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Sample records for prunus persica flesh

  1. Carotenoids, Phenolic Profile, Mineral Content and Antioxidant Properties in Flesh and Peel of Prunus persica Fruits during Two Maturation Stages.

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    Dabbou, Samia; Maatallah, Samira; Castagna, Antonella; Guizani, Monia; Sghaeir, Wala; Hajlaoui, Hichem; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    Carotenoids and phenolic profile, antioxidant activity as well as concentrations of selected macronutrients (K, N, Mg, Ca and Na) and micronutrients (Zn, Cu and Mn) in flesh and peel of peach fruit were recorded at two harvest dates. Predominant mineral was potassium, followed by calcium, magnesium and sodium. The concentration of most micronutrients was greater in the peel than in the flesh especially in early season. The concentration of most elements in flesh and peel decreased during fruit maturation. Total carotenoids content varied with respect to the cultivar. β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene were the major carotenoids in both tissues and flesh contain the lowest amounts. Neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, rutin, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, were detected in both peel and flesh, with chlorogenic acid and catechin being the predominant components. Peel extracts showed markedly higher antioxidant activities, when estimated by ABTS or DPPH assays, than the flesh counterparts, consistent with the observed higher phenolic content. Overall, total phenolics levels increased at full ripening stage in both peel and flesh. The results found herein provide important data on carotenoids, phenolic and macro- and micronutrient changes during fruit growth, and emphases peach fruit as a potential functional food.

  2. The contribution of stored malate and citrate to the substrate requirements of metabolism of ripening peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) flesh is negligible. Implications for the occurrence of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and gluconeogenesis.

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    Famiani, Franco; Farinelli, Daniela; Moscatello, Stefano; Battistelli, Alberto; Leegood, Richard C; Walker, Robert P

    2016-04-01

    The first aim of this study was to determine the contribution of stored malate and citrate to the substrate requirements of metabolism in the ripening flesh of the peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivar Adriatica. In the flesh, stored malate accumulated before ripening could contribute little or nothing to the net substrate requirements of metabolism. This was because there was synthesis and not dissimilation of malate throughout ripening. Stored citrate could potentially contribute a very small amount (about 5.8%) of the substrate required by metabolism when the whole ripening period was considered, and a maximum of about 7.5% over the latter part of ripening. The second aim of this study was to investigate why phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) an enzyme utilised in gluconeogenesis from malate and citrate is present in peach flesh. The occurrence and localisation of enzymes utilised in the metabolism of malate, citrate and amino acids were determined in peach flesh throughout its development. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (essential for the synthesis of malate and citrate) was present in the same cells and at the same time as PEPCK and NADP-malic enzyme (both utilised in the dissimilation of malate and citrate). A hypothesis is presented to explain the presence of these enzymes and to account for the likely occurrence of gluconeogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular characterization of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

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    Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is an important medicinal fruit with immense health benefits and antioxidant activity. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as DNA fingerprinting tools for the identification and characterization of peach germplasm in the United States. Eleven microsatel...

  4. Endogenous hormones response to cytokinins with regard to organogenesis in explants of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis).

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    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-11-01

    Organogenesis in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and peach rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis) has been achieved and the action of the regeneration medium on 7 phytohormones, zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA), has been studied using High performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Three scion peach cultivars, 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach × almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677' were cultured in two different media, Murashige and Skoog supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) (regeneration medium) and without PGRs (control medium), in order to study the effects of the media and/or genotypes in the endogenous hormones content and their role in organogenesis. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach × almond rootstocks and showed a lower content of Z, IAA, ABA, ACC and JA. Only Z, ZR and IAA were affected by the action of the culture media. This study shows which hormones are external PGRs-dependent and what is the weight of the genotype and hormones in peach organogenesis that provide an avenue to manipulate in vitro organogenesis in peach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. A Rapid and Efficient Method for Purifying High Quality Total RNA from Peaches (Prunus persica for Functional Genomics Analyses

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    LEE MEISEL

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus persica has been proposed as a genomic model for deciduous trees and the Rosaceae family. Optimized protocols for RNA isolation are necessary to further advance studies in this model species such that functional genomics analyses may be performed. Here we present an optimized protocol to rapidly and efficiently purify high quality total RNA from peach fruits (Prunus persica. Isolating high-quality RNA from fruit tissue is often difficult due to large quantities of polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds that accumulate in this tissue and co-purify with the RNA. Here we demonstrate that a modified version of the method used to isolate RNA from pine trees and the woody plant Cinnamomun tenuipilum is ideal for isolating high quality RNA from the fruits of Prunus persica. This RNA may be used for many functional genomic based experiments such as RT-PCR and the construction of large-insert cDNA libraries.

  6. Accelerated solvent extraction of carotenoids from: Tunisian Kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

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    Zaghdoudi, Khalil; Pontvianne, Steve; Framboisier, Xavier; Achard, Mathilde; Kudaibergenova, Rabiga; Ayadi-Trabelsi, Malika; Kalthoum-Cherif, Jamila; Vanderesse, Régis; Frochot, Céline; Guiavarc'h, Yann

    2015-10-01

    Extraction of carotenoids from biological matrices and quantifications remains a difficult task. Accelerated solvent extraction was used as an efficient extraction process for carotenoids extraction from three fruits cultivated in Tunisia: kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Based on a design of experiment (DoE) approach, and using a binary solvent consisting of methanol and tetrahydrofuran, we could identify the best extraction conditions as being 40°C, 20:80 (v:v) methanol/tetrahydrofuran and 5 min of extraction time. Surprisingly and likely due to the high extraction pressure used (103 bars), these conditions appeared to be the best ones both for extracting xanthophylls such as lutein, zeaxanthin or β-cryptoxanthin and carotenes such as β-carotene, which present quite different polarities. Twelve surface responses were generated for lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in kaki, peach and apricot. Further LC-MS analysis allowed comparisons in carotenoids profiles between the fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transcriptional Responses in root and leaf of Prunus persica Under Drought Stress Using RNA Sequencing

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    Najla Ksouri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prunus persica L. Batch, or peach, is one of the most important crops and it is widely established in irrigated arid and semi-arid regions. However, due to variations in the climate and the increased aridity, drought has become a major constraint, causing crop losses worldwide. The use of drought-tolerant rootstocks in modern fruit production appears to be a useful method of alleviating water deficit problems. However, the transcriptomic variation and the major molecular mechanisms that underlie the adaptation of drought-tolerant rootstocks to water shortage remain unclear. Hence, in this study, high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq was performed to assess the transcriptomic changes and the key genes involved in the response to drought in root tissues (GF677 rootstock and leaf tissues (graft, var. Catherina subjected to 16 days of drought stress. In total, 12 RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced. This generated a total of 315M raw reads from both tissues, which allowed the assembly of 22,079 and 17,854 genes associated with the root and leaf tissues, respectively. Subsets of 500 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in roots and 236 in leaves were identified and functionally annotated with 56 gene ontology (GO terms and 99 metabolic pathways, which were mostly associated with aminobenzoate degradation and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The GO analysis highlighted the biological functions that were exclusive to the root tissue, such as locomotion, hormone metabolic process, and detection of stimulus, indicating the stress-buffering role of the GF677 rootstock. Furthermore, the complex regulatory network involved in the drought response was revealed, involving proteins that are associated with signaling transduction, transcription and hormone regulation, redox homeostasis, and frontline barriers. We identified two poorly characterized genes in P. persica: growth-regulating factor 5 (GRF5, which may be involved in cellular expansion, and AtHB12

  8. Pegamento e crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas Tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings

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    Newton Alex Mayer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o pegamento e o crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas. Realizaram-se dois experimentos, adotando-se a enxertia de borbulhia por escudo (março e borbulhia por escudo modificada (julho. Com os resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que é viável a realização da enxertia do 'Aurora-1' nos Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e no 'Okinawa', tanto em março quanto em julho, com as metodologias utilizadas. O 'Okinawa' induz crescimento mais rápido ao enxerto, de forma que o ponto máximo do comprimento é atingido em tempo menor.This study aimed to evaluate the tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings. Two experiments were carried out, being adopted the chip budding (March and chip budding modified (July. The results showed that accomplishment of 'Aurora-1' peach bud on mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 and 'Okinawa' is viable, in both periods, with the methodologies used. The 'Okinawa' induces faster growth to the bud and the maximum length point is reached in a short time.

  9. Genome wide identification of chilling responsive microRNAs in Prunus persica

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    Barakat Abdelali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNAs (sRNAs approximately 21 nucleotides in length that negatively control gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. Within this context, miRNAs and siRNAs are coming to the forefront as molecular mediators of gene regulation in plant responses to annual temperature cycling and cold stress. For this reason, we chose to identify and characterize the conserved and non-conserved miRNA component of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch focusing our efforts on both the recently released whole genome sequence of peach and sRNA transcriptome sequences from two tissues representing non-dormant leaves and dormant leaf buds. Conserved and non-conserved miRNAs, and their targets were identified. These sRNA resources were used to identify cold-responsive miRNAs whose gene targets co-localize with previously described QTLs for chilling requirement (CR. Results Analysis of 21 million peach sRNA reads allowed us to identify 157 and 230 conserved and non-conserved miRNA sequences. Among the non-conserved miRNAs, we identified 205 that seem to be specific to peach. Comparative genome analysis between peach and Arabidopsis showed that conserved miRNA families, with the exception of miR5021, are similar in size. Sixteen of these conserved miRNA families are deeply rooted in land plant phylogeny as they are present in mosses and/or lycophytes. Within the other conserved miRNA families, five families (miR1446, miR473, miR479, miR3629, and miR3627 were reported only in tree species (Populustrichocarpa, Citrus trifolia, and Prunus persica. Expression analysis identified several up-regulated or down-regulated miRNAs in winter buds versus young leaves. A search of the peach proteome allowed the prediction of target genes for most of the conserved miRNAs and a large fraction of non-conserved miRNAs. A fraction of predicted targets in peach have not been previously reported in other

  10. Molecular cloning, identification, and chromosomal localization of two MADS box genes in peach (Prunus persica).

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    Zhang, Lin; Xu, Yong; Ma, Rongcai

    2008-06-01

    MADS box proteins play an important role in floral development. To find genes involved in the floral transition of Prunus species, cDNAs for two MADS box genes, PpMADS1 and PpMADS10, were cloned using degenerate primers and 5'- and 3'-RACE based on the sequence database of P. persica and P. dulcis. The full length of PpMADS1 cDNA is 1,071 bp containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 717 bp and coding for a polypeptide of 238 amino acid residues. The full length of PpMADS10 cDNA is 937 bp containing an ORF of 633 bp and coding for a polypeptide of 210 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PpMADS1 and PpMADS10 were highly homologous to genes AP1 and PI in Arabidopsis, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PpMADS1 belongs to the euAP1 clade of class A, and PpMADS10 is a member of GLO/PI clade of class B. RT-PCR analysis showed that PpMADS1 was expressed in sepal, petal, carpel, and fruit, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1; PpMADS10 was expressed in petal and stamen, which shared the same expression pattern as PI. Using selective mapping strategy, PpMADS1 was assigned onto the Bin1:50 on the G1 linkage group between the markers MCO44 and TSA2, and PpMADS10 onto the Bin1:73 on the same linkage group between the markers Lap-1 and FGA8. Our results provided the basis for further dissection of the two MADS box gene function.

  11. Caracterización de cultivares de duraznero (Prunus persica (L. Batsch. por resistencia a heladas

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    Javier Emilio Chaar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Las heladas primaverales son una de las principales limitantes de la producción de frutales de clima templado. Dentro de una misma especie existe variabilidad en resistencia frente al daño en órganos florales ocasionado por temperaturas bajo cero durante la salida del reposo invernal. En cinco cultivares de duraznero (Prunus persica (L. Batsch. y uno de nectarino se evaluó el daño ocasionado por heladas y se determinaron la fecha de plena floración y la densidad de floración. Adicionalmente se determinó la temperatura letal media (TL50 de las yemas florales en el estado de flor abierta, mediante descensos térmicos controlados en laboratorio. Los cultivares (cv de duraznero Maria Bianca y Summer Pearl presentaron las mayores densidades de flores sanas por cm de ramo, luego de la ocurrencia de temperaturas bajo cero en campo. La resistencia a heladas en campo se relacionó principalmente con la elevada densidad de floración, en combinación, en algunos casos, con floración tardía. La floración tardía por sí sola no resultó una característica de resistencia; por tanto, para la elección de cultivares de duraznero con menor riesgo de daño por temperaturas bajo cero es importante tener en cuenta más de una variable relacionada con los órganos reproductivos

  12. A review on the complexity of insect-plant interactions under varying levels of resources and host resistance: the case of Myzus persicae-Prunus persica

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    Verdugo, JA.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insect-plant interactions are affected directly or indirectly by stress factors. The effect of environmental resource availability on insect-plant interactions is here reviewed. Subsequently, the analysis focuses on aphid-host plant interactions, particularly in the system composed by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae and its primary host plant Prunus persica. Literature. Plant defenses arise in two ways: resistance and tolerance, both are affected by abiotic factors. The information gathered from studies (n = 29 on plant-aphid interactions addressing the reduction in water availability on plant resistance, showed that in 41,4% of the studies, drought stress elicits lower resistance, while 34.5%, 20.1% and 3.4%, showed higher, no change and conditional effects on plant resistance, respectively. Conclusions. Water stress elicits mixed effects on plant resistance to aphids. However, the literature review also suggests that cultural practices play a role in the fate of the peach-aphid interactions, whereas the development of predictive models aimed to assist crop-pest management systems still requires more basic information. Aphid responses to plant defenses under stressed conditions are still largely unexplored.

  13. Investigation of the aroma of commercial peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) types by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and sensory analysis

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    Cardoso Ferreira Pinhancos de Bianchi, Tiago; Weesepoel, Yannick; Koot, Alex; Iglesias, Ignasi; Eduardo, Iban; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Guerrero, Luis; Hortós, Maria; Ruth, van Saskia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the aroma and sensory profiles of various types of peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch.). Forty-three commercial cultivars comprising peaches, flat peaches, nectarines, and canning peaches (pavías) were grown over two consecutive harvest years. Fruits were

  14. Prunus fruit juices

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    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The juice drinks obtained from Prunus fruit species, apricot (Prunus armeniaca), cherry (sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus)), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica), are gaining increasing interest as a convenient alternative to fresh fruits. The conventional

  15. Characterization of cytokinin signaling and homeostasis gene families in two hardwood tree species: Populus trichocarpa and Prunus persica.

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    Immanen, Juha; Nieminen, Kaisa; Duchens Silva, Héctor; Rodríguez Rojas, Fernanda; Meisel, Lee A; Silva, Herman; Albert, Victor A; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Helariutta, Ykä

    2013-12-16

    Through the diversity of cytokinin regulated processes, this phytohormone has a profound impact on plant growth and development. Cytokinin signaling is involved in the control of apical and lateral meristem activity, branching pattern of the shoot, and leaf senescence. These processes influence several traits, including the stem diameter, shoot architecture, and perennial life cycle, which define the development of woody plants. To facilitate research about the role of cytokinin in regulation of woody plant development, we have identified genes associated with cytokinin signaling and homeostasis pathways from two hardwood tree species. Taking advantage of the sequenced black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and peach (Prunus persica) genomes, we have compiled a comprehensive list of genes involved in these pathways. We identified genes belonging to the six families of cytokinin oxidases (CKXs), isopentenyl transferases (IPTs), LONELY GUY genes (LOGs), two-component receptors, histidine containing phosphotransmitters (HPts), and response regulators (RRs). All together 85 Populus and 45 Prunus genes were identified, and compared to their Arabidopsis orthologs through phylogenetic analyses. In general, when compared to Arabidopsis, differences in gene family structure were often seen in only one of the two tree species. However, one class of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, the CKI1-like family of two-component histidine kinases, was larger in both Populus and Prunus than in Arabidopsis.

  16. Mites fluctuation population on peach tree (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and in associated plants

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    Carla Rosana Eichelberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch in Rio Grande do Sul, little is known about mites fluctuation population considered important to this crop. The objective of this study was to know the population diversity and fluctuation of mite species associated with Premier and Eldorado varieties in Roca Sales and Venâncio Aires counties, Rio Grande do Sul. The study was conducted from July 2008 to June 2009 when 15 plants were randomly chosen in each area. The plants were divided in quadrants and from each one a branch was chosen from which three leaves were removed: one collected in the apical region, another in the medium and the other in the basal region, totalizing 180 leaves/area. Five of the most abundant associated plants were collected monthly in enough amounts for the screening under the stereoscopic microscope during an hour. A total of 1,124 mites were found belonging to 14 families and 28 species. Tetranychus ludeni Zacher, 1913, Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836 and Mononychellus planki (McGregor, 1950 were the most abundant phytophagous mites, whereas Typhlodromalus aripo Deleon, 1967 and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 the most common predatory mites. The period of one hour under stereoscopic microscope was enough to get a representative sample. In both places evaluated the ecologic indices were low, but little higherin Premier (H' 0.56; EqJ: 0.43 when compared to Eldorado (H' 0.53; EqJ 0.40. In Premier constant species were not observed and accessory only Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939, T. ludeni and T. aripo. Higher abundance was observed in December and January and bigger amount in April. Already in Eldorado, T. ludeni and P. ulmi were constants. Greater abundance was observed in November and December, whereas grater richness in December and January. In both orchards were not found mites in buds. Tetranychus ludeni is the most abundant phytophagous mites with outbreak population in November, December and

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis Suggests the Relaxed Purifying Selection Affect the Evolution of WOX Genes in Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Fragaria vesca

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    Yunpeng Cao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX family is one of the largest group of transcription factors (TFs specifically found in plant kingdom. WOX TFs play an important role in plant development processes and evolutionary novelties. Although the roles of WOXs in Arabidopsis and rice have been well-studied, however, little are known about the relationships among the main clades in the molecular evolution of these genes in Rosaceae. Here, we carried out a genome-wide analysis and identified 14, 10, 10, and 9 of WOX genes from four Rosaceae species (Fragaria vesca, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Pyrus bretschneideri, respectively. According to evolutionary analysis, as well as amino acid sequences of their homodomains, these genes were divided into three clades with nine subgroups. Furthermore, due to the conserved structural patterns among these WOX genes, it was proposed that there should exist some highly conserved regions of microsynteny in the four Rosaceae species. Moreover, most of WOX gene pairs were presented with the conserved orientation among syntenic genome regions. In addition, according to substitution models analysis using PMAL software, no significant positive selection was detected, but type I functional divergence was identified among certain amino acids in WOX protein. These results revealed that the relaxed purifying selection might be the main driving force during the evolution of WOX genes in the tested Rosaceae species. Our result will be useful for further precise research on evolution of the WOX genes in family Rosaceae.

  18. Green synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets with use of Prunus persica for supercapacitor applications

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    Atchudan, Raji, E-mail: atchudanr@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Perumal, Suguna [Department of Applied Chemistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • N-GCSs was synthesized from the unripe Prunus persica by direct hydrothermal method. • The resulting N-GCSs-2 exhibit an excellent graphitization with 9.33% of nitrogen. • N-GCSs-2 provide high C{sub s} of 176 F g{sup −1} at current density of 0.1 A g{sup −1} in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. • N-GCSs-2 have high capacitance retention and 20% capacity growth after 2000 cycles. • First time, N-GCSs resulted from peach via green route for flexible supercapacitors. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets (N-GCSs) were prepared from the extract of unripe Prunus persica fruit by a direct hydrothermal method. The synthesized N-GCSs were examined by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HRTEM showed that the synthesized carbon sheets were graphitic with lattice fringes and an inter-layer distance of 0.36 nm. Doping with the nitrogen moiety present over the synthesized GCSs was confirmed by XPS, FT-IR spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping. The fruit extract associated with hydrothermal-carbonization method is economical and eco-friendly with a single step process. The resulting carbon sheets could be modified and are promising candidates for nano-electronic applications, including supercapacitors. The synthesized N-GCSs-2 provided a high specific capacitance of 176 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.1 A g{sup −1}. This electrode material has excellent cyclic stability, even after 2000 cycles of charge-discharge at a current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1}.

  19. Towards further understanding on the antioxidative activities of Prunus persica fruit: A comparative study with four different fractions

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    Dhingra, Naveen; Sharma, Rajesh; Kar, Anand

    2014-11-01

    In the present study we have evaluated the antioxidant activities of different fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions) of Prunus persica fruit. For extraction simple warring blender method was employed and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were correlated with different antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H2O2 scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, iron chelating and their reducing power properties). Different in vitro antioxidant studies showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions had the maximum activities that were well correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Maximum yield (25.14 ± 2.2%) was obtained in its aqueous fraction. Both ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed significant inhibitory effects on different antioxidant activities. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between total antioxidant activities and with total phenolic as well as total flavonoid contents. It appears that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. persica may serve as new potential sources of natural antioxidants and could be of therapeutic use in treating several diseases.

  20. Self-compatible peach (Prunus persica) has mutant versions of the S haplotypes found in self-incompatible Prunus species.

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    Tao, Ryutaro; Watari, Akiko; Hanada, Toshio; Habu, Tsuyoshi; Yaegaki, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Masami; Yamane, Hisayo

    2007-01-01

    This study demonstrates that self-compatible (SC) peach has mutant versions of S haplotypes that are present in self-incompatible (SI) Prunus species. All three peach S haplotypes, S (1), S (2), and S (2m), found in this study encode mutated pollen determinants, SFB, while only S (2m) has a mutation that affects the function of the pistil determinant S-RNase. A cysteine residue in the C5 domain of the S (2m)-RNase is substituted by a tyrosine residue, thereby reducing RNase stability. The peach SFB mutations are similar to the SFB mutations found in SC haplotypes of sweet cherry (P. avium) and Japanese apricot (P. mume). SFB (1) of the S (1) haplotype, a mutant version of almond (P. dulcis) S (k) haplotype, encodes truncated SFB due to a 155 bp insertion. SFB (2) of the S (2) and S (2m) haplotypes, both of which are mutant versions of the S (a) haplotype in Japanese plum (P. salicina), encodes a truncated SFB due to a 5 bp insertion. Thus, regardless of the functionality of the pistil determinant, all three peach S haplotypes are SC haplotypes. Our finding that peach has mutant versions of S haplotypes that function in almond and Japanese plum, which are phylogenetically close and remote species, respectively, to peach in the subfamily Prunoideae of the Roasaceae, provides insight into the SC/SI evolution in Prunus. We discuss the significance of SC pollen part mutation in peach with special reference to possible differences in the SI mechanisms between Prunus and Solanaceae.

  1. UTILIZACION DE ISOENZIMAS DE EXTRACTOS DE HOJAS EN LA CARACTERIZACION DE CULTIVARES DE DURAZNERO (Prunus persica (L Batsch THE USE OF ISOZYME LEAF EXTRACTS IN THE CHARACTERIZATION OF PEACH CULTIVARS (Prunus persica L Batsch

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    HECTOR ABEL ALTUBE

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available La caracterización de cultivares de duraznero (Prunus persica (L Batsch se hace por medio de la descripción de caracteres agronómicos y morfológicos codificados por organizaciones internacionales, los cuales están fuertemente influenciados por el ambiente. Se han buscado métodos alternativos de caracterización y las isoenzimas han sido utilizadas por su independencia de las condiciones del ambiente, además de identificar individuos en etapas tempranas de su desarrollo. El objetivo del presente estudio es caracterizar cultivares de duraznero mediante el análisis isoenzimático de catecol oxidasas, fosfatasas ácidas, esterazas y peroxidazos en extractos de hojas. Los cultivares de duraznero analizados presentaron bajo polimorfismo isoenzimático, las esterazas caracterizaron diez cultivares, las catecol oxidasas un cultivar agrupándose el resto en cinco modelos, las fosfatasas ácidas caracterizaron dos cultivares agrupándose los otros en siete modelos y las peroxidazos formaron tres grupos. Ello puede explicarse ya que el duraznero es una especie autofértil y presenta una base genética muy reducida. Los evidentes límites discriminatorios de este tipo de análisis hacen que su aporte sea sólo complementario a los métodos de los caracteres agronómicos y morfológicos.Characterization of peach cultivars (Prunus persica (L Batsh was made by description of agronomical and morphological characters codified from international organizations, which are strongly affected by environmental conditions. Alternative methods of characterization have been searched, and isoenzymes have been used as independent of environmental conditions in addition to identify some individuals in early stages of development. The goal of this study is the peach cultivars characterization by isoenzymatic analysis of catecol oxidases, acid phosphatases, esterases and peroxidases within the leaf extracts. The peach cultivars analyzed have showed low isoenzymatic

  2. Chemical characterization and thermal properties of kernel oils from Tunisian peach and nectarine varieties of Prunus persica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamli, D.; Bootello, M.A.; Bouali, I.; Jouhri, S.; Boukhchina, S.; Martínez-Force, S.

    2017-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted to determine the fatty acids, triacylglycerol compositions and thermal properties of Tunisian kernel oils from the Prunus persica varieties, peach and nectarine, grown in two areas of Tunisia, Gabes and Morneg. Qualitatively, the fatty acids composition and triacylglycerol species were identical for all samples. Oleic acid (67.7-75.0%) was the main fatty acid, followed by linoleic (15.7-22.1%) and palmitic (5.6-6.3%) acids. The major triacylglycerol species were triolein, OOO (38.4-50.5%), followed by OOL (18.2-23.2%), POO (8.3-9.7%) and OLL (6.3-10.1%). The thermal profiles were highly influenced by the high content of triolein due to the importance of oleic acid in these oils. Moreover, the fatty acids distribution in TAG external positions was determined as corresponding to an α asymmetry coefficient that was between 0.10 and 0.12, indicating a high asymmetry in the distribution of saturated fatty acids in the position sn-1 and sn-3 in the TAG species of all samples. [es

  3. Chemical characterization and thermal properties of kernel oils from Tunisian peach and nectarine varieties of Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chamli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was conducted to determine the fatty acids, triacylglycerol compositions and thermal properties of Tunisian kernel oils from the Prunus persica varieties, peach and nectarine, grown in two areas of Tunisia, Gabes and Morneg. Qualitatively, the fatty acids composition and triacylglycerol species were identical for all samples. Oleic acid (67.7-75.0% was the main fatty acid, followed by linoleic (15.7-22.1% and palmitic (5.6-6.3% acids. The major triacylglycerol species were triolein, OOO (38.4-50.5%, followed by OOL (18.2-23.2%, POO (8.3-9.7% and OLL (6.3-10.1%. The thermal profiles were highly influenced by the high content of triolein due to the importance of oleic acid in these oils. Moreover, the fatty acids distribution in TAG external positions was determined as corresponding to an α asymmetry coefficient that was between 0.10 and 0.12, indicating a high asymmetry in the distribution of saturated fatty acids in the position sn-1 and sn-3 in the TAG species of all samples.

  4. Evaluación productiva, económica y social del agua de riego de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch) en Zacatecas (México)

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Ríos-Flores; Miriam Torres-Moreno; José Ruiz-Torres; Marco Antonio Torres-Moreno; Jesús Enrique Cantú-Brito

    2015-01-01

    La escasez de agua limita la agricultura, por lo que su uso debe ser más eficiente en la producción de alimentos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la productividad económica, física y social del agua del cultivo de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch), en la región del Distrito de Desarrollo Rural 183 —correspondiente a Fresnillo, Zacatecas— para el ciclo 2012; se desarrollaron modelos matemáticos para estimar la productividad y eficiencia del agua. En Zacatecas se cosecharon 817 ha d...

  5. Evaluation of different doses of gamma radiation on physicochemical characteristics of peach Prunus persica (cv. Chimarrita) minimally processed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ana Claudia S.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Perecin, Thalita Neme; Arthur, Valter; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Mansi, Debora N.; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G.

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the physico-chemical characteristics of peach Prunus persica (cv. Chimarrita) minimally processed, to increase the useful life of the fruit. The peaches were purchased at Ceasa of Campinas/SP and taken to the Laboratory of Radiobiology and Environment of CENA/USP (Piracicaba/SP), which were washed in tap water, peeled and cut into four pieces. The pieces of peach were dipped in sodium hypochlorite solution of 15 mL/L for 4 minutes and dry in a plastic support. Then it were placed in plastic containers (polypropylene). Subsequently, they were irradiated in a Cobalt-60 source, type Gammacell-220 (dose rate of 0,543 kGy/hour) with doses of: 0 (control), 1.0 and 2.0 kGy and stored at a temperature of 8 deg C. The experimental was developed entirely at random with 3 replicates for each treatment. For the statistic analysis was using the Tuckey test at 5% level of probability. Subsequently, analysis was carried out: color factors (l, a, b), pH, soluble solids (deg Brix), acidity and vitamin C. The tests were performed at 1, 3 and 6 days after irradiation. According to the results concluded that the analysis of color and acidity there was no significant difference between treatments, however, for the soluble solids (deg Brix), vitamin C and texture significant difference showing a decrease proportional to increasing doses of radiation and storage time. But the pH increased in relation to dose and during the analysis. (author)

  6. Mites fluctuation population on peach tree (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and in associated plants Flutuação populacional de ácaros na cultura do pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch e em plantas associadas

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    Carla Rosana Eichelberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch in Rio Grande do Sul, little is known about mites fluctuation population considered important to this crop. The objective of this study was to know the population diversity and fluctuation of mite species associated with Premier and Eldorado varieties in Roca Sales and Venâncio Aires counties, Rio Grande do Sul. The study was conducted from July 2008 to June 2009 when 15 plants were randomly chosen in each area. The plants were divided in quadrants and from each one a branch was chosen from which three leaves were removed: one collected in the apical region, another in the medium and the other in the basal region, totalizing 180 leaves/area. Five of the most abundant associated plants were collected monthly in enough amounts for the screening under the stereoscopic microscope during an hour. A total of 1,124 mites were found belonging to 14 families and 28 species. Tetranychus ludeni Zacher, 1913, Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836 and Mononychellus planki (McGregor, 1950 were the most abundant phytophagous mites, whereas Typhlodromalus aripo Deleon, 1967 and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 the most common predatory mites. The period of one hour under stereoscopic microscope was enough to get a representative sample. In both places evaluated the ecologic indices were low, but little higherin Premier (H' 0.56; EqJ: 0.43 when compared to Eldorado (H' 0.53; EqJ 0.40. In Premier constant species were not observed and accessory only Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939, T. ludeni and T. aripo. Higher abundance was observed in December and January and bigger amount in April. Already in Eldorado, T. ludeni and P. ulmi were constants. Greater abundance was observed in November and December, whereas grater richness in December and January. In both orchards were not found mites in buds. Tetranychus ludeni is the most abundant phytophagous mites with outbreak population in November, December and

  7. Effect of Pulsed Electric Fields on the Flavour Profile of Red-Fleshed Sweet Cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella

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    Kristine Ann Gualberto Sotelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella. The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS–SPME method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS. A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E-2-hexenal, (Z-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3 generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2. Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds.

  8. Effects of different products of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) from a variety developed in southern Brazil on oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in vitro and ex vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Somensi, Nauana; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Girardi, Carolina Saibro; Klafke, Karina; Rabelo, Thallita Kelly; Morrone, Maurilio Da Silva; Vizzotto, Márcia; Raseira, Maria do Carmo Bassols; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant, anti-glycation and anti-inflammatory activities of fresh and conserved peach fruits (Prunus persica L. Batsch) were compared. Fresh peach pulps, peels, preserve peach pulps and the preserve syrup were prepared at equal concentrations. Rat liver, kidney and brain cortex tissue slices were pre-incubated with peach samples, subjected to oxidative stress with FeSO4 and hydrogen peroxide. Fresh peach pulps and peel conferred higher protection against cytotoxicity and oxidative stress than preserve peach pulps in most tissues. Release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β was also significantly decreased by Fresh peach pulps and peel, followed by preserve peach pulps. Total phenolic determination and HPLC analysis of carotenoids showed that the content of secondary metabolites in Fresh peach pulps and peel is significantly higher than in preserve peach pulps, while the syrup had only small or trace amounts of these compounds. Fresh peach pulps and Peel demonstrated high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects preventing against induced damage. PMID:25320458

  9. Improvement of physico-chemical properties and phenolic compounds bioavailability by concentrating dietary fiber of peach (Prunus persica) juice by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Sarahí; Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Amaya-Llano, Silvia; Rodríguez-García, Mario E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to concentrate dietary fiber (DF) from peach (Prunus persica) juice by-product (PJBP), to improve its functional properties, and its polyphenols bioavailability. The dietary fiber concentrates (DFCs) were obtained from PJBP using water/ethanol treatments (100:0, 20:80, 50:50, 80:20, and 0:100, v/v) at 1:5 ratio (wet weight/solvent, w/v) for 5 and 20 min at 21 °C. All treatments concentrated condensed tannins, total and insoluble DF, with the highest content found with 100% H 2 O treatment. The major polyphenols of DFC were 4-O-caffeoylquinic, chlorogenic, and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acids. Water and oil retention capacity and maximum glucose diffusion rate were improved mainly with 100% H 2 O treatment. Healthy rats were fed with a standard diet supplemented with 8% of PJBP, DFC obtained with 100% H 2 O for 5 min, or DFC obtained with 20% EtOH for 5 min. Gastrointestinal digesta weight and viscosity were increased in animals supplemented with 100% H 2 O DFC. Moreover, the urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites, mainly glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, was increased with this treatment, indicating a greater bioavailability of PJBP polyphenols, which was associated with an increased dietary fiber porosity. Water treatment could be used to potentiate PJBP functional properties and polyphenols bioavailability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Investigation of the aroma of commercial peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) types by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Tiago; Weesepoel, Yannick; Koot, Alex; Iglesias, Ignasi; Eduardo, Iban; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Guerrero, Luis; Hortós, Maria; van Ruth, Saskia

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the aroma and sensory profiles of various types of peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch.). Forty-three commercial cultivars comprising peaches, flat peaches, nectarines, and canning peaches (pavías) were grown over two consecutive harvest years. Fruits were assessed for chemical aroma and sensory profiles. Chemical aroma profile was obtained by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and spectral masses were tentatively identified with PTR-Time of Flight-MS (PTR-Tof-MS). Sensory analysis was performed at commercial maturity considering seven aroma/flavor attributes. The four types of peaches showed both distinct chemical aroma and sensory profiles. Flat peaches and canning peaches showed most distinct patterns according to discriminant analysis. The sensory data were related to the volatile compounds by partial least square regression. γ-Hexalactone, γ-octalactone, hotrienol, acetic acid and ethyl acetate correlated positively, and benzeneacetaldehyde, trimethylbenzene and acetaldehyde negatively to the intensities of aroma and ripe fruit sensory scores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Decontamination effects of bark washing with a high-pressure washer on Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and Japanese Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) contaminated with radiocaesium during dormancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Mamoru; Abe, Kazuhiro; Kikunaga, Hidetoshi; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu; Takata, Daisuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bark washing with a high-pressure washer on deciduous trees contaminated during dormancy by radiocaesium fallout derived from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was examined using peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.). Eighteen-year-old peach trees ('Akatsuki') were bark-washed twice with a high-pressure washer on July 5 and 27, 2011. Seven-year-old peach trees ('Kawanakajima Hakuto') were bark-washed on January 24, 2012, and thirty-year-old Japanese persimmon trees ('Hachiya') were bark-washed on December 21, 2011. For the peach trees, most of the bark was not removed by washing with a high-pressure washer. In contrast, the rough bark of Japanese persimmon was removed completely. No significant differences in the 137 Cs concentration of 'Akatsuki' fruit were found between the treatments conducted in the summer of 2011. Upon the bark washing of peach 'Akatsuki' trees in summer, the possibility of secondary contamination of leaves via the leachate containing 137 Cs was likely. The 137 Cs concentrations in fruits and leaves of peach 'Kawanakajima Hakuto' collected in summer 2012 were decreased significantly by washing treatment conducted in winter 2011–2012. In the year after treatment, the 137 Cs concentrations in fruits and leaves of Japanese persimmon were significantly decreased by the treatment. The effect of the bark washing on decreasing 137 Cs contents in fruits and leaves was greater in Japanese persimmon than in peach. The results for 'Kawanakajima Hakuto' and 'Hachiya' demonstrated the possibility of additive contamination. (author)

  12. Dormancy in Peach (Prunus persica L.) Flower Buds : I. Floral Morphogenesis and Endogenous Gibberellins at the End of the Dormancy Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, V; Lorenzo, E; Reinoso, H; Tordable, M C; Abdala, G; Pharis, R P; Bottini, R

    1990-05-01

    Flower buds of peach (Prunus persica L.) trees, cv Novedad de Cordoba (Argentina), were collected near the end of the dormant period and immediately before anthesis. After removal of scale leaves, morphological observations of representative buds, made on transverse and longitudinal microtome sections, showed that all verticils making up the flower are present in an undifferentiated form during the dormant period (June). Flower buds collected at the end of dormant period (August) showed additional growth and differentiation, at which time formation of two ovules was beginning in the unicarpelar gynoecium. Dehiscence of anthers had not yet occurred 10 days before full bloom, and the ovules were still developing. Free endogenous gibberellin (GA)-like substances were quantified by bioassay (Tan-ginbozu dwarf rice microdrop) after SiO(2) partition column chromatography, reversed phase C18-high performance liquid chromatography, and finally Nucleosil [N(CH(3))(2)]high performance liquid chromatography. Bioactive fractions were then subjected to capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM). Gibberellins A(1), A(3), and A(8) were tentatively identified in peach flower buds using GC-SIM and Kovat's retention indices, and relative amounts approximated by GC-SIM (2:8:6 for GA(1), GA(3), and GA(8), respectively). The highest concentration (330 nanograms per gram dry weight) of free GA(1)/GA(3) was found in dormant buds (June) and diminished thereafter. The concentration free of GA(1)/GA(3) did not increase immediately prior to bud break. However, high GA(1)/GA(3) concentrations occurred during stages where rate of growth and cellular differentiation of (mainly fertile) verticils can be influenced.

  13. Elaboración de néctar de durazno (Prunus persica L., endulzado con sucralosa como aprovechamiento de pérdidas poscosecha

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    Darío Alberto Pinto Medina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el durazno (Prunus persica L, así como en la mayoría de los frutos climatéricos, la calidad y el tiempo de vida útil comercial son afectados por los inadecuados manejos durante la cosecha, transporte y empaque, evidenciados por una serie de daños y defectos que el consumidor rechaza a la hora de adquirir el producto en fresco y que representan cuantiosas pérdidas al final del proceso de mercadeo, esta investigación se basó principalmente en el aprovechamiento de las pérdidas en durazno en el eslabón de la poscosecha, agroindustrializando la materia prima; se realizaron pruebas sensoriales para determinar la variedad más aceptada de tres probadas: Rubidoux, Dorado y Rubidoux-Dorado, no se evidenciaron diferencias significativas entre las muestras. Para darle valor agregado al producto, se fabricó néctar de la variedad Rubidoux endulzado con sucralosa, se realizaron análisis fisicoquímicos, microbiológicos y bromatológicos siguiendo la normatividad vigente. Se encontró que la sucralosa contribuyó a disminuir considerablemente el aporte calórico en el néctar elaborado, pasando de 48 Kcal/100g a 38,69 Kcal/100g. Se concluye que el costo de producción unitario para envase de 350ml ($ 1.054 resulta favorable, puesto que la rentabilidad puede superar el 40%, para un precio de venta de $1.476, generando un producto competitivo en el mercado, dada la calidad y el valor agregado como alimento funcional

  14. DETERMINATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE AREA AND DRY WEIGHT OF THE LEAF LIMBO OF Prunus persica CV. Jarillo DETERMINACIÓN DE UN MODELO MATEMÁTICO PARA LA ESTIMACIÓN DEL ÁREA FOLIAR Y PESO SECO DEL LIMBO DE Prunus persica CV. Jarillo

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    Enrique Quevedo García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A study was conducted to determine the variables that estimated the leaf limbo area and the leaf limbo dry weight of peach Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. Jarillo. Fifty leaves, aged 2.5 months, were selected and measured: leaf limbo length and width, petiole length, leaf length, petiole diameter, leaf limbo fresh weight, petiole fresh weight, leaf fresh weight, leaf limbo dry weight, petiole dry weight, leaf dry weight, length/width limbo, petiole length/limbo length and leaf limbo area. The results allowed to obtain regression equations for estimating the leaf area and the limbo dry weight. Using the lineal models LA = b1 + b2 (LLL x LLW and LA= b1+ b2LLL + b3LLW a leaf area equation was determined. Alternative models to calculate limbo dry weight were evaluated LLDW = -b1+ b2 LLFW and LLDW= - b1 + b2LLL + b3PL. The best equations found with an R2 of 0.99 were LA = 1.572 + 0.65169(LLL x LLW, LA=-23.106+2.8064LLW + 3.6761LLL and LLDW = -0.002+0.401(LLFW.Resumen. Se realizó un estudio para determinar las variables que estimaran el área del limbo foliar y el peso seco del limbo de durazno Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. Jarillo. Se seleccionaron cincuenta hojas con 2,5 meses de edad, fueron medidos: ancho del limbo, longitud del limbo, longitud del peciolo, longitud hoja, diámetro peciolo, peso fresco del limbo, peso fresco del peciolo, peso fresco de la hoja, peso seco del limbo, peso seco peciolo, peso seco de la hoja, longitud /ancho limbo, longitud del peciolo/longitud del limbo, área foliar del limbo. Los resultados alcanzados permitieron obtener ecuaciones de regresión para estimar el área foliar del limbo y el peso seco del limbo. Se halló una ecuación para la determinación del área foliar del limbo con los modelos lineales LA = b1 + b2 (LLL x LLW y LA= b1 + b2LLL + b3LLW. También se evaluaron modelos alternativas para calcular el peso seco del limbo, LLDW = -b1+ b2LLFW y LLDW= - b1 + b2LLL + b3PL. Las mejores ecuaciones

  15. Evaluación productiva, económica y social del agua de riego de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch en Zacatecas (México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ríos-Flores

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La escasez de agua limita la agricultura, por lo que su uso debe ser más eficiente en la producción de alimentos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la productividad económica, física y social del agua del cultivo de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch, en la región del Distrito de Desarrollo Rural 183 —correspondiente a Fresnillo, Zacatecas— para el ciclo 2012; se desarrollaron modelos matemáticos para estimar la productividad y eficiencia del agua. En Zacatecas se cosecharon 817 ha de durazno; mismas que produjeron 3,954.1 t; con un valor de $32.79 millones de pesos, utilizando un total de 8.17 Mm3 en todo el estado; mientras que en el DDR183-Fresnillo (compuesto por los municipios Fresnillo y Valparaíso se emplearon 3.39 Mm3. La determinación de la huella hídrica azul mostró que, por cada kg de durazno se emplearon 2,066 L en Zacatecas, 2,000 L en Fresnillo, y 1,851 L en Valparaíso. En cuanto al ingreso por metro cúbico, se determinó que en Zacatecas se obtuvo un ingreso de $4.01 m-3, $4.38 m-3 en Fresnillo y $4.83 m-3 en Valparaíso. Mientras, la productividad laboral en Zacatecas fue 97.53 h t-1, en Fresnillo 94.40 h t-1, y en Valparaíso 87.35 h t-1. El trabajador adscrito a la producción de durazno en Zacatecas generó $97.53 h-1, en Fresnillo $94.40 h-1, y $87.35 h-1 en Valparaíso. La producción de durazno en Valparaíso resultó altamente eficiente y productiva, lo que se tradujo en una menor huella hídrica; ello promueve la sustentabilidad del recurso agua en esa región.

  16. Controle da infestação natural de ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 (Diptera, Tephritidae em pêssegos(Prunus persica através das radiações gama Control of naturally infested peaches (Prunus persica by mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata through the use of gamma radiation

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    V. Arthur

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a dose desinfestante de radiações gama para pêssegos, Prunus persica, infestados com larvas da mosca do Mediterrâneo, Ceratitis capitata. Utilizaram-se frutas de procedência conhecida no campo fazendo-se uma amostragem prévia, constatando-se que cada fruta continha em média nove larvas do último ínstar da mosca praga. As frutas foram irradiadas em uma fonte de Cobalto-60 com as seguintes doses de radiação gama: 0 (test., 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 e 1200 Gy, sob uma taxa de 58 Gy por minuto. Após a irradiação as frutas foram colocadas em câmaras climatizadas com a temperatura variando entre 23 e 27°C e a umidade relativa variando entre 65 e 75%. Aguardou-se que as larvas deixassem as frutas e se transformassem em pupas e adultos. A dose letal para larvas, pelos resultados obtidos no experimento, concluiu-se ser de 600 Gy. A dose letal para pupas provenientes de larvas irradiadas dentro das frutas foi de 50 Gy, impedindo totalmente a emergência de adultos.Determination of the dose of gamma radiation to disinfest peaches, Prunus pérsica infested with larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 was made. Fruits were collected in the field, each one holding about nine larvae of the last instar of the fruit-fly. The fruits were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation source at the following doses: 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 Gy; at a dose rate of 58 Gy per minute. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted between 23 and 27°C, and relative humidity between 65 and 75 percent, until the larvae left the fruits and were transformed into pupae and adults. It was concluded that the lethal dose of gamma radiation for larvae at the last instar, in naturally infested peaches, was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the emergency of adults.

  17. LA RELACIÓN HOJA: FRUTO AFECTA LA PRODUCCIÓN, EL CRECIMIENTO Y LA CALIDAD DEL FRUTO EN DURAZNERO (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. ‘Rubidoux’ LEAF TO FRUIT RATIO AFFECTS YIELD, FRUIT GROWTH AND FRUIT QUALITY OF PEACH (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. ‘Rubidoux’

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    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El raleo de frutos es un práctica agrícola común en los árboles de melocotón con miras a una cosecha moderada a abundante. Sin embargo, a pesar de las muchas ventajas del raleo, demostradas a lo largo de años de experiencia en la zona templada, esta práctica es a menudo una de las operaciones conducidas de manera ineficiente en el cultivo del duraznero. Árboles de duraznero (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. ‘Rubidoux’ se ralearon manualmente con el objeto de mejorar la calidad comercial del fruto. Se evaluaron los cambios en el crecimiento del fruto, los sólidos solubles totales, la relación pulpa: semilla, la producción, la calidad del fruto y el diámetro de la fruta, durante una temporada de crecimiento de los frutos según el efecto de la relación hoja: fruto (10; 20; 30; 40 y 50 hojas por fruto, en Guasca - Cundinamarca - Colombia. El raleo se realizó 85 días después de plena floración. Los árboles del tratamiento control no se ralearon. Se observaron diferencias en las curvas de crecimiento del fruto, en el promedio de fruto cosechado, en el peso fresco de los frutos y en su calidad comercial. El contenido de sólidos solubles totales en los frutos y la relación pulpa:semilla aumentaron con el raleo. Al momento de la cosecha, la producción se redujo en los árboles raleados, pero se mejoró la cantidad del fruto comercial. Los tratamientos con 40 y 50 hojas por fruto tuvieron la mayor proporción de frutos de mejor calidad en comparación con los árboles control.Fruit thinning is a standard practice on peach trees carrying a moderate to heavy crop. However, in spite of the many benefits from thinning demostrated through long years of experience in the temperate zone, fruit thinning is too often one of the most unefficiently conducted operations in peach growing. With a view to improve marketable yield and fruit quality, trees of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. ‘Rubidoux’ were subjected to hand thinning. Changes

  18. Comparative effect of Prunus persica L. BATSCH-water extract and tacrine (9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine hydrochloride) on concentration of extracellular acetylcholine in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Kye; Koo, Byung-Soo; Gong, Dae-Jong; Lee, Young-Choon; Ko, Jeong-Heon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2003-08-01

    Prunus persica L. BATSCH seed-water extract (PPE) has been used in the treatment of the degenerative disorders, such as hypermenorrhea and dysmenorrhea, in Taiwan, China, Japan and Korea. In this study, the effects of oral administration of PPE on the extracellular acetylcholine concentration in the hippocampus of rats were evaluated, and compared to that of tacrine (9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine hydrochloride), a well-known and centrally acting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, which had been developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We measured the inhibition of brain AChE. PPE at 2.5g/kg and tacrine at 5mg/kg showed significant effects for more than 6h. At these doses, the maximum increases were observed at about 1.5h after administration of PPE, and at about 2h with tacrine, and were 454 and 412% of the pre-level, respectively. The results suggest that oral administration of PPE and tacrine increases acetylcholine concentration in the synaptic cleft of the hippocampus mostly through AChE inhibition, and that PPE has a potent and long-lasting effect on the central cholinergic system.

  19. Prunus domestica, Prunus persica and Prunus avium extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nowadays antioxidants from plants origin are considered as a promising source of biologically active substances; as synthetic agents are ... suitable for preparing new antioxidant emulsions loaded with pleasant fruity extracts which remain economical, effective and completely safe for human skin therefore, ...

  20. DIAGNOSTICS OF VIRUS PHYTOPATHOGENS FRUIT TREE PLUM POX VIRUS, PRUNUS NECROTIC RINGSPOT VIRUS AND PRUNUS DWARF VIRUS BY BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Július Rozák; Zdenka Gálová

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of viral phytopathogen Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus in selected localities of Slovakia and diagnose them using a molecular and biological methods. Forty samples of fruit trees of the genus Prunus, twenty samples from intensive plantings and twenty samples from wild subject were analysed. Biological diagnostic by using biological indicators Prunus persica cv. GF 305, Prunus serrulata cv. Schirofugen a...

  1. Chemical characterization and thermal properties of kernel oils from Tunisian peach and nectarine varieties of Prunus persica; Caracterización química y propiedades térmicas de los aceites de semillas de variedades tunecinas de melocotón y nectarina de Prunus pérsica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamli, D.; Bootello, M.A.; Bouali, I.; Jouhri, S.; Boukhchina, S.; Martínez-Force, S.

    2017-07-01

    A comparative study was conducted to determine the fatty acids, triacylglycerol compositions and thermal properties of Tunisian kernel oils from the Prunus persica varieties, peach and nectarine, grown in two areas of Tunisia, Gabes and Morneg. Qualitatively, the fatty acids composition and triacylglycerol species were identical for all samples. Oleic acid (67.7-75.0%) was the main fatty acid, followed by linoleic (15.7-22.1%) and palmitic (5.6-6.3%) acids. The major triacylglycerol species were triolein, OOO (38.4-50.5%), followed by OOL (18.2-23.2%), POO (8.3-9.7%) and OLL (6.3-10.1%). The thermal profiles were highly influenced by the high content of triolein due to the importance of oleic acid in these oils. Moreover, the fatty acids distribution in TAG external positions was determined as corresponding to an α asymmetry coefficient that was between 0.10 and 0.12, indicating a high asymmetry in the distribution of saturated fatty acids in the position sn-1 and sn-3 in the TAG species of all samples. [Spanish] Se ha realizado un estudio comparativo de aceites tunecinos obtenidos a partir de las semillas de variedades de Prunus persica, melocotón y nectarina, cultivadas en dos zonas de Túnez, Gabes y Morneg. Cualitativamente, la composición de ácidos grasos y de especies de triglicéridos fueron idénticas para todas las muestras. El ácido oleico (67,7-75,0%) fue el ácido graso principal, seguido del linoleico (15,7-22,1%) y el palmítico (5,6-6,3%). Las especies principales de triacilglicéridos fueron la trioleina, OOO (38,4-50,5%), seguida de OOL (18,2-23,2%), POO (8,3-9,7%) y OLL (6,3-10,1%). Los perfiles térmicos fueron muy influidos por el alto contenido de trioleina debido a la importancia del ácido oleico en estos aceites. Por otra parte, se determinó la distribución de ácidos grasos en las posiciones externas de los TAG correspondiendo a un coeficiente de asimetría α entre 0,10 y 0,12, lo que indica una alta asimetría en la distribuci

  2. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. grown in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi eEl-Jendoubi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. ‘Orbis’ grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated and basal (untreated leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  3. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Angeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. "Orbis") grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  4. Characterization of polymorphic SSRs among Prunus chloroplast genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An in silico mining process yielded 80, 75, and 78 microsatellites in the chloroplast genome of Prunus persica, P. kansuensis, and P. mume. A and T repeats were predominant in the three genomes, accounting for 67.8% on average and most of them were successful in primer design. For the 80 P. persica ...

  5. Enhancing the polyphenol content of a red-fleshed Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) nectar by incorporating a polyphenol-rich extract from the skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Dalene; Steyn, Naomi; Joubert, Elizabeth; Muller, Nina

    2012-10-01

    Plum skins are a waste product generated during production of plum juice or pulp. Polyphenols, shown to have various health-promoting properties, can be recovered from this waste product. Red-fleshed plum nectar formulations containing plum skin extract in varying amounts were characterised in terms of intensity of sensory attributes, consumer acceptability, colour, polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. Commercial beverages containing red fruits were used as benchmarks. The polyphenolic profile of the plum skin extract was similar to that of the pulp, including anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols and a phenolic acid. Addition of the extract to plum nectar, which enhanced the colour, polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity, was limited by its negative sensory impact. The formulations were deemed acceptable by consumers, although a decrease in positive sensory attributes (plum flavour, plum aroma and sweetness) and an increase in negative sensory attributes (plant-like flavour, plant-like aroma, acidity and astringency) were observed with increasing skin extract content. The formulations compared favourably with commercial beverages in terms of colour total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. Plum skins were successfully used to enhance the functional status of plum nectar. Use of a functional ingredient from plum skins is, therefore, a feasible value-addition strategy. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. DIAGNOSTICS OF VIRUS PHYTOPATHOGENS FRUIT TREE PLUM POX VIRUS, PRUNUS NECROTIC RINGSPOT VIRUS AND PRUNUS DWARF VIRUS BY BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Rozák

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of viral phytopathogen Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus in selected localities of Slovakia and diagnose them using a molecular and biological methods. Forty samples of fruit trees of the genus Prunus, twenty samples from intensive plantings and twenty samples from wild subject were analysed. Biological diagnostic by using biological indicators Prunus persica cv. GF 305, Prunus serrulata cv. Schirofugen and molecular diagnostic by mRT-PCR were applied. Five samples with Plum pox virus were infected. The two samples positive for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and one sample for Prunus dwarf virus were confirmed. The two samples were found to be infected with two viruses Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus. This work focuses on two techniques, their application to the diagnosis of stone fruit viruses and their routinely used for sanitary and certification programmes.

  7. Study of 'Redhaven' peach and its white-fleshed mutant suggests a key role of CCD4 carotenoid dioxygenase in carotenoid and norisoprenoid volatile metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tartarini Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids are plant metabolites which are not only essential in photosynthesis but also important quality factors in determining the pigmentation and aroma of flowers and fruits. To investigate the regulation of carotenoid metabolism, as related to norisoprenoids and other volatile compounds in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch., and the role of carotenoid dioxygenases in determining differences in flesh color phenotype and volatile composition, the expression patterns of relevant carotenoid genes and metabolites were studied during fruit development along with volatile compound content. Two contrasted cultivars, the yellow-fleshed 'Redhaven' (RH and its white-fleshed mutant 'Redhaven Bianca' (RHB were examined. Results The two genotypes displayed marked differences in the accumulation of carotenoid pigments in mesocarp tissues. Lower carotenoid levels and higher levels of norisoprenoid volatiles were observed in RHB, which might be explained by differential activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD enzymes. In fact, the ccd4 transcript levels were dramatically higher at late ripening stages in RHB with respect to RH. The two genotypes also showed differences in the expression patterns of several carotenoid and isoprenoid transcripts, compatible with a feed-back regulation of these transcripts. Abamine SG - an inhibitor of CCD enzymes - decreased the levels of both isoprenoid and non-isoprenoid volatiles in RHB fruits, indicating a complex regulation of volatile production. Conclusions Differential expression of ccd4 is likely to be the major determinant in the accumulation of carotenoids and carotenoid-derived volatiles in peach fruit flesh. More in general, dioxygenases appear to be key factors controlling volatile composition in peach fruit, since abamine SG-treated 'Redhaven Bianca' fruits had strongly reduced levels of norisoprenoids and other volatile classes. Comparative functional studies of peach carotenoid

  8. Caracterización con RAMs de la colección de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch existente en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando ocho cebadores Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAMs fue evaluada la diversidad genética de 31 materiales de Prunus de la colección de caducifolios existente en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia. Se generaron un total de 121 amplicones con pesos moleculares entre 260 y 1000 Kb. Con un coeficiente de similitud de 0.75, se formaron tres grupos, de acuerdo principalmente con las características del fruto, encontrando en el grupo 2 las variedades de importancia económica. El número de loci polimórficos varió entre 5 y 16 para los cebadores GT y CCA, respectivamente. El valor promedio de heterocigosidad fue de 0.22, más bajo que los encontrados en otros estudios de diversidad genética en el género Prunus; por tanto, se deben buscar estrategias para incrementar la variabilidad genética de la colección como la introducción de nuevos materiales o híbridos interespecíficos. La técnica RAMs es útil para evaluar la diversidad genética en especies caducifolias.

  9. Survey of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus in Rose and Its Variability in Rose and Prunus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moury, B; Cardin, L; Onesto, J P; Candresse, T; Poupet, A

    2001-01-01

    ABSTRACT A survey for viruses in rose propagated in Europe resulted in detection of only Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) among seven viruses screened. Four percent of cut-flower roses from different sources were infected with PNRSV. Progression of the disease under greenhouse conditions was very slow, which should make this virus easy to eradicate through sanitary selection. Comparison of the partial coat protein gene sequences for three representative rose isolates indicated that they do not form a distinct phylogenetic group and show close relations to Prunus spp. isolates. However, a comparison of the reactivity of monoclonal antibodies raised against these isolates showed that the most prevalent PNRSV serotype in rose was different from the most prevalent serotype in Prunus spp. All of the 27 rose isolates tested infected P. persica seedlings, whereas three of the four PNRSV isolates tested from Prunus spp. were poorly infectious in Rosa indica plants. These data suggest adaptation of PNRSV isolates from Prunus spp., but not from rose, to their host plants. The test methodologies developed here to evaluate PNRSV pathogenicity in Prunus spp. and rose could also help to screen for resistant genotypes.

  10. CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF PGIP FROM ‘JIN SERIES’ ALMOND (PRUNUS DULCIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhu Han

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Specific primers synthesized according to conservative regions of polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP gene were used to amplify Prunus Dulcis genomic DNA by polymerase-chain reaction (PCR. Six bands (pgip1, pgip2, pgip3, pgip4, pgip5 and pgip6 of genes were obtained and cloned into PBS-T vector. According to the length of bands, 717bp, 864bp, 796bp were A1 (pgip1, pgip2, pgip3, A2 (pgip4, A4 (pgip5, pgip6, respectively. DNA sequences showed that the fragments taken together were the gene encoding PGIP. A2 and A3 contained two exons interrupted by one intron, which has GT-AG sequence. Its DNA and amino acid sequences were highly homologies to those from Prunus Persica; Prunus Salicina; Prunus Americana; Prunus Mume, respectively. A conserved lencinerial fragment exists in the derived protein sequence.

  11. Flesh as communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Falk

    2012-01-01

    , action. A correlative bond lies in communication theory as the operational difference between ego and alter-ego. This article investigates the non-semiotic intertwinement of ‘flesh’ in art perception and theory based on communication theory in performance art (body art). The thesis is that ‘flesh...

  12. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  13. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bliss Fredrick A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a

  14. Relationship between endogenous hormonal content and somatic organogenesis in callus of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and Prunus persica×Prunus dulcis rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Le-Disquet, Isabel; Guivarc'h, Anne; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between endogenous hormones content and the induction of somatic peach plant was studied. To induce multiple shoots from callus derived from the base of stem explants of the scion cultivars 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach×almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677', propagated plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog salts augmented with 0.1mgL(-1) of indolebutyric acid, 1mgL(-1) of 6-benzylaminopurine and 3% sucrose. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach×almond rootstocks. Endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) were analyzed in the organogenic callus. Lower levels of several hormones, namely Z, ZR, ABA, and ACC were found in the peach×almond rootstock compared to peach cultivars, while IAA and SA presented inconclusive returns. These results suggest that the difference in somatic organogenesis capacity observed in peach and peach×almond hybrids is markedly affected by the endogenous hormonal content of the studied genotypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Prunus dulcis, Batch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... almond (Prunus dulcis, Batch) genotypes as revealed by PCR analysis. Yavar Sharafi1*, Jafar Hajilou1, Seyed AbolGhasem Mohammadi2, Mohammad Reza Dadpour1 and Sadollah Eskandari3. 1Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 5166614766, Iran.

  16. Human Flesh Search Engine and Online Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Gao, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Human flesh search engine can be a double-edged sword, bringing convenience on the one hand and leading to infringement of personal privacy on the other hand. This paper discusses the ethical problems brought about by the human flesh search engine, as well as possible solutions.

  17. Carbohydrate-free peach (Prunus persica and plum (Prunus domestica juice affects fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana D Noratto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growing evidence shows the potential of nutritional interventions to treat obesity but most investigations have utilized non-digestible carbohydrates only. Peach and plum contain high amounts of polyphenols, compounds with demonstrated anti-obesity effects. The underlying process of successfully treating obesity using polyphenols may involve an alteration of the intestinal microbiota. However, this phenomenon is not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obese Zucker rats were assigned to three groups (peach, plum, and control, n = 10 each, wild-type group was named lean (n = 10. Carbohydrates in the fruit juices were eliminated using enzymatic hydrolysis. Fecal samples were obtained after 11 weeks of fruit or control juice administration. Real-time PCR and 454-pyrosequencing were used to evaluate changes in fecal microbiota. Over 1,500 different Operational Taxonomic Units at 97% similarity were detected in all rats. Several bacterial groups (e.g. Lactobacillus and members of Ruminococcacea were found to be more abundant in the peach but especially in the plum group (plum juice contained 3 times more total polyphenolics compared to peach juice. Principal coordinate analysis based on Unifrac-based unweighted distance matrices revealed a distinct separation between the microbiota of control and treatment groups. These changes in fecal microbiota occurred simultaneously with differences in fecal short-chain acids concentrations between the control and treatment groups as well as a significant decrease in body weight in the plum group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that consumption of carbohydrate-free peach and plum juice has the potential to modify fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model. The separate contribution of polyphenols and non-polyphenols compounds (vitamins and minerals to the observed changes is unknown.

