropine, glibenclamide, tetraethylammonium, or 4-aminopyridine had no affection. In addition, MEPY inhibited the contraction induced by extracellular Ca2+ in endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted by PE (1 μM or KCl (60 mM in Ca2+-free solution. Conclusions Our results suggest that MEPY exerts its vasorelaxant effects via the activation of NO formation by means of l-Arg and NO-cGMP pathways and via the blockage of extracellular Ca2+ channels.

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: peach [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g Prunus_persica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus+persica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus+persica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus...+persica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus+persica&t=NS ...

  2. Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus serotina Erhr.) and wild cherry ( Prunus avium L.) seedlings on low and high elevation sites in the western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  3. HoneySweet: a hope for stone-fruit growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunus species are among the important domesticated fruit crops, and they have been spread worldwide. Since its identification in the early 1900’s, Plum pox virus (PPV), one of the most damaging pathogens of stone fruit trees, has also been spreading worldwide, and the pace of its movement has acce...

  4. Dicty_cDB: AFJ471 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3e-12 3 BU044708 |BU044708.1 PP_LEa0020E04f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0020E04f...3e-10 2 BU040616 |BU040616.1 PP_LEa0006L02f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0006L02f

  5. Dicty_cDB: VSF671 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 010 1 BU044432 |BU044432.1 PP_LEa0019F12f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0019F12f...010 1 BU041024 |BU041024.1 PP_LEa0008A18f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0008A18f

  6. Dicty_cDB: SFC695 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2e-21 2 BU044708 |BU044708.1 PP_LEa0020E04f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0020E04f...1e-10 2 BU040616 |BU040616.1 PP_LEa0006L02f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0006L02f

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHK177 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4e-10 2 BU044708 |BU044708.1 PP_LEa0020E04f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0020E04f...4e-10 2 BU040616 |BU040616.1 PP_LEa0006L02f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0006L02f

  8. Dicty_cDB: SFH572 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5e-14 2 BU042811 |BU042811.1 PP_LEa0014A23f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0014A23f...3e-06 1 BU045895 |BU045895.1 PP_LEa0024G21f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0024G21f

  9. Dicty_cDB: AFF179 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8e-20 2 BU044708 |BU044708.1 PP_LEa0020E04f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0020E04f...2e-11 2 BU040616 |BU040616.1 PP_LEa0006L02f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0006L02f

  10. Dicty_cDB: AFJ440 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2e-12 3 BU044708 |BU044708.1 PP_LEa0020E04f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0020E04f...3e-10 2 BU040616 |BU040616.1 PP_LEa0006L02f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0006L02f

  11. Dicty_cDB: AFI655 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7e-10 2 BU044708 |BU044708.1 PP_LEa0020E04f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0020E04f...7e-10 2 BU040616 |BU040616.1 PP_LEa0006L02f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0006L02f

  12. Dicty_cDB: SSG238 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2e-21 2 BU044708 |BU044708.1 PP_LEa0020E04f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0020E04f...2e-10 2 BU040616 |BU040616.1 PP_LEa0006L02f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0006L02f

  13. Dicty_cDB: SSF821 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2e-21 2 BU044708 |BU044708.1 PP_LEa0020E04f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0020E04f...2e-10 2 BU040616 |BU040616.1 PP_LEa0006L02f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0006L02f

  14. Dicty_cDB: VSK338 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 009 2 BU041769 |BU041769.1 PP_LEa0010G24f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0010G24f...010 1 BU042820 |BU042820.1 PP_LEa0014B11f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0014B11f

  15. Dicty_cDB: AFK171 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3e-12 3 BU044708 |BU044708.1 PP_LEa0020E04f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0020E04f...3e-10 2 BU040616 |BU040616.1 PP_LEa0006L02f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0006L02f

  16. Dicty_cDB: AFJ723 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2e-12 3 BU044708 |BU044708.1 PP_LEa0020E04f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0020E04f...2e-10 2 BU040616 |BU040616.1 PP_LEa0006L02f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0006L02f

  17. Dicty_cDB: SSL893 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7e-07 1 BU044708 |BU044708.1 PP_LEa0020E04f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0020E04f...5e-06 2 BU040616 |BU040616.1 PP_LEa0006L02f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0006L02f

  18. Dicty_cDB: CFG804 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2e-14 3 BU041060 |BU041060.1 PP_LEa0008C18f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0008C18f...10 BU040467 |BU040467.1 PP_LEa0006C14f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0006C14f

  19. Dicty_cDB: AFN717 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2e-12 3 BU044708 |BU044708.1 PP_LEa0020E04f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0020E04f...2e-10 2 BU040616 |BU040616.1 PP_LEa0006L02f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0006L02f

  20. Sexual regeneration traits linked to black cherry ( Prunus serotina Ehrh.) invasiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairon, Marie; Chabrerie, Olivier; Casado, Carolina Mainer; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2006-09-01

    In order to better understand the invasive capacity of black cherry ( Prunus serotina Ehrh.), the regeneration dynamics of the species was studied during two consecutive years in a Belgian Pine plantation. Flower and fruit production, seed rain, dispersal and viability as well as the survival of seedlings of different ages were assessed. Despite the low fruit/flower ratio, fruit production was high (up to 8940 fruits per tree) as trees produced huge quantities of flowers. Both flower and fruit productions were highly variable between years and among individuals. The production variability between individuals was not correlated with plant size variables. Fruits were ripe in early September and a majority fell in the vicinity of the parent tree. A wide range of bird species dispersed 18% of the fruits at the end of October. Sixty-two percent of the fruits were viable and mean densities of 611 fruits m -2 were recorded on the forest floor. High mortality among young seedlings was observed and 95.3% of the fruits failed to give 4-year-old saplings. Nevertheless, the few saplings older than 4 years (1.32 m -2) presented a high survival rate (86%). All these regeneration traits are discussed in order to determine the main factors explaining the black cherry invasive success in Europe.

  1. Characterisation of phenolic compounds in wild fruits from Northeastern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria de; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the phenolic composition of wild fruits of Arbutus unedo (strawberry-tree), Prunus spinosa (blackthorn), Rosa canina and Rosa micrantha (wild roses). Analyses were performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. Prunus spinosa fruits presented the highest concentration in phenolic acids (29.78 mg/100 g dry weight), being 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid the most abundant one, and flavone/ols (57.48 mg/100 g), among which quercetin3-O-rutinoside (15.63 mg/100 g) was the majority compound. (+)...

  2. Using Perls Staining to Trace the Iron Uptake Pathway in Leaves of a Prunus Rootstock Treated with Iron Foliar Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Juan J; Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves of Prunus rootstock (GF 677; Prunus dulcis × Prunus persica) plants treated with foliar Fe compounds using the Perls blue method, which detects labile Fe pools. Young expanded leaves of Fe-deficient plants grown in nutrient solution were treated with Fe-compounds using a brush. Iron compounds used were the ferrous salt FeSO4, the ferric salts Fe2(SO4)3 and FeCl3, and the chelate Fe(III)-EDTA, all of them at concentrations of 9 mM Fe. Leaf Fe concentration increases were measured at 30, 60, 90 min, and 24 h, and 70 μm-thick leaf transversal sections were obtained with a vibrating microtome and stained with Perls blue. In vitro results show that the Perls blue method is a good tool to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves when using Fe salts, but is not sensitive enough when using synthetic Fe(III)-chelates such as Fe(III)-EDTA and Fe(III)-IDHA. Foliar Fe fertilization increased leaf Fe concentrations with all Fe compounds used, with inorganic Fe salts causing larger leaf Fe concentration increases than Fe(III)-EDTA. Results show that Perls blue stain appeared within 30 min in the stomatal areas, indicating that Fe applied as inorganic salts was taken up rapidly via stomata. In the case of using FeSO4 a progression of the stain was seen with time toward vascular areas in the leaf blade and the central vein, whereas in the case of Fe(III) salts the stain mainly remained in the stomatal areas. Perls stain was never observed in the mesophyll areas, possibly due to the low concentration of labile Fe pools.

  3. Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed

    OpenAIRE

    Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z; R. Keshavarz Afshar; Hashemi, M; Struik, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing, the application of exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3), or cold stratification were evaluated for their ability to enhance the percentage and rate of seed germination. The results indicated that seed ...

  4. New insights into the properties of pubescent surfaces: peach fruit as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Victoria; Khayet, Mohamed; Montero-Prado, Pablo; Heredia-Guerrero, José Alejandro; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Karabourniotis, George; Del Río, Víctor; Domínguez, Eva; Tacchini, Ignacio; Nerín, Cristina; Val, Jesús; Heredia, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    The surface of peach (Prunus persica 'Calrico') is covered by a dense indumentum, which may serve various protective purposes. With the aim of relating structure to function, the chemical composition, morphology, and hydrophobicity of the peach skin was assessed as a model for a pubescent plant surface. Distinct physicochemical features were observed for trichomes versus isolated cuticles. Peach cuticles were composed of 53% cutan, 27% waxes, 23% cutin, and 1% hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (mainly ferulic and p-coumaric acids). Trichomes were covered by a thin cuticular layer containing 15% waxes and 19% cutin and were filled by polysaccharide material (63%) containing hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The surface free energy, polarity, and work of adhesion of intact and shaved peach surfaces were calculated from contact angle measurements of water, glycerol, and diiodomethane. The removal of the trichomes from the surface increased polarity from 3.8% (intact surface) to 23.6% and decreased the total surface free energy chiefly due to a decrease on its nonpolar component. The extraction of waxes and the removal of trichomes led to higher fruit dehydration rates. However, trichomes were found to have a higher water sorption capacity as compared with isolated cuticles. The results show that the peach surface is composed of two different materials that establish a polarity gradient: the trichome network, which has a higher surface free energy and a higher dispersive component, and the cuticle underneath, which has a lower surface free energy and higher surface polarity. The significance of the data concerning water-plant surface interactions is discussed within a physiological context.

  5. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Rodamilans

    Full Text Available Plum pox virus (PPV infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01. Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; San León, David; Mühlberger, Louisa; Candresse, Thierry; Neumüller, Michael; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01). Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  7. Alternaria cerasidanica sp nov., isolated in Denmark from drupes of Prunus avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, R. G.; Reymond, S. T.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The ex-type strain of Alternaria cerasidanica was isolated in 2001 from an immature, asymptomatic drupe of Prunus avium collected at a commercial cherry orchard near Skaelskor, Denmark. Cultural morphology, sporulation pattern and cluster analyses of combined RAPD, RAMS (microsatellite), and AFLP...... fingerprints of A. cerasidanica and 167 strains of Alternaria spp. support the placement of A. cerasidanica within the A. infectoria species-group sensu Simmons and its segregation from other members of this group. A. cerasidanica is currently monotypic and known only from preharvest sweet cherry fruit...

  8. Influência do manejo do solo e da intensidade de raleio de frutas, no crescimento e qualidade de pêssegos, cvs. Cerrito e Chimarrita Influence of the soil management and fruits thinning intensity, in the growth and quality of peaches, cvs. Cerrito and Chimarrita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rogério Costa Gomes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência das práticas de manejo do solo e intensidades de raleio de frutas no crescimento e classificação comercial de pêssegos das cultivares Cerrito e Chimarrita, foi instalado o experimento em pomares de pessegueiros (Prunus persica L. Batsch, localizados no município de Pelotas-RS. Nestes, parcelas de solo vêm sendo manejadas desde 1996, com cobertura de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb, sistema de produção integrada de pêssego (PIP e parcelas mantidas com gradagens, arações e emprego de herbicidas, sistema convencional (PC. As plantas, nos dois sistemas de manejo do solo (PIP e PC, foram submetidas a três intensidades de raleio de frutas, tomando-se por referência a relação, o número de frutas.cm-2 de área da secção transversal do tronco, medida a 20 cm da superfície do solo, permanecendo: 4; 5 e 6 frutas.cm-2. Avaliaram-se, nas frutas, no período de pós-raleio à colheita, o crescimento semanal do diâmetro sutural e, na colheita, a classificação comercial (tipo 1; 2 e 3. Na cv. Cerrito, não ocorreu influência do sistema de manejo do solo, assim como das intensidades de raleio, no crescimento final e classificação comercial das frutas, e não houve interferência da cobertura total do solo com aveia-preta, com o crescimento das frutas nos distintos períodos de avaliação, quando comparado ao sistema de manejo convencional do solo (PC.With the objective of evaluating the influence of soil management practices and the intensity of fruit thinning during their growth and the commercial classification of peach' cultivars Cerrito and Chimarrita, an experiment was conducted in peach orchards (Prunus persica L. Batsch, in the rural area of Pelotas/RS. Since 1996, in these orchards, plots have been managed with a sod of black-oat (Avena strigosa Schreb as well as weeds soil cleaning through tilling and/or use of herbicides. These are common practices in the Peach Integrated Production

  9. Effect of Bag Removing with Reflective Film Mulching Before Harvest on Fruit Coloration and Expression of Anthocyanin Related Genes in Peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Binbin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Appearance quality is the main element forming the fruit quality. Both bagging and reflective film application can improve appearance comprehensive quality. In order to determine the effects of bagging and reflective film on peach fruit coloration, this study explored the effects of applying reflective film before harvest on fruit appearance quality of peach (Prunus persica, and discussed the influencing mechanism on fruit coloration. Yellow outside and black inside double-layer bags were removed from fruit twelve days d before harvest. Peel color, pigment content, enzyme activity as well as the gene expression related to fruit coloration of a well-colored and late-ripening peach cultivar ‘Xiahui 8’ with different treatments (non-bagging with non-reflective film mulching, debagging with non-reflective film mulching, debagging with reflective film mulching were researched. The results showed that both debagging with non-reflective film mulching and debagging with reflective film mulching could significantly improve red and green color difference value (a*, a*/b* (b* is yellow and blue color difference value, chroma (C, anthocyanin (Ant content and reduce hue angle (h, while debagging with reflective film mulching had higher Ant content than debagging with non-reflective film mulching (P < 0.05. The two treatments up-regulated the transcript level of anthocyanin biosynthetic related genes (UFGT, CHS at the beginning of the experiment, however, the expression of DFR, LDOX and F3H were enhanced along with the testing process. A downward trend on peel phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity of non-bagging with non-reflective film mulching was observed during the experiment, however, the peel PAL activity of the other two treatments first increased and then decreased. What’s more, peel PAL activity of debagging with reflective film mulching was higher than debagging with non-reflective film mulching. These results suggested that Ant synthesis

  10. Silvical characteristics of black cherry (Prunus serotina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbel F. Hough

    1960-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) is the largest of the native cherry trees of the United States. It may grow to more than 100 feet in height, and to as much as 5 feet in diameter. It is the only species of its genus that provides lumber for commerce. And this lumber, because of its stability and its superior working qualities, is one of the most...

  11. Transcription of densovirus endogenous sequences in the Myzus persicae genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo, Gabriel; van Munster, Manuella; Monsion, Baptiste; Bochet, Nicole; Brault, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    Integration of non-retroviral sequences in the genome of different organisms has been observed and, in some cases, a relationship of these integrations with immunity has been established. The genome of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (clone G006), was screened for densovirus-like sequence (DLS) integrations. A total of 21 DLSs localized on 10 scaffolds were retrieved that mostly shared sequence identity with two aphid-infecting viruses, Myzus persicae densovirus (MpDNV) and Dysaphis plantaginea densovirus (DplDNV). In some cases, uninterrupted potential ORFs corresponding to non-structural viral proteins or capsid proteins were found within DLSs identified in the aphid genome. In particular, one scaffold harboured a complete virus-like genome, while another scaffold contained two virus-like genomes in reverse orientation. Remarkably, transcription of some of these ORFs was observed in M. persicae, suggesting a biological effect of these viral integrations. In contrast to most of the other densoviruses identified so far that induce acute host infection, it has been reported previously that MpDNV has only a minor effect on M. persicae fitness, while DplDNV can even have a beneficial effect on its aphid host. This suggests that DLS integration in the M. persicae genome may be responsible for the latency of MpDNV infection in the aphid host.

  12. Arsenic Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Salvadora persica Stem Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdos Kord Mostafapour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid, which is widely distributed in nature and is regarded as the largest mass poisoning in history. In the present study, the adsorption potential of Salvadora persica (S. persica stem ash in a batch system for the removal of As(V from aqueous solutions was investigated. Isotherm studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of contact time (20–240 min, pH (2–11, initial arsenic concentration (50–500 μg/L, and adsorbent dose on sorption efficiency. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.33% and 99.32% was obtained at pH 6, adsorbent dosage 3.5 g/L, initial As(V concentration 500 μg/L, and contact time 80 and 60 min for S. persica stem ash at 300 °C and 500 °C, respectively. Also, the adsorption equilibriums were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Such equilibriums showed that the adsorption data was well fitted with the Freundlich isotherm model for S. persica stem ash at both 300 °C and 500 °C (R2=0.8983 and 0.9274, resp.. According to achieved results, it was defined that S. persica stem ash can be used effectively for As(V removal from the aqueous environment.

  13. Analysis of Agromorphological Descriptors to Differentiate between Duke Cherry (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & TurpinRehd. and Its Progenitors: Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. and Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Análisis de Descriptores Agromorfológicos para Diferenciar entre Cerezo Duke (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin Rehd. y sus Progenitores: Cerezo (Prunus avium L. y Guindo (Prunus cerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid identification of the hybrids between sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. is not easy. In order to resolve this problem, 18 Spanish sweet, sour and duke cherry cultivars were surveyed and characterized using 43 agromorphological descriptors evaluated in flowers, leaves, dormant 1-yr-old shoots, fruits, and trees during 2005 and 2006. Based on quantitative parameters, ANOVA and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA were carried out. For qualitative descriptors, statistical comparisons were done by means of the chi-square (χ2 test. As result of the study, two quantitative (titratable acidity and number of lenticels and six qualitative descriptors (shape of the central and lateral lobes in the internal bracts of the flower fascicles, leaf shape and margin, pubescence in the veins of the lower side of the leaf, and type of sulci of the seed coat were identified as differential parameters in P. avium, P. cerasus and P. x gondouinii(Poit. & Turpin Rehd. Also, another four qualitative descriptors (petal coloration at the end of blooming, leaf stipule type, and seed shape and viability were found to be useful for easy differentiation between sour and duke cherry. None of these parameters has been employed previously to discriminate among sweet, sour and duke cherry.Los híbridos de cerezo (Prunus avium L. y guindo (Prunus cerasus L. no son fáciles de identificar. Para resolver este problema, 18 cultivares de cerezo, guindo y sus híbridos fueron prospectados y caracterizados agromorfológicamente mediante el estudio de 43 descriptores evaluados en flores, hojas, frutos, ramas de 1 año y árbol durante los años 2005 y 2006. En base a los resultados obtenidos del estudio de los diferentes parámetros cuantitativos se realizaron un ANDEVA y un análisis discriminante escalonado (SDA. Los descriptores cualitativos fueron analizados mediante el test de Chi-cuadrado (χ². Como resultado del estudio se identificaron

  14. Interspecific hybridizations in ornamental flowering cherries (Prunus species)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering cherries belong to the genus Prunus L., consisting primarily of species native to Asia. Despite the popularity of ornamental cherry trees in the landscape, most ornamental Prunus planted in the U.S. are derived from a limited genetic base of Japanese flowering cherry taxa. Controlled cross...

  15. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of Genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the genus Prunus was studied in detail to find out the phylogenetic relationship among the 12 species of Prunus selected from different regions of Pakistan and GenBank using the maximum parsimony analysis of sequence polymorphism in chloroplast TRN-L and TRN-F spacer DNA. The results for the ...

  16. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of Genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... Sorbus L. (mountain ash) and Spiraea L. (bridal wreath). (Potter, 2003). According to Rehder (1940), Prunus has nearly 200 species, mostly in ... DNA was extracted from the fresh and herbarium samples of. Prunus by the method of Doyle and Doyle (1987). For the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis ...

  17. Fruit size QTL analysis of an F1 population derived from a cross between a domesticated sweet cherry cultivar and a wild forest sweet cherry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, G.; Sebolt, A.M.; Sooriyapathirana, S.S.; Wang, D.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Olmstead, J.W.; Iezzoni, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Maximizing fruit size is critical for profitable sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) production. Yet, despite its importance, little is known about the genetic control of fruit size. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fruit size and two essential components of

  18. Selection of autochthonous sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. genotypes in Feketić region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous genotypes of fruit species are very important source of genetic variability and valuable material for breeding work. Fruit Research Institute-Čačak has a long tradition of studying autochthonous genotypes of temperate fruits sporadically spread and preserved in some localities in Serbia. Over 2005-2006, the following properties of nine autochthonous sour cherry genotypes grown in Feketic region were investigated: flowering and ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits and field resistance to causal agents of cherry diseases - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz.. The genotypes were tested for the presence of Prune dwarf virus and Prunus necrotic ring spot virus. In majority of genotypes fruits were large, with exceptional organoleptical properties, whereas ripening time was in the first ten or twenty days of June. The highest fruit weight was observed in F-1 genotype (8.1 g. The highest soluble solids and total sugars content were found in F- 4 genotype (17.60% and 14.25%, respectively. As for field resistance to causal agents of diseases and good pomo-technological properties, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-7 and F-8 genotypes were singled out. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064

  19. Screening of solvent dependent antibacterial activity of Prunus domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqeen, Zahra; Naqvi, Naim-ul-Hasan; Sohail, Tehmina; Rehman, Zakir-ur; Fatima, Nudrat; Imran, Hina; Rehman, Atiqur

    2013-03-01

    Fruit of Prunus domestica was extracted in ethanol. The ethanol extract was further extracted with two solvents ethyl acetate and chloroform. The crude ethanol extract and two fractions (ethyl acetate and chloroform) were screened for their antibacterial activity using the agar well diffusion method .They were tested against nine bacteria; five Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcuc intermedius, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus) and four Gram negative bacteria (Eschrichia coli, Proteus mirabilis Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiela pneumoniae). The susceptibility of microorganisms to all three fractions was compared with each other and with standard antibiotic (Ampicillin) Among all fractions ethyl acetate exhibited highest antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 34.57mm ± 1.3) while ethyl alcohol exhibited least antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 17.42mm ± 3.3). Minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions was found in the range of 78 μ g/ml to 2500 μ gl/ml against gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

  20. Sharka (Plum pox virus) of stone fruits

    OpenAIRE

    JAKUBÍKOVÁ, Hedvika

    2017-01-01

    Plum pox virus causes one of the most devastating stone fruit diseases. The main target of this thesis is a detection of Plum pox virus in infected leaf tissue of Prunus domestica.. The presence of the virus in a plant material was confirmed by the RNA isolation and its use as a template for RT-PCR. Furthermore, the basic information about properties of the virus, common methods of the virus detection and protection possibilities against the virus is are included.

  1. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Sweet Cherries (Prunus Avium L. from West and South-West of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases (such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Currently, most research is focused on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant compounds found in fruit and vegetable. Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. contain a significant amount of polyphenols and several antioxidants that possess many biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties. In present study were investigated the quantification of total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity in fruits of a number of selected sweet cherry genotypes. Although sweet cherry fruits are a significant source of different phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity of sweet cherries is not related only with the total phenolic content.  