  18. Supercritical fluid extraction of peach (Prunus persica) almond oil: process yield and extract composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Natália; Mileo, Bruna R; Friedrich, Maria T; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2010-07-01

    Peach kernels are industrial residues from the peach processing, contain oil with important therapeutic properties and attractive nutritional aspects because of the high concentration of oleic and linoleic acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw matter is critical for product quality definition. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare peach almond extraction yields obtained by different procedures: soxhlet extractions (Sox) with different solvents; hydrodistillation (HD); ethanolic maceration (Mac) followed by fractionation with various solvents, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 30, 40 and 50 degrees C and at 100, 200 and 300bar, performed with pure CO(2) and with a co-solvent. The extracts were evaluated with respect to fatty acid composition (FAC), fractionated chemical profile (FCP) and total phenolic content (TPC). The Sox total yields were generally higher than those obtained by SFE. The crossover pressure for SFE was between 260 and 280bar. The FAC results show oleic and linoleic acids as main components, especially for Sox and SFE extracts. The FCP for samples obtained by Sox and Mac indicated the presence of benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol, components responsible for almond flavor and with important industrial uses, whereas the SFE extracts present a high content of a possible flavonoid. The higher TPC values were obtained by Sox and Mac with ethanol. In general, the maximum pressure in SFE produced the highest yield, TPC and oleic acid content. The use of ethanol at 5% as co-solvent in SFE did not result in a significant effect on any evaluated parameter. The production of peach almond oil through all techniques is substantially adequate and SFE presented advantages, with respect to the quality of the extracts due to the high oleic acid content, as presented by some Sox samples. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative Transcriptome and Microscopy Analyses Provide Insights into Flat Shape Formation in Peach (Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit shape is an important external characteristic that consumers use to select preferred fruit cultivars. In peach, the flat fruit cultivars have become more and more popular worldwide. Genetic markers closely linking to the flat fruit trait have been identified and are useful for marker-assisted breeding. However, the cellular and genetic mechanisms underpinning flat fruit formation are still poorly understood. In this study, we have revealed the differences in fruit cell number, cell size, and in gene expression pattern between the traditional round fruit and modern flat fruit cultivars. Flat peach cultivars possessed significantly lower number of cells in the vertical axis because cell division in the vertical direction stopped early in the flat fruit cultivars at 15 DAFB (day after full bloom than in round fruit cultivars at 35 DAFB. This resulted in the reduction in vertical development in the flat fruit. Significant linear relationship was observed between fruit vertical diameter and cell number in vertical axis for the four examined peach cultivars (R2 = 0.9964 at maturation stage, and was also observed between fruit vertical diameter and fruit weight (R2 = 0.9605, which indicated that cell number in vertical direction contributed to the flat shape formation. Furthermore, in RNA-seq analysis, 4165 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected by comparing RNA-seq data between flat and round peach cultivars at different fruit development stages. In contrast to previous studies, we discovered 28 candidate genes potentially responsible for the flat shape formation, including 19 located in the mapping site and 9 downstream genes. Our study indicates that flat and round fruit shape in peach is primarily determined by the regulation of cell production in the vertical direction during early fruit development.

  20. Integrated nutrient management for orange-fleshed sweet potato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    and variety, suggesting that the orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties responded similarly to nutrient ... fleshed ones, can help alleviate vitamin A deficiency .... LSD (0.05) for variety (V) mean. = 14.8 .... Information System, Working Paper #2.

  1. Xylem development in prunus flower buds and the relationship to deep supercooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, E N

    1984-04-01

    Xylem development in eight Prunus species was examined and the relationship to deep supercooling assessed. Dormant buds of six species, P. armeniaca, P. avium, P. cerasus, P. persica, P. salicina, and P. sargentii deep supercooled. Xylem vessel elements were not observed within the dormant floral primordia of these species. Instead, discrete bundles containing procambial cells were observed. Vascular differentiation resumed and xylem continuity was established during the time that the capacity to deep supercool was lost. In P. serotina and P. virginiana, two species which do not supercool, xylem vessels ran the length of the inflorescence and presumably provided a conduit for the spread of ice into the bud. The results support the hypothesis that the lack of xylem continuity is an important feature of buds which deep supercool.

  2. Penggunaan Lemak Fleshing Industri Penyamakan Kulit Untuk Pembuatan Sabun Mandi

    OpenAIRE

    Sunaryo, Ignatius; Sutyasmi, Sri; Widari, Widari; Murwati, Murwati

    2002-01-01

    An experimentation the Use of Fat from Fleshing of Leather Tanning Industry to Produce Bath Soap was aimed to use the fat from fleshing to gain the alternative source of basic material for bath soap, to assist the industry to solve the environmental pollution and increasing the population income. The point to be gained after finishing this experiment was to find out the problem solving of environmental pollution problem caused by fleshing from leather tanning industry. Goat/sheep fleshing fro...

  3. Teknologi pengambilan lemak dari sisa fleshing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sutyasmi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to recover the fat from fleshing in order it could be useful for many kinds of industries such as soap, oil/grease for tanning manufactures, etc. There are some systems to recover the fat from fleshings, those are heat systems (cooking, steaming, smoking and extrac system using solvent (hexan, CCl4, alcohol, etc. Over all of the systems cooking and steaming are the most simply system to recover the fat. By cooking, smoking, and steaming from 5 kg fleshing with the time variation of 15,30, 45 and 60 minutes could produce fat with the quantity of which varied from 0,220 – 0,425 kg. The highest quantity of fat, produced by heating system in 60 minutes could be gained by steaming, but the quality of it was low. The quantity of fat produced by extract system using hexan, CCl4, and alcohol as solvents with the time variation of 3,4 and 5 hours were varied from 5,21 % to 10,20 % of dried weight. The highest quantity of fat gained by extract system was found by using hexan solvent. Fat from fleshing should be sulphated prior for substantial application. The economical evaluation shows that the basic price of 1 kg of fat was Rp. 1.250,- whereas the basic price of 1 kg of sulphated fat was Rp. 3.200,-

  4. Genome-wide association links candidate genes to resistance to Plum Pox Virus in apricot (Prunus armeniaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariette, Stéphanie; Wong Jun Tai, Fabienne; Roch, Guillaume; Barre, Aurélien; Chague, Aurélie; Decroocq, Stéphane; Groppi, Alexis; Laizet, Yec'han; Lambert, Patrick; Tricon, David; Nikolski, Macha; Audergon, Jean-Marc; Abbott, Albert G; Decroocq, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    In fruit tree species, many important traits have been characterized genetically by using single-family descent mapping in progenies segregating for the traits. However, most mapped loci have not been sufficiently resolved to the individual genes due to insufficient progeny sizes for high resolution mapping and the previous lack of whole-genome sequence resources of the study species. To address this problem for Plum Pox Virus (PPV) candidate resistance gene identification in Prunus species, we implemented a genome-wide association (GWA) approach in apricot. This study exploited the broad genetic diversity of the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) germplasm containing resistance to PPV, next-generation sequence-based genotyping, and the high-quality peach (Prunus persica) genome reference sequence for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification. The results of this GWA study validated previously reported PPV resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) intervals, highlighted other potential resistance loci, and resolved each to a limited set of candidate genes for further study. This work substantiates the association genetics approach for resolution of QTL to candidate genes in apricot and suggests that this approach could simplify identification of other candidate genes for other marked trait intervals in this germplasm. © 2015 INRA, UMR 1332 BFP New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Arsenic Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Salvadora persica Stem Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdos Kord Mostafapour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid, which is widely distributed in nature and is regarded as the largest mass poisoning in history. In the present study, the adsorption potential of Salvadora persica (S. persica stem ash in a batch system for the removal of As(V from aqueous solutions was investigated. Isotherm studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of contact time (20–240 min, pH (2–11, initial arsenic concentration (50–500 μg/L, and adsorbent dose on sorption efficiency. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.33% and 99.32% was obtained at pH 6, adsorbent dosage 3.5 g/L, initial As(V concentration 500 μg/L, and contact time 80 and 60 min for S. persica stem ash at 300 °C and 500 °C, respectively. Also, the adsorption equilibriums were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Such equilibriums showed that the adsorption data was well fitted with the Freundlich isotherm model for S. persica stem ash at both 300 °C and 500 °C (R2=0.8983 and 0.9274, resp.. According to achieved results, it was defined that S. persica stem ash can be used effectively for As(V removal from the aqueous environment.

  6. Penggunaan lemak fleshing industri penyamakan kulit untuk pembuatan sabun mandi

    OpenAIRE

    Ign. Sunaryo; Sri Sutyasmi; Widhari; Murwati

    2002-01-01

    Abstract An experimentation the Use of Fat from Fleshing of Leather Tanning Industry to Produce Bath Soap was aimed to use the fat from fleshing to gain the alternative source of basic material for bath soap, to assist the industry to solve the environmental pollution and increasing the population income. The point to be gained after finishing this experiment was to find out the problem solving of environmental pollution problem caused by fleshing from leather tanning industry. Goat/sheep...

  7. Plastid structure and carotenogenic gene expression in red- and white-fleshed loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, X.; Kong, W.; Peng, G.; Zhou, J.; Azam, M.; Xu, C.; Grierson, D.; Chen, K.

    2012-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) can be sorted into red- and white-fleshed cultivars. The flesh of Luoyangqing (LYQ, red-fleshed) appears red-orange because of a high content of carotenoids while the flesh of Baisha (BS, white-fleshed) appears ivory white due to a lack of carotenoid accumulation.

  8. Caracterização de três genótipos de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. por marcadores RAPD Characterization of three mume genotypes (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Um projeto de pesquisa visando à utilização de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. como porta-enxertos para pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] está sendo conduzido na FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, com promissoras perspectivas de sucesso. Três genótipos de umezeiro foram selecionados de acordo com características agronômicas desejáveis para esta finalidade. A distinção dos três genótipos entre si, baseada exclusivamente em características morfológicas, apresenta limitações. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar marcadores RAPD capazes de diferenciar e caracterizar os Clones 05, 15 e a cv. Rigitano (Clone 10 de umezeiro, utilizando-se das cultivares Aurora-1 e Okinawa de pessegueiro como outgroup. Dos 220 primers testados, foram selecionados 42, que amplificaram todos os cinco genótipos. Verificou-se que os marcadores RAPD permitiram a distinção entre o Clone 05, o Clone 15 e a cv. Rigitano de umezeiro, demonstrando a existência de variabilidade genética entre os mesmos. Dentre os três genótipos de umezeiro estudados, constatou-se que a similaridade genética é maior entre o Clone 05 e o Clone 15.A research project with the objective do develop mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., to be used as rootstocks for peach tree [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] is been carried out at the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. These project showed promising perspectives of success, with three clones that were selected according to their characteristics for peach rootstock. But the distinction of the three clones among them, based only in morphologic characteristics, has presented limitations. The objective of the present research was to identify RAPD markers able to characterize and differentiate the 05 and 15 Clones and Rigitano mume cultivar, using Aurora-1 and Okinawa peach tree as outgroup. Among the 220 tested

  9. Flesh, Foil, and Authenticity: Reflections on Johann AR Roduit’s “Flesh and Foil”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunderson, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Johann AR Roduit’s poem, “Flesh and Foil,” raises a number of issues regarding enhancement, especially the need for principles to guide the process of human enhancement. The guidance that the poem seeks can be found in a combination of virtue ethics and authenticity.

  10. Authenticity assessment of gamma- and delta-decalactone from prunus fruits by gas chromatography combustion/pyrolysis isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C/P-IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hirotoshi; Appel, Markus; Richling, Elke; Schreier, Peter

    2005-06-29

    Authenticity assessment of gamma-decalactone (1) and delta-decalactone (2) from peach (Prunus persica var. persica), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), and nectarine (Prunus persica var. nectarina) was performed using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) in the combustion (C) and pyrolysis (P) mode. In addition, commercially available synthetic (nature-identical) 1 and 2 as well as biotechnologically produced samples (declared to be "natural") were characterized by their delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) and delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) values. For the Prunus fruits under study, rather narrow ranges of delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) data of 1, varying from - 34.6 per thousand to - 38.4 per thousand and -160 per thousand to -206 per thousand, respectively, were obtained. Synthetic references of 1 showed delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) data ranging from -27.4 per thousand to -28.3 per thousand and -151 per thousand to -184 per thousand, respectively. Samples of 1 declared to be "natural" exhibited ranges from -28.1 per thousand to -29.2 per thousand and -192 per thousand to -286 per thousand for delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW), respectively. For 2 from peach, apricot, and nectarine, delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) values ranging from -34.0 per thousand to -37.9 per thousand were determined; the delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) values ranged from -171 per thousand to -228 per thousand. The delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) data for synthetic 2 were -28.2 per thousand and -171 per thousand, respectively, that is, similar to those of 2 from "natural" origin, ranging from -27.7 per thousand to -30.1 per thousand and -185 per thousand to -230 per thousand for delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW), respectively. GC-C/P-IRMS allowed clear-cut analytical differentiation of the synthetic and "ex-plant" origin of 1 and 2, whereas narrow ranges of delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) data were found for samples of

  11. The genome of Prunus mume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qixiang; Chen, Wenbin; Sun, Lidan; Zhao, Fangying; Huang, Bangqing; Yang, Weiru; Tao, Ye; Wang, Jia; Yuan, Zhiqiong; Fan, Guangyi; Xing, Zhen; Han, Changlei; Pan, Huitang; Zhong, Xiao; Shi, Wenfang; Liang, Xinming; Du, Dongliang; Sun, Fengming; Xu, Zongda; Hao, Ruijie; Lv, Tian; Lv, Yingmin; Zheng, Zequn; Sun, Ming; Luo, Le; Cai, Ming; Gao, Yike; Wang, Junyi; Yin, Ye; Xu, Xun; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Prunus mume (mei), which was domesticated in China more than 3,000 years ago as ornamental plant and fruit, is one of the first genomes among Prunus subfamilies of Rosaceae been sequenced. Here, we assemble a 280M genome by combining 101-fold next-generation sequencing and optical mapping data. We further anchor 83.9% of scaffolds to eight chromosomes with genetic map constructed by restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing. Combining P. mume genome with available data, we succeed in reconstructing nine ancestral chromosomes of Rosaceae family, as well as depicting chromosome fusion, fission and duplication history in three major subfamilies. We sequence the transcriptome of various tissues and perform genome-wide analysis to reveal the characteristics of P. mume, including its regulation of early blooming in endodormancy, immune response against bacterial infection and biosynthesis of flower scent. The P. mume genome sequence adds to our understanding of Rosaceae evolution and provides important data for improvement of fruit trees.

  12. Haemangiosarcoma in a captive Asiatic lion ( Panthera leo persica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 2.7-year-old male captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) died unexpectedly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed liver and lung tumours, which proved to be haemangiosarcomas by histopathology. Some of the liver tumours were ruptured, leading to massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage and death.

  13. Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus serotina Erhr.) and wild cherry ( Prunus avium L.) seedlings on low and high elevation sites in the western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  14. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Syn. Prunus amygdalus) and Prunus cornuta (Wall. ex. Royle) Steudel. These are indigenous to Pakistan. In the ITS strict consensus results for example, the clade consisting of Laurocerasus, Padus and Cerasus subgenera are sister to the rest of the clades in the phylogenetic tree. Key words: Phylogeny, Prunus, Pakistan, ...

  15. Application of reflectance colorimeter measurements and infrared spectroscopy methods to rapid and nondestructive evaluation of carotenoids content in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, David; Reich, Maryse; Bureau, Sylvie; Renard, Catherine M G C; Audergon, Jean-Marc

    2008-07-09

    The importance of carotenoid content in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is recognized not only because of the color that they impart but also because of their protective activity against human diseases. Current methods to assess carotenoid content are time-consuming, expensive, and destructive. In this work, the application of rapid and nondestructive methods such as colorimeter measurements and infrared spectroscopy has been evaluated for carotenoid determination in apricot. Forty apricot genotypes covering a wide range of peel and flesh colors have been analyzed. Color measurements on the skin and flesh ( L*, a*, b*, hue, chroma, and a*/ b* ratio) as well as Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) on intact fruits and Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR) on ground flesh were correlated with the carotenoid content measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. A high variability in color values and carotenoid content was observed. Partial least squares regression analyses between beta-carotene content and provitamin A activity and color measurements showed a high fit in peel, flesh, and edible apricot portion (R(2) ranged from 0.81 to 0.91) and low prediction error. Regression equations were developed for predicting carotenoid content by using color values, which appeared as a simple, rapid, reliable, and nondestructive method. However, FT-NIR and FT-MIR models showed very low R(2) values and very high prediction errors for carotenoid content.

  16. Using Perls Staining to Trace the Iron Uptake Pathway in Leaves of a Prunus Rootstock Treated with Iron Foliar Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Juan J; Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves of Prunus rootstock (GF 677; Prunus dulcis × Prunus persica) plants treated with foliar Fe compounds using the Perls blue method, which detects labile Fe pools. Young expanded leaves of Fe-deficient plants grown in nutrient solution were treated with Fe-compounds using a brush. Iron compounds used were the ferrous salt FeSO4, the ferric salts Fe2(SO4)3 and FeCl3, and the chelate Fe(III)-EDTA, all of them at concentrations of 9 mM Fe. Leaf Fe concentration increases were measured at 30, 60, 90 min, and 24 h, and 70 μm-thick leaf transversal sections were obtained with a vibrating microtome and stained with Perls blue. In vitro results show that the Perls blue method is a good tool to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves when using Fe salts, but is not sensitive enough when using synthetic Fe(III)-chelates such as Fe(III)-EDTA and Fe(III)-IDHA. Foliar Fe fertilization increased leaf Fe concentrations with all Fe compounds used, with inorganic Fe salts causing larger leaf Fe concentration increases than Fe(III)-EDTA. Results show that Perls blue stain appeared within 30 min in the stomatal areas, indicating that Fe applied as inorganic salts was taken up rapidly via stomata. In the case of using FeSO4 a progression of the stain was seen with time toward vascular areas in the leaf blade and the central vein, whereas in the case of Fe(III) salts the stain mainly remained in the stomatal areas. Perls stain was never observed in the mesophyll areas, possibly due to the low concentration of labile Fe pools.

  17. Antioxidant capacity of chewing stick miswak Salvadora persica

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Khan, Jalaluddin A

    2013-01-01

    Background Chewing stick (miswak Salvadora persica L.) is an effective tool for oral hygiene. It possessed various biological properties including significant antibacterial and anti-fungal effects. In the present study, we evaluated the antioxidant compounds in miswak. Method Miswak root was extracted with 80% methanol. Methanol extract as antioxidant was evaluated by using DPPH, ABTS and phosphomolybdenum complex assays and analysis by GC-MS. Peroxidase, catalase and polyphenoloxidase assays...

  18. Human flesh search: a supplemental review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chian-Hsueng; Tao, Yu-Hui

    2012-07-01

    Human flesh search (HFS), a phenomenon that has recently emerged over the Internet, represents the interaction between the virtual and real worlds. The term "HFS" is equivalent to "cyber manhunt" in the West, although there were more large-scale HFS events reported in the East recently. While the majority of academic articles on HFS have focused on the Chinese context, the phenomenon has also been reported in many countries and involves diverse issues such as the controversy between privacy violation and public opinion. Based on 16 HFS references, a review paper by Chen and Sharma summarizes core issues on growth, incidents, distinctive attributes, key benefits and drawbacks, findings, and research gaps and opportunities. Echoing their call for a global HFS context, the current article provides a Taiwanese HFS context based on 32 reported incidents in Taiwan. To conduct an incremental HFS review, this study expands the reference base to 33 carefully selected academic articles from China and Taiwan. The review findings range from 6 derived HFS perspectives supplementing each article, 12 frequently mentioned HFS concepts, and 4 additional research directions. The resulting comprehensive knowledge of HFS, along with that contributed by Chen and Sharma, can be considered a useful reference framework for future HFS studies and policy making.

  19. Pemanfaatan limbah fleshing kulit kambing untuk pembuatan kompos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sutyasmi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to create method for managing the environmental pollution caused by fleshing from leather tanning industry. Compos production was carried out by using the cooked fleshing and uncooked fleshing with variation of fleshing 85,60,45, and 30 % respectively mixed with 13.8% of chaff, 0.2% of brand, and 1% of lime and the rest was soil to gain 100% of compound. Protein bio-city as much as 50 ml/kg was used as a starter and it was added after having diluted and fermented for 48 hours. The compound was filled in the 10 I of plastic bucket and cured by lid on it. Every two days they were agitated and sprayed with water regarding to keep the humidity to be constant. The C/N ratio of the compos was analyzed chemically. The compos had been nature for about one month, and they were characterized by the change of the natural color into dark brown with soil smell, and the volume decreased would be 30% of the initial volume. The mean C/N ratio of compos from cooked fleshing was 14 which varied between 12.46-15.50. That value has a smaller range compared with the compos from uncooked fleshing, the mean value of which was 11, with the variation of C/N ratio of that was bigger 7.07-16.24.

  20. Influência do ácido indolbutírico e ethefon no enraizamento de estacas de pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch Influence of indolebutyric acid and ethephon on rooting of cuttings of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Tonietto

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, em estufa com nebulização intermitente, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do ácido indolbutírico(AIB e ethefon (ácido 2-cloroetil fosfônico no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de pessegueiro. Utilizou-se estacas medianas retiradas de ramos de plantas com seis anos de idade, da cultivar Diamante, com comprimento de 15cm. Efetuou-se duas lesões laterais na base das estacas que foram tratadas com ácido indolbutírico nas concentrações 0; 1000; 2000 e 3000ppm, na forma líquida e, ethefon nas concentrações de 0; 50; 100 e 150ppm. Após a imersão de 5 segundos, acondicionou-se as estacas em sacos de polietileno contendo como substrato a mistura de areia+cinza (2:1 v/v. Pelos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que o ácido indolbutírico aumentou o percentual de estacas realizadas até a concentração de 1752ppm. e o número de raízes até a concentração de 1791ppm. O ethefon não apresentou resultados significativos na forma e concentração utilizadas.This work was conducted at the Plant Science Departament Eliseu Maciel Agronomy College of Federal University of Pelotas, in greenhouse with intermitent mist, aiming to evaluate the effect of indolebutyric acid and ethephon (2-chloroetyl phosphonic acid on peach hranch cutting rooting. Median cuttings with 15cm length removed from Diamante cultivar branch were used. Two lateral lesions were made on cutting basis and they were treated with indolebutyric acid in liquid at 0; 1000; 2000; and 3000ppm concentrations and ethefon at 0; 50; 100 and 150ppm concentrations. The immersion time was five seconds and the cuttings were packed in polietylene sacks containing a mixture of sand and rice husk ash substrate (2:1 v/v. Results showed that the indolebutyric acid increased the rooted cuttings percentage up to 1752ppm concentration and the number of roots until 1791ppm concentration. The ethephon did not show significant variation for the form and concentrations used.

  1. Exceso de agua en el suelo: efecto sobre la calidad del fruto del duraznero prunus persica (L. batsch Excess water in the soil: effect on fruit quality of peach prunus persica (l. batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta G. González

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available El duraznero es un cultivo perenne que requiere para su crecimiento un suelo sin limitaciones, en base a ello el objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los cambios químicos producidos en el suelo en condiciones de anegamiento, desde floración hasta fructificación, relacionándolo a la calidad y cantidad de la fruta. Se trabajó con un suelo Argiudol de características vérticas, con un destacado horizonte Bt que posee 35-38% de arcilla. Se realizaron dos tratamientos: control, sin anegamiento (C y con anegamiento (T. En el tratamiento (C, la disponibilidad hídrica de los mismos estuvo sujeta a las condiciones climáticas que se presentaron durante el ensayo, incluyendo la realización de riego complementario permitiendo en todo momento que el suelo se mantenga en condiciones óptimas de humedad. Los resultados del ensayo estuvieron relacionados a los cambios en las características químicas del suelo, planta y fruto. Los suelos anegados tuvieron, contenidos de fósforo y potasio deficientes que repercutió en un menor rendimiento (peso del fruto fresco y seco. Los análisis químicos en planta siguieron la misma tendencia en relación a los contenidos de nitrógeno total, fósforo y potasio que disminuyeron sustancialmente como así también el contenido de materia seca. Estas variables determinaron la disminución de la calidad de fruta en relación a su firmeza y tamaño.Peach is a perennial culture that requires for its growth soils without limitations, on the basis of it the objective of this work was to study the chemical changes produced in soils on flooding conditions, from flowering to fruit production, relating it to the quality and amount of the fruit. The experiment was a done at an Argiudoll soil of vertic characteristics, with an outstanding Bt horizon that has 35- 38% of clay. Two treatments were made: control, without flooding (c and with flooding (T. In the treatment (C, the hydric availability was subject to the climatic conditions that happened during the test, including the accomplishment of complementary irrigation allowing at any moment soil to stay in optimal conditions of moisture. The results of the test were related to changes in soil chemical characteristics. Flooded soils had, deficient levels of phosphorus and potassium that resulted in a smaller yield (Fresh and dry weight of fruit. Chemical analyses in plant followed the same tendency in relation to the contents of total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium that diminished substantially as the content of dry matter, that was reflected in the diminution of the quality of fruit in relation to its firmness and size.

  2. Investigation on the pollen morphology of traditional cultivars of Prunus species in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Geraci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study pollen grains of 13 cultivars and 3 rootstocks belonging to 5 species (P. armeniaca, P. domestica, P. dulcis, P. persica, P. avium of the genus Prunus collected from North-East Sicily were examined for the micromorphological characterization through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The length of polar axis (P and the equatorial diameter (E of grain, P/E ratio, the length of colpi (C, diameter of perforations (DP and the number of perforations in 25 μm2 (PN, the width of muri (WM, the distance between muri (DM and their number in 25 μm2 (MN, the width of grooves (WG were measured and their variation was compared among studied taxa. Moreover multivariate statistical analysis was carried out to distinguish morphometric information from measured parameters. All pollen grains are trizonocolpate, isopolar, medium-large sized and their shape varies from prolate to perprolate. Regarding outline pollen grains are subtriangular in polar view and elliptic in equatorial view. Exine sculpturing is striate with perforations on grain surface. The arrangement of ridges appears roughly parallel but too sloped (sometimes curved compared to polar axis, or branched and oriented in different directions, or perfectly parallel or more irregular with bifurcated ridges often sinuous. The analyses showed a great variability (particularly in P. domestica cultivars related in some cases to the diversity in the morphological features of the leaves and the fruits of the investigated entities.

  3. Evaluación del comportamiento agroindustrial de variedades de duraznos conserveros (Prunus persica (L. Batsch en Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Ojer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de aumentar los rendimientos a campo, mejorar la calidad de la materia prima y sentar las bases de futuros programas de introducción de nuevas variedades, se evaluaron 13 variedades de duraznos conserveros. A fin de dar marco a la propuesta, se analizó la situación del sector industrial, el sector de producción primaria y el panorama varietal. Se efectuaron mediciones en 5 áreas: maduración, comportamiento en la cosecha, capacidad productiva, parámetros vinculados al procesamiento en mitades y comportamiento en la agroindustria. Las determinaciones se realizaron durante 6 temporadas en 2 montes frutales en plena producción comercial. La oferta varietal se caracterizó por una sobreoferta (56,0 % del total implantado entre la última semana de enero y primera de febrero, y una escasa oferta, tan sólo del 12,2 %, a partir de mediados de febrero. Se observó un progresivo y sostenido reemplazo de las máquinas descarozadoras de torsión por las de sección. El máximo valor de la producción depende de los rendimientos, el peso de los frutos y su distribución en categorías comerciales. Sólo las variedades, Fortuna, Loadel y Carson, no superaron el nivel de producción mínimo (40 t/ha, pretendido por el sector primario. Sullivan’s Late mostró un comportamiento errático, con años de alto rendimiento y otros con baja producción. El rendimiento industrial es función principalmente del peso de frutos y la firmeza de pulpa. En el ingreso a la línea de procesamiento, la firmeza de pulpa debe estar en el rango 6 a 12 lb, aunque el óptimo es de 7 a 10 lb. Una visión integral del problema indica que la definición de la carga frutal óptima para cada variedad y el manejo de la cosecha son los dos factores determinantes del rendimiento en campo, la calidad de la materia prima y del rendimiento industrial.

  4. Evaluación del comportamiento agroindustrial de variedades de duraznos conserveros (Prunus persica (L. Batsch en Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Ojer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de aumentar los rendimientos a campo, mejorar la calidad de la materia prima y sentar las bases de futuros programas de introducción de nuevas variedades, se evaluaron 13 variedades de duraznos conserveros. A fin de dar marco a la propuesta, se analizó la situación del sector industrial, el sector de producción primaria y el panorama varietal. Se efectuaron mediciones en 5 áreas: maduración, comportamiento en la cosecha, capacidad productiva, parámetros vinculados al procesamiento en mitades y comportamiento en la agroindustria. Las determinaciones se realizaron durante 6 temporadas en 2 montes frutales en plena producción comercial. La oferta varietal se caracterizó por una sobreoferta (56,0 % del total implantado entre la última semana de enero y primera de febrero, y una escasa oferta, tan sólo del 12,2 %, a partir de mediados de febrero. Se observó un progresivo y sostenido reemplazo de las máquinas descarozadotas de torsión por las de sección. El máximo valor de la producción depende de los rendimientos, el peso de los frutos y su distribución en categorías comerciales. Sólo las variedades, Fortuna, Loadel y Carson, no superaron el nivel de producción mínimo (40 t/ha, pretendido por el sector primario. Sullivan’s Late mostró un comportamiento errático, con años de alto rendimiento y otros con baja producción. El rendimiento industrial es función principalmente del peso de frutos y la firmeza de pulpa. En el ingreso a la línea de procesamiento, la firmeza de pulpa debe estar en el rango 6 a 12 lb, aunque el óptimo es de 7 a 10 lb. Una visión integral del problema indica que la definición de la carga frutal óptima para cada variedad y el manejo de la cosecha son los dos factores de determinantes del rendimiento en campo, la calidad de la materia prima y del rendimiento industrial.

  5. Occupational Allergy to Peach (Prunus persica) Tree Pollen and Potential Cross-Reactivity between Rosaceae Family Pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Mak, Philip; Wen, Liping

    2015-10-01

    Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry) were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%), with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%). Western blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China.

  6. Obtaining of nectarinum (Prunus persica (L. Batsch subsp. nectarina (Ait. Shof. polyploid plants in Nikitsky Botanical Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є. П. Шоферістов

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Firstly in Ukraine as the result of resiprocal interbreedings of autotetraploid (2n=4x=32 / diploid (2n=2x=16 and diploid (2n=2x=16 / autotetraploid (2n=4x=32 four sintetic triploid (2n=3x=24 hybrid forms (611-91, 13-93, 14-93, 18-93 have been obtained. Spontaneous triploid nectarinum 166-80 has been shared out from diploid hybrid seedlings population. Tetraploid and triploid nectarinum forms are valuable sources for directoinal selection and making hybrids with the complex of new signs, which are difficult or impossible to receive on diploid level.

  7. Screening Quality Evaluation Factors of Freeze-Dried Peach (Prunus Persica L. Batsch Powders from Different Ripening Time Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-ju Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality evaluation of processed products is complex. To simplify the quality evaluation process and improve the efficiency, fourteen evaluation factors of freeze-dried powders of seventeen cultivars of peach at different ripening times were analyzed. The most important evaluation indicators and criteria were obtained by analysis of variance (ANOVA, correlation analysis (CA, principal component analysis (PCA, system cluster analysis (SCA, and analytic hierarchy process (AHP. Results showed that the peach powders had the significant differences in quality (P<0.05, and some processing factors were related with some physicochemical and nutritional factors. Five principle components were extracted by PCA and the cumulative contribution achieved was 84.46%. Through the score plot of the first two principal components, a clear differentiation among ripening times was found and three distinct groups were separated according to ripening time. Five characteristic factors were obtained as titratable acid, browning index, hemicellulose, hygroscopicity, and vitamin C by SCA. Their weights of 0.1249, 0.3007, 0.0514, 0.4916, and 0.0315 were obtained by AHP, respectively. The peach cultivars were divided into four evaluation grades by the comprehensive quality score.

  8. Parámetros de calidad durante la cosecha de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. “Rubidoux”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisney Alessandra Bastidas Parrado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El durazno es una fruta de importancia agrícola como parte de los cultivos caducifolios producidos en Colombia; su calidad y aceptacion comercial, asi como el momento de la cosecha, estan definidos en funcion de sus características fisicoquimicas. Esta investigacion tuvo como propósito caracterizar algunos parametros de calidad de durazno variedad Rubidoux durante el periodo de cosecha, a partir de la seleccion hecha por operarios en campo, de acuerdo al color de la piel como indicador de madurez. Durante seis semanas de la cosecha se evaluaron muestras de frutos, considerando aspectos como peso fresco, contenido de solidos solubles (oBrix, categoria comercial de acuerdo al diametro ecuatorial y color del fruto. Se registro un peso fresco promedio de 130,7 g por fruto, con un contenido de solidos solubles promedio de 11,8 oBrix, parametro que incremento progresivamente de la semana uno a la cinco. La clasificacion visual por el color de la piel permitio definir siete categorias, tres predominaron durante la cosecha (pinton, pinton-maduro y maduro, estos se correspondieron con el contenido de solidos solubles; es asi como el analisis de varianza mostro diferencias estadisticas entre oBrix y el color de piel. Durante el periodo evaluado, se cosecharon con mayor frecuencia duraznos pintones y frutos con diametro entre 60 mm a 70 mm.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) gene family in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C H; Ma, R J; Shen, Z J; Sun, X; Korir, N K; Yu, M L

    2014-04-08

    In this study, 33 homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) genes were identified in peach using the HD-ZIP amino acid sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana as a probe. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and the individual gene or protein characteristics, the HD-ZIP gene family in peach can be classified into 4 subfamilies, HD-ZIP I, II, III, and IV, containing 14, 7, 4, and 8 members, respectively. The most closely related peach HD-ZIP members within the same subfamilies shared very similar gene structure in terms of either intron/exon numbers or lengths. Almost all members of the same subfamily shared common motif compositions, thereby implying that the HD-ZIP proteins within the same subfamily may have functional similarity. The 33 peach HD-ZIP genes were distributed across scaffolds 1 to 7. Although the primary structure varied among HD-ZIP family proteins, their tertiary structures were similar. The results from this study will be useful in selecting candidate genes from specific subfamilies for functional analysis.

  10. Transcriptomic and Functional Analyses Reveal That PpGLK1 Regulates Chloroplast Development in Peach (Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Peach is an ideal species for fruit tree research because of its small, fully sequenced genome. Chloroplast development is dependent on the tight cooperation between the nuclear and plastid genomes, and is regulated by GLK transcription factors. In this work, the pigment content was monitored and the chloroplast-to-chromoplast conversion during the fruit ripening was visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Localization and expression analyses showed that PpGLK1 was located in the nucleus and expressed mainly in the leaves and fruit skin. A transcriptome analysis showed that PpGLK1 and its target genes were significantly differentially expressed in ripening peach fruit skin. PpGLK1 silencing affected chlorophyll accumulation in peach leaves and fruits. Overexpression of PpGLK1 rescued the phenotypes of the Arabidopsis Atglk1Atglk2 double mutant and the tomato uniform ripening mutant. The results of a yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that PpGLK1 is autoactivated and that PpGLK1 (301-542 a.a. interacted with PpARF5. Together, our results indicate that PpGLK1 regulates chloroplast development in green tissues in peach. Therefore, it may be a promising target gene for improving the production and quality of peach by genetic engineering and breeding approaches.

  11. Pemanfaatan lemak fleshing tersulfonasi untuk peminyakan pada proses penyamakan kulit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sutyasmi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to produce sulfonated oil of fleshing grease and to use for fat liquoring process in leather tanning industries. Fleshing wastes were collected from Yogyakarta. The extract was obtained from fleshing waste by boiling at 100o C for 15 minute 400 – 450 g of extract contained 99.96% of fat were obtained from 5 kg of fleshing. The extract then was sulfonated to increase solubility in water and more reactive with the fiber of processed skin. The sulfonated extract was then analyzed to determine content, iodine value, acid value and saponification value. The result of analysis showed that fat/grease content 158.48. While fat content of goat skin fleshing was 30.27%, iodine value 92.30, acid value 23.74and saponification value 157.03. The quantity parameters are able to meet requirement for leather tanning. Sulfonated extract was then used for fat liquoring process of goat skin with the variation of concentration 4,5 and 6% respectively. Control was made by using 5% synthetic oil. The result of crust testing in this research showed that all of quality parameters meet the document of SNI 06-3536-1994 about goat/sheep crust leather.

  12. Pertumbuhan cacing tanah Eisenia fetida sp. Pada kompos limbah fleshing

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    Prayitno Prayitno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of earthworm as a source of income and a means for managing organic solid waste such as fleshing waste has been widely applied. The aim of this research was to find the optimum ratio between fleshing waste and cow dung in the growing medium of Eisenia fetida sp. This research was conducted by growing the E. fetida sp. earthworm in the medium containing fleshing waste mixed with cow dung. The ratio of fleshing waste and cow dung was varied at 0:100; 10:90; 20:80; 30:70; 40:60; and 50:50. In addition, 2 parts of chopped stubbles per part of every sample was added as a carbon source. The prepared media were fermented for three weeks with EM4 as a starter, followed by incubation of the earthworm for six weeks. The weight and the number of earthworm were evaluated every two weeks. The optimum growth of earthworm was achieved at the 2nd week of incubation with 185.48% and 121.10% increase of weight and number of earthworm, respectively, at 40:60 ratio of fleshing waste and cow dung in the growing medium.

  13. Penggunaan lemak fleshing industri penyamakan kulit untuk pembuatan sabun mandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ign. Sunaryo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An experimentation the Use of Fat from Fleshing of Leather Tanning Industry to Produce Bath Soap was aimed to use the fat from fleshing to gain the alternative source of basic material for bath soap, to assist the industry to solve the environmental pollution and increasing the population income. The point to be gained after finishing this experiment was to find out the problem solving of environmental pollution problem caused by fleshing from leather tanning industry. Goat/sheep fleshing from one of leather tannings in Yogyakarta was collected and had been used as a source of fat. Fat from fleshing was produced by 3 kinds of heating those were coocked, “kukus”, and steam. The results of fat analysis showed that the average of saphonification value was 201.01; free faty acid value was 0.86%; acid value was 1.72 and the unsaphonification fat value was 1.44%. The variations of fat used for bath soap manufacture were 55%, 60%, 65%, 70% and 75%; whereas the variations of sodium hydrokside were 11, 14, 17. 20 and 23, each of which was in parts. The result of this experiment showed that the fat from fleshing could be a source of fat and could be used for bath soap manufacture. In such way, it could be as a pollultion problem solving to the industry. The result of bath soap analysis showed that almost all of the variations of fat and sodium hydrokside could meet the SNI 06-3532-1994 about bath soap. Economically point of view showed that the value of producing fat in various regions such as Jabotabek, West Java, Center Java, DIY and East would vary from Rp6,000,000,- to Rp.200,000,000,-; whereas the value of producing bath soap would vary from Rp 21,000,000,- - Rp 700,000,000,-

  14. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  15. Otostegia persica extraction on healing process of burn wounds

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    Amin Ganjali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate if the methanolic extract of the Otostegia persica can accelerating healing process of burn wound because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. METHODS:Forty eight male Wistar rats were randomized into three study groups of 16 rats each. Burn wounds were created on dorsal part of shaved rats using a metal rod. In group I the burn wound was left without any treatment. Group was treated with topical silver sulfadiazine pomade. In group III, ointment containing the OP extract was administered. Skin biopsies were harvested from burn area on the 3rd, 5th, 14th and 21st days after burn and examined histologically. RESULTS: Re-epithelialization in the control group and in group II was lower than in group III. Re-epithelialization in groups II and III was significantly different from that in the control group. On the 5th day of the experiment, we assessed lower inflammation in the burn area compared to control group. This means that the inflammation was suppressed by methanolic extract of OP. From day 5 to 14; the fibroblast proliferation peaked and was associated with increased collagen accumulation. It was obvious that angiogenesis improved more in the groups II and III, which facilitated re-epithelialisation. CONCLUSION:Methanolic extract of Otostegia persica exhibited significant healing activity when topically applied on rats. OP is an effective treatment for saving the burn site.

  16. Pengaruh penggunaan tepung fleshing dalam pakan ayam pedaging terhadap kenaikan bobot ayam

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Sutyasmi; Titik Purwati Widowati; R. Jaka Susila

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The fleshing waste ratio of leather processing is very high, that was about 70-230 kgs/ton of raw material. Those waste containing high amount of protein. The aim of this experiment was to know the influenceof fleshing powder on the increasing of broiler body weight. This experiment was classified into two steps. The first step was focused on the preparation of fleshing powder. The second step was the application of fleshing powder as protein substitute of broiler feed. Th...

  17. Farmers' willingness to pay for quality orange fleshed sweetpotato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The special nutrition need by people have shifted their focus to the adoption of Orange Flesh Sweet Potato for cumption due to its high content of Vitamin A. Sweetpotato which is one of the most important but underutilized food crops in the world have now attracted concerted efforts globally to in the past decade to feed the ...

  18. Influence of cooling preservation prior to rabbit flesh radurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, M.E.; Medina de Dias, R.; Blocklet, M.F.; Nacif, N.; Engler, S.A. de.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the effects of low gamma irradiation doses (radurization) on rabbit flesh preservation (Lepus cunniculus L), with a 9 days work period and refrigerated up to the treatment. Chopped samples, which receive 1.5, 2 and 2.5 KGy, were used. (Author) [es

  19. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of Genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... The genus Prunus L. is an important plant for fruit production and it includes plums, apricots, cherries, almonds ... classification and placement of different genera under different sub-families. ... cultivated primarily or their beautiful flowers, such as ..... described the character evolution in the 37 Prunus and 8.

  20. Effects of Alchemilla mollis and Alchemilla persica on the wound healing process

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    Burçin Ergene Öz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alchemilla mollis, is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of wounds and excessive menstruation. Aqueous methanol extracts of A. mollis and A. persica were evaluated for wound healing acivity by using linear incision and circular excision wound models along with hydroxyproline estimation and histopathological analysis. Anti-inflammatory effect was determined according to Whittle method. The extracts prepared from the aerial parts of A. mollis and A. persica exerted significant wound healing activity with the tensile strength values of 39.3% and 33.3%, respectively, and with the contraction values of 51.4% and 43.5%, respectively. Hydroxyproline estimation and histopathological analysis also confirmed the results. The extracts of A. mollis and A. persica showed significant anti-inflammatory activity with the values of 30.6% and 26.6% respectively. These results showed that A. mollis and A. persica possess significant wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities.

  1. The Occurrence of the Cicada Cicadatra persica on Apple Trees, Malus domestica, in Erneh, Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardar, Marah A.; Belal, Hamzeh M.R.; Basheer, Abedlnabi M.

    2013-01-01

    An infestation of Cicadatra persica KirKaldy (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) on apple trees, Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosales: Rosaceae), was reported for the first time in the apple fruit orchards of Erneh, Syria. Nymphs, adults, exuvia, and exit holes in the soil were observed. The species was identified as C. persica based on morphological characters. Some biological observations and an acoustic analysis of the male's songs were also achieved. PMID:23909877

  2. A Case of Canine Borreliosis in Iran Caused by Borrelia persica

    OpenAIRE

    Shirani, Darush; Rakhshanpoor, Alaleh; Cutler, Sally J.; Ghazinezhad, Behnaz; Naddaf, Saied Reza

    2016-01-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever is an endemic disease in Iran, with most cases attributed to infection by B. persica, which is transmitted by Ornithodoros tholozani soft ticks. Here, we report spirochetemia in blood of a puppy residing in Tehran, Iran. The causative species was identified by use of highly discriminative IGS sequencing; the 489 bp IGS sequence obtained in our study showed 99% identity (100% coverage) when compared with Borrelia persica sequences derived from clinical cases or from ...

  3. Uso de cuatro extractos organicos para el control del pulgon verde (Myzus persicae Sulz) (ING)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Navas, Hernán; Blanco, Fabio A.

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of leaves and stems of Neurolaena lobata; leaves, stems and fruits of Momordica charantia, wood of Quassia amara and seeds of Annona muricata, were tested regarding their effectiveness for control of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). In a first stage, groups of 10 individuals of M. persicae were placed inside petri dishes together with a small and slight piece of synthetic cloth soaked with either substance extracted. Several concentrations were used. After two hours; more than 50%...

  4. Pengaruh penggunaan tepung fleshing dalam pakan ayam pedaging terhadap kenaikan bobot ayam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sutyasmi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The fleshing waste ratio of leather processing is very high, that was about 70-230 kgs/ton of raw material. Those waste containing high amount of protein. The aim of this experiment was to know the influenceof fleshing powder on the increasing of broiler body weight. This experiment was classified into two steps. The first step was focused on the preparation of fleshing powder. The second step was the application of fleshing powder as protein substitute of broiler feed. The results showed that the quality of fleshing powder prepared by pressurize steaming at 2 atm for 15 min was better than by unpressurized method. The additional and the final weight of broilers feed by fleshing powder were not significantly difference with the control. Therefore, fleshing powder could be used as protein substitute on the prepraration of broiler feed instead of fish powder.

  5. The effectiveness of Penicillium sp. mixed with silica nanoparticles in controlling Myzus persicae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersanti, Hidayat, Syarif; Susanto, Agus; Virgiawan, Regi; Joni, I. Made

    2018-02-01

    Myzus persicae is one of the major potato plant pests, and also a vector of potato viruses. This pest may cause low quality as well as quantity of potato production. Entomopathogenic fungi can be used to control M. persicae. Penicillium sp. and has been reported as pathogenic to many insect pests. However, it was not that effective in controlling M. persicae. To increase its effectiveness, it can be mixed with plant micro nutrients such as silica, which also protects plants from biotic stress. This experiment was aimed to study the effect of applications of the mixture of Penicillium sp.+ nanosilica in various concentrations on the mortality of M. persicae. There were 8 treatments i.e., applications of single Penicillium sp, single nanosilica 1, 3, and 5 %, and the mixture of Penicillium sp.+ nanosilica 1, 3, and 5 %, and a control (without Penicillium sp.and nanosilica). Each cabbage plant grown in the greenhouse was infested with 20 Penicillium sp. instar II-III, and sprayed according to the treatments. Mortality of M. persicae was assessed after five days of application. The results showed that application of the mixture of Penicillium sp.106spora/ml+nanosilica 5%, and single nanosilica 5% increased the mortality of M. persicae. The mortalities were 37.5%, and 32.5% respectively, compared with 12.5% mortality on the treatment of single Penicillium sp.

  6. Micropropagation of ornamental Prunus spp. and GF305 peach, a Prunus viral indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, Anna; Brown, Daniel C W

    2007-07-01

    A micropropagation approach was developed for nine ornamental Prunus species, P. americana, P. cistena, P. glandulosa, P. serrulata 'Kwanzan', P. laurocerasus, P. sargentii, P. tomentosa, P. triloba, P. virginiana 'Schubert', commercially important in North America, and GF305 peach, commonly used for Prunus virus indexing. The micropropagation cycle based on proliferation of vegetative tissues includes establishment of tissue culture through introduction of shoot meristems in vitro, shoot proliferation, root induction and plant acclimatization steps and can be completed in 5 months. A meristem sterilization protocol minimized bacterial and fungal contamination. Multiple shoot formation in ornamental Prunus was obtained through the use of 1 mg l(-1) 6-benzyladenine. For GF305 peach, alteration in the sugar composition, fructose instead of sucrose, and addition of 1 mg l(-1 )ferulic acid had a significant impact on the shoot proliferation rate and maintenance of long-term in vitro culture. Rooting and plant acclimatization conditions were improved using a two-step protocol with a 4-day root induction in indole-3-butiric acid (IBA)-containing media with consequent 3-week root elongation in IBA-free media. One-month incubation of rooted shoots in a vermiculite-based medium resulted in additional shoot and root growth and provided better acclimatization and plant recovery. The micropropagation approach can be used for maintenance of the clonal properties for Prunus spp. as well as a protocol to support meristem therapy against viral infection.

  7. Pengaruh Penggunaan Tepung Fleshing Dalam Pakan Ayam Pedaging Terhadap Kenaikan Bobot Ayam

    OpenAIRE

    Sutyasmi, Sri; Widowati, Titik Purwati; Susila, R. Jaka

    2002-01-01

    The fleshing waste ratio of leather processing is very high, that was about 70-230 kgs/ton of raw material. Those waste containing high amount of protein. The aim of this experiment was to know the influenceof fleshing powder on the increasing of broiler body weight. This experiment was classified into two steps. The first step was focused on the preparation of fleshing powder. The second step was the application of fleshing powder as protein substitute of broiler feed. The results showed t...

  8. Crystal Macropattern Development in Prunus serotina (Rosaceae, Prunoideae) Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    LERSTEN, NELS R.; HORNER, HARRY T.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Prunus, subgenus Padus, exhibits two completely different calcium oxalate crystal macropatterns in mature leaves. Foliar macropattern development has been described previously in P. virginiana, representing one version. Prunus serotina, in the group exhibiting the second macropattern, is described here. The goal was to describe developmental details for comparison with P. virginiana, and to extend the sparse current knowledge of crystal macropatterns.

  9. Yield and fruit quality of peach scion by using rootstocks propagated by air layering and seed

    OpenAIRE

    Picolotto,Luciano; Fachinello,José Carlos; Bianchi,Valmor João; Manica-Berto,Roberta; Pasa,Mateus da Silveira; Schmitz,Juliano Dutra

    2010-01-01

    In rootstock propagation, several methods can be used; however few practices are adopted due to the lack of information about the behavior of stionic combinations at field. The work aimed to compare the propagation method by air layering with the traditional propagation system by seeds using the scion peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivar Granada. The following variables were measured: yield, fruit weight and size, skin color, flesh firmness, total soluble solids content (TSS) and titat...

  10. Anthocyanin biosynthesis is differentially regulated by light in the skin and flesh of white-fleshed and teinturier grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Le; Dai, Zhanwu; Wu, Ben-Hong; Wu, Jing; Merlin, Isabelle; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Edwards, Everard; Li, Shao-Hua; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Light exclusion reduces the concentration and modifies the composition of grape anthocyanins, by altering the expression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and transport, in a cultivar- and tissue-specific manner. Unlike most grapes, teinturier grapes accumulate anthocyanins both in skin and flesh. However, the concentration and composition of anthocyanins in both tissues differ, providing a valuable system to study tissue-specific regulation of anthocyanin synthesis. Furthermore, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the sensitivity of anthocyanin accumulation to light. Here, light was excluded from Gamay (white-fleshed) and Gamay Fréaux (teinturier mutant) berries throughout berry development. Under light-exposed conditions, the skin of Gamay Fréaux accumulated the highest level of anthocyanins, followed by the skin of Gamay, while the pulp of Gamay Fréaux had much lower anthocyanins than the skins. Network analysis revealed the same order on the number of significant correlations among metabolites and transcripts in the three colored tissues, indicating a higher connectivity that reflects a higher efficiency of the anthocyanin pathway. Compared to light conditions, light exclusion reduced the total amount of anthocyanins, most severely in the skin of Gamay and to a lesser extent in the flesh and skin of Gamay Fréaux. Coordinated decrease in the transcript abundance of structural, regulatory and transporter genes by light exclusion correlated with the reduced anthocyanin concentration in a cultivar- and tissue-specific manner. Moreover, light exclusion increased the ratio of dihydroxylated to trihydroxylated anthocyanins, in parallel with F3'H and F3'5'H transcript amounts. Sugars and ABA only play a limited role in the control of anthocyanin synthesis in the berries, in contrast with what has been described in cell suspensions. This study provides novel insights into the regulation of anthocyanin in wild type and teinturier cultivars.

  11. Polyphenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica and Prunus domestica Cultivars from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Mirtha; Moreira, Ileana; Arnaez, Elizabeth; Quesada, Silvia; Azofeifa, Gabriela; Vargas, Felipe; Alvarado, Diego; Chen, Pei

    2018-01-30

    The phenolic composition of skin and flesh from Malus domestica apples (Anna cultivar) and Prunus domestica plums (satsuma cultivar) commercial cultivars in Costa Rica, was studied using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) on enriched-phenolic extracts, with particular emphasis in proanthocyanidin and flavonoids characterization. A total of 52 compounds were identified, including 21 proanthocyanidins ([(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin]) flavan-3-ols monomers, five procyanidin B-type dimers and two procyanidin A-type dimers, five procyanidin B-type trimers and two procyanidin A-type trimers, as well as one procyanidin B-type tetramer, two procyanidin B-type pentamers, and two flavan-3-ol gallates); 15 flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin and naringenin derivatives); nine phenolic acids (protochatechuic, caffeoylquinic, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives); five hydroxychalcones (phloretin and 3-hydroxyphloretin derivatives); and two isoprenoid glycosides (vomifoliol derivatives). These findings constitute the first report of such a high number and diversity of compounds in skins of one single plum cultivar and of the presence of proanthocyanidin pentamers in apple skins. Also, it is the first time that such a large number of glycosylated flavonoids and proanthocyanidins are reported in skins and flesh of a single plum cultivar. In addition, total phenolic content (TPC) was measured with high values observed for all samples, especially for fruits skins with a TPC of 619.6 and 640.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract respectively for apple and plum. Antioxidant potential using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methods were evaluated, with results showing also high values for all samples, especially again for fruit skins with IC 50 of 4.54 and 5.19 µg/mL (DPPH) and 16.8 and 14.6 mmol TE/g (ORAC) respectively for apple and plum, indicating the potential

  12. Sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of sweetpotato cultivars with varying flesh colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sensory characteristics of sweet potatoes (n = 12 cultivars) with varying flesh color (orange, purple, yellow) and the impact of flesh colors on consumer acceptance were evaluated. A lexicon was developed for sweet potato flavor followed by consumer acceptance testing conducted with and without ...

  13. Degradation of Collagen Increases Nitrogen Solubilisation During Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Fleshing Meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anzani, Cecilia; Prandi, Barbara; Tedeschi, Tullia; Baldinelli, Chiara; Sorlini, Giovanni; Wierenga, Peter A.; Dossena, Arnaldo; Sforza, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The meat portion directly attached to bovine hides (fleshing meat) is a by-product of leather industry that is a potential new source of proteins. In literature different enzymatic and chemical methods have been proposed to hydrolyze and solubilize fleshing meat. Enzyme hydrolysis is

  14. Antioxidant capacity of chewing stick miswak Salvadora persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Khan, Jalaluddin A

    2013-02-21

    Chewing stick (miswak Salvadora persica L.) is an effective tool for oral hygiene. It possessed various biological properties including significant antibacterial and anti-fungal effects. In the present study, we evaluated the antioxidant compounds in miswak. Miswak root was extracted with 80% methanol. Methanol extract as antioxidant was evaluated by using DPPH, ABTS and phosphomolybdenum complex assays and analysis by GC-MS. Peroxidase, catalase and polyphenoloxidase assays were performed for crude extract of miswak root. The methanol extract of miswak contained the highest amount of crude extract among the various solvent extracts. The methanol extract showed a concentration dependent scavenging of DPPH and ABTS radicals with IC50 values 4.8 and 1.6 μg crude extract, respectively. The total antioxidant activities, based on the reduction of molybdenum (VI) to molybdenum (V), increased with increasing crude extract content. The correlation coefficients (R2) between total crude extract and DPPH, ABTS scavenging activities and the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex were 0.97, 0.99 and 0.95, respectively. The GC-MS analysis showed that the methanol extract doesn't contain phenolic and flavonoid compounds or under detected limit. After silylation of methanol extract, three compounds namely 2-furancarboxaldehyde-5-(hydroxymethyl), furan-2-carboxylic acid-3-methyl- trimethylsilyl ester and D-erythro-pentofuranose-2-deoxy-1,3,5-tris-O-(trimethylsilyl) were identified by GC-MS analysis. These furan derivatives as they contain hydroxyl groups could be possessed antioxidant activities. The antioxidant enzymes were also detected in the miswak extract with high level of peroxidase and low level of catalase and polyphenoloxidase. The synergistic actions of antioxidant compounds and antioxidant enzymes make miswak is a good chewing stick for oral hygiene and food purposes.

  15. Parasitism rate of Myzus persicae (Sulzer by Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh in the presence of an alternative, resistant host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Evangelista Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aphids Lipaphis pseudobrassicae (Davis and Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae are important Brassicaceae pests, occurring worldwide and causing significant damage to crops. Interspecific variations in the resistance to natural enemies can potentially impact the interaction among aphid populations. Here we evaluated the hypothesis of associational resistance by determining if the presence of resistant aphids (L. pseudobrassicae reduces the rate of parasitism by Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh on non-resistant aphids (M. persicae. The experiment was conducted using collard green plants infested with M. persicae and L. pseudobrassicae either resistant or susceptible to D. rapae. The percentage of parasitism by D. rapae was greater on L. pseudobrassicae in the susceptible than in the resistant treatment, but parasitism rates on M. persicae did not differ between the treatments. There was no difference in average growth rate between M. persicae and susceptible L. pseudobrassicae populations, but resistant L. pseudobrassicae had greater growth rate than M. persicae. These results suggest that over a short period of time the presence of resistant L. pseudobrassicae does not affect the rate of parasitism by D. rapae on M. persicae.

  16. A remarkable synergistic effect at the transcriptomic level in peach fruits doubly infected by prunus necrotic ringspot virus and peach latent mosaic viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Mari Carmen; Niehl, Annette; Rosales, Marlene; Fiore, Nicola; Zamorano, Alan; Granell, Antonio; Pallas, Vicente

    2013-05-28

    Microarray profiling is a powerful technique to investigate expression changes of large amounts of genes in response to specific environmental conditions. The majority of the studies investigating gene expression changes in virus-infected plants are limited to interactions between a virus and a model host plant, which usually is Arabidopsis thaliana or Nicotiana benthamiana. In the present work, we performed microarray profiling to explore changes in the expression profile of field-grown Prunus persica (peach) originating from Chile upon single and double infection with Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd), worldwide natural pathogens of peach trees. Upon single PLMVd or PNRSV infection, the number of statistically significant gene expression changes was relatively low. By contrast, doubly-infected fruits presented a high number of differentially regulated genes. Among these, down-regulated genes were prevalent. Functional categorization of the gene expression changes upon double PLMVd and PNRSV infection revealed protein modification and degradation as the functional category with the highest percentage of repressed genes whereas induced genes encoded mainly proteins related to phosphate, C-compound and carbohydrate metabolism and also protein modification. Overrepresentation analysis upon double infection with PLMVd and PNRSV revealed specific functional categories over- and underrepresented among the repressed genes indicating active counter-defense mechanisms of the pathogens during infection. Our results identify a novel synergistic effect of PLMVd and PNRSV on the transcriptome of peach fruits. We demonstrate that mixed infections, which occur frequently in field conditions, result in a more complex transcriptional response than that observed in single infections. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that the simultaneous infection of a viroid and a plant virus synergistically affect the host transcriptome in

  17. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Myzus persicae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures t...

  18. Concentration-mortality responses of Myzus persicae and natural enemies to selected insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Leandro; Rosado, Jander F; Picanço, Marcelo C; Pereira, Eliseu J G; Silva, Gerson A; Martins, Júlio C

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of six insecticides was determined for the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and some of its natural enemies - the predatory beetles Cycloneda sanguinea (Coccinellidae) and Acanthinus sp. (Anthicidae), and the wasp parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Aphidiidae). Natural enemies from these groups are important natural biological control agents in a number of agroecosystems, and insecticides potentially safe to these non-target organisms should be identified using standardized tests. Thus, concentration-mortality bioassays were carried out with both the aphid and its natural enemies to assess the toxicity and selectivity of acephate, deltamethrin, dimethoate, methamidophos, methyl parathion, and pirimicarb. The latter insecticide was highly selective to all natural enemies tested, and its LC(90) for M. persicae was 14-fold lower than the field rate recommended for control of the aphid in brassica crops. Methyl parathion also showed selectivity to C. sanguinea and Acanthinus sp., but not to D. rapae. Acephate was the least potent insecticide against M. persicae and was equally or more toxic to the natural enemies relative to the aphid. Pirimicarb and methyl parathion were efficient against M. persicae and selective in favor of two of the natural enemies tested. Acanthinus sp. and C. sanguinea were more tolerant to the insecticides than was the parasitoid D. rapae. This study shows that there are selective insecticides that may be compatible with conservation of natural enemies in brassica crops, which is important practical information to improve integrated pest management systems in these crops.

  19. Microsatellite marker analysis of peach-potato aphids (Myzus persicae, Homoptera: Aphididae) from Scottish suction traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloch, G; Highet, F; Kasprowicz, L; Pickup, J; Neilson, R; Fenton, B

    2006-12-01

    The peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is an important vector of plant viruses. A network of suction traps collects aerial samples of this aphid in order to monitor and help predict its spatial distribution and likely impact on virus transmission in crops. A suction trap catch is thought to be a good representation of the total aphid pool. Sensitive molecular markers have been developed that determine the genetic composition of the M. persicae population. In Scotland, UK, these were applied to field collections revealing a limited number of clones. Molecular markers are less successful when applied to specimens that have been preserved in an ethanol-based trap fluid designed to preserve morphology. An assessment of different DNA extraction and PCR techniques is presented and the most efficient are used to analyse M. persicae specimens caught in the Dundee suction trap in 2001, a year when exceptionally high numbers were caught. The results reveal that the majority of the M. persicae caught belonged to two highly insecticide resistant clones. In addition, it was possible to compare the relative frequencies of genotypes caught in the trap with those collected at insecticide treated and untreated field sites in the vicinity. These results indicate that, in addition to suction trap data, the ability to sample field sites provides valuable early warning data which have implications for pest control and virus management strategies.

  20. The site of potato leafroll virus multiplication in its vector, Myzus persicae : an anatomical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsen, M.B.