  2. Identification of volatile compounds in thinning discards from plum trees (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivar Harry Pickstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Podestá

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. Harry Pickstone, a China indigenous fruit, is widely produced and consumed in countries such as Japan and Brazil. The practice of thinning is common in horticulture and the fruits removed are discarded as waste. Like the great majority of vegetables, these thinning discards also contain essential oils which have not been investigated until the present time. The extraction of the plum thinning discards volatile oil, through the hydrodistillation method, produced a yield of 0.06% (m/m and a total of 21 components were identified, with 11 of them being responsible for 72,9% of the total oil composition. The major compounds determined through GC and GC-MS were Z-α-bisabolene (13.7%, n-hexadecanoic acid (12.7%, phytol (12.7%, and β-caryophyllene (10.4%.

  3. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  4. Influência do ácido indolbutírico e ethefon no enraizamento de estacas de pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch Influence of indolebutyric acid and ethephon on rooting of cuttings of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Tonietto

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, em estufa com nebulização intermitente, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do ácido indolbutírico(AIB e ethefon (ácido 2-cloroetil fosfônico no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de pessegueiro. Utilizou-se estacas medianas retiradas de ramos de plantas com seis anos de idade, da cultivar Diamante, com comprimento de 15cm. Efetuou-se duas lesões laterais na base das estacas que foram tratadas com ácido indolbutírico nas concentrações 0; 1000; 2000 e 3000ppm, na forma líquida e, ethefon nas concentrações de 0; 50; 100 e 150ppm. Após a imersão de 5 segundos, acondicionou-se as estacas em sacos de polietileno contendo como substrato a mistura de areia+cinza (2:1 v/v. Pelos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que o ácido indolbutírico aumentou o percentual de estacas realizadas até a concentração de 1752ppm. e o número de raízes até a concentração de 1791ppm. O ethefon não apresentou resultados significativos na forma e concentração utilizadas.This work was conducted at the Plant Science Departament Eliseu Maciel Agronomy College of Federal University of Pelotas, in greenhouse with intermitent mist, aiming to evaluate the effect of indolebutyric acid and ethephon (2-chloroetyl phosphonic acid on peach hranch cutting rooting. Median cuttings with 15cm length removed from Diamante cultivar branch were used. Two lateral lesions were made on cutting basis and they were treated with indolebutyric acid in liquid at 0; 1000; 2000; and 3000ppm concentrations and ethefon at 0; 50; 100 and 150ppm concentrations. The immersion time was five seconds and the cuttings were packed in polietylene sacks containing a mixture of sand and rice husk ash substrate (2:1 v/v. Results showed that the indolebutyric acid increased the rooted cuttings percentage up to 1752ppm concentration and the number of roots until 1791ppm concentration. The ethephon did not show significant variation for the form and concentrations used.

  5. Light quality management in fruit orchards: physiological and technological aspects Manejo de la calidad de la luz en huertos frutales: Aspectos fisiológicos y tecnológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Bastías

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Light quality (sunlight spectrum management promises to provide a new technological alternative to sustainable production in horticultural crops. However, little information exists about physiological and technological aspects on light quality management in fruit crops. Sunlight composition changes widely in orchard canopies, inducing different plant responses in fruit trees mediated by phytochrome (PHY and cryptochrome (CRY activity. High proportion of far-red (FR in relation to red (R light increases shoot elongation, while blue (B light induces shoot dwarfing. Red and ultraviolet (UV light increases fruit skin anthocyanin synthesis, while FR light shows a negative effect. Red and B light can also alter leaf morpho-physiological traits in fruit trees, such palisade thickness, stomatal aperture, and chlorophyll content. Besides improvement of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR availability, the use of reflective films improves UV and R light proportion, with positive effects on PHY mediated-responses (fruit color, fruit weight, shoot growth, as reported in apple (Malus domestica Borkh., peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch, and sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L. L.. Colored nets widely alter spectral light composition with effects on plant growth, yield, and quality in apple, kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa A. Chev. C.F. Liang & A.R. Ferguson, peach, and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. orchards. Mechanisms of colored nets seem to be associated to photosynthetic and morphogenetic process regulated by PAR availability, R/B light proportion, and CRY activity. Alteration of light quality affects significantly fruit tree plant responses and could be a useful tool for sustainable (e.g. lower use of chemicals and labor-practices management of yield and quality in modern orchards.El manejo de la calidad de la luz (espectro de la luz solar promete proveer una nueva alternativa tecnológica para la producción sostenible de cultivos hortícolas. Sin

  6. Haemangiosarcoma in a captive Asiatic lion ( Panthera leo persica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although these tumours mainly appear to be occurring in older cats, they are sometimes observed in younger animals, as in the present case. This is the first description of haemangiosarcoma in a young Asiatic lion. Keywords: Asiatic lion, Haemangiosarcoma, Histopathology, Neoplasia, Panthera leo persica ...

  7. The antibacterial activity of traditionally used Salvadora Persica L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nowadays there is a need to find naturally occurring substances from plants with antimicrobial activity as an alternative to available used antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Salvadora persica (miswak) and Commiphora gileadensis were collected, dried and extracted with either methanol or warm water and the ...

  8. Antibacterial potential of extracts of leaves of Parrotia persica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-19

    Nov 19, 2007 ... persica. Mohammad Ahanjan1, Mohana, D. C1, Raveesha, K. A.1* and M. Azadbakht2. 1Microbiology laboratory, Department of studies in Botany and Microbiology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri,. Mysore 570 006, India. 2Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Mazandaran Medical Sciences, Sary, Iran.

  9. Screening Quality Evaluation Factors of Freeze-Dried Peach (Prunus Persica L. Batsch Powders from Different Ripening Time Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-ju Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality evaluation of processed products is complex. To simplify the quality evaluation process and improve the efficiency, fourteen evaluation factors of freeze-dried powders of seventeen cultivars of peach at different ripening times were analyzed. The most important evaluation indicators and criteria were obtained by analysis of variance (ANOVA, correlation analysis (CA, principal component analysis (PCA, system cluster analysis (SCA, and analytic hierarchy process (AHP. Results showed that the peach powders had the significant differences in quality (P<0.05, and some processing factors were related with some physicochemical and nutritional factors. Five principle components were extracted by PCA and the cumulative contribution achieved was 84.46%. Through the score plot of the first two principal components, a clear differentiation among ripening times was found and three distinct groups were separated according to ripening time. Five characteristic factors were obtained as titratable acid, browning index, hemicellulose, hygroscopicity, and vitamin C by SCA. Their weights of 0.1249, 0.3007, 0.0514, 0.4916, and 0.0315 were obtained by AHP, respectively. The peach cultivars were divided into four evaluation grades by the comprehensive quality score.

  10. Obtaining of nectarinum (Prunus persica (L. Batsch subsp. nectarina (Ait. Shof. polyploid plants in Nikitsky Botanical Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є. П. Шоферістов

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Firstly in Ukraine as the result of resiprocal interbreedings of autotetraploid (2n=4x=32 / diploid (2n=2x=16 and diploid (2n=2x=16 / autotetraploid (2n=4x=32 four sintetic triploid (2n=3x=24 hybrid forms (611-91, 13-93, 14-93, 18-93 have been obtained. Spontaneous triploid nectarinum 166-80 has been shared out from diploid hybrid seedlings population. Tetraploid and triploid nectarinum forms are valuable sources for directoinal selection and making hybrids with the complex of new signs, which are difficult or impossible to receive on diploid level.

  11. Occupational Allergy to Peach (Prunus persica) Tree Pollen and Potential Cross-Reactivity between Rosaceae Family Pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Mak, Philip; Wen, Liping

    2015-10-01

    Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry) were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%), with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%). Western blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China.

  12. Genome-wide identification and analysis of FK506-binding protein gene family in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanping; Han, Jan; Liu, Dan; Wen, Xicheng; Li, Yu; Tao, Ran; Peng, Yongbin; Fang, Jinggui; Wang, Chen

    2014-02-25

    The FKBP protein family has prolyl isomerase activity and is related in function to cyclophilins. FKBPs are known to be involved in many biological processes including hormone signaling, plant growth, and stress responses through a chaperone or an isomerization of proline residues during protein folding. The availability of complete peach genome sequences allowed the identification of 21 FKBP genes by HMMER and BLAST analyses. Scaffold locations of these FKBP genes in the peach genome were determined and the protein domain and motif organization of peach FKBPs were analyzed. The phylogenetic relationships between peach FKBPs were also assessed. The expression profiles of peach FKBP gene results revealed that most peach FKBPs were expressed in all tissues, while a few peach FKBPs were specifically expressed in some of the tissues. This data could contribute to better understanding of the complex regulation of the peach FKBP gene family, and also provide valuable information for further research in peach functional genomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Potassium contributes to zinc stress tolerance in peach (Prunus persica) seedlings by enhancing photosynthesis and the antioxidant defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z Z; Duan, C L; Guo, S L; Yang, Y; Feng, Y F; Ma, R J; Yu, M L

    2015-07-27

    Zinc (Zn) is considered to be a major industrial pollutant because excessive amounts can impair plant growth. In this paper, we found that peach 'Yoshihime' seedlings are promising Zn tolerant plants. However, heavy Zn toxicity (2 mM) damaged plant performance by disrupting biochemical processes, including photosynthesis, proline production, and K(+) nutrition. Notably, elevated external K(+) supply (10 mM) alleviated peach seedlings from Zn toxicity, evidenced by enhanced photosynthesis, antioxidant defense systems, and plant K(+) nutritional status. Moreover, the transcript levels of KUP (K(+) uptake) genes involved in K(+) acquisition, transport, and homeostasis were significantly upregulated following supply of sufficient K(+) upon Zn toxicity. In general, K(+) favorably contributes to improvements in internal K(+) homeostasis, via the help of K(+) transporters, further protecting plant photosynthesis and the antioxidative defense system. Our findings further benefit the study of the mechanisms underpinning heavy metal tolerance in woody plants.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) gene family in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C H; Ma, R J; Shen, Z J; Sun, X; Korir, N K; Yu, M L

    2014-04-08

    In this study, 33 homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) genes were identified in peach using the HD-ZIP amino acid sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana as a probe. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and the individual gene or protein characteristics, the HD-ZIP gene family in peach can be classified into 4 subfamilies, HD-ZIP I, II, III, and IV, containing 14, 7, 4, and 8 members, respectively. The most closely related peach HD-ZIP members within the same subfamilies shared very similar gene structure in terms of either intron/exon numbers or lengths. Almost all members of the same subfamily shared common motif compositions, thereby implying that the HD-ZIP proteins within the same subfamily may have functional similarity. The 33 peach HD-ZIP genes were distributed across scaffolds 1 to 7. Although the primary structure varied among HD-ZIP family proteins, their tertiary structures were similar. The results from this study will be useful in selecting candidate genes from specific subfamilies for functional analysis.

  15. Complete nucleotide sequences of two isolates of cherry green ring mottle virus from peach (Prunus persica) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihui; Jiang, Dongmei; Niu, Feiqing; Lu, Meiguang; Wang, Hongqing; Li, Shifang

    2013-03-01

    Two complete nucleotide sequences of cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) isolated from peach in Hebei (Hs10) and Fujian (F9) Provinces, China, were determined. Five open reading frames (ORFs) were found in the genomes of both isolates. The F9 and Hs10 isolates shared 82.2 % and 83.4-94.4 % nucleotide sequence identity, respectively, with two CGRMV isolates from cherry. Analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences from the five ORFs of both isolates showed that Hs10 shares the greatest sequence identity with P1A (GenBank AJ291761) from cherry. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CGRMV isolates from peach and cherry are closely related to members of the genus Foveavirus.

  16. Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilling requirement (CR), together with heat requirement (HR), determines blooming date (BD) and climatic distribution of genotypes of temperate tree species. However, information on the genetic components underlying these important traits remains unknown or fragmentary. Here the identification o...

  17. Responses of canopy transpiration and canopy conductance of peach (Prunus persica) trees to alternate partial root zone drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Daozhi; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua

    2005-08-01

    We investigated canopy transpiration and canopy conductance of peach trees under three irrigation patterns: fixed 1/2 partial root zone drip irrigation (FPRDI), alternate 1/2 partial root zone drip irrigation (APRDI) and full root zone drip irrigation (FDI). Canopy transpiration was measured using heat pulse sensors, and canopy conductance was calculated using the Jarvis model and the inversion of the Penman-Monteith equation. Results showed that the transpiration rate and canopy conductance in FPRDI and APRDI were smaller than those in FDI. More significantly, the total irrigation amount was greatly reduced, by 34.7% and 39.6%, respectively for APRDI and FPRDI in the PRDI (partial root zone drip irrigation) treatment period. The daily transpiration was linearly related to the reference evapotranspiration in the three treatments, but daily transpiration of FDI is more than that of APRDI and FPRDI under the same evaporation demand, suggesting a restriction of transpiration water loss in the APRDI and FPRDI trees. FDI needed a higher soil water content to carry the same amount of transpiration as the APRDI and FPRDI trees, suggesting the hydraulic conductance of roots of APRDI and FPRDI trees was enhanced, and the roots had a greater water uptake than in FDI when the average soil water content in the root zone was the same. By a comparison between the transpiration rates predicted by the Penman-Monteith equation and the measured canopy transpiration rates for 60 days during the experimental period, an excellent correlation along the 1:1 line was found for all the treatments (R2 > 0.80), proving the reliability of the methodology.

  18. Evaluación del comportamiento agroindustrial de variedades de duraznos conserveros (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) en Mendoza, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Alejandro Ojer

    2010-01-01

    Con el objeto de aumentar los rendimientos a campo, mejorar la calidad de la materia prima y sentar las bases de futuros programas de introducción de nuevas variedades, se evaluaron 13 variedades de duraznos conserveros. A fin de dar marco a la propuesta, se analizó la situación del sector industrial, el sector de producción primaria y el panorama varietal. Se efectuaron mediciones en 5 áreas: maduración, comportamiento en la cosecha, capacidad productiva, parámetros vinculados al procesamien...

  19. Evaluación del comportamiento agroindustrial de variedades de duraznos conserveros (Prunus persica (L. Batsch en Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Ojer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de aumentar los rendimientos a campo, mejorar la calidad de la materia prima y sentar las bases de futuros programas de introducción de nuevas variedades, se evaluaron 13 variedades de duraznos conserveros. A fin de dar marco a la propuesta, se analizó la situación del sector industrial, el sector de producción primaria y el panorama varietal. Se efectuaron mediciones en 5 áreas: maduración, comportamiento en la cosecha, capacidad productiva, parámetros vinculados al procesamiento en mitades y comportamiento en la agroindustria. Las determinaciones se realizaron durante 6 temporadas en 2 montes frutales en plena producción comercial. La oferta varietal se caracterizó por una sobreoferta (56,0 % del total implantado entre la última semana de enero y primera de febrero, y una escasa oferta, tan sólo del 12,2 %, a partir de mediados de febrero. Se observó un progresivo y sostenido reemplazo de las máquinas descarozadotas de torsión por las de sección. El máximo valor de la producción depende de los rendimientos, el peso de los frutos y su distribución en categorías comerciales. Sólo las variedades, Fortuna, Loadel y Carson, no superaron el nivel de producción mínimo (40 t/ha, pretendido por el sector primario. Sullivan’s Late mostró un comportamiento errático, con años de alto rendimiento y otros con baja producción. El rendimiento industrial es función principalmente del peso de frutos y la firmeza de pulpa. En el ingreso a la línea de procesamiento, la firmeza de pulpa debe estar en el rango 6 a 12 lb, aunque el óptimo es de 7 a 10 lb. Una visión integral del problema indica que la definición de la carga frutal óptima para cada variedad y el manejo de la cosecha son los dos factores de determinantes del rendimiento en campo, la calidad de la materia prima y del rendimiento industrial.

  20. Evaluación del comportamiento agroindustrial de variedades de duraznos conserveros (Prunus persica (L. Batsch en Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Ojer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de aumentar los rendimientos a campo, mejorar la calidad de la materia prima y sentar las bases de futuros programas de introducción de nuevas variedades, se evaluaron 13 variedades de duraznos conserveros. A fin de dar marco a la propuesta, se analizó la situación del sector industrial, el sector de producción primaria y el panorama varietal. Se efectuaron mediciones en 5 áreas: maduración, comportamiento en la cosecha, capacidad productiva, parámetros vinculados al procesamiento en mitades y comportamiento en la agroindustria. Las determinaciones se realizaron durante 6 temporadas en 2 montes frutales en plena producción comercial. La oferta varietal se caracterizó por una sobreoferta (56,0 % del total implantado entre la última semana de enero y primera de febrero, y una escasa oferta, tan sólo del 12,2 %, a partir de mediados de febrero. Se observó un progresivo y sostenido reemplazo de las máquinas descarozadoras de torsión por las de sección. El máximo valor de la producción depende de los rendimientos, el peso de los frutos y su distribución en categorías comerciales. Sólo las variedades, Fortuna, Loadel y Carson, no superaron el nivel de producción mínimo (40 t/ha, pretendido por el sector primario. Sullivan’s Late mostró un comportamiento errático, con años de alto rendimiento y otros con baja producción. El rendimiento industrial es función principalmente del peso de frutos y la firmeza de pulpa. En el ingreso a la línea de procesamiento, la firmeza de pulpa debe estar en el rango 6 a 12 lb, aunque el óptimo es de 7 a 10 lb. Una visión integral del problema indica que la definición de la carga frutal óptima para cada variedad y el manejo de la cosecha son los dos factores determinantes del rendimiento en campo, la calidad de la materia prima y del rendimiento industrial.

  1. Parámetros de calidad durante la cosecha de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. “Rubidoux”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisney Alessandra Bastidas Parrado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El durazno es una fruta de importancia agrícola como parte de los cultivos caducifolios producidos en Colombia; su calidad y aceptacion comercial, asi como el momento de la cosecha, estan definidos en funcion de sus características fisicoquimicas. Esta investigacion tuvo como propósito caracterizar algunos parametros de calidad de durazno variedad Rubidoux durante el periodo de cosecha, a partir de la seleccion hecha por operarios en campo, de acuerdo al color de la piel como indicador de madurez. Durante seis semanas de la cosecha se evaluaron muestras de frutos, considerando aspectos como peso fresco, contenido de solidos solubles (oBrix, categoria comercial de acuerdo al diametro ecuatorial y color del fruto. Se registro un peso fresco promedio de 130,7 g por fruto, con un contenido de solidos solubles promedio de 11,8 oBrix, parametro que incremento progresivamente de la semana uno a la cinco. La clasificacion visual por el color de la piel permitio definir siete categorias, tres predominaron durante la cosecha (pinton, pinton-maduro y maduro, estos se correspondieron con el contenido de solidos solubles; es asi como el analisis de varianza mostro diferencias estadisticas entre oBrix y el color de piel. Durante el periodo evaluado, se cosecharon con mayor frecuencia duraznos pintones y frutos con diametro entre 60 mm a 70 mm.

  2. Parámetros de calidad durante la cosecha de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. “Rubidoux”)

    OpenAIRE

    Lisney Alessandra Bastidas Parrado; Gloria Acened Puentes Montañez; Angela Lemus Cerón

    2015-01-01

    El durazno es una fruta de importancia agrícola como parte de los cultivos caducifolios producidos en Colombia; su calidad y aceptacion comercial, asi como el momento de la cosecha, estan definidos en funcion de sus características fisicoquimicas. Esta investigacion tuvo como propósito caracterizar algunos parametros de calidad de durazno variedad Rubidoux durante el periodo de cosecha, a partir de la seleccion hecha por operarios en campo, de acuerdo al color de la piel como indicador de mad...

  3. Estudo de conservação de pêssego [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] minimamente processado.

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Amauri Costa da

    2010-01-01

    O escurecimento enzimático e o amolecimento são as principais alterações em pêssegos minimamente processados. Inicialmente estudou-se a combinação de moléculas antioxidantes e protetores de textura no controle da atividade das enzimas polifenoloxidase (PPO) e peroxidase (POD), do escurecimento enzimático e do amolecimento da polpa de pêssegos, cv. Esmeralda, minimamente processados e refrigerados (MPR). Para isso testou-se o uso de L-cisteína (Cis), ácido L-ascórbico (AA) e cloreto de cálcio ...

  4. Dehydrogenase isoenzyme polymorphism in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolić Slavica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrogenase polymorphism was studied in 36 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., sweet cherry (Prunus avuim L., mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L., ground cherry (Prunus fruticosa Pall., duke cherry (Prunus gondounii Redh., Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus serrulata Lindl. and four iterspecific hybrids (standard cherry rootstocks ‘Gisela 5’, ‘Gisela 6’, ‘Max Ma’ and ‘Colt’. Inner bark of one-year-old shoots, in dormant stage, was used for enzyme extraction. Vertical PAGE was used for isoenzyme analysis: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, formate dehydrogenase (FDH, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, isocitrate dehydrogenaze (IDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH. All studied systems were polymorphic at 10 loci: Adh -1 (3 genotypes and Adh-2 (5 genotypes, Fdh-1 (2 genotypes, Gdh-1 (3 genotypes, Idh-1 (4 genotypes i Idh -2 (5 genotypes, Mdh-1 (3 genotypes, Pgd-1 (4 genotypes, Sdh-1 (1 genotype i Sdh-2 (3 genotypes. Cluster analysis was used to construct dendrogram on which four groups of similar genotypes were separated. Obtained results indicate that studied enzyme systems can be used for determination of genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus. Among studied enzyme systems ADH, IDH and SDH were the most polymorphic and most useful to identify genetic variability. Polymorphism of FDH and GDH in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus was described first time in this work. First results for dehydrogenase variability of Oblačinska indicate that polymorphism of loci Idh-2 and Sdh-2 can be useful for discrimination of different clones.

  5. Phenolic compounds profile and antioxidant properties of six sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Serena; Conte, Angela; Tagliazucchi, Davide

    2017-07-01

    Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruits are a nutritionally important food rich in dietary phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic profile and chemometric discrimination of fruits from six cherry cultivars using a quantitative metabolomics approach, which combine non-targeted mass spectrometry and chemometric analysis. The assessment of the phenolic fingerprint of cherries allowed the tentative identification of 86 compounds. A total of 40 chlorogenic acids were identified in cherry fruit, which pointed out hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives as the main class of phenolics by number of compounds. Among the compounds detected, 40 have been reported for the first time in sweet cherry fruit. Hydroxycinnamic acids are also the quantitatively most represented class of phenolic compounds in the cherry cultivars with the exception of Lapins and Durone della Marca where the most representative class of phenolic compounds were anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols, respectively. This non-targeted approach allowed the tentative identification of the cultivar-compound relationships of these six cherry cultivars. Both anthocyanins and colorless phenolic compounds profile appeared to be cultivar-dependent. In detail, anthocyanins and flavonols patterns have the potential to be used for the determination of a varietal assignment of cherries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Numerical Discrimination of Persicae Semen and Armeniacae Semen

    OpenAIRE

    TADATO, TANI; TADAHISA, KATSUKI; MICHINORI, KUBO; SHIGERU, ARICHI; The Research Institute of Oriental Medicine, Kinki University

    1986-01-01

    Multivariate analysis of the eight numerical characteristics (weight, three ratios of length, width, thickness, and angle of the pointed end and the three color characteristics of the seed coat) of commercially available Persicae Semen and Armeniacae Semen (eleven samples, each) was performed to identify their original plant species. It was found that by means of principal component analysis, the first principal component consisting of shape factors is considered to have discriminatory value ...