    1972-01-01

    In search of the site of PLRV multiplication in its vector a detailed study was made of the anatomy of the aphid, Myzus persicae SULZ. The findings are summarized in the following lines:

    Alimentary canal

    The most anterior part of

  1. Influence of Salvadora persica (miswak) extract on physical and antimicrobial properties of glass ionomer cement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Tatari, A.; de Soet, J.J.; de Gee, A.J.; Abou Shelib, M.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate physical and antimicrobial properties of Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) combined with Salvadora Persica Extract (SPE). METHODS: SPE was added to GIC (Fuji IX) in concentrations of 1%, 2% and 4% w/w. The compressive strength and diametral tensile strength were measured at 1 h, 24 h

  2. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Salvadora persica Extracts on a Monospecies Biofilm on Orthodontic Brackets In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawany, Hassan S; Abraham, Nimmi B; Siddiqui, Yunus M; Balto, Hanan A; Jacob, Vimal

    2016-01-01

    The oral cavity is a rich ecosystem with a plethora of microorganisms, and different components of fixed orthodontic appliances may contribute to a shift in the balance of oral ecology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial potential of hexane and ethanol extracts of Salvadora persica on a monospecies biofilm model established on orthodontic brackets in vitro. Streptococcus mutans biofilm was formed on mini diamond orthodontic brackets following three days of anaerobic incubation at 37˚C. The bacterial cell viability of this biofilm was measured after their exposure to saline, hexane extract of S. persica, ethanol extract of S. persica and 0.2% chlorhexidine using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. On half of the brackets, the colony forming units (CFU) were counted. Both experiments were performed in triplicate. The absorbance values obtained from the MTS reduction assay after exposure to the different test agents showed a decline in the bacterial cell viability of the S. mutans biofilm as follows: chlorhexidine (+)0.05). The CFU counts of S. mutans obtained from chlorhexidine exposure were lower than from hexane and ethanol extracts. S. persica extracts were found to have antimicrobial effects on S. mutans biofilm established in vitro on orthodontic brackets suggestive of its potential use as an oral antimicrobial agent for orthodontic patients.

  3. Susceptibility of Australian Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to Three Recently Registered Insecticides: Spirotetramat, Cyantraniliprole, and Sulfoxaflor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Little, Siobhan C; Umina, Paul A

    2017-08-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is a significant agricultural pest that has developed resistance to a large number of insecticides globally. Within Australia, resistance has previously been confirmed for multiple chemical groups, including pyrethroids, carbamates, organophosphates, and neonicotinoids. In this study, we use leaf-dip and topical bioassays to investigate susceptibility and potential cross-resistance of 12 field-collected populations of Australian M. persicae to three recently registered insecticides: sulfoxaflor, spirotetramat, and cyantraniliprole. Despite all 12 populations carrying known resistance mechanisms to carbamates, organophosphates, and pyrethroids, and two populations also exhibiting low-level metabolic resistance to neonicotinoids, we found little evidence of variation in susceptibility to sulfoxafor, spirotetramat, or cyantraniliprole. This provides further evidence that cross-resistance to spirotetramat, cyantraniliprole, and sulfoxaflor in M. persicae is not conferred by the commonly occurring resistance mechanisms MACE, super-kdr, amplification of the E4 esterase gene, or enhanced expression and copy number of the P450 gene, CYP6CY3. Importantly, this study also established toxicity baseline data that will be important for future monitoring of insecticide responses of M. persicae from both broadacre and horticultural crops. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Infection of potato plants with potato leafroll virus changes attraction and feeding behaviour of Myzus persicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, A.E.; Garzo, E.; Verbeek, M.; Vosman, B.; Dicke, M.; Tjallingii, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) is a persistently transmitted circulative virus that depends on aphids for spreading. The primary vector of PLRV is the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Solanum tuberosum L. potato cv. Kardal (Solanaceae) has a

  5. Plastid structure and carotenogenic gene expression in red- and white-fleshed loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiumin; Kong, Wenbin; Peng, Gang; Zhou, Jingyi; Azam, Muhammad; Xu, Changjie; Grierson, Don; Chen, Kunsong

    2012-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) can be sorted into red- and white-fleshed cultivars. The flesh of Luoyangqing (LYQ, red-fleshed) appears red-orange because of a high content of carotenoids while the flesh of Baisha (BS, white-fleshed) appears ivory white due to a lack of carotenoid accumulation. The carotenoid content in the peel and flesh of LYQ was approximately 68 μg g−1 and 13 μg g−1 fresh weight (FW), respectively, and for BS 19 μg g−1 and 0.27 μg g−1 FW. The mRNA levels of 15 carotenogenesis-related genes were analysed during fruit development and ripening. After the breaker stage (S4), the mRNA levels of phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1) and chromoplast-specific lycopene β-cyclase (CYCB) were higher in the peel, and CYCB and β-carotene hydroxylase (BCH) mRNAs were higher in the flesh of LYQ, compared with BS. Plastid morphogenesis during fruit ripening was also studied. The ultrastructure of plastids in the peel of BS changed less than in LYQ during fruit development. Two different chromoplast shapes were observed in the cells of LYQ peel and flesh at the fully ripe stage. Carotenoids were incorporated in the globules in chromoplasts of LYQ and BS peel but were in a crystalline form in the chromoplasts of LYQ flesh. However, no chromoplast structure was found in the cells of fully ripe BS fruit flesh. The mRNA level of plastid lipid-associated protein (PAP) in the peel and flesh of LYQ was over five times higher than in BS peel and flesh. In conclusion, the lower carotenoid content in BS fruit was associated with the lower mRNA levels of PSY1, CYCB, and BCH; however, the failure to develop normal chromoplasts in BS flesh is the most convincing explanation for the lack of carotenoid accumulation. The expression of PAP was well correlated with chromoplast numbers and carotenoid accumulation, suggesting its possible role in chromoplast biogenesis or interconversion of loquat fruit. PMID:21994170

  6. Flesh-Eating Disease: A Note on Necrotizing Fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Dele Davies

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been much media attention in the past few years to the condition dubbed 'flesh-eating disease', which refers, primarily, to a form of invasive group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS infection that leads to fascia and muscle necrosis. In 1999, the Canadian Paediatric Society issued a statement on the state of knowledge and management of children, and close contacts of persons with all-invasive GABHS disease (1. The present note is intended to deal specifically with necrotizing fasciitis (NF by providing an update on the limited current state of knowledge, diagnosis and management. Surveillance to establish actual national rates and epidemiology of NF through the Canadian Paediatric Society is proposed.

  7. [Effects of Beauveria bassiana on Myzus persicae and its two predaceous natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xu-mei; Song, Jin-xin; Fan, Mei-zhen; Li, Zeng-zhi

    2011-09-01

    A Beauveria bassiana strain Bb21 was isolated from naturally infected green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The effects of the strain on M. persicae and its two predaceous natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were investigated under laboratory conditions. Bb21 had strong pathogenicity to M. persicae, with the LD50 of 97 conidia x mm(-2) (45-191, 95% confidence interval), but was less pathogenic to the second instar nymph of C. carnea, with the LD50 of 1089 conidia x mm(-2). The LD50 for C. carnea was 10.2 times higher than that for M. persicae. The pathogenicity of Bb21 to H. axyridis was very weak, with a low infection rate of 13% even at a high concentration 5 x 10(8) conidia x mL(-1). The Bb21 at low conidia concentration had less effect on the developmental period and fecundity of the two predaceous natural enemies. However, when applied at the high concentration 5 x 10(8) spores x mL(-1), Bb21 shortened the larval stage of H. axyridis averagely by 1.4 d and decreased the adult emergence rate and fecundity by 33% and 14%, respectively, and shortened the larval stage of C. carnea averagely by 0.7 d and decreased the adult emergence rate and fecundity by 24% and 11%, respectively. Since the LD50 for green peach aphid was much lower than that for the two predaceous natural enemies, and had very low effect on the adult emergence rate and fecundity of the two predators at the concentration recommended for field spray, Bb21 could be applied as a biocontrol agent of M. persicae in the integrated management of pernicious organisms.

  8. Antiviral activity of Quercus persica L.: High efficacy and low toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug-resistant strain of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-I has increased the interest in the use of natural substances. Aims: This study was aimed to determine minimum inhibitory concentration of hydroalchoholic extract of a traditionally used herbal plant, Quercus persica L., on HSV-1 replication on baby hamster kidney (BHK cells. Setting: The study was conducted in Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Design: This was an experimental study. Materials and Methods: BHK cells were grown in monolayer culture with Dulbecco′s modified Eagle′s medium (DMEM supplemented with 5% fetal calf serum and plated onto 48-well culture plates. Fifty percent cytotoxic concentration (CC50% of Q. persica L. on BHK cells was determined. Subsequently, 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50% of the extract on replication of HSV-1 both in interacellular and exteracellular cases was assessed. Statistical Analysis: Statistic Probit model was used for statistical analysis. The dose-dependent effect of antiviral activity of the extracts was determined by linear regression. Results: Q. persica L. had no cytotoxic effect on this cell line. There was significant relationship between the concentration of the extract and cell death (P<0.01. IC50s of Q. persica L. on HSV-1, before and after attachment to BHK cells were 1.02 and 0.257 μg/mL, respectively. There was significant relationship between the concentration of this extract and inhibition of cytopathic effect (CPE (P<0.05. Antioxidant capacity of the extract was 67.5%. Conclusions: The hydroalchoholic extract of Q. persica L. is potentially an appropriate and promising anti herpetic herbal medicine.

  9. Molecular Variability Among Isolates of Prunus Necrotic Ringspot Virus from Different Prunus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, F; Myrta, A; Di Terlizzi, B; Pallás, V

    1999-11-01

    ABSTRACT Viral sequences amplified by polymerase chain reaction from 25 isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), varying in the symptomatology they cause in six different Prunus spp., were analyzed for restriction fragment polymorphisms. Most of the isolates could be discriminated by using a combination of three different restriction enzymes. The nucleotide sequences of the RNA 4 of 15 of these isolates were determined. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses of the RNA 4 and coat proteins (CPs) revealed that all of the isolates clustered into three different groups, represented by three previously sequenced PNRSV isolates: PV32, PE5, and PV96. The PE5-type group was characterized by a 5' untranslated region that was clearly different from that of the other two groups. The PV32-type group was characterized by an extra hexanucleotide consisting of a duplication of the six immediately preceding nucleotides. Although most of the variability was observed in the first third of the CP, the amino acid residues in this region, which were previously thought to be functionally important in the replication cycle of the virus, were strictly conserved. No clear correlation with the type of symptom or host specificity could be observed. The validity of this grouping was confirmed when other isolates recently characterized by other authors were included in these analyses.

  10. Tissue- Specific Expression Analysis of Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Genes in White- and Red-Fleshed Grape Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Xie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yan73, a teinturier (dyer grape variety in China, is one of the few Vitis vinifera cultivars with red-coloured berry flesh. To examine the tissue-specific expression of genes associated with berry colour in Yan73, we analysed the differential accumulation of anthocyanins in the skin and flesh tissues of two red-skinned grape varieties with either red (Yan73 or white flesh (Muscat Hamburg based on HPLC-MS analysis, as well as the differential expression of 18 anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in both varieties by quantitative RT-PCR. The results revealed that the transcripts of GST, OMT, AM3, CHS3, UFGT, MYBA1, F3′5′H, F3H1 and LDOX were barely detectable in the white flesh of Muscat Hamburg. In particular, GST, OMT, AM3, CHS3 and F3H1 showed approximately 50-fold downregulation in the white flesh of Muscat Hamburg compared to the red flesh of Yan73. A correlation analysis between the accumulation of different types of anthocyanins and gene expression indicated that the cumulative expression of GST, F3′5′H, LDOX and MYBA1 was more closely associated with the acylated anthocyanins and the 3′5′-OH anthocyanins, while OMT and AM3 were more closely associated with the total anthocyanins and methoxylated anthocyanins. Therefore, the transcripts of OMT, AM3, GST, F3′5′H, LDOX and MYBA1 explained most of the variation in the amount and composition of anthocyanins in skin and flesh of Yan73. The data suggest that the specific localization of anthocyanins in the flesh tissue of Yan73 is most likely due to the tissue-specific expression of OMT, AM3, GST, F3′5′H, LDOX and MYBA1 in the flesh.

  11. Efeito do comprimento de estacas herbáceas de dois clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. no enraizamento adventício Effect of the length of herbaceous cuttings of two clones of japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. in adventicious rooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEWTON ALEX MAYER

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O umezeiro (Prunus mumeSieb & Zucc. é uma rosácea de folhas caducas, nativa da China, cujos frutos e flores são muito apreciados pelos povos orientais. No Brasil, alguns estudos foram realizados visando a sua utilização como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro e nectarineira, dadas as suas características de adaptação, rusticidade, redução do porte da planta e compatibilidade com algumas cultivares de Prunus persica. O presente estudo foi conduzido em câmara de nebulização sob ripado, pertencente ao Departamento de Produção Vegetal da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP. Objetivou-se verificar a influência de quatro comprimentos de estacas herbáceas no enraizamento de dois clones de umezeiro. O material vegetal, identificado como Clone 10 e Clone 15, foi oriundo do Programa de Melhoramento Genético do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas-SP. O experimento foi constituido de fatorial 2 x 4, em blocos casualizados, sendo o fator clone em 2 níveis (Clone 10 e Clone 15 e o fator comprimento de estaca em 4 níveis (12; 15; 18 e 25cm. Pelos resultados observados, verificou-se diferença entre os clones somente na porcentagem de estacas brotadas e número de raízes por estaca. O comprimento da estaca influenciou na porcentagem de enraizamento e na mortalidade das estacas, sendo que estacas maiores tenderam a apresentar maiores porcentagens de enraizamento e menores de mortalidade. As estacas com 12cm, embora apresentando menor número de raízes por estaca, são recomendadas por permitirem a obtenção de um maior número de estacas por planta-matriz. Houve efeito significativo da interação entre os fatores para número e comprimento de raízes.The japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. is a Rosaceae of falling leaves, native of China, whose fruits and flowers are quite appreciated by the oriental people. In Brazil, some studies were accomplished seeking its use as rootstock for peach and nectarine trees, due its adaptation

  12. Genomic Sequencing of Japanese Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. Mutants Provides a New Model for Rosaceae Fruit Ripening Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Fernandez i Marti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been described that the Japanese plum “Santa Rosa” bud sport series contains variations in ripening pattern: climacteric, suppressed-climacteric and non-climacteric types. This provides an interesting model to study the role of ethylene and other key mechanisms governing fruit ripening, softening and senescence. The aim of the current study was to investigate such differences at the genomic level, using this series of plum bud sports, with special reference to genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, signal transduction, and sugar metabolism. Genomic DNA, isolated from leaf samples of six Japanese plum cultivars (“Santa Rosa”, “July Santa Rosa”, “Late Santa Rosa”, “Sweet Miriam”, “Roysum”, and “Casselman”, was used to construct paired-end standard Illumina libraries. Sequences were aligned to the Prunus persica genome, and genomic variations (SNPs, INDELS, and CNV's were investigated. Results determined 12 potential candidate genes with significant copy number variation (CNV, being associated with ethylene perception and signal transduction components. Additionally, the Maximum Likelihood (ML phylogenetic tree showed two sorbitol dehydrogenase genes grouping into a distinct clade, indicating that this natural group is well-defined and presents high sequence identity among its members. In contrast, the ethylene group, which includes ACO1, ACS1, ACS4, ACS5, CTR1, ERF1, ERF3, and ethylene-receptor genes, was widely distributed and clustered into 10 different groups. Thus, ACS, ERF, and sorbitol dehydrogenase proteins potentially share a common ancestor for different plant genomes, while the expansion rate may be related to ancestral expansion rather than species-specific events. Based on the distribution of the clades, we suggest that gene function diversification for the ripening pathway occurred prior to family extension. We herein report all the frameshift mutations in genes involved in sugar transport

  13. Genomic Sequencing of Japanese Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) Mutants Provides a New Model for Rosaceae Fruit Ripening Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez I Marti, Angel; Saski, Christopher A; Manganaris, George A; Gasic, Ksenija; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2018-01-01

    It has recently been described that the Japanese plum "Santa Rosa" bud sport series contains variations in ripening pattern: climacteric, suppressed-climacteric and non-climacteric types. This provides an interesting model to study the role of ethylene and other key mechanisms governing fruit ripening, softening and senescence. The aim of the current study was to investigate such differences at the genomic level, using this series of plum bud sports, with special reference to genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, signal transduction, and sugar metabolism. Genomic DNA, isolated from leaf samples of six Japanese plum cultivars ("Santa Rosa", "July Santa Rosa", "Late Santa Rosa", "Sweet Miriam", "Roysum", and "Casselman"), was used to construct paired-end standard Illumina libraries. Sequences were aligned to the Prunus persica genome, and genomic variations (SNPs, INDELS, and CNV's) were investigated. Results determined 12 potential candidate genes with significant copy number variation (CNV), being associated with ethylene perception and signal transduction components. Additionally, the Maximum Likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree showed two sorbitol dehydrogenase genes grouping into a distinct clade, indicating that this natural group is well-defined and presents high sequence identity among its members. In contrast, the ethylene group, which includes ACO1, ACS1, ACS4, ACS5, CTR1, ERF1, ERF3, and ethylene-receptor genes, was widely distributed and clustered into 10 different groups. Thus, ACS, ERF, and sorbitol dehydrogenase proteins potentially share a common ancestor for different plant genomes, while the expansion rate may be related to ancestral expansion rather than species-specific events. Based on the distribution of the clades, we suggest that gene function diversification for the ripening pathway occurred prior to family extension. We herein report all the frameshift mutations in genes involved in sugar transport and ethylene biosynthesis detected as well

  14. Bioactivity-guided fractionation identifies amygdalin as a potent neurotrophic agent from herbal medicine Semen Persicae extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanbin; Zhao, Jia; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Li, Xuechen; Rong, Jianhui

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. The resultant fractions were assayed for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells based on microscopic assessment. Through liquid-liquid extraction and reverse phase HPLC separation, a botanical glycoside amygdalin was isolated as the active compound responsible for the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. Moreover, we found that amygdalin rapidly induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). A specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the stimulatory effect of amygdalin on neurite outgrowth. Taken together, amygdalin was identified as a potent neurotrophic agent from Semen Persicae extract through a bioactivity-guided fractional procedure. The neurotrophic activity of amygdalin may be mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

  15. Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation Identifies Amygdalin as a Potent Neurotrophic Agent from Herbal Medicine Semen Persicae Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanbin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. The resultant fractions were assayed for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells based on microscopic assessment. Through liquid-liquid extraction and reverse phase HPLC separation, a botanical glycoside amygdalin was isolated as the active compound responsible for the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. Moreover, we found that amygdalin rapidly induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2. A specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the stimulatory effect of amygdalin on neurite outgrowth. Taken together, amygdalin was identified as a potent neurotrophic agent from Semen Persicae extract through a bioactivity-guided fractional procedure. The neurotrophic activity of amygdalin may be mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

  16. Comparing the effects of chlorhexidine and persica on alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction in rats, a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorri, Mojtaba; Shahrabi, Shokufeh; Navabazam, Alireza

    2012-02-01

    Chlorhexidine is broadly prescribed by clinicians for treating extraction socket wounds; however, studies have reported adverse effects for chlorhexidine. Persica, a herbal antibacterial agent, could be an alternative for chlorhexidine. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the effects of persica and chlorhexidine on alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction in rats. Eighteen Wistar rats were randomly allocated to three study groups: 0.2% chlorhexidine, 10% persica and controls (tap water). The rats were mouth-rinsed for 14 days. On day 8, the mandibular right first molars of all the rats were extracted. On day 21, the rats were euthanized and histological slides of their extraction sockets were prepared. The amount of new bone formation and the number of inflammatory cells in the extraction socket for each rat were recorded. Data were analysed using linear regression and Mann-Whitney tests. There was no significant difference between the control group and the intervention groups in terms of new bone formation and inflammatory cell count. The mean new bone formation was significantly higher in the persica group than in the chlorhexidine group. There was a significant association between new bone formation and inflammatory cell count in the entire sample. In conclusion, there were no significant differences between rinsing with tap water and rinsing with 0.2% chlorhexidine and 10% persica in enhancing extraction socket wound healing in rats. Extraction socket wound healing in rats was better enhanced with 10% persica than 0.2% chlorhexidine.

  17. Borrelia persica infection in dogs and cats: clinical manifestations, clinicopathological findings and genetic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, Gad; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Halperin, Tamar; Hershko, Yizhak; Kleinerman, Gabriela; Anug, Yigal; Abdeen, Ziad; Lavy, Eran; Aroch, Itamar; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2016-05-10

    Relapsing fever (RF) is an acute infectious disease caused by arthropod-borne spirochetes of the genus Borrelia. The disease is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever that concur with spirochetemia. The RF borrelioses include louse-borne RF caused by Borrelia recurrentis and tick-borne endemic RF transmitted by argasid soft ticks and caused by several Borrelia spp. such as B. crocidurae, B. coriaceae, B. duttoni, B. hermsii, B. hispanica and B. persica. Human infection with B. persica is transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros tholozani and has been reported from Iran, Israel, Egypt, India, and Central Asia. During 2003-2015, five cats and five dogs from northern, central and southern Israel were presented for veterinary care and detected with borrelia spirochetemia by blood smear microscopy. The causative infective agent in these animals was identified and characterized by PCR from blood and sequencing of parts of the flagellin (flab), 16S rRNA and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiestrase (GlpQ) genes. All animals were infected with B. persica genetically identical to the causative agent of human RF. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that DNA sequences from these pet carnivores clustered together with B. persica genotypes I and II from humans and O. tholozani ticks and distinctly from other RF Borrelia spp. The main clinical findings in cats included lethargy, anorexia, anemia in 5/5 cats and thrombocytopenia in 4/5. All dogs were lethargic and anorectic, 4/5 were febrile and anemic and 3/5 were thrombocytopenic. Three dogs were co-infected with Babesia spp. The animals were all treated with antibiotics and the survival rate of both dogs and cats was 80 %. The cat and dog that succumbed to disease died one day after the initiation of antibiotic treatment, while survival in the others was followed by the rapid disappearance of spirochetemia. This is the first report of disease due to B. persica infection in cats and the first case series in dogs. Infection was

  18. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... 52 - 56°C with the primers ITS-9 and ITS-6 or Trn-L and Trn-F. Polymerase chain .... The sub-genus Prunus has also relatively good support (81%) including .... Stevens, Michael J, Donoghue (1999). Plant Systematics. A.

  19. Optimization of microwave roasting of almond (Prunus dulcis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave (MW) almond roasting was investigated as an alternative to hot air (HA) roasting. Nonpareil almonds (Prunus dulcis) were roasted at 140°C in a convection oven for different times to achieve light, medium, and dark roasting levels. Several instrumental measurements were taken, establishin...

  20. Cryopreservation of in vitro -grown shoot tips of apricot ( Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro grown apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. El-Hamawey shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved using an encapsulation-dehydration procedure. Shoot tips were encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads before preculture on woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with different sucrose concentrations; 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, ...

  1. Molecular characterization of the plum collection [Prunus domestica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight Random Amplified Microsatellite markers (RAMs) were used to characterize the genetic diversity found in 14 Prunus materials belonging to the deciduous collection of the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia. A total of 121 bands were generated: they range from nine for the GT primer to 26 for the ...

  2. Slaat Xanthomonas dit jaar weer toe in Prunus laurocerasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Dalfsen, van P.; Pham, K.T.K.

    2012-01-01

    Een diagnostische test moet duidelijk maken of er sprake is van Xanthomonas in Prunus laurocerasus. De bacterieziekte is namelijk makkelijk te verwarren met andere ziekten. Onderzoek, gefinancierd door het Productschap Tuinbouw, richt zich op het toetsen van moerplanten voordat hier van gestekt gaat

  3. Vasorelaxant effect of Prunus yedoensis bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kyungjin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus yedoensis Matsum. is used as traditional medicine—‘Yaeng-Pi’ or ‘Hua-Pi’—in Japan and Korea. However, no studies have examined the pharmacological activities of the P. yedoensis bark. Only the antioxidant and antiviral activities of P. yedoensis fruit and the anti-hyperglycaemic effect of P. yedoensis leaf have been investigated. While studying the antihypertensive effects of several medicinal plants, we found that a methanol extract of P. yedoensis bark (MEPY had distinct vasorelaxant effects on rat aortic rings. Methods The aortic rings were removed from Sprague–Dawley rats and suspended in organ chambers containing 10 ml Krebs-Henseleit solution. The aortic rings were placed between 2 tungsten stirrups and connected to an isometric force transducer. Changes in tension were recorded via isometric transducers connected to a data acquisition system. Results MEPY relaxed the contraction induced by phenylephrine (PE both in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings concentration dependently. However, the vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-denuded aortic rings were lower than endothelium-intact aortic rings. The vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-intact aortic rings were reduced by pre-treatment with l-NAME, methylene blue, or ODQ. However, pre-treatment with indomethacin, atropine, glibenclamide, tetraethylammonium, or 4-aminopyridine had no affection. In addition, MEPY inhibited the contraction induced by extracellular Ca2+ in endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted by PE (1 μM or KCl (60 mM in Ca2+-free solution. Conclusions Our results suggest that MEPY exerts its vasorelaxant effects via the activation of NO formation by means of l-Arg and NO-cGMP pathways and via the blockage of extracellular Ca2+ channels.

  4. Enraizamento in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus In vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rogalski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Na micropropagação de Prunus sp., o enraizamento tem sido considerado uma fase crítica, pois determina a sobrevivência das plantas durante a aclimatização. Dentre os fatores importantes ao enraizamento in vitro, destacam-se o genótipo e as auxinas por serem determinantes na indução e na formação de raízes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de IBA no enraizamento in vitro dos porta-enxertos de espécies do gênero Prunus: cultivares Capdeboscq e GF677, e seleções VP411 e VP417. Para o enraizamento in vitro, brotos com 2-3cm de comprimento foram introduzidos em meio de Lepoivre suplementado com 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg.L-1 IBA. Observou-se que o porta-enxerto 'Capdeboscq' apresentou maior taxa de enraizamento e maior número de raízes in vitro, sendo superior aos demais genótipos quanto a estas características. O nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA esteve associado à maior taxa média de enraizamento (100%, 64% e 64,0%, respectivamente para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq', 'GF677' e VP411. O nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA foi superior para a seleção VP417 com taxa de 64% de enraizamento. Para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq' e 'GF677', o número máximo de raízes foi de 9,6 e 5,2 raízes por broto, respectivamente, em resposta ao nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA, enquanto as seleções VP411 e VP417 apresentaram o maior número de raízes (3,6 e 3,9, respectivamente em resposta ao nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA.In Prunus sp. micropropagation of rooting is considered a critical stage, since it determines the plant survival during the acclimatization. Among important factors associated with rooting, the genotype and the auxins are considered important in the induction and formation of roots. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of different IBA on the in vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks Capdeboscq and GF677, and the selections VP411 and VP417. For the in vitro rooting stage, shoots of

  5. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzińska, Magdalena; Czerko, Zbigniew; Zarzyńska, Krystyna; Borowska-Komenda, Monika

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic), cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolics (TPs), and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE) in Solanum tuberosum (potato) tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave) increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer) than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  6. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grudzińska

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA and total phenolics (TPs, and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE in Solanum tuberosum (potato tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  7. Abscisic acid deficiency increases defence responses against Myzus persicae in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillwig, Melissa S; Chiozza, Mariana; Casteel, Clare L; Lau, Siau Ting; Hohenstein, Jessica; Hernández, Enrique; Jander, Georg; MacIntosh, Gustavo C

    2016-02-01

    Comparison of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) gene expression induced by Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) feeding, aphid saliva infiltration and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment showed a significant positive correlation. In particular, ABA-regulated genes are over-represented among genes that are induced by M. persicae saliva infiltration into Arabidopsis leaves. This suggests that the induction of ABA-related gene expression could be an important component of the Arabidopsis-aphid interaction. Consistent with this hypothesis, M. persicae populations induced ABA production in wild-type plants. Furthermore, aphid populations were smaller on Arabidopsis aba1-1 mutants, which cannot synthesize ABA, and showed a significant preference for wild-type plants compared with the mutant. Total free amino acids, which play an important role in aphid nutrition, were not altered in the aba1-1 mutant line, but the levels of isoleucine (Ile) and tryptophan (Trp) were differentially affected by aphids in wild-type and mutant plants. Recently, indole glucosinolates have been shown to promote aphid resistance in Arabidopsis. In this study, 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate was more abundant in the aba1-1 mutant than in wild-type Arabidopsis, suggesting that the induction of ABA signals that decrease the accumulation of defence compounds may be beneficial for aphids. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  8. Use of silicon as inductor of the resistance in potato to Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Flavia B.; Moraes, Jair C.; Antunes, Cristiana; Santos, Custodio D. dos

    2008-01-01

    The aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is an important pest of potato and causes direct harm, due to the quantity of sap extracted and for being vector of important phytovirus. This work was carried out to evaluate the action of silicon as a resistance inducer of potato to M. persicae. Four treatments were tried: foliar fertilization with silicon acid at 1%; soil fertilization with 250 ml silicic acid solution at 1%; foliar fertilization with silicon acid at 1% + soil fertilization with 250 ml silicic acid solution at 1%; and a control. The treatments were applied thirty days after the explants emergence. Fifteen days after the application of the treatments, feeding preference and some biological aspects of the aphids were evaluated. After, the content of tannins and lignin present in the leaves and the activity of the enzymes peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were also determined. The silicon fertilization did not affect the preference of the aphids; however it reduced fecundity and the rate of population growth of the insects. The lignin percentage increased in the leaves of plants fertilized with silicon via soil and/or foliar and the percentage of tannins increased only in the leaves fertilized via soil plus foliar. The silicon acted as a resistance inducer to M. persicae in potato. (author)

  9. The evolution of insecticide resistance in the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Chris; Puinean, Alin M; Zimmer, Christoph T; Denholm, Ian; Field, Linda M; Foster, Stephen P; Gutbrod, Oliver; Nauen, Ralf; Slater, Russell; Williamson, Martin S

    2014-08-01

    The peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae is a globally distributed crop pest with a host range of over 400 species including many economically important crop plants. The intensive use of insecticides to control this species over many years has led to populations that are now resistant to several classes of insecticide. Work spanning over 40 years has shown that M. persicae has a remarkable ability to evolve mechanisms that avoid or overcome the toxic effect of insecticides with at least seven independent mechanisms of resistance described in this species to date. The array of novel resistance mechanisms, including several 'first examples', that have evolved in this species represents an important case study for the evolution of insecticide resistance and also rapid adaptive change in insects more generally. In this review we summarise the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying resistance in M. persicae and the insights study of this topic has provided on how resistance evolves, the selectivity of insecticides, and the link between resistance and host plant adaptation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Uso de cuatro extractos organicos para el control del pulgon verde (Myzus persicae Sulz (ING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Rodríguez Navas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of leaves and stems of Neurolaena lobata; leaves, stems and fruits of Momordica charantia, wood of Quassia amara and seeds of Annona muricata, were tested regarding their effectiveness for control of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae. In a first stage, groups of 10 individuals of M. persicae were placed inside petri dishes together with a small and slight piece of synthetic cloth soaked with either substance extracted. Several concentrations were used. After two hours; more than 50% of the individuals had been killed in every petri dish, which allowed all extracts to pass on to the second stage. The second stage consisted of two experiments. The first one was done in spring at a greenhouse day temperature of 10°C,  using only the first three substances, each of them diluted 1:100. The second one was conducted in Summer at about 25°C with the four substances. Distilled water acted as a control in both experiments. Tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum infested with M. persicae were sprayed with the solutions and survivors counted 24 and 72 hours later. In the first experiment Q amara  and M. charantia had 78% and 77% effectiveness respectively, which were statiscally (P< 0.05 higher than that of N. lobata  (63%. In the second experiment, because of the warmer weather, they improved their performance, specially N. lobata (98%. This and A. muricata were found statistically (P< 0.05 higher than the others.

  11. Antidotal effects of varthemia persica DC extract in organophosphate poisoning or warfare agents by measuring whole blood acetylcholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantari, H.; Siahapoosh, A.; Farsani, K. M.

    2009-01-01

    The organophosphates (ORPs) or war fare agents toxicity results from inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AchE). phosphylation of the active serin of AchE leads to accumulation of acetylcholine in synaptic clefts leading to generalized cholinergic over-stimulation. Standard treatment of ORP poisoning includes a muscarinic antagonist such as Atropine, and acetylcholinesterase reactivator (oxime). Presently, oximes like abidoxime and pralidoxime are approved as antidotes against ORP poisoning but are considered to be rather ineffective against certain ORP. Like Soman. In this study, the protective effect of Varthemia persica DC extract on acetylcholinesterase was examined in rats. Animals in weight range of 200-225 g were divided in 8 groups. The negative control group received only 0.4 ml normal saline, reference group, received ethylparaoxone in dose of 50 percent of LD50, positive control group, received ethylparaoxone (50% LD50) and one minute later 50 mol of pralidoxime. Test group 1: received ethylparaoxone and one minute later single dose of methanolic extract of Varthemia persica (250 mg/kg), Test Group 2: daily received methanolic extract of V.persica (250 mg/kg) in six days and one minute after last dose of extract, ethylparaoxone (50% LD50) were injected, Test Group 3: received ethylparaoxone (50% LD50) and then six doses of methanolic extract of V.persica (250 mg/kg) in six continuous days. Test Group 4: received ethylparaoxone and then single dose of dichloromethane extract of V.persica (250 mg/kg). Test Group 5: received ethylparaoxone and one minute later single high dose of methanolic extract of V.persica (1000 mg/kg). Then blood withdrawn and acetylcholinesterase activity was measured according to modified Ellman's method. Only in groups which received extract of V. persica before and after injection of ethylparaoxone, the mean of acetylcholinesterase activity was significantly different with reference group (p 0.05) but no significant difference with

  12. Genotyping by Sequencing for SNP-Based Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Chilling Requirement and Bloom Date in Peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Gary Bielenberg

    Full Text Available Low-cost, high throughput genotyping methods are crucial to marker discovery and marker-assisted breeding efforts, but have not been available for many 'specialty crops' such as fruit and nut trees. Here we apply the Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS method developed for cereals to the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in a peach F2 mapping population. Peach is a genetic and genomic model within the Rosaceae and will provide a template for the use of this method with other members of this family. Our F2 mapping population of 57 genotypes segregates for bloom time (BD and chilling requirement (CR and we have extensively phenotyped this population. The population derives from a selfed F1 progeny of a cross between 'Hakuho' (high CR and 'UFGold' (low CR. We were able to successfully employ GBS and the TASSEL GBS pipeline without modification of the original methodology using the ApeKI restriction enzyme and multiplexing at an equivalent of 96 samples per Illumina HiSeq 2000 lane. We obtained hundreds of SNP markers which were then used to construct a genetic linkage map and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for BD and CR.

  13. Deciphering the interplay among genotype, maturity stage and low-temperature storage on phytochemical composition and transcript levels of enzymatic antioxidants in Prunus persica fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganaris, George A; Drogoudi, Pavlina; Goulas, Vlasios; Tanou, Georgia; Georgiadou, Egli C; Pantelidis, George E; Paschalidis, Konstantinos A; Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Manganaris, Athanasios

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the antioxidant metabolic changes of peach (cvs. 'Royal Glory', 'Red Haven' and 'Sun Cloud') and nectarine fruits (cv. 'Big Top') exposed to different combinations of low-temperature storage (0, 2, 4 weeks storage at 0 °C, 90% R.H.) and additional ripening at room temperature (1, 3 and 5 d, shelf life, 20 °C) with an array of analytical, biochemical and molecular approaches. Initially, harvested fruit of the examined cultivars were segregated non-destructively at advanced and less pronounced maturity stages and qualitative traits, physiological parameters, phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity were determined. 'Big Top' and 'Royal Glory' fruits were characterized by slower softening rate and less pronounced ripening-related alterations. The coupling of HPLC fingerprints, consisted of 7 phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, neochlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, rutin, quecetin-3-O-glucoside, procyanidin B1) and spectrophotometric methods disclosed a great impact of genotype on peach bioactive composition, with 'Sun Cloud' generally displaying the highest contents. Maturity stage at harvest did not seem to affect fruit phenolic composition and no general guidelines for the impact of cold storage and shelf-life on individual phenolic compounds can be extrapolated. Subsequently, fruit of less pronounced maturity at harvest were used for further molecular analysis. 'Sun Cloud' was proven efficient in protecting plasmid pBR322 DNA against ROO attack throughout the experimental period and against HO attack after 2 and 4 weeks of cold storage. Interestingly, a general down-regulation of key genes implicated in the antioxidant apparatus with the prolongation of storage period was recorded; this was more evident for CAT, cAPX, Cu/ZnSOD2, perAPX3 and GPX8 genes. Higher antioxidant capacity of 'Sun Cloud' fruit could potentially be linked with compounds other than enzymatic antioxidants that further regulate peach fruit ripening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The antitussive activity of polysaccharides from Althaea officinalis l., var. Robusta, Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules, and Prunus persica L., Batsch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutovska, M; Nosalova, G; Franova, S; Kardosova, A

    2007-01-01

    The therapy of pathological type of cough presents serious medical problem. The aim of experiments was to investigate polysaccacharide influence on experimentally induced cough. The purified and/or modified polysaccharides from the flowers and plants, characterized by chemical composition and molecular properties were subjected to tests for antitussive activity on cough, induced mechanically in conscious cats of both sexes. The results revealed that the tested polysaccharides exhibited statistically significant cough-suppressing activity, which was noticeably higher than that of the non-narcotic drug used in clinical practice to treat coughing. The most expressive antitussive activity was observed with the polysaccharide from marsh mallow, containing the highest proportion of the uronic acid constituent. Negative influence of the tested compounds on expectoration was negligible when compared to that of codeine. Antitussive activity of various plant polysaccharides was confirmed. These results allow ranging them among prospective antitussive agents (Tab. 2, Fig. 6, Ref. 15) Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  15. Phytohormone Signaling of the Resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV, Sharka Disease) Induced by Almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) Webb) Grafting to Peach (P. persica L. Batsch)

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Nikbakht Dehkordi; Manuel Rubio; Nadali Babaeian; Alfonso Albacete; Pedro Martínez-Gómez

    2018-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka) is a limiting factor for peach production, and no natural sources of resistance have been described. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that grafting the almond cultivar “Garrigues” onto the “GF305” peach infected with Dideron-type (PPV-D) isolates progressively reduces disease symptoms and virus accumulation. Furthermore, grafting “Garrigues” onto “GF305” prior to PPV-D inoculation has been found to completely prevent virus infection, showing that resista...

  16. Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response associated genes in seed stratification and bud endodormancy during chilling accumulation in Prunus persica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Ling Fu

    Full Text Available Dormancy mechanisms in seeds and buds arrest growth until environmental conditions are optimal for development. A genotype-specific period of chilling is usually required to release dormancy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. To discover transcriptional pathways associated with dormancy release common to seed stratification and bud endodormancy, we explored the chilling-dependent expression of 11 genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response signal pathways. We propose that endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response impact on seed as well as bud germination and development by chilling-dependent mechanisms. The emerging discovery of similarities between seed stratification and bud endodormancy status indicate that these two processes are probably regulated by common endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response signalling pathways. Clarification of regulatory pathways common to both seed and bud dormancy may enhance understanding of the mechanisms underlying dormancy and breeding programs may benefit from earlier prediction of chilling requirements for uniform blooming of novel genotypes of deciduous fruit tree species.

  17. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong-Gi [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong-Sun, E-mail: yhsuny@naver.co [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20+-3 deg. C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  18. Phytohormone Signaling of the Resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV, Sharka Disease Induced by Almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller Webb Grafting to Peach (P. persica L. Batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Nikbakht Dehkordi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka is a limiting factor for peach production, and no natural sources of resistance have been described. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that grafting the almond cultivar “Garrigues” onto the “GF305” peach infected with Dideron-type (PPV-D isolates progressively reduces disease symptoms and virus accumulation. Furthermore, grafting “Garrigues” onto “GF305” prior to PPV-D inoculation has been found to completely prevent virus infection, showing that resistance is constitutive and not induced by the virus. To unravel the phytohormone signaling of this mechanism, we analyzed the following phytohormones belonging to the principal hormone classes: the growth-related phytohormones cytokinin trans-zeatin (tZ and the gibberellins GA3 and GA4; and the stress-related phytohormones ethylene acid precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC, abscisic acid (ABA, salicylic acid (SA, and jasmonic acid (JA. PPV inoculation produced a significant increase in GA3 and ABA in peach, and these imbalances were related to the presence of chlorosis symptoms. However, grafting “Garrigues” almond onto the PPV-inoculated “GF305” peach produced the opposite effect, reducing GA3 and ABA contents in parallel to the elimination of symptoms. Our results showed the significant implication of SA in this induced resistance in peach with an additional effect on tZ and JA concentrations. This SA-induced resistance based in the decrease in symptoms seems to be different from Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR and Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR, which are based in other reactions producing necrosis. Further studies are necessary, however, to validate these results against PPV-D isolates in the more aggressive Marcus-type (PPV-M isolates.

  19. Determinación del requerimiento de frío y de calor en duraznero [Prunus persica (L. Batsch.] mediante un modelo de correlación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAAR, J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Los árboles frutales de hoja no persistente poseen un período de reposo entre los ciclos vegetativos. Para salir de reposo invernal, las yemas deben acumular primero frío (endodormancia y luego calor (ecodormancia.El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el requerimiento de frío y de calor en cinco cultivares de duraznero mediante un método de correlación, con datos de fecha de plena floración y temperatura del aire de siete años, en el este de Mendoza. El requerimiento de frío varió entre 914 y 1262 unidades de frío, mientras que el de calor fluctuó entre 2177 y 6490 horas grado de crecimiento. Excepto en cv. “Prima”, la variabilidad entre años del requerimiento de frío (coeficiente de variación, CV: 18,3 a 18,9% fue mayor que la correspondiente al requerimiento de calor, (CV: 6,9 a 13,9%. Los requerimientos de calor disminuyeron en años de mayor acumulación de frío e indicaron una compensación. El modelo utilizado, permite disponer de información más precisa sobre los requerimientos térmicos de los cultivares, y así poder realizar una zonificación que racionaliceel cultivo y maximice su aprovechamiento, en las áreas agroclimáticamente adecuadas.

  20. Aplicação de revestimentos comestíveis em pêssego (Prunus persica Use of edible coating in peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle de Assis Jacometti

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência de revestimentos comestíveis sobre a vida-de-prateleira, perda de massa, atividade metabólica e contaminação microbiológicas em pêssegos in natura. Foram utilizados pêssegos brancos cv. Perola de Mairinque (IAC 769-8 revestidos com soluções de 1% de goma gelana (p/v e 1% goma gelana + 1% sorbitol (p/v, embalados em caixas de papelão e armazenados a 10ºC / 80-85% UR por 16 dias. Frutos sem revestimento serviram de controle. Os revestimentos à base de goma gelana e gelana+sorbitol não alteraram a atividade fisiológica dos pêssegos, medida através da taxa de respiração, teor de sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável ao longo da armazenagem. Não houve diferença entre as taxas de perda de massa, que ficaram em torno de 1,4g/100g.dia. Os revestimentos não alteraram a aceitação dos pêssegos em termos de sabor e em termos de aparência, o controle obteve notas superiores aos revestidos devida a opacidade que o revestimento conferiu aos frutos. Na contagem total de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos e bolores e leveduras não houve diferença entre os tratamentos ao longo da armazenagem, mas em termos de microrganismos psicrotróficos os frutos revestidos apresentaram uma menor contagem em relação ao controle. Revestimentos à base de goma gelana e gelana+sorbitol não aumentaram a vida-de-prateleira de pêssegos armazenados sob refrigeração devido à composição do revestimento, que não reduziu a perda de massa nem a atividade fisiológica dos frutos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of edible coatings on shelf-life, weight loss, metabolic activity and microbial contamination of peaches in natura. White peaches cv. Perola de Mairinque (IAC 769-8 were coated with 1% gelan gum (p/v and 1% gelan gum + 1% sorbitol (p/v solutions, packed in paperboard box and stored at 10ºC/80-85% RH during 16 days. No coated fruits served as control. Gelan and gelan+sorbitol coatings had no effect on physiological activity of peaches, measured by respiration rates, total soluble solid content and total titratable acidity during storage. There was no difference among weight loss rates (~1.4 g/100g.day of all treatments. Edible coatings had no influence on flavor acceptance of the peaches but control fruits had higher scores than coated ones on appearance acceptance evaluation because the opacity caused by the coating. There was no difference among treatments in total count of aerobic mesophiles microorganisms and molds and yeasts during storage but for psychotropic microorganisms, coated fruits presented lower counts than control ones. Gelan and gelan+sorbitol based coatings have not extended shelf-life of cold stored peaches due to coating composition that did not reduced the weight loss and physiological metabolism of the fruits.

  1. Evaluación en pérdidas de durazno (Prunus persica variedad rubidoux en la granja experimental Tunguavita Paipa, Boyacá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Johana Lemus Cerón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Boyacá es un departamento colombiano con una posición geográfica privilegiada, cuya economía se basa principalmente en la producción agropecuaria; el durazno representa un renglón importante en la economía frutícola de Boyacá, sin embargo algunas prácticas culturales y de manejo de cultivos inadecuados han generado pérdidas graduales en el proceso productivo. A fin de comparar la producción en un huerto con extensión de 4 ha, distribuido en tres lotes de durazno variedad Rubidoux, en la granja experimental Tunguavita, municipio de Paipa, Boyacá, Colombia, se seleccionó una muestra aleatoria de 150 árboles frutales, marcados de acuerdo a la distribución del huerto de durazno, los datos recopilados en campo se tomaron con base en la producción y a variables de pérdida como número de frutos totales por árbol, frutos sobremaduros, frutos caídos por accidente, frutos aptos no cosechados, frutos desechados por daño. El análisis mostró que al obtener los 3 intervalos de diferencias en cuanto al límite superior e inferior, la producción es mayor en los lotes 1 y 2 respecto al lote 3, para las variables de pérdida el porcentaje fue del 14%, y los parámetros obtenidos, no presentaron diferencias estadísticas.

  2. DNA-based identification of Armillaria isolates from peach [Prunus persica (l.) batsch] orchards in méxico state, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben D. Elias-Roman; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim; Dionicio Alvarado-Rosales; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Remigio Anastacio Guzman-Plazola; Guillermo Calderon-Zavala; Antonio Mora-Aguilera

    2013-01-01

    A collaborative project between the Programa de Fitopatología, Colegio de Postgraduados, Texcoco, Edo. de México and the USDA Forest Service-RMRS, Moscow Forest Pathology Laboratory began in 2011 to identify which species of Armillaria are causing widespread and severe damage to the peach orchards from México State, México. We are employing a DNA-based approach in...

  3. Phytohormone Signaling of the Resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV, Sharka Disease) Induced by Almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) Webb) Grafting to Peach (P. persica L. Batsch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Azam Nikbakht; Rubio, Manuel; Babaeian, Nadali; Albacete, Alfonso; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2018-05-03

    Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka) is a limiting factor for peach production, and no natural sources of resistance have been described. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that grafting the almond cultivar "Garrigues" onto the "GF305" peach infected with Dideron-type (PPV-D) isolates progressively reduces disease symptoms and virus accumulation. Furthermore, grafting "Garrigues" onto "GF305" prior to PPV-D inoculation has been found to completely prevent virus infection, showing that resistance is constitutive and not induced by the virus. To unravel the phytohormone signaling of this mechanism, we analyzed the following phytohormones belonging to the principal hormone classes: the growth-related phytohormones cytokinin trans-zeatin (tZ) and the gibberellins GA₃ and GA₄; and the stress-related phytohormones ethylene acid precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA). PPV inoculation produced a significant increase in GA₃ and ABA in peach, and these imbalances were related to the presence of chlorosis symptoms. However, grafting "Garrigues" almond onto the PPV-inoculated "GF305" peach produced the opposite effect, reducing GA₃ and ABA contents in parallel to the elimination of symptoms. Our results showed the significant implication of SA in this induced resistance in peach with an additional effect on tZ and JA concentrations. This SA-induced resistance based in the decrease in symptoms seems to be different from Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) and Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR), which are based in other reactions producing necrosis. Further studies are necessary, however, to validate these results against PPV-D isolates in the more aggressive Marcus-type (PPV-M) isolates.

  4. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon; Kim, Hong-Gi; Yook, Hong-Sun

    2010-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20±3 deg. C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  5. Storage of 'Laetitia' plums ( Prunus salicina ) under controlled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upon removal from the cold storage chamber and after four days in ambient conditions (20±2°C/60±5% RH), the fruit were assessed in terms of: respiration and ethylene production rates; flesh firmness; texture; titrable acidity; red color index and hue angle (ho) of the skin; incidence of fruit cracking and internal breakdown ...

  6. Antibacterial efficacy of Salvadora persica as a cleansing teeth towards Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlina Sih Mahanani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salvadora persica is a traditional chewing stick for cleaning teeth that it is known Siwak. Several studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial effects of Salvadora persica. Purpose: This study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of Salvadora persica in several modified preparation against the salivary Streptoccocus mutans and Lactobacilli. Methods: A single-blind, randomized clinical trial study with crossover design was used. The study comprised of 5 groups, per group consisted of 14 healthy dental students who had good oral hygiene. Each participant was given 5 intervention to clean their teeth using, electric toothbrush modified with siwak, electric toothbrush with siwak toothpaste (colgate kayu sugi toothpaste, electric toothbrush with general toothpaste (colgate total toothpaste, original siwak chewing stick and normal saline. The wash out periode each intervention was 3 days. Patients’ saliva was used to quantify the levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli using caries risk test (CRT kit from Vivadent. Results: The results showed that there was a reduction in Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli risk score after cleansing different intervention except electric toothbrush modified with siwak. However, there was no significant difference for Streptococcus mutans (p=0.158 and Lactobacilli (p=0.396 risk score reduction when comparison was done between the groups. Conclusion: The original siwak chewing stick has antimicrobial effects similar to toothbrushing with general toothpaste and salvadora persica toothpaste. However, electric toothbrush modified with siwak has no effect on microbial reduction.Latar belakang: Salvadora persica adalah pembersih gigi tradisional yang lebih dikenal dengan sebutan Siwak. Beberapa penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Salvadora persica memiliki daya antibakteri. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas Salvadora persica dalam berbagai bentuk sediaan untuk membersihkan

  7. Utilization of Black Tiger Shrimp Flesh Waste for Pop Shrimp Processing

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    Hari Eko Irianto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the utilization of black  tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon flesh waste in the processing of pop shrimp has been carried out.  So far, shrimp flesh waste is used for the production of shrimp paste, and shrimp cracker.   The objective of this study was to develop a fomula for pop shrimp production using shrimp flesh waste. Experimental design applied in this study was three-variables mixture design, in which variables observed were shrimp flesh waste, surimi and tapioca flour. Pop shrimp obtained was evaluated for sensory properties. The best product processed using a selected formula was analysed chemically and microbiologically, particularly for proxymate composition and total plate count respectively. Selected formula of pop shrimp consisted of 50.91% shrimp flesh waste, 18.18% surimi, 3.64% tapioca flour, 10.91% onion, 2.18% garlic, 0.73% pepper powder, 1.45% sugar, 0.36% monosodium glutamate, 0.73% ginger, 1.45% salt, 4.44% butter mix, 1.38% corn flour (maizena and 3.64% bread crumb. Proxymate composition of the best pop shrimp was 70.52% moisture, 0.73% ash, 0.39% fat, and 7.44% protein, while microbiological load in terms of total plate count was 3.3x103 colonies/g.

  8. Micropropagation of Prunus species relevant to cherry fruit production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druart, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Cherry tree micropropagation is limited to the production of healthy cultivars of Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus, and their rootstocks; mainly the dwarfing ones. By using meristem-tip (0.1 mm long) or healthy shoot tips/nodes, four successive steps are needed to obtain whole plants capable of growing in the nursery: multiplication by axillary branching, shoot elongation, rooting, and plantlet acclimation. Along this process, several parameters have to be adjusted for each phase of the culture, including media composition, environmental culture conditions and plant handling. These parameters vary depending on genotypic response and specific vulnerability to physiological disorders such as hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, unstable propagation, and rooting rates. Based on a 40 year-long experience of study and application of culture conditions to large-scale plant production, this document summarizes the main problems (variability of the propagation rate, hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, plant re-growth) and solutions encountered to solve them, with means validated on many mericlones.

  9. Preparation of recombinant coat protein of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrzik, K; Mráz, I; Kubelková, D

    2001-02-01

    The coat protein (CP) gene of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) was cloned into pET 16b vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. CP-enriched fractions were prepared from whole cell lysate by differential centrifugation. The fraction sedimenting at 20,000 x g for 30 mins was used for preparation of a rabbit antiserum to CP. This antiserum had a titer of 1:2048 and reacted in a double-antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA).

  10. Benzyl isothiocyanate, a major component from the roots of Salvadora persica is highly active against Gram-negative bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abier Sofrata

    Full Text Available Plants produce a number of antimicrobial substances and the roots of the shrub Salvadora persica have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activity. Sticks from the roots of S. persica, Miswak sticks, have been used for centuries as a traditional method of cleaning teeth. Diverging reports on the chemical nature and antimicrobial repertoire of the chewing sticks from S. persica led us to explore its antibacterial properties against a panel of pathogenic or commensal bacteria and to identify the antibacterial component/s by methodical chemical characterization. S. persica root essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and solid-phase microextraction was used to sample volatiles released from fresh root. The active compound was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antibacterial assays. The antibacterial compound was isolated using medium-pressure liquid chromatography. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize the effect on bacterial cells. The main antibacterial component of both S. persica root extracts and volatiles was benzyl isothiocyanate. Root extracts as well as commercial synthetic benzyl isothiocyanate exhibited rapid and strong bactericidal effect against oral pathogens involved in periodontal disease as well as against other Gram-negative bacteria, while Gram-positive bacteria mainly displayed growth inhibition or remained unaffected. The short exposure needed to obtain bactericidal effect implies that the chewing sticks and the essential oil may have a specific role in treatment of periodontal disease in reducing Gram-negative periodontal pathogens. Our results indicate the need for further investigation into the mechanism of the specific killing of Gram-negative bacteria by S. persica root stick extracts and its active component benzyl isothiocyanate.

  11. Dynamics of Membrane Potential Variation and Gene Expression Induced by Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricchi, Irene; Bertea, Cinzia M.; Occhipinti, Andrea; Paponov, Ivan A.; Maffei, Massimo E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Biotic stress induced by various herbivores and pathogens invokes plant responses involving different defense mechanisms. However, we do not know whether different biotic stresses share a common response or which signaling pathways are involved in responses to different biotic stresses. We investigated the common and specific responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to three biotic stress agents: Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Methodology/Principal Findings We used electrophysiology to determine the plasma membrane potential (Vm) and we performed a gene microarray transcriptome analysis on Arabidopsis upon either herbivory or bacterial infection. Vm depolarization was induced by insect attack; however, the response was much more rapid to S. littoralis (30 min −2 h) than to M. persicae (4–6 h). M. persicae differentially regulated almost 10-fold more genes than by S. littoralis with an opposite regulation. M. persicae modulated genes involved in flavonoid, fatty acid, hormone, drug transport and chitin metabolism. S. littoralis regulated responses to heat, transcription and ion transport. The latest Vm depolarization (16 h) was found for P. syringae. The pathogen regulated responses to salicylate, jasmonate and to microorganisms. Despite this late response, the number of genes differentially regulated by P. syringae was closer to those regulated by S. littoralis than by M. persicae. Conclusions/Significance Arabidopsis plasma membranes respond with a Vm depolarization at times depending on the nature of biotic attack which allow setting a time point for comparative genome-wide analysis. A clear relationship between Vm depolarization and gene expression was found. At Vm depolarization timing, M. persicae regulates a wider array of Arabidopsis genes with a clear and distinct regulation than S. littoralis. An almost completely opposite regulation was observed between the aphid and the pathogen, with the former

  12. An in vivo evaluation of antimicrobial effects of Persica herbal mouthwash on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis

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    Leila Shafiei Bafti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Due to their antimicrobial and dental plaque control activity, mouthwashes lead to an improvement in oral health. Although chemical mouthwashes have demonstrated the greatest antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects, their usage has been limited because of their numerous side effects. This study was conducted in vivo to determine the antibacterial and antifungal effects of Persica herbal mouthwash containing Salvadore persica, mint, and yarrow in comparison with a placebo. METHODS: In this experimental, single-blind study, 80 dentistry students, who were eager to participate in the study, were randomly allocated into two groups of forty. One group was given Persica while the other group received a placebo. They were asked to apply the mouthwash twice a day for four weeks. The participants were unaware of the mouthwash type. Saliva sampling was conducted in all cases before and after mouthwash application and the samples were dispatched to a laboratory for microbial culture (Sabouraud and Clark-Kenner media culture. After two weeks, the washout times in groups were swapped with each other and the sampling was conducted just like before. Finally, the data were analyzed using independent and paired t-test. P values of less than 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 23.20 ± 4.14. Persica mouthwash significantly decreased the count of Candida albicans (1.43 ± 0.15 to 0.8 ± 0.35 (P < 0.001 and Enterococcus faecalis (0.93 ± 1.76 to 0.71 ± 2.10 (P = 0.008. CONCLUSION: The statistical tests revealed that applying Persica mouthwash would result in a significant decrease in the Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis count. Regarding the significant and desirable effect of Persica on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis, and its herbal origin, its application could be suggested to reduce oral microbes and infections from fungi and enterococci.

  13. Berry flesh and skin ripening features in Vitis vinifera as assessed by transcriptional profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Lijavetzky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ripening of fleshy fruit is a complex developmental process involving the differentiation of tissues with separate functions. During grapevine berry ripening important processes contributing to table and wine grape quality take place, some of them flesh- or skin-specific. In this study, transcriptional profiles throughout flesh and skin ripening were followed during two different seasons in a table grape cultivar 'Muscat Hamburg' to determine tissue-specific as well as common developmental programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an updated GrapeGen Affymetrix GeneChip® annotation based on grapevine 12×v1 gene predictions, 2188 differentially accumulated transcripts between flesh and skin and 2839 transcripts differentially accumulated throughout ripening in the same manner in both tissues were identified. Transcriptional profiles were dominated by changes at the beginning of veraison which affect both pericarp tissues, although frequently delayed or with lower intensity in the skin than in the flesh. Functional enrichment analysis identified the decay on biosynthetic processes, photosynthesis and transport as a major part of the program delayed in the skin. In addition, a higher number of functional categories, including several related to macromolecule transport and phenylpropanoid and lipid biosynthesis, were over-represented in transcripts accumulated to higher levels in the skin. Functional enrichment also indicated auxin, gibberellins and bHLH transcription factors to take part in the regulation of pre-veraison processes in the pericarp, whereas WRKY and C2H2 family transcription factors seems to more specifically participate in the regulation of skin and flesh ripening, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A transcriptomic analysis indicates that a large part of the ripening program is shared by both pericarp tissues despite some components are delayed in the skin. In addition, important tissue differences are

  14. Gene discovery using massively parallel pyrosequencing to develop ESTs for the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis

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    Hahn Daniel A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flesh flies in the genus Sarcophaga are important models for investigating endocrinology, diapause, cold hardiness, reproduction, and immunity. Despite the prominence of Sarcophaga flesh flies as models for insect physiology and biochemistry, and in forensic studies, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for members of this genus. We used massively parallel pyrosequencing on the Roche 454-FLX platform to produce a substantial EST dataset for the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis. To maximize sequence diversity, we pooled RNA extracted from whole bodies of all life stages and normalized the cDNA pool after reverse transcription. Results We obtained 207,110 ESTs with an average read length of 241 bp. These reads assembled into 20,995 contigs and 31,056 singletons. Using BLAST searches of the NR and NT databases we were able to identify 11,757 unique gene elements (ES. crassipalpis unigenes among GO Biological Process functional groups with that of the Drosophila melanogaster transcriptome suggests that our ESTs are broadly representative of the flesh fly transcriptome. Insertion and deletion errors in 454 sequencing present a serious hurdle to comparative transcriptome analysis. Aided by a new approach to correcting for these errors, we performed a comparative analysis of genetic divergence across GO categories among S. crassipalpis, D. melanogaster, and Anopheles gambiae. The results suggest that non-synonymous substitutions occur at similar rates across categories, although genes related to response to stimuli may evolve slightly faster. In addition, we identified over 500 potential microsatellite loci and more than 12,000 SNPs among our ESTs. Conclusion Our data provides the first large-scale EST-project for flesh flies, a much-needed resource for exploring this model species. In addition, we identified a large number of potential microsatellite and SNP markers that could be used in population and systematic

  15. Biological activity of various extracts and phenolic content of Micromeria persica and M. hedgei

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    A. Sonboli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Lamiaceae members have long been used in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM for their various medicinal properties. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity as well as the total phenolic content (TPC of the various extracts and fractions of two Iranian endemic Micromeria (M. persica and M. hedgei. Methods: Plant materials were extracted with methanol by maceration for 24 h. Then, the methanol extract (ME was further fractionated to obtain the chloroform (M-C and water (M-W fractions. The antimicrobial activity was investigated against seven Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and three fungi. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH method and the data were compared with their total phenolic contents. Results: The nonpolar sub fractions (M-C of both plants were active against pathogens especially Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis with equal MIC values of3.75 and 7.5 mg/mL, respectively. Antioxidant activity evaluation showed that the polar fractions of both Micromeria species were stronger than nonpolar fractions, while the more considerable effect was observed for the water soluble fraction of the extract for M. hedgei with IC50 value of 59.1 µg/mL in comparison to M. persica (IC50 = 76.3 µg/mL. The highest gallic acid equivalent (GAE total phenolic contents was found to be 263.5 ± 1.5 and 256.3 ± 3.1 mg/g dry weight for M-W extracts of M. hedgei and M. persica, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated that the two species might be suggested as new potential sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

  16. An Iconography of the Flesh: How Corpses Mean As Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Shwartz

    2013-09-01

    the processes of decomposition, with the interventions of photography and embalming, with the cultural practices of disposal that ritually encounter and resolve this “remaining.” The corpse diversely and dynamically organizes the cultural, the representational, the biological, the subjective and the objective, the ritual and the metaphysical. I argue that lingering with the corpse as a dynamic assemblage allows for the development of a nuanced and materialistic notion of agency. I further suggest that this kind of reading provocatively develops Bill Brown’s question, “What might scholars accomplish through a materialist analysis of media?” Corpses are unique objects in that they already suggest themselves as figures of the material, thus literally embodying the question of what a materialist media studies might look like. Corpses communicate something to us about the flesh; they are the not-so-passive objects of technological, ritual and representational practices; they are the perfect starting point for a materialist communication and media studies.

  17. Purple Pelisse: A specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and flesh and medium specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple Pelisse is a specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and dark purple flesh. It has medium maturity and sets a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers. The tubers have medium specific gravity and high levels of antioxidants. This potato variety is mainly intended for the f...

  18. The influence of anaerobic muscle activity, maturation and season on the flesh quality of farmed turbot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, B.; Imsland, A.; Stien, L.H.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Gunnarsson, S.; Foss, A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to test seasonal, rearing, maturing and anaerobic muscle activity effect on the flesh quality of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) a total of 80 farmed turbot from three different strains from reared under natural or continuous light were killed by a percussive blow to the head in November

  19. Health and Safety at Work: Analysis from the Brazilian Documentary Film Flesh and Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Luciano; Dos Santos, Heliani Berlato; Ichikawa, Elisa Yoshie

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this article is to make some analysis on the process of work and accidents occurring in slaughterhouses, evidenced in the Brazilian documentary film called Flesh and Bone . As such, it was necessary to discuss an alternative theoretical concept in relation to theories about health and safety at work. This alternative discussion focuses on the concepts of biopower and biopolitics. The use of audiovisual elements in research is not new, and there is already a branch of studies with methodological and epistemological variations. The Brazilian documentary Flesh and Bone was the basis for the research. The analysis of this documentary will be carried out from two complementary perspectives: "textual analysis" and "discourse analysis." Flesh and Bone presents problems related to health and safety at work in slaughterhouses because of the constant exposure of workers to knives, saws, and other sharp instruments in the workplace. The results show that in favor of higher production levels, increased overseas market sales, and stricter quality controls, some manufacturers resort to various practices that often result in serious injuries, disposal, and health damages to workers. Flesh and Bone , by itself, makes this explicit in the form of denunciation based on the situation of these workers. What it does not make clear is that, in the context of biopolitics, the actions aimed at solving these problems or even reducing the negative impacts for this group of workers, are not efficient enough to change such practices.

  20. Engineering flesh : towards professional responsibility for 'lived bodies' in tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Flesh. Towards professional responsibility for ‘lived bodies’ in Tissue Engineering This study analyses the work of biomedical engineers as normative work that affects people’s daily lives as bodies. In biomedical engineering, engineers study bodies as machine-like objects and develop

  1. comparative study on the minerals composition of the flesh of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bashar

    Prior to analysis the flesh of the fruits were removed using sharp laboratory Stainless steel knife, sun dried, milled into fine powder using pestle and mortar, sieve through 20-mesh and stored in airtight poly ethene bag. Procedure for Analysis. The mineral elements were analysed using Walinga et al., (1989). The mineral ...

  2. Karyotype rearrangements and telomere analysis in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera, Aphididae) strains collected on Lavandula sp. plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrioli, Mauro; Zanasi, Federica; Manicardi, Gian Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Karyotype analysis of nine strains of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776), collected on Lavandula sp. plants, evidenced showed that five of them had a standard 2n = 12 karyotype, one possessed a fragmentation of the X chromosome occurring at the telomere opposite to the NOR-bearing one and three strains had a chromosome number 2n = 11 due to a non-reciprocal translocation of an autosome A3 onto an A1 chromosome. Interestingly, the terminal portion of the autosome A1 involved in the translocation was the same in all the three strains, as evidenced by FISH with the histone cluster as a probe. The study of telomeres in the Myzus persicae strain with the X fission evidenced that telomerase synthesised de novo telomeres at the breakpoints resulting in the stabilization of the chromosomal fragments. Lastly, despite the presence of a conserved telomerase, aphid genome is devoid of genes coding for shelterin, a complex of proteins involved in telomere functioning frequently reported as conserved in eukaryotes. The absence of this complex, also confirmed in the genome of other arthropods, suggests that the shift in the sequence of the telomeric repeats has been accompanied by other changes in the telomere components in arthropods in respect to other metazoans. PMID:25610541

  3. A case of canine borreliosis in Iran caused by Borrelia persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Darush; Rakhshanpoor, Alaleh; Cutler, Sally Jane; Ghazinezhad, Behnaz; Naddaf, Saied Reza

    2016-04-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever is an endemic disease in Iran, with most cases attributed to infection by Borrelia persica, which is transmitted by Ornithodoros tholozani soft ticks. Here, we report spirochetemia in blood of a puppy residing in Tehran, Iran. The causative species was identified by use of highly discriminative IGS sequencing; the 489 bp IGS sequence obtained in our study showed 99% identity (100% coverage) when compared with B. persica sequences derived from clinical cases or from O. tholozani ticks. Our IGS sequence also showed 99% similarity over 414 bp (85% coverage) with a strain from a domestic dog, and 96% over 328 bp (69% coverage) with a strain from a domestic cat. Pet-keeping in cosmopolitan cities like Tehran has become increasingly popular in recent years. Animals are often transported into the city in cages or cardboard boxes that might also harbor minute tick larvae and/or early stages of the nymphs bringing them into the urban environment. This may pose a threat to household members who buy and keep these puppies and as a result may come into close contact with infected ticks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. A new ester coumarin from Ferula Persica wild, indigenous to Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Mehdi; Janani, Mehrnoush

    2015-01-01

    Ferula persica wild (Apiaceae) is a perennial herb indigenous to Iran. It has been used in folk medicine for treatment of diabetes, lowering of blood pressure and for antispasmodic, carminative, laxative and expectorant effects in central Iran. Dried ground roots of F. persica (150 g) were extracted sequentially with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol (MeOH), 500 ml each, using a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane extract of the roots (3 g) was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography on silica gel, eluting with solvent mixtures of increasing polarity: 100% n-hexane-ethyl acetate (EtOAc), to yield a number of fractions, Fraction 4 (80% EtOAc in n-hexane) was further analysed by preparative TLC (mobile phase was 12% acetone in chloroform) to yield a coumarin ester (10.1 mg, Rf = 0.31, blue florescent). The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated by spectroscopic means. The compound is 7-O-(4,8,12 -trihydroxy-4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecanoyl)-coumarin, named, ferulone C as a new natural product.

  5. Proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh responses to a generalist sucking pest (Myzus persicae Sulzer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, D-H; Bauwens, J; Delaplace, P; Mazzucchelli, G; Lognay, G; Francis, F

    2015-11-01

    Herbivorous insects can cause severe cellular changes to plant foliage following infestations, depending on feeding behaviour. Here, a proteomic study was conducted to investigate the influence of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) as a polyphagous pest on the defence response of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh after aphid colony establishment on the host plant (3 days). Analysis of about 574 protein spots on 2-DE gels revealed 31 differentially expressed protein spots. Twenty out of these 31 differential proteins were selected for analysis by mass spectrometry. In 12 of the 20 analysed spots, we identified seven and nine proteins using MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-ESI-MS/MS, respectively. Of the analysed spots, 25% contain two proteins. Different metabolic pathways were modulated in Arabidopsis leaves according to aphid feeding: most corresponded to carbohydrate, amino acid and energy metabolism, photosynthesis, defence response and translation. This paper has established a survey of early alterations induced in the proteome of Arabidopsis by M. persicae aphids. It provides valuable insights into the complex responses of plants to biological stress, particularly for herbivorous insects with sucking feeding behaviour. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Richness and epiphytic mosses cover variation on ironwood trees (Parrotia persica Pojark trunks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Rahimeh Yavarynik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determination and assess changes in richness and cover of epiphytic mosses on ironwood trees(Parrotia persica Pojark trunks along trunk elevation and slope aspect gradients, in lowland and protected forest of Natural Resource College of Tarbiat Modares University (Parts of western limit of Noor forest reserved. To do this, a number of 20 individual of ironwood trees with a diamerter higher than 40 cm were selected randomly in the study area. A rectangle with 40*30 cm in two geographical directions (Northern and Southern, in 4 height classes (from 0 to 160cm on the trunks was sampled and related characteristics were recorded. Results of floristic study showed that presence of 17 epiphytic mosses species and the endemic species Palamocladium euchloron among the species with highest presence and Brachytheciaceae family with 7 species were the most important taxa and family in the forest. Richness and cover percentage of epiphytic mosses had the highest averages in northern and lower parts of the trees trunk, this could be due to higher moisture in northern direction and lower parts of the trunk. Result of the study, well clarified the changes of distribution and abundance of the most important forest elements in relationship changes of geographical situation of Parrotia persica trunks.

  7. Green Approach for the Effective Reduction of Graphene Oxide Using Salvadora persica L. Root (Miswak) Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mujeeb; Al-Marri, Abdulhadi H.; Khan, Merajuddin; Shaik, Mohammed Rafi; Mohri, Nils; Adil, Syed Farooq; Kuniyil, Mufsir; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z.; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Tremel, Wolfgang; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, green reduction of graphene oxide (GRO) using various natural materials, including plant extracts, has drawn significant attention among the scientific community. These methods are sustainable, low cost, and are more environmentally friendly than other standard methods of reduction. Herein, we report a facile and eco-friendly method for the bioreduction of GRO using Salvadora persica L. ( S. persica L.) roots (miswak) extract as a bioreductant. The as-prepared highly reduced graphene oxide (SP-HRG) was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Various results have confirmed that the biomolecules present in the root extract of miswak not only act as a bioreductant but also functionalize the surface of SP-HRG by acting as a capping ligand to stabilize it in water and other solvents. The dispersion quality of SP-HRG in deionized water was investigated in detail by preparing different samples of SP-HRG with increasing concentration of root extract. Furthermore, the dispersibility of SP-HRG was also compared with chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRG). The developed eco-friendly method for the reduction of GRO could provide a better substitute for a large-scale production of dispersant-free graphene and graphene-based materials for various applications in both technological and biological fields such as electronics, nanomedicine, and bionic materials.

  8. Anatomy of Phyllodina persica (Bivalvia: Tellinidae, and its first occurrence in southeastern Brazilian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cesar Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a detailed anatomy of a rare Western Atlantic tellin, Phyllodina persica, under a comparative scenario. Some characters are shared with other tellinids such as the large hemipalps compared to gills; gills with outer demibranch with a single lamella absent from the pericardial region; the type-V stomach associated with the style sac conjoined with the proximal intestine, and distal intestine presenting a dorsal and ventral group of loops, separated by the transverse muscle. The stomach presents a laterally enlarged typhlosole, although shallow, without flange in the margins. This feature is not found in other tellinid species. Another noteworthy feature in the stomach is the aperture of both caeca, which are larger than the left pouch aperture, and as wide as the style sac aperture. Furthermore, there is an interesting small process in the anterior hinge, and a pair of oblique protractor muscles placed posteriorly to the anterior foot retractor muscle, being a new type of intrinsic muscle described in bivalves. In addition to anatomy, this study presents the southernmost record of P. persica, expanding its distribution to the southeastern region of Brazil.

  9. Entomopathogenic Fungi as Dual Control Agents against Both the Pest Myzus persicae and Phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hwi-Geon; Kim, Dong-Jun; Gwak, Won-Seok; Shin, Tae-Young; Woo, Soo-Dong

    2017-09-01

    The green peach aphid ( Myzus persicae ), a plant pest, and gray mold disease, caused by Botrytis cinerea , affect vegetables and fruit crops all over the world. To control this aphid and mold, farmers typically rely on the use of chemical insecticides or fungicides. However, intensive use of these chemicals over many years has led to the development of resistance. To overcome this problem, there is a need to develop alternative control methods to suppress populations of this plant pest and pathogen. Recently, potential roles have been demonstrated for entomopathogenic fungi in endophytism, phytopathogen antagonism, plant growth promotion, and rhizosphere colonization. Here, the antifungal activities of selected fungi with high virulence against green peach aphids were tested to explore their potential for the dual control of B. cinerea and M. persicae . Antifungal activities against B. cinerea were evaluated by dual culture assays using both aerial conidia and cultural filtrates of entomopathogenic fungi. Two fungal isolates, Beauveria bassiana SD15 and Metarhizium anisopliae SD3, were identified as having both virulence against aphids and antifungal activity. The virulence of these isolates against aphids was further tested using cultural filtrates, blastospores, and aerial conidia. The most virulence was observed in the simultaneous treatment with blastospores and cultural filtrate. These results suggest that the two fungal isolates selected in this study could be used effectively for the dual control of green peach aphids and gray mold for crop protection.

  10. Two-sex Life Table of Oenopia conglobata cantaminata (Mentries Feed on Myzus persicae (Sulzer and Agonoscena pistacia Burkhardt and Lauterer under Laboratory Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mokhtari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aphids are very successful insects of the superfamily Aphidoidea with the highest number of species are found in temperate regions. One of the most important aphid, is Myzus persicae, known as the green peach aphid or the peach-potato aphid, is a small green aphid. It is the most significant aphid pest of peach trees, causing decreased growth, shriveling of the leaves and the death of various tissues. It is also hazardous because it acts as a vector for the transport of plant viruses, such as potato virus Y and potato leafroll virus to members of the nightshade/potato family Solanaceae, and various mosaic viruses to many other food crops. The green peach aphid is found worldwide, although it is less tolerant of colder climates and overwinters through its eggs, laid in trees of the genus Prunus. The aphid also benefits from the presence of greenhouses in these areas The common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psylloidea, is now the most destructive insect pest of cultivated pistachio trees (Pistacia vera Linnaeus in Iran This pest occurs throughout the pistachio plantation region of the country and causes severe reductions in pistachio yields. these pests are controlled almost exclusively by pesticides; however, environmental contamination and resistance by A. pistaciae and M.persica to insecticides has lead to considerable efforts to understand the potential of biocontrol agents for the common pistachio psylla and green peach aphid control. Coccinellids have been widely used in biological control for over a century and are considered to be important natural enemies of pest species, especially whitefly, aphids, mealy bugs, scales and mites. Lady beetles belong to the order beetles (Coleoptera are the Coccinellidae family. To achieve a successful biological control program, it is necessary to characterize the growth, stage structure, fecundity, and predation rate of the pest’s predators

  11. Differences in the Detoxification Metabolism between Two clonal Lineages of the Aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae Reared on Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. Diferencias en el Metabolismo de Detoxificación entre dos Linajes Clonales del Áfido Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae creados sobre tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Cabrera-Brandt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Myzus persicae (Sulzer is a highly polyphagous aphid species, with a subspecies (M. persicae nicotianae well adapted to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.. We evaluated the effect of this host plant on the aphid performance and detoxification enzymes, in order to test the participation of xenobiotic metabolism on the ability of this aphid to overcome the tobacco chemical defences. Two genotypes, one corresponding to the only M. persicae nicotianae genotype reported in Chile on tobacco, and one genotype belonging to M. persicae sensu stricto were reared on tobacco and pepper (Capsicum annuum L., respectively. M. persicae nicotianae showed a significantly higher intrinsic rate of increase (r m on pepper than on tobacco, and M. persicae s.s. performed similarly, but with no reproduction at all on tobacco. In order to evaluate the effect of tobacco on detoxification enzymes, esterases, glutathione S-transferases (GST and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MO were determined in both selected aphid genotypes after 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h of rearing on tobacco and pepper. M. persicae nicotianae exhibited the higher total esterase activities when reared on tobacco than on pepper after 48 h of rearing, while the activities of GST and MO did not show any significant difference between host-plants and duration of treatment. For M. persicae s.s., no significant differences were observed among host-plants for the studied enzymes. These results suggest a participation of the esterases, on the ability of this M. persicae nicotianae to overcome the tobacco defences.Myzus persicae (Sulzer es un áfido polífago que incluye a Myzus persicae nicotianae, una subespecie altamente adaptada sobre tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum L.. Evaluamos el efecto del tabaco sobre el desempeño biológico y sobre determinadas enzimas de detoxificación en áfidos, para estudiar su participación en la capacidad de M. persicae nicotianae de superar las defensas químicas del tabaco. Dos

  12. Mapping X-Disease Phytoplasma Resistance in Prunus virginiana

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan R. Lenz; Wenhao Dai

    2017-01-01

    Phytoplasmas such as “Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni,” the causal agent of X-disease of stone fruits, lack detailed biological analysis. This has limited the understanding of plant resistance mechanisms. Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana L.) is a promising model to be used for the plant-phytoplasma interaction due to its documented ability to resist X-disease infection. A consensus chokecherry genetic map “Cho” was developed with JoinMap 4.0 by joining two parental maps. The new map contains a com...

  13. Chemical composition and antibacterial properties of essential oil and fatty acids of different parts of Ligularia persica Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjerani, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Rahman; Hosseini, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the chemical composition and antibacterial activities of the fatty acids and essential oil from various parts of Ligularia persica Boiss (L. persica) growing wild in north of Iran. Essential oils were extracted by using Clevenger-type apparatus. Antibacterial activity was tested on two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria by using micro dilution method. GC and GC∕MS analysis of the oils resulted in detection of 94%, 96%, 93%, 99% of the total essential oil of flowers, stems, roots and leaves, respectively. The main components of flowers oil were cis-ocimene (15.4%), β-myrcene (4.4%), β-ocimene (3.9%), and γ-terpinene (5.0%). The major constituents of stems oil were β-phellandrene (5.4%), β-cymene (7.0%), valencene (3.9%). The main compounds of root oil were fukinanolid (17.0%), α-phellandrene (11.5%) and Β-selinene (5.0%) and in the case of leaves oil were cis-ocimene (4.8%), β-ocimene (4.9%), and linolenic acid methyl ester (4.7%). An analysis by GC-FID and GC-MS on the fatty-acid composition of the different parts of L. persica showed that major components were linoleic acid (11.3-31.6%), linolenic acid (4.7-21.8%) and palmitic acid (7.2-23.2%). Saturated fatty acids were found in lower amounts than unsaturated ones. The least minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of the L. persica was 7.16 μg/ml against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our study indicated that the essential oil from L. persica stems and flowers showed high inhibitory effect on the Gram negative bacteria. The results also showed that fatty acids from the stems and leaves contained a high amount of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).

  14. Amplification of a cytochrome P450 gene is associated with resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in the aphid Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puinean, Alin M; Foster, Stephen P; Oliphant, Linda; Denholm, Ian; Field, Linda M; Millar, Neil S; Williamson, Martin S; Bass, Chris

    2010-06-24

    The aphid Myzus persicae is a globally significant crop pest that has evolved high levels of resistance to almost all classes of insecticide. To date, the neonicotinoids, an economically important class of insecticides that target nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), have remained an effective control measure; however, recent reports of resistance in M. persicae represent a threat to the long-term efficacy of this chemical class. In this study, the mechanisms underlying resistance to the neonicotinoid insecticides were investigated using biological, biochemical, and genomic approaches. Bioassays on a resistant M. persicae clone (5191A) suggested that P450-mediated detoxification plays a primary role in resistance, although additional mechanism(s) may also contribute. Microarray analysis, using an array populated with probes corresponding to all known detoxification genes in M. persicae, revealed constitutive over-expression (22-fold) of a single P450 gene (CYP6CY3); and quantitative PCR showed that the over-expression is due, at least in part, to gene amplification. This is the first report of a P450 gene amplification event associated with insecticide resistance in an agriculturally important insect pest. The microarray analysis also showed over-expression of several gene sequences that encode cuticular proteins (2-16-fold), and artificial feeding assays and in vivo penetration assays using radiolabeled insecticide provided direct evidence of a role for reduced cuticular penetration in neonicotinoid resistance. Conversely, receptor radioligand binding studies and nucleotide sequencing of nAChR subunit genes suggest that target-site changes are unlikely to contribute to resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in M. persicae.

  15. Dinâmica populacional e incidência de moscas-das-frutas e parasitoides em cultivares de pessegueiros (Prunus Persica L. Batsch no município de presidente prudente-sp Population dynamic and occurrence of fruit flies and their parasitoids in peach cultivars (Prunus persica L. Batsch in presidente prudente municipality, sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Nalesso Marangoni Montes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos avaliar a dinâmica populacional e registrar a diversidade de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea em cultivares de pessegueiro Tropical, Talismã, Aurora 2, Aurora 1, Dourado 2 e Doçura 2, enxertadas sobre os porta-enxertos 'Okinawa' e Umê, em Presidente Prudente-SP. Foram realizadas as correlações da dinâmica populacional com a temperatura e a precipitação, e também a infestação com as características químicas dos frutos, Sólidos Solúveis e Acidez Titulável. No período de julho de 2004 a dezembro de 2006, a dinâmica populacional de moscas-das-frutas foi obtida através de coletas semanais de moscas-das-frutas em armadilhas McPhail, e a incidência foi determinada através da coleta de 30 frutos/planta/cultivar. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Ceratitis capitata foi predominante nas cultivares de pessegueiros estudadas. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre população de moscas-das-frutas e as variáveis de temperatura e precipitação, e sólidos solúveis e ácidez titulável. Entre as cultivares de pêssego, Aurora 2 apresentou maior infestação por C. capitata, da ordem de 22 e 23% nos anos 2004 e 2006, respectivamente. Também foi registrada a incidência de Neosilba spp. em frutos de pêssego. Doryctobracon areolatus (Braconidae, Tetrastichus giffardianus (Eulophidae e Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Pteromalidae foram recuperados de pupários de Tephritidae.The objectives of this research were evaluate the population dynamic and diversity of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea on peach cultivars Tropical, Talisma, Aurora 2, Aurora 1, Dourado 2 and Doçura 2, under the rootstocks 'Okinawa' and Umê, in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil. The dynamic population of fruit flies was correlated with temperature and precipitation. The fruit fly infestation was correlated with chemical characteristics of fruits. During July 2004 to December 2006, the fruit fly population was monitored weekly using McPhail traps. The natural infestation was estimated from 30 fruits of each cultivar collected per year. The experiment was conducted under randomized design with five replications. Ceratitis capitata was dominant on peach cultivars for the both rootstocks. No significant correlations were detected between the fruit fly densities and the temperature and precipitation, and the variables soluble solids and titratable acidity. Among peach cultivars, Aurora 2 presented the highest infestation by C. capitata, reaching 22% and 23%, in 2004 and 2006, respectively. Neosilba spp. (Lonchaeidae was also recovered from peaches. Doryctobracon areolatus (Braconidae, Tetrastichus giffardianus (Eulophidae and Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Pteromalidae were recovered from Tephritidae pulparium.

  16. Mapping X-Disease Phytoplasma Resistance in Prunus virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Ryan R; Dai, Wenhao

    2017-01-01

    Phytoplasmas such as " Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni," the causal agent of X-disease of stone fruits, lack detailed biological analysis. This has limited the understanding of plant resistance mechanisms. Chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana L.) is a promising model to be used for the plant-phytoplasma interaction due to its documented ability to resist X-disease infection. A consensus chokecherry genetic map "Cho" was developed with JoinMap 4.0 by joining two parental maps. The new map contains a complete set of 16 linkage groups, spanning a genetic distance of 2,172 cM with an average marker density of 3.97 cM. Three significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with X-disease resistance were identified contributing to a total of 45.9% of the phenotypic variation. This updated genetic linkage map and the identified QTL will provide the framework needed to facilitate molecular genetics, genomics, breeding, and biotechnology research concerning X-disease in chokecherry and other Prunus species.

  17. Mapping X-Disease Phytoplasma Resistance in Prunus virginiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R. Lenz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplasmas such as “Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni,” the causal agent of X-disease of stone fruits, lack detailed biological analysis. This has limited the understanding of plant resistance mechanisms. Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana L. is a promising model to be used for the plant-phytoplasma interaction due to its documented ability to resist X-disease infection. A consensus chokecherry genetic map “Cho” was developed with JoinMap 4.0 by joining two parental maps. The new map contains a complete set of 16 linkage groups, spanning a genetic distance of 2,172 cM with an average marker density of 3.97 cM. Three significant quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with X-disease resistance were identified contributing to a total of 45.9% of the phenotypic variation. This updated genetic linkage map and the identified QTL will provide the framework needed to facilitate molecular genetics, genomics, breeding, and biotechnology research concerning X-disease in chokecherry and other Prunus species.

  18. Crystal macropattern development in Prunus serotina (Rosaceae, Prunoideae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lersten, Nels R; Horner, Harry T

    2006-05-01

    Prunus, subgenus Padus, exhibits two completely different calcium oxalate crystal macropatterns in mature leaves. Foliar macropattern development has been described previously in P. virginiana, representing one version. Prunus serotina, in the group exhibiting the second macropattern, is described here. The goal was to describe developmental details for comparison with P. virginiana, and to extend the sparse current knowledge of crystal macropatterns. Leaves at various developmental stages were removed from local trees and from herbarium specimens. Early leaf stages and freehand leaf and stem sections were mounted directly in aqueous glycerine; larger leaves were processed whole or in representative pieces in household bleach, dehydrated in alcohol/xylol, and mounted in Permount. Crystals were detected microscopically between crossed polarizers. Bud scales have a dense druse population. Druses appear first at the stipule tip and proliferate basipetally but soon stop forming; growing stipules therefore have a declining density of druses. Druses appear at the tip of leaves virginiana, and shows that two closely related species can develop radically different modes of crystallization. The few detailed macropattern studies to date reveal striking variations that indicate a new level of organization that must be integrated with the anatomical, physiological and molecular approaches that have been dominant so far.

  19. Avaliação de inseticidas no controle de Myzus persicae (sulz. (homoptera: aphididae na cultura da alface Evaluation of insecticides to control Myzus persicae (Sulz (Homoptera: Aphididae on lettuce crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Zagonel

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a eficiência de inseticidas no controle de Myzus persicae (Sulz. na cultura da alface, cv. Verônica, em experimento conduzido na UEPG, em 1999. Usou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de thiamethoxam nas doses de 50; 75 e 100 g i.a./ha; imidacloprid na dose de 140 g i.a./ha; pymetrozine na dose de 150 g i.a./ha e testemunha sem pulverização. Os tratamentos foram aplicados nas mudas em bandejas, um dia antes do transplantio. Avaliou-se a fitotoxicidade, o número de pulgões por planta, a porcentagem de plantas com pulgões e a eficiência dos inseticidas. O thiamethoxam nas doses de 50; 75 e 100 g i.a./ha foi eficiente no controle de M. persicae durante todo o ciclo, mostrando eficiência igual ou superior a 98,6%, similar ao imidacloprid. O pymetrozine apresentou eficiência no controle de M. persicae até 21 dias após o transplante das mudas. Os inseticidas não causaram efeitos fitotóxicos nas plantas de alface; além disso, houve produção de plantas com maior massa fresca em relação à testemunha.A field trial was carried out at Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, State of Paraná, Brazil, in 1999, to evaluate the efficiency of insecticides in controlling Myzus persicae (Sulz on lettuce cv. Veronica. The experimental design was of completely randomized blocks with six treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of thiamethoxam (50; 75 and 100 g i.a/ha imidacloprid (140 g i.a/ha; pymetrozine (150 g i.a/ha and control. The treatments were applied to seedlings grown in polyestyrene trays one day before the transplanting. The fitotoxicity, the number of aphids/plant, the percentage of plants with aphids and the efficiency of the insecticides were evaluated. Thiamethoxan at doses of 50; 75 and 100 g i.a/ha was efficient to control M. persicae from transplanting till 43 days after showing equal or higher efficiency than 98

  20. Growth and fruit bearing of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radunic

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... Modern intensive production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) tends to planting of high ... the highest was recorded on "V", while the smallest was in Spanish bush. Training system and density did not affect the fruit weight.

  1. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil the leaf of Nepeta persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya AKHSHI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the leaf of Nepeta persica Boiss, analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography (GC/mass spectrometry (MS, were shown to contain 4aα, 7α, 7aβ-nepetalactone (49.46% and 4aα, 7α, 7aα-nepetalactone (14.18%. The other main constituents were n-octane (13.10%, n-decane (3.67% and germacrene-D (2.04%. Antibacterial activities of the leaf oil were evaluated using the micro-dilution broth method. Inhibitory effects on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Enterococcus faecalis were recorded. The leaf oil has difference activities against the test microorganisms. The antibacterial property of the essential oil might be ascribed to their high content of nepetalactone isomers.

  2. Experimental study of 『PERSICAE SEMEN』 on the blood injected by Endotoxin in rats

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    Chang-Keun

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effects of 「Persicae Semen」(PS on the blood injected by Endotoxin in rats. The blood was induced by Endotoxin injection into the caudal vein of rats and PS group taken a measurement of RBC, Hb, Hct, Platelet, WBC, ESR, CRP. The results were obtained as follows: 1. RBC, Hb, Hct, Platelet, WBC were increased with statistical significance at PS group as compared with those of the control group. 2. ESR, CRP were decreased with statistical significance at PS group as compared with those of the control group. It is concluded that PS group has significant effects on the blood injected by Endotoxin in rats. Therefore, PS group seems to be applicable to the diseases related to Endotoxin in clinics.

  3. Arabidopsis thaliana - Myzus persicae interaction: shaping the understanding of plant defense against phloem-feeding aphids

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    Joe eLouis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phloem provides a unique niche for several organisms. Aphids are a large group of Hemipteran insects that utilize stylets present in their mouthparts to pierce sieve elements and drink large volumes of phloem sap. In addition, many aphids also vector viral diseases. Myzus persicae, commonly known as the green peach aphid (GPA, is an important pest of a large variety of plants that includes Arabidopsis thaliana. This review summarizes recent studies that have exploited the compatible interaction between Arabidopsis and GPA to understand the molecular and physiological mechanisms utilized by plants to control aphid infestation, as well as genes and mechanisms that contribute to susceptibility. In addition, recent efforts to identify aphid-delivered elicitors of plant defenses and novel aphid salivary components that facilitate infestation are also discussed.

  4. Role of Glyco-Persica® in Targeting Diabetes Type 2: an Integrative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashtdar Mehrab

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine how an integrated approach to type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment could improve glycemic control and immune-potentiating activities adherent to oral hypoglycemic agents along with a botanical compound, among primary care patients. Methods: In this study, we used the self-control and the group-control methods. Candidates meeting the trial conditions were selected from among volunteers who had taken the test substance for 45 days. During the trial, all groups were on a controlled diet; neither were the original medications nor their dosages changed. Results: The results showed that the botanical compound (Glyco-Persica® significantly reduced the main clinical symptoms in diabetes type 2. In the treatment group, 36 of 52 patients (69.23% and in the control group 10 of 52 patients (19.23% showed reduced symptoms, and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05. The fasting blood sugar in the treatment group after treatment compared with that before treatment and with that in the control group after treatment was statistically different (P < 0.05. The post-prandial glucose in the treatment group after treatment was significantly different from that before treatment and from that in the control group after treatment (P < 0.05; the post-prandial blood sugar in the treatment group was reduced by 8.98%. Conclusions: The results revealed that the botanical compound (Glyco-Persica® has significant hypoglycemic properties which affect main clinical symptoms in diabetes type 2. Body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, routine blood, stool and urine tests showed no meaningful negative changes after the course of treatment. There was no significant adverse reaction during the trial.

  5. The use of photon correlation spectroscopy method for determining diffusion coefficient in brine and herring flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumanova M.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The process fish salting has been studied by the method of photon correlation spectroscopy; the distribution of salt concentration in the solution and herring flesh with skin has been found, diffusion coefficients and salt concentrations used for creating a mathematical model of the salting technology have been worked out; the possibility of determination by this method the coefficient of dynamic viscosity of solutions and different media (minced meat etc. has been considered

  6. Two Types of New Natural Materials for Fruit Vinegar in Prunus Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica and P. domestica × P. armeniaca added value; three natural fruit vinegars were designed. The results showed the nutrition of Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca cultivar Fengweimeigui vinegar (T1 had high minerals and microelements, especially the Ca and Mg reached to the 150.00mg/L, 85.40 mg/L, respectively; the vinegar of Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica cultivar Zhongren No.1 (T2 not only have rich Na (2800.00 mg/L, P (123.00 mg/L, but also have plentiful amino acid that content reached to 200.08 mg/L. However, the mixture vinegar (T3 with pulps from Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca and Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica had the middle nutrient contents, but the property was balanced. We therefore conclude that solid fermentation is a suitable method to preserve nutrients and value-added for Prunus plants fruit, and three types vinegars are suitable for different age people, and the difference nutrient contents and typical characteristic indicate that three vinegars are competitive products in market.

  7. Spatial heterogeneity in post-dispersal predation on Prunus and Uvularia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Sara L; Willson, Mary F

    1985-08-01

    We investigated effects of seed density, distance from parent, and habitat (woods, open field) on post-dispersal predation risk (chiefly by rodents) for seeds of Prunus virginiana (Rosaceae). Additional study of the habitat effect (woods, open field, treefall gap) was made with seeds of Prunus avium (Rosaceae) and Uvularia grandiflora (Liliaceae). Density of Prunus seeds (range 2-40 seeds/group) did not affect predation risk for individual seeds. Distance from parent plants did influence predation risk, which was greatest directly beneath parents. This distance effect primarily comprised a sharp drop in risk within 2 m of parents, a distance too small to generate a "spacing rule" for conspecifics.We found that habitat strongly influenced predation intensity. Rates of removal of Prunus seeds were higher in woods than in open fields, except when overall predation intensity was very low and no pattern could be discerned. Prunus seed removal rates were higher in closed woods than in treefall gaps. Consequently, a Prunus seed will more likely escape predation if dispersed to an open site. In contrast, Uvularia seed removal rates were higher in open fields than in woods but did not differ between closed woods and tree-fall gaps.Predation intensity was spatially patchy between and within experimental arrays, but was consistent over time at some specific points in space, possibly reflecting home ranges of seed predators.

  8. Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Flesh of Catla catla from Ravi River, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobeen Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, carbofuran, and cartap which were estimated in the flesh of Catla catla sampled from ten sites of Ravi River between its stretches from Shahdara to Head Balloki were studied to know the level of contamination of the selected pesticides by GC-ECD method. All fish samples were found contaminated with different concentrations of DDT, DDE, endosulfan, and carbofuran; however, DDT and DDE concentrations were more than the maximum residue limits (MRLs about food standards, while endosulfan sulfate and cartap were not detected. Pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh were ranged from 3.240 to 3.389 for DDT, 2.290 to 2.460 for DDE, 0.112 to 0.136 for endosulfan, and 0.260 to 0.370 μg g−1 for carbofuran. The findings revealed that the pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh decreased in the order: DDT > DDE > carbofuran > endosulfan. After Degh fall and After Hudiara nulla fall river sampling sites were found severely contaminated. It is proposed that a constant monitoring programs are needed to be initiated to overcome the present alarming situation.

  9. Biofouling leads to reduced shell growth and flesh weight in the cultured mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Michael; Fitridge, Isla; Dempster, Tim; Keough, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Competitive interactions between cultured mussels and fouling organisms may result in growth and weight reductions in mussels, and compromised aquaculture productivity. Mussel ropes were inoculated with Ciona intestinalis, Ectopleura crocea or Styela clava, and growth parameters of fouled and unfouled Mytilus galloprovincialis were compared after two months. Small mussels (≈ 50 mm) fouled by C. intestinalis and E. crocea were 4.0 and 3.2% shorter in shell length and had 21 and 13% reduced flesh weight, respectively, compared to the controls. Large mussels (≈ 68 mm) fouled by S. clava, C. intestinalis and E. crocea were 4.4, 3.9 and 2.1% shorter than control mussels, respectively, but flesh weights were not significantly reduced. A series of competitive feeding experiments indicated that S. clava and C. intestinalis did not reduce mussels' food consumption, but that E. crocea, through interference competition, did. Fouling by these species at the densities used here reduced mussel growth and flesh weight, likely resulting in economic losses for the industry, and requires consideration when developing biofouling mitigation strategies.

  10. Changes in anthocyanidin levels during the maturation of color-fleshed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Miloslav; Kotíková, Zora; Paznocht, Luboš; Pivec, Vladimír; Hamouz, Karel; Lachman, Jaromír

    2017-12-15

    Certain potato cultivars are capable of producing anthocyanin pigments in the potato skin and flesh and those pigments have been shown, together with other phytochemicals, to promote good health. Six common anthocyanidins (cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, pelargonidin, malvidin and peonidin) were analyzed weekly for 15weeks in red- and purple-fleshed potato cultivars (Red Emma, Königspurpur, Valfi and Blaue de la Mancha) grown in field conditions using a validated LC-(+ESI)MS/MS method. Pelargonidin was the major type detected in red-fleshed cultivars whereas petunidin was the major type detected in the purple ones. Neither cyanidin nor delphinidin were found in any of the cultivars. The anthocyanidin levels observed were as high as 78mg/100g FW during tuber growth; however, fully matured tubers contained only 10-39mg anthocyanidins/100gFW. Anthocyanidin levels were moderately correlated with global solar irradiation (r<0.6252) but not with rainfall or daily temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioactive compounds from flesh and by-product of fresh-cut watermelon cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona-Díaz, Martha Patricia; Viegas, Joana; Moldao-Martins, Margarida; Aguayo, Encarna

    2011-03-30

    The fresh-cut industry produces thousands of tons of waste in non-edible portions that present an environmental and management problem. These by-products could be reused, in particular, to obtain bioactive compounds. In this study, five different fresh-cut watermelon cultivars were assessed for their flesh and by-product bioactive contents. The amount of by-product varied between 31.27 and 40.61% of initial fresh weight (f.w.) depending on the cultivar. Watermelon cultivars were poor sources of total antioxidant, and the content was similar between rind and flesh samples (46.96 vs 43.46 mg ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity kg(-1) f.w.). However, the rind had a moderate total phenolic content higher than that of the flesh (458 vs 389 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent kg(-1) f.w.) and a much higher content of the amino acid citrulline (3.34 vs 2.33 g kg(-1) f.w.), which has potential bioactive properties. Watermelon rind offers quantitative interest as a natural source of citrulline, particularly Fashion, a dark-skinned, seedless cultivar. More research is required on the efficient extraction of citrulline from watermelon rind and its suitability as an additive to drinks, juices or others products to produce new functional food products with valid health claims. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Assessment of pesticide residues in flesh of Catla catla from Ravi River, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mobeen; Mahboob, Shahid; Sultana, Salma; Sultana, Tayyaba; Alghanim, Khalid Abdullah; Ahmed, Zubair

    2014-01-01

    The levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, carbofuran, and cartap which were estimated in the flesh of Catla catla sampled from ten sites of Ravi River between its stretches from Shahdara to Head Balloki were studied to know the level of contamination of the selected pesticides by GC-ECD method. All fish samples were found contaminated with different concentrations of DDT, DDE, endosulfan, and carbofuran; however, DDT and DDE concentrations were more than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) about food standards, while endosulfan sulfate and cartap were not detected. Pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh were ranged from 3.240 to 3.389 for DDT, 2.290 to 2.460 for DDE, 0.112 to 0.136 for endosulfan, and 0.260 to 0.370 μg g(-1) for carbofuran. The findings revealed that the pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh decreased in the order: DDT > DDE > carbofuran > endosulfan. After Degh fall and After Hudiara nulla fall river sampling sites were found severely contaminated. It is proposed that a constant monitoring programs are needed to be initiated to overcome the present alarming situation.

  13. Use of silicon as inductor of the resistance in potato to Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae); Uso de silicio como indutor de resistencia em batata a Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Flavia B.; Moraes, Jair C.; Antunes, Cristiana [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia; Santos, Custodio D. dos [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-03-15

    The aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is an important pest of potato and causes direct harm, due to the quantity of sap extracted and for being vector of important phytovirus. This work was carried out to evaluate the action of silicon as a resistance inducer of potato to M. persicae. Four treatments were tried: foliar fertilization with silicon acid at 1%; soil fertilization with 250 ml silicic acid solution at 1%; foliar fertilization with silicon acid at 1% + soil fertilization with 250 ml silicic acid solution at 1%; and a control. The treatments were applied thirty days after the explants emergence. Fifteen days after the application of the treatments, feeding preference and some biological aspects of the aphids were evaluated. After, the content of tannins and lignin present in the leaves and the activity of the enzymes peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were also determined. The silicon fertilization did not affect the preference of the aphids; however it reduced fecundity and the rate of population growth of the insects. The lignin percentage increased in the leaves of plants fertilized with silicon via soil and/or foliar and the percentage of tannins increased only in the leaves fertilized via soil plus foliar. The silicon acted as a resistance inducer to M. persicae in potato. (author)

  14. Comparison of Electric Toothbrush, Persica and Chlorhexidine Mouthwashes on Reduction of Gingival Enlargement in Orthodontic Patients: A Randomised Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadian, Nasrin; Bidgoli, Mohsen; Jafari, Farhad; Mahmoudzadeh, Majid; Yaghobi, Mahdi; Miresmaeili, Amirfarhang

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of chlorhexidine, Persica mouthwash and electric toothbrushes in improving gingival enlargement in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Seventy-two orthodontic patients with at least two sites of gingival enlargement were randomly allocated into four equal groups: 1) manual toothbrush; 2) electric toothbrush; 3) manual toothbrush+Persica mouthwash; 4) manual toothbrush+chlorhexidine mouthwash. All participants were instructed to brush their teeth at least twice a day. The subjects in groups 3 and 4 were instructed to use Persica or chlorhexidine according to the respective manufacturer's instructions. Bleeding on probing (BOP) index, gingival index (GI), O'Leary's plaque index (PI) and constructed hyperplastic index (HI) of all the subjects were measured in a blind manner at the start of the study and 2 weeks later. Changes of indices in the entire oral cavity and individual affected teeth were analysed with SPSS 16 using chi-square, ANOVA, ANCOVA, LSD and the paired t-test. In the entire oral cavity, there was a statistically significant improvement in indices in all the groups except for HI, which significantly improved only in group 4 (p=0.001). Data of individual teeth with hyperplastic gingiva showed significant reduction of all the variables except for HI in group 1 (p=0.08). No significant differences were found between groups 1 and 2 or between groups 3 and 4. The efficacy of Persica was similar to that of chlorhexidine in improving gingival conditions. None of the treatment modalities could reduce gingival enlargement to the clinically acceptable level of health.

  15. Incidence of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salem

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV incidence in Jordan stone-fruit growing areas was conducted during 2000–2002. A total of 2552 samples were collected from 72 commercial orchards, a mother block, 15 nurseries, and a varietal collection. A total of 208 almond, 451 apricot, 149 cherry, 250 nectarine, 1016 peach, and 478 plum trees were tested individually for PNRSV by the double-antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. Around 15% of tested samples were infected with PNRSV. The virus incidence in almond, nectarine, plum, peach, cherry, and apricot was 24, 16, 16, 14, 13, and 10% of tested trees respectively. The level of viral infection was highest in the mother block (19%, and lowest in the samples from the nurseries (10%.

  16. Virulence and molecular polymorphism of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R W; Crosslin, J M

    1998-07-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) occurs as numerous strains or isolates that vary widely in their pathogenic, biophysical and serological properties. Prior attempts to distinguish pathotypes based upon physical properties have not been successful; our approach was to examine the molecular properties that may distinguish these isolates. The nucleic acid sequence was determined from 1.65 kbp RT-PCR products derived from RNA 3 of seven distinct isolates of PNRSV that differ serologically and in pathology on sweet cherry. Sequence comparisons of ORF 3a (putative movement protein) and ORF 3b (coat protein) revealed single nucleotide and amino acid differences with strong correlations to serology and symptom types (pathotypes). Sequence differences between serotypes and pathotypes were also reflected in the overall phylogenetic relationships between the isolates.

  17. Ilarviruses of Prunus spp.: a continued concern for fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, V; Aparicio, F; Herranz, M C; Amari, K; Sanchez-Pina, M A; Myrta, A; Sanchez-Navarro, J A

    2012-12-01

    Prunus spp. are affected by a large number of viruses, causing significant economic losses through either direct or indirect damage, which results in reduced yield and fruit quality. Among these viruses, members of the genus Ilarvirus (isometric labile ringspot viruses) occupy a significant position due to their distribution worldwide. Although symptoms caused by these types of viruses were reported early in the last century, their molecular characterization was not achieved until the 1990s, much later than for other agronomically relevant viruses. This was mainly due to the characteristic liability of virus particles in tissue extracts. In addition, ilarviruses, together with Alfalfa mosaic virus, are unique among plant viruses in that they require a few molecules of the coat protein in the inoculum in order to be infectious, a phenomenon known as genome activation. Another factor that has made the study of this group of viruses difficult is that infectious clones have been obtained only for the type member of the genus, Tobacco streak virus. Four ilarviruses, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, Prune dwarf virus, Apple mosaic virus, and American plum line pattern virus, are pathogens of the main cultivated fruit trees. As stated in the 9th Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, virions of this genus are "unpromising subjects for the raising of good antisera." With the advent of molecular approaches for their detection and characterization, it has been possible to get a more precise view of their prevalence and genome organization. This review updates our knowledge on the incidence, genome organization and expression, genetic diversity, modes of transmission, and diagnosis, as well as control of this peculiar group of viruses affecting fruit trees.

  18. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. and Heldr.) Hayek var. persica (Boiss.) Wagenitz from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zengin, G.; Guler, G.O.; Cakmak, Y.S.; Aktumseka, A.

    2011-07-01

    The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 ig/ml (in the DPPH assay). In the {beta}carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE)/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 u3 ({beta}-linolenic acid) by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. (Author).

  19. Difference in photosynthetic performance among three peach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) on greenhouse grown peach trees ('Qingfeng': Prunus persica L. Batsch, 'NJN76': Prunus persica L. Batsch and 'Maixiang': P. persica var. nectarine) were investigated. Difference in photosynthesis rate (Pn) and stoma morphology among cultivars were studied.

  20. Genomic segments RNA1 and RNA2 of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus codetermine viral pathogenicity to adapt to alternating natural Prunus hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongguang; Hong, Ni; Wang, Guoping; Wang, Aiming

    2013-05-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) affects Prunus fruit production worldwide. To date, numerous PNRSV isolates with diverse pathological properties have been documented. To study the pathogenicity of PNRSV, which directly or indirectly determines the economic losses of infected fruit trees, we have recently sequenced the complete genome of peach isolate Pch12 and cherry isolate Chr3, belonging to the pathogenically aggressive PV32 group and mild PV96 group, respectively. Here, we constructed the Chr3- and Pch12-derived full-length cDNA clones that were infectious in the experimental host cucumber and their respective natural Prunus hosts. Pch12-derived clones induced much more severe symptoms than Chr3 in cucumber, and the pathogenicity discrepancy between Chr3 and Pch12 was associated with virus accumulation. By reassortment of genomic segments, swapping of partial genomic segments, and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified the 3' terminal nucleotide sequence (1C region) in RNA1 and amino acid K at residue 279 in RNA2-encoded P2 as the severe virulence determinants in Pch12. Gain-of-function experiments demonstrated that both the 1C region and K279 of Pch12 were required for severe virulence and high levels of viral accumulation. Our results suggest that PNRSV RNA1 and RNA2 codetermine viral pathogenicity to adapt to alternating natural Prunus hosts, likely through mediating viral accumulation.

  1. Self-incompatibility of Prunus tenella and evidence that reproductively isolated species of Prunus have different SFB alleles coupled with an identical S-RNase allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbanovski, Nada; Tobutt, Kenneth R; Konstantinović, Miroslav; Maksimović, Vesna; Sargent, Daniel J; Stevanović, Vladimir; Bosković, Radovan I

    2007-05-01

    Many species of Prunus display an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI), controlled by a single highly polymorphic multigene complex termed the S-locus. This comprises tightly linked stylar- and pollen-expressed genes that determine the specificity of the SI response. We investigated SI of Prunus tenella, a wild species found in small, isolated populations on the Balkan peninsula, initially by pollination experiments and identifying stylar-expressed RNase alleles. Nine P. tenella S-RNase alleles (S(1)-S(9)) were cloned; their sequence analysis showed a very high ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions (K(a)/K(s)) and revealed that S-RNase alleles of P. tenella, unlike those of Prunus dulcis, show positive selection in all regions except the conserved regions and that between C2 and RHV. Remarkably, S(8)-RNase, was found to be identical to S(1)-RNase from Prunus avium, a species that does not interbreed with P. tenella and, except for just one amino acid, to S(11) of P. dulcis. However, the corresponding introns and S-RNase-SFB intergenic regions showed considerable differences. Moreover, protein sequences of the pollen-expressed SFB alleles were not identical, harbouring 12 amino-acid replacements between those of P. tenella SFB(8) and P. avium SFB(1). Implications of this finding for hypotheses about the evolution of new S-specificities are discussed.

  2. Analysis of Agromorphological Descriptors to Differentiate between Duke Cherry (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & TurpinRehd. and Its Progenitors: Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. and Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Análisis de Descriptores Agromorfológicos para Diferenciar entre Cerezo Duke (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin Rehd. y sus Progenitores: Cerezo (Prunus avium L. y Guindo (Prunus cerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid identification of the hybrids between sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. is not easy. In order to resolve this problem, 18 Spanish sweet, sour and duke cherry cultivars were surveyed and characterized using 43 agromorphological descriptors evaluated in flowers, leaves, dormant 1-yr-old shoots, fruits, and trees during 2005 and 2006. Based on quantitative parameters, ANOVA and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA were carried out. For qualitative descriptors, statistical comparisons were done by means of the chi-square (χ2 test. As result of the study, two quantitative (titratable acidity and number of lenticels and six qualitative descriptors (shape of the central and lateral lobes in the internal bracts of the flower fascicles, leaf shape and margin, pubescence in the veins of the lower side of the leaf, and type of sulci of the seed coat were identified as differential parameters in P. avium, P. cerasus and P. x gondouinii(Poit. & Turpin Rehd. Also, another four qualitative descriptors (petal coloration at the end of blooming, leaf stipule type, and seed shape and viability were found to be useful for easy differentiation between sour and duke cherry. None of these parameters has been employed previously to discriminate among sweet, sour and duke cherry.Los híbridos de cerezo (Prunus avium L. y guindo (Prunus cerasus L. no son fáciles de identificar. Para resolver este problema, 18 cultivares de cerezo, guindo y sus híbridos fueron prospectados y caracterizados agromorfológicamente mediante el estudio de 43 descriptores evaluados en flores, hojas, frutos, ramas de 1 año y árbol durante los años 2005 y 2006. En base a los resultados obtenidos del estudio de los diferentes parámetros cuantitativos se realizaron un ANDEVA y un análisis discriminante escalonado (SDA. Los descriptores cualitativos fueron analizados mediante el test de Chi-cuadrado (χ². Como resultado del estudio se identificaron

  3. Mapping a candidate gene (MdMYB10 for red flesh and foliage colour in apple

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    Allan Andrew C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating plant genomics and classical breeding is a challenge for both plant breeders and molecular biologists. Marker-assisted selection (MAS is a tool that can be used to accelerate the development of novel apple varieties such as cultivars that have fruit with anthocyanin through to the core. In addition, determining the inheritance of novel alleles, such as the one responsible for red flesh, adds to our understanding of allelic variation. Our goal was to map candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes in a population segregating for the red flesh phenotypes. Results We have identified the Rni locus, a major genetic determinant of the red foliage and red colour in the core of apple fruit. In a population segregating for the red flesh and foliage phenotype we have determined the inheritance of the Rni locus and DNA polymorphisms of candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes. Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in the candidate genes were also located on an apple genetic map. We have shown that the MdMYB10 gene co-segregates with the Rni locus and is on Linkage Group (LG 09 of the apple genome. Conclusion We have performed candidate gene mapping in a fruit tree crop and have provided genetic evidence that red colouration in the fruit core as well as red foliage are both controlled by a single locus named Rni. We have shown that the transcription factor MdMYB10 may be the gene underlying Rni as there were no recombinants between the marker for this gene and the red phenotype in a population of 516 individuals. Associating markers derived from candidate genes with a desirable phenotypic trait has demonstrated the application of genomic tools in a breeding programme of a horticultural crop species.

  4. A comparison study on flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larimichthys croceus) cultured with three different modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqin; Li, Baian; Chen, Naisong; Huang, Xuxiong; Hua, Xuemin; Leng, Xiangjun

    2017-12-01

    To compare the flesh quality of large yellow croaker cultured with three different modes, enclosure culture (EC), cage culture with feeding trash fish (CCF) and cage culture with feeding formula diet (CCD), thirty six fish individuals of EC (484.6 ± 79.8 g), CCF (432.7 ± 87.9 g) and CCD (416.9 ± 49.5 g) were sampled to measure body color, flesh water holding capacity, flesh proximate composition, amino acids and fatty acids composition, and collagen and inosinic acid contents. The analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the yellowness of skin and the contents of crude protein and inosinic acid between CCD and EC (P >0.05), and the two modes showed higher values than CCF ( P 0.05). EC and CCD had higher contents of collagen, free AA and lower drip loss than CC ( P < 0.05). In polyunsaturated fatty acids, EC showed significantly higher levels of C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 than CCF and CCD ( P < 0.05), but CCD had significantly higher C18:2n-6 than CCF and EC ( P < 0.05). In conclusion, the flesh quality of CCD fish is similar to EC fish, and these two modes have better flesh quality than CCF.

  5. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-352 radionuclides in tuna fish flesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Vas, D.; Lopez, J.J.; Noshkin, V.

    1990-08-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a sample of tuna fish flesh from the Mediterranean Sea, IAEA-352, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclides levels, are reported. The data from 63 laboratories from 31 countries have been evaluated. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for the most frequently measured radionuclides (Reference data: 1 January 1989): 137 Cs 2.7 Bq kg -1 , 90 Sr 0.2 Bq Kg -1 , 40 K 391 Bq Kg -1 , 210 Pb 0.6 Bq Kg -1 , 210 Po 2.2 Bq Kg -1 . Tabs

  6. Lycopene and flesh colour differences in grafted and non-grafted watermelon

    OpenAIRE

    Fekete D.; Stéger-Máté M.; Bőhm V.; Balázs G.; Kappel N.

    2015-01-01

    The experiment was carried out in three regions in Hungary (Jászszentandrás, Cece, Újkígyós) in 2013 to determine the fruit quality of grafted watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.). The “RX 467” seedless watermelon variety was grafted on two commercial rootstocks “FR STRONG” [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.] and “RS 841” (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne). The lycopene and flesh colours are important quality characteristics even of the selfrooted and grafted watermel...

  7. Investigations of a Possible Chemical Effect of Salvadora persica Chewing Sticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Albabtain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvadora persica is commonly used chewing sticks in many parts of the world as an oral hygiene tool. This study measured the amount of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC released into the mouth and assessed its retention time in saliva. The study also tested if the released amount of BITC could potentially be antibacterial or cytotoxic. Twelve subjects brushed their teeth with fresh Miswak once, twice, and four times. The amount of BITC in the saliva and in the used brushes was quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antibacterial effect of BITC and Miswak essential oil (MEO was tested against Haemophilus influenzae, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The cytotoxic effect on gingival fibroblasts and keratinocytes was tested using MTT. The highest amount of the active compounds was detected in saliva after using the Miswak tip for once and immediately. It significantly decreased when the Miswak tip was used more than once and thus after 10 min. The growth of the tested bacteria was inhibited by MEO and BITC in a dose dependent manner, P. gingivalis being the most sensitive. MTT assay showed that BITC and MEO were cytotoxic towards gingival fibroblasts while oral keratinocytes showed resistance. This study suggests that the Miswak tip should be cut before each use to ensure the maximum effect.

  8. Effects of Different Treatments on Seed Germination Improvement of Calotropis persica

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    Asghar Farajollahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different treatments on seed germination in the desert plant species Calotropis persica (Gand.. This species is known to have long time for seed germination considering arid region condition and short time of access moist. An experiment was performed with 13 treatments and 4 replications in a completely randomized design. Treatments included KNO3 with concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 percent, immersion in hot water for five min, acetylsalicylic acid 100, 200, and 300 mg L−1, ethereal sulfuric acid (60% for 5 and 10 min, thiourea with concentrations of 0.1% and 0.3%, and prechilling for 10 days. Tap water was used as the control. Our findings indicate that KNO3 0.1% and 100 mg L−1 acetylsalicylic acid were the most effective treatments for improvement of seed germination properties in this species. In a comparison of the two mentioned treatment, KNO3 0.1% treatments is the best.

  9. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N. Kirk; Cutler, G. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur. PMID:26010088

  10. Effects of Salvadora persica Extract on the Hematological and Biochemical Alterations against Immobilization-Induced Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Kholoud S.; Alshamrani, Salha A.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 24 rats were divided into 4 groups: control, stress, extract alone, and stress + extract (n = 6 each), for total 21 days of treatment. The immobilization stress was induced in rats by putting them in 20 cm × 7 cm plastic tubes for 2 h/day for 21 days. Rats were postorally treated with Salvadora persica at a dose of 900 mg/kg body weight via intragastric intubations. At the end of the test period, hematological and biochemical parameters were determined in blood and serum samples with determination of vital organs weights. The vital organ weights were not significantly affected in stressed rats as compared to control rats. Compared to the control group, the stress treated group showed significances in several hematological parameters, including decreases in WBC, RBC, and PLT counts. Furthermore, in comparison to the control group, the stress group showed significantly increased blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triacylglycerols levels and decreased HDL-cholesterol level. The hematological and biochemical parameters in the stress + extract treated group were approximately similar to control group. The SP extract restored the changes observed following stress treatment. PMID:26221565

  11. Flesh & Foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roduit, Johann A R

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This poem reflects on the possibility of human enhancement. It shows that if enhancements are embraced step-by-step, without any long-term vision, one might get lost along the way.

  12. The role of organic load and ammonia inhibition in anaerobic digestion of tannery fleshing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Polizzi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, batch tests on anaerobic digestion of tannery fleshing (skin-residue waste from hides’ tanning process, as sole substrate, have been performed with the purpose of assessing the effects of high substrate concentration and consequent ammonia inhibition on the process. Co-digestion with tannery primary sludge was also evaluated. According to the results, no inhibition occurred at initial organic load up to 5 gVS/l; an inhibited steady state was observed at 10 gVS/l, and system failure and instability was showed at the highest load of 20 gVS/l. Co-digestion with tannery primary sludge proved feasible, probably due to dilution effect. The observed ammonia and VFA accumulation over the experimental time-lapse is also discussed. Results are intended to increase knowledge on the technological application of anaerobic digestion of sole tannery fleshing, in the perspective of its application as on-site treatment solution for decentralised tanneries. Keywords: Anaerobic digestion, Tannery waste, Ammonia inhibition, Organic load

  13. Production of Prodigiosin Using Tannery Fleshing and Evaluating Its Pharmacological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sumathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The focal theme of present investigation includes isolation of prodigiosin producing fish gut bacteria, enhancing its production using tannery solid waste fleshing, and evaluation of its pharmacological effect. Methods. Optimization of fermentation conditions to yield maximum prodigiosin, and instrumental analysis using FTIR, NMR, ESI-MS, TGA, and DSC. Results. The optimum conditions required for the maximum prodigiosin concentration were achieved at time 30 h, temperature 30°C, pH 8, and 3% substrate concentration. The secondary metabolite was analyzed using ESI-MS, FTIR, and NMR. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed by in vitro anticancer studies. Among the pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa was most susceptible at the lowest concentration followed by Salmonella typhi. IC50 concentration was cell line specific (HeLa cells: 4.3 µM, HEp2: 5.2 µM, and KB cells: 4.8 µM and remains nontoxic up to the concentration of 25 µM on normal Vero cells suggesting that cancerous cells are more susceptible to the prodigiosin at lower concentration. Conclusion. Maximum prodigiosin production was obtained with tannery fleshing. The potency of the fish gut bacterial secondary metabolite prodigiosin as a therapeutic agent was confirmed through in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer studies.

  14. A novel hydrolytic product from flesh of Mactra veneriformis and its bioactivities in calcium supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingchong; Chen, Shiyong; Liu, Rui; Wu, Hao

    2012-09-01

    To prepare calcium-binding peptides, the flesh residue of Mactra Veneriformis was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis. By comparing the capability of combining calcium of the hydrolyzates, pepsin was confirmed to be the most suitable enzyme for hydrolyzing the flesh residue to release calcium-binding peptides among the seven tested proteases. The pepsin hydrolyzate (PHM) was divided into three fractions according to the molecule weight of its composition, which ranged from 0.5 to 15 kDa. The low-molecule-weight fraction named PHM-3 had the highest capability in combining calcium. The peptides existing in the PHM-3 fraction consisted of higher contents of Glu, Ala and Leu, and could produce one type of calcium-peptide complex by powerfully chelating calcium ions. PHM-3 products could effectively increase calcium absorption and retention while they decreased the calcium excretion in animal tests. Additionally, symptoms caused by low calcium bioavailability in ovariectomized rats, such as bone mineral density reduction and mechanical strength loss could be significantly ameliorated by the hydrolytic products addition in diet.

  15. Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2011-11-01

    Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids.

  16. Lycopene and flesh colour differences in grafted and non-grafted watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekete D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in three regions in Hungary (Jászszentandrás, Cece, Újkígyós in 2013 to determine the fruit quality of grafted watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.. The “RX 467” seedless watermelon variety was grafted on two commercial rootstocks “FR STRONG” [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol. Standl.] and “RS 841” (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne. The lycopene and flesh colours are important quality characteristics even of the selfrooted and grafted watermelon. Some differences can be attributed to different environments, technological methods and to the type of rootstockscion combination. Lycopene is a strong antioxidant; therefore, we considered to examine the content change. Regardless of growing location, the lycopene concentration and the chroma (C* showed the best result in the case of interspecific rootstock. The result also showed that in two regions (Jászszentandrás, Cece we can find negative correlation between the lycopene concentration and the L* value of the flesh colour.

  17. Temperature Requirements of Some Common Forensically Important Blow and Flesh Flies (Diptera) under Laboratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiravi, AH; Mostafavi, R; Akbarzadeh, K; Oshaghi, MA

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of his study was to determine development time and thermal requirements of three myiasis flies including Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia sericata, and Sarcophaga sp. Methods: Rate of development (ROD) and accumulated degree day (ADD) of three important forensic flies in Iran, Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia sericata, and Sarcophaga sp. by rearing individuals under a single constant temperature (28° C) was calculated using specific formula for four developmental events including egg hatching, larval stages, pupation, and eclosion. Results: Rates of development decreased step by step as the flies grew from egg to larvae and then to adult stage; however, this rate was bigger for blowflies (C. albiceps and L. sericata) in comparison with the flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. Egg hatching, larval stages, and pupation took about one fourth and half of the time of the total pre-adult development time for all of the three species. In general, the flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. required more heat for development than the blowflies. The thermal constants (K) were 130–195, 148–222, and 221–323 degree-days (DD) for egg hatching to adult stages of C. albiceps, L. sericata, and Sarcophaga sp., respectively. Conclusion: This is the first report on thermal requirement of three forensic flies in Iran. The data of this study provide preliminary information for forensic entomologist to establish PMI in the area of study. PMID:22808410

  18. Temperature Requirements of Some Common Forensically Important Blow and Flesh Flies (Diptera under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Shiravi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of his study was to determine development time and thermal requirements of three myiasis flies including Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia sericata, and Sarcophaga sp.Methods: Rate of development (ROD and accumu­lated degree day (ADD of three important forensic flies in Iran, Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia sericata, and Sarcophaga sp. by rearing individuals under a single constant temperature (28° C was calcu­lated using specific formula for four developmental events including egg hatching, larval stages, pupation, and eclosion. Results: Rates of development decreased step by step as the flies grew from egg to larvae and then to adult stage; however, this rate was bigger for blowflies (C. albiceps and L. sericata in comparison with the flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. Egg hatching, larval stages, and pupation took about one fourth and half of the time of the total pre-adult development time for all of the three species. In general, the flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. required more heat for development than the blowflies. The thermal constants (K were 130–195, 148–222, and 221–323 degree-days (DD for egg hatching to adult stages of C. albiceps, L. sericata, and Sarcophaga sp., respectively.Conclusion: This is the first report on thermal requirement of three forensic flies in Iran. The data of this study provide preliminary information for forensic entomologist to establish PMI in the area of study.