  7. Pengaruh Larutan Kumur Ekstrak Siwak (Salvadora Persica) Terhadap Ph Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Kusumasari, Nila; Santoso, Oedijani

    2012-01-01

    Latar belakang : pH saliva merupakan salah satu komponen yang memberikan kontribusi terhadap pH mulut. Bakteri patogen dalam rongga mulut memfermentasi gula menjadi asam laktat yang akan menurunkan keasaman mulutsehingga menyebabkan demineralisasi email gigi. Untuk mencegah penurunan pH saliva dapat dilakukan secara kimiawi. Pada penelitian ini digunakan larutan ekstrak siwak (Salvadora persica) sebagai obat kumur karena terdapat fitokemikal yang mampu mencegah penurunan pH saliva dengan cara...

  8. Effectiveness of Salvadora persica extracts against common oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balto, Hanan; Al-Sanie, Ibrahim; Al-Beshri, Sultan; Aldrees, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ethanol and hexane extracts of Salvadora persica against common oral pathogens. Well diffusion, Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC), and Broth microdilution tests were used to determine the optimum antimicrobial concentrations of S. persica extracts against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Streptococcus sanguis (S. sanguis), and Streptococcus salivarius (S. salivarius) over 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. Chlorhexidine (CHX) 0.2% was used as a positive control. The findings showed that the microbial activity of both extracts was concentration-dependent. Ethanol extract of S. persica at 25, 50, and 100 mg/ml had more growth inhibitory effect against all isolates compared to hexane extract. In addition, ethanol extract at 8 mg/ml (MBC value) was able to eradicate the growth of all isolates. S. sanguis and S. salivarius were very sensitive to hexane extract and required 4 mg/ml (MBC value) for their eradication while S. mutans was the most resistant (MBC = 8 mg/ml).The statistical findings of CFU counts showed no significant difference (p = 1.000) in antibacterial effectiveness between the two extracts against all isolates. A significant decline overtime in CFU counts was noted, except at 12 h and 24 h where no significant difference (p = 0.793) was observed and was comparable to CHX. Ethanol and hexane extracts of S. persica were found to exhibit maximum antimicrobial activity against S. mutans, S. sanguis and S. salivarius at high concentrations.

  9. Morphological features of Persica species and varieties in the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. М. Голубкова

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine morphological and morphometric features of vegetative and generative organs of Persica species and varieties under the conditions of the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine for further use in breeding. Methods. Biological (morphological analysis and statistical (processing of morphometric parameters ones. Results. It was found that except ternate multiple buds, in peach hybrid ‘Suputnyk’collateral buds were prevalent which was not common to other tested varieties and species. Buds of each species and variety have a certain number of scales. The most scales were observed in ‘Suputnyk’. Pubescence of abaxial side of the leaf in P. davіdiana and ‘Suputnyk’ plants was not revealed. Species of P. vulgaris (‘Pecherskyi’, ‘Antotsianovyi’, ‘Poleskyi’ was characterized by increase in size of leaf blades, flowers and fruits. The distinctive features of P. davidiana and ‘Suputnyk’ are that stamens were accumulated in their flowers while in P. vulgaris they are branched. Raphe of a P. vulgaris stone protrudes above the edges of the bordering creases and consists of a number of narrow plates. Conclusions. For the breeding purposes, plants have an advantage for some basic criteria: the most flower buds that is common to interspecies hybrid ‘Suputnyk’; increase in photosynthetic productivity of the leaf apparatus to be typical for the variety ‘Pecherskyi’; large fruits that ‘Pecherskyi’ variety is noted for; intense red color of fruits that is inherent feature of ‘Antocianovyi’ variety.

  10. Host Plant Resistance to Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzar), by Some Wild Types of Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzar), is an important pest of many vegetable crops. It damages crops by feeding and vectoring viruses. Potential sources of plant resistance against M. persicae were examined for watermelon. A multiple choice experiment was conducted with leaves of six wi...

  11. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Blando

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L (also called tart cherries contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evaluation and characterization of the in vitro produced pigments are compared to those of the anthocyanins found in vivo in fruits of several sour cherry cultivars. Interestingly, the anthocyanin profiles found in whole fruit extracts were similar in all tested genotypes but were different with respect to the callus extract. The evaluation of antioxidant activity, performed by ORAC and TEAC assays, revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity for the fruit extracts (from 1145 to 2592 μmol TE/100 g FW and a lower one for the callus extract (688 μmol TE/100 g FW.

  12. Dicty_cDB: SSK530 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 708 |BU044708.1 PP_LEa0020E04f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0020E04f, mRN...A sequence. 62 8e-11 2 BU040616 |BU040616.1 PP_LEa0006L02f Peach developing fruit

  13. Leaf N and P in different growth habits of peach: effects of root system morphology and transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adequate mineral nutrition is critical for high fruit quality and sustained yield of fruit trees. In this experiment, peach [Prunus persica L. (Batch)] trees with different shoot and root growth habits were evaluated for leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations after fertilizer applicati...

  14. Dicty_cDB: VSF219 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0.009 2 BU042820 |BU042820.1 PP_LEa0014B11f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LE...a0014B11f, mRNA sequence. 52 0.010 1 BU041769 |BU041769.1 PP_LEa0010G24f Peach developing...32.1 PP_LEa0019F12f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0019F12f, mRNA sequence.

  15. Chemical composition and antiprolifrative activity of Artemisia persica Boiss. and Artemisia turcomanica Gand. essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakht, M R; Sharifi, S; Emami, S A; Khodaie, L

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Artemisia persica and Artemisia turcomanica were analyzed by GC/MS. While 28 components representing 91.01 % of A. persica were identified, the identity of 50 components, constituting 81.93 % of the total oil, was confirmed in A. turcomanica. β-thujone was the main compound (75.23%) in A. persica while the major identified phytochemicals in A. turcomanica were 1,8-cineol (19.23%), camphor (15.55%) and filifolone (15.53%). Both of the essential oils were predominantly made up of monoterpenes. Time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of A. persica and A. turcomanica on MCF-7 cell line evaluated by MTT assay at 24, 48 and 72 h, showed that the highest cytotoxic effect of A. persica and A. turcomanica were appeared at 72 h incubation. At that incubation period, CI50 of A. persica was found to be 0.15 μg/ml, while that of A. turcomanica was 0.1 μg/ml. Thus, cytotoxicity of A. turcomanica was slightly higher than A. persica which could be attributed to the higher content of sesquiterpene present in A. turcomanica. As a conclusion, these volatile oils could have chemotherapeutic potentials.

  16. Chemical composition and antiprolifrative activity of Artemisia persica Boiss. and Artemisia turcomanica Gand. essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakht, M.R.; Sharifi, S.; Emami, S.A.; Khodaie, L.

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Artemisia persica and Artemisia turcomanica were analyzed by GC/MS. While 28 components representing 91.01 % of A. persica were identified, the identity of 50 components, constituting 81.93 % of the total oil, was confirmed in A. turcomanica. β-thujone was the main compound (75.23%) in A. persica while the major identified phytochemicals in A. turcomanica were 1,8-cineol (19.23%), camphor (15.55%) and filifolone (15.53%). Both of the essential oils were predominantly made up of monoterpenes. Time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of A. persica and A. turcomanica on MCF-7 cell line evaluated by MTT assay at 24, 48 and 72 h, showed that the highest cytotoxic effect of A. persica and A. turcomanica were appeared at 72 h incubation. At that incubation period, CI50 of A. persica was found to be 0.15 μg/ml, while that of A. turcomanica was 0.1 μg/ml. Thus, cytotoxicity of A. turcomanica was slightly higher than A. persica which could be attributed to the higher content of sesquiterpene present in A. turcomanica. As a conclusion, these volatile oils could have chemotherapeutic potentials. PMID:25657784

  17. Metabolite Profiling Reveals a Specific Response in Tomato to Predaceous Chrysoperla carnea Larvae and Herbivore(s)-Predator Interactions with the Generalist Pests Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errard, Audrey; Ulrichs, Christian; Kühne, Stefan; Mewis, Inga; Mishig, Narantuya; Maul, Ronald; Drungowski, Mario; Parolin, Pia; Schreiner, Monika; Baldermann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) both infest a number of economically significant crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Although used for decades to control pests, the impact of green lacewing larvae Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) on plant biochemistry was not investigated. Here, we used profiling methods and targeted analyses to explore the impact of the predator and herbivore(s)-predator interactions on tomato biochemistry. Each pest and pest-predator combination induced a characteristic metabolite signature in the leaf and the fruit thus, the plant exhibited a systemic response. The treatments had a stronger impact on non-volatile metabolites including abscisic acid and amino acids in the leaves in comparison with the fruits. In contrast, the various biotic factors had a greater impact on the carotenoids in the fruits. We identified volatiles such as myrcene and α-terpinene which were induced by pest-predator interactions but not by single species, and we demonstrated the involvement of the phytohormone abscisic acid in tritrophic interactions for the first time. More importantly, C. carnea larvae alone impacted the plant metabolome, but the predator did not appear to elicit particular defense pathways on its own. Since the presence of both C. carnea larvae and pest individuals elicited volatiles which were shown to contribute to plant defense, C. carnea larvae could therefore contribute to the reduction of pest infestation, not only by its preying activity, but also by priming responses to generalist herbivores such as T. urticae and M. persicae. On the other hand, the use of C. carnea larvae alone did not impact carotenoids thus, was not prejudicial to the fruit quality. The present piece of research highlights the specific impact of predator and tritrophic interactions with green lacewing larvae, spider mites, and aphids on different components of the tomato primary and secondary metabolism for the first

  18. Metabolite profiling reveals a specific response in tomato to predaceous Chrysoperla carnea larvae and herbivore(s-predator interactions with the generalist pests Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Errard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer both infest a number of economically significant crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Although used for decades to control pests, the impact of green lacewing larvae Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens on plant biochemistry was not investigated. Here we used profiling methods and targeted analyses to explore the impact of the predator and herbivore(s-predator interactions on tomato biochemistry. Each pest and pest-predator combination induced a characteristic metabolite signature in the leaf and the fruit thus, the plant exhibited a systemic response. The treatments had a stronger impact on non-volatile metabolites including abscisic acid and amino acids in the leaves in comparison with the fruits. In contrast, the various biotic factors had a greater impact on the carotenoids in the fruits. We identified volatiles such as myrcene and α-terpinene which were induced by pest-predator interactions but not by single species, and we demonstrated the involvement of the phytohormone abscisic acid in tritrophic interactions for the first time. More importantly, C. carnea larvae alone impacted the plant metabolome, but the predator did not appear to elicit particular defense pathways on its own. Since the presence of both C. carnea larvae and pest individuals elicited volatiles which were shown to contribute to plant defense, C. carnea larvae could therefore contribute to the reduction of pest infestation, not only by its preying activity, but also by priming responses to generalist herbivores such as T. urticae and M. persicae. On the other hand, the use of C. carnea larvae alone did not impact carotenoids thus, was not prejudicial to the fruit quality. The present piece of research highlights the specific impact of predator and tritrophic interactions with green lacewing larvae, spider mites and aphids on different components of the tomato primary and secondary metabolism

  19. Enraizamento in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus In vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rogalski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Na micropropagação de Prunus sp., o enraizamento tem sido considerado uma fase crítica, pois determina a sobrevivência das plantas durante a aclimatização. Dentre os fatores importantes ao enraizamento in vitro, destacam-se o genótipo e as auxinas por serem determinantes na indução e na formação de raízes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de IBA no enraizamento in vitro dos porta-enxertos de espécies do gênero Prunus: cultivares Capdeboscq e GF677, e seleções VP411 e VP417. Para o enraizamento in vitro, brotos com 2-3cm de comprimento foram introduzidos em meio de Lepoivre suplementado com 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg.L-1 IBA. Observou-se que o porta-enxerto 'Capdeboscq' apresentou maior taxa de enraizamento e maior número de raízes in vitro, sendo superior aos demais genótipos quanto a estas características. O nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA esteve associado à maior taxa média de enraizamento (100%, 64% e 64,0%, respectivamente para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq', 'GF677' e VP411. O nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA foi superior para a seleção VP417 com taxa de 64% de enraizamento. Para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq' e 'GF677', o número máximo de raízes foi de 9,6 e 5,2 raízes por broto, respectivamente, em resposta ao nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA, enquanto as seleções VP411 e VP417 apresentaram o maior número de raízes (3,6 e 3,9, respectivamente em resposta ao nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA.In Prunus sp. micropropagation of rooting is considered a critical stage, since it determines the plant survival during the acclimatization. Among important factors associated with rooting, the genotype and the auxins are considered important in the induction and formation of roots. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of different IBA on the in vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks Capdeboscq and GF677, and the selections VP411 and VP417. For the in vitro rooting stage, shoots of

  20. Otostegia persica extraction on healing process of burn wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ganjali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate if the methanolic extract of the Otostegia persica can accelerating healing process of burn wound because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. METHODS:Forty eight male Wistar rats were randomized into three study groups of 16 rats each. Burn wounds were created on dorsal part of shaved rats using a metal rod. In group I the burn wound was left without any treatment. Group was treated with topical silver sulfadiazine pomade. In group III, ointment containing the OP extract was administered. Skin biopsies were harvested from burn area on the 3rd, 5th, 14th and 21st days after burn and examined histologically. RESULTS: Re-epithelialization in the control group and in group II was lower than in group III. Re-epithelialization in groups II and III was significantly different from that in the control group. On the 5th day of the experiment, we assessed lower inflammation in the burn area compared to control group. This means that the inflammation was suppressed by methanolic extract of OP. From day 5 to 14; the fibroblast proliferation peaked and was associated with increased collagen accumulation. It was obvious that angiogenesis improved more in the groups II and III, which facilitated re-epithelialisation. CONCLUSION:Methanolic extract of Otostegia persica exhibited significant healing activity when topically applied on rats. OP is an effective treatment for saving the burn site.

  1. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... For the out groups, Sorbaria sorbifolia and Spiraea canto- niensis, were selected which have been proposed as the sister to Prunus in past studies e.g. Spiraea and Sorbaria which were supported by data from PGIP and Mat-K, separately and combined (Potter et al., 1999). ITS analysis. The aligned ITS ...

  2. Molecular characterization of the plum collection [Prunus domestica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight Random Amplified Microsatellite markers (RAMs) were used to characterize the genetic diversity found in 14 Prunus materials belonging to the deciduous collection of the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia. A total of 121 bands were generated: they range from nine for the GT primer to 26 for the ...

  3. Novel Phaeoacremonium species associated with necrotic wood of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Mostert, L.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The genus Phaeoacremonium is associated with opportunistic human infections, as well as stunted growth and die-back of various woody hosts, especially grapevines. In this study, Phaeoacremonium species were isolated from necrotic woody tissue of Prunus spp. (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) from

  4. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prunus is found in all four provinces of Pakistan, that is, Punjab, NWFP, Sindh and Baluchistan including Azad Kashmir region. Studies on the family Rosaceae is scanty in the Flora of Pakistan and there is a lot of taxonomic work yet to be done, for the proper classification and placement of different genera under different ...

  5. ( Prunus avium L.) as affected by training system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern intensive production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) tends to planting of high quality cultivars on the dwarfing rootstocks in high density orchards. The most productive training system is used, providing an ideal condition for undisturbed growth and yield. The main objective of this study was to determine the best ...

  6. Cryopreservation of in vitro -grown shoot tips of apricot ( Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro grown apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. El-Hamawey shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved using an encapsulation-dehydration procedure. Shoot tips were encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads before preculture on woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with different sucrose concentrations; 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, ...

  7. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Prunus salicina

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation from hypocotyls slices of two Prunus salicina varieties, 'Angeleno' and 'Larry Anne', using a modification of the technique previously described for P. domestica. Regeneration rates on thidiazuron (TDZ) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supp...

  8. Kweker kan zelf toetsen op Xanthomonas in Prunus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Martin, W.S.; Kuik, van A.J.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.; Raaij, van H.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Prime Diagnostics uit Wageningen heeft een methode ontwikkeld waarmee kwekers eenvoudig kunnen bepalen of Prunus is aangetast door de bacterie Xanthomonas arboricola pv pruni. Voor een officiële uitslag is nog steeds wel een test uitgevoerd door de nVWA of Naktuinbouw nodig.

  9. Slaat Xanthomonas dit jaar weer toe in Prunus laurocerasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Dalfsen, van P.; Pham, K.T.K.

    2012-01-01

    Een diagnostische test moet duidelijk maken of er sprake is van Xanthomonas in Prunus laurocerasus. De bacterieziekte is namelijk makkelijk te verwarren met andere ziekten. Onderzoek, gefinancierd door het Productschap Tuinbouw, richt zich op het toetsen van moerplanten voordat hier van gestekt gaat

  10. Sugars and organic acids in plum fruit affected by Plum pox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenik, Valentina; Marn, Mojca Virscek

    2017-05-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) causes severe economic losses in stone fruit production, but little is known about its effect on plum fruit composition. In this study, the influence of PPV on sugars and organic acids was evaluated in a susceptible plum (Prunus domestica L.) cultivar. PPV infection significantly affected the content and composition of sugars and organic acids. The composition of necrotic tissue was modified the most. A short-time infected tree yielded fruit with similar sugar composition to fruit from a healthy tree, but the decline of organic acids was faster. Prematurely ripened symptomatic fruit had reduced fruit weight and low sugar content. Infected trees of the studied cultivar produce fruit of inferior quality. Fruits are not suitable for processing, especially when most of them exhibit visual symptoms of PPV infection. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of the Phenolic Compounds of Prunus mume against Enterobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Takahiko; Ota, Kana; Inaba, Nobuya; Kishida, Kunihiro; Koyama, Hajime A

    2018-01-01

    Mume fruit, the Japanese apricot (Prunus mume SIEB. et ZUCC.), is popular in Japan and is mostly consumed in the pickled form called umeboshi. This fruit is known to have anti-microbial properties, but the principal constituents responsible for the antimicrobial properties have not yet been elucidated. We investigated the antimicrobial activities of the phenolic compounds in P. mume against enterobacteria. In this study, growth inhibitory activities were measured as an index of the antibacterial activities. The phenolic compounds were prepared from a byproduct of umeboshi called umesu or umezu (often translated as "mume vinegar"). Umesu or umezu phenolics (UP) contain approximately 20% phenolic compounds with p-coumaric acid as a standard and do not contain citric acid. We observed the inhibitory effects of UP against the growth of some enterobacteria, at a relatively high concentration (1250-5000 µg/mL). Alkali hydrolysates of UP (AHUP) exhibited similar antibacterial activities, but at much lower concentrations of 37.5-300 µg/mL. Since AHUP comprises hydroxycinnamic acids such as caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid, the antibacterial activities of each of these acids were examined. Our study shows that the phenolic compounds in P. mume other than citric acid contribute to its antimicrobial activity against enterobacteria in the digestive tract.

  12. Morphological differences among egg nests and adult individuals of Cicadatra persica (Hemiptera, Cicadidae, distributed in Erneh, Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marah Dardar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is determining the different patterns of egg nests and the morphological differences between the specimens of Cicadatra persica Kirkalidy, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae distributed in fruit orchards in Erneh located on AL-Sheikh mountain southwest of Syria. The appearance of 80 egg nests was studied, and the results showed that there were two basic patterns of egg nests laid by C. persica, 90% of the egg nests were of the first pattern (consists of several adjacent slits, while 10% of them were of the second pattern (consists of several divergent slits. A random sample consisting of 300 specimens (150 males and 150 females were also studied concentrating on the differences in the color of the supra-antennal plate and in the number of spurs on the tibia of the hind legs. The results showed that there were two basic patterns of individuals based on the differences in the color of supra-antennal plate. The first pattern (individuals with yellow supra-antennal plates, constituted more than 90%, and the second one (individuals with black supra-antennal plates constituted less than 10%. The results also showed that there were 27 different patterns based on the number of spurs on the tibia of the hind legs. One of them was a common pattern (2, 3 whose individuals have 2 spurs on the upper side of the tibia of the hind legs and 3 spurs on the lateral side of the tibia of the hind legs. The total percent of this common pattern was 76%. The other 26 patterns were different from each other, and the total percent of all these different patterns was 24%.

  13. Differential protein expression in the susceptible and resistant Myzus persicae (Sulzer) to imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, JianYu; Zhang, ChangYu; Chen, XingJiang; Cao, Yi; Shang, ShengHua

    2014-10-01

    Myzus persicae, a serious economic agricultural pest, has developed resistance to imidacloprid (IMI), which was widely used to control this aphid worldwide. To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of IMI resistance in M. persicae, we carried out a comparative proteomic analysis. Total proteins of the IMI-susceptible and resistant strains were extracted and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. More than 1300 protein spots were reproducibly detected, including 14 that were more abundant and 14 less abundant. Mass spectrometry analysis and database searching helped us to identify 25 differentially abundant proteins. The identified proteins were categorized into several functional groups including signal transduction, RNA processing, protein processing, transport processing, stress response, metabolisms, and cytoskeleton structure, etc. This study is the first analysis of differentially expressed proteins in IMI-susceptible and resistant M. Persicae, and gives new insights into the mechanisms of IMI resistance in M. persicae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Stability of gene silencing-based resistance to Plum pox virus in transgenic plum (Prunus domestica L.) under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hily, Jean-Michel; Scorza, Ralph; Malinowski, Tadeusz; Zawadzka, Barbara; Ravelonandro, Michel

    2004-10-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is one of the most devastating diseases of Prunus species. Since few sources of resistance to PPV have been identified, transgene-based resistance offers a complementary approach to developing PPV-resistant stone fruit cultivars. C5, a transgenic clone of Prunus domestica L., containing the PPV coat protein (CP) gene, has been described as highly resistant to PPV in greenhouse tests, displaying characteristics typical of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). We show in this report that C5 trees exposed to natural aphid vectors in the field remained uninfected after 4 years while susceptible transgenic and untransformed trees developed severe symptoms within the first year. C5 trees inoculated by chip budding showed only very mild symptoms and PPV could be detected in these trees by IC-RT-PCR. The PPV-CP transgene in C5 was specifically hyper-methylated with no detectable expression. These results indicate both stability and efficiency of PTGS-based PPV resistance in plum under field conditions.