  19. Enhanced production of Aspergillus tamarii lipase for recovery of fat from tannery fleshings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dayanandan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of various oil cakes has been investigated for high level production of lipase using Aspergillus tamarii MTCC 5152. By solid state fermentation in wheat bran containing 2.5% w/w gingili oil cake at 70% v/w moisture content the fungus produced a maximal yield of lipase (758 ± 3.61 u/g after 5 days of incubation using 2% v/w inoculum containing 10(6 spores/mL. Wheat bran and gingili oil cake with supplementation of gingili oil (1.0% w/w, glucose (0.5% w/w and peptone (0.5% w/w gives an increased enzyme production of 793 ± 6.56 u/g. The enzyme shows maximum activity at pH 7.0, temperature 50 °C and was stable between the pH 5.0-8.0 and temperature up to 60 °C. Crude lipase (3% applied to tannery fleshing shows 92% fat solubility. The results demonstrate that fat obtained from tannery fleshing, a by-product of the leather industry has a high potential for biodiesel production and the proteinaceous residue obtained can be used as animal feed.

  20. SSR allelic variation in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hua; Sui, Yi; Chang, Feng-Qi; Xu, Yong; Ma, Rong-Cai

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen SSR markers including eight EST-SSR and eight genomic SSRs were used for genetic diversity analysis of 23 Chinese and 15 international almond cultivars. EST- and genomic SSR markers previously reported in species of Prunus, mainly peach, proved to be useful for almond genetic analysis. DNA sequences of 117 alleles of six of the 16 SSR loci were analysed to reveal sequence variation among the 38 almond accessions. For the four SSR loci with AG/CT repeats, no insertions or deletions were observed in the flanking regions of the 98 alleles sequenced. Allelic size variation of these loci resulted exclusively from differences in the structures of repeat motifs, which involved interruptions or occurrences of new motif repeats in addition to varying number of AG/CT repeats. Some alleles had a high number of uninterrupted repeat motifs, indicating that SSR mutational patterns differ among alleles at a given SSR locus within the almond species. Allelic homoplasy was observed in the SSR loci because of base substitutions, interruptions or compound repeat motifs. Substitutions in the repeat regions were found at two SSR loci, suggesting that point mutations operate on SSRs and hinder the further SSR expansion by introducing repeat interruptions to stabilize SSR loci. Furthermore, it was shown that some potential point mutations in the flanking regions are linked with new SSR repeat motif variation in almond and peach.

  1. Effects of cadmium on lipids of almond seedlings (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elloumi, Nada; Zouari, Mohamed; Chaari, Leila; Jomni, Chiraz; Marzouk, Brahim; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani

    2014-12-01

    Cadmium uptake and distribution, as well as its effects on lipid composition was investigated in almond seedlings (Prunus dulcis) grown in culture solution supplied with two concentrations of Cd (50 and 150 μM). The accumulation of Cd increased with external metal concentrations, and was considerably higher in roots than in leaves. Fourteen days after Cd treatment, the membrane lipids were extracted and separated on silica-gel thin layer chromatography (TLC). Fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by FID-GC on a capillary column. Our results showed that Cd stress decreased the quantities of all lipids classes (phospholipids, galactolipids and neutral lipids). Galactolipid, phospholipid and neutral lipid concentrations decreased more in roots than in leaves by Cd-treatment. In almost all lipid classes the proportion of palmitic acid (16:0), linoleic (18: 2) and that of linolenic (18: 3) acid decreased, suggesting that heavy metal treatment induced an alteration in the fatty acid synthesis processes. In conclusion, our results show that the changes found in total fatty acids, in the quantities of all lipids classes, and in the in the profiles of individual polar lipids suggest that membrane structure and function might be altered by Cd stress.

  2. Proteome analysis of the almond kernel (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shugang; Geng, Fang; Wang, Ping; Lu, Jiankang; Ma, Meihu

    2016-08-01

    Almond (Prunus dulcis) is a popular tree nut worldwide and offers many benefits to human health. However, the importance of almond kernel proteins in the nutrition and function in human health requires further evaluation. The present study presents a systematic evaluation of the proteins in the almond kernel using proteomic analysis. The nutrient and amino acid content in almond kernels from Xinjiang is similar to that of American varieties; however, Xinjiang varieties have a higher protein content. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis demonstrated a wide distribution of molecular weights and isoelectric points of almond kernel proteins. A total of 434 proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS, and most were proteins that were experimentally confirmed for the first time. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of the 434 proteins indicated that proteins involved in primary biological processes including metabolic processes (67.5%), cellular processes (54.1%), and single-organism processes (43.4%), the main molecular function of almond kernel proteins are in catalytic activity (48.0%), binding (45.4%) and structural molecule activity (11.9%), and proteins are primarily distributed in cell (59.9%), organelle (44.9%), and membrane (22.8%). Almond kernel is a source of a wide variety of proteins. This study provides important information contributing to the screening and identification of almond proteins, the understanding of almond protein function, and the development of almond protein products. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Food and biomass potential of Prunus virginiana L. (chokecherry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sunmin; Young, Lester; Faye, Amberly; Li, Bonnie; Clancy, Johanna; Bors, Bob; Reaney, Martin

    2012-03-14

    Prunus virginiana L. (chokecherry) fruit has potential to provide both food and energy and as annual yield of biomass and energy are much greater than annual crops such as canola and wheat. We determined chokecherry fruit weight fractions as well as pit and extracted seed oil concentrations and fatty acid composition. Gross energy for each of the fractions was determined, as were carbon and nitrogen content. Extrapolation of these data suggests that gross energy from pits alone over a 24-year period (890 GJ·ha(-1)) is equivalent to that from an entire canola/wheat rotation (850 GJ·ha(-1)). After maturity, pulp contributes an additional 1130 GJ·ha(-1) over 21 years from ~3.4 t·ha(-1)·year(-1) (dw), while wood from pruning could add another 60 GJ·ha(-1)·year(-1). Over this time period, chokecherry would produce 1.5-2.5 times the amount of oil produced by a canola/wheat rotation.

  4. Remediation of saline soils contaminated with crude oil using the halophyte Salicornia persica in conjunction with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Ali; Khoshkholgh Sima, Nayer Azam; Olamaee, Mohsen; Hashemi, Maryam; Ghorbani Nasrabadi, Reza

    2018-05-08

    The negative impact of salinity on plant growth and the survival of rhizosphere biota complicates the application of bioremediation to crude oil-contaminated saline soils. Here, a comparison was made between the remedial effect of treating the soil with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a salinity tolerant hydrocarbon-degrading consortium in conjunction with either the halophyte Salicornia persica or the non-halophyte Festuca arundinacea. The effect of the various treatments on salinized soils was measured by assessing the extent of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation, the soil's dehydrogenase activity, the abundance of the bacteria and the level of phytotoxicity as measured by a bioassay. When a non-salinized soil was assessed after a treatment period of 120 days, the ranking for effectiveness with respect to TPH removal was F. arundinacea > P. aeruginosa > S. persica > no treatment control, while in the presence of salinity, the ranking changed to S. persica > P. aeruginosa > F. arundinacea > no treatment control. Combining the planting of S. persica or F. arundinacea with P. aeruginosa inoculation ("bioaugmentation") boosted the degradation of TPH up to 5-17%. Analyses of the residual oil contamination revealed that long chain alkanes (above C20) were particularly strongly degraded following the bioaugmentation treatments. The induced increase in dehydrogenase activity and the abundance of the bacteria (3.5 and 10 fold respectively) achieved in the bioaugmentation/S. persica treatment resulted in 46-76% reduction in soil phytotoxicity in a saline soil. The indication was that bioaugmentation of halophyte can help to mitigate the adverse effects on the effectiveness of bioremediation in a crude oil-contaminated saline soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Utilization of tannery fleshings: Optimization of conditions for fermenting delimed tannery fleshings using Enterococcus faecium HAB01 by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Rai, Amit; General, Thiyam; Bhaskar, N; Suresh, P V; Sakhare, P Z; Halami, P M; Gowda, Lalitha R; Mahendrakar, N S

    2010-03-01

    Conditions for fermentation of delimed tannery fleshings--to obtain higher degree of protein hydrolysis and reasonably better antioxidant activity--using Enterococcus faecium HAB01 (GenBank #FJ418568) were optimized. Three independent variables--viz., inoculum level (X1), glucose level (X2) and fermentation time (X3)--were optimized using response surface method considering degree of hydrolysis (DH; %) and total titrable acidity (TTA) as response variables. The optimized conditions were found to be 12.5% (v/w) inoculum, 17.5% (w/w) glucose and 96h of fermentation at 37+/-1 degrees C to obtain a maximum DH%. The usefulness of the predicted model was further validated by considering random combinations of the independent factors. The chemical score of the hydrolysate revealed an excess amount of essential amino acids, viz., arginine and leucine compared to reference protein. The liquor portion had relatively high antioxidant activities, indicating its potential for use as a high value feed ingredient. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic dissection of Sharka disease tolerance in peach (P. persica L. Batsch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Marco; Rossini, Laura; Geuna, Filippo; Palmisano, Francesco; Minafra, Angelantonio; Castrignanò, Tiziana; Gattolin, Stefano; Ciacciulli, Angelo; Babini, Anna Rosa; Liverani, Alessandro; Bassi, Daniele

    2017-11-03

    Plum pox virus (PPV), agent of Sharka disease, is the most important quarantine pathogen of peach (P. persica L. Batsch). Extensive evaluation of peach germplasm has highlighted the lack of resistant sources, while suggesting the presence of a quantitative disease resistance, expressed as reduction in the intensity of symptoms. Unravelling the genetic architecture of peach response to PPV infection is essential for pyramiding resistant genes and for developing more tolerant varieties. For this purpose, a genome-wide association (GWA) approach was applied in a panel of accessions phenotyped for virus susceptibility and genotyped with the IPSC peach 9 K SNP Array, and coupled with an high-coverage resequencing of the tolerant accession 'Kamarat'. Genome-wide association identified three highly significant associated loci on chromosome 2 and 3, accounting for most of the reduction in PPV-M susceptibility within the analysed peach population. The exploration of associated intervals through whole-genome comparison of the tolerant accession 'Kamarat' and other susceptible accessions, including the PPV-resistant wild-related species P. davidiana, allow the identification of allelic variants in promising candidate genes, including an RTM2-like gene already characterized in A. thaliana. The present study is the first effort to identify genetic factors involved in Sharka disease in peach germplasm through a GWA approach. We provide evidence of the presence of quantitative resistant loci in a collection of peach accessions, identifying major loci and highly informative SNPs that could be useful for marker assisted selection. These results could serve as reference bases for future research aimed at the comprehension of genetic mechanism regulating the complex peach-PPV interaction.

  7. Agent based simulation on the process of human flesh search-From perspective of knowledge and emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hou; Hu, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Human flesh search as a new net crowed behavior, on the one hand can help us to find some special information, on the other hand may lead to privacy leaking and offending human right. In order to study the mechanism of human flesh search, this paper proposes a simulation model based on agent-based model and complex networks. The computational experiments show some useful results. Discovered information quantity and involved personal ratio are highly correlated, and most of net citizens will take part in the human flesh search or will not take part in the human flesh search. Knowledge quantity does not influence involved personal ratio, but influences whether HFS can find out the target human. When the knowledge concentrates on hub nodes, the discovered information quantity is either perfect or almost zero. Emotion of net citizens influences both discovered information quantity and involved personal ratio. Concretely, when net citizens are calm to face the search topic, it will be hardly to find out the target; But when net citizens are agitated, the target will be found out easily.

  8. A multidisciplinary approach providing new insight into fruit flesh browning physiology in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guardo, Mario; Tadiello, Alice; Farneti, Brian; Lorenz, Giorgia; Masuero, Domenico; Vrhovsek, Urska; Costa, Guglielmo; Velasco, Riccardo; Costa, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In terms of the quality of minimally processed fruit, flesh browning is fundamentally important in the development of an aesthetically unpleasant appearance, with consequent off-flavours. The development of browning depends on the enzymatic action of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO). In the 'Golden Delicious' apple genome ten PPO genes were initially identified and located on three main chromosomes (2, 5 and 10). Of these genes, one element in particular, here called Md-PPO, located on chromosome 10, was further investigated and genetically mapped in two apple progenies ('Fuji x Pink Lady' and 'Golden Delicious x Braeburn'). Both linkage maps, made up of 481 and 608 markers respectively, were then employed to find QTL regions associated with fruit flesh browning, allowing the detection of 25 QTLs related to several browning parameters. These were distributed over six linkage groups with LOD values spanning from 3.08 to 4.99 and showed a rate of phenotypic variance from 26.1 to 38.6%. Anchoring of these intervals to the apple genome led to the identification of several genes involved in polyphenol synthesis and cell wall metabolism. Finally, the expression profile of two specific candidate genes, up and downstream of the polyphenolic pathway, namely phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), provided insight into flesh browning physiology. Md-PPO was further analyzed and two haplotypes were characterised and associated with fruit flesh browning in apple.

  9. Exploring the yield gap of orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties on smallholder farmers' fields in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van D.; Franke, A.C.

    2018-01-01

    Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) can contribute to combating vitamin A deficiency and establishing more resilient cropping systems in sub-Saharan Africa. There is limited understanding of the factors that affect yield and quality of OFSP on smallholder farmers' fields. This study aimed to assess

  10. A Multidisciplinary Approach Providing New Insight into Fruit Flesh Browning Physiology in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farneti, Brian; Lorenz, Giorgia; Masuero, Domenico; Vrhovsek, Urska; Costa, Guglielmo; Velasco, Riccardo; Costa, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In terms of the quality of minimally processed fruit, flesh browning is fundamentally important in the development of an aesthetically unpleasant appearance, with consequent off-flavours. The development of browning depends on the enzymatic action of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO). In the ‘Golden Delicious’ apple genome ten PPO genes were initially identified and located on three main chromosomes (2, 5 and 10). Of these genes, one element in particular, here called Md-PPO, located on chromosome 10, was further investigated and genetically mapped in two apple progenies (‘Fuji x Pink Lady’ and ‘Golden Delicious x Braeburn’). Both linkage maps, made up of 481 and 608 markers respectively, were then employed to find QTL regions associated with fruit flesh browning, allowing the detection of 25 QTLs related to several browning parameters. These were distributed over six linkage groups with LOD values spanning from 3.08 to 4.99 and showed a rate of phenotypic variance from 26.1 to 38.6%. Anchoring of these intervals to the apple genome led to the identification of several genes involved in polyphenol synthesis and cell wall metabolism. Finally, the expression profile of two specific candidate genes, up and downstream of the polyphenolic pathway, namely phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), provided insight into flesh browning physiology. Md-PPO was further analyzed and two haplotypes were characterised and associated with fruit flesh browning in apple. PMID:24205065

  11. Tractor-mounted, GPS-based spot fumigation system manages Prunus replant disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our research goal was to use recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) and computer technology to apply just the right amount of fumigant where it is most needed (i.e., in a small target treatment zone in and around each tree replanting site) to control Prunus replant disease (PRD). We deve...

  12. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov. And Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Fourie, P.H.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal

  13. Alternaria cerasidanica sp nov., isolated in Denmark from drupes of Prunus avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, R. G.; Reymond, S. T.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The ex-type strain of Alternaria cerasidanica was isolated in 2001 from an immature, asymptomatic drupe of Prunus avium collected at a commercial cherry orchard near Skaelskor, Denmark. Cultural morphology, sporulation pattern and cluster analyses of combined RAPD, RAMS (microsatellite), and AFLP...

  14. Changes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) antioxidants during nectar processing and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Kamiloglu, S.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is rich in polyphenols, and like its processed products, is especially rich in anthocyanins. We have applied HPLC, spectrophotometric and on-line antioxidant detection methods to follow the fate of cherry antioxidants during an entire multi-step industrial-scale

  15. Can Prunus serotina be genetically engineered for reproductive sterility and insect pest resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina) is a valuable hardwood timber species, and its value highly depends on the wood quality which is often threatened by insect pests. Transgenic black cherry plants that are more resistant to cambial-mining insects may reduce the occurrence of gummosis and have great economic benefits to landowners and the forest products...

  16. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt O. Reinhart; Alejandro Royo; Wim H. Van der Putten; Keith Clay

    2005-01-01

    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments, soil sterilization was used to test the...

  17. Whole-Genome Characterization of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus Infecting Sweet Cherry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiawei; Zhai, Ying; Zhu, Dongzi; Liu, Weizhen; Pappu, Hanu R; Liu, Qingzhong

    2018-03-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) causes yield loss in most cultivated stone fruits, including sweet cherry. Using a small RNA deep-sequencing approach combined with end-genome sequence cloning, we identified the complete genomes of all three PNRSV strands from PNRSV-infected sweet cherry trees and compared them with those of two previously reported isolates. Copyright © 2018 Wang et al.

  18. Industrial processing effects on phenolic compounds in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The processed juice (or nectar) of the sour cherry, Prunus cerasus L., is widely consumed in the Balkan region and Turkey. Sour cherry is known to be rich in polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and procyanidins. In this work, the effects of processing of sour cherry fruit to nectar on

  19. Agrobacterium-medicated transformation of mature Prunus serotina (black cherry) and regeneration of trangenic shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was developed for in vitro leaf explants of an elite, mature Prunus serotina tree. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring an RNAi plasmid with the black cherry AGAMOUS (AG) gene was used. Bacteria were induced...

  20. Physicochemical characterisation of four cherry species (Prunus spp.) grown in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinping; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-15

    The physicochemical characteristics of four cherry species (Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus pseudocerasus and Prunus tomentosa) were evaluated. Inter-species variability was greater than intra-species differences. Glucose and fructose were the main sugars, and malic acid was the main organic acid in all species. Combining HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS/MS technologies, total 25 phenolic components were preliminarily identified. P. avium was characterised by high fruit weight, edible proportion, sugar content and low acid content, which made it suitable for fresh eating. P. cerasus was high in acid content and anthocyanins content, making it a good processing species. P. pseudocerasus had rich flavonols varieties and high proportion of hydrocinnamic acids. P. tomentosa was characterised by high total phenolics content (especially flavonols and tannins) and antioxidant activity, indicating a great developmental potential as a health fruit. The results of the present study might provide theoretical guidance for the further development and utilisation of cherries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In situ volatiles from a single cultivar of Prunus dulcis and their relationship to navel orangeworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonpareil almonds, Prunus dulcis, account for the largest percentage of almond varieties grown in the Central and San Joaquin valleys of California. Several studies have investigated the various non-volatile and volatile components of various plant parts; however, the volatile organic compound (VOC)...

  2. Looking into flowering time in almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill) D. A. Webb): the candidate gene approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C; Garcia-Mas, J; Sánchez, A M; Arús, P; Oliveira, M M

    2005-03-01

    Blooming time is one of the most important agronomic traits in almond. Biochemical and molecular events underlying flowering regulation must be understood before methods to stimulate late flowering can be developed. Attempts to elucidate the genetic control of this process have led to the identification of a major gene (Lb) and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked to observed phenotypic differences, but although this gene and these QTLs have been placed on the Prunus reference genetic map, their sequences and specific functions remain unknown. The aim of our investigation was to associate these loci with known genes using a candidate gene approach. Two almond cDNAs and eight Prunus expressed sequence tags were selected as candidate genes (CGs) since their sequences were highly identical to those of flowering regulatory genes characterized in other species. The CGs were amplified from both parental lines of the mapping population using specific primers. Sequence comparison revealed DNA polymorphisms between the parental lines, mainly of the single nucleotide type. Polymorphisms were used to develop co-dominant cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers or length polymorphisms based on insertion/deletion events for mapping the candidate genes on the Prunus reference map. Ten candidate genes were assigned to six linkage groups in the Prunus genome. The positions of two of these were compatible with the regions where two QTLs for blooming time were detected. One additional candidate was localized close to the position of the Evergrowing gene, which determines a non-deciduous behaviour in peach.

  3. Hanseniaspora nodinigri, a new yeast species found in black knots (Dibotryon morbosum) of Prunus virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, M A

    1981-07-01

    The new yeast species Hanseniaspora nodinigri is described to accommodate members of the genus Hanseniaspora that are unable to assimilate glucono-sigma-lactone and isolated from stromatal tissue of black knots (Dobotryon morbosum) of chokecherry, Prunus virginiana. The newly described taxon shows much resemblance, by other criteria, to H. vineae van der Walt et Tscheuschner and H. osmophila (Niehaus) Phaff, Miller et Shifrine.

  4. Cloning and characterization of prunus serotina AGAMOUS, a putative flower homeotic gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Joseph Anderson; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Members of the AGAMOUS subfamily of MADS-box transcription factors play an important role in regulating the development of reproductive organs in flowering plants. To help understand the mechanism of floral development in black cherry (Prunus serotina), PsAG (a putative flower homeotic identity gene) was isolated...

  5. Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) : [luuletused] / R. W. Stedingh ; tlk. ja saatesõna: Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stedingh, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) ; Rubus spectabilis ; Rododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum) ; Lysuchitum americanum ; Tulp (Tulipa gesneriana) ; Kanada hani (Branta canadensis) ; Metsorava pärastlõuna (Sciurus carolinensis) ; Ohakalind (Spinus tristis) ; Shakespeare'i mälestusmärk (kogust "Stanley pargi süit")

  6. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, K.O.; Royo, A.A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Clay, K.

    2005-01-01

    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments,

  7. Intercomparison of radionuclides measurements in marine cockle flesh sample IAEA-134

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballestra, S; Gastaud, J; Lopez, J J; Parsi, P; Vas, D

    1993-08-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a cockle flesh sample from Irish Sea, IAEA-134, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclide levels, are reported. The data from 134 laboratories representing 49 countries have been evaluated. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for {sup 40}K, {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, and 2{sup 39+240}Pu (Reference date: 1 January 1992). Information values for {sup 90}Sr, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 155}Eu, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am are also reported. All the following values are expressed in Bq kg{sup -1} (dry weight). (author)

  8. Intercomparison of radionuclides measurements in marine cockle flesh sample IAEA-134

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Gastaud, J.; Lopez, J.J.; Parsi, P.; Vas, D.

    1993-08-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a cockle flesh sample from Irish Sea, IAEA-134, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclide levels, are reported. The data from 134 laboratories representing 49 countries have been evaluated. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for 40 K, 60 Co, 137 Cs, and 2 39+240 Pu (Reference date: 1 January 1992). Information values for 90 Sr, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 134 Cs, 154 Eu, 155 Eu, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th, 234 U, 235 U, 238 U, 238 Pu and 241 Am are also reported. All the following values are expressed in Bq kg -1 (dry weight). (author)

  9. Effect of Gamma Irradiation to Yellow Flesh Watermelon cv. ''Huay Sai Thong''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puripunyavanich, Vichai

    2003-06-01

    Yellow flesh watermelon seeds cv. Huay Sai Thong was irradiated with gamma rays. The experiment has been shown LD 50 dose at 420 Gy and GR 50 dose at 480 Gy approximately. Seeds of watermelon irradiated at 200 and 400 Gy were sown to find out mutation characteristics. The growth rate of M 1 plants was lower than the normal one. In M 2 plants, some irradiated lines showed non-dark green stripe on surface of fruit. Genetic testing was done according to skin color on watermelon fruit. It was found that the normal stripe characteristic was dominant and non-stripe characteristic was recessive. The Short length vine characteristic was selected till M 7 generation. The two lines of non-stripe watermelon and two lines of normal-stripe watermelon were selected for short length vine characteristic

  10. Wound Healing Potential of Chlorogenic Acid and Myricetin-3-O-β-Rhamnoside Isolated from Parrotia persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E. Moghadam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a complex physiological process that is controlled by a well-orchestrated cascade of interdependent biochemical and cellular events, which has spurred the development of therapeutics that simultaneously target these active cellular constituents. We assessed the potential of Parrotia persica (Hamamelidaceae in wound repair by analyzing the regenerative effects of its two main phenolic compounds, myricetin-3-O-β-rhamnoside and chlorogenic acid. To accomplish this, we performed phytochemical profiling and characterized the chemical structure of pure compounds isolated from P. persica, followed by an analysis of the biological effects of myricetin-3-O-β-rhamnoside and chlorogenic acid on three cell types, including keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. Myricetin-3-O-β-rhamnoside and chlorogenic acid exhibited complementary pro-healing properties. The percentage of keratinocyte wound closure as measured by a scratch assay was four fold faster in the presence of 10 µg/mL chlorogenic acid, as compared to the negative control. On the other hand, myricetin-3-O-β-rhamnoside at 10 µg/mL was more effective in promoting fibroblast migration, demonstrating a two-fold higher rate of closure compared to the negative control group. Both compounds enhanced the capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells in an in vitro angiogenesis assay. Our results altogether delineate the potential to synergistically accelerate the fibroblastic and remodelling phases of wound repair by administering appropriate amounts of myricetin-3-O-β-rhamnoside and chlorogenic acid.

  11. Armazenamento de melão 'Orange Flesh' minimamente processado sob atmosfera modificada Storage of 'Orange Flesh' mellons minimally processed and packaged under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Elisabeth Torres Prado

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da demanda por produtos minimamente processados traz um grande desafio para a ciência e tecnologia de alimentos, considerando-se a escassez de informações sobre a manutenção da qualidade desses produtos. O armazenamento desses em condições adequadas é um ponto fundamental para o sucesso dessa tecnologia. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da atmosfera modificada ativa na conservação do melão tipo Orange Flesh minimamente processado. Os frutos, após o processamento, foram embalados sob atmosfera modificada (AM Passiva- Controle, AM Ativa com 5% de CO2 e 5% de O2 e AM Ativa com 10% de CO2 e 2% de O2, armazenados em câmara fria (6 ± 1 ºC e UR 85 ± 5% durante 8 dias e as amostras retiradas para análises de pH, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, açúcares solúveis totais (AST, firmeza, pectina total (PT, pectina solúvel (PS, e as enzimas pectinametilesterase (PME e poligalacturonase (PG a cada 2 dias de armazenamento. A atmosfera modificada ativa pouco influenciou no comportamento das variáveis pH, acidez total titulável (ATT, firmeza e pectina total com relação á atmosfera modificada passiva. No entanto, menor solubilização de pectinas foi detectada nas amostras armazenadas sob atmosfera com 10% de CO2 e 2% de O2. Não foram detectadas atividades das enzimas pectinametilesterase e poligalacturonase nos tratamentos analisados.The increase of the demand for products minimally processed brings a great challenge for the food science and technology, considering the shortage of information about the maintenance of the quality of those products. The storage of those products in appropriate conditions is a fundamental point for the success of such technology. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the active modified atmosphere on the quality and conservation of the 'Orange Flesh' melons processed minimally. The fruits, after the processing, were wrapped under

  12. Antioxidant effect of aqueous extract of four plants with therapeutic potential on gynecological diseases; Semen persicae, Leonurus cardiaca, Hedyotis diffusa, and Curcuma zedoaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shaojian; Fattahi, Amir; Raffel, Nathalie; Hoffmann, Inge; Beckmann, Matthias W; Dittrich, Ralf; Schrauder, Michael

    2017-11-25

    Little information is available concerning antioxidant effects of plant teas (water boiled) which are used more commonly in traditional Chinese medicine than other extracts. Thus, we addressed this issue by evaluating the ability of teas from four different plants with therapeutic potential on gynecological diseases. The aqueous extracts of Semen persicae, Leonurus cardiaca, Hedyotis diffusa, and Curcuma zedoaria rhizome were prepared and then their effects on copper-induced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) oxidation were evaluated by spectrophotometric method. Density gradient ultracentrifugation method was recruited to isolate LDL-C from healthy individuals. Our results showed that adding 10, 20, and 30 µl S. persicae could increase the lag phase duration of LDL-C oxidation compared with control reaction 12, 21, and 33%, respectively. The most effective delay (87%) was observed when 30 µl H. diffusa was added to the reaction. In cases of L. cardiaca and C. zedoaria, we found no significant influence on the lag phase duration (p > 0.05). Moreover, our findings about starting point of the decomposition phase were almost in parallel with the lag phase results, as 30 µl of S. persicae or H. diffusa teas could significantly increase the initiation time of decomposition (p < 0.05). In conclusion our results showed that both S. persicae and H. diffusa teas and not L. cardiaca and C. zedoaria could have medicinal therapeutic effects partly through direct oxidation prevention.

  13. Divided infraorbital foramen in the lion (Panthera leo): its implications for colonisation history, population bottlenecks, and conservation of the Asian lion (P. l. persica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamaguchi, N.; Kitchener, A.C.; Driscoll, C.A.; Macdonald, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    A divided infraorbital foramen is an important morphological feature in lion taxonomy and has previously been considered to occur only in the Asian lion, Panthera leo persica. Based on an examination of 498 lion skulls from museum collections in Europe and southern Africa, we report for the first

  14. MdHB1 down-regulation activates anthocyanin biosynthesis in the white-fleshed apple cultivar 'Granny Smith'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yonghua; Liu, Cuihua; Yan, Dan; Wen, Xiaohong; Liu, Yanli; Wang, Haojie; Dai, Jieyu; Zhang, Yujie; Liu, Yanfei; Zhou, Bin; Ren, Xiaolin

    2017-02-01

    Coloration in apple (Malus×domestica) flesh is mainly caused by the accumulation of anthocyanin. Anthocyanin is biosynthesized through the flavonoid pathway and regulated by MYB, bHLH, and WD40 transcription factors (TFs). Here, we report that the HD-Zip I TF MdHB1 was also involved in the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation. MdHB1 silencing caused the accumulation of anthocyanin in 'Granny Smith' flesh, whereas its overexpression reduced the flesh content of anthocyanin in 'Ballerina' (red-fleshed apple). Moreover, flowers of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'NC89') overexpressing MdHB1 showed a remarkable reduction in pigmentation. Transient promoter activation assays and yeast one-hybrid results indicated that MdHB1 indirectly inhibited expression of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes encoding dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT). Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation determined that MdHB1 acted as a homodimer and could interact with MYB, bHLH, and WD40 in the cytoplasm, consistent with its cytoplasmic localization by green fluorescent protein fluorescence observations. Together, these results suggest that MdHB1 constrains MdMYB10, MdbHLH3, and MdTTG1 to the cytoplasm, and then represses the transcription of MdDFR and MdUFGT indirectly. When MdHB1 is silenced, these TFs are released to activate the expression of MdDFR and MdUFGT and also anthocyanin biosynthesis, resulting in red flesh in 'Granny Smith'. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The Mendelian inheritance of rare flesh and shell colour variants in the black-lipped pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ky, Chin-Long; Nakasai, Seiji; Pommier, Steve; Sham Koua, Manaarii; Devaux, Dominique

    2016-10-01

    Pinctada margaritifera is French Polynesia's most economically important aquaculture species. This pearl oyster has the specific ability to produce cultured pearls with a very wide range of colours, depending on the colour phenotypes of donor oysters used. Its aquaculture is still based on natural spat collection from wild stocks. We investigated three rare colour variants of P. margaritifera - orange flesh, and red and white shell colour phenotypes - in comparison with the wild-type black flesh and shell commonly found in this species. The study aimed to assess the geographic distribution and genetic basis of these colour variants. Colour frequencies were evaluated during transfer and graft processes of pearl oyster seed captured at collector stations. Among the collection locations studied, Mangareva Island showed the highest rate of the orange flesh phenotype, whereas Takaroa and Takume atolls had relatively high rates of red and white shell phenotypes respectively. Broodstocks were made of these rare colour variants, and crosses were performed to produce first- and second-generation progenies to investigate segregation. The results were consistent with Mendelian ratios and suggest a distinct model with no co-dominance: (i) a two-allele model for flesh trait, whereby the orange allele is recessive to the black fleshed type, and (ii) a three-allele model for shell trait, whereby the black wild-type allele is dominant to the red coloration, which is dominant to the white shell. Furthermore, the proposed model provides the basis for producing selected donor pearl oyster lines through hatchery propagation. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. AVALIAÇÃO DA COMPATIBILIDADE DA ENXERTIA EM Prunus sp. EVALUATION OF THE GRAFT COMPATIBILITY IN Prunus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE COUTO RODRIGUES

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de peroxidase e concentração de fenóis foi determinada com o objetivo de se avaliar aspectos de compatibilidade entre porta-enxertos e enxertos. As amostras foram processadas e obtidas a partir da casca e lenho dos porta-enxertos de pessegueiros (GF 677, Okinawa, Capdeboscq e Aldrighi e de ameixeiras (Mirabolano e Marianna, enxertados ou não com as cultivares Diamante, Eldorado e Santa Rosa. Concluiu-se que a atividade de peroxidase e a concentração de fenóis foram relacionadas com união entre enxerto e porta-enxerto, particularmente, em Marianna e Mirabolano, onde a atividade de peroxidase e a concentração de fenóis foram mais elevados. A cultivar Santa Rosa foi compatível tanto com os porta-enxertos de ameixeiras quanto com os de pessegueiros.The work was accomplished aiming to quantify the peroxidase activity and total phenols, in order to verify the physiological and biochemical processes in grafting of Prunus sp. cultivars. The samples were processed and obtained in bark and wood of the peach rootstocks (GF 677, Okinawa, Capdeboscq and Aldrighi and plum rootstocks (Mirabolano and Marianna, after they had or not been grafted with the stock Diamante, Eldorado and Santa Rosa. It could be concluded that the peroxidase and the total phenols activity influenced the union between stock and rootstock; after grafting, the incompatibility degree is related with high peroxidase activity and total phenols in the rootstock Marianna and Mirabolano. The Santa Rosa plum graft is as compatible to plum rootstocks as to the peach ones.

  17. Effect of traditional processing methods on the β-carotene, ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor content of orange-fleshed sweet potato for production of amala in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Abbas Bazata; Fuchs, Richard; Nicolaides, Linda

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the work was to study the effect of traditional processing methods on the β-carotene, ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor contents of orange-fleshed sweet potato amala. The most common sweet potato in Nigeria is white or yellow fleshed, which is very low in provitamin A. However, efforts are underway to promote orange-fleshed sweet potato to improve provitamin A intake. This paper describes how orange-fleshed sweet potato slices were traditionally processed into amala, which is increasingly consumed in Nigeria. The study revealed that both the cold and hot fermentation methods resulted in increased vitamin A levels and lower vitamin C levels in orange-fleshed sweet potato. Further processing to make amala resulted in a fall in both vitamin A and C content. The study found an increase in trypsin inhibitor activity following the cold-water fermentation and a decrease following the hot-water fermentation compared to raw orange-fleshed sweet potato. Trypsin inhibitor activity in amala produced using both the cold and hot methods was below detectable levels. The results indicate that amala produced from traditionally fermented orange-fleshed sweet potato could be a good source of vitamins A and C for the rural poor and that the processing removes any potential negative effects of trypsin inhibitors. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Breeding rootstocks for Prunus species: Advances in genetic and genomics of peach and cherry as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Guajardo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prunus rootstock is an important choice in optimizing productivity of grafted cultivars. Nevertheless, many Prunus rootstocks are notoriously intolerant to hypoxia which is caused by waterlogging and/or heavy soils. There is no available information to help select Prunus rootstocks that are tolerant to stress conditions such as root hypoxia caused by excess moisture. Information from genetic maps has demonstrated a high level of synteny among Prunus species, and this suggests that they all share a similar genomic structure. It should be possible to identify the genetic determinants involved in tolerance to hypoxia and other traits in Prunus rootstocks by applying methods to identify regions of the genome involved in the expression of important traits; these have been developed mainly in peach which is the model species for the genus. Molecular markers that are tightly linked to major genes would be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS to optimize new rootstock selection. This article provides insight on the advances in the development of molecular markers, genetic maps, and gene identification in Prunus, mainly in peach; the aim is to provide a general approach for identifying the genetic determinants of hypoxia stress in rootstocks.

  19. Mutation of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β subunit is associated with resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in the aphid Myzus persicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Field Linda M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myzus persicae is a globally important aphid pest with a history of developing resistance to insecticides. Unusually, neonicotinoids have remained highly effective as control agents despite nearly two decades of steadily increasing use. In this study, a clone of M. persicae collected from southern France was found, for the first time, to exhibit sufficiently strong resistance to result in loss of the field effectiveness of neonicotinoids. Results Bioassays, metabolism and gene expression studies implied the presence of two resistance mechanisms in the resistant clone, one based on enhanced detoxification by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and another unaffected by a synergist that inhibits detoxifying enzymes. Binding of radiolabeled imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid to whole body membrane preparations showed that the high affinity [3H]-imidacloprid binding site present in susceptible M. persicae is lost in the resistant clone and the remaining lower affinity site is altered compared to susceptible clones. This confers a significant overall reduction in binding affinity to the neonicotinoid target: the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of six nAChR subunit (Mpα1-5 and Mpβ1 genes from resistant and susceptible aphid clones revealed a single point mutation in the loop D region of the nAChR β1 subunit of the resistant clone, causing an arginine to threonine substitution (R81T. Conclusion Previous studies have shown that the amino acid at this position within loop D is a key determinant of neonicotinoid binding to nAChRs and this amino acid change confers a vertebrate-like character to the insect nAChR receptor and results in reduced sensitivity to neonicotinoids. The discovery of the mutation at this position and its association with the reduced affinity of the nAChR for imidacloprid is the first example of field-evolved target-site resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides and also

  20. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. & Heldr. Hayek var. persica (Boiss. Wagenitz from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 μg/ml (in the DPPH assay. In the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 ω3 (α-linolenic acid by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.La capacidad antioxidante de extractos metanólicos y composición de ácidos grasos de C. kotschyi var. pérsica fueron investigados. Seis métodos químicos diferentes fueron realizados para la determinación de la capacidad antioxidante. La composición de ácidos grasos fue analizada por cromatografía de gases. Los valores de IC50 de los extractos fueron 37.09 μg/ml (en el ensayo con DPPH. En el sistema β-carotene/ácido linoleico, el extracto mostró un 65.22% de inhibición frente a la oxidación del ácido linoleico. La cantidad total de contenido fenólico y capacidad antioxidante total fueron 36.52 mg equivalentes de ácido gallico (GAE/g y 74.93 mg equivalentes de ácido ascórbico (AE/g, respectivamente. El principal ácidos graso encontrado, por análisis de CG, en C. kotschyi var. pérsica fue el C 18:3 ω3 (ácido α-linolenico. Los resultados presentados aquí indican que C. kotschyi var. pérsica posee unas fuertes propiedades antioxidantes. Adem

  1. Plant extracts in the control of aphids Brevicoryne brassicae (L. and Myzus persicae (SulzerExtratos vegetais no controle dos afídeos Brevicoryne brassicae (L. e Myzus persicae (Sulzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Reginato Ávila

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Were accomplished the effect of plant extracts of clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum L., horsetail (Equisetum hyemale L., coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. on Brevicoryne brassicae (L., 1758 and Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 aphids in cabbage Brassica oleracea (L.. The treatments consisted of plant extracts prepared fresh and dry (concentrations of 2.5; 5.0; and 10% and the controls insecticide acephate and water. These solutions were sprayed on cabbage discs placed on agar in Petri dishes, containing twenty adult aphids. In sequence, the Petri dishes were sealed with plastic film and this procedure was repeated for the two aphid species studied. The assessment of the number of live nymphs and adults occurred at 1, 12, 24, and 72 hours after installation. The extracts of coriander and tobacco prepared in a concentration of 10% showed toxic effects similar to the organophosphate insecticide acephate, on adults and nymphs of the aphids Brevicoryne brassicae and Myzus persicae. Coriander revealed a promising alternative that deserves detailed studies regarding the performance of its active ingredients and dosage determination in order to provide a safe herbal product to control insects.Avaliou-se o efeito de extratos vegetais de alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L., cavalinha (Equisetum hyemale L., coentro (Coriandrum sativum L. e fumo (Nicotiana tabacum L. sobre os pulgões Brevicoryne brassicae (L., 1758 e Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 em couve Brassica oleracea (L.. Os tratamentos consistiram de extratos vegetais preparados a fresco e seco (nas concentrações de 2,5; 5,0 e 10%, do padrão inseticida acefato e de água. As soluções assim obtidas foram pulverizadas em discos de couve colocados sobre agar em placas de Petri, contendo vinte pulgões adultos. Na sequência, as placas de Petri foram vedadas com filme plástico transparente, sendo este procedimento repetido para as duas espécies de afídeos. A avalia

  2. The Occurrence of Two Species of Entomophthorales (Entomophthoromycota, Pathogens of Sitobion avenae and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae, in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtissem Ben Fekih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural occurrence of entomophthoralean fungi pathogenic towards aphids on cereal and potato crops was investigated in the years 2009, 2010, and 2011. Infected aphids were sampled in three bioclimatic zones in Tunisia (Beja, Cap bon, and Kairouan and fungal species were determined based on morphological characters such as shape, size, and number of nuclei in the primary conidia. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on the internal transcribed spacer 1 region (ITS1 was used to verify morphological determination. Both methods gave consistent results and we documented for the first time the natural occurrence of two fungal species from the order Entomophthorales (phylum Entomophthoromycota, Pandora neoaphidis and Entomophthora planchoniana. Both fungi were recorded on the aphid species Sitobion avenae and Myzus persicae on barley ears and potato leaves, respectively. Moreover, natural mixed infections by both species (P. neoaphidis and E. planchoniana were documented on the target aphids. This investigation provides basic information of entomopathogenic fungi infecting economically important aphids in Tunisia.

  3. The occurrence of two species of Entomophthorales (Entomophthoromycota), pathogens of Sitobion avenae and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Fekih, Ibtissem; Boukhris-Bouhachem, Sonia; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Allagui, Mohamed Bechir; Jensen, Annette Bruun

    2013-01-01

    The natural occurrence of entomophthoralean fungi pathogenic towards aphids on cereal and potato crops was investigated in the years 2009, 2010, and 2011. Infected aphids were sampled in three bioclimatic zones in Tunisia (Beja, Cap bon, and Kairouan) and fungal species were determined based on morphological characters such as shape, size, and number of nuclei in the primary conidia. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on the internal transcribed spacer 1 region (ITS1) was used to verify morphological determination. Both methods gave consistent results and we documented for the first time the natural occurrence of two fungal species from the order Entomophthorales (phylum Entomophthoromycota), Pandora neoaphidis and Entomophthora planchoniana. Both fungi were recorded on the aphid species Sitobion avenae and Myzus persicae on barley ears and potato leaves, respectively. Moreover, natural mixed infections by both species (P. neoaphidis and E. planchoniana) were documented on the target aphids. This investigation provides basic information of entomopathogenic fungi infecting economically important aphids in Tunisia.

  4. Good Manufacturing Practices and Microbial Contamination Sources in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Puree Processing Plant in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Malavi, Derick Nyabera; Muzhingi, Tawanda; Abong’, George Ooko

    2018-01-01

    Limited information exists on the status of hygiene and probable sources of microbial contamination in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato (OFSP) puree processing. The current study is aimed at determining the level of compliance to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), hygiene, and microbial quality in OFSP puree processing plant in Kenya. Intensive observation and interviews using a structured GMPs checklist, environmental sampling, and microbial analysis by standard microbiological methods were use...

  5. Selection for stress responsiveness and slaughter stress affect flesh quality in pan-size rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    OpenAIRE

    Lefevre, Florence; Cos, Isabelle; Pottinger, Tom G.; Bugeon, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    The control of slaughter stress is of importance with regard to both fish welfare and flesh quality. Muscle characteristics and instrumentally measured quality parameters were determined in rainbow trout lines selected for high-responsiveness (HR) or low-responsiveness (LR) of plasma cortisol to an acute confinement stressor. Measurements were made in both unstressed and stressed fish (a 15 min period of confinement before slaughter) from both lines. Compared to LR fish, HR fish were smaller,...

  6. Dinâmica populacional e incidência de moscas-das-frutas e parasitoides em cultivares de pessegueiros (Prunus Persica L. Batsch no município de presidente prudente-sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Nalesso Marangoni Montes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos avaliar a dinâmica populacional e registrar a diversidade de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea em cultivares de pessegueiro Tropical, Talismã, Aurora 2, Aurora 1, Dourado 2 e Doçura 2, enxertadas sobre os porta-enxertos 'Okinawa' e Umê, em Presidente Prudente-SP. Foram realizadas as correlações da dinâmica populacional com a temperatura e a precipitação, e também a infestação com as características químicas dos frutos, Sólidos Solúveis e Acidez Titulável. No período de julho de 2004 a dezembro de 2006, a dinâmica populacional de moscas-das-frutas foi obtida através de coletas semanais de moscas-das-frutas em armadilhas McPhail, e a incidência foi determinada através da coleta de 30 frutos/planta/cultivar. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Ceratitis capitata foi predominante nas cultivares de pessegueiros estudadas. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre população de moscas-das-frutas e as variáveis de temperatura e precipitação, e sólidos solúveis e ácidez titulável. Entre as cultivares de pêssego, Aurora 2 apresentou maior infestação por C. capitata, da ordem de 22 e 23% nos anos 2004 e 2006, respectivamente. Também foi registrada a incidência de Neosilba spp. em frutos de pêssego. Doryctobracon areolatus (Braconidae, Tetrastichus giffardianus (Eulophidae e Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Pteromalidae foram recuperados de pupários de Tephritidae.

  7. Immunochemical and biological properties of a mouse monoclonal antibody reactive to prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebig, J A; Jordan, R L; Lawson, R H; Hsu, H T

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody reacting with prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus was tested in immunochemical studies, neutralization of infectivity assays, and by immuno-electron microscopy. The antibody was able to detect the 27,000 Mr coat protein of prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus in western blots and also detected all polypeptide fragments generated after incubation of whole virus with proteolytic enzymes. In neutralization of infectivity studies, the antibody blocked virus infectivity, although it did not precipitate the antigen in agar gel Ouchterlony double diffusion tests. Immuno-electron microscopy confirmed that the antibody coats virions but does not cause clumping. The antibody may be a useful tool for investigating coat protein-dependent initiation of ilarvirus infection.

  8. Overexpression of a repressor MdMYB15L negatively regulates anthocyanin and cold tolerance in red-fleshed callus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haifeng; Yang, Guanxian; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yicheng; Zhang, Tianliang; Wang, Nan; Jiang, Shenghui; Zhang, Zongying; Chen, Xuesen

    2018-04-14

    The cold-induced metabolic pathway and anthocyanin biosynthesis play important roles in plant growth. In this study, we identified a bHLH binding motif in the MdMYB15L protein using protein sequence analyses. Yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays showed that MdMYB15L could interact with MdbHLH33. Overexpressing MdMYB15L in red-fleshed callus inhibited the expression of MdCBF2 and resulted in reduced cold tolerance but did not affect anthocyanin levels. Chip-PCR and EMSA analysis showed that MdMYB15L could bind the type II cis-acting element found in the MdCBF2 promoter. Overexpressing MdMYB15L in red-fleshed callus overexpressing MdbHLH33 also reduced cold tolerance and reduced MdbHLH33-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. Knocking out the bHLH binding sequence of MdMYB15L (LBSMdMYB15L) prevented LBSMdMYB15L from interacting with MdbHLH33. Overexpressing LBSMdMYB15L in red-fleshed callus overexpressing MdbHLH33 also reduced cold tolerance and reduced MdbHLH33-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. Together, these results suggested that an apple repressor MdMYB15L might play a key role in the cold signaling and anthocyanin metabolic pathways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid identification of red-flesh loquat cultivars using EST-SSR markers based on manual cultivar identification diagram strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Xu, H X; Chen, J W

    2014-04-29

    Manual cultivar identification diagram is a new strategy for plant cultivar identification based on DNA markers, providing information to efficiently separate cultivars. We tested 25 pairs of apple EST-SSR primers for amplification of PCR products from loquat cultivars. These EST-SSR primers provided clear amplification products from the loquat cultivars, with a relatively high transferability rate of 84% to loquat; 11 pairs of primers amplified polymorphic products. After analysis of 24 red-fleshed loquat accessions, we found that only 7 pairs of primers could clearly separate all of them. A cultivar identification diagram of the 24 cultivars was constructed using polymorphic bands from the DNA fingerprints and EST-SSR primers. Any two of the 24 cultivars could be rapidly separated from each other, according to the polymorphic bands from the cultivars; the corresponding primers were marked in the correct position on the cultivar identification diagram. This red-flesh loquat cultivar identification diagram can separate the 24 red-flesh loquat cultivars, which is of benefit for loquat cultivar identification for germplasm management and breeding programs.

  10. Preparation of protein based surfactants from leather waste fleshings and their reutilization in leather as a water resisting agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, H.; Nadeem, U.; Solangi, B.; Hany, O.E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Tanneries generate a huge amount of highly polluting solid and liquid wastes during leather processing at different stages such as fleshings, shavings, tanning, finishing etc. approximately, 250 kg of finished leather product is obtained from 1 ton of raw salted hide while other protein goes into wastes. leather fleshings are about 50-60% of the total solid waste generated in leather processing. three different surfactants have been prepared from soft wax, long chain fatty acid chlorides and leather waste protein isolated from alkaline hydrolysis of fleshings. products are milky in color and have been applied in goat leathers as a replacement of fat liquor and water resisting agent .the resulted crust leathers have been characterized for various physical parameters such as tensile strength, thickness, softness, tear strength, bursting load, water absorption etc, as per their standard test methods. leathers have also been evaluated for grain smoothness, fullness and feeling. leathers have shown satisfactory results as per international requirement specially for water resisting. thus a leather waste protein is converted into a useful product and reutilized in leather making. (author)

  11. A comparative metabolomics study of flavonoids in sweet potato with different flesh colors (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aimin; Li, Rensai; Ren, Lei; Gao, Xiali; Zhang, Yungang; Ma, Zhimin; Ma, Daifu; Luo, Yonghai

    2018-09-15

    To study the diversity and cultivar-specific of phytochemicals in sweet potato, Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze the metabolic profiles of five sweet potato cultivars exhibiting different flesh colors: purple, yellow/orange, and white. A total of 213 metabolites, including 29 flavonoids and 27 phenolic acids, were characterized. The flavonoid profiles of the five different cultivars were distinguished using PCA, the results suggested the flesh color accounted for the observed metabolic differences. In addition to anthocyanins, quinic acids and ferulic acids were the prominent phenolic acids, O-hexoside of quercetin, chrysoeriol were the prominent flavonoids in sweet potato tubers, and they were all higher in the OFSP and PFSP than WFSP. The main differential metabolic pathways between the OFSP, PFSP and the WFSP included those relating to phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis. This study provides new insights into the differences in metabolite profiles among sweet potatoes with different flesh colors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quality Changes of Light Flesh Tuna at Water of Tomini Bay, Gorontalo Province

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    Wila Rumina Nento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuna is one of the mainstay fisheries commodities that involve many of the ordinary fishermen. The handling usually still not follows the principles of good handling that causing the poor quality as the result.The aims of this research were to analyze and to determine the quality of tuna meat (the abdominal wall, dorsal fin, and caudal fin. Raw material yellowfin tuna meat prepared for the light, the meat section of the abdominal wall, dorsal fin, and caudal fin. The result of organoleptic analysis showed that the tuna meat was above the minimum value for the criteria of fresh fish. The result of TVB analysis showed that the meat on the caudal fin had the highest value and significantly different with the other, but still exist on the safe limits and on the fresh category. For the result of analysis in histamine, it shown that at the fourth hour the meat at the dorsal fin had the histamine content which were above the minimum that have been recommended. For the result of analysis in peroxide number, it shown that the tuna meat did not sustain the fat damage until the fourth hour after the catching process. And for the result of analysis in TPC, it showed that at the fourth hour the tuna meat on the pectoral fin had the highest number of total colony and significantly different with the other.Keywords: handling, histamine, light flesh, microbiology, yellowfin

  13. Lactic acid production from unmatured banana peel and flesh through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed BELMAKKI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish a process of lactic acid (LA production from two different kinds of african organic waste i.e. peel and flesh of un-matured banana by using as model strain Lactobacillus bp Pentosus AH 239. The bioconversion of glucose contained in the biomass to LA was performed following the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF process. The Separated Hydrolysis and Fermentation (SHF was also applied in this study to compare the efficiency of both process. The results showed that the enzymatic hydrolysis yield was significantly improved in case of SSF recording a rate of hydrolysis in the range of 82%-90% against 52%-61% under SHF conditions. The results showed also that SSF give more efficient lactic acid production with a yield above of 90%, and a high concentration up to 50 g/L. Due to its performance, the SSF process for the lactic acid production could be an important way of bioconversion for lignocellulosic residues in Africa. The optimization of this process need to be adapted for African context and for its development on an industrial scale.

  14. Theology in the flesh – a model for theological anthropology as embodied sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Meiring

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes a model for theological anthropology as embodied sensing that is based on an interdisciplinary exploration of the corporeal turn from a southern African perspective. The work of James B. Nelson is acknowledged, stating that body theology starts with the concrete, the bodily expressions of life and not with doctrines about God and humanity. The theological anthropology of David H. Kelsey is evaluated as a theological anthropology with a sentiment of the flesh. Based on clearings in the work of David Kelsey and an interdisciplinary research, the author proposes a model for theological anthropology as embodied sensing which functions within the intricate and complex connection of the living body, language and experiencing in a concrete lifeworld with an openness to the ‘more than’. The author considers the use of bodymapping within narrative therapy as a way in which to uncover the intimate and intricate connection between the living body, experience and language, and implementing insights from theological anthropology as embodied sensing.

  15. Domestic cooking methods affect the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of purple-fleshed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jinhu; Chen, Jianle; Lv, Feiyan; Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Jianchu; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-04-15

    The effects of domestic cooking methods (boiling, baking, steaming, microwaving, frying, and stir-frying) and a new cooking method (air-frying) on the composition of phytochemicals (phenolics, anthocyanins, and carotenoids) and the antioxidant activity in purple-fleshed potatoes were investigated. Compared with raw potatoes, reductions of 23.59-90.42%, 7.09-72.44%, 7.45-83.15%, and 20.15-76.16% in the vitamin C, total phenolic, anthocyanin and carotenoid contents, respectively, was observed after cooking. Decreases of 7.88%, 21.55%, 22.48, 6.31%, and 61.38% in DPPH radical-scavenging activity was also observed after boiling, steaming, baking, microwaving and stir-frying, respectively, whereas an increase of 30.52% was noted after air-frying. A correlation analysis revealed that the antioxidant activity was in accordance with the total phenolic content and that this activity showed the lowest correlation with the vitamin C content. Among all of the cooking methods investigated in this study, stir-frying retained only slight levels of the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity observed in raw potatoes, whereas steaming and microwaving were able to retain most of the health-promoting compounds found in raw potatoes and may thus be suitable methods for cooking potatoes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Aroma profile and volatiles odor activity along gold cultivar pineapple flesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Calderón, Marta; Rojas-Graü, María Alejandra; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical attributes, aroma profile, and odor contribution of pineapple flesh were studied for the top, middle, and bottom cross-sections cut along the central axis of Gold cultivar pineapple. Relationships between volatile and nonvolatile compounds were also studied. Aroma profile constituents were determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction at 30 °C, followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 20 volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Among them, esters were the major components which accounted for 90% of total extracted aroma. Methyl butanoate, methyl 2-methyl butanoate, and methyl hexanoate were the 3 most abundant components representing 74% of total volatiles in pineapple samples. Most odor active contributors were methyl and ethyl 2-methyl butanoate and 2,5-dimethyl 4-methoxy 3(2H)-furanone (mesifuran). Aroma profile components did not vary along the fruit, but volatile compounds content significantly varied (P fresh-cut pineapple trays, compromising consumer perception and acceptance of the product. Such finding highlighted the need to include volatiles content and SSC/TA ratio and their variability along the fruit as selection criteria for pineapples to be processed and quality assessment of the fresh-cut fruit. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Effect of pretreatment on purple-fleshed sweet potato flour for cake making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutasoit, M. S.; Julianti, E.; Lubis, Z.

    2018-02-01

    The purple-fleshed sweet-potato (PFSP) flour was produced by varying pretreatment of washed chips: dipping in 0.5 and 1.0% (w/v) citric acid solution for 30 min, dipping in 0.5 and 1.0% (w/v) citric acid solution for 30 min and followed by steam blanching for 5 min. The pretreatment effect on cake quality was investigated. The results showed that PFSP flour produced from pretreatment with dipping in 0.5% citric acid for 30 min followed by steam blanching for 5 min had higher lightness (L*) value and lower browning index, higher hedonic value of color and aroma and baking expansion. The specific volume of cake from pretreated flour, untreated flour and wheat flour were 44.87, 43.83, and 50.43cm3/g, respectively. The sensory evaluation of cake indicated that cake from pretreated PFSP flour was acceptable compare to those of cake from wheat flour.

  18. Comparative study of antioxidant, metal chelating and antiglycation activities of Momordica charantia flesh and pulp fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghous, Tahseen; Aziz, Nouman; Mehmood, Zahid; Andleeb, Saiqa

    2015-07-01

    Momordica charantia is commonly used as a vegetable and folk medicine in most parts of South Asia. This study aims to determine and compare the antioxidant, metal chelating and antiglycation activities of aqueous extracts of M. charantia fruit flesh (MCF) and fruit pulp (MCP) fractions. Our results show that MCP has pronounced DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging potential compared to MCF. In the antiglycation assay both fractions illustrated considerable inhibitory activities against the formation of AGEs induced by glucose with an efficacy of 75 and 67% with 150 μl of MCP and MCF extracts respectively, almost equal to 0.3mM amino guanidine. Results for metal catalysed protein fragmentation and autoxidative and glycoxidation assays demonstrate that MCF and MCP inhibited metal catalysed protein fragmentation. The percentage of relative standard deviation for three replicate measurements of 150 μl of MCF and MCP was < 3.0% for antiglycation. The antioxidant assays with regression values of MCP (0.981 and 0.991) and MCF (0.967 and 0.999) were also recorded. We conclude that both extracts possess high antioxidant and antiglycation activities and are equally good sources of antioxidant and antiglycating agents.

  19. Molecular characterization of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus isolated from rose in Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    FAJARDO, T. V. M.; NASCIMENTO, M. B.; EIRAS, M.; NICKEL, O.; PIO-RIBEIRO, G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: There is no molecular characterization of Brazilian isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), except for those infecting peach. In this research, the causal agent of rose mosaic was determined and the movement (MP) and coat (CP) protein genes of a PNRSV isolate from rose were molecularly characterized for the first time in Brazil. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of MP and CP complete genes were aligned and compared with other isolates. Molecular analysis of...

  20. Microclonal Multiplication of wild Cherry (Prunus avium L.) from Shoot Tips and Root Sucker Buds

    OpenAIRE

    Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka; Michler, Charles H.; Jelaska, Sibila

    1994-01-01

    The effects of different combinations and concentrations of the growth regulators: 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 6-furfurylaminopurine (KIN), N6- (2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on axillary shoot multiplication rates for wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) shoot explants were determined. Apical shoot tips and axillary buds from juvenile trees (5-year old) and from root suckers of mature trees (55-year old) were us...

  1. Composition and antioxidant properties of fresh and frozen stored blackthorn fruits (Prunus spinosa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Sikora; Małgorzata I. Bieniek; Barbara Borczak

    2013-01-01

      Aim. Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) is quite widespread bush occurring in Poland. Its fruits are easily available food products. The aim of this study was to investigate the basal chemical composition, especially antioxidant compounds in fresh and frozen stored blackthorn fruits. Material  and methods. Research material consisted of blackthorn fruits collected from the wild grown bushes, near Łącko. In the wash-out, dried and stone-loss fruits, the content of dry matter, protein, ...

  2. Characterization of sour (Prunus cerasus L. and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. varieties with five isozyme systems Caracterização de variedades de ginjeira (Prunus cerasus L. e cerejeira (Prunus avium L. em cinco sistemas isoenzimáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remedios Morales Corts

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from young leaves of nine sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and eight sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. varieties, located in the germplasm collection of the 'Direção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior' (Fundão, Portugal, were analysed for five isozyme systems in order to characterise these varieties and detect problems of synonymies and homonymies that frequently present. The sweet and sour cherry varieties analyzed showed low isoenzymatic polymorphism, being PGM and PGI the systems with the highest discrimination power. These systems presented seven and five different zymogrames, respectively. IDH showed four patterns. SKDH and 6-PGD grouped the varieties only into two patterns. The evident and discriminant restrictions of this type of analysis had got results that have only been a complement for agronomical and morphological characterization.Nove extratos de folhas com desenvolvimento encompleto foram obtidos de 9 variedades de cerejeira (Prunus avium L. e 8 de ginjeira (Prunus cerasus L., localizados no campo de germoplasma da "Direcção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior" (Fundão, Portugal. Esses extratos foram analisados para 5 sistemas isoenzimáticos a fim de caracterizar essas variedades e simultaneamente detectar sinonímias e homonímias, freqüentes neste tipo de estudos. As variedades de cerejeira e ginjeira analisadas mostraram baixo polimorfismo isoenzimático, sendo que os sistemas PGM e PGI mostraram maior poder de discriminação. Estes sistemas apresentaram 7 e 5 zimogramas diferentes, respectivamente. IDH mostrou 4 padrões. SKDH e 6-PGD agruparam as variedades em 2 padrões. Os evidentes limites discriminatórios desse tipo de análise serviram somente de complemento para a caracterização agronômica e morfológica.

  3. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; San León, David; Mühlberger, Louisa; Candresse, Thierry; Neumüller, Michael; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01). Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  4. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Rodamilans

    Full Text Available Plum pox virus (PPV infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01. Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  5. Wild Prunus Fruit Species as a Rich Source of Bioactive Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Sircelj, Helena

    2016-08-01

    Sugars, organic acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds were quantified in fruit of 4 wild growing Prunus species (wild cherry, bird cherry, blackthorn, and mahaleb cherry) using HPLC-DAD-MSn. In wild Prunus, the major sugars were glucose and fructose, whereas malic and citric acids dominated among organic acids. The most abundant classes of phenolic compounds in the analyzed fruit species were anthocyanins, flavonols, derivatives of cinnamic acids, and flavanols. Two major groups of anthocyanins measured in Prunus fruits were cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Flavonols were represented by 19 derivatives of quercetin, 10 derivatives of kaempferol, and 2 derivatives of isorhamnetin. The highest total flavonol content was measured in mahaleb cherry and bird cherry, followed by blackthorn and wild cherry fruit. Total phenolic content varied from 2373 (wild cherry) to 11053 mg GAE per kg (bird cherry) and ferric reducing antioxidant power antioxidant activity from 7.26 to 31.54 mM trolox equivalents per kg fruits. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Anatomy and cell wall polysaccharides of almond (Prunus dulcis D. A. Webb) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Fernando; Barros, António; Mota, Manuel; Coimbra, Manuel A; Gama, Francisco M

    2004-03-10

    The anatomy of Prunus dulcis was analyzed by applying several differential staining techniques and light microscopy. Prunus dulcis seed has a thin and structurally complex seed coat, with lignified cellulosic tissue. The embryo has two voluminous cotyledons. Cotyledon cells have a high number of protein and lipid bodies, some of which have phytin. The provascular tissue, located in the cotyledons, is oriented in small bundles perpendicular to the transverse embryonic axis. Prunus dulcis cell wall material is very rich in arabinose (45 mol %). Glucose (23%), uronic acids (12%), and xylose (12%) are also major sugar components. The polymers obtained from the imidazole and Na(2)CO(3) extracts contain mainly pectic substances rich in arabinose, but the sugar content of these extracts was very low. The majority of the pectic substances (also rich in arabinose) was recovered with the KOH extracts. These extracts, with high sugar content, yielded also xyloglucans and acidic xylans. The 4 M KOH + H(3)BO(3) extracts yielded polysaccharides rich in uronic acids and xylose and very rich in arabinose, accounting for 27% of the cell wall material.

  7. [Analysis of total proteins in the seed of almond (Prunus dulcis) by two-dimensional electrophoresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-dong; He, Shao-heng

    2004-07-01

    To analyse the total proteins in the seeds of almond (Prunus dulcis), one of the popular ingestent allergens in China, by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The total proteins of the seeds were extracted by trichloracetic acid (TCA) method, and then separated by isoelectric focusing as first dimension and SDS-PAGE as the second dimension. The spots of proteins were visualized by staining with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250. After analysis with software (ImageMaster 2D), 188 different proteins were detected. The isoelectric points (pI) for approximately 28% of total proteins were between 4.5-5.5, and the relative molecular mass (M(r)) of approximately 62% total proteins were between (20-25)x10(3). This was the first high-resolution, two-dimensional protein map of the seed of almond (Prunus dulcis) in China. Our finding has laid a solid foundation for further identification, characterization, gene cloning and standardization of allergenic proteins in the seed of almond (Prunus dulcis).

  8. Effects of fertilization and rootstock on nutrient status and fruit set in sour cherry Prunus cerasus 'Stevnsbaer'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N. L.; Toldam-Andersen, Torben; Dencker, Ivar Blücher

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects of two potassium fertilization treatments on fruit set and flower bud, flower and bract leaf nutrient concentrations in Prunus cerasus 'Stevnsbaer' on Prunus avium and 'Colt' rootstocks. Single applications of KNO3 or KCl were applied ...

  9. Basic RNases of wild almond (Prunus webbii): cloning and characterization of six new S-RNase and one "non-S RNase" genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banović, Bojana; Surbanovski, Nada; Konstantinović, Miroslav; Maksimović, Vesna

    2009-03-01

    In order to investigate the S-RNase allele structure of a Prunus webbii population from the Montenegrin region of the Balkans, we analyzed 10 Prunus webbii accessions. We detected 10 different S-RNase allelic variants and obtained the nucleotide sequences for six S-RNases. The BLAST analysis showed that these six sequences were new Prunus webbii S-RNase alleles. It also revealed that one of sequenced alleles, S(9)-RNase, coded for an amino acid sequence identical to that for Prunus dulcis S(14)-RNase, except for a single conservative amino acid replacement in the signal peptide region. Another, S(3)-RNase, was shown to differ by only three amino acid residues from Prunus salicina Se-RNase. The allele S(7)-RNase was found to be inactive by stylar protein isoelectric focusing followed by RNase-specific staining, but the reason for the inactivity was not at the coding sequence level. Further, in five of the 10 analyzed accessions, we detected the presence of one active basic RNase (marked PW(1)) that did not amplify with S-RNase-specific DNA primers. However, it was amplified with primers designed from the PA1 RNase nucleotide sequence (basic "non-S RNase" of Prunus avium) and the obtained sequence showed high homology (80%) with the PA1 allele. Although homologs of PA1 "non-S RNases" have been reported in four other Prunus species, this is the first recorded homolog in Prunus webbii. The evolutionary implications of the data are discussed.

  10. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinildes Silva-Filho

    Full Text Available Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  11. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Reinildes; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2014-01-01

    Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  12. The Effect of Methanolic Extract of Otostegia persica on Serum Glucose Level and Renal Function Indicators in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdiye Hedayati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regarding the antioxidant property of Otostegia persica extract and the role of antioxidants in Diabetes mellitus treatment, in this study the effect of extract on serum glucose level and renal function indicators was determined in diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes mellitus (type I was inducted in male rats using intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ (65 mg/kg. To determine blood glucose, urea, and creatinine serum levels; fasting blood samples were collected twice (before STZ injection and 5 days later. The rats with their serum glucose level exceeding 250 mg/dl were considered diabetic and divided into 10 groups separately received Otostegia persica alcoholic extract (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg/day doses, glibenclamide with 600 µg/kg dose and 0.5 ml distilled water for 3 and 6 days using gavage. After 3 and 6 days, blood samples were collected again and glucose, urea, and creatinine serum levels were assessed using spectrophotometry technique by respective kits.Results: Treating diabetic rats by Otostegia persica extract (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg/day doses for 6 days results in a significant decrease of glucose and creatinine, yet an increase of serum urea with 200 mg/kg dose. Also, administration of the extract for 3 days (300 mg/kg reduced glucose, and (in various doses urea and creatinine serum levels. Conclusion: Otostegia persica extract has hypoglycemic effect and administering it in diabetes mellitus not only had no undesirable renal side effects, but also improved renal function to some extent.

  13. Ommatidia of blow fly, house fly, and flesh fly: implication of their vision efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Piangjai, Somsak; Upakut, Sorawit; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Sukontason, Kom

    2008-06-01

    This work aims to elucidate the number of ommatidia or facets (the outwardly visible units of each ommatidium) for compound eyes in blow flies [Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann)], house flies (Musca domestica L.), and flesh flies (Liosarcophaga dux Thomson) by manual counts of the corneal spreads. The head of the fly in each species was soaked in 20% potassium hydroxide solution at room temperature for 7 days, and the clear compound eye was dissected into six small parts, each of which was placed onto a slide and flattened using a coverslip. Images of each part were obtained using a microscope connected to a computer. The printed images of each part were magnified, and the total number of ommatidia per eye was manually counted. For males, the mean number of ommatidia was statistically different among all flies examined: L. dux (6,032) > C. rufifacies (5,356) > C. nigripes (4,798) > C. megacephala (4,376) > L. cuprina (3,665) > M. domestica (3,484). Likewise, the mean number of facets in females was statistically different: L. dux (6,086) > C. megacephala (5,641) > C. rufifacies (5,208) > C. nigripes (4,774) > L. cuprina (3,608) > M. domestica (3433). Scanning electron microscopy analysis of adult flies revealed the sexual dimorphism in the compound eye. Male C. megacephala had large ommatidia in the upper two thirds part and small ommatidia in the lower one third part, whereas only small ommatidia were detected in females. Dense postulate appearance was detected in the external surface of the corneal lens of the ommatidia of C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, and C. nigripes, while a mix of dense postulate appearance and variable groove array length was detected in L. cuprina and M. domestica. The probable functions of ommatidia are discussed with reference to other literature.

  14. Earwigs ( Labidura riparia) mimic rotting-flesh odor to deceive vertebrate predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, John A.

    2015-08-01

    Many insects repel predators with caustic chemicals, while insects mimicking odors of wastes/dead insects to fool predators have not been documented. We found that the shore earwig, Labidura riparia (Dermaptera: Labiduridae) when bitten by anole lizards, Anolis carolinenesus, spits a rotting-flesh odor that deceives these insectivores into rejecting prey. Once a lizard attacked and rejected an earwig, the lizard did not attack another earwig during several weeks despite consuming other prey, indicating associative learning after one trial. The fetid odor was found in the head-prothorax containing salivary glands of both male and female earwigs and was comprised of ˜100 ng dimethyl disulfide and ˜600 ng dimethyl trisulfide. Nymphs had odorous sulfides after prolonged attacks by harvester ants, Pogonomyrmex rugosus, who were only deterred by the earwig's forceps. Sulfides released by the earwig are similar to odors of carrion/feces, which may be innately repulsive to some vertebrate predators. The mean initial discharge percentage (IDP) of sulfides from a cohort of earwigs was 62 %; however, IDPs of individuals were highly variable (3-99 %; mean 57 %). The discharge refill time (DRT) to refill 50 % of the earwig's allomone reservoir was estimated at 13 h. A positive relationship in sulfide amounts with body weight was found only in females in 2009, suggesting metabolic cost tradeoffs were revealed when sulfide content was half that in 2010. This is the first report of insects releasing sulfur-containing compounds that may mimic carrion-fecal odors as a deceptive defense against vertebrate predators.

  15. Certification of Trace Elements and Methylmercury Mass Fractions in Tuna Fish Flesh Homogenate IAEA-436A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The primary goal of the IAEA Environment Laboratories is to assist Member States in the use of both stable and radioactive isotope analytical techniques to understand, monitor and protect the marine environment. The major impact of large coastal cities on marine ecosystems is a primary concern for the IAEA. The Marine Environment Studies Laboratory, as a part of IAEA Environment Laboratories in Monaco, acts as the analytical support centre for Member State laboratories and is the pillar of the quality assurance programme for the determination of non-nuclear pollutants, trace elements and organic contaminants in the marine environment. The marine pollution assessments required to understand such impacts depend on accurate knowledge of contaminant concentrations in various environmental compartments. Good laboratory practice and quality assurance and control are essential components of the analytical process for the production of data. Quality control procedures are commonly based on analyses of certified reference materials to assess reproducibility and measurement biases and uncertainties. Certified reference materials are key tools for quality assurance. They are used to validate analytical methods and to establish traceability to internationally agreed references. They are cornerstones for laboratory accreditation and the correct implementation of national and international regulations. In the development and validation of new methods, certified reference materials play a vital role in state of the art technologies where measurements are critical. The IAEA supports the development and production of environmental certified reference materials for monitoring laboratories in Member States. The reference material IAEA-436, characterized for trace elements and methylmercury mass fractions in tuna fish flesh homogenate, was produced by the IAEA in Monaco in 2006. This publication describes the production of certified reference material IAEA-436A, which is based on the

  16. High-level expression of a novel chromoplast phosphate transporter ClPHT4;2 is required for flesh color development in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Shaogui; Ren, Yi; Zhang, Haiying; Gong, Guoyi; Zhou, Ming; Wang, Guizhang; Zong, Mei; He, Hongju; Liu, Fan; Xu, Yong

    2017-02-01

    Chromoplast development plays a crucial role in controlling carotenoid content in watermelon flesh. Modern cultivated watermelons with colorful flesh are believed to originate from pale-colored and no-sweet progenitors. But the molecular basis of flesh color formation and regulation is poorly understood. More chromoplasts and released carotenoid globules were observed in the red-fleshed fruit of the 97103 cultivar than in the pale-colored fruits of the PI296341-FR line. Transcriptome profiles of these two materials identified Cla017962, predicted as ClPHT4;2, was dramatically up-regulated during flesh color formation. High ClPHT4;2 expression levels were closely correlated with increased flesh carotenoid contents among 198 representative watermelon accessions. Down-regulation of ClPHT4;2 expression in transgenic watermelons reduced the fruit carotenoid accumulation. ClPHT4;2 as a function of chromoplast-localized phosophate transporter was tested by heterologous expression into a yeast phosphate-uptake-defective mutant, western blotting, subcellular localization, and immunogold electron microscopy analysis. Two transcription factors, ClbZIP1 and ClbZIP2, were identified, which responded to ABA and sugar signaling to regulate ClPHT4;2 transcription only in cultivated watermelon species. Our findings suggest that elevated ClPHT4;2 gene expression is necessary for carotenoid accumulation, and may help to characterize the co-development of flesh color and sweetness during watermelon development and domestication. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Postharvest Chemical, Sensorial and Physical-Mechanical Properties of Wild Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Evica MRATINIĆ; Bojan POPOVSKI; Tomo MILOŠEVIĆ; Melpomena POPOVSKA

    2011-01-01

    Some chemical, sensorial and physical-mechanical properties of 19 apricot genotypes and Hungarian Best (control) such as moisture content, soluble solids content, titratable acidity ratio and their ratio, fruit and stone mass, flesh/stone ratio, fruit dimensions (length, width, thickness), arithmetic and geometric mean diameter, sphericity, surface area and aspect ratio were determined. Their application is also discussed. The highest moisture content and stone mass observed in X-1/1/04 and X...

  18. Rapid detection of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus using magnetic nanoparticle-assisted reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xiaojuan; Wang, Wenwen; Wei, Hairong; Wang, Jiawei; Chen, Xin; Xu, Li; Zhu, Dongzi; Tan, Yue; Liu, Qingzhong

    2014-11-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) has seriously reduced the yield of Prunus species worldwide. In this study, a highly efficient and specific two-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was developed to detect PNRSV. Total RNA was extracted from sweet cherry leaf samples using a commercial kit based on a magnetic nanoparticle technique. Transcripts were used as the templates for the assay. The results of this assay can be detected using agarose gel electrophoresis or by assessing in-tube fluorescence after adding SYBR Green I. The assay is highly specific for PNRSV, and it is more sensitive than reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Restriction enzyme digestion verified further the reliability of this RT-LAMP assay. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the application of RT-LAMP to PNRSV detection in Prunus species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Efeito do retardamento da colheita, na qualidade e na vida útil do melão Orange Flesh Effect of the harvest delay on the quality and post-harvest shelf-life of Orange Flesh melons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Vinícius de S. Mendonça

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O efeito do retardamento da colheita na qualidade e na vida útil dos frutos do meloeiro foi avaliado. Os frutos, tipo Honey Dew Orange Flesh, foram colhidos no dia adotado pelos produtores como maturidade comercial, um, dois, três e quatro dias após e, foram armazenados a 7 ± 1ºC e UR de 90 ± 5%. O experimento foi conduzido obedecendo delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, com cinco repetições, cinco tempos de retardamento (0; 1; 2; 3 e 4 dias após o adotado para a colheita e cinco tempos de armazenamento (0; 7; 14; 21 e 28 dias após a colheita. Foram avaliado a aparência externa e interna, firmeza de polpa, conteúdo de sólidos solúveis e incidência de rachadura no pedúnculo. Foi observada perda gradativa de firmeza da polpa para todos os retardamentos durante o armazenamento. Ao final do experimento os frutos ainda apresentavam aparência própria à comercialização. O conteúdo de sólidos solúveis ficou entre 9 e 12% e a incidência de rachaduras foi menor para os frutos colhidos aos 59; 60 e 61 dias após o plantio.The effect of harvesting delay on quality and postharvest shelf-life of Honey Dew Orange Flesh melons was examined. Fruits were harvested at the stage of commercial maturity and, one, two, three and four days after this period. Fruits were kept at 7 ± 1ºC and 90 ± 5% relative humidity. A 5 x 5 factorial scheme in a completely randomized design with five replications was used, with five harvesting dates (0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 days after the stage of commercial harvest and five storage periods (0; 7; 14; 21 and 28 days. During this period we evaluated the external and internal appearances, flesh firmness, soluble solid content and crack incidence of the peduncle. There occurred reduction of the flesh firmness for all harvest delaying dates. Fruits presented appropriate marketing appearance until the end of the experiment. The soluble solids content varied from 9 to 12%, and the cracking

  20. Postharvest Chemical, Sensorial and Physical-Mechanical Properties of Wild Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evica MRATINIĆ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Some chemical, sensorial and physical-mechanical properties of 19 apricot genotypes and Hungarian Best (control such as moisture content, soluble solids content, titratable acidity ratio and their ratio, fruit and stone mass, flesh/stone ratio, fruit dimensions (length, width, thickness, arithmetic and geometric mean diameter, sphericity, surface area and aspect ratio were determined. Their application is also discussed. The highest moisture content and stone mass observed in X-1/1/04 and X-1/2/04, soluble solids content in ZO-1/03, titratable acidity in ZL-2/03, SS/TA ratio in ZL-1/03, and fruit mass and flesh/stone ratio in DL-1/1/04 genotype. The most number of genotypes have orange and deep orange skin and flesh colour, respectively, whereas sweet kernel taste was predominant in most genotypes. Regarding physical-mechanical properties, the superior fruit dimensions (length, width, thickness, arithmetic and geometric mean diameter and surface area observed in DL-1/1/04 genotype, whereas the highest sphericity and surface area observed in X-1/1/04 and X-1/2/04 genotypes. Also, the series of genotypes evaluated have better chemical, sensorial and physical-mechanical properties than Hungarian Best (control. Finally, information about these properties is very important for understanding the behaviour of the product during the postharvest operations.

  1. Synteny conservation between two distantly-related Rosaceae genomes: Prunus (the stone fruits and Fragaria (the strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargent Daniel J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Rosaceae encompass a large number of economically-important diploid and polyploid fruit and ornamental species in many different genera. The basic chromosome numbers of these genera are x = 7, 8 and 9 and all have compact and relatively similar genome sizes. Comparative mapping between distantly-related genera has been performed to a limited extent in the Rosaceae including a comparison between Malus (subfamily Maloideae and Prunus (subfamily Prunoideae; however no data has been published to date comparing Malus or Prunus to a member of the subfamily Rosoideae. In this paper we compare the genome of Fragaria, a member of the Rosoideae, to Prunus, a member of the Prunoideae. Results The diploid genomes of Prunus (2n = 2x = 16 and Fragaria (2n = 2x = 14 were compared through the mapping of 71 anchor markers – 40 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs, 29 indels or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs and two simple-sequence repeats (SSRs – on the reference maps of both genera. These markers provided good coverage of the Prunus (78% and Fragaria (78% genomes, with maximum gaps and average densities of 22 cM and 7.3 cM/marker in Prunus and 32 cM and 8.0 cM/marker in Fragaria. Conclusion Our results indicate a clear pattern of synteny, with most markers of each chromosome of one of these species mapping to one or two chromosomes of the other. A large number of rearrangements (36, most of which produced by inversions (27 and the rest (9 by translocations or fission/fusion events could also be inferred. We have provided the first framework for the comparison of the position of genes or DNA sequences of these two economically valuable and yet distantly-related genera of the Rosaceae.

  2. Physiological, anatomical and metabolic implications of salt tolerance in the halophyte Salvadora persica under hydroponic culture condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASISH KUMAR PARIDA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salt tolerance mechanism of an extreme halophyte Salvadora persica was assessed by analysing growth, nutrient uptake, anatomical modifications and alterations in levels of some organic metabolites in seedlings imposed to various levels of salinity (0, 250, 500 and 750 mM NaCl under hydroponic culture condition. After 21 days of salt treatment, plant height, leaf area and shoot biomass decreased with increase in salinity whereas the leaf succulence increased significantly with increasing salinity in S. persica. The RWC% of leaf increased progressively in salt-treated seedlings as compared to control. Na+ contents of leaf, stem and root increased in dose-dependent manner whereas there was no significant changes in K+ content. There was significant alterations in leaf, stem and root anatomy by salinity. The thickness of epidermis and spongy parenchyma of leaf increased in salt treated seedlings as compared to control, whereas palisade parenchyma decreased dramatically in extreme salinity (750 mM NaCl. There was a significant reduction in stomatal density and stomatal pore area of leaf with increasing salinity. Anatomical observations of stem showed that the epidermal cells diameter and thickness of cortex decreased by salinity whereas thickness of hypodermal layer, hypodermal cell diameter, pith area and pith cell diameter increased by high salinity. The root anatomy showed an increase in epidermal thickness by salinity whereas diameters of epidermal cells and xylem vessels decreased. Total soluble sugar content remained unchanged at all levels of salinity whereas reducing sugar content increased by 2-fold at high salinity (750 mM NaCl. The starch content of leaf decreased progressively in NaCl treated seedlings as compared to control. Total free amino acid content did not change at low salinity (250 mM, whereas it increased significantly at higher salinity (500 and 750 mM NaCl. The proline content increased in the NaCl treated seedlings as

  3. The Cytotoxic, Antibacterial and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Crude Extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua

    KAUST Repository

    Seddek, Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The discovery of drugs from natural sources has been a rapidly growing science in this era. Plants used for medicinal purposes have been usually studied as rich sources of bioactive chemical compounds that can be used as medications. Several plant-derived drugs have been approved so far. Cancer and infectious diseases have been common targets for the science of drug discovery, due to the high mortality rates caused by these diseases all over the world. Several plant-derived compounds are being marketed now as anti-cancer agents. However, finding novel antimicrobial and anti-cancer compounds has become an important goal to overcome the problems of existing anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents, such as resistance and non-selectivity. In this thesis project, an attempt to find out useful biological activities of the crude extracts of some plants used traditionally for medicinal purposes in Saudi Arabia has been made. Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua have been selected for study, based on the literature review performed. These plants were screened for three biological activities; anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and free radical scavenging activities. The experimental part of the study consisted of some common in-vitro techniques, such as cytotoxicity and cell viability assays, disk diffusion assay and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assay. In addition, the crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla has undergone chemical fractionation and four solvent fractions were obtained using column chromatography. The crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla showed a promising anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli and a very promising free radical scavenging activity that was comparable to ascorbic acid, an important anti-oxidant. The four solvent fractions obtained from that extract showed that these activities were produced by more than one compound belonging to different solvent fractions. In addition, the crude extract of Artemisia annua showed

  4. Metabolic and transcriptional elucidation of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in peel and flesh tissue of loquat fruit during on-tree development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipieri, Margarita; Georgiadou, Egli C; Marin, Alicia; Diaz-Mula, Huertas M; Goulas, Vlasios; Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Manganaris, George A

    2017-06-14

    Carotenoids are the main colouring substances found in orange-fleshed loquat fruits. The aim of this study was to unravel the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway of loquat fruit (cv. 'Obusa') in peel and flesh tissue during distinct on-tree developmental stages through a targeted analytical and molecular approach. Substantial changes regarding colour parameters, both between peel and flesh and among the different developmental stages, were monitored, concomitant with a significant increment in carotenoid content. Key genes and individual compounds that are implicated in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway were further dissected with the employment of molecular (RT-qPCR) and advanced analytical techniques (LC-MS). Results revealed significant differences in carotenoid composition between peel and flesh. Thirty-two carotenoids were found in the peel, while only eighteen carotenoids were identified in the flesh. Trans-lutein and trans-β-carotene were the major carotenoids in the peel; the content of the former decreased with the progress of ripening, while the latter registered a 7.2-fold increase. However, carotenoid profiling of loquat flesh indicated trans-β-cryptoxanthin, followed by trans-β-carotene and 5,8-epoxy-β-carotene to be the most predominant carotenoids. High amounts of trans-β-carotene in both tissues were supported by significant induction in a chromoplast-specific lycopene β-cyclase (CYCB) transcript levels. PSY1, ZDS, CYCB and BCH were up-regulated and CRTISO, LCYE, ECH and VDE were down-regulated in most of the developmental stages compared with the immature stage in both peel and flesh tissue. Overall, differential regulation of expression levels with the progress of on-tree fruit development was more evident in the middle and downstream genes of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Carotenoid composition is greatly affected during on-tree loquat development with striking differences between peel and flesh tissue. A link between gene up- or down

  5. Regulating irrigation during pre-harvest to avoid the incidence of translucent flesh disorder and gamboge disorder of mangosteen fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawee Chiarawipa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In humid tropical areas, excess water during pre-harvest usually causes the occurrence of translucent flesh disorder (TFD and gamboge disorder (GD in mangosteen. To evaluate options for avoiding these incidences, an experiment was conducted with different water management regimes during pre-harvest. Twelve 14-year-old trees were grown under transparent plastic cover with three irrigation regimes: 1 Control (rainfed condition, 2 7-d interval watering, 3 4-d interval watering and 4 daily watering. A further four trees were arranged as the control (rainfed treatment, but these were grown without the plastic roof cover. The treatments were started at 9 weeks after bloom. The results showed that diurnal changes of leaf water potential and stomatal conductance were lowest in the control, because intermittent drying occurred during the study period. The highest fruit diameter, fruit weight, flesh firmness and flesh and rind water contents were found in the daily watering treatment. However, all of these values were lowest in the control trees. The amount of TFD was also lowest in the control (3.7%, and it was significantly different from the treatment where trees were watered at 4-d intervals (18.0% and where trees were watered daily (28.9%. There was no significant difference of TFD between the control and the 7-d interval watering treatments. In contrast, GD was not significantly different among the treatments. It is suggested that the risk of TFD and GD incidence could be avoided by maintaining mild soil water deficit around -70 kPa during pre-harvest.

  6. Expression Differences of Pigment Structural Genes and Transcription Factors Explain Flesh Coloration in Three Contrasting Kiwifruit Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of kiwifruit cultivars (Actinidia chinensis and A. deliciosa generally have green or yellow flesh when ripe. A small number of genotypes have red flesh but this coloration is usually restricted to the inner pericarp. Three kiwifruit cultivars having red (‘Hongyang’, or yellow (‘Jinnong-2’, or green (‘Hayward’ flesh were investigated for their color characteristics and pigment contents during development and ripening. The results show the yellow of the ‘Jinnong-2’ fruit is due to the combined effects of chlorophyll degradation and of beta-carotene accumulation. The red inner pericarps of ‘Hongyang’ fruit are due to anthocyanin accumulation. Expression differences of the pathway genes in the inner pericarps of the three different kiwifruits suggest that stay-green (SGR controls the degradation of chlorophylls, while lycopene beta-cyclase (LCY-β controls the biosynthesis of beta-carotene. The abundance of anthocyanin in the inner pericarps of the ‘Hongyang’ fruit is the results of high expressions of UDP flavonoid glycosyltransferases (UFGT. At the same time, expressions of anthocyanin transcription factors show that AcMYBF110 expression parallels changes in anthocyanin concentration, so seems to be a key R2R3 MYB, regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Further, transient color assays reveal that AcMYBF110 can autonomously induce anthocyanin accumulation in Nicotiana tabacum leaves by activating the transcription of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (NtDFR, anthocyanidin synthase (NtANS and NtUFGT. For basic helix-loop-helix proteins (bHLHs and WD-repeat proteins (WD40s, expression differences show these may depend on AcMYBF110 forming a MYB-bHLH-WD40 complex to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis, instead of it having a direct involvement.

  7. Participatory selection of orange-fleshed sweetpotato varieties in north and north-east Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Dibi Konan Evrard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sweetpotato is cultivated in all the regions of Côte d’Ivoire for consumption and as a source of income. Only varieties with white or yellow flesh are grown. Production of nutritious orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP is hampered by the lack of genetic resources and planting material. To evaluate and release OFSP varieties, on-farm demonstration tests were conducted with women farmer groups in Bondoukou, Nassian, Korhogo and Bondiali in the north and northeast Côte d’Ivoire. Six varieties- ‘Kabode’, ‘Kakamega7’ (‘Irene’, ‘Tacha’, ‘Bela Bela’, ‘Vita’ and TIB-440060-were evaluated in comparison with locally grown varieties. The on-farm demonstration was laid out in a randomised complete block design with replicated three times per location. Assessments were made on yield, disease and pests; and consumer preference on attractiveness of skin color and flesh of the root (fresh and boiled, taste, texture and starchiness. Results showed that introduced varieties have generally recorded higher yields than the local varieties: Yields of about 25 t/ha have been recorded on the sites. The best average yield of about 15 t/ha, was recorded for TIB-440060 and ‘Irene’ varieties. Farmers’ acceptance of OFSP varieties based on the attraction of their color, the dry matter content and taste was more than 90%. At the end of the sensory tests, ‘Irene’, which achieved the best compromise between all observed and measured parameters, was most appreciated and was the farmers’ first choice, followed by varieties TIB-440060 and ‘Bela bela’.

  8. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY TEST OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF WHITE AND RED FLESH FROM GUAVA LEAF ( Psidium guajava. L AGAINTS Staphylococcus aureus AND Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Maysarah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An antibacterial activity test of ethanol extract of white and red flesh from guava leaf (Psidium guajava. L against S.aureus and E.coli; using agar diffusion method was carried out in order to produce the extract. The extract was collected using maceration method. The concentration of extract was 7,8125; 6,1035; 5,00; 4,8828; 4,3944; and 3,90625 mg/mL. The results showed that both of extracts had antibacterial activities. Ethanol extract of white flesh of fruit guava leaf had (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration MIC value at 5.000 mg/mL against S.aureus and 4.8828 mg/mL against E.coli. Whereas ethanol extract of red flesh of fruit guava leaf had MIC value at 4.3944 mg/mL against S.aureus and E.coli.  MIC value of ethanol extract of white flesh of fruit guava leaf is equal with MIC value of clindamicin concentration at 3.00 µg/mL against S.aureus, and 1.00 µg/mL against E.coli. The MIC value of red flesh of fruit guava leaf is equal to the MIC value of clindamicin concentration at 3.00 µg/mL against S.aureus, and 1.00 µg/mL against E.coli.

  9. The effect of gamma irradiation on cytotoxic activity of the flesh of Mahkota Dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl) Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermin K Winarno; Mazda; Hindra Rahmawati; Hendig Winarno

    2010-01-01

    Gamma irradiation had been used by herbs medicine industries for preservation of medicinal plants, but the effect of irradiation on their bioactivities has not been observed. The purpose of this research was to obtain the optimum radiation dose for the preservation of mahkota dewa flesh fruits without damaging their cytotoxic activities. To evaluate the effect of irradiation, dried samples of flesh fruit of mahkota dewa were irradiated at various doses of 0; 5; 7.5; 10; 15 and 20 kGy. Microbial contamination was tested using Indonesian National Standard method, which indicated that all microbes were killed at the dose of 5 kGy. Each sample was macerated with ethanol, and the extracts obtained were then fractionated with column chromatography, from which 8 fractions were obtained. Cytotoxicity test of the fractions against leukemia L1210 cells, showed that the Fr.3 was the most cytotoxic. To determine optimal irradiation dose to inhibit and to kill bacteria and yeast/mold in the mahkota dewa flesh fruit samples without decreasing cytotoxic activity, a thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the Fr.3 were done. The results showed that the doses of ≥ 5 kGy inhibited the growth and killed all the bacteria, yeast and mold without decreasing significantly the cytotoxic activity of ethanol extract against leukemia L1210 cell. The significant decrease of cytotoxic against leukemia L1210 of ethanol extract were occurred after ≥ 10 kGy irradiation of the samples. At the dose of 10 kGy, the cytotoxicity decreased even though it was not exceeded the limit of the fraction was declared inactive. Analysis of thin layer chromatogram profiles showed that the Fr.3 contained at least 10 components. Irradiation until the dose of 20 kGy decreased the major peak intensity. with the increasing of irradiation doses. It was concluded that the dose of 5 kGy to 10 kGy were the optimum dose for the preservation of flesh fruit of

  10. Orange‐fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) composite bread as a significant source of dietary vitamin A

    OpenAIRE

    Awuni, Victoria; Alhassan, Martha Wunnam; Amagloh, Francis Kweku

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Refining food recipes with orange‐fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) has the potential to improve dietary intake of vitamin A. The objectives of this study were to utilize OFSP in the development of two composite bread types and to assess their contribution to dietary intake of vitamin A using the dietary reference intake of lactating mothers. Two composite OFSP–wheat flour bread recipes—vita butter bread and vita tea bread—were developed by incorporating 46% OFSP puree in existing 100% whe...

  11. Comparison of ELISA and RT-PCR for the detection of Prunus necrotic ring spot virus and prune dwarf virus in almond (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuria, Genet; Ramesh, Sunita A; Alberts, Evita; Bertozzi, Terry; Wirthensohn, Michelle; Collins, Graham; Sedgley, Margaret

    2003-12-01

    A technique based on the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been developed to detect the presence of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and prune dwarf virus (PDV) simultaneously in almond. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study comparing both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and RT-PCR for the detection of PNRSV and PDV using 175 almond leaf samples. Multiplex RT-PCR was found to be more sensitive than ELISA, especially when followed by nested PCR for the detection of PDV. The RT-PCR technique has the added advantage that plant material can be tested at any time throughout the growing season.

  12. Formulation and quality control of Prunus domestica syrup, prepared according to Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamzeloo-Moghadam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Prunus domestica (plum has been considered as a useful remedy for several disorders in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. It has cold and wet temperament and is used as syrup for hot temperament diseases such as hot headache and stomach disorders. In the present study, plum syrup has been formulated according to ITM manuscripts and quality control evaluations have been accomplished to present a suitable formulation. Methods: The fruits of Prunus domestica L. were macerated in water, then decocted. The mixture was filtered. The filtrate was concentrated to have a suitable viscosity. The extract was sweetened by adding sugar (1:2 and heated till sugar was completely dissolved. The final product was evaluated physicochemically and microbiologically according to standard protocols and total phenolics content of the syrup stability was determined. The syrup was assessed in accelerated condition (40 ºC during 6 months. Results: The prepared formulation was a viscose and brown syrup with plum flavor and fragrance. No precipitation and cap locking were observed in the syrup. Dry residue, pH, density, viscosity and total phenolics of the syrup were found 43.1%, 3.49, 1.27 g/ml, 6.5 cP and 152.3 mg/100ml, respectively. No microbial growth was observed in the formulation. In the accelerated stability tests, no remarkable changes were seen in the product. Total phenolics content was decreased 2.2% during 6 months in 40 ºC. Conclusion: The formulated Prunus domestica syrup could be introduced for further mass production after completing the final required evaluations.

  13. Genetic and molecular characterization of three novel S-haplotypes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Potter, Daniel; Tao, Ryutaro; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2008-01-01

    Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) exhibits gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) whereby the specificity of self-pollen rejection is controlled by alleles of the stylar and pollen specificity genes, S-RNase and SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene), respectively. As sour cherry selections can be either self-compatible (SC) or self-incompatible (SI), polyploidy per se does not result in SC. Instead the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes. The presence of two or more non-functional S-haplotypes within sour cherry 2x pollen renders that pollen SC. Two new S-haplotypes from sour cherry, S(33) and S(34), that are presumed to be contributed by the P. fruticosa species parent, the complete S-RNase and SFB sequences of a third S-haplotype, S(35), plus the presence of two previously identified sweet cherry S-haplotypes, S(14) and S(16) are described here. Genetic segregation data demonstrated that the S(16)-, S(33)-, S(34)-, and S(35)-haplotypes present in sour cherry are fully functional. This result is consistent with our previous finding that 'hetero-allelic' pollen is incompatible in sour cherry. Phylogenetic analyses of the SFB and S-RNase sequences from available Prunus species reveal that the relationships among S-haplotypes show no correspondence to known organismal relationships at any taxonomic level within Prunus, indicating that polymorphisms at the S-locus have been maintained throughout the evolution of the genus. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationships among SFB sequences are generally incongruent with those among S-RNase sequences for the same S-haplotypes. Hypotheses compatible with these results are discussed.

  14. Elevated CO2 impacts bell pepper growth with consequences to Myzus persicae life history, feeding behaviour and virus transmission ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dáder, Beatriz; Fereres, Alberto; Moreno, Aránzazu; Trębicki, Piotr

    2016-01-08

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) impacts plant growth and metabolism. Indirectly, the performance and feeding of insects is affected by plant nutritional quality and resistance traits. Life history and feeding behaviour of Myzus persicae were studied on pepper plants under ambient (aCO2, 400 ppm) or elevated CO2 (eCO2, 650 ppm), as well as the direct impact on plant growth and leaf chemistry. Plant parameters were significantly altered by eCO2 with a negative impact on aphid's life history. Their pre-reproductive period was 11% longer and fecundity decreased by 37%. Peppers fixed significantly less nitrogen, which explains the poor aphid performance. Plants were taller and had higher biomass and canopy temperature. There was decreased aphid salivation into sieve elements, but no differences in phloem ingestion, indicating that the diminished fitness could be due to poorer tissue quality and unfavourable C:N balance, and that eCO2 was not a factor impeding feeding. Aphid ability to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was studied by exposing source and receptor plants to ambient (427 ppm) or elevated (612 ppm) CO2 before or after virus inoculation. A two-fold decrease on transmission was observed when receptor plants were exposed to eCO2 before aphid inoculation when compared to aCO2.

  15. Varietals resistance and susceptibility in mustard (brassica campestris l.) genotypes against aphid myzus persicae (sulzer) (homoptera: aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, G.Z.; Tofique, M.

    2009-01-01

    The exploitation of resistant cultivars is an imperative, simple, practical and flexible way to cope with insect pests incidence. Thirty genotypes of mustard (Brassica campestris L.) were tested for their resistance and susceptibility to aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) exposed under natural field conditions. Data on pest tolerance of genotypes were judged by quantitative traits such as number of aphids on each infested plant and mean dry weight of seeds per genotype. Studies observed the discrepancy in overall rates of pest invasion and seed yield contained by trailed mustard genotypes. Agati sarson (P), S-9-S-97-100/45 and S-9-S-97-100/45 were the least damaged genotypes showing their moderate resistance. Amongst other genotypes, MM-I/01-5, MM-I285 and MM-I/01-6 were the most damaged showing oversensitive response. Although the majority of genotypes were found vulnerable to pest, Agati sarson (P) and S-9-S-97-100/45 due to their lowest hypersensitive response toward aphid contamination and increased pods yield could be used for the development of essential resistance in mustard plant. A marked mode of damage inflicted by aphid on the crop was noticed and the abiotic factors contributing variations in aphid infestation levels during both growing seasons were determined. Knowledge about the host plant resistance investigated can facilitate growers to choose the most appropriate cultivars as pest control strategy. (author)

  16. Evaluating the anti-plaque efficacy of meswak (Salvadora persica containing dentifrice: A triple blind controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The growing field of alternative medicine has shown that dentifrices based on plant extracts are available in the market but there is little or no research to prove or refute the efficacy of dentifrices containing combination of herbal components. Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the anti-plaque efficacy of a commercially available Meswak containing dentifrice compared to the conventional dentifrice using a randomized, triple blind, parallel design method. Materials and Methods: A total of 350 subjects were selected. All the subjects (aged 13-54 years were given the test dentifrices, packed in plain white color-coded tubes. The subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily for 2 min with the allocated dentifrice. The total study duration was 4 weeks. Plaque scores were recorded at the baseline, 2 weeks and 4 weeks respectively, using the Turesky modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences in the reduction of plaque by the herbal dentifrice, Meswak (Salvadora persica on intra-group and inter-group comparison. Conclusion: It was concluded that further research is required to know the dental benefits of herbal products being incorporated into the commercially available dentifrices.

  17. Variability and molecular typing of the woody-tree infecting prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasková, D; Petrzik, K; Karesová, R

    2000-01-01

    The 3'-part of the movement protein gene, the intergenic region and the complete coat protein gene of sixteen isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) from five different host species from the Czech Republic were sequenced in order to search for the bases of extensive variability of viroses caused by this pathogen. According to phylogenetic analyses all the 46 isolates sequenced to date split into three main groups, which correlated to a certain extend with their geographic origin. Modelled serological properties showed that all the new isolates belong to one serotype.

  18. Differentiation among isolates of prunus necrotic ringspot virus by transcript conformation polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, A; Maslenin, L; Spiegel, S

    1998-09-01

    A method based on differences in electrophoretic mobility of RNA transcripts made from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products was used for differentiation among virus isolates. A T7 RNA polymerase promoter was attached to amplified prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) sequences by PCR. The PCR products then served as a template for transcription. Single-stranded transcripts originated from different PNRSV isolates varied in electrophoretic mobility in polyacrylamide gels, presumably because of transcript conformation polymorphism (TCP). This procedure was applied for the differentiation of PNRSV isolates.

  19. Studies on induced mutation in maitres (Prunus mume Sieb et. Zucc) through irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Chuantang; He Daoyi; Li Yazhi

    1995-01-01

    Five varieties of maitre were treated with different doses of 60 Co γ-ray, then grafted to stock (Prunus armeniaca L.). Survival rate of grafting reduced with the increase of the doses. Optimum level of dose is 20∼30 Gy. At base of grafted seedling from scion woods irradiated by 30 Gy, a mutant shoot was found. the mutant has shorter inter-node than mother plant and lance-shaped leaves. All morphological characters and colour of flower of the mutant are not significantly different from mother plant. It is shown that the mutant differs from it's mother plant in leaf microstructure and on biochemistry level

  20. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of capulin (Prunus serotina subsp capuli) extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez, M.; Castillo, I.; Azuara, E.; Beristain, C.I.

    2011-01-01

    Capulin (Prunus serotina subsp. capuli) is an annual fruit widely used in Mexico for the elaboration of several traditional products, such as medicinal tea, which is considered to present antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of aqueous, acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts. The ethanol extract presented a high anthocyanin (102±7.70 mg Cyd-3-glu/100 g extract) and polyphenol (1732±43.40 mg GAE /100 g extra...

  1. Propagation of the endangered Azorean cherry Prunus azorica using stem cuttings and air layering

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Orlanda; Martins, José; Silva, Luís; Moura, Mónica

    2009-01-01

    Prunus azorica (Hort. ex Mouillef.) Rivas Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Dias, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar is an endangered tree endemic to the Azores, with an ecological and ornamental interest. The objective of this study was to determine the conditions necessary for the successful propagation of P. azorica by stem cuttings and air-layering. Stem cuttings collected in March with two apical leaf pairs pruned to 1/3 of their leaf area were submitted to different treatments, including a basal split...

  2. Risico voor fruitbomen en inheemse bomen na bestrijding van Amerikaanse vogelkers (Prunus serotina) met loodglansschimmel (Chondrostereum purpureum) = [Risk to fruit trees and native trees due to control of black cherry (Prunus serotina) by silverleaf fungus (Chondrostereum purpureum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The shrub Prunus serotina , introduced from North America, became a forest pest in the Netherlands. Biological control was considered using the fungus Chondrostereum purpureum , commonly present as a saprophyte and parasite in wood. C. purpureum can cause

  3. Replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils improves the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qingyuan; Mai, Kangsen; Shentu, Jikang; Ai, Qinghui; Zhong, Huiying; Jiang, Yujian; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxiao; Guo, Sitong

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5% fish meal and 6.4% menhaden fish oil; whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50% soybean oil (SO50), 100% soybean oil (SO100) and 100% palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent satiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 ( P0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and water loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4°C) ( Preplacement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.

  4. Gender-sensitive Value Chain Intervention Improved Profit Efficiency among Orange-fleshed Sweetpotato Producers in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocher Temesgen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Rwanda Super Foods project sought to develop a value chain for processed orange-fleshed sweetpotato products to respond to farmer concerns over lack of markets. This study used data collected from five districts in rural Rwanda under supper food project between August and September 2014. The study applied a stochastic profit frontier model to data collected from 846 households growing sweetpotato, among which 327 were value chain participants; 312 were “spillover” households that received planting material from participant households, and the remainder control households with no project links. Results showed that average level of profit efficiency in sweetpotato production systems is 55%; suggesting that an estimated 45% of profit is lost due to the combined effect of technical, allocative and scale inefficiency. The profit efficiency of participant households was 64% compared to 20% of the control households. Moreover, the profit efficiency of the female beneficiary, female spillover, and male beneficiary households was found to be 55%, 70%, and 90% against 17% for male control households, respectively. Findings suggest that an orange-fleshed sweetpotato based value chain intervention can enhance the profit efficiency of the poor and disadvantageous households, if designed with special attention to women’s needs. Thus, polices and programs aiming at improving the livelihood of smallholder should be designed targeting women and resource poor.

  5. Carotenoids and β-carotene in orange fleshed sweet potato: A possible solution to vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Sheikh Nazrul; Nusrat, Tania; Begum, Parveen; Ahsan, Monira

    2016-05-15

    The present study, in line with a plant-food-based approach to address vitamin A deficiency, reports the analysis of total carotenoids, and trans- and cis-β-carotenes, in different varieties of raw and boiled orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSP). Carotenoids were isolated using acetone-petroleum ether extraction followed by spectrophotometric determination. trans- and cis-β-Carotenes were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC method using a mobile phase containing acetonitrile:methanol:2-propanol in the ratio of 85:15:33 with 0.01% ammonium acetate. Intra-varietal difference in carotenoids as well as trans- and cis-β-carotenes were noted in both the raw and boiled potatoes. Carotenoid content was found to be higher in the raw potatoes compared to the boiled samples from the same variety. Amongst the OFSP varieties, Kamalasundari (BARI SP-2) was found to contain the most carotenoids in both the raw and boiled samples. β-Carotene was significantly higher in the Kamalsundari and BARI SP-5 varieties. trans-β-Carotene was found to be the major carotenoid in all of the raw potatoes, but boiling was associated with an increase in cis-β-carotene and a decrease in the trans isomer. Kamalsundari and BARI SP-5 orange-fleshed sweet potatoes have the potential to be used as food-based supplements to reduce vitamin A deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of olive oil obtained from whole fruit and fruit flesh of cultivar: Kaissy grown in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz AL-BACHIR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO from whole fruits and fruit flesh of Kaissy olive (Olea europaea cultivar was investigated in this study. Acid value (AV, peroxide value (PV, iodine value (IV, specification number (SV, Thiobarbituric acid (TBA value, phenol content, refractive index (RI and viscosity were measured after 0, 6 and 12 months of storage. The physicochemical properties of oil extracted from whole fruit and fruit flesh samples of olive were: AV (0.32 and 0.40%, PV (4.79 and 6.13%, TBA (0.056 and 0.052 mg MDA kg-1 oil, IV (84.41 and 83.87 g-1 oil, SV (195.48 and 187.56 mg KOH g-1 oil, total phenolic (339.52 and 226.68 mg gallic acid kg-1 oil, RI (1.4669 and 1.4668 and viscosity (129.33 and 130.00 mPa s-1 respectively. The results demonstrated that the AV, PV, RI and viscosity values significantly (p<0.05 increased, while TBA value and total phenolic content significantly (p<0.05 decreased during storage.

  7. Chlorogenic acid, anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol biosynthesis in flesh and skin of Andean potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiñas, Matías Ariel; Lanteri, María Luciana; Ten Have, Arjen; Andreu, Adriana Balbina

    2017-08-15

    Natural variation of Andean potato was used to study the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. Levels of phenolic compounds and corresponding structural gene transcripts were examined in flesh and skin of tubers. Phenolic acids, mainly chlorogenic acid (CGA), represent the major compounds, followed by anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols. High-anthocyanin varieties have high levels of CGA. Both metabolite and transcript levels were higher in skin than in flesh and showed a good correspondence. Two hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA transferases (HCT/HQT) have been involved in CGA production, of which HCT reflects CGA levels. Catechin was found in pigmented tissues whereas epicatechin was restricted to tuber skin. Transcripts of leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LCR), which generates catechin, could not be detected. Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) transcripts, the enzyme responsible for epicatechin production, showed similar levels among samples. These data suggest that the biosynthesis of flavan-3-ols in potato tuber would require ANR but not LCR and that an epimerization process is involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pós-colheita de pêssegos (Prunus pérsica L. Bastsch revestidos com filmes a base de amido como alternativa à cera comercial Postharvest of peaches (Prunus persica L. Bastsch covered with film-forming of cassava starch as alternative to the commercial wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alvares de Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou prolongar a conservação póscolheita de pêssegos, armazenando-os à temperatura ambiente. Inicialmente selecionou-se uma microemulsão à base de fécula de mandioca e cera de abelha. Posteriormente ela foi testada, aplicando-a na superfície dos frutos em comparação com "Fruit wax" (cera comercial, com o intuito de se verificar o efeito dos diferentes tratamentos na composição química, física e físico-química dos mesmos. Utilizaram-se pêssegos 'Biuti' colhidos manualmente em 14/01/1999, ao atingirem o ponto de maturação fisiológica. Do lote colhido foram selecionados 120 frutos sendo os mesmos analisados quanto a perda de massa fresca, taxa respiratória, textura, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável e pH, a cada 3 dias. Os frutos receberam os tratamentos: Testemunha, "Fruit Wax", Fécula e Microemulsão. Os tratamentos "Fruit Wax" e "Microemulsão" proporcionaram melhor eficiência em relação à perda de massa fresca que os frutos dos tratamentos Testemunha e Fécula. Quanto à taxa de respiração, verificou-se picos da ordem de 40mg de CO2.kg-1.h-1 . Quanto aos açúcares, verificou-se que a sacarose foi o açúcar encontrado em maior quantidade, com apenas traços de glicose e frutose em algumas amostras. Quanto aos teores de sólidos solúveis totais, os frutos tratados com "Fruit Wax" apresentaram valores inferiores aos do tratamento Testemunha. O efeito da Microemulsão mostrou-se similar ao da cera "Fruit Wax" em todos os atributos e, superior ao dos tratamentos Testemunha e Fécula na redução da perda de massa fresca.The main objective of this work was to prolong the shelf life of peaches at ambient conditions. Initially, the studies were to get a film forming of cassava starch and bee wax with similar properties of commercial waxes. The second pass was apply in the surface of the fruits, commercial wax (" Fruit wax" or film-forming of cassava starch and bee wax. The peaches of the variety 'Biuti' were picked in 14/01/1999 and 120 uniform fruits were scratched. The analyses were of loss of fresh mass, respiration, texture, total soluble solids (TSS, total acidity, and pH tested every 3 days during 12 days. At first, fruits were put into 0.3g/l of "Benomyl" in hot water (52ºC during 2 minutes. Four treatments were made: Control, Fruit Wax, Film-forming of Cassava Starch and Film forming of Cassava Starch and Bee Wax. The fruits treated Fruit Wax and Film forming of Cassava Starch and Bee Wax showed improved efficiency in relation to loss of fresh mass to the Control and Film forming of Cassava Starch treatments. The respiration was measured to be in the order of 40mg de CO2.kg-1.h-1. Sugar profile verified that sucrose is a sugar found in larger quantities, and verified traces of glucose and fructose in some samples. Equally to total soluble solids, the Fruit Wax treatment decreased the values of sucrose compared with the Control. The use of Film forming of Cassava Starch and Bee Wax was better than the expectations, being very similar to the Fruit Wax treatment in all attributes. It was also superior to Control and Film forming of Cassava Starch with respect to loss of fresh mass.

  9. Novel Rosaceae plant elicitor peptides as sustainable tools to control Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in Prunus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Cristina; Nadal, Anna; Montesinos, Emilio; Pla, Maria

    2018-02-01

    Fruit crops are regarded as important health promoters and constitute a major part of global agricultural production, and Rosaceae species are of high economic impact. Their culture is threatened by bacterial diseases, whose control is based on preventative treatments using compounds of limited efficacy and negative environmental impact. One of the most economically relevant examples is the pathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xap) affecting Prunus spp. The plant immune response against pathogens can be triggered and amplified by plant elicitor peptides (Peps), perceived by specific receptors (PEPRs). Although they have been described in various angiosperms, scarce information is available on Rosaceae species. Here, we identified the Pep precursor (PROPEP), Pep and PEPR orthologues of 10 Rosaceae species and confirmed the presence of the Pep/PEPR system in this family. We showed the perception and elicitor activity of Rosaceae Peps using the Prunus-Xap pathosystem as proof-of-concept. Treatment with nanomolar doses of Peps induced the corresponding PROPEP and a set of defence-related genes in Prunus leaves, and enhanced resistance against Xap. Peps from the same species had the highest efficiencies. Rosaceae Peps could potentially be used to develop natural, targeted and environmentally friendly strategies to enhance the resistance of Prunus species against biotic attackers. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  10. Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z.; Keshavarz Afshar, R.; Hashemi, M.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing,

  11. A fissitunicate ascus mechanism in the Calosphaeriaceae, and novel species of Jattaea and Calosphaeria on Prunus wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    During a survey of Prunus wood from South Africa, isolations were made of three presumably Calosphaerialean fungi that formed hyphomycetous, phialidic anamorphs in culture. In order to reveal the phylogenetic relationship of these fungi, they were characterised on a morphological and molecular (LSU

  12. Leaf age affects the responses of foliar injury and gas exchange to tropospheric ozone in Prunus serotina seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianwei Zhang; Marcus Schaub; Jonathan A. Ferdinand; John M. Skelly; Kim C. Steiner; James E. Savage

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of leaf age on the response of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gwv), foliar injury, and leaf nitrogen concentration (NL) to tropospheric ozone (O3) on Prunus serotina seedlings grown in open-plots (AA) and open-top...

  13. Radiation induced cerebellum impairments in Swiss albino mice and its modulation by dietary Prunus domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Garima; Sisodia, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    To study the biochemical, quantitative histopathological and behavioural changes after 5 Gy whole body irradiation and its modulation by supplementation of Prunus domestica extract (PDE) for 15 consecutive days on male Swiss albino. For this study healthy mice from an inbred colony were divided into five groups: (i) Control; (ii) PDE treated - mice in this group were orally supplemented with PDE (400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) once daily for 15 consecutive days; (iii) Irradiated-mice were whole body exposed to 5 Gy irradiated; (iv) PDE + irradiated-mice in this group were orally supplemented PDE for 15 days (once a day) prior to irradiation; and (v) irradiated+PDE -mice in this group were administered PDE orally for 15 days (once a day) consequently after irradiation. Marked radiation induced changes in the amount of cerebellar lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH), protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and histopathological changes (molecular layer, granular layer and purkinje cell numbers) could be significantly ameliorated supplementation of PDE prior/post irradiation. Radiation induced deficits in learning and memory were also significantly ameliorated. PDE was found to have strong radical scavenging activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and also showed in vitro radioprotective activity. The result of present study showed that prior/post-supplementation of Prunus domestica has radioprotective potential as well as neuroprotective properties against the radiation. (author)

  14. Engineering cherry rootstocks with resistance to Prunus necrotic ring spot virus through RNAi-mediated silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-qing; Sink, Kenneth C; Walworth, Aaron E; Cook, Meridith A; Allison, Richard F; Lang, Gregory A

    2013-08-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is a major pollen-disseminated ilarvirus that adversely affects many Prunus species. In this study, an RNA interference (RNAi) vector pART27-PNRSV containing an inverted repeat (IR) region of PNRSV was transformed into two hybrid (triploid) cherry rootstocks, 'Gisela 6' (GI 148-1) and 'Gisela 7'(GI 148-8)', which are tolerant and sensitive, respectively, to PNRSV infection. One year after inoculation with PNRSV plus Prune Dwarf Virus, nontransgenic 'Gisela 6' exhibited no symptoms but a significant PNRSV titre, while the transgenic 'Gisela 6' had no symptoms and minimal PNRSV titre. The nontransgenic 'Gisela 7' trees died, while the transgenic 'Gisela 7' trees survived. These results demonstrate the RNAi strategy is useful for developing viral resistance in fruit rootstocks, and such transgenic rootstocks may have potential to enhance production of standard, nongenetically modified fruit varieties while avoiding concerns about transgene flow and exogenous protein production that are inherent for transformed fruiting genotypes. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Tests for Transmission of Prunus Necrotic Ringspot and Two Nepoviruses by Criconemella xenoplax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W Q; Barnett, O W; Westcott, S W; Scott, S W

    1990-10-01

    In two of three trials, detectable color reactions in ELISA for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were observed for Criconemella xenoplax handpicked from the root zone of infected peach trees. Criconemella xenoplax (500/pot) handpicked from root zones of peach trees infected with PNRSV failed to transmit the virus to cucumber or peach seedlings. The nematode also failed to transmit tomato ringspot (TomRSV) or tobacco ringspot viruses between cucumbers, although Xiphinema americanum transmitted TomRSV under the same conditions. Plants of peach, cucumber, Chenopodium quinoa, and Catharanthus roseus were not infected by PNRSV when grown in soil containing C. xenoplax collected from root zones of PNRSV-infected trees. Shirofugen cherry scions budded on Mazzard cherry seedling rootstocks remained symptomless when transplanted into root zones of PNRSV-infected trees. Virus transmission was not detected by ELISA when C. xenoplax individuals were observed to feed on cucumber root explants that were infected with PNRSV and subsequently fed on roots of Prunus besseyi in agar cultures. Even if virus transmission by C. xenoplax occurs via contamination rather than by a specific mechanism, it must be rare.

  16. Brown Rot Strikes Prunus Fruit: An Ancient Fight Almost Always Lost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Lino, Leandro; Pacheco, Igor; Mercier, Vincent; Faoro, Franco; Bassi, Daniele; Bornard, Isabelle; Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte

    2016-05-25

    Brown rot (BR) caused by Monilinia spp., has been an economic problem for the stone fruit market due to dramatic losses, mainly during the postharvest period. There is much literature about basic aspects of Monilinia spp. infection, which indicates that environment significantly influences its occurrence in the orchard. However, progress is needed to sustainably limit this disease: the pathogen is able to develop resistance to pesticides, and most of BR resistance research programs in plant models perish. Solving this problem becomes important due to the need to decrease chemical treatments and reduce residues on fruit. Thus, research has recently increased, exploring a wide range of disease control strategies (e.g., genetic, chemical, physical). Summarizing this information is difficult, as studies evaluate different Monilinia and Prunus model species, with diverse strategies and protocols. Thus, the purpose of this review is to present the diversity and distribution of agents causing BR, focusing on the biochemical mechanisms of Monilinia spp. infection both of the fungi and of the fruit, and report on the resistance sources in Prunus germplasm. This review comprehensively compiles the information currently available to better understand mechanisms related to BR resistance.

  17. Transmission of Turnip yellows virus by Myzus persicae Is Reduced by Feeding Aphids on Double-Stranded RNA Targeting the Ephrin Receptor Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Mulot

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aphid-transmitted plant viruses are a threat for major crops causing massive economic loss worldwide. Members in the Luteoviridae family are transmitted by aphids in a circulative and non-replicative mode. Virions are acquired by aphids when ingesting sap from infected plants and are transported through the gut and the accessory salivary gland (ASG cells by a transcytosis mechanism relying on virus-specific receptors largely unknown. Once released into the salivary canal, virions are inoculated to plants, together with saliva, during a subsequent feeding. In this paper, we bring in vivo evidence that the membrane-bound Ephrin receptor (Eph is a novel aphid protein involved in the transmission of the Turnip yellows virus (TuYV, Polerovirus genus, Luteoviridae family by Myzus persicae. The minor capsid protein of TuYV, essential for aphid transmission, was able to bind the external domain of Eph in yeast. Feeding M. persicae on in planta- or in vitro-synthesized dsRNA targeting Eph-mRNA (dsRNAEph did not affect aphid feeding behavior but reduced accumulation of TuYV genomes in the aphid's body. Consequently, TuYV transmission efficiency by the dsRNAEph-treated aphids was reproducibly inhibited and we brought evidence that Eph is likely involved in intestinal uptake of the virion. The inhibition of virus uptake after dsRNAEph acquisition was also observed for two other poleroviruses transmitted by M. persicae, suggesting a broader role of Eph in polerovirus transmission. Finally, dsRNAEph acquisition by aphids did not affect nymph production. These results pave the way toward an ecologically safe alternative of insecticide treatments that are used to lower aphid populations and reduce polerovirus damages.

  18. Transmission of Turnip yellows virus by Myzus persicae Is Reduced by Feeding Aphids on Double-Stranded RNA Targeting the Ephrin Receptor Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulot, Michaël; Monsion, Baptiste; Boissinot, Sylvaine; Rastegar, Maryam; Meyer, Sophie; Bochet, Nicole; Brault, Véronique

    2018-01-01

    Aphid-transmitted plant viruses are a threat for major crops causing massive economic loss worldwide. Members in the Luteoviridae family are transmitted by aphids in a circulative and non-replicative mode. Virions are acquired by aphids when ingesting sap from infected plants and are transported through the gut and the accessory salivary gland (ASG) cells by a transcytosis mechanism relying on virus-specific receptors largely unknown. Once released into the salivary canal, virions are inoculated to plants, together with saliva, during a subsequent feeding. In this paper, we bring in vivo evidence that the membrane-bound Ephrin receptor (Eph) is a novel aphid protein involved in the transmission of the Turnip yellows virus (TuYV, Polerovirus genus, Luteoviridae family) by Myzus persicae . The minor capsid protein of TuYV, essential for aphid transmission, was able to bind the external domain of Eph in yeast. Feeding M. persicae on in planta - or in vitro -synthesized dsRNA targeting Eph -mRNA (dsRNA Eph ) did not affect aphid feeding behavior but reduced accumulation of TuYV genomes in the aphid's body. Consequently, TuYV transmission efficiency by the dsRNA Eph -treated aphids was reproducibly inhibited and we brought evidence that Eph is likely involved in intestinal uptake of the virion. The inhibition of virus uptake after dsRNA Eph acquisition was also observed for two other poleroviruses transmitted by M. persicae , suggesting a broader role of Eph in polerovirus transmission. Finally, dsRNA Eph acquisition by aphids did not affect nymph production. These results pave the way toward an ecologically safe alternative of insecticide treatments that are used to lower aphid populations and reduce polerovirus damages.

  19. Wet fractionation of the succulent halophyte Salicornia sinus-persica, with the aim of low input (water saving) biorefining into bioethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alassali, Ayah; Cybulska, Iwona; Galvan, Alejandro Ríos

    2017-01-01

    -persica was collected and split into two fractions by wet fractionation; liquid (juice) and solid (pulp). Sugar contents were found to be 1.0–1.5% for the juice fraction and 50% (w/w) for the fresh pulp. Direct fermentation of the juice using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed no salt inhibition of the yeast and ethanol...... yields of ~70% were achieved. A pretreatment study was carried out for the pulp fraction applying mild hydrothermal pretreatment. Cellulose convertibility was found to be significantly higher for severity factors above 2.00, and the highest ethanol yield (76.91 ± 3.03%) was found at process severity of 3...

  20. Evaluación de extractos cetónicos de paraíso, eucalipto y ricino sobre Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carrizo, Paola; Pelicano, Alicia; Caffarini, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    En el cultivo de pimiento, Myzus persicae es una plaga cuyo manejo se basa en el uso de agroquímicos de síntesis. Una alternativa de menor impacto ambiental para su control es la aplicación de extractos naturales. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de extractos provenientes de Melia azedarach, Eucalyptus globulus y Ricinus communis sobre este pulgón. Se escogió la técnica del film residual en papel de filtro, manteniendo los individuos sobre hojas de pimiento ornamental. Se uti...