  15. Genomic resources for Myzus persicae: EST sequencing, SNP identification, and microarray design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malloch Gaynor

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer, is a world-wide insect pest capable of infesting more than 40 plant families, including many crop species. However, despite the significant damage inflicted by M. persicae in agricultural systems through direct feeding damage and by its ability to transmit plant viruses, limited genomic information is available for this species. Results Sequencing of 16 M. persicae cDNA libraries generated 26,669 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Aphids for library construction were raised on Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana, Brassica oleracea, B. napus, and Physalis floridana (with and without Potato leafroll virus infection. The M. persicae cDNA libraries include ones made from sexual and asexual whole aphids, guts, heads, and salivary glands. In silico comparison of cDNA libraries identified aphid genes with tissue-specific expression patterns, and gene expression that is induced by feeding on Nicotiana benthamiana. Furthermore, 2423 genes that are novel to science and potentially aphid-specific were identified. Comparison of cDNA data from three aphid lineages identified single nucleotide polymorphisms that can be used as genetic markers and, in some cases, may represent functional differences in the protein products. In particular, non-conservative amino acid substitutions in a highly expressed gut protease may be of adaptive significance for M. persicae feeding on different host plants. The Agilent eArray platform was used to design an M. persicae oligonucleotide microarray representing over 10,000 unique genes. Conclusion New genomic resources have been developed for M. persicae, an agriculturally important insect pest. These include previously unknown sequence data, a collection of expressed genes, molecular markers, and a DNA microarray that can be used to study aphid gene expression. These resources will help elucidate the adaptations that allow M. persicae to develop compatible

  16. Dicty_cDB: VSG250 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 BU574126 |BU574126.1 PA__Ea0006F03f Almond developing seed Prunus dulcis cDNA clone PA__Ea0006F03f...010 1 BU044788 |BU044788.1 PP_LEa0020I02f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0020I02f

  17. Life cycle variation of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritopoulos, J T; Tsitsipis, J A; Goudoudaki, S; Blackman, R L

    2002-08-01

    During the years 1995-1999 the life cycle category of 2797 clones of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) was examined. The clones originated from primary and secondary hosts from different localities of North and Central Greece and the island of Crete in the south. Four different overwintering life cycle strategies were found that have also been described for M. persicae and other heteroecious species previously. A geographical variation was found in the proportion of holocyclic clones from tobacco and other secondary hosts associated with the abundance of the primary host in the sampling regions. In Central Macedonia, around the main peach-growing regions, the proportion of holocyclic clones was mostly above 50% and in some cases reached 100%. In localities of East Macedonia, holocyclic clones were also frequent. On the other hand, further south or in north-eastern Greece, where peach is not common, the proportion of holocyclic clones varied between 0 and 33%. Fifty seven percent of examined anholocyclic clones produced males under short day conditions, suggesting that androcyclic clones in Greece represent an important factor of genetic variability. Intermediate clones were sampled from all host-plants but at low frequencies (3.6% of total examined clones and 6.9% of non-holocyclic ones). Moreover, a regional variation was found in different colour forms feeding on tobacco plants. Red clones were predominant in regions where aphids overwinter parthenogenetically on weeds or winter crops. However, almost all clones from the primary host were green. The ecological aspects of life cycle variation are discussed.

  18. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF PLUM FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina BOZHKOVA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plum fruits (Prunus domestica L. have long been known as food for people since ancient times. They are consumed fresh, dried or processed. The increasing consumers’ demand for quality of fruit is a relevant reason to present information about the differences in the chemical composition and the sensory characteristics between the widely spread and newly studied plum cultivars. The present study was carried out in the period 2009 - 2012 at the Fruit-Growing Institute – Plovdiv, Bulgaria on 12 plum cultivars. The results of chemical composition analysis showed that the fruits of ‘Jojo’, ‘Topking’, ‘Topfive’ and ‘Mirabelle de Nancy’ have a total soluble solid above 20 0Brix. The highest sugar content was found in the fruits of ‘Jojo’. Fruits of ‘Pacific’ have the highest titratable acids content (1.28% compared to the other cultivars. The highest vitamin C content (11.92 mg/100 g was determined in the fruits of ‘Stanley’ cultivar. According to the sensory data, fruits of the cultivars ‘Bellamira’, ‘President’ and ‘Tuleu Timpuriu’ were grouped as the most delicious fruits and were regarded as suitable for fresh consumption. The general sensory evaluation showed that the fruits of ‘Bellamira’, ‘Haganta’, ‘President’ and ‘Tuleu Timpuriu’ are excellent in quality and they could be recommended to consumers and traders.

  19. Molecular characterization of cDNAs corresponding to genes expressed during almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mas, J; Messeguer, R; Arús, P; Puigdomènech, P

    1995-01-01

    A number of different cDNA clones corresponding to the most abundant mRNAs present in immature seeds have been isolated from an almond (Prunus amygdalus cv. Texas) immature seed cDNA library. Those corresponding to proteins involved in storage processes have been further characterized. Two of these cDNAs (PA3BF1 and PA3BE12) code for the almond globulins (prunins), the main family of storage proteins synthesized in seeds during embryogenesis, and another cDNA (PA3BA1) codes for the 15.7 kDa almond oleosin, a protein located on the surface of oil bodies in plant seeds. These cDNAs have been sequenced and their expression during almond fruit development has been studied. Their expression is seed-specific and localized in cotyledons around 100 days after flowering. Both prunin and oleosin genes are present in one or two copies in the almond genome.

  20. Carbohydrate metabolism of vegetative and reproductive sinks in the late-maturing peach cultivar 'Encore'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardo Lo Bianco; Mark Rieger; Shi-Jean S. Sung

    1999-01-01

    Activities of NAD+-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), sorbitol oxidase (SOX), sucrose synthase (SS), acid invertase (AI), and neutral invertase (NI) in ?Encore? peach (Prunus persica L.) fruits and developing shoot tips were assayed during the growing season to determine whether carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes could...

  1. Where are we now as we merge genomics into plant breeding and what are our limitations? Experiences from RosBREED

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genomic sequences of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh), peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch), and diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) – one member of each of the three main fruit-producing branches of the Rosaceae family tree – were available in 2010. Despite this achievement, virtually ...

  2. Constitutive expression of a peach AP2/ERF transcription factor in apple confers short day cessation of growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cold acclimation and dormancy in Prunus persica (peach) are regulated by both photoperiod and temperature, whereas in Malus x domestica (apple), they are regulated solely by temperature. To understand the process of cold acclimation and dormancy regulation in fruit crops, we have begun a functional...

  3. Integrated QTL detection for key breeding traits in multiple peach progenies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández Mora, José R.; Micheletti, Diego; Bink, Marco; Weg, Van de Eric; Cantín, Celia; Nazzicari, Nelson; Caprera, Andrea; Dettori, Maria Teresa; Micali, Sabrina; Banchi, Elisa; Campoy, José Antonio; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth; Lambert, Patrick; Pascal, Thierry; Troggio, Michela; Bassi, Daniele; Rossini, Laura; Verde, Ignazio; Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte; Laurens, François; Arús, Pere; Aranzana, Maria José

    2017-01-01

    Background: Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is a major temperate fruit crop with an intense breeding activity. Breeding is facilitated by knowledge of the inheritance of the key traits that are often of a quantitative nature. QTLs have traditionally been studied using the phenotype of a single

  4. Dicty_cDB: CFK405 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 9 BU042811 |BU042811.1 PP_LEa0014A23f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0014A23f...BQ806838 |BQ806838.1 WHE3583_G06_M11ZS Wheat developing grains cDNA library Triticum aestivum cDNA clone

  5. Dicty_cDB: CFJ795 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 9 BU042811 |BU042811.1 PP_LEa0014A23f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0014A23f...BQ806838 |BQ806838.1 WHE3583_G06_M11ZS Wheat developing grains cDNA library Triticum aestivum cDNA clone

  6. Dicty_cDB: SFF142 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 9 BU042811 |BU042811.1 PP_LEa0014A23f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0014A23f...BQ806838 |BQ806838.1 WHE3583_G06_M11ZS Wheat developing grains cDNA library Triticum aestivum cDNA clone

  7. Dicty_cDB: CFC586 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10 BU042811 |BU042811.1 PP_LEa0014A23f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0014A23f...BQ806838 |BQ806838.1 WHE3583_G06_M11ZS Wheat developing grains cDNA library Triticum aestivum cDNA clone

  8. Dicty_cDB: SFJ704 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 8 BU042811 |BU042811.1 PP_LEa0014A23f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0014A23f...BQ806838 |BQ806838.1 WHE3583_G06_M11ZS Wheat developing grains cDNA library Triticum aestivum cDNA clone

  9. Dicty_cDB: SFB124 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 9 BU042811 |BU042811.1 PP_LEa0014A23f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0014A23f...BQ806838 |BQ806838.1 WHE3583_G06_M11ZS Wheat developing grains cDNA library Triticum aestivum cDNA clone

  10. Susceptibility, Oviposition Preference, and Biology of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Prunus Spp. Rootstock Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, D; Lazzari, J C; Andreazza, F; Mayer, N A; Botton, M; Nava, D E

    2017-08-01

    Studying the susceptibility of peach trees to Grapholita molesta (Busck) is one of the major steps in the development of pest-resistant peach varieties. This work evaluated the susceptibility of 55 genotypes of the "Prunus Rootstock Collection" ("Coleção Porta-enxerto de Prunus") of Embrapa Temperate Climate (Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) to the natural infestation of G. molesta, assessed the oviposition preference of G. molesta in choice and no-choice bioassays, and estimated the biological parameters and the fertility life table on different Prunus spp. genotypes in the laboratory. Genotypes Prunus kansuensis (Rehder), I-67-52-9, and I-67-52-4 were the most susceptible to G. molesta infestation in the field (>60% of branches infested), while 'Sharpe' (Prunus angustifolia x Prunus spp.) and Prunus sellowii (Koehne) were the least infested (0% of branches infested). In choice and no-choice bioassays, G. molesta preferred to oviposit on P. kansuensis when compared with Sharpe. The Sharpe genotype also showed an antibiosis effect, resulting in negative effects on the fertility life table parameters when compared with the genotypes P. kansuensis and 'Capdeboscq.' The results found in the present study can provide information to initiate a long-term breeding program moving desired G. molesta resistance traits from the rootstock into the Prunus spp. cultivars. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Genomic analysis reveals candidate genes for PPV resistance in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharka disease, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV), is the most important disease affecting Prunus species. A major PPV resistance locus (PPVres) was previously mapped to the upper part of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) linkage group 1. In this study, a physical map of the PPVres locus in the PPV resistan...

  12. Effect of Salinity Stress on Concentrations of Nutrition Elements in Almond (Prunus Dulcis 'Shokofeh', 'Sahand' Cultivars and '13-40' Genotype Budded on GF677 Rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Momenpour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Almond (Prunus amygdalus B. is one of the most important crops consumed as a dry fruit and it is mainly adaptable to arid and semi-arid regions mostly suffering from salinity stress (8. Soils with dry humidity regime are dominant in Iran and in the world at large and mostly include regions with more evaporation than precipitation. This in turn leads to increased salinity of the soil (9 and 10. Based on available reports, roughly 12.5% of land areas in Iran are saline, which overwhelmingly contain sodium, while more than 800 million hectares of land area on the earth (6% of overall global land area are affected by salinity (9 and 10. Therefore, compound of rootstock and scion may be used as one of the influence factors in sensitivity or tolerance to salinity of planted fruit trees including almonds (8 and 11. In recent years, for various reasons including the uniformity of trees, instead of sexual rootstock, vegetative rootstock is used. Rootstock GF677 an inter-specific hybrid (Almond Peach is propagated asexually as clone (8. It has been reported that rootstock GF677 is tolerant to salinity while rootstock nemagard (P. persica X P. davidiana is sensitive to salinity (16. It has been reported that rootstock GF677 tolerated salinity (5.5 ds/m, (19 or 5.2 ds/m (17 and 14.However, as plant species and different cultivars within the same plant species vary considerably in their tolerance to salinity (10, properly selecting plants and/or cultivars that can be grown well under adverse conditions, created in the root zone by salinization, is the most efficient and environmentally friendly agricultural practice for a more permanent solution of the problem of salinity (10. Despite the presence of information on the effect of salinity on concentration of nutrition elements of almond cultivars leaves and roots, tolerantscion/rootstock combinationshave not been introduced for this plant. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to

  13. Influence of Cultivar and Industrial Processing on Polyphenols in Concentrated Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Repajić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the infl uence of cultivar and industrial processing on total polyphenols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids and antioxidant activity in concentrated sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., cvs. Marasca and Oblačinska juices. Samples were collected during four processing steps: from fresh fruit prior to processing, then from pressed, fi ltered and concentrated juices. The content of total phenols was the same in both cultivars, but antioxidant activity (Oblačinska>Marasca and total monomeric anthocyanins (Marasca>Oblačinska diff ered. All processing steps significantly influenced the content of total phenols, total monomeric anthocyanins and antioxidant activity. In all samples four major anthocyanins were identifi ed by HPLC with UV/VIS PDA detector, listed in the descending order based on their abundance: cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Marasca cv. contained more total anthocyanins, and contents of cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside. The content of total hydroxycinnamic acids was also higher in Marasca than Oblačinska cv. Aft er processing, the concentration of all identifi ed anthocyanins increased in both cultivars. Majority of the highest values of polyphenols were detected in the juice aft er pressing. The content of polyphenols and their antioxidant activity were considerably stable during industrial processing to concentrated juice. Although Marasca had higher polyphenolic content than Oblačinska, both cultivars showed promising industrial potential for processing to concentrated juice.

  14. Immunocytochemical Localization of Mandelonitrile Lyase in Mature Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H C; Poulton, J E

    1991-08-01

    Mandelonitrile lyase (MDL, EC 4.1.2.10), which catalyzes the reversible dissociation of (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile to benzaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide, was purified to apparent homogeneity from mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds by conventional protein purification techniques. This flavoprotein is monomeric with a subunit molecular mass of 57 kilodaltons. Glycoprotein character was shown by its binding to the affinity matrix concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B with subsequent elution by alpha-methyl-d-glucoside. Upon chemical deglycosylation by trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, the molecular mass was reduced to 50.9 kilodaltons. Two-dimensional gel analysis of deglycosylated MDL revealed the presence of several subunit isoforms of similar molecular mass but differing slightly in isoelectric point. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in New Zealand white rabbits against deglycosylated and untreated MDL. Antibody titers were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent and dot immunobinding assays, while their specificities were assessed by Western immunoblot analysis. Antibodies raised against untreated lyase recognized several proteins in addition to MDL. In contrast, antisera raised against deglycosylated MDL were monospecific and were utilized for developmental and immunocytochemical localization studies. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis of seed proteins during fruit maturation showed that MDL first appeared in seeds shortly after cotyledons began development. In cotyledon cells of mature seeds, MDL was localized primarily in the cell wall with lesser amounts in the protein bodies, whereas in endosperm cells, this labeling pattern was reversed. N-terminal sequence data was gathered for future molecular approaches to the question of MDL microheterogeneity.

  15. Aroma peculiarities of apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. and cherry-plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Горіна

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the component composition of volatile solutions determining fragrance of the flowers in apricot and cherry-plum varieties and Prunus brigantiaca Vill. x Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. hybrids there are 36 highest hydrocarbons and benzaldehyde that prevail. There are fewer amounts of the solutions which scare bees (benzaldehyde in the fragrance of cherry-plum varieties as compared to the flowers of apricot and hybrids. At the same time, the content of tricosane, pentacosane, docosane, heneycosane, eicosane, nonadecan that probably attract bees is higher in the cherry-plum flowers than in the fragrance of apricot and hybrid flowers. The average three years yield of cherry-plum plants (Nikitska Zhovta 10,7 and Salgirskaya Rumjanaya 28,5 t/ ha is higher than for apricot (Recolte de Schatene 0,3; Rodnik 2,9; Ananasniy Tsurupinsky 7,4 t/ha and hybrids (8110 – 5,2; 8098 – 6,4 t/ha that could be explained with better pollination of flowers and better fruit formation. Prevailing components of flower aroma of these plants    and their possible link with yield of the objects in questions have been analyzed.

  16. Microencapsulation of plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. phenolics by spray drying technology and storage stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin LI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To improve the stability of the phenolic extracts from plum fruit (Prunus salicina Lindl., the microencapsulation conditions of spray drying were optimized by the response surface method. The Box-Behnken experimental results indicated the optimal conditions involved an inlet air temperature of 142.8 °C, a core material content of 23.7% and a feed solids content of 11.7%. The maximum microencapsulating efficiency was 87.7% at optimal conditions. Further, the physicochemical properties of the microcapsule powders were improved overall due to the addition of the coating agents. There were no statistically significant differences in phenolic content of the obtained microcapsules for the first 40 days of storage at 25 °C in dark condition (p > 0.05, and the retention rate of total phenol remained above 85% after 60 days. Microcapsules can be potentially developed as a source of natural pigment or functional food based on the advantages of rich phenolic compounds and red color.

  17. Effects of mti-2 Transgenic Potato Plants on the Aphid Myzus persicae (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Saguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexpressed in transgenic plants, protease inhibitors showed insecticidal effects against several insect taxa. We transformed potato internodes with the mustard trypsin inhibitor mti-2 gene. Among the 35 independent transgenic potato lines obtained via Agrobacterium tumefasciens transformation, four (DM6, DM7, DM11, and DM19 were selected for their high level of MTI-2 (at least to 30% of trypsin activity inhibition. Feeding assays were carried out to evaluate their effects on the green-peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae. Prereproductive period, nymphal mortality, adult fecundity, and doubling time of M. persicae populations were monitored on nontransformed potato plants (NT and the four selected DM lines. Compared to NT plants, DM19 did not induce any effect on M. persicae. In contrast, DM7 and DM11 increased nymphal survival by approximately 20%. DM6 and DM11 lines slightly enhanced M. persicae daily fecundity and intrinsic rate of natural increase, leading to a reduction of the doubling time of the populations by 1 day. DM6 did not impact nymphal mortality, whereas with the DM11 almost all the nymphs survived. Potato plants transformed with the mti-2 gene variably affected the life history of M. persicae but did not show any insecticidal effect on the aphid.

  18. Cooling parameters for fruits and vegetables of different sizes in a hydrocooling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruel Bárbara

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The cooling of fruits and vegetables in hydrocooling system can be a suitable technique. This work aimed to define cooling time for fruits and vegetables of different sizes, presenting practical indexes that could be used to estimate cooling time for produce with similar characteristics. Fruits (orange melon-Cucumis melo, mango-Mangifera indica, guava-Psidium guajava, orange-Citrus sinensis Osbeck, plum-Prunus domestica, lime-Citrus limon, and acerola-Prunus cerasus and vegetables (cucumber-Cucumis sativus, carrot-Daucus carota, and green bean-Phaseolus vulgaris, were cooled in a hydrocooling system at 1°C. The volume of fruits and vegetables ranged between 8.18 cm³ and 1,150.35 cm³, and between 13.06 cm³ and 438.4 cm³, respectively. Cooling time varied proportionally to produce volume (from 8.5 to 124 min for fruits, and from 1.5 to 55 min, for vegetables. The relationship between volume and time needed to cool fruits (from 1.03 min cm-3 to 0.107 min cm-3 and vegetables (from 0.06 min cm-3 to 0.12 min cm-3 is an index that could be used to estimate cooling time for fruits and vegetables with similar dimensions as those presented in this work.

  19. Effects of root pruning in sour cherry (Prunus cersus) "Stevnsbaer"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldam-Andersen, Torben; Jensen, Nauja Lisa; Dencker, Ivar Blücher

    2007-01-01

    (May), initial and final fruit set (June) were recorded. Root pruning had little effect on fruit set, fruit size and yield in the year of pruning. Only in one plot with a severe root pruning (26 cm from the trunks), negative effects were found. The effects on growth, flowering and fruit set in 2003...

  20. The morphological variation of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae from peach and tobacco in Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučetić Anđa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate morphometric analysis was used to compare nine characteristics of 47 populations of Myzus persicae (Sulzer originating from two host-plants, peach and tobacco, from 13 localities in 2004 and 34 localities in 2005, in Serbia and Montenegro. Multivariant discriminant analysis showed there to be a distinct discrimination between the populations from the peach and tobacco host-plants. The most important discrimination characteristics are the ultimate rostral segment length and processes terminalis length, which are greater in the aphids from tobacco than in those from peach. This is the first indication that in this part of Europe there are two subspecies: M. persicae (Sulzer and M. persicae nicotianae Blackman. .

  1. Determination of Resistance Levels of Myzus persicae (Sulzer by Biochemical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Petrović-Obradović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Peach/potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer has developed three mechanisms of resistance: overproduction of one or two closely related carboxylesterases (E4 and FE4, production of modified acetylcholinesterase (MACE and knockdown resistance. Biochemicaldiagnostic methods can be used to identify levels of carboxylesterase production and sensitivity of modified acetylcholinesterase and, based on the values acquired we can classify aphids into one of the resistance cathegories. We used two tests: the total esterase activitytest and test for checking sensitivity of acetylcholinesterase (MACE. Myzus periscae persicae from peach and Myzus persicae nicotianae from tobacco were tested. The total esterase activity test showed that 65% of the aphids tested were moderately resistant and 35% were highly resistant. Resistance based on the production of modified acetylcholinesterase is less represented because 80% of the aphids tested were susceptible to pirimicarb, which was used in the experiment. Also, both tests showed that aphids from tobacco were more susceptible than aphids from peach.

  2. Sublethal Effects of Thiamethoxam on the Demographic Parameters of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Zhou, Li-Lin; Yang, Fan; Li, Mang; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Yong; Lei, Chao-Liang; Si, Sheng-Yun

    2017-08-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an important sap-sucking pest of many crops, including Chinese cabbage, Brassinca oleracea L. The neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam has been used as an effective insecticide to control M. persicae in cabbage fields. In this study, we assessed the effects of sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam on demographic parameters of M. persicae. In leaf-dip bioassays, thiamethoxam showed a relatively high toxicity against M. persicae with an LC50 of 6.80 mg liter-1. The duration of the preadult stage was not significantly affected in the sublethal bioassay. Additionally, the longevity and adult preoviposition period were not significantly affected by sublethal thiamethoxam. However, sublethal thiamethoxam significantly increased fecundity (LC10) and prolonged the total preoviposition period (LC40). Consequently, the finite rate of increase (λ) and the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) of aphids exposed to the LC40 were significantly lower than those of control aphids, whereas the net reproductive rate (R0) was higher, and the generation time (T) and the population doubling time (DT) were longer in the treated group. Based on these results, hormesis was induced by sublethal thiamethoxam in M. persicae, with the population growth of M. persicae negatively affected at higher sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam. Therefore, our study indicated that the possible effects of thiamethoxam on aphids require further study to develop optimized integrated pest management strategies. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Comparative Studies on Chemical Composition of Two Conventional Bred and One Genetically Engineered Plum-Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia BOBIŞ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The European plum (Prunus domestica L. is one of the most important cultivated species among fruit trees in the world, and the dominant in Romania. Regarding the development of new plum cultivars derived from Prunus domestica, the following characteristics are taken into consideration most of the time: high yield performance, good quality fruits and last but not least, the resistance to PPV. “HoneySweet” is a transgenic clone of Prunus domestica transformed with Plum pox virus coat protein gene making it highly resistant to the virus. This study presents preliminary results on the chemical composition of HoneySweet transgenic plum and two conventional ones: Reine Claude d’Althan and Stanley. The most important nutritional factors were determined. HoneySweet had balanced individual carbohydrates content but lower soluble solids in comparison with the two conventional cultivars. Total lipids content in HoneySweet fruits was similar to Stanley, higher than in Reine Claude d’Althan. HoneySweet is distinguished by the highest total protein content. Similar amounts of magnesium and calcium were recorded in the three varieties. Overall, our preliminary results revealed that the quality and nutritional value of “Honey Sweet” genetic engineered plum is in the range of other valuable plum cultivars.

  4. Prunasin hydrolases localization during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch-Jensen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and ben......Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose......, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal...... identified in a sweet and a bitter almond cultivar. Both cDNAs are 86% identical on the nucleotide level, and their encoded proteins are 79% identical to each other. In addition, Ph691 and Ph692 display 92% and 86% nucleotide identity to Ph1 from black cherry (Prunus serotina). Both proteins were predicted...