  1. Development and cross-species/genera transferability of microsatellite markers discovered using 454 genome sequencing in chokecherry (Prunus virginiana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxia; Walla, James A; Zhong, Shaobin; Huang, Danqiong; Dai, Wenhao

    2012-11-01

    Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana L.) (2n = 4x = 32) is a unique Prunus species for both genetics and disease-resistance research due to its tetraploid nature and X-disease resistance. However, no genetic and genomic information on chokecherry is available. A partial chokecherry genome was sequenced using Roche 454 sequencing technology. A total of 145,094 reads covering 4.8 Mbp of the chokecherry genome were generated and 15,113 contigs were assembled, of which 11,675 contigs were larger than 100 bp in size. A total of 481 SSR loci were identified from 234 (out of 11,675) contigs and 246 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer pairs were designed. Of 246 primers, 212 (86.2 %) effectively produced amplification from the genomic DNA of chokecherry. All 212 amplifiable chokecherry primers were used to amplify genomic DNA from 11 other rosaceous species (sour cherry, sweet cherry, black cherry, peach, apricot, plum, apple, crabapple, pear, juneberry, and raspberry). Thus, chokecherry SSR primers can be transferable across Prunus species and other rosaceous species. An average of 63.2 and 58.7 % of amplifiable chokecherry primers amplified DNA from cherry and other Prunus species, respectively, while 47.2 % of amplifiable chokecherry primers amplified DNA from other rosaceous species. Using random genome sequence data generated from next-generation sequencing technology to identify microsatellite loci appears to be rapid and cost-efficient, particularly for species with no sequence information available. Sequence information and confirmed transferability of the identified chokecherry SSRs among species will be valuable for genetic research in Prunus and other rosaceous species. Key message A total of 246 SSR primers were identified from chokecherry genome sequences. Of which, 212 were confirmed amplifiable both in chokecherry and other 11 other rosaceous species.

  2. Direct and indirect impacts of infestation of tomato plant by Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae on Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ling Tan

    Full Text Available The impacts of infestation by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae on sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci settling on tomato were determined in seven separate experiments with whole plants and with detached leaves through manipulation of four factors: durations of aphid infestation, density of aphids, intervals between aphid removal after different durations of infestation and the time of whitefly release, and leaf positions on the plants. The results demonstrated that B. tabaci preferred to settle on the plant leaves that had not been infested by aphids when they had a choice. The plant leaves on which aphids were still present (direct effect had fewer whiteflies than those previously infested by aphids (indirect effect. The whiteflies were able to settle on the plant which aphids had previously infested, and also could settle on leaves with aphids if no uninfested plants were available. Tests of direct factors revealed that duration of aphid infestation had a stronger effect on whitefly landing preference than aphid density; whitefly preference was the least when 20 aphids fed on the leaves for 72 h. Tests of indirect effects revealed that the major factor that affected whitefly preference for a host plant was the interval between the time of aphid removal after infestation and the time of whitefly release. The importance of the four factors that affected the induced plant defense against whiteflies can be arranged in the following order: time intervals between aphid removal and whitefly release > durations of aphid infestation > density of aphids > leaf positions on the plants. In conclusion, the density of aphid infestation and time for which they were feeding influenced the production of induced compounds by tomatoes, the whitefly responses to the plants, and reduced interspecific competition.

  3. Effects of heat, pH, antioxidant, agitation and light on betacyanin stability using red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate as models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yen-Ming; Siow, Lee-Fong

    2015-05-01

    Red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is rich in antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of heat pasteurization, pH adjustment, ascorbic acid addition as well as storage under agitation and light or dark condition on betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate. The concentrate was produced by concentrating clarified red-fleshed dragon fruit juice in a rotary evaporator at 40 °C. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used for analyzing betacyanin content. Addition of 0.25 % ascorbic acid, pH 4.0, and pasteurization at 65 °C for 30 min were selected as the best processing conditions to retain betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit juice. Storage at the agitation speed of 220 rpm showed that the concentrated samples had higher betacyanin stability compared to juice, while both juice and concentrate had almost similar betacyanin stability when tested for storage in the presence of light. In summary, ascorbic acid stabilized betacyanin in both juice and concentrate at agitated or non-agitated conditions. In contrast, light degraded betacyanin in both juice and concentrate models.

  4. Effect of solvent type and ratio on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of extracts from Hylocereus polyrhizus flesh and peel by supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathordoobady, Farahnaz; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Selamat, Jinap; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abd

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of solvent type and ratio as well as the extraction techniques (i.e. supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and conventional solvent extraction) on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of the peel and fresh extract from the red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus). The peel and flesh extracts obtained by SFE at 25MPa pressure and 10% EtOH/water (v/v) mixture as a co-solvent contained 24.58 and 91.27mg/100ml total betacyanin, respectively; while the most desirable solvent extraction process resulted in a relatively higher total betacyanin in the peel and flesh extracts (28.44 and 120.28mg/100ml, respectively). The major betacyanins identified in the pitaya peel and flesh extracts were betanin, isobetanin, phyllocactin, butyrylbetanin, isophyllocactin and iso-butyrylbetanin. The flesh extract had the stronger antioxidant activity than the peel extract when the higher proportion of ethanol to water (E/W) was applied for the extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The addition of pineapple flesh and pineapple peels extracts to increase the quality of used cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumawardani, R.; Hasanah, N.; Sukemi

    2018-04-01

    In Indonesia, reuse of cooking oil is high and common. Heating process and reuse of the cooking oil causes a change in its chemical constituents and decrease its qualities. This research aimed to investigate the addition of pineapple flesh extract (PFE) and pineapple peel extract (PPE) on the increment of the quality of oxidized (used) cooking oil. The cooking oil has been used three times. Treatment was done by mixing the used cooking oil with the extract (2:1) at 50°C. Peroxide value, FFA and iodine number of treated and untreated used cooking oils were measured by using titration method. The result showed that the treatment could increase the quality of the used cooking oils. PPE was better than PFE to increase the quality of the used cooking oil.

  6. Historical changes of the anthropogenic impact in a coastal lagoon: Pb isotopes and trace elements on mussel's fleshes and shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labonne, M.; Othman, D.B.; Luck, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Molluscs are known to concentrate metals and are used as bioindicators in many programs of coastal survey. The aims of this study were: (1) to better understand the spatial and temporal variations of metals in a greatly anthropized lagoon (Thau, S France) by using concentrations and Pb isotopes in mussel flesh; (2) to compare present and past environment and the different sources of local Pb in recent mussel shells and ones from the Roman empire. Young mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the sea were introduced at various locations in the lagoon. The ancient shells came from a Roman villa on the lagoon coast. We compare their isotopic compositions to different sources present on the watershed such as rocks, road, harbour, ancient lead castings or Spanish and English ingots. Concentrations of trace metals were determined directly by ICP-MS after proper dilution and the isotopic compositions was determined on a VG Sector mass spectrometer. The Pb concentration variations are difficult to separate from weight variations so we use isotopic compositions for determination of lead sources. The Pb isotopic composition of the flesh define nice alignments in 207 Pb/ 204 Pb vs 206 Pb/ 204 Pb diagram with season, which can be explained by two-component mixtures. However, while one end-member remains quite stable and influenced by road network, the other one shifts to more radiogenic values indicating either a variable origin, or varying proportions of a third component. The ancient shells have more radiogenic isotopes than the current shells but shift towards ancient lead castings and ingots signature. Variations of Pb ratios in the ancient shells can be roughly correlated with age and the evolution of population density around the lagoon over the centuries

  7. Direct Determination of Six Cytokinin Nucleotide Monophosphates in Coconut Flesh by Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhao-Yun; Ma, You-Ning; Sun, Li-Hua; Mou, Ren-Xiang; Zhu, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Ming-Xue

    2017-11-15

    Coconut contains many uncharacterized cytokinins that have important physiological effects in plants and humans. In this work, a method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for identification and quantification of six cytokinin nucleotide monophosphates in coconut flesh. Excellent separation was achieved using a low-coverage C18 bonded-phase column with an acidic mobile phase, which greatly improved the retention of target compounds. To enable high-throughput analysis, a single-step solid-phase extraction using mixed-mode anion-exchange cartridges was employed for sample preparation. This proved to be an effective method to minimize matrix effects and ensure high selectivity. The limits of detection varied from 0.06 to 0.3 ng/mL, and the limits of quantification ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 ng/mL. The linearity was statistically verified over 2 orders of magnitude, giving a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) greater than 0.9981. The mean recoveries were from 81 to 108%; the intraday precision (n = 6) was less than 11%; and the interday precision (n = 11) was within 14%. The developed method was applied to the determination of cytokinin nucleotide monophosphates in coconut flesh samples, and four of them were successfully identified and quantified. The results showed that trans-zeatin riboside-5'-monophosphate was the dominant cytokinin, with a concentration of 2.7-34.2 ng/g, followed by N 6 -isopentenyladenosine-5'-monophosphate (≤12.9 ng/g), while the concentrations of cis-zeatin riboside-5'-monophosphate and dihydrozeatin riboside-5'-monophosphate were less than 2.2 and 4.9 ng/g, respectively.

  8. Effects of Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoera batatas Cultivar Ayamurasaki) Powder Addition on Color and Texture Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Kim, Yeong-Jung; Park, Jae Hong; Hur, In-Chul; Nam, Sang-Hae; Shin, Daekeun

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFP) powder on the texture properties and sensory characteristics of cooked pork sausage. Sodium nitrite alone and sodium nitrite in combination with PFP were added to five different treatments sausages (CON (control) = 0.01% sodium nitrite, SP25 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, SP50 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, PP25 = 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder, PP50 = 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder). The sausages were cooked to 74°C, stored at 4°C for 6 wks, and used for chemical analysis, textural properties, and a sensory evaluation on 0, 2, 4 and 6 wks of storage, respectively. Similar CIE a* and b* values were determined in sausages from CON, SP25 and SP50 at the end of storage, and they were higher in CIE a* but lower in CIE b* than that of the PP25 and PP50 sausages. Significant differences were observed for brittleness and hardness when PFP was added to the sausages but were not confirmed after 4 wks of storage. The objective color score was influenced by adding PFP; however, the effect was not dose dependent. In overall acceptability, panelists favored the CON, SP25, SP50, and PP50 sausages but did not prefer PP25 sausages at the end of storage. Therefore, adding PFP to cooked pork sausages improved color and texture properties and sensory characteristics, but further study is needed to determine the proper ratio of sodium nitrite and PFP. PMID:25049698

  9. Generic Amplicon Deep Sequencing to Determine Ilarvirus Species Diversity in Australian Prunus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoti, Wycliff M; Constable, Fiona E; Nancarrow, Narelle; Plummer, Kim M; Rodoni, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of Ilarvirus species populations amongst 61 Australian Prunus trees was determined by next generation sequencing (NGS) of amplicons generated using a genus-based generic RT-PCR targeting a conserved region of the Ilarvirus RNA2 component that encodes the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene. Presence of Ilarvirus sequences in each positive sample was further validated by Sanger sequencing of cloned amplicons of regions of each of RNA1, RNA2 and/or RNA3 that were generated by species specific PCRs and by metagenomic NGS. Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) was the most frequently detected Ilarvirus , occurring in 48 of the 61 Ilarvirus -positive trees and Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) were detected in three trees and one tree, respectively. American plum line pattern virus (APLPV) was detected in three trees and represents the first report of APLPV detection in Australia. Two novel and distinct groups of Ilarvirus -like RNA2 amplicon sequences were also identified in several trees by the generic amplicon NGS approach. The high read depth from the amplicon NGS of the generic PCR products allowed the detection of distinct RNA2 RdRp sequence variant populations of PNRSV, PDV, ApMV, APLPV and the two novel Ilarvirus -like sequences. Mixed infections of ilarviruses were also detected in seven Prunus trees. Sanger sequencing of specific RNA1, RNA2, and/or RNA3 genome segments of each virus and total nucleic acid metagenomics NGS confirmed the presence of PNRSV, PDV, ApMV and APLPV detected by RNA2 generic amplicon NGS. However, the two novel groups of Ilarvirus -like RNA2 amplicon sequences detected by the generic amplicon NGS could not be associated to the presence of sequence from RNA1 or RNA3 genome segments or full Ilarvirus genomes, and their origin is unclear. This work highlights the sensitivity of genus-specific amplicon NGS in detection of virus sequences and their distinct populations in multiple samples, and the

  10. Generic Amplicon Deep Sequencing to Determine Ilarvirus Species Diversity in Australian Prunus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wycliff M. Kinoti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of Ilarvirus species populations amongst 61 Australian Prunus trees was determined by next generation sequencing (NGS of amplicons generated using a genus-based generic RT-PCR targeting a conserved region of the Ilarvirus RNA2 component that encodes the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp gene. Presence of Ilarvirus sequences in each positive sample was further validated by Sanger sequencing of cloned amplicons of regions of each of RNA1, RNA2 and/or RNA3 that were generated by species specific PCRs and by metagenomic NGS. Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV was the most frequently detected Ilarvirus, occurring in 48 of the 61 Ilarvirus-positive trees and Prune dwarf virus (PDV and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV were detected in three trees and one tree, respectively. American plum line pattern virus (APLPV was detected in three trees and represents the first report of APLPV detection in Australia. Two novel and distinct groups of Ilarvirus-like RNA2 amplicon sequences were also identified in several trees by the generic amplicon NGS approach. The high read depth from the amplicon NGS of the generic PCR products allowed the detection of distinct RNA2 RdRp sequence variant populations of PNRSV, PDV, ApMV, APLPV and the two novel Ilarvirus-like sequences. Mixed infections of ilarviruses were also detected in seven Prunus trees. Sanger sequencing of specific RNA1, RNA2, and/or RNA3 genome segments of each virus and total nucleic acid metagenomics NGS confirmed the presence of PNRSV, PDV, ApMV and APLPV detected by RNA2 generic amplicon NGS. However, the two novel groups of Ilarvirus-like RNA2 amplicon sequences detected by the generic amplicon NGS could not be associated to the presence of sequence from RNA1 or RNA3 genome segments or full Ilarvirus genomes, and their origin is unclear. This work highlights the sensitivity of genus-specific amplicon NGS in detection of virus sequences and their distinct populations in multiple samples

  11. Changes in the free amino acid composition of Capsicum annuum (pepper) leaves in response to Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) infestation. A comparison with water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio-Ortiz, Victoria; Sellés-Marchart, Susana; Zubcoff-Vallejo, José; Jander, Georg; Casas, José L

    2018-01-01

    Amino acids play a central role in aphid-plant interactions. They are essential components of plant primary metabolism, function as precursors for the synthesis of defense-related specialized metabolites, and are major growth-limiting nutrients for aphids. To quantify changes in the free amino acid content of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) leaves in response to green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) feeding, plants were infested with a low (20 aphids/plant) or a high (200 aphids/plant) aphid density in time-course experiments ranging from 3 hours to 7 days. A parallel experiment was conducted with pepper plants that had been subjected to water stress. Factor Analysis of Mixed Data revealed a significant interaction of time x density in the free amino acid response of aphid-infested leaves. At low aphid density, M. persicae did not trigger a strong response in pepper leaves. Conversely, at high density, a large increase in total free amino acid content was observed and specific amino acids peaked at different times post-infestation. Comparing aphid-infested with water-stressed plants, most of the observed differences were quantitative. In particular, proline and hydroxyproline accumulated dramatically in response to water stress, but not in response to aphid infestation. Some additional differences and commonalities between the two stress treatments are discussed.

  12. Constitutive activation of jasmonate signaling in an Arabidopsis mutant correlates with enhanced resistance to Erysiphe cichoracearum, Pseudomonas syringae, and Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Christine; Karafyllidis, Ioannis; Turner, John G

    2002-10-01

    In Arabidopsis spp., the jasmonate (JA) response pathway generally is required for defenses against necrotrophic pathogens and chewing insects, while the salicylic acid (SA) response pathway is generally required for specific, resistance (R) gene-mediated defenses against both biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. For example, SA-dependent defenses are required for resistance to the biotrophic fungal pathogen Erysiphe cichoracearum UCSC1 and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola, and also are expressed during response to the green peach aphid Myzus persicae. However, recent evidence indicates that the expression of JA-dependent defenses also may confer resistance to E. cichoracearum. To confirm and to extend this observation, we have compared the disease and pest resistance of wild-type Arabidopsis plants with that of the mutants coil, which is insensitive to JA, and cev1, which has constitutive JA signaling. Measurements of the colonization of these plants by E. cichoracearum, P. syringae pv. maculicola, and M. persicae indicated that activation of the JA signal pathway enhanced resistance, and was associated with the activation of JA-dependent defense genes and the suppression of SA-dependent defense genes. We conclude that JA and SA induce alternative defense pathways that can confer resistance to the same pathogens and pests.

  13. Rack-1, GAPDH3, and actin: proteins of Myzus persicae potentially involved in the transcytosis of beet western yellows virus particles in the aphid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddas, Pascale; Boissinot, Sylvaine; Strub, Jean-Marc; Dorsselaer, Alain van; Regenmortel, Marc H.V. van; Pattus, Franc

    2004-01-01

    Beet western yellows virus (BWYV) is a Polerovirus that relies on the aphid Myzus persicae for its transmission, in a persistent-circulative mode. To be transmitted, the virus must cross the midgut and the accessory salivary glands (ASG) epithelial barriers in a transcytosis mechanism where vector receptors interact with virions. In this paper, we report in vitro interaction experiments between BWYV and aphid components. Using the M. persicae clone from Colmar, we showed that a set of aphid polypeptides, separated by SDS-PAGE or 2D electrophoresis (2DE), can bind in vitro to purified wild type or mutant particles. Using subcellular fractionation, we showed that the 65-kDa polypeptide identified as symbionin is a soluble protein whereas the other polypeptides seem to be associated more or less strongly to the membrane. We hypothesize that three polypeptides, identified by mass spectrometry as Rack-1, GAPDH3, and actin, may be involved in the epithelial transcytosis of virus particles in the aphid vector

  14. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M., E-mail: dinakar@nii.res.in [National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2008-01-01

    The purification, identification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergy-related protein, Pru du amandin, from P. dulcis nuts are reported. Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 Å.

  15. Identification of volatile compounds in thinning discards from plum trees (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivar Harry Pickstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Podestá

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. Harry Pickstone, a China indigenous fruit, is widely produced and consumed in countries such as Japan and Brazil. The practice of thinning is common in horticulture and the fruits removed are discarded as waste. Like the great majority of vegetables, these thinning discards also contain essential oils which have not been investigated until the present time. The extraction of the plum thinning discards volatile oil, through the hydrodistillation method, produced a yield of 0.06% (m/m and a total of 21 components were identified, with 11 of them being responsible for 72,9% of the total oil composition. The major compounds determined through GC and GC-MS were Z-α-bisabolene (13.7%, n-hexadecanoic acid (12.7%, phytol (12.7%, and β-caryophyllene (10.4%.

  16. Molecular characterization of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus isolated from rose in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor Vinícius Martins Fajardo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: There is no molecular characterization of Brazilian isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV, except for those infecting peach. In this research, the causal agent of rose mosaic was determined and the movement (MP and coat (CP protein genes of a PNRSV isolate from rose were molecularly characterized for the first time in Brazil. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of MP and CP complete genes were aligned and compared with other isolates. Molecular analysis of the MP and CP nucleotide sequences of a Brazilian PNRSV isolate from rose and others from this same host showed highest identities of 96.7% and 98.6%, respectively, and Rose-Br isolate was classified in PV32 group.

  17. Molecular characterization of two prunus necrotic ringspot virus isolates from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongguang; Hong, Ni; Wang, Guoping; Wang, Aiming

    2012-05-01

    We determined the entire RNA1, 2 and 3 sequences of two prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) isolates, Chr3 from cherry and Pch12 from peach, obtained from an orchard in the Niagara Fruit Belt, Canada. The RNA1, 2 and 3 of the two isolates share nucleotide sequence identities of 98.6%, 98.4% and 94.5%, respectively. Their RNA1- and 2-encoded amino acid sequences are about 98% identical to the corresponding sequences of a cherry isolate, CH57, the only other PNRSV isolate with complete RNA1 and 2 sequences available. Phylogenetic analysis of the coat protein and movement protein encoded by RNA3 of Pch12 and Chr3 and published PNRSV isolates indicated that Chr3 belongs to the PV96 group and Pch12 belongs to the PV32 group.

  18. Seasonal variation of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus concentration in almond, peach, and plum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salem

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Levels of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV infection in almond, peach, and plum cultivars over the course of an entire year were determined by testing different plant parts of naturally infected trees, using the double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. The data showed that spring was the best time of year for PNRSV detection in flowers, active growing buds, and young leaves. PNRSV detection was less reliable during the summer months. Young leaves of all cultivars were the most reliable source for distinguishing between healthy and infected plants, while flowers and buds yielded high values in some cultivars but not in others. Seasonal fluctuations in virus concentration did not follow the same pattern in all cultivars. It is therefore impossible to distinguish between infected and healthy trees on the basis of one single sampling time for all cultivars.

  19. Effects of processing techniques on oxidative stability of Prunus pedunculatus seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effects of Prunus pedunculatus (P. pedunculatus seed pre-treatment, including microwaving (M, roasting (R, steaming (S and roasting plus steaming (RS on crude oil quality in terms of yield, color change, fatty acid composition, and oxidative stability. The results showed an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid content and oxidative stability of the oils obtained from different processing treatments compared to the oil obtained from raw seeds (RW without processing. The oils, obtained from pretreated seeds, had higher conjugated diene (CD and 2-thiobarbituric acid (2-TBA values, compared to that obtained from RW when stored in a Schaal oven at 65 °C for 168 h. However, polyphenol and tocopherol contents decreased in all oil samples, processed or unprocessed. The effect of pre-treating the seeds was more prominent in the oil sample obtained through the RS technique, and showed higher oxidative stability than the other processed oils and the oil from RW.

  20. Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in the ovary of plum culture (Prunus domestica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in different combinations of pollination was observed in the ovary of the plum (Prunus domestica L. cv 'Čačanska Lepotica'. It primarily refers to several issues, i.e. the curling up of pollen tubes within the micropyle, the growth of two pollen tubes into the nucellus of an ovule, the occurrence of a bundle above the nucellar cap and fluorescence of the part of the embryo sac containing the egg apparatus. Upon the growth of pollen tubes into the nucellus of the ovule, subsequently penetrating pollen tubes form a bundle either above the micropyle entrance or above the nucellus. Branching and bending of pollen tubes by 180o upon their growth into the micropyle was also observed.

  1. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K; Salunke, Dinakar M

    2008-01-01

    Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P4(1) (or P4(3)), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 A.

  2. Effect of Temperature and Moisture on the Development of Concealed Damage in Raw Almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Zuskov, David; Chan, Bronte Lee; Lee, Jihyun; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2015-09-23

    Concealed damage (CD) is a brown discoloration of nutmeat that appears only after kernels are treated with moderate heat (e.g., roasting). Identifying factors that promote CD in almonds is of significant interest to the nut industry. Herein, the effect of temperature (35 and 45 °C) and moisture (almonds (Prunus dulcis var. Nonpareil) was studied using HS-SPME-GC/MS. A CIE LCh colorimetric method was developed to identify raw almonds with CD. A significant increase in CD was demonstrated in almonds exposed to moisture (8% kernel moisture content) at 45 °C as compared to 35 °C. Elevated levels of volatiles related to lipid peroxidation and amino acid degradation were observed in almonds with CD. These results suggest that postharvest moisture exposure resulting in an internal kernel moisture ≥ 8% is a key factor in the development of CD in raw almonds and that CD is accelerated by temperature.

  3. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M.

    2007-01-01

    The purification, identification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergy-related protein, Pru du amandin, from P. dulcis nuts are reported. Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P4 1 (or P4 3 ), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 Å

  4. Pomological and technological characteristics of collected selections of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Rade

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A plantation collection containing 32 genotypes selected from spontaneous populations of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr. was set up in the region of the Eastern Serbian town of Svrljig. The fruit trees budded from Prunus cerasifera seedlings and were planted at 5x4 m spacing on a mild slope of south-western aspect. This study shows the most important characteristics of the 19 selections in the collection, and the average results recorded in the 2000-2003 period. The most significant characteristics of the trees, their productivity, and fruit and stone characteristics are presented. The average coarseness of fruits, i.e. their length, width and thickness, measured 25.0x 24.4x25.0 mm, while stone coarseness was 14.4x10.3x3.6 mm. The average fruit weight was 12.1 g (24.3-4.8 g, and stone weight 0.85 g (2.2-0.3 g. Depending on fruit and stone weight, the mesocarp content was 93% (96.3-90.3%. Taking into consideration the possibility of fruit exploitation for the production of biologically high-quality food, the mesocarp chemical composition was thoroughly examined. The fruits were found to have increased contents of total acids, achieving an average of 3.09% (3.44-2.60%, which was the initial objective of this selection. Total solids content was 13.5% (16.2-10.3%, total soluble solids 12.5% (14.5-9.5% and total sugars 6.00% (11.45-3.14%. Considering these characteristics, the selections that were singled out deserve more attention in terms of preserving their biodiversity, forming a gene bank and commercial cultivation.

  5. EVALUATION OF GAS EXCHANGES IN DIFFERENT Prunus SPP. ROOTSTOCKS UNDER DROUGHT AND FLOODING STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELSA KUHN KLUMB

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The state of Rio Grande do Sul is the largest peach productor in Brazil; however, it still possesses poor yield values when compared with other states. One of the problems associated with this is the occurrence of soils with drainage problems, mainly in Pelotas region, which depending on the year period, may undergo water deficit or flooding situations in the great majority of the years, which harm the crop development and yield. Among the harmful effects caused by these stresses stand out, the decrease in the net assimilation rate, closure of stomata, reduction of the cell activities, production of reactive oxygen species, membrane and protein destabilization. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate in what magnitude of the gaseous exchange parameters of Prunus spp. rootstocks are influenced under drought and flood stress. In the experiment, gas exchange parameters net photosynthetic rate (A stomata conductance (gs, intercellular carbon (Ci and transpiration (E] were evaluated in three Prunus spp. rootstocks (peach tree ‘Capdeboscq’ and plum trees ‘Julior’ and ‘Marianna 2624’ under three water conditions (control, water deficit and soil flooding for seven days. The three rootstocks proved more susceptible to flooding than to water deficit, only varying in response time, which is intrinsic to each genotype, and that there is a genetic variability for the tolerance to the studied stresses. The variation on physiological response to the water deficit stress was later in both evaluated genotypes. However, in general, ‘Julior’ presented greater tolerance to both stresses when compared to the other rootstocks evaluated. Such information is useful to help in the choice of rootstocks for plant production, in the orchard management and for plant breeding programs, aiming at the selection of new genotypes with increased tolerance to these water stresses.

  6. Novel Prunus rootstock somaclonal variants with divergent ability to tolerate waterlogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistelli, Laura; Iacona, Calogero; Miano, Dario; Cirilli, Marco; Colao, Maria Chiara; Mensuali-Sodi, Anna; Muleo, Rosario

    2012-03-01

    Plants require access to free water for nutrient uptake, but excess water surrounding the roots can be injurious or even lethal because it blocks the transfer of free oxygen between the soil and the atmosphere. Genetic improvement efforts in this study were focused on the increased tolerance in roots to waterlogging. Among a pool of clones generated in vitro from leaf explants of rootstock Mr.S.2/5 of Prunus cerasifera L., the S.4 clone was flood tolerant whereas the S.1 clone was sensitive. The S.4 clone formed adventitious roots on exposure to flooding. Moreover, the chlorophyll content and mitochondrial activity in the leaf and root, soluble sugar content, alcohol dehydrogenase activity and ethylene content were different between the clones. The sorbitol transporter gene (SOT1) was up-regulated during hypoxia, the alcohol dehydrogenase genes (ADH1 and ADH3) were up-regulated in the leaves and down-regulated in the roots of the S.4 clone during hypoxia, and the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-oxidase gene (ACO1) was up-regulated in the leaves and roots of the S.4 clone during hypoxia and down-regulated in the wild-type roots. In addition, in the S.4 root, hypoxia induced significant down-regulation of a glycosyltransferase-like gene (GTL), which has a yet-undefined role. Although the relevant variation in the S.4 genome has yet to be determined, genetic alteration clearly conferred a flooding-tolerant phenotype. The isolation of novel somaclonals with the same genomic background but with divergent tolerance to flooding may offer new insights in the elucidation of the genetic machinery of resistance to flooding and aid in the selection of new Prunus rootstocks to be used in various adverse environments.

  7. On the Preferred Flesh Color of Japanese and Chinese and the Determining Factors —Investigation of the Younger Generation Using Method of Successive Categories and Semantic Differential Method—

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ying; Deng, Pei; Tsuruoka, Hideki; Aoki, Naokazu; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki

    The preferred flesh color was surveyed by the successive five categories method and the SD method in Japan and China to investigate its determining factors. The Chinese most preferred flesh color was more reddish than the Japanese one, while the flesh color accepted by 50% and more of the observers in China was larger in chromaticness and more yellowish than in Japan. In the determining factors for selection of the preferred color extracted by a factor analysis, a big difference between Japanese and Chinese men was observed. The first factor of the former was kind personality, whereas that of the latter was showy appearance.

  8. Complete chloroplast genome of Prunus yedoensis Matsum.(Rosaceae), wild and endemic flowering cherry on Jeju Island, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myong-Suk; Hyun Cho, Chung; Yeon Kim, Su; Su Yoon, Hwan; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequences of the wild flowering cherry, Prunus yedoensis Matsum., which is native and endemic to Jeju Island, Korea, is reported in this study. The genome size is 157 786 bp in length with 36.7% GC content, which is composed of LSC region of 85 908 bp, SSC region of 19 120 bp and two IR copies of 26 379 bp each. The cp genome contains 131 genes, including 86 coding genes, 8 rRNA genes and 37 tRNA genes. The maximum likelihood analysis was conducted to verify a phylogenetic position of the newly sequenced cp genome of P. yedoensis using 11 representatives of complete cp genome sequences within the family Rosaceae. The genus Prunus exhibited monophyly and the result of the phylogenetic relationship agreed with the previous phylogenetic analyses within Rosaceae.

  9. Genetic diversity of the movement and coat protein genes of South American isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Nicola; Fajardo, Thor V M; Prodan, Simona; Herranz, María Carmen; Aparicio, Frederic; Montealegre, Jaime; Elena, Santiago F; Pallás, Vicente; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is distributed worldwide, but no molecular data have been previously reported from South American isolates. The nucleotide sequences corresponding to the movement (MP) and coat (CP) proteins of 23 isolates of PNRSV from Chile, Brazil, and Uruguay, and from different Prunus species, have been obtained. Phylogenetic analysis performed with full-length MP and CP sequences from all the PNRSV isolates confirmed the clustering of the isolates into the previously reported PV32-I, PV96-II and PE5-III phylogroups. No association was found between specific sequences and host, geographic origin or symptomatology. Comparative analysis showed that both MP and CP have phylogroup-specific amino acids and all of the motifs previously characterized for both proteins. The study of the distribution of synonymous and nonsynonymous changes along both open reading frames revealed that most amino acid sites are under the effect of negative purifying selection.

  10. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance

    OpenAIRE

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell i Sarle, Jordi; Lara Ayala, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood.Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ºC were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness wa...

  11. Propagation and Growth of Chokecherry (Prunus virginaiana) as an Alternative, Water-wise, Fruit Crop for the Intermountain West

    OpenAIRE

    Crook, Jeremy R.

    2010-01-01

    Utah fruit growers have shown interest in chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) as an alternative crop that has low requirements for water and soil fertility. Consumers want native fruits like chokecherry that are healthy and taste good. Currently, the limiting factor in developing a chokecherry industry in Utah is the ability to propagate large numbers of plants for orchard establishment. Chokecherries are difficult to propagate by traditional means because of their low rooting percentages. Plant ...

  12. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Prunus mume flower and fruit and development of simple sequence repeat markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Zhihong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tag (EST has been a cost-effective tool in molecular biology and represents an abundant valuable resource for genome annotation, gene expression, and comparative genomics in plants. Results In this study, we constructed a cDNA library of Prunus mume flower and fruit, sequenced 10,123 clones of the library, and obtained 8,656 expressed sequence tag (EST sequences with high quality. The ESTs were assembled into 4,473 unigenes composed of 1,492 contigs and 2,981 singletons and that have been deposited in NCBI (accession IDs: GW868575 - GW873047, among which 1,294 unique ESTs were with known or putative functions. Furthermore, we found 1,233 putative simple sequence repeats (SSRs in the P. mume unigene dataset. We randomly tested 42 pairs of PCR primers flanking potential SSRs, and 14 pairs were identified as true-to-type SSR loci and could amplify polymorphic bands from 20 individual plants of P. mume. We further used the 14 EST-SSR primer pairs to test the transferability on peach and plum. The result showed that nearly 89% of the primer pairs produced target PCR bands in the two species. A high level of marker polymorphism was observed in the plum species (65% and low in the peach (46%, and the clustering analysis of the three species indicated that these SSR markers were useful in the evaluation of genetic relationships and diversity between and within the Prunus species. Conclusions We have constructed the first cDNA library of P. mume flower and fruit, and our data provide sets of molecular biology resources for P. mume and other Prunus species. These resources will be useful for further study such as genome annotation, new gene discovery, gene functional analysis, molecular breeding, evolution and comparative genomics between Prunus species.

  13. New use of broomcorn millets for production of granular cultures of aphid-pathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis for high sporulation potential and infectivity to Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Li; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2003-10-24

    Glutinous broomcorn millets from the crop Panicum miliaceum were first used as substrate to produce granular cultures of Pandora neoaphidis, an obligate fungal pathogen specific to aphids. Carrying a water content of 36.5% after being steamed in a regular autoclaving procedure, millet grains of each 15 g (dry weight) in a 100-ml flask were mixed with 3 ml modified Sabouraud dextrose broth containing half a mashed colony of P. neoaphidis grown on egg yolk milk agar and then incubated at 20 degrees C and a light/dark cycle of 12 h/12 h for 21 days. Based on individually monitoring conidial production potential of 20 millet grains sampled from an arbitrarily taken flask at 3-day intervals, the millet cultures incubated for 6-15 days were capable of producing 16.8-23.4 x 10(4) conidia per millet grain with conidial ejection lasting for up to 6 days. The cultured millet grains individually produced significantly more conidia than apterous adults of Myzus persicae killed by P. neoaphidis (8.4 x 10(4) conidia per cadaver) and sporulated twice longer. The modeling of time-dose-mortality data from bioassays on M. persicae apterae exposed to conidial showers from the cultured millet grains and the mycelial mats produced in liquid culture resulted in similar estimates of LC(50) (millets: 21.4, 7.3, and 4.9 conidia mm(-2) on days 5-7 after exposure; mycelial mats: 22.1, 10.6, and 7.7 conidia mm(-2)) although the LT(50) estimated at a given conidial concentration was slightly smaller for the millet cultures than for the mycelial mats. This indicates that the millet grains cultured with P. neoaphidis produced conidia as infective as or slightly more infective to M. persicae than those from the mycelial mats. Based on the sporulation potential, infectivity, and ease and cost of the millet cultures, the method developed in this study highly improved in vitro cultures of P. neoaphidis and may adapt to culturing other entomophthoralean fungi for microbial control of insect pests.

  14. Wound healing and dry matter content of orange-fleshed sweetpotato cultivars as influenced by curing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atuna Richard A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Curing in sweetpotato is a crucial pre- or postharvest practice that could guarantee improved shelf life,but rarely practised by sweetpotato farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, principally due to lack of knowledge. Wound healing ability of cultivars has been associated with good root storability. In this study, two orange fleshed sweetpotato cultivars (Apomuden and Nane were either cured in-ground by dehaulming prior to harvest or field-piled over a seven-day period to study their responses to wound healing and changes in dry matter content. Apomuden is a low dry matter content(19% variety in Ghana while Nane is a high dry matter content (27% farmer cultivar under evaluation for formal release. A potato peeler was used to deliberately create the wounds on 21 storage roots. The curing treatment was applied and the subsequent post-treatment quality status of the storage roots was monitored daily over a seven-day period. Wound healing ability was scored as follows: 0 = no lignification, 0.5 = patchy lignification and1= complete lignification. Wound healing ability score was not significantly different for Apomuden and Nane (0.83,0.78, respectively; p = 0.120. However, storage roots curedby field-piled curing method resulted in significantly better wound healing ability than dehaulming (0.86, 0.75,respectively, p = 0.001. Over the seven-day curing period,Nane had a significantly higher and stable dry mattercontent compared with Apomuden (p = 0.008, whose dry matter content was lower and fluctuating. The field-piled curing resulted in higher (p = 0.020 dry matter content,24%, compared with in-ground curing (22%. The field piled curing method, which can easily be adopted by sweetpotato farmers, increased the dry matter content of the storage roots; therefore, it could potentially reduce the post-harvest losses in sweetpotato. The high dry matter content of Nane is a desirable root quality attribute for orange-fleshed cultivars and could augment existing

  15. Fatty acid composition of oil obtained from irradiated and non-irradiated whole fruit and fruit flesh of olives (Olea europaea L. 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz  Al-BACHIR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the fatty acid profile of olive oil extracted from whole fruit and fruit flesh of "Kaissy cultivar" olives, irradiated with 0, 2 and 3 kGy doses of gamma irradiation, and stored for 0, 6 and 12 months. Results on the fatty acid profile showed that the studied oils contained mostly oleic acid (68.1570.80% followed by palmitic acid (14.38-15.89% and linoleic acid (10.3412.51%. Generally, there are slight differences in the fatty acid profile between the oil extracted from whole olives and fruit flesh, but sometime significant (p<0.05. Also, the storage time influenced to a limited extent the fatty acid profile of both type of oils. Immediately after treatment, irradiation caused a significant (p<0.01 gradual decrease in the unsaturated fatty acid content and a significant (p<0.01 saturated fatty acid content increased in virgin olive oils.

  16. Plastic ingestion by Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Puffinus carneipes): Implications for fledgling body condition and the accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Bond, Alexander L; Hutton, Ian

    2014-04-01

    To provide much needed quantitative data on the lethal and sublethal effects of plastic pollution on marine wildlife, we sampled breast feathers and stomach contents from Flesh-footed Shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) fledglings in eastern Australia. Birds with high levels of ingested plastic exhibited reduced body condition and increased contaminant load (p plastic ingestion by seabirds, with 16% of fledglings failing these targets after a single feeding (range: 0.13-3.21 g of plastic/feeding). As top predators, seabirds are considered sentinels of the marine environment. The amount of plastic ingested and corresponding damage to Flesh-footed Shearwater fledglings is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate, suggesting the condition of the Australian marine environment is poor. These findings help explain the ongoing decline of this species and are worrying in light of increasing levels of plastic pollution in our oceans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PIST – IS THE NEWEST BLACK BERRY WINE GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED FLESH AND JUICE, FOR THE PRODUCTION GLOBAL BENEFIT RED WINES

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanidi P. C.; Troshin L. P.; Radchevskiy P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Newest technical black berry variety named Piste (“Faith” in Greek) with colored flesh and juice breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece) by researchers Zamanidi P., L. Troshin and P. Radchevskii in 2007 by crossing the Greek varieties Afoos (Mavrodafni x Alicante Boucher) with Ukrainian variety Odessa black (Alicante Bouchet x Cabernet Sauvignon). Duration of production period is 146-155 days. Growth of shoots is strong (2,1-3,0 m). The percentage of productive shoots is more than...

  18. Rapid extraction combined with LC-tandem mass spectrometry (CREM-LC/MS/MS) for the determination of ciguatoxins in ciguateric fish flesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard J; Yang, Aijun; Jones, Alun

    2009-07-01

    Ciguatera is a significant food borne disease caused by potent polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins, which accumulate in the flesh of ciguateric fish at risk levels above 0.1 ppb. The management of ciguatera has been hindered by the lack of analytical methods to detect and quantify clinically relevant levels of ciguatoxin in easily prepared crude extracts of fish. Here we report a ciguatoxin rapid extraction method (CREM) that allows the rapid preparation of fish flesh extracts for the detection and quantification of ciguatoxin by gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). CREM-LC/MS/MS delivers a linear response to P-CTX-1 spiked into fish prior to extraction. A similar response was obtained for P-CTX-1 spiked after extraction, indicating >95% extraction efficiency was achieved overall and 85% at the limit of quantification (0.1 ppb). Using this approach, levels >or=0.1 ppb P-CTX-1 could be detected and quantified from an extract of 2g fish flesh, making it suitable as a confirmatory assay for suspect ciguateric carnivorous fish in the Pacific Ocean. The approach is designed to simplify the extraction and analysis of multiple samples per day.

  19. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. & Endl. as a Novel Source of Health Promoting Compounds: Antioxidant Activity, Phytochemicals and Sugar Content in Flesh, Peel, and Whole Tubers of Seven Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Khajehei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality characteristics of seven yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. and Endl. cultivars (Cajamarca, Cusco, Early White, Late Red, Morado, New Zealand and Quinault cultivated in the southwest of Germany. The following phyto/chemical traits were investigated in different yacon tuber parts (flesh, peel, and whole tubers: total dry matter, sugar content (fructose, glucose, and sucrose content, total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, 2,20-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging activity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. The results indicated a significant interaction between cultivar and tuber part on all of the examined traits (p < 0.0001. Of flesh and whole tuber, cv. Late Red, cv. Morado, and cv. Cajamarca had the highest TPC, TFC, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and FRAP. They also had relatively higher total sugar content. Cv. New Zealand had the lowest amount of sugars, TPC, TFC, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and FRAP, but the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity content in its flesh and whole tuber. Moreover, the results indicated that the peel of yacon tubers contained considerably high amounts of phytochemicals while possessing low sugar contents. Overall, this study provides a broad insight into the phyto/chemical content of yacon tubers from different cultivars, which can be used for further breeding programs, and the selection of proper cultivars for specific food product development.

  20. Plastic ingestion by Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Puffinus carneipes): Implications for fledgling body condition and the accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavers, Jennifer L.; Bond, Alexander L.; Hutton, Ian

    2014-01-01

    To provide much needed quantitative data on the lethal and sublethal effects of plastic pollution on marine wildlife, we sampled breast feathers and stomach contents from Flesh-footed Shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) fledglings in eastern Australia. Birds with high levels of ingested plastic exhibited reduced body condition and increased contaminant load (p < 0.05). More than 60% of fledglings exceed international targets for plastic ingestion by seabirds, with 16% of fledglings failing these targets after a single feeding (range: 0.13–3.21 g of plastic/feeding). As top predators, seabirds are considered sentinels of the marine environment. The amount of plastic ingested and corresponding damage to Flesh-footed Shearwater fledglings is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate, suggesting the condition of the Australian marine environment is poor. These findings help explain the ongoing decline of this species and are worrying in light of increasing levels of plastic pollution in our oceans. - Highlights: • Proportion of the shearwater population ingesting plastic increased over four years. • Shearwater body condition is negatively influenced by the amount of ingested plastic. • Shearwater contaminant load is positively related to the amount of ingested plastic. • Many chicks exceed international targets for ingested plastic after a single feeding. • Plastic ingestion in this study is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate. - Flesh-footed Shearwaters ingest large quantities of marine plastic, which is correlated with poor body condition and increased concentrations of trace metals such as chromium

  1. Species composition of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) through space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Weekly monitoring of forensically important flight-active blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was performed using small baited traps. Sampling took place in two rural, one suburban and two urban habitats in and around Frankfurt (Main), Germany, lasting two years and eight months. Highest values for species richness and Chao-Shen entropy estimator for Shannon's index in both families were found at the urban sites, peaking during summer. Space-time interaction was tested and found to be significant, demonstrating the value of a statistical approach recently developed for community surveys in ecology. K-means partitioning and analysis of indicator species gave significant temporal and habitat associations of particular taxa. Calliphora vicina was an indicator species for lower temperatures without being associated with a particular habitat. Lucilia sericata was an indicator for urban sites, whereas Lucilia ampullacea and Lucilia caesar were indicators for rural sites, supplemented by the less frequent species Calliphora vomitoria. Sarcophagidae were observed during a clearly shorter period of year. Sarcophaga subvicina+Sarcophaga variegata was found to be an indicator for urban habitats during summer as well as Sarcophaga albiceps for rural habitats. A significant association of Sarcophaga caerulescens to rural habitats as well as one of Sarcophaga similis to urban habitats was observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental monitoring of the Robertson Reservoir (1990-2005) : evolution of the mercury levels in the flesh of fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therrien, J.

    2006-04-01

    This paper provided details of an environmental monitoring analysis of the stomach contents and mercury levels in the flesh of main fish species in the Robertson Reservoir. The report noted that smelt species were dominant in the reservoir and in the adjoining Ivry Lake, while benthos were dominant the brackish waters of Lake Monger. Sticklebacks were found in the stomachs of the examined fish, while the diet of brook trout was comprised mainly of benthos in lakes and reservoirs. Arctic char mainly ate benthos in the reservoir. Landlocked salmon mainly ate fish in the reservoirs and lakes. Smelt was the primary diet of Arctic char until 2003. After 2003, Arctic char fed mainly on sticklebacks. It was observed that average mercury levels of fish of a standardized length increased by a factor of 2.7 to 4.9 after the impoundment of the reservoir. However, average mercury levels stopped increasing for dwarf Arctic char in 2003. Levels of mercury in brook trout have not increased since 1999. A significant decrease in mercury levels of rainbow smelt were observed. Average mercury levels of fish in the brackish waters of Lake Monger were lower than levels observed in most other freshwater lakes in the region. It was concluded that the number of monthly meals recommended by the fish consumption guide produced in 2001 for the Gros Mecatina region are still appropriate for the reservoir

  3. Good Manufacturing Practices and Microbial Contamination Sources in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Puree Processing Plant in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abong', George Ooko

    2018-01-01

    Limited information exists on the status of hygiene and probable sources of microbial contamination in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato (OFSP) puree processing. The current study is aimed at determining the level of compliance to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), hygiene, and microbial quality in OFSP puree processing plant in Kenya. Intensive observation and interviews using a structured GMPs checklist, environmental sampling, and microbial analysis by standard microbiological methods were used in data collection. The results indicated low level of compliance to GMPs with an overall compliance score of 58%. Microbial counts on food equipment surfaces, installations, and personnel hands and in packaged OFSP puree were above the recommended microbial safety and quality legal limits. Steaming significantly (P contamination. Total counts, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and E. coli and S. aureus counts in OFSP puree were 8.0, 4.0, 6.6, 5.8, 4.8, and 5.9 log10 cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, equipment surfaces, personnel hands, and processing water were major sources of contamination in OFSP puree processing and handling. Plant hygiene inspection, environmental monitoring, and food safety trainings are recommended to improve hygiene, microbial quality, and safety of OFSP puree. PMID:29808161

  4. Effects of toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia on flesh quality of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Chen, Chuanyue; Liu, Wanjing; Xia, Hu; Li, Jian; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2017-03-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms result in the production of an organic biomass containing cyanotoxins (e.g. microcystins) and an elevated ammonia concentration in the water environment. The ingestion of toxic cyanobacteria and exposure to ammonia are grave hazards for fish. The present study assessed the effects of dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure on the flesh quality of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure had no impact on fish growth performance, fillet proximate composition and drip loss, whereas it significantly decreased fillet total amino acids, total essential amino acids, hardness and gumminess, and increased fillet ultimate pH as well as malondialdehyde content. However, there was no significant interaction between dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure on these parameters. Additionally, dietary toxic cyanobacteria significantly increased fillet initial pH, thaw loss and protein carbonyl content, whereas ammonia exposure did not. The results of the present study indicate that dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure reduced the quality of blunt snout bream fillet. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Good Manufacturing Practices and Microbial Contamination Sources in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Puree Processing Plant in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derick Nyabera Malavi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited information exists on the status of hygiene and probable sources of microbial contamination in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato (OFSP puree processing. The current study is aimed at determining the level of compliance to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs, hygiene, and microbial quality in OFSP puree processing plant in Kenya. Intensive observation and interviews using a structured GMPs checklist, environmental sampling, and microbial analysis by standard microbiological methods were used in data collection. The results indicated low level of compliance to GMPs with an overall compliance score of 58%. Microbial counts on food equipment surfaces, installations, and personnel hands and in packaged OFSP puree were above the recommended microbial safety and quality legal limits. Steaming significantly (P<0.05 reduced microbial load in OFSP cooked roots but the counts significantly (P<0.05 increased in the puree due to postprocessing contamination. Total counts, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and E. coli and S. aureus counts in OFSP puree were 8.0, 4.0, 6.6, 5.8, 4.8, and 5.9 log10 cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, equipment surfaces, personnel hands, and processing water were major sources of contamination in OFSP puree processing and handling. Plant hygiene inspection, environmental monitoring, and food safety trainings are recommended to improve hygiene, microbial quality, and safety of OFSP puree.

  6. Good Manufacturing Practices and Microbial Contamination Sources in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Puree Processing Plant in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavi, Derick Nyabera; Muzhingi, Tawanda; Abong', George Ooko

    2018-01-01

    Limited information exists on the status of hygiene and probable sources of microbial contamination in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato (OFSP) puree processing. The current study is aimed at determining the level of compliance to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), hygiene, and microbial quality in OFSP puree processing plant in Kenya. Intensive observation and interviews using a structured GMPs checklist, environmental sampling, and microbial analysis by standard microbiological methods were used in data collection. The results indicated low level of compliance to GMPs with an overall compliance score of 58%. Microbial counts on food equipment surfaces, installations, and personnel hands and in packaged OFSP puree were above the recommended microbial safety and quality legal limits. Steaming significantly ( P contamination. Total counts, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and E. coli and S. aureus counts in OFSP puree were 8.0, 4.0, 6.6, 5.8, 4.8, and 5.9 log 10 cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, equipment surfaces, personnel hands, and processing water were major sources of contamination in OFSP puree processing and handling. Plant hygiene inspection, environmental monitoring, and food safety trainings are recommended to improve hygiene, microbial quality, and safety of OFSP puree.

  7. From lab to life: Making storable orange-fleshed sweetpotato purée a commercial reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocher Temesgen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Research in Rwanda demonstrated that orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP purée (steamed, mashed roots was an economically viable, vitamin A enhancing ingredient in baked products when the purée was produced and used in the same bakery. Having a storable, packaged OFSP purée produced by a firm to supply bakers is an alternative model. Vacuum-packed OFSP purée with preservatives with a four-month shelf-life at 23°C was developed by the International Potato Center under laboratory conditions in 2015. Turning it into a commercial reality required developing a public-private partnership to establish an OFSP purée-bread value chain. The phases in developing the chain are described. Cost-benefit assessment focuses on two points along the chain: the farmers producing roots for the purée factory and purée production. The first OFSP bread began to be marketed in six Tuskys’ stores in June 2015 at a premium price (5 Ksh above its regular bread, reaching 20 stores by August 2016. OFSP bread was well-received by consumers. Purée production became profitable (18% profit margin when we shifted from using peeled to unpeeled roots--the new product being a “high fiber” purée. Commercial OFSP purée production has been improved and is poised for profitable, larger-scale output.

  8. Selectivity of flesh-footed shearwaters for plastic colour: Evidence for differential provisioning in adults and fledglings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-02-01

    The ingestion of plastic by seabirds has been used as an indicator of population and ocean health. However, few studies have examined adults and juveniles of the same species concurrent with the availability of plastic in the local marine environment. In King George Sound (KGS), Western Australia, 13% of adult flesh-footed shearwaters (Ardenna carneipes) and 90% of fledglings contained plastic items in their digestive tract. On Lord Howe Island (LHI), New South Wales, 75% of adult shearwaters and 100% of fledglings contained plastic. Ingested items were assessed using Jaccard's Index (where J = 0 indicates complete dissimilarity and J = 1 complete similarity). The colour of items ingested by self- and chick-provisioning shearwaters from KGS exhibited broad overlap with plastic available in the local environment (J = 0.78-0.80), and plastic in adults and fledglings from LHI were less similar to those available (J = 0.31-0.58). Additional data on seabird colour selection would improve our understanding of the factors influencing the behaviour of ingesting plastic, and its contribution to the decline of some species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of gamma irradiation on the stability and hygienic quality of semi-dried Pacific saury (Cololabis seira) flesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.-W.; Cho, K.-H.; Yook, H.-S.; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, D.-H.; Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@nanum.kaeri.re.kr

    2002-07-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on the improvement of hygienic quality and the extension of shelf life of Kwamegi prepared from semi-dried Pacific saury (Cololabis seira) flesh. Commercial Kwamegi was purchased from a domestic market, vacuum-packaged, and irradiated to doses of 0, 3, 5, 7 or 10 kGy. Non-irradiated Kwamegi rapidly deteriorated during storage at 5 deg. C, and some bacteria presumed as Salmonella and/or Shigella species were detected using selective medium. However, the total viable cells and presumptive pathogens were reduced with increased radiation dose, and a dose level of 7-10 kGy was considered to be an optimum and effective dose for the preservation of Kwamegi. Thiobarbituric acid values did not differ, regardless of irradiation dose and storage time. Sensory evaluation results were not different in all samples immediately after irradiation. After 60-day storage, the sensory quality of irradiated Kwamegi was adequate; however the quality of the control deteriorated.

  10. The effect of gamma irradiation on the stability and hygienic quality of semi-dried Pacific saury (Cololabis seira) flesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.-W.; Cho, K.-H.; Yook, H.-S.; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, D.-H.; Byun, M.-W.

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on the improvement of hygienic quality and the extension of shelf life of Kwamegi prepared from semi-dried Pacific saury (Cololabis seira) flesh. Commercial Kwamegi was purchased from a domestic market, vacuum-packaged, and irradiated to doses of 0, 3, 5, 7 or 10 kGy. Non-irradiated Kwamegi rapidly deteriorated during storage at 5 deg. C, and some bacteria presumed as Salmonella and/or Shigella species were detected using selective medium. However, the total viable cells and presumptive pathogens were reduced with increased radiation dose, and a dose level of 7-10 kGy was considered to be an optimum and effective dose for the preservation of Kwamegi. Thiobarbituric acid values did not differ, regardless of irradiation dose and storage time. Sensory evaluation results were not different in all samples immediately after irradiation. After 60-day storage, the sensory quality of irradiated Kwamegi was adequate; however the quality of the control deteriorated

  11. Effects of Moringa oleifera LAM, Leguminous Plants and NPK Fertilizer Comparatively on Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato in Alley Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IN Abdullahi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The research work conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of University of Abuja was aimed at assessing the effect of Moringa oleifera, selected leguminous plants and inorganic fertilizer on the performance of orange fleshed sweet potato in Alley Cropping System. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD using five treatments with three replications was applied. Data collected include: percentage survival of sweet potato, length per vine (cm, number of leaves per vine, leaf area of sweet potato, weed dry matter (g/m2, yield of sweet potato roots. Highest number of leaves (28 per plant was recorded in the control plot while the plots with NPK fertilizer had the highest length per vine (94.55cm though not significantly (p>0.05 different from others. Higher percent survival (88% of sweet potato was recorded from control plots. Stands grown in Arachis hypogeae plots produced the highest leaf area (0.202m2 while plots in which NPK fertilizer was applied experienced highest weed dry matter (4.083g/m2 although highest root yield (1.2t/ha was recorded from the plots with NPK fertilizer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11061 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 24-35

  12. Metabolite profiling reveals a specific response in tomato to predaceous Chrysoperla carnea larvae and herbivore(s-predator interactions with the generalist pests Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Errard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer both infest a number of economically significant crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Although used for decades to control pests, the impact of green lacewing larvae Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens on plant biochemistry was not investigated. Here we used profiling methods and targeted analyses to explore the impact of the predator and herbivore(s-predator interactions on tomato biochemistry. Each pest and pest-predator combination induced a characteristic metabolite signature in the leaf and the fruit thus, the plant exhibited a systemic response. The treatments had a stronger impact on non-volatile metabolites including abscisic acid and amino acids in the leaves in comparison with the fruits. In contrast, the various biotic factors had a greater impact on the carotenoids in the fruits. We identified volatiles such as myrcene and α-terpinene which were induced by pest-predator interactions but not by single species, and we demonstrated the involvement of the phytohormone abscisic acid in tritrophic interactions for the first time. More importantly, C. carnea larvae alone impacted the plant metabolome, but the predator did not appear to elicit particular defense pathways on its own. Since the presence of both C. carnea larvae and pest individuals elicited volatiles which were shown to contribute to plant defense, C. carnea larvae could therefore contribute to the reduction of pest infestation, not only by its preying activity, but also by priming responses to generalist herbivores such as T. urticae and M. persicae. On the other hand, the use of C. carnea larvae alone did not impact carotenoids thus, was not prejudicial to the fruit quality. The present piece of research highlights the specific impact of predator and tritrophic interactions with green lacewing larvae, spider mites and aphids on different components of the tomato primary and secondary metabolism

  13. Use of electrical penetration graphs (EPG) and quantitative PCR to evaluate the relationship between feeding behaviour and Pandora neoaphidis infection levels in green peach aphid, Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Ye, Sudan; Hu, Huajun; Xue, Chengmei; Yu, Xiaoping

    2018-01-01

    A real-time qPCR method was developed, validated, and used to quantity the fungal pathogen, P. neoaphidis, within aphids at different times during infection; colonization rate fitted the Gompertz model well (R 2  = 0.9356). Feeding behaviour of P. neoaphidis-infected and uninfected M. persicae were investigated, for the first time, using DC-electrical penetration graphs (DC-EPG) that characterized the waveforms made during different aphid stylet probing periods corresponding to epidermis penetration, salivation and ingestion. In the 6 h following the 12-h incubation period (to achieve infection), there were significant differences in the number of events of Np (non-probing) and C (stylet pathway) between infected and uninfected aphids. However, the difference between total duration of Np and C were not significantly different between infected and uninfected aphids. There were no significant differences in the number of events or total duration of E1 (phloem salivation) or E2 (phloem ingestion) between infected and uninfected aphids. There were significant differences in mean number of events and total duration of the pd waveform (intracellular punctures) in infected and uninfected aphids. In the 16 h prior to death, the same differences in behaviour were observed but they were even more obvious. Furthermore, the total duration time of E2 was significantly greater in uninfected aphids than infected aphids, a change that had not been observed in the first 6 h observation period. In conclusion, qPCR quantification demonstrated 'molecular' colonization levels throughout infection, and EPG data analysis during the two periods (during early infection and then during late infection just prior to death) demonstrated the actual physical effects of fungal infection on feeding behaviour of M. persicae; this has the potential to decrease the aphid's capacity of transmission and dispersal. These studies increase our understanding of the interaction between P

  14. Ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to Transmit Cucumber mosaic virus in Single and Mixed Infection with Two Potyviruses to Zucchini Squash Eficiência dos afídeos Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do Cucumber mosaic virus em infecção simples e mista com dois Potyvirus para abobrinha de moita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to investigate the ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV singly and mixed with two potyviruses (Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV, to zucchini squash plants (Cucurbita pepo. The results showed that the potyviruses in general were more efficiently transmitted by both species of aphids as compared to CMV. The transmission of PRSV-W, ZYMV and CMV separately was more efficient than in mixture.O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a eficiência de Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do vírus do mosaico do pepino (Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV, isoladamente e em mistura com duas espécies de potyvirus (Vírus do mosaico do mamoeiro = Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W e Vírus do mosaico amarelo da abobrinha = Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV, para planta-testes de abobrinha de moita (Cucurbita pepo. Os dois potyvirus em geral foram transmitidos com mais eficiência pelas duas espécies de afídeos do que o CMV. A transmissão do PRSV-W, ZYMV e CMV, separadamente, foi mais eficiente do que em mistura.

  15. Rapid Detection of Prunus Necrotic Ringspot Virus by Reverse Transcription-cross-priming Amplification Coupled with Nucleic Acid Test Strip Cassette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Ya-Yun; Li, Gui-Fen; Qiu, Yan-Hong; Li, Wei-Min; Zhang, Yong-Jiang

    2017-11-23

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is one of the most devastating viruses to Prunus spp. In this study, we developed a diagnostic system RT-CPA-NATSC, wherein reverse transcription-cross-priming amplification (RT-CPA) is coupled with nucleic acid test strip cassette (NATSC), a vertical flow (VF) visualization, for PNRSV detection. The RT-CPA-NATSC assay targets the encoding gene of the PNRSV coat protein with a limit of detection of 72 copies per reaction and no cross-reaction with the known Prunus pathogenic viruses and viroids, demonstrating high sensitivity and specificity. The reaction is performed on 60 °C and can be completed less than 90 min with the prepared template RNA. Field sample test confirmed the reliability of RT-CPA-NATSC, indicating the potential application of this simple and rapid detection method in routine test of PNRSV.

  16. CONTROLE QUÍMICO DO PULGÃO VERDE (Myzus persicae Sulzer, 1776 E DA VAQUINHA (Diabrotica speciosa Germ., 1824 NA CULTURA DO TOMATE RASTEIRO CHEMICAL CONTROL OF THE GREEN PEACH APHID (Myzus persicae, SULZER AND TOMATO LEAF BEETLE (Diabrotica speciosa, GERMAR IN TOMATO PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Couto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O efeito de cinco inseticidas aplicados no tomateiro (Lycopersicum sculentum Mill, visando ao controle do pulgão verde, Myzus persicae SULZER e de vaquinha, Diabrotica speciosa GERM, foi testado em um experimento realizado na área experimental do Departamento de Horticultura da Escota de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, no período de maio a setembro de 1994. Os tratamentos foram aplicados via pulverização e constaram de Bulldock 125 SC (dosagem de 100 ml/ 100 1 de água; Bulldock 50 CE (25 e 30 ml/100 l de água; Tamaron BR (100 ml/ 100 l de água; Orthene 750 BR (100 ml/ l00 1 de água e Folidol 600 (100 ml/l00 1 de água; e ainda uma testemunha (sem inseticida. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que todos os tratamentos foram eficientes no controle de M. persicae até sete dias após a aplicação. Aos 14 dias após a aplicação, o Bulldock 50 CE na dosagem de 25 ml/ 100 l de água e o Folidol 600 a 100 ml/ 100 l de água não apresentaram eficiência satisfatória. Com relação à D. speciosa, todos esses produtos foram igualmente eficientes até sete dias após aplicação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Myzus persicae; diabrotica speciosa; tomateiro; controle químico.