  5. Desenvolvimento ninfal de Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae sobre berinjela em diferentes temperaturas Nymphal development of Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae on eggplant at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton Rodrigues Chagas Filho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas no desenvolvimento ninfal de Myzus persicae sobre folhas de berinjela (Solanum melongena. O experimento foi desenvolvido em câmaras climatizadas, sob condições controladas de temperatura de 15, 20, 25 e 30 ± 1 ºC, umidade relativa do ar de 70% ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. A biologia de M. persicae foi acompanhada sobre discos foliares de berinjela (3 cm de diâmetro mantidos em placas de Petri contendo solução ágar-água a 1% geleificada. Foram estimadas as curvas mais ajustadas à duração dos estádios ninfais de M. persicae, suas equações de regressão e os respectivos coeficientes de determinação (R². O número de estádios ninfais foi afetado pela temperatura; a 15 e 20 ºC, respectivamente, em 30,4% e 4,2% das ninfas observou-se um estádio adicional. Afídeos mantidos a 30 ºC apresentaram a menor viabilidade na fase ninfal (8%. A duração da fase ninfal foi de 9,4; 7,6; 5,9 e 7,0 dias, respectivamente, a 15, 20, 25 e 30 ºC. As temperaturas de 15 e 20 ºC foram as mais favoráveis para o desenvolvimento ninfal de M. persicae sobre discos de folha de berinjela.The objective of this work was to study the nymphal development of Myzus persicae on leaves of eggplant (Solanum melongena at four constant temperatures. The experiment was carried out in the bio-control laboratory, with the following controlled conditions: temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30 ºC ± 1 ºC; relative humidity (70% ± 10%, and photophase (12 hours. The biology of M. persicae was followed on leaf discs (3 cm diameter kept in Petri dishes containing a layer of agar-water (1%. It was evaluated the best fitted curve to the biological aspects of M. persicae, as well as their regression equations and respective determination coefficients (R². The number of nymphal stage was affected by temperature: 15 and 20 ºC, resulted in 30.4% and 4.2% of nymphs showing an 5th nymphal stage

  6. A review of the traditional and modern uses of Salvadora persica L. (Miswak): Toothbrush tree of Prophet Muhammad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumeeruddy, Muhammad Zakariyyah; Zengin, Gokhan; Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi

    2018-03-01

    Salvadora persica L., also known as Arak (in Arabic) and Peelu (in Urdu), is the most common traditional source of tooth or chewing stick (miswak) highly recommended by Prophet Muhammad. To date, extensive studies have probed primarily into the validation of its traditional uses in oral care. Nonetheless, there is still a dearth of updated compilation and critical analysis of other potential ethnopharmacological properties of S. persica. This review therefore aims to provide an up-to-date detailed structured description of the traditional uses of S. persica and a critical analysis of its modern uses, highlighting its phytochemistry, pharmacological properties, and bioapplications. Various databases (Science Direct, PubMed, Wiley Online Library, and Google Scholar), books, and relevant primary sources were probed, surveyed, analysed, and included in this review. The literature cited in this review dated from 1979 to 2017. S. persica was found to possess a plethora of bioactive compounds and broad pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory activity, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, sedative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antiosteoporosis, and antitumor activities. Studies also revealed the potential use of S. persica as a natural food preservative and a novel functional food ingredient. In addition, improvement in growth and reproductive performances have been observed by the introduction of S. persica in animal feed. Lastly, S. persica has also been used in the green synthesis of nanoparticles showing potential biotechnological applications. S. persica showed a wide scope of application and its uses have been extended far beyond the initial traditional uses of its roots, stems, and twigs in oral care. We found a number of other ethnopharmacological uses and potential bioapplications of different parts of S. persica that warrants further investigations. Though widely studied using several in vitro and in

  7. Overexpression of the Prunus sogdiana NBS-LRR Subgroup Gene PsoRPM2 Promotes Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita in Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (RKNs, particularly Meloidogyne incognita, are the most devastating soil-borne pathogens that significantly affect the production of Prunus spp. fruit. RKN infection is difficult to control and consequently causes massive yield losses each year. However, several germplasms of wild Prunus spp. have been shown to display resistance to M. incognita. Consequently, both the isolation of novel plant resistance (R genes and the characterization of their resistance mechanisms are important strategies for future disease control. R proteins require the co-chaperone protein HSP90-SGT1-RAR1 to achieve correct folding, maturation, and stabilization. Here, we used homologous cloning to isolate the R gene PsoRPM2 from the RKN-resistant species Prunus sogdiana. PsoRPM2 was found to encode a TIR-NB-LRR-type protein and react with significantly elevated PsoRPM2 expression levels in response to RKN infection. Transient expression assays indicated PsoRPM2 to be located in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Four transgenic tobacco lines that heterologously expressed PsoRPM2 showed enhanced resistance to M. incognita. Yeast two-hybrid analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis demonstrated that both PsoRAR1 and PsoRPM2 interacted with PsoHSP90-1 and PsoSGT1, but not with one another. These results indicate that the observed PsoRPM2-mediated RKN resistance requires both PsoHSP90-1 and PsoSGT1, further suggesting that PsoRAR1 plays a functionally redundant role in the HSP90-SGT1-RAR1 co-chaperone.

  8. Overexpression of the Prunus sogdiana NBS-LRR Subgroup Gene PsoRPM2 Promotes Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita in Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang; Xiao, Kun; Cui, Haiyang; Hu, Jianfang

    2017-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs), particularly Meloidogyne incognita, are the most devastating soil-borne pathogens that significantly affect the production of Prunus spp. fruit. RKN infection is difficult to control and consequently causes massive yield losses each year. However, several germplasms of wild Prunus spp. have been shown to display resistance to M. incognita. Consequently, both the isolation of novel plant resistance (R) genes and the characterization of their resistance mechanisms are important strategies for future disease control. R proteins require the co-chaperone protein HSP90-SGT1-RAR1 to achieve correct folding, maturation, and stabilization. Here, we used homologous cloning to isolate the R gene PsoRPM2 from the RKN-resistant species Prunus sogdiana. PsoRPM2 was found to encode a TIR-NB-LRR-type protein and react with significantly elevated PsoRPM2 expression levels in response to RKN infection. Transient expression assays indicated PsoRPM2 to be located in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Four transgenic tobacco lines that heterologously expressed PsoRPM2 showed enhanced resistance to M. incognita. Yeast two-hybrid analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis demonstrated that both PsoRAR1 and PsoRPM2 interacted with PsoHSP90-1 and PsoSGT1, but not with one another. These results indicate that the observed PsoRPM2-mediated RKN resistance requires both PsoHSP90-1 and PsoSGT1, further suggesting that PsoRAR1 plays a functionally redundant role in the HSP90-SGT1-RAR1 co-chaperone.

  9. Evaluación en pérdidas de durazno (Prunus persica variedad rubidoux en la granja experimental Tunguavita Paipa, Boyacá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Johana Lemus Cerón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Boyacá es un departamento colombiano con una posición geográfica privilegiada, cuya economía se basa principalmente en la producción agropecuaria; el durazno representa un renglón importante en la economía frutícola de Boyacá, sin embargo algunas prácticas culturales y de manejo de cultivos inadecuados han generado pérdidas graduales en el proceso productivo. A fin de comparar la producción en un huerto con extensión de 4 ha, distribuido en tres lotes de durazno variedad Rubidoux, en la granja experimental Tunguavita, municipio de Paipa, Boyacá, Colombia, se seleccionó una muestra aleatoria de 150 árboles frutales, marcados de acuerdo a la distribución del huerto de durazno, los datos recopilados en campo se tomaron con base en la producción y a variables de pérdida como número de frutos totales por árbol, frutos sobremaduros, frutos caídos por accidente, frutos aptos no cosechados, frutos desechados por daño. El análisis mostró que al obtener los 3 intervalos de diferencias en cuanto al límite superior e inferior, la producción es mayor en los lotes 1 y 2 respecto al lote 3, para las variables de pérdida el porcentaje fue del 14%, y los parámetros obtenidos, no presentaron diferencias estadísticas.

  10. Drought resistance of introdused nectarine varieties (Prunus persica (L. Batsch subsp. nucipersica Dipp. in the conditions of South Coast of the Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. В. Шишова

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The studying results of drought resistance for introdused nectarine varieties in the conditions of South Coast of the Crimea have been given. Four varieties shoved high resistance to drought conditions during two years have been selected.

  11. Drought-resistant of nectarine varieties and forms (Prunus persica (L. Batsch subsp. nectarina (Ait. Shof. with the sign of male infertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Іващенко

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The drought-resistance of 15 nectarine varieties and forms with a sign of male infertility is studied. The research identified genotypes with varying degrees of drought-resistance. The greatest degree of drought-resistance demonstrated the form 33-3-1, 512-86,41-15-2, and grade Kul'dzhinskiy 4x, Krymtsuht, Elbertaziya.

  12. DIVERSIDAD LOCAL Y PRÁCTICAS AGRÍCOLAS ASOCIADAS AL CULTIVO TRADICIONAL DE DURAZNOS, PRUNUS PERSICA (ROSACEAE, EN EL NOROESTE DE ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alejandra Lambaré

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo constituye una aproximación etnobotánica a la diversidad de grupos y variedades locales de duraznos y los criterios para delimitar esos etnotaxones. Además, se describen las prácticas de manejo que acompañan la conservación de este cultivo en una comunidad del noroeste argentino. Se estableció una clasificación principal, denominada grupos de cultivariedades, la cual se define como el conjunto de variedades reunidas bajo un único nombre vulgar, resultado de la suma de atributos y diversos criterios definidos localmente. Asimismo, se estableció una subcategorización en etnovariedades definidas por características particulares. Este primer acercamiento evidencia el valor trascendental que adquiere la incorporación y apropiación de un recurso foráneo como elemento representativo del paisaje y del contexto sociocultural de la comunidad, el cual se expresa en el profundo conocimiento que poseen los pobladores para diseñar una clasificación e incorporar prácticas agrícolas asociadas a este cultivo.

  13. The antitussive activity of polysaccharides from Althaea officinalis l., var. Robusta, Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules, and Prunus persica L., Batsch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutovska, M; Nosalova, G; Franova, S; Kardosova, A

    2007-01-01

    The therapy of pathological type of cough presents serious medical problem. The aim of experiments was to investigate polysaccacharide influence on experimentally induced cough. The purified and/or modified polysaccharides from the flowers and plants, characterized by chemical composition and molecular properties were subjected to tests for antitussive activity on cough, induced mechanically in conscious cats of both sexes. The results revealed that the tested polysaccharides exhibited statistically significant cough-suppressing activity, which was noticeably higher than that of the non-narcotic drug used in clinical practice to treat coughing. The most expressive antitussive activity was observed with the polysaccharide from marsh mallow, containing the highest proportion of the uronic acid constituent. Negative influence of the tested compounds on expectoration was negligible when compared to that of codeine. Antitussive activity of various plant polysaccharides was confirmed. These results allow ranging them among prospective antitussive agents (Tab. 2, Fig. 6, Ref. 15) Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  14. DNA-based identification of Armillaria isolates from peach [Prunus persica (l.) batsch] orchards in méxico state, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben D. Elias-Roman; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim; Dionicio Alvarado-Rosales; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Remigio Anastacio Guzman-Plazola; Guillermo Calderon-Zavala; Antonio Mora-Aguilera

    2013-01-01

    A collaborative project between the Programa de Fitopatología, Colegio de Postgraduados, Texcoco, Edo. de México and the USDA Forest Service-RMRS, Moscow Forest Pathology Laboratory began in 2011 to identify which species of Armillaria are causing widespread and severe damage to the peach orchards from México State, México. We are employing a DNA-based approach in...

  15. Radiação gama na conservação pós-colheita da nectarina (Prunus persica var. Nucipersica frigoconservada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Leandro Camargo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido no laboratório de Frutas e Hortaliças do Departamento de Gestão e Tecnologia Agroindustrial da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP - Câmpus de Botucatu, tendo como objetivo principal a caracterização do comportamento da radiação gama, na conservação pós-colheita da nectarina cv. "Sunred". Os frutos foram colhidos no início do estádio de maturação, selecionados, limpos, pré-resfriados (4masculineC por 12 horas e submetidos a diferentes doses de radiação gama, constituindo assim os tratamentos: 1 0,0 kGy, 2 - 0,2 kGy, 3 - 0,4 kGy, 4 - 0,6 kGy, 5 - 0,8 kGy, sendo após armazenados em câmara fria com temperaturas de 0masculineC e 90-95% de UR, por 28 dias. As análises foram realizadas a cada sete dias, determinando-se o aspecto visual dos frutos, a perda de massa fresca, a firmeza de polpa, a acidez total titulável (ATT, os sólidos solúveis totais (STT e a razão STT/ATT. Após 28 dias de armazenamento, verificou-se que os frutos submetidos à dose de 0,4 kGy apresentaram o melhor aspecto visual, as menores perdas de massa fresca, e a maior firmeza de polpa, não ocorrendo, entretanto, variações significativas nos teores de acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis totais e nos valores da razão SST/ATT.

  16. Complete nucleotide sequences of the genomes of two isolates of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus from peach (Prunus persica) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Feiqing; Pan, Song; Wu, Zujian; Jiang, Dongmei; Li, Shifang

    2012-04-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of two isolates of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (Z1 and Z3) collected from peach in Henan Province, China, were determined. The genomes of both Z1 and Z3 were found to contain three open reading frames (ORFs). Sequence analysis showed that genomic sequences of Z1 and Z3 isolates shared 67.4%-82.9% and 67.2%-82.6% identity, respectively, with the other eight isolates of ACLSV that have been reported previously. Based on the putative amino acid sequences of the products of the three ORFs, Z1 and Z3 isolates showed the greatest identity to isolate PBM1 (GenBank accession number AJ243438) from plum and the least identity with isolate Ta Tao5 (GenBank Accession Number: EU223295) from peach. Considering the low level of sequence identity between Z1/Z3 isolate and Ta Tao5 isolate, two types of ACLSV may exist in peach.

  17. Overexpression of a peach (Prunus persica) AP2/ERF-family transcription factor in apple (Malus x domestica) induces growth cessation in response to short photoperiod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change will result in extreme swings in temperature during late fall and early spring that will have a negative impact on woody plants. Apple may be especially sensitive to the predicted weather patterns since growth cessation is regulated by low temperature rather than daylength. We have ...

  18. DIVERSIDAD LOCAL Y PRÁCTICAS AGRÍCOLAS ASOCIADAS AL CULTIVO TRADICIONAL DE DURAZNOS, PRUNUS PERSICA (ROSACEAE), EN EL NOROESTE DE ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    D. Alejandra Lambaré; M. Lelia Pochettino

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo constituye una aproximación etnobotánica a la diversidad de grupos y variedades locales de duraznos y los criterios para delimitar esos etnotaxones. Además, se describen las prácticas de manejo que acompañan la conservación de este cultivo en una comunidad del noroeste argentino. Se estableció una clasificación principal, denominada grupos de cultivariedades, la cual se define como el conjunto de variedades reunidas bajo un único nombre vulgar, resultado de la suma de atributos y...

  19. Determinación del requerimiento de frío y de calor en duraznero [Prunus persica (L. Batsch.] mediante un modelo de correlación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAAR, J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Los árboles frutales de hoja no persistente poseen un período de reposo entre los ciclos vegetativos. Para salir de reposo invernal, las yemas deben acumular primero frío (endodormancia y luego calor (ecodormancia.El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el requerimiento de frío y de calor en cinco cultivares de duraznero mediante un método de correlación, con datos de fecha de plena floración y temperatura del aire de siete años, en el este de Mendoza. El requerimiento de frío varió entre 914 y 1262 unidades de frío, mientras que el de calor fluctuó entre 2177 y 6490 horas grado de crecimiento. Excepto en cv. “Prima”, la variabilidad entre años del requerimiento de frío (coeficiente de variación, CV: 18,3 a 18,9% fue mayor que la correspondiente al requerimiento de calor, (CV: 6,9 a 13,9%. Los requerimientos de calor disminuyeron en años de mayor acumulación de frío e indicaron una compensación. El modelo utilizado, permite disponer de información más precisa sobre los requerimientos térmicos de los cultivares, y así poder realizar una zonificación que racionaliceel cultivo y maximice su aprovechamiento, en las áreas agroclimáticamente adecuadas.

  20. IDENTIFICACION DE LA REGULACION TRANSCRIPCIONAL DE GENES INVOLUCRADOS EN LA RESPUESTA AL FRIO Y/O MADURACION EN FRUTOS DE PRUNUS PERSICA

    OpenAIRE

    VIZOSO LATUZ, PAULA SUSANA

    2012-01-01

    Desde el punto de vista agroindustrial chileno, el durazno es un cultivo económicamente importante. Chile está situado entre los principales exportadores de fruta fresca al hemisferio norte. El traslado de los frutos desde nuestro país hasta el consumidor final dura alrededor de 20 días, periodo en el que la calidad del fruto se ve alterada. Por esto los productores y exportadores han debido enfocarse en la búsqueda de diferentes metodologías para conservar en mejor estado los ...

  1. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong-Gi [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong-Sun, E-mail: yhsuny@naver.co [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20+-3 deg. C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  2. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon; Kim, Hong-Gi; Yook, Hong-Sun

    2010-04-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20±3 °C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  3. Expression of ABA Metabolism-Related Genes Suggests Similarities and Differences Between Seed Dormancy and Bud Dormancy of Peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongling; Gao, Zhenzhen; Du, Peiyong; Xiao, Wei; Tan, Qiuping; Chen, Xiude; Li, Ling; Gao, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Dormancy inhibits seed and bud growth of perennial plants until the environmental conditions are optimal for survival. Previous studies indicated that certain co-regulation pathways exist in seed and bud dormancy. In our study, we found that seed and bud dormancy are similar to some extent but show different reactions to chemical treatments that induce breaking of dormancy. Whether the abscisic acid (ABA) regulatory networks are similar in dormant peach seeds and buds is not well known; however, ABA is generally believed to play a critical role in seed and bud dormancy. In peach, some genes putatively involved in ABA synthesis and catabolism were identified and their expression patterns were studied to learn more about ABA homeostasis and the possible crosstalk between bud dormancy and seed dormancy mechanisms. The analysis demonstrated that two 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase-encoding genes seem to be key in regulating ABA biosynthesis to induce seed and bud dormancy. Three CYP707As play an overlapping role in controlling ABA inactivation, resulting in dormancy-release. In addition, Transcript analysis of ABA metabolism-related genes was much similar demonstrated that ABA pathways was similar in the regulation of vegetative and flower bud dormancy, whereas, expression patterns of ABA metabolism-related genes were different in seed dormancy showed that ABA pathway maybe different in regulating seed dormancy in peach.

  4. Results of primary study of the remote hybrids of nectarine (Prunus persica L. Batsh var. Nucipersica (Suckow Sc and peach (Prunus persipa L. Batsh with amygdalys ordinary (Amygdalus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є. П. Шоферістов

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Created in Nikitskyi botanical garden Remote hybrids of nectarine and peach with almond ordinary can be used in Breeding of nectarine and peach fok high resistauce to fundi, as wengs for creation of varieties of nectarine with high drought resistance, sweet seed kernels, high contents of organic substance, and other important Breeding characteristics. Late blossoming hybrid forms can be used in Breeding of almond fok late time of flowering and selfcompatibility.

  5. Carotenoids, Tocopherols and Antioxidant Activity of Lipophilic Extracts from Sea Buckthorn Berries (Hippophae rhamnoides, Apricot Pulp and Apricot Kernel (Prunus armeniaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andreea Pop

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A healthy human diet requires the daily consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in bioactive compounds. Sea buckthorn berries (Hippophae rhamnoides L. and apricot fruits (Prunus armeniaca L. are cultivated and appreciated in Romania both as fresh fruits and as derived products. Characterized by a complex chemical composition, sea buckthorn is rich in unsaturated lipids, carotenoids and tocopherols. Except for β-carotene content, less is known about other lipophilic compounds in apricot fruits. The aim of this paper was to separate and quantify the individual carotenoids, tocopherols and tocotrienols in sea buckthorn, apricot pulp and kernels and also to determine the antioxidant activity of the lipophilic extracts using the TEAC  method.  Chemical characterization of lipophilic extract was performed by HPLC with PDA and fluorescence detection. The total carotenoid content was 17.19±1.4 mg/100g F.W. in sea buckthorn; 3.51±0.25 mg/100g F.W. in apricot fruits and 0.58±0.04 mg/100 g F.W. in apricot kernels. The major carotenoids in sea buckthorn were β-carotene, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin esters. Apricots fruits are rich in β-carotene and its geometric isomers while in kernels we could properly identified only lycopene. The α-tocopherol concentration was higher in sea buckthorn (46 mg/kg than in apricot fruits (1.09 mg/kg while apricot kernel contain large amounts of γ-tocopherol (111 mg/kg. Sea buckthorn fruits showed the highest antioxidant capacity, correlated with a high content of both tocopherols and carotenoids.

  6. 1-Methylcyclopropene affects the antioxidant system of apricots (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Búlida) during storage at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Martínez-Madrid, Maria C; Romojaro, Felix; Sánchez-Bel, Paloma

    2010-03-15

    Apricots (Prunus armeniaca cv. Búlida) were treated with 1 μL L⁻¹ [corrected] 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) immediately after harvest and stored in air at 2 degrees C for 21 days. Antioxidant levels (ascorbic acid and carotenoids), enzymatic antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and unspecific peroxidase (POX)) and total antioxidant capacity (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)) were determined. The level of oxidative stress was also established by measuring ion leakage during storage. The changes in the antioxidant potential of apricots were related to the capacity of 1-MCP to increase their commercial life. 1-MCP-treated fruits exhibited higher SOD activity, whereas POX activity was significantly higher only after 21 days at 2 degrees C. Treated fruits also exhibited better retention of ascorbate and carotenoids and higher TEAC during storage. In accordance with these observations, lower ion leakage values were detected in 1-MCP-treated apricots. Taken together, these results suggest that 1-MCP conferred a greater resistance to oxidative stress. This, along with the reduction in ethylene production, could contribute to the increase in commercial life and nutritional value observed in 1-MCP-treated apricots.

  7. Plum (Prunus domestica) trees transformed with poplar FT1 result in altered architecture, dormancy requirement, and continuous flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Chinnathambi; Dardick, Chris; Callahan, Ann; Scorza, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    The Flowering Locus T1 (FT1) gene from Populus trichocarpa under the control of the 35S promoter was transformed into European plum (Prunus domestica L). Transgenic plants expressing higher levels of FT flowered and produced fruits in the greenhouse within 1 to 10 months. FT plums did not enter dormancy after cold or short day treatments yet field planted FT plums remained winter hardy down to at least -10°C. The plants also displayed pleiotropic phenotypes atypical for plum including shrub-type growth habit and panicle flower architecture. The flowering and fruiting phenotype was found to be continuous in the greenhouse but limited to spring and fall in the field. The pattern of flowering in the field correlated with lower daily temperatures. This apparent temperature effect was subsequently confirmed in growth chamber studies. The pleitropic phenotypes associated with FT1 expression in plum suggests a fundamental role of this gene in plant growth and development. This study demonstrates the potential for a single transgene event to markedly affect the vegetative and reproductive growth and development of an economically important temperate woody perennial crop. We suggest that FT1 may be a useful tool to modify temperate plants to changing climates and/or to adapt these crops to new growing areas.

  8. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Five Samples of Prunus mume Umezu from Different Factories in South and East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yi Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated chemical composition and antioxidant activities of umezu, pickling liquid of Prunus mume, from different factories in South and East China. The organic acid and phenolic acid profiles were also analyzed. Results showed that umezu was rich in organic acids and extremely sour as P. mume fruit in addition to its high NaCl level (≥20%. Total acid in umezu was more than 43.78 g/L in which main organic acids were citric acid and malic acid. Umezu contained more than 250.54 mg GAE/L total phenolic in which dominant phenolic acids were hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. Umezu exhibited powerful antioxidant activities in ORAC, ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. Reducing sugar, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activities of umezu were affected by sample origins and fruit cultivars. Given its rich flavor components and high antioxidant activity, umezu could serve as a new dietary supplement or a natural preservative in food industry.

  9. The evaluation of extraction techniques for Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) from apple (Malus domestica) and cherry (Prunus avium) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Adrian L; Ullah, Roshan; Fountain, Michelle T

    2017-08-01

    Tetranychus urticae is a widespread polyphagous mite, found on a variety of fruit crops. Tetranychus urticae feeds on the underside of the leaves perforating plant cells and sucking the cell contents. Foliar damage and excess webbing produced by T. urticae can reduce fruit yield. Assessments of T. urticae populations while small provide reliable and accurate ways of targeting control strategies and recording their efficacy against T. urticae. The aim of this study was to evaluate four methods for extracting low levels of T. urticae from leaf samples, representative of developing infestations. These methods were compared to directly counting of mites on leaves under a dissecting microscope. These methods were ethanol washing, a modified paraffin/ethanol meniscus technique, Tullgren funnel extraction and the Henderson and McBurnie mite brushing machine with consideration to: accuracy, precision and simplicity. In addition, two physically different leaf morphologies were compared; Prunus leaves which are glabrous with Malus leaves which are setaceous. Ethanol extraction consistently yielded the highest numbers of mites and was the most rapid method for recovering T. urticae from leaf samples, irrespective of leaf structure. In addition the samples could be processed and stored before final counting. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed in detail.

  10. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood. Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ℃ were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness was largely determined by the yields of the Na2CO3- and KOH-soluble fractions, enriched in covalently-bound pectins and in matrix glycans, respectively, and correlated well with ascorbic acid contents. The yields of these two cell wall fractions were correlated inversely with pectinmethylesterase and endo-1,4-β-d-glucanase activities, indicating a relevant role of these two enzymes in postharvest firmness changes in sweet cherry. The amount of solubilised cell wall materials was closely associated to the contents of dehydroascorbic acid, suggesting the possible involvement of oxidative mechanisms in cell wall disassembly. These data may help understanding the evolution of fruit quality during the marketing period, and give hints for the design of suitable management strategies to preserve key attributes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Prunus domestica pathogenesis-related protein-5 activates the defense response pathway and enhances the resistance to fungal infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf El-kereamy

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis-related protein-5 (PR-5 has been implicated in plant disease resistance and its antifungal activity has been demonstrated in some fruit species. However, their roles, especially their interactions with the other defense responses in plant cells, are still not fully understood. In this study, we have cloned and characterized a new PR-5 cDNA named PdPR5-1 from the European plum (Prunus domestica. Expression of PdPR5-1 was studied in different cultivars varying in resistance to the brown rot disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Monilinia fructicola. In addition transgenic Arabidopsis, ectopically expressing PdPR5-1 was used to study its role in other plant defense responses after fungal infection. We show that the resistant cultivars exhibited much higher levels of transcripts than the susceptible cultivars during fruit ripening. However, significant rise in the transcript levels after infection with M. fructicola was observed in the susceptible cultivars too. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited more resistance to Alternaria brassicicola. Further, there was a significant increase in the transcripts of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and phytoalexin (camalexin pathway leading to an increase in camalexin content after fungal infection. Our results show that PdPR5-1 gene, in addition to its anti-fungal properties, has a possible role in activating other defense pathways, including phytoalexin production.

  12. Influence of Silicon on Resistance of Zinnia Elegans to Myzus Persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to examine the effect of treating Zinnia elegans Jacq. with soluble silicon on the performance of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Zinnia elegans plants were irrigated every 2 days throughout the duration of the experiment with a nutrient solution amended with ...

  13. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Salvadora Persica L. and it's Chloroform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Salvadora Persica L. and it's Chloroform Fraction in Experimentally Induced Hyperlipidemia in Rats. ... Blood was collected by ocular puncture 2 and 4 h after olive oil treatment and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 20 min. Serum samples were further subjected to biochemical analysis. The study dose ...

  14. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Myzus persicae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures t...

  15. Microsatellite marker analysis of peach-potato aphids (Myzus persicae, Homoptera: Aphididae) from Scottish suction traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloch, G; Highet, F; Kasprowicz, L; Pickup, J; Neilson, R; Fenton, B

    2006-12-01

    The peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is an important vector of plant viruses. A network of suction traps collects aerial samples of this aphid in order to monitor and help predict its spatial distribution and likely impact on virus transmission in crops. A suction trap catch is thought to be a good representation of the total aphid pool. Sensitive molecular markers have been developed that determine the genetic composition of the M. persicae population. In Scotland, UK, these were applied to field collections revealing a limited number of clones. Molecular markers are less successful when applied to specimens that have been preserved in an ethanol-based trap fluid designed to preserve morphology. An assessment of different DNA extraction and PCR techniques is presented and the most efficient are used to analyse M. persicae specimens caught in the Dundee suction trap in 2001, a year when exceptionally high numbers were caught. The results reveal that the majority of the M. persicae caught belonged to two highly insecticide resistant clones. In addition, it was possible to compare the relative frequencies of genotypes caught in the trap with those collected at insecticide treated and untreated field sites in the vicinity. These results indicate that, in addition to suction trap data, the ability to sample field sites provides valuable early warning data which have implications for pest control and virus management strategies.

  16. Susceptibility of Australian Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to Three Recently Registered Insecticides: Spirotetramat, Cyantraniliprole, and Sulfoxaflor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Little, Siobhan C; Umina, Paul A

    2017-08-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is a significant agricultural pest that has developed resistance to a large number of insecticides globally. Within Australia, resistance has previously been confirmed for multiple chemical groups, including pyrethroids, carbamates, organophosphates, and neonicotinoids. In this study, we use leaf-dip and topical bioassays to investigate susceptibility and potential cross-resistance of 12 field-collected populations of Australian M. persicae to three recently registered insecticides: sulfoxaflor, spirotetramat, and cyantraniliprole. Despite all 12 populations carrying known resistance mechanisms to carbamates, organophosphates, and pyrethroids, and two populations also exhibiting low-level metabolic resistance to neonicotinoids, we found little evidence of variation in susceptibility to sulfoxafor, spirotetramat, or cyantraniliprole. This provides further evidence that cross-resistance to spirotetramat, cyantraniliprole, and sulfoxaflor in M. persicae is not conferred by the commonly occurring resistance mechanisms MACE, super-kdr, amplification of the E4 esterase gene, or enhanced expression and copy number of the P450 gene, CYP6CY3. Importantly, this study also established toxicity baseline data that will be important for future monitoring of insecticide responses of M. persicae from both broadacre and horticultural crops. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Acquisition and transmission of potato leafroll virus by Myzus persicae : quantitative aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Studying the transmission of potato leafroll virus (PLRV) by Myzus persicae from infected Physalis floridana plants, revealed that the ability of aphids to transmit the virus differed widely among individuals and strongly depended on the biotype of

  18. The site of potato leafroll virus multiplication in its vector, Myzus persicae : an anatomical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsen, M.B.

    1972-01-01

    In search of the site of PLRV multiplication in its vector a detailed study was made of the anatomy of the aphid, Myzus persicae SULZ. The findings are summarized in the following lines:

    Alimentary canal

    The most anterior part of

  19. Influence of Cultivar and Industrial Processing on Polyphenols in Concentrated Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Juice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maja Repajic; Danijela Bursac Kovacevic; Predrag Putnik; Verica Dragovic-Uzelac; Josipa Kust; Zrinka Cosic; Branka Levaj

    2015-01-01

      The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of cultivar and industrial processing on total polyphenols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids and antioxidant activity in concentrated sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., cvs...

  20. Screening of natural organic volatiles from Prunus mahaleb L. honey: coumarin and vomifoliol as nonspecific biomarkers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Staver, Mladenka Malenica

    2011-01-01

    ...) were used for the analysis of Prunus mahaleb L. honey samples. Screening was focused toward chemical composition of natural organic volatiles to determine if it is useful as a method of determining honey-sourcing...

  1. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of Salvadora persica in IBD-induced rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nomani*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are among the most prevalent diseases in developed countries. In general, IL-6 and TNF-α are considered as the main causes of tissue damage in the intestine. Salvadora persica is a domestic and abundant plant growing in some central and southern areas of Iran. The main objective of the current study was to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Salvadora persica in a rat model of IBD. Methods: Acute colitis was induced by intra-rectal administration of 100 mg/kg TNBS dissolved in a total volume of 0.25 mL of 50% ethanol. Twenty-four h after colitis induction, saline, S. persica extracts (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg and sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg were orally administered to the corresponding groups of animals. The dose administration was repeated daily for seven consecutive days. Aftewards, body weight changes, macroscopic and microscopic lesions were assessed by dissecting 8 cm of the distal colons of the animals. TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression were also evaluated by real-time PCR. Results: The obtained results showed that sulfasalazine and S. persica extracts were significantly able to reduce the body weight loss, macroscopic and microscopic lesions compared to the untreated control. Additionally, they were able to decrease the expression of TNF-α mRNA in the colon tissue. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that Salvadora persica extract had an acceptable anti-inflammatory effect on the induced colitis in rat, and one of its notable mechanisms could be through TNF-α pathway.

  2. Préparation et caractérisation d'un charbon actif à partir de la coquille d'amande (Prunus amygdalus amère

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trachi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation and characterization of activated coal from bitter almond shells (Prunus amygdalus. Description of the subject. The present study concerns the preparation of activated coal (AC from bitter almond (Prunus amygdalus shells (BASh, a fruit that grows spontaneously in the Setif region (northeast Algeria. Obtaining and characterizing activated coal was the valorization method adopted here. Objectives. The aim of this study was to elucidate the feasibility of the chemical activation of BASh in order to obtain two types of activated coal (AC. Method. The two ACs were obtained from BASh by acid (CAa and basic (CAb activation. The final products were investigated for their different physicochemical characteristics: angle of repose, ash, differential screening calorimetry, etc. In the case of CAa, the modeling of the adsorption kinetic of methylene blue (MB, as well as of adsorption isotherms, was also performed. Results. The activation mode seemed to affect unequally the different physicochemical characteristics of both the obtained coals. On the other hand, the adsorption kinetics of the MB by CAa was correctly described by the pseudo-2nd-order model (R² = 0.999. Concerning the modeling of the adsorption isotherm, of the three models tested, the Freundlich model appeared to be the most appropriate to fit the experimental data (R2 = 0.898, mean relative error (MRE = 38.638 and root mean square error (RMSE = 1.039. In addition, the activated shell showed an interesting capacity for MB adsorption, estimated at 99.05%.

  3. Disomic segregation of microsatellites in the tetraploid Prunus serotina Ehrh. (Rosaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, Marie; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2005-01-01

    Tetraploid black cherry (Prunus serotina) is the only Prunus L. species that has commercial importance as a timber tree in North America and is well known in Europe for its invasive behavior. Inheritance studies have never been performed and it is not known whether the species is allo or autotetraploid. Six microsatellite nuclear markers were used to test the inheritance in progenies of controlled crosses. Inheritance was proven to be disomic at all loci and a typical diploid mendelian inheri...

  4. Caracterização molecular dos alelos-S de incompatibilidade gametofítica em Prunus salicina Lindl. Molecular identification of S-alleles of gametophytic incompatibility in Prunus salicina Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalize Salete Mota

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pomares comerciais de ameixeira-japonesa devem conter pelo menos duas cultivares para obter boa fertilização, devido à presença do sistema de incompatibilidade gametofítica, que inibe a autofecundação da grande maioria das cultivares. No presente trabalho, buscou-se identificar e caracterizar molecularmente os alelos-S de 11 cultivares de ameixeira-japonesa (Prunus salicina Lindl. e verificar a compatibilidade entre os genótipos avaliados. As cultivares Santa Rosa, Santa Rita, Reubennel, Pluma 7, América, Rosa Mineira, Amarelinha, The First, Gulfblaze (Clone São Paulo, Gulfblaze (Clone Guaiba e Harry Pickstone foram analisadas por meio de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR com três pares de iniciadores específicos para alelos-S. As condições da PCR utilizadas, bem como as combinações de iniciadores, permitiram a identificação de alelos-S nas cultivares de P. salicina estudadas, bem como a indicação dos polinizadores mais compatíveis com algumas das principais cultivares utilizadas na produção de frutas. O sequenciamento de alguns dos alelos-S amplificados revelou elevada similaridade com sequências de nucleotídeos já identificados em outros trabalhos com Prunus spp.. Entretanto, a obtenção de sequências completas de maior número de alelos-S faz-se necessária para o estabelecimento de uma relação de identidade precisa entre os mesmos.Commercial plum orchards must contain at least two cultivars, in order to ensure good fruit set and thus high economic yields, because its carries the gametophytic incompatibility system, that inhibits the selfing in a great number of cultivares. The aim of this work was to identify by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction the S-alleles related to gametophytic incompatibility in eleven Prunus salicina (Lindl. cultivars. The Santa Rosa, Santa Rita, Reubennel, Pluma 7, América, Rosa Mineira, Amarelinha, The First, Gulfblaze (Clone São Paulo, Gulfblaze (Clone Guaíba e Harry Pickstone

  5. Immunocytochemical Localization of Mandelonitrile Lyase in Mature Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Seeds 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua-Cheng; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1991-01-01

    Mandelonitrile lyase (MDL, EC 4.1.2.10), which catalyzes the reversible dissociation of (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile to benzaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide, was purified to apparent homogeneity from mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds by conventional protein purification techniques. This flavoprotein is monomeric with a subunit molecular mass of 57 kilodaltons. Glycoprotein character was shown by its binding to the affinity matrix concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B with subsequent elution by α-methyl-d-glucoside. Upon chemical deglycosylation by trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, the molecular mass was reduced to 50.9 kilodaltons. Two-dimensional gel analysis of deglycosylated MDL revealed the presence of several subunit isoforms of similar molecular mass but differing slightly in isoelectric point. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in New Zealand white rabbits against deglycosylated and untreated MDL. Antibody titers were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent and dot immunobinding assays, while their specificities were assessed by Western immunoblot analysis. Antibodies raised against untreated lyase recognized several proteins in addition to MDL. In contrast, antisera raised against deglycosylated MDL were monospecific and were utilized for developmental and immunocytochemical localization studies. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis of seed proteins during fruit maturation showed that MDL first appeared in seeds shortly after cotyledons began development. In cotyledon cells of mature seeds, MDL was localized primarily in the cell wall with lesser amounts in the protein bodies, whereas in endosperm cells, this labeling pattern was reversed. N-terminal sequence data was gathered for future molecular approaches to the question of MDL microheterogeneity. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:16668338

  6. Chemical Effectiveness of Salvadora Persica and Commercially Available Whitening Toothpaste on Preventing Tea and Chlorhexidine Stain (in Vitro Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Mahanani, Erlina Sih; Arief, Erry Mochamad; Ismail, Puteri Ezdiani Binti Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Salvadora persica, a plant that contains a wide range of healthy components, has been used as chewing stick for ages to maintain good oral hygiene and currently has been approved to remove stains. However, its stain-preventing effect is still under investigation. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Salvadora persica and commercially available whitening toothpastes on preventing tea and chlorhexidine stains. Sixty clear acrylic blocks were used and divided into 3 groups, 20 fo...

  7. The influence of nutritional history on the functional response of Geocoris pallidipennis to its prey, Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Zeng, F

    2014-12-01

    Insect artificial diets are the foundation for mass production of insect predators. Whether there is an influence of long-term rearing with artificial diet on the control ability of predators should be considered. Here, we focused on the effect of nutritional history on the functional response of Geocoris pallidipennis to Myzus persicae. The influence of nutritional history (artificial diet versus natural prey, M. persicae) on the functional response of third to fifth instar nymphs and female G. pallidipennis was examined in the laboratory. The results showed that the functional response curve of both the nymphs and the adult female of G. pallidipennis to M. persicae reflected similar trends on both nutritional histories and confirmed the type II response. Adult female G. pallidipennis reared on either M. persicae or artificial diet produced a significantly better performance than the juvenile stages tested. We estimated that adult female G. pallidipennis can consume 141.6 (artificial diet) or 131.6 (M. persicae) aphids per day, respectively. This indicated that G. pallidipennis reared on both artificial diet and M. persicae displayed high rates of predation.

  8. Bioactivity-guided fractionation identifies amygdalin as a potent neurotrophic agent from herbal medicine Semen Persicae extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanbin; Zhao, Jia; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Li, Xuechen; Rong, Jianhui

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. The resultant fractions were assayed for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells based on microscopic assessment. Through liquid-liquid extraction and reverse phase HPLC separation, a botanical glycoside amygdalin was isolated as the active compound responsible for the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. Moreover, we found that amygdalin rapidly induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). A specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the stimulatory effect of amygdalin on neurite outgrowth. Taken together, amygdalin was identified as a potent neurotrophic agent from Semen Persicae extract through a bioactivity-guided fractional procedure. The neurotrophic activity of amygdalin may be mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

  9. Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation Identifies Amygdalin as a Potent Neurotrophic Agent from Herbal Medicine Semen Persicae Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanbin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. The resultant fractions were assayed for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells based on microscopic assessment. Through liquid-liquid extraction and reverse phase HPLC separation, a botanical glycoside amygdalin was isolated as the active compound responsible for the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. Moreover, we found that amygdalin rapidly induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2. A specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the stimulatory effect of amygdalin on neurite outgrowth. Taken together, amygdalin was identified as a potent neurotrophic agent from Semen Persicae extract through a bioactivity-guided fractional procedure. The neurotrophic activity of amygdalin may be mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

  10. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers in Prunus sibirica (Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bo Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for Prunus sibirica to investigate genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and marker-assisted selection of late-blooming cultivars in the breeding of P. sibirica. Methods and Results: Using a magnetic bead enrichment strategy, 19 primer pairs were developed and characterized across 40 individuals from three P. sibirica wild populations and six individuals of P. armeniaca. The number of alleles per locus varied from three to 11 and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.063 to 0.917 and 0.295 to 0.876, respectively, in the three P. sibirica wild populations. All primer pairs could be successfully amplified in six individuals of P. armeniaca. Conclusions: These microsatellite primer pairs should be useful for population genetics, germplasm identification, and marker-assisted selection in the breeding of P. sibirica and related species.

  11. Genetic diversity and population structure of Prunus mira (Koehne from the Tibet plateau in China and recommended conservation strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenquan Bao

    Full Text Available Prunus mira Koehne, an important economic fruit crop with high breeding and medicinal values, and an ancestral species of many cultivated peach species, has recently been declared an endangered species. However, basic information about genetic diversity, population structure, and morphological variation is still limited for this species. In this study, we sampled 420 P. mira individuals from 21 wild populations in the Tibet plateau to conduct a comprehensive analysis of genetic and morphological characteristics. The results of molecular analyses based on simple sequence repeat (SSR markers indicated moderate genetic diversity and inbreeding (A = 3.8, Ae = 2.5, He = 0.52, Ho = 0.44, I = 0.95, FIS = 0.17 within P. mira populations. STRUCTURE, GENELAND, and phylogenetic analyses assigned the 21 populations to three genetic clusters that were moderately correlated with geographic altitudes, and this may have resulted from significantly different climatic and environmental factors at different altitudinal ranges. Significant isolation-by-distance was detected across the entire distribution of P. mira populations, but geographic altitude might have more significant effects on genetic structure than geographic distance in partial small-scale areas. Furthermore, clear genetic structure, high genetic differentiation, and restricted gene flow were detected between pairwise populations from different geographic groups, indicating that geographic barriers and genetic drift have significant effects on P. mira populations. Analyses of molecular variance based on the SSR markers indicated high variation (83.7% and 81.7%, whereas morphological analyses revealed low variation (1.30%-36.17% within the populations. Large and heavy fruits were better adapted than light fruits and nutlets to poor climate and environmental conditions at high altitudes. Based on the results of molecular and morphological analyses, we classified the area into three conservation units

  12. Borrelia persica infection in dogs and cats: clinical manifestations, clinicopathological findings and genetic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, Gad; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Halperin, Tamar; Hershko, Yizhak; Kleinerman, Gabriela; Anug, Yigal; Abdeen, Ziad; Lavy, Eran; Aroch, Itamar; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2016-05-10

    Relapsing fever (RF) is an acute infectious disease caused by arthropod-borne spirochetes of the genus Borrelia. The disease is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever that concur with spirochetemia. The RF borrelioses include louse-borne RF caused by Borrelia recurrentis and tick-borne endemic RF transmitted by argasid soft ticks and caused by several Borrelia spp. such as B. crocidurae, B. coriaceae, B. duttoni, B. hermsii, B. hispanica and B. persica. Human infection with B. persica is transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros tholozani and has been reported from Iran, Israel, Egypt, India, and Central Asia. During 2003-2015, five cats and five dogs from northern, central and southern Israel were presented for veterinary care and detected with borrelia spirochetemia by blood smear microscopy. The causative infective agent in these animals was identified and characterized by PCR from blood and sequencing of parts of the flagellin (flab), 16S rRNA and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiestrase (GlpQ) genes. All animals were infected with B. persica genetically identical to the causative agent of human RF. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that DNA sequences from these pet carnivores clustered together with B. persica genotypes I and II from humans and O. tholozani ticks and distinctly from other RF Borrelia spp. The main clinical findings in cats included lethargy, anorexia, anemia in 5/5 cats and thrombocytopenia in 4/5. All dogs were lethargic and anorectic, 4/5 were febrile and anemic and 3/5 were thrombocytopenic. Three dogs were co-infected with Babesia spp. The animals were all treated with antibiotics and the survival rate of both dogs and cats was 80 %. The cat and dog that succumbed to disease died one day after the initiation of antibiotic treatment, while survival in the others was followed by the rapid disappearance of spirochetemia. This is the first report of disease due to B. persica infection in cats and the first case series in dogs. Infection was

  13. Ionizing irradiation quarantine treatment against oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J

    2004-06-01

    Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), is a pest of many rosaceous temperate fruits, including pomes, Malus spp., and stone fruits, Prunus spp., in much of the world. However, some areas are free of the pest, and shipments of fruit hosts from infested to noninfested areas may be regulated. Current quarantine treatments for oriental fruit moth include methyl bromide fumigation and cold storage for several weeks. Methyl bromide use is being restricted because it is a stratospheric ozone-depleting substance, and alternatives are sought. Cold is not tolerated by many hosts of oriental fruit moth. The objective of this research was to develop irradiation quarantine treatments against the pest under ambient and hypoxic storage conditions because some hosts of oriental fruit moth are stored in hypoxic atmospheres, and hypoxia is known to lessen the effects of irradiation. In ambient atmospheres, no adults emerged from 58,779 fifth instars (the most radiotolerant stage present in fruit) irradiated with a target dose of 200 Gy (195-232 Gy measured). In atmospheres flushed with nitrogen, 5.3% of adults emerged from 44,050 fifth instars irradiated with a target dose of 200 Gy (194-230 Gy measured), but they died at a faster rate than control adults and without laying eggs. A dose of 232 Gy (the maximum recorded when 200 Gy was targeted) is recommended to disinfest any fruit of oriental fruit moth under ambient and hypoxic atmospheres.

  14. Host generated siRNAs attenuate expression of serine protease gene in Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Varnika; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan; Uniyal, Prem L; Singh, Rajendra; Niranjan, Rampal S

    2012-01-01

    Sap sucking hemipteran aphids damage diverse crop species. Although delivery of ds-RNA or siRNA through microinjection/feeding has been demonstrated, the efficacy of host-mediated delivery of aphid-specific dsRNA in developing aphid resistance has been far from being elucidated. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing ds-RNA of Myzus persicae serine protease (MySP) was developed that triggered the generation of corresponding siRNAs amenable for delivery to the feeding aphids. M. persicae when fed on the transgenic plants for different time intervals under controlled growth conditions resulted in a significant attenuation of the expression of MySP and a commensurate decline in gut protease activity. Although the survivability of these aphids was not affected, there was a noticeable decline in their fecundity resulting in a significant reduction in parthenogenetic population. The study highlighted the feasibility of developing host based RNAi-mediated resistance against hemipteran pest aphids.

  15. Salvadora persica agro-ecological suitability for oil production in Argentine dryland salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasca, Silvia; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra; del Fresno, Carolina Miranda

    2015-12-15

    One of the major causes of crop stress is soil or water salinity. Thus, selection of the best species for cultivation in semiarid and arid climates is fundamental. Salvadora persica is an evergreen perennial halophyte that can grow under extreme conditions, from very dry environments to highly saline soils. Based on international bibliography, the authors outlined an agro-ecological zoning model to determine the potential cultivation zones for S. persica in Argentina. This model may be applied to any part of the world, using the agro-ecological limits presented in this work. All the maps were developed by the implementation of a geographic information system (GIS) that can be updated by the further incorporation of complementary information, with the consequent improvement of the original database. The overlap of the agroclimatic suitability map on the drylands' saline soils and the drylands' alkaline soils maps, determined the agro-ecological zoning. Since some areas in the agro-ecological zoning can overlap with land that is already assigned for other uses, protected areas, current land use/cover of the different zones, and urban areas maps were incorporated into the GIS and subtracted by a mask. This resulted in the delimitation of "potential cultivation zoning", thus avoiding possible conflicts surrounding the use of land and making the agro-ecological zonation more efficient. There is a broad agro-ecological zone for cultivation of S. persica that extends from Northern Argentina to approximately 41° South latitude, under dry-subhumid to semiarid climates. Lands classified with different degrees of suitability in the potential cultivation zoning could be used for production of this species for energy purposes on lands that are either unsuitable for food production or currently assigned for other purposes. This paper represents pioneering work since there are no previous studies concerning the introduction of S. persica in Argentina. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  16. Evaluation of salt tolerance in almond [Prunus dulcis (L.) Batsch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-07-12

    Jul 12, 2012 ... stone fruit trees and almond are sensitive to salt stresses and their productivity gradually reduces at salt concen- ... order to improve stone fruit and almond rootstocks through hybridization between peach × almond, apricot × ..... J. Forest Poplar Res. 11(1): p. 202. Ranjbar A, Lemeur R, Damme P (2005).

  17. Storage of 'Laetitia' plums ( Prunus salicina ) under controlled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upon removal from the cold storage chamber and after four days in ambient conditions (20±2°C/60±5% RH), the fruit were assessed in terms of: respiration and ethylene production rates; flesh firmness; texture; titrable acidity; red color index and hue angle (ho) of the skin; incidence of fruit cracking and internal breakdown ...

  18. Borrelia persica Infection in Immunocompetent Mice--A New Tool to Study the Infection Kinetics In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Sandra; Overzier, Evelyn; Hermanns, Walter; Baneth, Gad; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2016-02-01

    Borrelia persica, a bacterium transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros tholozani, causes tick-borne relapsing fever in humans in the Middle East, Central Asia and the Indian peninsula. Immunocompetent C3H/HeOuJ mice were infected intradermally with B. persica at varying doses: 1 x 10(6), 1 x 10(4), 1 x 10(2) and 4 x 10(0) spirochetes/mouse. Subsequently, blood samples were collected and screened for the presence of B. persica DNA. Spirochetes were detected in all mice infected with 1 x 10(6), 1 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(2) borrelia by real-time PCR targeting the flaB gene of the bacterium. Spirochetemia developed with a one- to two-day delay when 1 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(2) borrelia were inoculated. Mice injected with only four organisms were negative in all tests. No clinical signs were observed when infected mice were compared to negative control animals. Organs (heart, spleen, urinary bladder, tarsal joint, skin and brain) were tested for B. persica-specific DNA and cultured for the detection of viable spirochetes. Compiled data show that the target organs of B. persica infections are the brain and the skin. A newly developed serological two-tiered test system (ELISA and western blot) for the detection of murine IgM, IgG and IgA antibody titers against B. persica showed a vigorous antibody response of the mice during infection. In conclusion, the infection model described here for B. persica is a platform for in vivo studies to decipher the so far unexplored survival strategies of this Borrelia species.

  19. Evaluation of the Anxiolytic Effect of Nepeta persica Boiss. in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rabbani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of hydroalcoholic extract (HE of Nepeta persica Boiss. (Lamiaceae on the elevated plus-maze (EPM model of anxiety. The extract of arial parts of the plant was administered intraperitoneally to male NMRI mice, at various doses, 30 min before behavioural evaluation. The HE extract of N. persica at the dose of 50 mg kg−1 significantly increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms of the EPM. This dose of plant extract affected neither animal's locomotor activity nor ketamine-induced sleeping time. The 50 mg kg−1 dose of the plant extract seemed to be the optimal dose in producing the anxiolytic effects, lower or higher doses of the plant produce either sedative or stimulant effects. At 100 mg kg−1, the plant extract increased the locomotor activity. These results suggested that the extract of N. persica at dose of 50 mg kg−1 possess anxiolytic effect with less sedative and hypnotic effects than that of diazepam and causes a non-specific stimulation at 100 mg kg−1.

  20. Discovery of metabolic resistance to neonicotinoids in green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Little, Siobhan C; Edwards, Owain; van Rooyen, Anthony R; Weeks, Andrew; Umina, Paul A

    2017-08-01

    Myzus persicae is a serious pest that attacks a broad range of agricultural crops. This species has developed chemical resistance to many insecticides globally, and within Australia resistance to multiple chemical groups has been identified. Resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides has been discovered in several countries, but has not previously been confirmed in Australia. We use biomolecular assays and bioassays on field-collected populations to investigate neonicotinoid resistance in M. persicae within Australia. Several geographically and genetically distinct populations showed evidence for resistance in bioassays. Genetic markers identified that the mechanism of neonicotinoid resistance in Australia is metabolic resistance through the enhanced expression of a cytochrome P450 gene, CYP6CY3. M. persicae populations in parts of Australia are now resistant to four different insecticide chemical groups, raising concerns about the long-term management of this pest. While higher copy numbers of CYP6CY3 were seen in all resistant populations, the number of gene copies was not strongly correlated with the level of resistance as determined by LD 50 values generated through bioassays. This finding sheds further light on the complexity of the P450 genes in regulating neonicotinoid resistance. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Abscisic acid deficiency increases defence responses against Myzus persicae in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillwig, Melissa S; Chiozza, Mariana; Casteel, Clare L; Lau, Siau Ting; Hohenstein, Jessica; Hernández, Enrique; Jander, Georg; MacIntosh, Gustavo C

    2016-02-01

    Comparison of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) gene expression induced by Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) feeding, aphid saliva infiltration and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment showed a significant positive correlation. In particular, ABA-regulated genes are over-represented among genes that are induced by M. persicae saliva infiltration into Arabidopsis leaves. This suggests that the induction of ABA-related gene expression could be an important component of the Arabidopsis-aphid interaction. Consistent with this hypothesis, M. persicae populations induced ABA production in wild-type plants. Furthermore, aphid populations were smaller on Arabidopsis aba1-1 mutants, which cannot synthesize ABA, and showed a significant preference for wild-type plants compared with the mutant. Total free amino acids, which play an important role in aphid nutrition, were not altered in the aba1-1 mutant line, but the levels of isoleucine (Ile) and tryptophan (Trp) were differentially affected by aphids in wild-type and mutant plants. Recently, indole glucosinolates have been shown to promote aphid resistance in Arabidopsis. In this study, 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate was more abundant in the aba1-1 mutant than in wild-type Arabidopsis, suggesting that the induction of ABA signals that decrease the accumulation of defence compounds may be beneficial for aphids. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  2. Temperature-Mediated Effects of Host Alternation on the Adaptation of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Zhao, Huiyan; Gao, Huanhuan; Hu, Zuqing; Hu, Xiangshun

    2015-04-01

    Local adaptation, an important phenomenon in ecological speciation, occurs in Myzus persicae (Sulzer), with the tobacco-adapted line proposed as a subspecies. Recent studies showed that temperature could alter the selection strength and direction in host-herbivore interactions. To understand the formation of host-adapted speciation and the effects of temperature on host adaptation, the parthenogenetic progeny of an M. persicae egg were conditioned on two hosts for >10 generations. Then, their life table parameters were studied after reciprocal transfer under a temperature gradient. The results showed that aphids habituated on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and rape (Brassica napus L.) had different optimal temperatures, including different upper thresholds of development and reproduction on original and alternative hosts. After habituation for >10 generations, local adaptation of aphids on the host of origin was formed, which was observed as the better performance of the native aphids compared with the foreign ones. The M. persicae that habituated on rape appeared more generalized to the host plants than the aphids that habituated on tobacco. The adaptation patterns of green peach aphids on two hosts varied differentially according to temperature, which verified the temperature-mediated effects of host selection on herbivores, implying the presence of a demographic basis of aphid seasonal migration. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. TOKSISITAS BEBERAPA HASIL EKSTRAK DAUN TEMBAKAU TERHADAP Myzus persicae (Homoptera;Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sudjak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan pestisida kimia sintetik yang tidak rasional dapat menyebabkan pencemaran air, tanah, udara, produk pertanian, keracunan manusia/pekerja, resistensi/resurgensi hama, terbunuhnya hewan bermanfaat, perubahan status hama, dan ledakan hama. Untuk itu dirasa perlu mencari pestisida alternatif untuk mendukung pertanian yang berkelanjutan . Melalui kegiatan penelitian yang bertahap telah diperoleh produk pestisida yang diesktrak dari sisa-sisa tanaman tembakau rakyat di lapang yaitu ekstrak 1, ekstrak 2, ekstrak 3, dan ekstrak 4.Kegiatan penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Entomologi Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pemanis dan Serat, Malang mulai bulan Januari sampai dengan Desember 2011.Tujuan penelitian untuk memanfaatkan tembakau sebagai bahan aktif pembuatan pestisida nabati.Untuk tiap-tiap ekstrak di buat lima macam konsentrasi, yaitu 100%, 50%, 25%, 12,5%, 6,25%, 3,125%, dan 0 (kontrol. Serangga uji yang digunakan adalah hama pengisap daun tembakau Myzus persicae. Masing-masing ulangan dengan 20 serangga uji.Data yang diperoleh dari setiap pengamatan dianalisis menggunakan Analisis Probit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa empat ekstrak daun tembakau yang diuji terbukti menyebabkan toksisitas pada kutu daun tembakau M. persicae. Ekstrak 3 merupakan ekstrak yang paling toksit dibanding 3 ekstrak yang lain.  LC50 ekstrak 1, ekstrak 2, ekstrak 3, dan ekstrak 4 berturut-turut 35,53%, 26,93%, 5,08%, dan 5,2%. Kata kunci: Ekstrak tembakau, pestisida botani, M. persicae.

  4. The evolution of insecticide resistance in the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Chris; Puinean, Alin M; Zimmer, Christoph T; Denholm, Ian; Field, Linda M; Foster, Stephen P; Gutbrod, Oliver; Nauen, Ralf; Slater, Russell; Williamson, Martin S

    2014-08-01

    The peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae is a globally distributed crop pest with a host range of over 400 species including many economically important crop plants. The intensive use of insecticides to control this species over many years has led to populations that are now resistant to several classes of insecticide. Work spanning over 40 years has shown that M. persicae has a remarkable ability to evolve mechanisms that avoid or overcome the toxic effect of insecticides with at least seven independent mechanisms of resistance described in this species to date. The array of novel resistance mechanisms, including several 'first examples', that have evolved in this species represents an important case study for the evolution of insecticide resistance and also rapid adaptive change in insects more generally. In this review we summarise the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying resistance in M. persicae and the insights study of this topic has provided on how resistance evolves, the selectivity of insecticides, and the link between resistance and host plant adaptation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. [Pathogenicity of hyphomycet fungi to aphids Aphis gossypii Glover and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Elisângela de S; oino, Alcides

    2006-01-01

    The aphids Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae are cosmopolitan, poliphagous and damage cultivated plants. The effects of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (isolate IBCB 66), Metarhizium anisopliae (isolate IBCB 121), Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (isolate IBCB 141) and Lecanicillium (= Verticillium) lecanii (isolate JAB 02) on third instar nymphs of A. gossypii and M. persicae were evaluated in the laboratory at 25 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% RH and 12h photophase. The aphids were transferred to petri dishes with a foliar disk (cotton or pepper) with a layer of 1 cm tick of agar-water. The fungi were applied in a suspension containing 1.0 x 106 to 1.0 x 108 conidia/ml. In the control treatment 1 ml of sterilized water was added to the foliar disks. The mortality of aphids was evaluated daily. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae caused 100% mortality at the seventh day after inoculation, for both species. L. lecanii was the fungus that provided mortality later in the aphids and M. persicae was more susceptible to both fungi than A. gossypii.

  6. Suppression of plant defenses by a Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary effector protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, Dezi A; De Vos, Martin; Jander, Georg

    2014-07-01

    The complex interactions between aphids and their host plant are species-specific and involve multiple layers of recognition and defense. Aphid salivary proteins, which are released into the plant during phloem feeding, are a likely mediator of these interactions. In an approach to identify aphid effectors that facilitate feeding from host plants, eleven Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary proteins and the GroEL protein of Buchnera aphidicola, a bacterial endosymbiont of this aphid species, were expressed transiently in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Whereas two salivary proteins increased aphid reproduction, expression of three other aphid proteins and GroEL significantly decreased aphid reproduction on N. tabacum. These effects were recapitulated in stable transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Further experiments with A. thaliana expressing Mp55, a salivary protein that increased aphid reproduction, showed lower accumulation of 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate, callose and hydrogen peroxide in response to aphid feeding. Mp55-expressing plants also were more attractive for aphids in choice assays. Silencing Mp55 gene expression in M. persicae using RNA interference approaches reduced aphid reproduction on N. tabacum, A. thaliana, and N. benthamiana. Together, these results demonstrate a role for Mp55, a protein with as-yet-unknown molecular function, in the interaction of M. persicae with its host plants.

  7. Effect of Natural β-Glucosidase Inhibitors in Reducing Toxicity of Amygdalin in Persicae Semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Li, Xia; Yang, Honggai; Mao, Xinhui; Wang, Juan; Gao, Wenyuan

    2017-05-01

    Amygdalin can be decomposed into hydrocyanic acid, which is the primary source of Persicae Semen toxicity, by gut flora. Here, the inhibitory activity of β-glucosidase for test herb extracts was first determined and compared. In turn, optimization of the ratio of substrate and inhibitor in vitro and LD50 values of extracts, serum and liver contents of amygdalin in vivo was measured. Lycii Cortex was found to be the best inhibitory activity for β-glucosidase. The ratio of amygdalin-to-Lycii Cortex extract of 7.19:8.18 (mmol L-1 /mg mL-1 ) can be relatively suitable for inhibiting β-glucosidase activity in test in vitro reaction system. After mixed with Lycii Cortex extract, the toxicity of Persicae Semen ethanol extract in mice is significantly reduced and more amygdalin can be absorbed into the bloodstream. The study provides useful information for reducing toxicity of Persicae Semen and suggests how to better use these natural β-glucosidase inhibitors in the utilization of glycosides and aglycones. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Relationship between LAI of Quercus persica and Pistacia atlantica with Field Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Poorghasemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is a key variable in primary production and carbon cycling in ecosystems. It is used as an important predictor to explain the processes of forest ecology, forest management, and remote sensing studies. Most of the remote sensing instruments such as LAI-2000 and Fisheye photography are based on three-dimensional space and they consider the geometry of the crown to estimate LAI. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between spectral behaviour of Quercus persica and Pistacia atlantica with two-dimensional and three-dimensional LAI. To estimate LAI, a box (0.5× 0.5× 0.5 meters was placed in the four directions of the crown and all the leaves were harvested. In situ spectral measurements of leaves were done with ASD Fieldspec spectroradiometer. The results of partial least squares regression to model LAI form spectral data of Quercus persica showed maximum regression coefficient at visible and near infrared wavelengths for both LAI3D and LAI2D. The coefficient of determination (R2 between the measured and estimated LAI2D and LAI3D values for Quercus persica was 0.16 and 0.23 respectively, and for Pistacia atlantica was 0.15 and to 0.42, respectively. Generally, LAI3D showed better relationship with spectral reflectance for both species.

  9. Pollination biology of fruit-bearing hedgerow plants and the role of flower-visiting insects in fruit-set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jennifer H; Clark, Suzanne J; Denholm, Ian; Goulson, Dave; Stoate, Chris; Osborne, Juliet L

    2009-12-01

    In the UK, the flowers of fruit-bearing hedgerow plants provide a succession of pollen and nectar for flower-visiting insects for much of the year. The fruits of hedgerow plants are a source of winter food for frugivorous birds on farmland. It is unclear whether recent declines in pollinator populations are likely to threaten fruit-set and hence food supply for birds. The present study investigates the pollination biology of five common hedgerow plants: blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), dog rose (Rosa canina), bramble (Rubus fruticosus) and ivy (Hedera helix). The requirement for insect pollination was investigated initially by excluding insects from flowers by using mesh bags and comparing immature and mature fruit-set with those of open-pollinated flowers. Those plants that showed a requirement for insect pollination were then tested to compare fruit-set under two additional pollination service scenarios: (1) reduced pollination, with insects excluded from flowers bagged for part of the flowering period, and (2) supplemental pollination, with flowers hand cross-pollinated to test for pollen limitation. The proportions of flowers setting fruit in blackthorn, hawthorn and ivy were significantly reduced when insects were excluded from flowers by using mesh bags, whereas fruit-set in bramble and dog rose were unaffected. Restricting the exposure of flowers to pollinators had no significant effect on fruit-set. However, blackthorn and hawthorn were found to be pollen-limited, suggesting that the pollination service was inadequate in the study area. Ensuring strong populations of insect pollinators may be essential to guarantee a winter fruit supply for birds in UK hedgerows.

  10. fruit juice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olorunniji

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... heat (boiling, pasteurization or sterilization) extractions of fruit juice though optimize their shelf life quality but controversially cause loss of their organoleptic property e.g. flavor, viscosity, taste, nutrient etc. Preservatives of chemical origins e.g. butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene,.

  11. Evaluation of multiple approaches to identify genome-wide polymorphisms in closely related genotypes of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seanna Hewitt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of genetic polymorphisms and subsequent development of molecular markers is important for marker assisted breeding of superior cultivars of economically important species. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. is an economically important non-climacteric tree fruit crop in the Rosaceae family and has undergone a genetic bottleneck due to breeding, resulting in limited genetic diversity in the germplasm that is utilized for breeding new cultivars. Therefore, it is critical to recognize the best platforms for identifying genome-wide polymorphisms that can help identify, and consequently preserve, the diversity in a genetically constrained species. For the identification of polymorphisms in five closely related genotypes of sweet cherry, a gel-based approach (TRAP, reduced representation sequencing (TRAPseq, a 6k cherry SNParray, and whole genome sequencing (WGS approaches were evaluated in the identification of genome-wide polymorphisms in sweet cherry cultivars. All platforms facilitated detection of polymorphisms among the genotypes with variable efficiency. In assessing multiple SNP detection platforms, this study has demonstrated that a combination of appropriate approaches is necessary for efficient polymorphism identification, especially between closely related cultivars of a species. The information generated in this study provides a valuable resource for future genetic and genomic studies in sweet cherry, and the insights gained from the evaluation of multiple approaches can be utilized for other closely related species with limited genetic diversity in the breeding germplasm.

  12. Draft genome sequence for virulent and avirulent strains of Xanthomonas arboricola isolated from Prunus spp. in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garita-Cambronero, Jerson; Palacio-Bielsa, Ana; López, María M; Cubero, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola is a species in genus Xanthomonas which is mainly comprised of plant pathogens. Among the members of this taxon, X. arboricola pv. pruni, the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruits and almond, is distributed worldwide although it is considered a quarantine pathogen in the European Union. Herein, we report the draft genome sequence, the classification, the annotation and the sequence analyses of a virulent strain, IVIA 2626.1, and an avirulent strain, CITA 44, of X. arboricola associated with Prunus spp. The draft genome sequence of IVIA 2626.1 consists of 5,027,671 bp, 4,720 protein coding genes and 50 RNA encoding genes. The draft genome sequence of strain CITA 44 consists of 4,760,482 bp, 4,250 protein coding genes and 56 RNA coding genes. Initial comparative analyses reveals differences in the presence of structural and regulatory components of the type IV pilus, the type III secretion system, the type III effectors as well as variations in the number of the type IV secretion systems. The genome sequence data for these strains will facilitate the development of molecular diagnostics protocols that differentiate virulent and avirulent strains. In addition, comparative genome analysis will provide insights into the plant-pathogen interaction during the bacterial spot disease process.

  13. Evaluation of the Resistance of Transgenic C5 Plum (Prunus domestica L. against Four Chilean Plum Pox Virus Isolates through Micro-Grafting Evaluación de la Resistencia de Ciruelo Transgénico C5 (Prunus domestica L. contra Cuatro Aislamientos Chilenos del Virus Pox del Ciruelo a través de Microinjertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Wong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The transgenic plum (Prunus domestica L. C5, in which the coat protein (CP gene of the Plum pox virus (PPV is inserted, represents a unique example of the use of genetic engineering for fruit crop improvement in Prunus spp. Field trials in Poland, Romania, and Spain have demonstrated resistance of C5 to several D and M strain PPV isolates. In Chile, the quarantine regulations for PPV and for genetically modified (GM plants require that the testing of C5 for resistance to Chilean PPV isolates be done under controlled isolated conditions. To carry out these tests C5 shoots were multiplied in vitro and micro-grafted onto four Adesoto101 (Prunus insititia L. rootstock populations that had been previously infected each with one of four Chilean PPV-Ds. Tests were carried out under controlled conditions in a biosafety greenhouse. Symptoms appearance, virus detection, and viral mRNA levels for the cylindrical inclusion (CI and CP genes were determined during three consecutive growing seasons. Complete resistance to all PPV isolates was demonstrated during the first 2 yr in all of the C5 plants. In the third season, four of 10 C5 plants showed mild symptoms on leaves close to the graft union and low but detectable CI mRNA levels in the C5 scions. These results support the effectiveness of using of micro-grafting on P. insititia for PPV resistance studies, especially in the limited space of a quarantine facility; whereas resistance levels in C5 after 3 yr indicate the importance of long term and field scale evaluations.El ciruelo (Prunus domestica L. transgénico C5, que posee inserto el gen de la proteína de cubierta (CP del Plum pox virus (PPV, es un ejemplo excepcional del uso de ingeniería genética para el mejoramiento de Prunus spp. Pruebas de campo realizadas en Polonia, Rumania y España han demostrado su resistencia a distintos aislamientos de PPV cepas D y M. En Chile, dadas las regulaciones cuarentenarias para PPV y para plantas gen

  14. Comparative survival rates of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae on shoots and fruit of apple and peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-08-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants on oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), survival. G. molesta larval survival in the orchard was comparable between apple (Malus spp.) and peach (Prunus spp.) shoots, indicating that both host species can harbor large larval populations during the early season. G. molesta larvae used multiple shoots for feeding and development on peaches but usually only damaged single shoots in apple. Survival differences were present between peach and apple fruit, but this survival was affected by fruit maturity level. Generally, larval survival higher was in ripening peach fruit than in green, immature apple fruit. Larval survival varied among several apple cultivars, indicating that cultivar-level variability needs to be considered. These host-associated effects may impact efforts to predictively model G. molesta populations in commercial orchards where multiple host plant species, or different cultivars of the same species are often grown in proximity. Thus, host-associated dynamics should be included into future population models that underlie management programs.

  15. Reação de genótipos de nectarina (Prunus persica var. nucipersica à ferrugem da folha, ao chumbinho e evolução da desfolha Reaction of genotypes of the nectarine (Prunus persica var. Nucipersica to leaf rust and shot hole, and the development of defoliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antônio Ayub

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A resistência genética às doenças é um progresso na produção de todas as culturas e fontes de resistência devem ser reportadas, auxiliando os programas de melhoramento. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a resistência de genótipos de nectarina à ferrugem da folha e ao chumbinho, assim como, correlacionar a intensidade das doenças com a desfolha prematura. Foram avaliados três genótipos de nectarina em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com dez repeticões. Com base nos resultados obtidos, o genótipo Bruna mostrou-se resistente ao chumbinho e suscetível à ferrugem, ao passo que o genótipo Sunripe foi resistente à ferrugem; FLA 9-15N foi moderadamente suscetível à ferrugem. Houve correlação apenas entre severidade da ferrugem e desfolha.Genetic resistance to disease can be seen as progress in the production of all crops, and sources of resistance have to be reported, thus helping improvement programs. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance of nectarine genotypes to leaf rust and shot hole, as well as to correlate the severity of the diseases with premature defoliation. Three genotypes of the nectarine were evaluated in a randomized block design with ten replications. Based on the results, the genotype Bruna proved resistant to shot hole and susceptible to leaf rust, while the genotype Sunripe was resistant to leaf rust. FLA 9-15N was moderately susceptible to leaf rust. There was correlation between leaf-rust severity and defoliation only.

  16. The Cuticle Protein Gene MPCP4 of Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) Plays a Critical Role in Cucumber Mosaic Virus Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Gao, Xi-Wu

    2017-06-01

    Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) is one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. In addition to sucking phloem sap, M. persicae also transmits Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) as a vector in a nonpersistent manner. At present, the infection mechanism remains unclear, especially the process of aphid virus acquisition. In this study, we isolated four M. persicae cuticle protein genes (MPCP1, MPCP2, MPCP4, and MPCP5) from M. persicae. The relative amount of the gene encoding Cucumber mosaic virus capsid protein (CMV CP) and the transcript levels of these four cuticle protein genes were investigated in aphid virus acquisition by feeding the tobacco preinfested by CMV. The relative expression of MPCP1, MPCP2, and MPCP4 were significantly higher than MPCP5 at 24 h after aphids feeding on virus-infested tobacco. Yeast two-hybrid assays demonstrated that the protein encoded by MPCP4 gene was closely associated with the CMV CP through the direct interaction. Moreover, the ability of M. persicae to acquire CMV was suppressed by RNA interference of MPCP4. All these lines of evidence indicate that MPCP4, as a viral putative receptor in the stylet of aphid, plays an important role in aphid acquisition of CMV. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Molecular characterization of Prunus mahaleb L. rootstock canditates by ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozyurt Ibrahim Kursat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus mahaleb is widely used as rootstocks particularly on calcareous and dry soils for both sweet and sour cherry cultivars in Turkey. Genetic diversity and relationships among members of Prunus mahaleb including 29 preselected rootstock candidate accessions from Tokat region in Turkey were investigated by using 15 ISSR markers. The study revealed high genetic diversity among accessions, detecting 138 fragments, of which 103 (75% were polymorphic. The number of polymorphic bands per primer was between 3-13, with average of 6.86. The primers 890 and 891 gave the highest polymorphism ratio (100%. The UPGMA dendrogram and the principal coordinate analysis revealed a clear differentiation among accessions. Reference rootstock, SL-64 clustered separately. The study demonstrates that ISSRs provide promising marker tools in revealing genetic diversity and relationships in Prunus mahaleb rootstock candidate accessions and can contribute to efficient identification, conservation, and utilization of germplasm for rootstock improvement through conventional as well as molecular breeding approaches.

  18. Antibacterial efficacy of Salvadora persica as a cleansing teeth towards Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlina Sih Mahanani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salvadora persica is a traditional chewing stick for cleaning teeth that it is known Siwak. Several studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial effects of Salvadora persica. Purpose: This study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of Salvadora persica in several modified preparation against the salivary Streptoccocus mutans and Lactobacilli. Methods: A single-blind, randomized clinical trial study with crossover design was used. The study comprised of 5 groups, per group consisted of 14 healthy dental students who had good oral hygiene. Each participant was given 5 intervention to clean their teeth using, electric toothbrush modified with siwak, electric toothbrush with siwak toothpaste (colgate kayu sugi toothpaste, electric toothbrush with general toothpaste (colgate total toothpaste, original siwak chewing stick and normal saline. The wash out periode each intervention was 3 days. Patients’ saliva was used to quantify the levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli using caries risk test (CRT kit from Vivadent. Results: The results showed that there was a reduction in Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli risk score after cleansing different intervention except electric toothbrush modified with siwak. However, there was no significant difference for Streptococcus mutans (p=0.158 and Lactobacilli (p=0.396 risk score reduction when comparison was done between the groups. Conclusion: The original siwak chewing stick has antimicrobial effects similar to toothbrushing with general toothpaste and salvadora persica toothpaste. However, electric toothbrush modified with siwak has no effect on microbial reduction.Latar belakang: Salvadora persica adalah pembersih gigi tradisional yang lebih dikenal dengan sebutan Siwak. Beberapa penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Salvadora persica memiliki daya antibakteri. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas Salvadora persica dalam berbagai bentuk sediaan untuk membersihkan

  19. Utilization of Amygdalin during Seedling Development of Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, E.; Poulton, J. E.

    1994-10-01

    Cotyledons of mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds contain the cyanogenic diglucoside (R)-amygdalin. The levels of amygdalin, its corresponding monoglucoside (R)-prunasin, and the enzymes that metabolize these cyanoglycosides were measured during the course of seedling development. During the first 3 weeks following imbibition, cotyledonary amygdalin levels declined by more than 80%, but free hydrogen cyanide was not released to the atmosphere. Concomitantly, prunasin, which was not present in mature, ungerminated seeds, accumulated in the seedling epicotyls, hypocotyls, and cotyledons to levels approaching 4 [mu]mol per seedling. Whether this prunasin resulted from amygdalin hydrolysis remains unclear, however, because these organs also possess UDPG:mandelonitrile glucosyltransferase, which catalyzes de novo prunasin biosynthesis. The reduction in amygdalin levels was paralleled by declines in the levels of amygdalin hydrolase (AH), prunasin hydrolase (PH), mandelonitrile lyase (MDL), and [beta]-cyanoalanine synthase. At all stages of seedling development, AH and PH were localized by immunocytochemistry within the vascular tissues. In contrast, MDL occurred mostly in the cotyledonary parenchyma cells but was also present in the vascular tissues. Soon after imbibition, AH, PH, and MDL were found within protein bodies but were later detected in vacuoles derived from these organelles.

  20. Insecticidal activity of citronella grass essential oil on Frankliniella schultzei and Myzus persicae Atividade inseticida do óleo essencial de capim-citronela sobre Frankliniella schultzei e Myzus persicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Fontes Pinheiro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The thrips, Frankliniella schultzei, and green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, cause direct damage to plants of economic importance and transmit phytoviruses, causing large economic losses. Chemical constituents of essential oils present a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this work was to evaluate insecticidal activity of essential oil from citronella grass, Cymbopogon winterianus, on F. schultzei and M. persicae. This essential oil was obtained by steam distillation and components were identified by GC/FID and GC/MS. A Potter spray tower was used to spray insects with the essential oil. The major constituents are geraniol (28.62%, citronellal (23.62% and citronellol (17.10%. Essential oil of C. winterianus at 1% (w v-1 causes mortality in F. schultzei and M. persicae at 34.3% and 96.9%, respectively. The LC50 value for M. persicae was 0.36% and LC90 0.66%. Thus, citronella grass essential oil at 1% (w v-1 is more toxic to M. persicae than F. schultzei. This essential oil shows promise for developing pesticides to manage M. persicae.O tripes, Frankliniella schultzei, e o pulgão-verde, Myzus persicae, além de causarem danos diretos a plantas de importância econômica, também são importantes transmissores de fitoviroses, acarretando grandes perdas econômicas. Os constituintes químicos dos óleos essenciais têm sido cada vez mais estudados, pois apresentam uma ampla gama de atividades biológicas. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a atividade inseticida do óleo essencial de capim-citronela, Cymbopogon winterianus, sobre F. schultzei e M. persicae. O óleo essencial foi obtido por hidrodestilação e a identificação dos seus componentes foi realizada por CG/DIC e CG/EM. Uma torre de Potter foi utilizada para pulverizar os insetos com óleo essencial. Os componentes majoritários encontrados são geraniol (28,62%, citronelal (23,62% e citronelol (17,10%. O óleo essencial de C. winterianus a 1% (m v-1 causa mortalidade de F

  1. [Determination of elements in the leaves of Prunus mongolica by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shu-Fang; Shi, Song-Li; Wang, Deng-Kui; Cheng, Xiang-Hui; Liu, Zong-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    For determination of elements in the leaves of Prunus mongolica, the samples were digested by nitric acid-perchloric. The contents of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Al, Sr, Sn and Pb in the leaves of Prunus mongolica were determined by ICP-AES, at the same time a blank experiment was carried out. The results showed that the recovery rate of the ten elements was between 93% and 110%, and the relative standard deviation was between 0.33% and 2.94%. This method is fast, simple and accurate.

  2. Prunasin hydrolases during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch, Jonas; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-04-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal studies on sections of tegument, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo showed that the localization of the PH proteins is dependent on the stage of fruit development, shifting between apoplast and symplast in opposite patterns in sweet and bitter cultivars. Two different PH genes, Ph691 and Ph692, have been identified in a sweet and a bitter almond cultivar. Both cDNAs are 86% identical on the nucleotide level, and their encoded proteins are 79% identical to each other. In addition, Ph691 and Ph692 display 92% and 86% nucleotide identity to Ph1 from black cherry (Prunus serotina). Both proteins were predicted to contain an amino-terminal signal peptide, with the size of 26 amino acid residues for PH691 and 22 residues for PH692. The PH activity and the localization of the respective proteins in vivo differ between cultivars. This implies that there might be different concentrations of prunasin available in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet.

  3. Light conditions affect the performance of Yponomeuta evonymellus on its native host Prunus padus and the alien Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukowski, A; Giertych, M J; Walczak, U; Baraniak, E; Karolewski, P

    2017-04-01

    The bird cherry ermine moth, Yponomeuta evonymellus L., is considered an obligatory monophagous insect pest that feeds only on native European Prunus padus L. In recent years, however, increased larval feeding on alien P. serotina Ehrh. has been observed. In both species, general defoliation is extensive for shade grown trees, whereas it is high in P. padus, but very low in P. serotina, when trees are grown in full light conditions. The aim of the present study was to identify how the plant host species and light conditions affect the performance of Y. evonymellus. The influence of host species and light condition on their growth and development, characterized by the parameters of pupation, adult eclosion, body mass, potential fecundity, and wing size, was measured in a 2 × 2 experimental design (two light treatments, two hosts). In comparison with high light (HL) conditions, a greater percentage of pupation and a longer period and less dynamic adult emerge was observed under low light (LL) conditions. The effect of host species on these parameters was not significant. In contrast, mass, fecundity and all of the studied wing parameters were higher in larvae that grazed on P. padus than on P. serotina. Similarly the same parameters were also higher on shrubs in HL as compared with those grown under LL conditions. In general, light conditions, rather than plant species, were more often and to a greater extent, responsible for differences in the observed parameters of insect development and potential fecundity.

  4. Dynamics of membrane potential variation and gene expression induced by Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Bricchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biotic stress induced by various herbivores and pathogens invokes plant responses involving different defense mechanisms. However, we do not know whether different biotic stresses share a common response or which signaling pathways are involved in responses to different biotic stresses. We investigated the common and specific responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to three biotic stress agents: Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used electrophysiology to determine the plasma membrane potential (V(m and we performed a gene microarray transcriptome analysis on Arabidopsis upon either herbivory or bacterial infection. V(m depolarization was induced by insect attack; however, the response was much more rapid to S. littoralis (30 min -2 h than to M. persicae (4-6 h. M. persicae differentially regulated almost 10-fold more genes than by S. littoralis with an opposite regulation. M. persicae modulated genes involved in flavonoid, fatty acid, hormone, drug transport and chitin metabolism. S. littoralis regulated responses to heat, transcription and ion transport. The latest Vm depolarization (16 h was found for P. syringae. The pathogen regulated responses to salicylate, jasmonate and to microorganisms. Despite this late response, the number of genes differentially regulated by P. syringae was closer to those regulated by S. littoralis than by M. persicae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Arabidopsis plasma membranes respond with a V(m depolarization at times depending on the nature of biotic attack which allow setting a time point for comparative genome-wide analysis. A clear relationship between V(m depolarization and gene expression was found. At V(m depolarization timing, M. persicae regulates a wider array of Arabidopsis genes with a clear and distinct regulation than S. littoralis. An almost completely opposite regulation was observed between the aphid and the pathogen

  5. Benzyl isothiocyanate, a major component from the roots of Salvadora persica is highly active against Gram-negative bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abier Sofrata

    Full Text Available Plants produce a number of antimicrobial substances and the roots of the shrub Salvadora persica have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activity. Sticks from the roots of S. persica, Miswak sticks, have been used for centuries as a traditional method of cleaning teeth. Diverging reports on the chemical nature and antimicrobial repertoire of the chewing sticks from S. persica led us to explore its antibacterial properties against a panel of pathogenic or commensal bacteria and to identify the antibacterial component/s by methodical chemical characterization. S. persica root essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and solid-phase microextraction was used to sample volatiles released from fresh root. The active compound was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antibacterial assays. The antibacterial compound was isolated using medium-pressure liquid chromatography. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize the effect on bacterial cells. The main antibacterial component of both S. persica root extracts and volatiles was benzyl isothiocyanate. Root extracts as well as commercial synthetic benzyl isothiocyanate exhibited rapid and strong bactericidal effect against oral pathogens involved in periodontal disease as well as against other Gram-negative bacteria, while Gram-positive bacteria mainly displayed growth inhibition or remained unaffected. The short exposure needed to obtain bactericidal effect implies that the chewing sticks and the essential oil may have a specific role in treatment of periodontal disease in reducing Gram-negative periodontal pathogens. Our results indicate the need for further investigation into the mechanism of the specific killing of Gram-negative bacteria by S. persica root stick extracts and its active component benzyl isothiocyanate.

  6. The Issues of Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca L. Micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kudělková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four modified mediums for apricot multiplication was observed in this study. A total number of 1864 single nodes of 20 Prunus armeniaca L.varieties were established. Explants surface was disinfected with 0.2 % mercuric chloride for 5 minutes. MS (1962 medium with 0.5 mg.l−1 BA, 0.01 mg.l−1 NAA and 0.5 mg.l−1 GA3 was used as a medium for primary culture. ‘Velkopavlovická’, ‘Bergeron’, genotype 1128 and genotype LE 2927 Š9 were successfully transferred to aseptic conditions and multiplied. Modified MS medium (1962, DKW/Juglans medium, Quoirin, Lepoivre (1977 medium and Marino et al. (1991 medium were used for multiplication. Modified MS medium and modified DKW/Juglans medium were not suitable for apricot multiplication at all and explants did not grow. The best results were observed in the case of Quoirin, Lepoivre (1977 medium with 0.4 mg.l−1 BA and 0.01 mg.l−1 NAA. Young plants multiplied well, were fresh and vital and no damage was observed. The highest number of new shoots was observed in the case of Marino et al. (1991 medium. The average growth of new shoots after the last passaging was 600 %, rate 7.33 (Velkopavlovická; 566 %, rate 7.0 (Bergeron; 475 %, rate 6.25 (1128 and 483 %, rate 6.33 (LE 2927 Š9. However, new shoots in clusters were too dense and stunted and this medium is not recommended for apricot multiplication.

  7. Prunus serotina Amygdalin Hydrolase and Prunasin Hydrolase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun Ping; Swain, Elisabeth; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seed homogenates, amygdalin hydrolase (AH) participates with prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitrile lyase in the sequential degradation of (R)-amygdalin to HCN, benzaldehyde, and glucose. Four isozymes of AH (designated AH I, I′, II, II′) were purified from mature cherry seeds by concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and chromatofocusing. All isozymes were monomeric glycoproteins with native molecular masses of 52 kD. They showed similar kinetic properties (pH optima, Km, Vmax) but differed in their isoelectric points and N-terminal amino acid sequences. Analytical isoelectric focusing revealed the presence of subisozymes of each isozyme. The relative abundance of these isozymes and/or subisozymes varied from seed to seed. Three isozymes of PH (designated PH I, IIa, and IIb) were purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity, ion-exchange, and hydroxyapatite chromatography and by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PH I and PH IIb are 68-kD monomeric glycoproteins, whereas PH IIa is dimeric (140 kD). The N-terminal sequences of all PH and AH isozymes showed considerable similarity. Polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against deglycosylated AH I or a mixture of the three deglycosylated PH isozymes were not monospecific as judged by immunoblotting analysis, but also cross-reacted with the opposing glucosidase. Monospecific antisera deemed suitable for immunocytochemistry and screening of expression libraries were obtained by affinity chromatography. Each antiserum recognized all known isozymes of the specific glucosidase used as antigen. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 PMID:16652959

  8. Insecticide Resistance Mechanisms in the Green Peach Aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) I: A Transcriptomic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andrea X.; Jander, Georg; Samaniego, Horacio; Ramsey, John S; Figueroa, Christian C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance is one of the best examples of rapid micro-evolution found in nature. Since the development of the first synthetic insecticide in 1939, humans have invested considerable effort to stay ahead of resistance phenotypes that repeatedly develop in insects. Aphids are a group of insects that have become global pests in agriculture and frequently exhibit insecticide resistance. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, has developed resistance to at least seventy different synthetic compounds, and different insecticide resistance mechanisms have been reported worldwide. Methodology/Principal Findings To further characterize this resistance, we analyzed genome-wide transcriptional responses in three genotypes of M. persicae, each exhibiting different resistance mechanisms, in response to an anti-cholinesterase insecticide. The sensitive genotype (exhibiting no resistance mechanism) responded to the insecticide by up-regulating 183 genes primarily ones related to energy metabolism, detoxifying enzymes, proteins of extracellular transport, peptidases and cuticular proteins. The second genotype (resistant through a kdr sodium channel mutation), up-regulated 17 genes coding for detoxifying enzymes, peptidase and cuticular proteins. Finally, a multiply resistant genotype (carrying kdr and a modified acetylcholinesterase), up-regulated only 7 genes, appears not to require induced insecticide detoxification, and instead down-regulated many genes. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests strongly that insecticide resistance in M. persicae is more complex that has been described, with the participation of a broad array of resistance mechanisms. The sensitive genotype exhibited the highest transcriptional plasticity, accounting for the wide range of potential adaptations to insecticides that this species can evolve. In contrast, the multiply resistant genotype exhibited a low transcriptional plasticity, even for the expression of genes encoding

  9. Insecticide Resistance Mechanisms in the Green Peach Aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) II: Costs and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andrea X.; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D.; Luna-Rudloff, Manuela; Figueroa, Christian C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Among herbivorous insects that have exploited agro-ecosystems, the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae, is recognized as one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Uses over 400 plant species and has evolved different insecticides resistance mechanisms. As M. persicae feeds upon a huge diversity of hosts, it has been exposed to a wide variety of plant allelochemicals, which probably have promoted a wide range of detoxification systems. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work we (i) evaluated whether insecticide resistance mutations (IRM) in M. persicae can give an advantage in terms of reproductive fitness when aphids face two hosts, pepper (Capsicum annuum) a suitable host and radish (Raphanus sativus) the unfavorable host and (ii) examined the transcriptional expression of six genes that are known to be up-regulated in response to insecticides. Our results show a significant interaction between host and IRM on the intrinsic rate of increase (rm). Susceptible genotypes (not carrying insensitivity mutations) had a higher rm on pepper, and the transcriptional levels of five genes increased on radish. The rm relationship was reversed on the unfavorable host; genotypes with multiple IRM exhibited higher rm, without altering the transcriptional levels of the studied genes. Genotypes with one IRM kept a similar rm on both hosts, but they increased the transcriptional levels of two genes. Conclusions/Significance Although we have studied only nine genotypes, overall our results are in agreement with the general idea that allelochemical detoxification systems could constitute a pre-adaptation for the development of insecticide resistance. Genotypes carrying IRM exhibited a higher rm than susceptible genotypes on radish, the more unfavorable host. Susceptible genotypes should be able to tolerate the defended host by up-regulating some metabolic genes that are also responding to insecticides. Hence, our results suggest that the trade-off among

  10. Insecticide resistance mechanisms in the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae I: A transcriptomic survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea X Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance is one of the best examples of rapid micro-evolution found in nature. Since the development of the first synthetic insecticide in 1939, humans have invested considerable effort to stay ahead of resistance phenotypes that repeatedly develop in insects. Aphids are a group of insects that have become global pests in agriculture and frequently exhibit insecticide resistance. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, has developed resistance to at least seventy different synthetic compounds, and different insecticide resistance mechanisms have been reported worldwide. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further characterize this resistance, we analyzed genome-wide transcriptional responses in three genotypes of M. persicae, each exhibiting different resistance mechanisms, in response to an anti-cholinesterase insecticide. The sensitive genotype (exhibiting no resistance mechanism responded to the insecticide by up-regulating 183 genes primarily ones related to energy metabolism, detoxifying enzymes, proteins of extracellular transport, peptidases and cuticular proteins. The second genotype (resistant through a kdr sodium channel mutation, up-regulated 17 genes coding for detoxifying enzymes, peptidase and cuticular proteins. Finally, a multiply resistant genotype (carrying kdr and a modified acetylcholinesterase, up-regulated only 7 genes, appears not to require induced insecticide detoxification, and instead down-regulated many genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests strongly that insecticide resistance in M. persicae is more complex that has been described, with the participation of a broad array of resistance mechanisms. The sensitive genotype exhibited the highest transcriptional plasticity, accounting for the wide range of potential adaptations to insecticides that this species can evolve. In contrast, the multiply resistant genotype exhibited a low transcriptional plasticity, even for the expression

  11. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt O. Reinhart; Alejandro Royo; Wim H. Van der Putten; Keith Clay

    2005-01-01

    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments, soil sterilization was used to test the...

  12. Agrobacterium-medicated transformation of mature Prunus serotina (black cherry) and regeneration of trangenic shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was developed for in vitro leaf explants of an elite, mature Prunus serotina tree. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring an RNAi plasmid with the black cherry AGAMOUS (AG) gene was used. Bacteria were induced...

  13. Molecular mechanisms regulating flowering time in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)