    A trial to control the green peach aphid myzus persicae and tomato leaf beetle Diabrotica speciosa was carried out in Goi

  17. Effect of Salinity Stress on Concentrations of Nutrition Elements in Almond (Prunus Dulcis 'Shokofeh', 'Sahand' Cultivars and '13-40' Genotype Budded on GF677 Rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Momenpour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Almond (Prunus amygdalus B. is one of the most important crops consumed as a dry fruit and it is mainly adaptable to arid and semi-arid regions mostly suffering from salinity stress (8. Soils with dry humidity regime are dominant in Iran and in the world at large and mostly include regions with more evaporation than precipitation. This in turn leads to increased salinity of the soil (9 and 10. Based on available reports, roughly 12.5% of land areas in Iran are saline, which overwhelmingly contain sodium, while more than 800 million hectares of land area on the earth (6% of overall global land area are affected by salinity (9 and 10. Therefore, compound of rootstock and scion may be used as one of the influence factors in sensitivity or tolerance to salinity of planted fruit trees including almonds (8 and 11. In recent years, for various reasons including the uniformity of trees, instead of sexual rootstock, vegetative rootstock is used. Rootstock GF677 an inter-specific hybrid (Almond Peach is propagated asexually as clone (8. It has been reported that rootstock GF677 is tolerant to salinity while rootstock nemagard (P. persica X P. davidiana is sensitive to salinity (16. It has been reported that rootstock GF677 tolerated salinity (5.5 ds/m, (19 or 5.2 ds/m (17 and 14.However, as plant species and different cultivars within the same plant species vary considerably in their tolerance to salinity (10, properly selecting plants and/or cultivars that can be grown well under adverse conditions, created in the root zone by salinization, is the most efficient and environmentally friendly agricultural practice for a more permanent solution of the problem of salinity (10. Despite the presence of information on the effect of salinity on concentration of nutrition elements of almond cultivars leaves and roots, tolerantscion/rootstock combinationshave not been introduced for this plant. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to

  18. Allelic diversity of S-RNase at the self-incompatibility locus in natural flowering cherry populations (Prunus lannesiana var. speciosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S; Mukai, Y

    2004-03-01

    In the Rosaceae family, which includes Prunus, gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) is controlled by a single multiallelic locus (S-locus), and the S-locus product expressed in the pistils is a glycoprotein with ribonuclease activity (S-RNase). Two populations of flowering cherry (Prunus lannesiana var. speciosa), located on Hachijo Island in Japan's Izu Islands, were sampled, and S-allele diversity was surveyed based on the sequence polymorphism of S-RNase. A total of seven S-alleles were cloned and sequenced. The S-RNases of flowering cherry showed high homology to those of Prunus cultivars (P. avium and P. dulcis). In the phylogenetic tree, the S-RNases of flowering cherry and other Prunus cultivars formed a distinct group, but they did not form species-specific subgroups. The nucleotide substitution pattern in S-RNases of flowering cherry showed no excess of nonsynonymous substitutions relative to synonymous substitutions. However, the S-RNases of flowering cherry had a higher Ka/Ks ratio than those of other Prunus cultivars, and a subtle heterogeneity in the nucleotide substitution rates was observed among the Prunus species. The S-genotype of each individual was determined by Southern blotting of restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA, using cDNA for S-RNase as a probe. A total of 22 S-alleles were identified. All individuals examined were heterozygous, as expected under GSI. The allele frequencies were, contrary to the expectation under GSI, significantly unequal. The two populations studied showed a high degree of overlap, with 18 shared alleles. However, the allele frequencies differed considerably between the two populations.

  19. Molecular mechanisms regulating flowering time in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionescu, Irina Alexandra

    The timing of flowering is a well-researched but at the same time incredibly complex process in angiosperms. Although we are in possession of detailed knowledge on the genetic level of flowering time regulation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, it is often difficult to transfer this knowle......The timing of flowering is a well-researched but at the same time incredibly complex process in angiosperms. Although we are in possession of detailed knowledge on the genetic level of flowering time regulation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, it is often difficult to transfer...... as a result of hydrogen cyanamide treatment: the jasmonate pathway, the hydrogen cyanide pathway and the cytokinin pathway. We further analyzed the levels of cyanogenic glucosides and their derivatives during endodormancy and its release in sweet cherry and almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb). Prunasin...... and its amide coincided with flowering time in both species. Taken together, these results contribute to elucidating parts of the complex network regulating flowering time in perennial plants....

  20. SEP-class genes in Prunus mume and their likely role in floral organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Yong, Xue; Ahmad, Sagheer; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2017-01-13

    Flower phylogenetics and genetically controlled development have been revolutionised during the last two decades. However, some of these evolutionary aspects are still debatable. MADS-box genes are known to play essential role in specifying the floral organogenesis and differentiation in numerous model plants like Petunia hybrida, Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus. SEPALLATA (SEP) genes, belonging to the MADS-box gene family, are members of the ABCDE and quartet models of floral organ development and play a vital role in flower development. However, few studies of the genes in Prunus mume have yet been conducted. In this study, we cloned four PmSEPs and investigated their phylogenetic relationship with other species. Expression pattern analyses and yeast two-hybrid assays of these four genes indicated their involvement in the floral organogenesis with PmSEP4 specifically related to specification of the prolificated flowers in P. mume. It was observed that the flower meristem was specified by PmSEP1 and PmSEP4, the sepal by PmSEP1 and PmSEP4, petals by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3, stamens by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3 and pistils by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3. With the above in mind, flower development in P. mume might be due to an expression of SEP genes. Our findings can provide a foundation for further investigations of the transcriptional factors governing flower development, their molecular mechanisms and genetic basis.

  1. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  2. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melekber Sulusoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.. Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and IKI (iodine potassium iodide, were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.. Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  3. In vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r(2) = 0.0614 and r(2) = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  4. Vertical transmission of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus: hitch-hiking from gametes to seedling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, Khalid; Burgos, Lorenzo; Pallás, Vicente; Sánchez-Pina, Maria Amelia

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work was to follow Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) infection in apricot reproductive tissues and transmission of the virus to the next generation. For this, an analysis of viral distribution in apricot reproductive organs was carried out at different developmental stages. PNRSV was detected in reproductive tissues during gametogenesis. The virus was always present in the nucellus and, in some cases, in the embryo sac. Studies within infected seeds at the embryo globular stage revealed that PNRSV infects all parts of the seed, including embryo, endosperm and testa. In the torpedo and bent cotyledon developmental stages, high concentrations of the virus were detected in the testa and endosperm. At seed maturity, PNRSV accumulated slightly more in the embryo than in the cotyledons. In situ hybridization showed the presence of PNRSV RNA in embryos obtained following hand-pollination of virus-free pistils with infected pollen. Interestingly, tissue-printing from fruits obtained from these pistils showed viral RNA in the periphery of the fruits, whereas crosses between infected pistils and infected pollen resulted in a total invasion of the fruits. Taken together, these results shed light on the vertical transmission of PNRSV from gametes to seedlings.

  5. Adaptive covariation between the coat and movement proteins of prunus necrotic ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codoñer, Francisco M; Fares, Mario A; Elena, Santiago F

    2006-06-01

    The relative functional and/or structural importance of different amino acid sites in a protein can be assessed by evaluating the selective constraints to which they have been subjected during the course of evolution. Here we explore such constraints at the linear and three-dimensional levels for the movement protein (MP) and coat protein (CP) encoded by RNA 3 of prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV). By a maximum-parsimony approach, the nucleotide sequences from 46 isolates of PNRSV varying in symptomatology, host tree, and geographic origin have been analyzed and sites under different selective pressures have been identified in both proteins. We have also performed covariation analyses to explore whether changes in certain amino acid sites condition subsequent variation in other sites of the same protein or the other protein. These covariation analyses shed light on which particular amino acids should be involved in the physical and functional interaction between MP and CP. Finally, we discuss these findings in the light of what is already known about the implication of certain sites and domains in structure and protein-protein and RNA-protein interactions.

  6. Prunus necrotic ringspot virus Early Invasion and Its Effects on Apricot Pollen Grain Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, Khalid; Burgos, Lorenzo; Pallas, Vicente; Sanchez-Pina, María Amelia

    2007-08-01

    ABSTRACT The route of infection and the pattern of distribution of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) in apricot pollen were studied. PNRSV was detected both within and on the surface of infected pollen grains. The virus invaded pollen during its early developmental stages, being detected in pollen mother cells. It was distributed uniformly within the cytoplasm of uni- and bicellular pollen grains and infected the generative cell. In mature pollen grains, characterized by their triangular shape, the virus was located mainly at the apertures, suggesting that PNRSV distribution follows the same pattern as the cellular components required for pollen tube germination and cell wall tube synthesis. PNRSV also was localized inside pollen tubes, especially in the growth zone. In vitro experiments demonstrated that infection with PNRSV decreases the germination percentage of pollen grains by more than half and delays the growth of pollen tubes by approximately 24 h. However, although PNRSV infection affected apricot pollen grain performance during germination, the presence of the virus did not completely prevent fertilization, because the infected apricot pollen tubes, once germinated, were able to reach the apricot embryo sacs, which, in the climatic conditions of southeastern Spain, mature later than in other climates. Thus, infected pollen still could play an important role in the vertical transmission of PNRSV in apricot.

  7. Future Applications of Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca Kaisa ß Galactosidase in Dairy Industry

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    Ansari Shakeel Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the immobilization of β galactosidase from apricots (Prunus armeniaca kaisa on an inexpensive concanavalin A layered cellulose-alginate hybrid gel. Immobilized β galactosidase retained 78% of the initial activity after crosslinking by glutaraldehyde. It exhibited greater fraction of activity at both acidic and basic pH, and showed broad spectrum temperature optimum as compared to free enzyme. Moreover, immobilized enzyme exhibited higher thermal stability at 60°C and retained 80% of the original enzyme activity in presence of 3% galactose. The crosslinked immobilized enzyme showed improved hydrolysis of lactose from milk and whey in batch processes at 50°C as well as in continuous reactors operated at fl ow rate of 20 mL/h and 30 mL/h even after one month. Moreover, crosslinked adsorbed β galactosidase retained 76% activity even after its sixth repeated use, thereby promoting its use for lactose hydrolysis in various dairy products even for longer durations.

  8. Chlorophyll Catabolites in Senescent Leaves of the Plum Tree (Prunus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Theresia; Mittelberger, Cecilia; Vergeiner, Clemens; Scherzer, Gerhard; Holzner, Barbara; Robatscher, Peter; Oberhuber, Michael; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2016-11-01

    In cold extracts of senescent leaves of the plum tree (Prunus domestica ssp. domestica), six colorless non-fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were characterized, named Pd-NCCs. In addition, several minor NCC fractions were tentatively classified. The structure of the most polar one of the NCCs, named Pd-NCC-32, featured an unprecedented twofold glycosidation pattern. Three of the NCCs are also functionalized at their 3 2 -position by a glucopyranosyl group. In addition, two of these glycosidated NCCs carry a dihydroxyethyl group at their 18-position. In the polar Pd-NCC-32, the latter group is further glycosidated at the terminal 18 2 -position. Four other major Pd-NCCs and one minor Pd-NCC were identified with five NCCs from higher plants known to belong to the 'epi'-series. In addition, tentative structures were derived for two minor fractions, classified as yellow chlorophyll catabolites, which represented (formal) oxidation products of two of the observed Pd-NCCs. The chlorophyll catabolites in leaves of plum feature the same basic structural pattern as those found in leaves of apple and pear trees. © 2016 The Authors. Chemistry & Biodiversity Published by Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. [Procedure of seed quality testing and seed grading standard of Prunus humilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hao; Ren, Guang-Xi; Gao, Ya; Luo, Jun; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Li, Wei-Dong

    2014-11-01

    So far there exists no corresponding quality test procedures and grading standards for the seed of Prunus humilis, which is one of the important source of base of semen pruni. Therefor we set up test procedures that are adapt to characteristics of the P. humilis seed through the study of the test of sampling, seed purity, thousand-grain weight, seed moisture, seed viability and germination percentage. 50 cases of seed specimens of P. humilis tested. The related data were analyzed by cluster analysis. Through this research, the seed quality test procedure was developed, and the seed quality grading standard was formulated. The seed quality of each grade should meet the following requirements: for first grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 68%, thousand-grain weight 383 g, purity ≥ 93%, seed moisture ≤ 5%; for second grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 26%, thousand-grain weight ≥ 266 g, purity ≥ 73%, seed moisture ≤9%; for third grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 10%, purity ≥ 50%, thousand-grain weight ≥ 08 g, seed moisture ≤ 13%.

  10. Sobrevivencia del duraznillo (Prunus annularis en plantación forestal y en sistemas agroforestales

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    Javier Monge

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la sobrevivencia inicial (30 meses del duraznillo (Prunus annularis en plantación forestal y en sistema agroforestal en la zona de vida Bosque muy Húmedo Montano Bajo, en Costa Rica. Se evaluó 5 tratamientos, en 2 lotes con 2 repeticiones en cada lote, en parcelas de 25 árboles (722 ha-1. Los sistemas de producción evaluados fueron: plantación forestal, con manejo de eliminación de malezas cada 4 meses (PF-4 y cada 2 meses (PF-2, y sistemas agroforestales duraznillo-naranjilla (Solanum quitoense, duraznillo-menta (Satureja viminea y duraznillo-maíz (Zea mays. La sobrevivencia a los 30 meses osciló entre 56 y 81% siendo menor en plantación forestal (PF-4. La sobrevivencia mostrada por el duraznillo se consideró intermedia con respecto a otras especies establecidas en sitios con la misma zona de vida.

  11. Antiproliferative terpenoids from almond hulls (Prunus dulcis): identification and structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Vincenzo; Barresi, Vincenza; Condorelli, Daniele; Spatafora, Carmela; Tringali, Corrado

    2006-02-08

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc crude extract from Sicilian almond hulls, a waste material from Prunus dulcis crop, allowed identification of 10 constituents, isolated as pure compounds (1-5, 7, and 10) or unseparable mixtures (5 + 6 and 8 + 9). All compounds were subjected to spectroscopic analysis and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide bioassay on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. In addition to the main components oleanolic (1), ursolic (2), and betulinic (3) acids, the 2-hydroxy analogues alphitolic (4), corosolic (5), and maslinic (6) acids, as well as the related aldehydes, namely, betulinic (7), oleanolic (8), and ursolic (9), were identified. From a more polar fraction, the beta-sitosterol 3-O-glucoside (10) was also identified. A sample of commercially available betulin (11) was also included in bioassays as further support to a structure-activity relationship study. Betulinic acid showed antiproliferative activity toward MCF-7 cells (GI50 = 0.27 microM), higher than the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil.

  12. Enantioselective Synthesis of Various Cyanohydrins Using Covalently Immobilized Preparations of Hydroxynitrile Lyase from Prunus dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagöz, Dilek; Tükel, S Seyhan; Yildirim, Deniz

    2015-11-01

    The carrier-based and carrier-free (cross-linked enzyme aggregate) covalent immobilizations of Prunus dulcis hydroxynitrile lyase were investigated. The immobilized preparations were tested for enantioselective carbon-carbon bond formation activity in the biphasic medium. Of the tested preparations, only cross-linked enzyme aggregate of P. dulcis hydroxynitrile lyase (PdHNL-CLEA) achieved the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile with 93% yield and 99% enantiopurity. PdHNL-CLEA was also used in the synthesis of various (R)-cyanohydrins from corresponding aldehydes/ketones and hydrocyanic acid. When 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, 4-methyl benzaldehyde, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde were used as substrates, the yield-enantiomeric excess of corresponding (R)-cyanohydrins were obtained as 95-95, 85-79, and 2-25%, respectively, after 96 h at pH 4.0 and 5 °C. For acetophenone, 4-fluoroacetophenone, 4-chloroacetophenone, 4-bromoacetophenone, and 4-iodoacetophenone, the yield-enantiomeric excess of corresponding (R)-cyanohydrins were 1-99, 20-84, 11-95, 5-99, and 3-24%, respectively at the same conditions. The results demonstrate PdHNL-CLEA can be effectively used in the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile.

  13. Recent advancements to study flowering time in almond and other Prunus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Del Cueto, Jorge; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Flowering time is an important agronomic trait in almond since it is decisive to avoid the late frosts that affect production in early flowering cultivars. Evaluation of this complex trait is a long process because of the prolonged juvenile period of trees and the influence of environmental conditions affecting gene expression year by year. Consequently, flowering time has to be studied for several years to have statistical significant results. This trait is the result of the interaction between chilling and heat requirements. Flowering time is a polygenic trait with high heritability, although a major gene Late blooming (Lb) was described in "Tardy Nonpareil." Molecular studies at DNA level confirmed this polygenic nature identifying several genome regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL) involved. Studies about regulation of gene expression are scarcer although several transcription factors have been described as responsible for flowering time. From the metabolomic point of view, the integrated analysis of the mechanisms of accumulation of cyanogenic glucosides and flowering regulation through transcription factors open new possibilities in the analysis of this complex trait in almond and in other Prunus species (apricot, cherry, peach, plum). New opportunities are arising from the integration of recent advancements including phenotypic, genetic, genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomics studies from the beginning of dormancy until flowering.

  14. Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) skins as a potential source of bioactive polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monagas, Maria; Garrido, Ignacio; Lebrón-Aguilar, Rosa; Bartolome, Begoña; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen

    2007-10-17

    An exhaustive study of the phenolic composition of almond ( Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) skins was carried out in order to evaluate their potential application as a functional food ingredient. Using the HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS technique, a total of 33 compounds corresponding to flavanols, flavonols, dihydroflavonols and flavanones, and other nonflavonoid compounds were identified. Peaks corresponding to another 23 structure-related compounds were also detected. MALDI-TOF MS was applied to characterize almond skin proanthocyanidins, revealing the existence of a series of A- and B-type procyanidins and propelargonidins up to heptamers, and A- and B-type prodelphinidins up to hexamers. Flavanols and flavonol glycosides were the most abundant phenolic compounds in almond skins, representing up to 38-57% and 14-35% of the total quantified phenolics, respectively. Due to their antioxidant properties, measured as oxygen-radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) at 0.398-0.500 mmol Trolox/g, almond skins can be considered as a value-added byproduct for elaborating dietary antioxidant ingredients.

  15. Synthesis of disaccharides using β-glucosidases from Aspergillus niger, A. awamori and Prunus dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ayla Sant'Ana; Molina, Javier Freddy; Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; Valdivieso Gelves, Luis G; Bon, Elba P S; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana S

    2017-11-01

    Glucose conversion into disaccharides was performed with β-glucosidases from Prunus dulcis (β-Pd), Aspergillus niger (β-An) and A. awamori (β-Aa), in reactions containing initial glucose of 700 and 900 g l -1 . The reactions' time courses were followed regarding glucose and product concentrations. In all cases, there was a predominant formation of gentiobiose over cellobiose and also of oligosaccharides with a higher molecular mass. For reactions containing 700 g glucose l -1 , the final substrate conversions were 33, 38, and 23.5% for β-An, β-Aa, and β-Pd, respectively. The use of β-An yielded 103 g gentiobiose l -1 (15.5% yield), which is the highest reported for a fungal β-glucosidase. The increase in glucose concentration to 900 g l -1 resulted in a significant increase in disaccharide synthesis by β-Pd, reaching 128 g gentiobiose l -1 (15% yield), while for β-An and β-Aa, there was a shift toward the synthesis of higher oligosaccharides. β-Pd and the fungal β-An and β-Aa β-glucosidases present quite dissimilar kinetics and selective properties regarding the synthesis of disaccharides; while β-Pd showed the highest productivity for gentiobiose synthesis, β-An presented the highest specificity.

  16. Some physico-chemical properties of Prunus armeniaca L. gum exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Morteza; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Koocheki, Arash

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this paper were to investigate some physicochemical properties of Prunus armeniaca L. gum exudates (PAGE). PAGE had, on average, 66.89% carbohydrate, 10.47% uronic acids, 6.9% moisture (w.b.), 2.91% protein, 4% ash and 1.59% fat. PAGE was composed of monosaccharides including l-arabinose, d-galactose, xylose, mannose and rhamnose in molar percentages of 41.52%, 23.72%, 17.82%, 14.40% and 2.54%, respectively. Elemental analysis showed that PAGE had high values of nutrients. FTIR analysis demonstrated the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and methyl groups and glycoside bonds. The weight average molecular weight, number average molecular weight and polydispersity index were found to be approximately 5.69 × 10(5)g/mol, 4.33 g/mol and 1.31, respectively. Rheological measurement of PAGE solutions as a function of concentration (8, 10 and 12% (w/w)) and temperature (10, 20, 30 and 40°C) demonstrated that the gum solutions had a non Newtonian shear thinning behaviour. Intrinsic viscosity for PAGE in deionized water was 3.438 dl/g based on Kramer equation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative effects of prolonged administration of cyanide, thiocyanate and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) to goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Blanco, B; Stegelmeier, B L; Pfister, J A; Gardner, D R; Panter, K E

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the clinical, hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes induced by cyanide, thiocyanate and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) in goats. Sixteen Boer-Spanish cross-bred female goats were divided into four treatment groups: (1) control, (2) potassium cyanide (KCN) at 3.8 mg kg(-1) day(-1), (3) potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) at 4.5 mg kg(-1) day(-1) and (4) ground frozen chokecherry leaves and flowers at a target dose of 2.5 mg HCN kg(-1) day(-1), all for 4 weeks. Clinical signs were observed in two goats treated with chokecherry. Only sporadic changes were found in the hematological and blood chemical panel. Goats treated with chokecherry and thiocyanate had an increased number of vacuoles in the colloid of thyroid glands. Spongiosis and spheroids were found in the mesencephalon from goats treated with KCN and chokecherry. These findings suggest the thyroid lesions can be attributed to thiocyanate, whereas the effects on the nervous system were most likely caused by cyanide.

  18. Propagation of the endangered Azorean cherry Prunus azorica using stem cuttings and air layering

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    MOREIRA, O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus azorica (Hort. ex Mouillef. Rivas Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Dias, J.C. Costa &C. Aguiar is an endangered tree endemic to the Azores, with an ecological and ornamentalinterest. The objective of this study was to determine the conditions necessary for thesuccessful propagation of P. azorica by stem cuttings and air-layering. Stem cuttingscollected in March with two apical leaf pairs pruned to 1/3 of their leaf area were submittedto different treatments, including a basal split wound, two rooting mixtures, namely, perlite and peat (1:1 or perlite and natural soil (1:1, and dipping of the base in indole-3-butyric acid (IBA solution at four concentrations (0, 2500, 5000 or 7000 mg/L. After eight weeks 75% rooting was achieved with 75 to 88% survival, without addition of IBA and with split wound using both substrate mixtures. Air layering was conducted in June in branches of adult trees with the addition of 0, 2500 or 3000 mg/L of IBA. After 12 months 100%rooting and survival was recorded in all treatments. Our study thus indicates that P. azorica is a taxon amenable for vegetative propagation by stem cuttings and air layering withoutrequiring addition of IBA to induce rooting. Both methods should be used in order to recover natural populations, when seeds are not available or are available in reduced amounts.

  19. Tractor-mounted, GPS-based spot fumigation system manages Prunus replant disease

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    V. Udompetaikul

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our research goal was to use recent advances in global positioning system (GPS and computer technology to apply just the right amount of fumigant where it is most needed (i.e., in a small target treatment zone in and around each tree replanting site to control Prunus replant disease (PRD. We developed and confirmed the function of (1 GPS-based software that can be used on cleared orchard land to flexibly plan and map all of an orchard's future tree sites and associated spot fumigation treatment zones and 2 a tractor-based GPS-controlled spot fumigation system to quickly and safely treat the targeted tree site treatment zones. In trials in two almond orchards and one peach orchard, our evaluations of the composite mapping and application system, which examined spatial accuracy of the spot treatments, delivery rate accuracy of the spot treatments, and tree growth responses to the spot treatments, all indicated that GPS spot fumigation has excellent potential to greatly reduce fumigant usage while adequately managing the PRD complex.

  20. Selection of autochthonous sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. genotypes in Feketić region

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    Radičević Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous genotypes of fruit species are very important source of genetic variability and valuable material for breeding work. Fruit Research Institute-Čačak has a long tradition of studying autochthonous genotypes of temperate fruits sporadically spread and preserved in some localities in Serbia. Over 2005-2006, the following properties of nine autochthonous sour cherry genotypes grown in Feketic region were investigated: flowering and ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits and field resistance to causal agents of cherry diseases - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz.. The genotypes were tested for the presence of Prune dwarf virus and Prunus necrotic ring spot virus. In majority of genotypes fruits were large, with exceptional organoleptical properties, whereas ripening time was in the first ten or twenty days of June. The highest fruit weight was observed in F-1 genotype (8.1 g. The highest soluble solids and total sugars content were found in F- 4 genotype (17.60% and 14.25%, respectively. As for field resistance to causal agents of diseases and good pomo-technological properties, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-7 and F-8 genotypes were singled out. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064

  1. Characterisation of stilbenes in California almonds (Prunus dulcis) by UHPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liyang; Bolling, Bradley W

    2014-04-01

    Stilbene polyphenols are present in some fruits and nuts, but their abundance in many foods, such as almonds, is unknown. Therefore, we characterised stilbenes from Nonpareil, Butte and Carmel almond (Prunus dulcis) varieties from California. UHPLC-MS conditions were optimised to resolve cis- and trans-resveratrol, d4-resveratrol, dienestrol, hexestrol, oxyresveratrol, piceatannol, pterostilbene, and resveratrol-3-β-glucoside (polydatin). Stilbenes were isolated from ethanolic almond extracts by solid-phase extraction and identified with UHPLC-MS by comparison of retention times, mass spectra, in-source CID spectra, and enzymatic hydrolysis to authentic standards. Polydatin was identified in almond extracts, with 7.19-8.52 μg/100 g almond. Piceatannol+oxyresveratrol was tentatively identified in almond blanch water, at 0.19-2.55 μg/100 g almond. Polydatin was concentrated in almond skins, which contained 95.6-97.5% of the total almond content. Therefore, almonds contain the stilbene class of polyphenols in addition to the previously identified proanthocyanidin, hydrolysable tannin, flavonoid, and phenolic acid classes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pollination Requirements of Almond (Prunus dulcis): Combining Laboratory and Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henselek, Yuki; Eilers, Elisabeth J; Kremen, Claire; Hendrix, Stephen D; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2018-03-08

    Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb; Rosales: Rosaceae) is a cash crop with an estimated global value of over seven billion U.S. dollars annually and commercial varieties are highly dependent on insect pollination. Therefore, the understanding of basic pollination requirements of the main varieties including pollination efficiency of honey bees (Apis mellifera, Linnaeus, Hymenoptera: Apidae) and wild pollinators is essential for almond production. We first conducted two lab experiments to examine the threshold number of pollen grains needed for successful pollination and to determine if varietal identity or diversity promotes fruit set and weight. Further, we examined stigma and ovules of flowers visited by Apis and non-Apis pollinators in the field to study the proportion of almond to non-almond pollen grains deposited, visitation time per flower visit, and tube set. Results indicate that the threshold for successful fertilization is around 60 pollen grains, but pollen can be from any compatible variety as neither pollen varietal identity nor diversity enhanced fruit set or weight. Andrena cerasifolii Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae) was a more effective pollinator on a per single visit basis than Apis and syrphid flies. Nevertheless, Apis was more efficient than A. cerasifolii and syrphid flies as they spent less time on a flower during a single visit. Hence, planting with two compatible varieties and managing for both Apis and non-Apis pollinators is likely to be an optimal strategy for farmers to secure high and stable pollination success.

  3. Exogenous application of ascorbic acid alleviates chilling injury in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi flowers

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    Hassan Bayat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that ascorbic acid (AA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of AA on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi were sprayed at pink cluster stage with AS at 4 levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg. L-1 and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at –4 °C or without cold stress (+ 25°C. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage (EL of flower buds and percentage of damage of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at - 4°C the lowest and highest percentage of damage and EL of flower buds were observed in application of 200 and 0 mg. L-1 AA, respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of damage of flower organs and EL were obtained in application of 300 and 200 mg. L-1 AA, respectively at + 25 °C. Based on the results of this experiment, AA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on EL and flower organ damages in apricot cv. Shahroudi, depending on the concentrations of AA used.

  4. Antioxidant Defenses in Plants with Attention to Prunus and Citrus spp.

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    Milvia Luisa Racchi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This short review briefly introduces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS as by-products of oxidation/reduction (redox reactions, and the ways in which the antioxidant defense machinery is involved directly or indirectly in ROS scavenging. Major antioxidants, both enzymatic and non enzymatic, that protect higher plant cells from oxidative stress damage are described. Biochemical and molecular features of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX are discussed because they play crucial roles in scavenging ROS in the different cell compartments and in response to stress conditions. Among the non enzymatic defenses, particular attention is paid to ascorbic acid, glutathione, flavonoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols. The operation of ROS scavenging systems during the seasonal cycle and specific developmental events, such as fruit ripening and senescence, are discussed in relation to the intense ROS formation during these processes that impact fruit quality. Particular attention is paid to Prunus and Citrus species because of the nutritional and antioxidant properties contained in these commonly consumed fruits.

  5. Microencapsulation of plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. phenolics by spray drying technology and storage stability

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    Yibin LI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To improve the stability of the phenolic extracts from plum fruit (Prunus salicina Lindl., the microencapsulation conditions of spray drying were optimized by the response surface method. The Box-Behnken experimental results indicated the optimal conditions involved an inlet air temperature of 142.8 °C, a core material content of 23.7% and a feed solids content of 11.7%. The maximum microencapsulating efficiency was 87.7% at optimal conditions. Further, the physicochemical properties of the microcapsule powders were improved overall due to the addition of the coating agents. There were no statistically significant differences in phenolic content of the obtained microcapsules for the first 40 days of storage at 25 °C in dark condition (p > 0.05, and the retention rate of total phenol remained above 85% after 60 days. Microcapsules can be potentially developed as a source of natural pigment or functional food based on the advantages of rich phenolic compounds and red color.

  6. Wound Healing Effects of Prunus yedoensis Matsumura Bark in Scalded Rats

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    Jin-Ho Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pruni Cortex has been used to treat asthma, measles, cough, urticaria, pruritus, and dermatitis in traditional Korean medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Prunus yedoensis Matsumura bark methanol extract (PYE on scald-induced dorsal skin wounds in rats. Scalds were produced in Sprague-Dawley rats with 100°C water and treated with 5% and 20% PYE (using Vaseline as a base, silver sulfadiazine (SSD, and Vaseline once a day for 21 days, beginning 24 hours after scald by treatment group allocation. The PYE-treated groups showed accelerated healing from 12 days after scald, demonstrated by rapid eschar exfoliation compared to the control and SSD groups. PYE-treated groups showed higher wound contraction rates and better tissue regeneration in comparison with the control group. Serum analysis showed that transforming growth factor beta 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels remained high or gradually increased up to day 14 in both PYE groups and then showed a sharp decline by day 21, implying successful completion of the inflammatory phase and initiation of tissue regeneration. These findings suggested that PYE is effective in promoting scald wound healing in the inflammation and tissue proliferation stages.

  7. Aroma peculiarities of apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. and cherry-plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. flowers

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    В. М. Горіна

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the component composition of volatile solutions determining fragrance of the flowers in apricot and cherry-plum varieties and Prunus brigantiaca Vill. x Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. hybrids there are 36 highest hydrocarbons and benzaldehyde that prevail. There are fewer amounts of the solutions which scare bees (benzaldehyde in the fragrance of cherry-plum varieties as compared to the flowers of apricot and hybrids. At the same time, the content of tricosane, pentacosane, docosane, heneycosane, eicosane, nonadecan that probably attract bees is higher in the cherry-plum flowers than in the fragrance of apricot and hybrid flowers. The average three years yield of cherry-plum plants (Nikitska Zhovta 10,7 and Salgirskaya Rumjanaya 28,5 t/ ha is higher than for apricot (Recolte de Schatene 0,3; Rodnik 2,9; Ananasniy Tsurupinsky 7,4 t/ha and hybrids (8110 – 5,2; 8098 – 6,4 t/ha that could be explained with better pollination of flowers and better fruit formation. Prevailing components of flower aroma of these plants    and their possible link with yield of the objects in questions have been analyzed.

  8. Flesh flies species (Diptera: Sarcophagidae from a grassland and a woodland in a Nature Reserve of Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Pablo R Mulieri

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Temporal changes of flesh flies abundance were simultaneously recorded at monthly intervals during a year in a woodland and in a grassland at the "Reserva Ecológica Costanera Sur" (RECS, Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Samples were taken at monthly intervals (February 2004-January 2005. Hourly captures of adult flies (10:00 am - 04:00 pm were taken each sampling date with a hand net. Temperature was recorded at each hourly capture. The baits used were 200 g of rotten cow liver and 200 g of fresh dog faeces. Records of abundance included only species whose abundance was ≥30 individuals accumulated during the whole sampling period. Considering overall abundance, a non-parametric Chi-square test was used to estimate deviations of an expected habitat and bait preference ratios of 1:1. The same criterion was applied to include species in a contingency table to describe their seasonality. The final matrix included four species whose associations to seasons were analyzed by using a Correspondence Analysis. To normalize the data, a log 10(n+1 transformation was applied prior to the analysis of correlation. Pearson product-moment correlations were used to examine the relationship between flesh-fly abundance with temperature and habitat preference. The entire sample accumulated 1 305 individuals and 18 species. The flies were more abundant in the grassland than in the woodland. Microcerella muehni, Oxysarcodexia paulistanensis, O. varia and Tricharaea (Sarcophagula occidua exhibited the higher relative abundance, representing the remaining species less than 8 % of the entire sample. Most of the recorded species showed preference for faces as bait. Concerning the dominant species, all of them but M. muehni, a suggestively termophobic species, prevailed in late spring-summer. The observed species arrangement at both sites indicates low species diversity and equitability and high information per individual in the average. The referred community traits would

  9. Enhanced accumulation of carotenoids in sweetpotato plants overexpressing IbOr-Ins gene in purple-fleshed sweetpotato cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Chul; Kim, Sun Ha; Park, Seyeon; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Lee, Joon Seol; Park, Woo Sung; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Yun-Hee; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] is an important root crop that produces low molecular weight antioxidants such as carotenoids and anthocyanin. The sweetpotato orange (IbOr) protein is involved in the accumulation of carotenoids. To increase the levels of carotenoids in the storage roots of sweetpotato, we generated transgenic sweetpotato plants overexpressing IbOr-Ins under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in an anthocyanin-rich purple-fleshed cultivar (referred to as IbOr plants). IbOr plants exhibited increased carotenoid levels (up to 7-fold) in their storage roots compared to wild type (WT) plants, as revealed by HPLC analysis. The carotenoid contents of IbOr plants were positively correlated with IbOr transcript levels. The levels of zeaxanthin were ∼ 12 times elevated in IbOr plants, whereas β-carotene increased ∼ 1.75 times higher than those of WT. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that most carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes were up-regulated in the IbOr plants, including PDS, ZDS, LCY-β, CHY-β, ZEP and Pftf, whereas LCY-ɛ was down-regulated. Interestingly, CCD1, CCD4 and NCED, which are related to the degradation of carotenoids, were also up-regulated in the IbOr plants. Anthocyanin contents and transcription levels of associated biosynthetic genes seemed to be altered in the IbOr plants. The yields of storage roots and aerial parts of IbOr plants and WT plants were not significantly different under field cultivation. Taken together, these results indicate that overexpression of IbOr-Ins can increase the carotenoid contents of sweetpotato storage roots. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-criteria optimization of the flesh melons skin separation process by experimental and statistical analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Medvedkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research and innovation activity to create energy-efficient processes in the melon processing, is a significant task. Separation skin from the melon flesh with their subsequent destination application in the creation of new food products is one of the time-consuming operations in this technology. Lack of scientific and experimental base of this operation holding back the development of high-performance machines for its implementation. In this connection, the technique of the experiment on the separation of the skins of melons in the pilot plant and the search for optimal regimes of its work methods by statistical modeling is offered. The late-ripening species of melon: Kalaysan, Thorlami, Gulab-sary are objects of study. Interaction of factors influencing on separating the melon skins process is carried out. A central composite rotatable design and fractional factorial experiment was used. Using the method of experimental design with treatment planning template in Design Expert v.10 software yielded a regression equations that adequately describe the actual process. Rational intervals input factors values are established: the ratio of the rotational speed of the drum to the abrasive supply roll rotational frequency; the gap between the supply drum and the shearing knife; shearing blade sharpening angle; the number of feed drum spikes; abrading drum orifices diameter. The mean square error does not exceed 12.4%. Regression equations graphic interpretation is presented by scatter plots and engineering nomograms that can be predictive of a choice of rational values of the input factors for three optimization criteria: minimal specific energy consumption in the process of cutting values, maximal specific performance by the pulp and pulp extraction ratio values. Obtained data can be used for the operational management of the process technological parameters, taking into account the geometrical dimensions of the melon and its inhomogeneous structure.

  11. Biogas recovery from tanning sludges. Anaerobic digestion of lime fleshings, tanning sludge, and unhairing baths, laboratory and pilot scale results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendrup, W.; Hansen, S.; Petersen, G.

    1983-11-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic digestion of various types of tannery and other wastes, separately or in mixtures, has been investigated. The following materials were used: Lime fleshings, Tannery sludge, Beamhouse sludge, Municipal sludge, Chrome leather shavings, Liquid manure. The investigations have shown anaerobic digestion to be possible with untanned tannery wastes as well as tannery effluent sludge as a substrate. Specially high gas yields were found by digestion of mixtures of tannery wastes and manure. This may be applicable to mixtures of tannery wastes and municipal sludge, too. The gas contains 0.5 - 1.0% H2S. About 25% of the gross energy (methane) output is used for sustaining the temperature necessary for the digestion together with the mixing and conveying of the material to be digested. If electricity is produced, 25% of the gross output is obtained as useful electric energy and 35% as useful thermic energy. If the gas is burned, 60% of the gross output is obtained as useful thermic energy. With the price relations found in most countries (e.g. Denmark, Finland and Sweden) it will be most profitable to produce electricity, whereas in some cases (e.g. Norway) the opposite may be true. The energy requirement of a typic Scandinavian tannery is 14.200 MJ/t rawhide as thermic energy and 2.300 MJ/t rawhide as electric energy, which means that maximum 14% of the thermic energy requirement or maximum 35% of the electricity requirement could be covered by the wastes digestion. Profitability calculations are made for each Scandinavian country. The calculations show that too small digestion plants are not profitable.

  12. Effects of dietary supplementation with krill meal on pigmentation and quality of flesh of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of administration of krill meal and synthetic astaxanthin during the finisher phase of the fattening cycle of rainbow trout on flesh pigmentation and quality traits were studied. The inclusion of krill meal increased the body weight and size and decreased the peri-visceral fat and visceral weight indices. The astaxanthin diet produced the highest accumulation of total carotenoids in the fillet compared to the krill meal diet: the difference was significant after 15 days of feeding (2.50 vs 2.10 mg/kg till the end of the trial (5.00 vs 4.80 mg/kg. The same pattern was observed for astaxanthin concentration with the highest values in the fillets of fish fed the astaxanthin diet. Fillet lightness (L* was not affected by trout diets whereas redness (a* and yellowness (b* were significantly higher in fish fed the astaxanthin diet until day 30 of the trial. Hue was not affected by feeding, whereas chroma was significantly higher in the fish fed astaxanthin throughout the trial except on day 45 of sampling. Trout fed the krill meal diet had a paler pink-red colour on the SalmoFan scale than those receiving the astaxanthin diet. No significant differences emerged in proximate composition and cholesterol content of trout in the two groups. The fatty acid profile of the fillets reflected the fatty acids of the diets administered to the trout: eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were significantly higher in the fish fed the krill meal.

  13. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) composite bread as a significant source of dietary vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awuni, Victoria; Alhassan, Martha Wunnam; Amagloh, Francis Kweku

    2018-01-01

    Refining food recipes with orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) has the potential to improve dietary intake of vitamin A. The objectives of this study were to utilize OFSP in the development of two composite bread types and to assess their contribution to dietary intake of vitamin A using the dietary reference intake of lactating mothers. Two composite OFSP-wheat flour bread recipes-vita butter bread and vita tea bread-were developed by incorporating 46% OFSP puree in existing 100% wheat flour bread recipes consumed by Ghanaians. A paired-preference test was used to profile the appearance, aroma, sweetness, and overall degree of liking of the vita butter bread and vita tea bread and their respective 100% wheat flour bread types. Weighed bread intake by lactating mothers ( n  =   50) was used to estimate the contribution to dietary vitamin A based on the trans β-carotene content. The developed vita butter bread and vita tea bread were most preferred by at least 77% ( p  bread was 247 g, and for vita tea bread was 196 g. The trans β-carotene content of vita butter bread and vita tea bread were found to be 1.333 mg/100 g and 0.985 mg/100 g, respectively. The estimated trans-β-carotene intake was 3,293 μg/day (vita butter) and 1,931 μg/day (vita tea) based on the weighed bread intake, respectively, meeting 21% and 12% of the daily requirement (1,300 μg RAE/day) for lactating mothers, the life stage group with the highest vitamin A requirement. OFSP therefore could composite wheat flour to bake butter and tea bread, and will contribute to significant amount of dietary intake of vitamin A.

  14. Insights into the Prunus-Specific S-RNase-Based Self-Incompatibility System from a Genome-Wide Analysis of the Evolutionary Radiation of S Locus-Related F-box Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Takashi; Henry, Isabelle M; Morimoto, Takuya; Tao, Ryutaro

    2016-06-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is an important plant reproduction mechanism that facilitates the maintenance of genetic diversity within species. Three plant families, the Solanaceae, Rosaceae and Plantaginaceae, share an S-RNase-based gametophytic SI (GSI) system that involves a single S-RNase as the pistil S determinant and several F-box genes as pollen S determinants that act via non-self-recognition. Previous evidence has suggested a specific self-recognition mechanism in Prunus (Rosaceae), raising questions about the generality of the S-RNase-based GSI system. We investigated the evolution of the pollen S determinant by comparing the sequences of the Prunus S haplotype-specific F-box gene (SFB) with those of its orthologs in other angiosperm genomes. Our results indicate that the Prunus SFB does not cluster with the pollen S of other plants and diverged early after the establishment of the Eudicots. Our results further indicate multiple F-box gene duplication events, specifically in the Rosaceae family, and suggest that the Prunus SFB gene originated in a recent Prunus-specific gene duplication event. Transcriptomic and evolutionary analyses of the Prunus S paralogs are consistent with the establishment of a Prunus-specific SI system, and the possibility of subfunctionalization differentiating the newly generated SFB from the original pollen S determinant. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Vegetative and seedling regeneration of pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica): Efficacy of herbicide treatment. NODA note No. 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, A U; Bell, F W; Peterson, G W

    1996-11-01

    Pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica L.) is a major competing plant commonly found in young conifer plantations in both boreal and northern hardwood forests. This note describes and presents results of a study conducted to determine, for pin cherry, the ratio of the current year`s seedling recruitment versus the previous year`s stem density; seed production; the soil seed bank; and the efficacy of a glyphosate herbicide treatment to control this competitor. The study was carried out in a seven-year-old jack pine plantation north of Atikokan, Ontario.

  16. Phylogeny of isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus from the Ilarvirus Ringtest and identification of group-specific features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R W

    2003-06-01

    Isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were examined to establish the level of naturally occurring sequence variation in the coat protein (CP) gene and to identify group-specific genome features that may prove valuable for the generation of diagnostic reagents. Phylogenetic analysis of a 452 bp sequence of 68 virus isolates, 20 obtained from the European Union Ilarvirus Ringtest held in October 1998, confirmed the clustering of the isolates into three distinct groups. Although no correlation was found between the sequence and host or geographic origin, there was a general trend for severe isolates to cluster into one group. Group-specific features have been identified for discrimination between virus strains.

  17. Compared leaf anatomy and water relations of commercial and traditional Prunus dulcis (Mill.) cultivars under rain-fed conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, I.; Meyer, A.; Afonso, S.

    2018-01-01

    Leaf anatomy and water relations of seven almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) cultivars, traditional (Bonita, Casanova, Parada, Pegarinhos and Verdeal) and commercial (Ferragnès and Glorieta), grown under rain-fed conditions, were studied. The performed measurements included thickness of leaf tissues...... cuticle thickness, while Pegarinhos adds a thicker epidermis and palisade parenchyma to increase protection to water loss. These data is one of the first comparative approaches to the leaf characterization of these cultivars, and should now be combined with physiological and biochemical studies...

  18. Validation of an accelerated solvent extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for Pacific ciguatoxin-1 in fish flesh and comparison with the mouse neuroblastoma assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia Jun; Mak, Yim Ling; Murphy, Margaret B; Lam, James C W; Chan, Wing Hei; Wang, Mingfu; Chan, Leo L; Lam, Paul K S

    2011-07-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a global foodborne illness caused by consumption of seafood containing ciguatoxins (CTXs) originating from dinoflagellates such as Gambierdiscus toxicus. P-CTX-1 has been suggested to be the most toxic CTX, causing ciguatera at 0.1 μg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. CTXs are structurally complex and difficult to quantify, but there is a need for analytical methods for CFP toxins in coral reef fishes to protect human health. In this paper, we describe a sensitive and rapid extraction method using accelerated solvent extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the detection and quantification of P-CTX-1 in fish flesh. By the use of a more sensitive MS system (5500 QTRAP), the validated method has a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.01 μg/kg, linearity correlation coefficients above 0.99 for both solvent- and matrix-based standard solutions as well as matrix spike recoveries ranging from 49% to 85% in 17 coral reef fish species. Compared with previous methods, this method has better overall recovery, extraction efficiency and LOQ. Fish flesh from 12 blue-spotted groupers (Cephalopholis argus) was assessed for the presence of CTXs using HPLC-MS/MS analysis and the commonly used mouse neuroblastoma assay, and the results of the two methods were strongly correlated. This method is capable of detecting low concentrations of P-CTX-1 in fish at levels that are relevant to human health, making it suitable for monitoring of suspected ciguateric fish both in the environment and in the marketplace.

  19. A Comprehensive Analysis of Chromoplast Differentiation Reveals Complex Protein Changes Associated with Plastoglobule Biogenesis and Remodeling of Protein Systems in Sweet Orange Flesh1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lun; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    Globular and crystalloid chromoplasts were observed to be region specifically formed in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) flesh and converted from amyloplasts during fruit maturation, which was associated with the composition of specific carotenoids and the expression of carotenogenic genes. Subsequent isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomic analyses of purified plastids from the flesh during chromoplast differentiation and senescence identified 1,386 putative plastid-localized proteins, 1,016 of which were quantified by spectral counting. The iTRAQ values reflecting the expression abundance of three identified proteins were validated by immunoblotting. Based on iTRAQ data, chromoplastogenesis appeared to be associated with three major protein expression patterns: (1) marked decrease in abundance of the proteins participating in the translation machinery through ribosome assembly; (2) increase in abundance of the proteins involved in terpenoid biosynthesis (including carotenoids), stress responses (redox, ascorbate, and glutathione), and development; and (3) maintenance of the proteins for signaling and DNA and RNA. Interestingly, a strong increase in abundance of several plastoglobule-localized proteins coincided with the formation of plastoglobules in the chromoplast. The proteomic data also showed that stable functioning of protein import, suppression of ribosome assembly, and accumulation of chromoplast proteases are correlated with the amyloplast-to-chromoplast transition; thus, these processes may play a collective role in chromoplast biogenesis and differentiation. By contrast, the chromoplast senescence process was inferred to be associated with significant increases in stress response and energy supply. In conclusion, this comprehensive proteomic study identified many potentially new plastid-localized proteins and provides insights into the potential developmental and molecular mechanisms underlying chromoplast

  20. Efeito do ácido indolbutírico no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de plantas de ameixeira (Prunus salicina, Lindl. Effect of indolbutyric acid on the rooting of plum branch cuttings (Prunus sofrena, Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kersten

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de quatro concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (IBA, no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de ameixeira (Prunus salicina, Lindl., coletadas de plantas tratadas com bórax e sulfato de zinco e controle, executado em quatro épocas. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em viveiros, sob condição de nebulização artificial intermitente. Os resultados obtidos mostram a influência de cultivar, época e concentração de IBA, não sendo verificado efeito de bórax ou sulfato de zinco na percentagem de estacas enraizadas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of four concentrations of indolbutyric acid on the rooting of plum branch cuttings (Prunus salicina, Lindl. collected from plants treated with borax and zinc sulfate, in four periods. The experiments were conducted in a nursery with intermitent artificial mist conditions. The results showed a positive effect of cultivars, periods and IBA concentrations, and there was no effect of either borax or zinc sulfate on rooting of branch cuttings.

  1. Genotyping by sequencing for SNP-based linkage analysis and identification of QTLs linked to fruit quality traits in Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) in stone fruit (Prunus species) breeding is currently difficult to achieve due to the polygenic nature of themost relevant agronomic traits linked to fruit quality. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS), however, provides a large quantity of useful data suitable for finemapp...

  2. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FOLIAR INJURY RESPONSES OF PRUNUS SEROTINA, FRAXINUS AMERICANA, AND ACER RUBRUM SEEDLINGS TO VARYING SOIL MOISTURE AND OZONE. (R825244)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings wer...

  3. Wintercuring of Prunus dulcis cv ‘Butte,’ P. webbii and their interspecific hybrid in response to Xylella fastidiosa infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonal replicates of Prunus dulcis cv ‘Butte,’ P. webbii and their interspecific hybrid P 63-61 were inoculated with Xylella fastidiosa strain M23 and evaluated for Almond Leaf Scorch Disease and subsequent wintercuring of infections during three growing seasons. Initial inoculations established gr...

  4. Mining microsatellites in the peach genome: development of new long-core SSR markers for genetic analyses in five Prunus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettori, Maria Teresa; Micali, Sabrina; Giovinazzi, Jessica; Scalabrin, Simone; Verde, Ignazio; Cipriani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    A wide inventory of molecular markers is nowadays available for individual fingerprinting. Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), play a relevant role due to their relatively ease of use, their abundance in the plant genomes, and their co-dominant nature, together with the availability of primer sequences in many important agricultural crops. Microsatellites with long-core motifs are more easily scored and were adopted long ago in human genetics but they were developed only in few crops, and Prunus species are not among them. In the present work the peach whole-genome sequence was used to select 216 SSRs containing long-core motifs with tri-, tetra- and penta-nucleotide repeats. Microsatellite primer pairs were designed and tested for polymorphism in the five diploid Prunus species of economic relevance (almond, apricot, Japanese plum, peach and sweet cherry). A set of 26 microsatellite markers covering all the eight chromosomes, was also selected and used in the molecular characterization, population genetics and structure analyses of a representative sample of the five diploid Prunus species, assessing their transportability and effectiveness. The combined probability of identity between two random individuals for the whole set of 26 SSRs was quite low, ranging from 2.30 × 10(-7) in peach to 9.48 × 10(-10) in almond, confirming the usefulness of the proposed set for fingerprinting analyses in Prunus species.

  5. An in situ, seasonal study of volatiles from a single cultivar of Prunus dulcis, and their relationship to navel orangeworm moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonpareil almonds, Prunus dulcis, account for the largest percentage of almond varieties grown in the Central and San Joaquin valleys of California. Several studies have investigated the various non-volatile and volatile components of various plant parts; however, the volatile organic compound (VOC)...

  6. Sucrose and light effects on in vitro cultures of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana L.) and Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) during low temperature storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruski, K.; Kozai, T.; Lewis, T.; Astatkie, T.; Nowak, J.

    2000-01-01

    Cultures of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. Atlantic, chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana L.) cv. Garrington and saskatoon berry (Amelancher alnifolia Nutt.) cv. Northline grown in vitro for 3 weeks at 24/22 °C, 16-h photoperiod, 150 μmol m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) mixed

  7. Ectopic expression of class 1 KNOX genes induce and adventitious shoot regeneration and alter growth and development of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and plum (Prunus domestica L) were produced by transforming with apple class 1 KNOX genes (MdKN1 and MdKN2) or corn KN1 gene. Transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated in vitro from transformed leaf discs cultured in a tissue medium lacking cytoki...

  8. Physiological and foliar symptom response of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ozone under differing site conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Schaub; J.M. Skelly; J.W. Zhang; J.A. Ferdinand; J.E. Savage; R.E. Stevenson; D.D. Davis; K.C. Steiner

    2005-01-01

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry ( Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash ( Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple ( Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania....

  9. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rubio

    Full Text Available RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925, which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  10. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka) Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Manuel; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Olivares, Pedro Manuel; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  11. Whole genome comparisons of Fragaria, Prunus and Malus reveal different modes of evolution between Rosaceous subfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sook; Cestaro, Alessandro; Troggio, Michela; Main, Dorrie; Zheng, Ping; Cho, Ilhyung; Folta, Kevin M; Sosinski, Bryon; Abbott, Albert; Celton, Jean-Marc; Arús, Pere; Shulaev, Vladimir; Verde, Ignazio; Morgante, Michele; Rokhsar, Daniel; Velasco, Riccardo; Sargent, Daniel James

    2012-04-04

    Rosaceae include numerous economically important and morphologically diverse species. Comparative mapping between the member species in Rosaceae have indicated some level of synteny. Recently the whole genome of three crop species, peach, apple and strawberry, which belong to different genera of the Rosaceae family, have been sequenced, allowing in-depth comparison of these genomes. Our analysis using the whole genome sequences of peach, apple and strawberry identified 1399 orthologous regions between the three genomes, with a mean length of around 100 kb. Each peach chromosome showed major orthology mostly to one strawberry chromosome, but to more than two apple chromosomes, suggesting that the apple genome went through more chromosomal fissions in addition to the whole genome duplication after the divergence of the three genera. However, the distribution of contiguous ancestral regions, identified using the multiple genome rearrangements and ancestors (MGRA) algorithm, suggested that the Fragaria genome went through a greater number of small scale rearrangements compared to the other genomes since they diverged from a common ancestor. Using the contiguous ancestral regions, we reconstructed a hypothetical ancestral genome for the Rosaceae 7 composed of nine chromosomes and propose the evolutionary steps from the ancestral genome to the extant Fragaria, Prunus and Malus genomes. Our analysis shows that different modes of evolution may have played major roles in different subfamilies of Rosaceae. The hypothetical ancestral genome of Rosaceae and the evolutionary steps that lead to three different lineages of Rosaceae will facilitate our understanding of plant genome evolution as well as have a practical impact on knowledge transfer among member species of Rosaceae.

  12. Genome-wide analysis of the GRAS gene family in Prunus mume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiuxing; Wang, Tao; Xu, Zongda; Sun, Lidan; Zhang, Qixiang

    2015-02-01

    Prunus mume is an ornamental flower and fruit tree in Rosaceae. We investigated the GRAS gene family to improve the breeding and cultivation of P. mume and other Rosaceae fruit trees. The GRAS gene family encodes transcriptional regulators that have diverse functions in plant growth and development, such as gibberellin and phytochrome A signal transduction, root radial patterning, and axillary meristem formation and gametogenesis in the P. mume genome. Despite the important roles of these genes in plant growth regulation, no findings on the GRAS genes of P. mume have been reported. In this study, we discerned phylogenetic relationships of P. mume GRAS genes, and their locations, structures in the genome and expression levels of different tissues. Out of 46 identified GRAS genes, 45 were located on the 8 P. mume chromosomes. Phylogenetic results showed that these genes could be classified into 11 groups. We found that Group X was P. mume-specific, and three genes of Group IX clustered with the rice-specific gene Os4. We speculated that these genes existed before the divergence of dicotyledons and monocotyledons and were lost in Arabidopsis. Tissue expression analysis indicated that 13 genes showed high expression levels in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, and were related to plant growth and development. Functional analysis of 24 GRAS genes and an orthologous relationship analysis indicated that many functioned during plant growth and flower and fruit development. Our bioinformatics analysis provides valuable information to improve the economic, agronomic and ecological benefits of P. mume and other Rosaceae fruit trees.

  13. Epicuticular wax on cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) leaves does not constitute the cuticular transpiration barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Epicuticular wax of cherry laurel does not contribute to the formation of the cuticular transpiration barrier, which must be established by intracuticular wax. Barrier properties of cuticles are established by cuticular wax deposited on the outer surface of the cuticle (epicuticular wax) and in the cutin polymer (intracuticular wax). It is still an open question to what extent epi- and/or intracuticular waxes contribute to the formation of the transpiration barrier. Epicuticular wax was mechanically removed from the surfaces of isolated cuticles and intact leaf disks of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.) by stripping with different polymers (collodion, cellulose acetate and gum arabic). Scanning electron microscopy showed that two consecutive treatments with all three polymers were sufficient to completely remove epicuticular wax since wax platelets disappeared and cuticle surfaces appeared smooth. Waxes in consecutive polymer strips and wax remaining in the cuticle after treatment with the polymers were determined by gas chromatography. This confirmed that two treatments of the polymers were sufficient for selectively removing epicuticular wax. Water permeability of isolated cuticles and cuticles covering intact leaf disks was measured using (3)H-labelled water before and after selectively removing epicuticular wax. Cellulose acetate and its solvent acetone led to a significant increase of cuticular permeability, indicating that the organic solvent acetone affected the cuticular transpiration barrier. However, permeability did not change after two subsequent treatments with collodion and gum arabic or after treatment with the corresponding solvents (diethyl ether:ethanol or water). Thus, in the case of P. laurocerasus the epicuticular wax does not significantly contribute to the formation of the cuticular transpiration barrier, which evidently must be established by the intracuticular wax.

  14. Evolutionary relationships in the ilarviruses: nucleotide sequence of prunus necrotic ringspot virus RNA 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Navarro, J A; Pallás, V

    1997-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an isolate of prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) RNA 3 has been determined. Elucidation of the amino acid sequence of the proteins encoded by the two large open reading frames (ORFs) allowed us to carry out comparative and phylogenetic studies on the movement (MP) and coat (CP) proteins in the ilarvirus group. Amino acid sequence comparison of the MP revealed a highly conserved basic sequence motif with an amphipathic alpha-helical structure preceding the conserved motif of the '30K superfamily' proposed by Mushegian and Koonin [26] for MP's. Within this '30K' motif a strictly conserved transmembrane domain is present in all ilarviruses sequenced so far. At the amino-terminal end, prune dwarf virus (PDV) has an extension not present in other ilarviruses but which is observed in all bromo- and cucumoviruses, suggesting a common ancestor or a recombinational event in the Bromoviridae family. Examination of the N-terminus of the CP's of all ilarviruses revealed a highly basic region, part of which resembles the Arg-rich motif that has been characterized in the RNA-binding protein family. This motif has also been found in the other members of the Bromoviridae family, suggesting its involvement in a structural function. Furthermore this region is required for infectivity in ilarviruses. The similarities found in this Arg-rich motif are discussed in terms of this process known as genome activation. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of both the MP and CP proteins revealed a higher relationship of A1MV to PNRSV, apple mosaic virus (ApMV) and PDV than any other member of the ilarvirus group. In that sense, A1MV should be considered as a true ilarvirus instead of forming a distinct group of viruses.

  15. The complete nucleotide sequence of RNA 3 of a peach isolate of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R W; Crosslin, J M

    1995-04-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of RNA 3 of the PE-5 peach isolate of Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV) was obtained from cloned cDNA. The RNA sequence is 1941 nucleotides and contains two open reading frames (ORFs). ORF 1 consisted of 284 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 31,729 Da and ORF 2 contained 224 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 25,018 Da. ORF 2 corresponds to the coat protein gene. Expression of ORF 2 engineered into a pTrcHis vector in Escherichia coli results in a fusion polypeptide of approximately 28 kDa which cross-reacts with PNRSV polyclonal antiserum. Analysis of the coat protein amino acid sequence reveals a putative "zinc-finger" domain at the amino-terminal portion of the protein. Two tetranucleotide AUGC motifs occur in the 3'-UTR of the RNA and may function in coat protein binding and genome activation. ORF 1 homologies to other ilarviruses and alfalfa mosaic virus are confined to limited regions of conserved amino acids. The translated amino acid sequence of the coat protein gene shows 92% similarity to one isolate of apple mosaic virus, a closely related member of the ilarvirus group of plant viruses, but only 66% similarity to the amino acid sequence of the coat protein gene of a second isolate. These relationships are also reflected at the nucleotide sequence level. These results in one instance confirm the close similarities observed at the biophysical and serological levels between these two viruses, but on the other hand call into question the nomenclature used to describe these viruses.

  16. Oxidative stress induction by Prunus necrotic ringspot virus infection in apricot seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, Khalid; Díaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Pallás, Vincente; Sánchez-Pina, María Amelia; Hernández, José Antonio

    2007-10-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot rvirus (PNRSV) was able to invade the immature apricot seed including the embryo. The amount of virus was very high inside the embryo compared with that present in the cotyledons. PNRSV infection produced an oxidative stress in apricot seeds as indicated by the increase in lipid peroxidation, measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. This lipid peroxidation increase was parallelled with an imbalance in the seed antioxidant enzymes. A significant decrease in the ascorbate-GSH cycle enzymes as well as in peroxidase (POX) activity took place in infected seeds, suggesting a low capability to eliminate H2O2. No changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase activity were observed. A significant decrease in polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity was also observed. Native PAGE revealed the presence of three different SOD activity bands in apricot seeds: a Mn-containing SOD and two CuZn-containing SODs. Only an isozyme with catalase, glutathione reductase (GR) or PPO activity was detected in both healthy and infected apricot seeds. Regarding POX staining, three bands with POX activity were detected in native gels in both healthy and infected seeds. The gel results emphasise that the drop detected in POX, GR and PPO activities in PNRSV-infected apricot seeds by kinetic analyses was also evident from the results obtained by native PAGE. The oxidative stress and the imbalance in the antioxidant systems from PNRSV-infected apricot seeds resemble the hypersensitive response observed in some virus-host interactions. This defence mechanism would inactivate PNRSV during seed formation and/or the storage period or even during seed germination. Those results can explain the decrease in seed germination and the low transmission of PNRSV by seeds in apricot trees.

  17. Management of genetic resources in the nursery system of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proietti R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of genetic and adaptive traits of reproductive materials used in the nursery system of wild cherry, could be an useful instrument to improve ecological and economic sustainability of plantation ecosystems. This work reports results from a research which the objectives were: 1 to study the genetic variation of a Prunus avium L. Population, used for seed harvesting, through its multi-locus genotypes detected by starch gel electrophoresis; 2 to analyze the level of genetic variation within and among different steps in a commercial nursery system (basic population and sub-populations, seedlings aged S1T1 and S1T2, plantation. Results showed low genetic variation levels of the basic population, similar to a reference system of other 12 wild cherry Italian populations and to other French and Caucasian materials. The genetic distances among Monte Baldo and some closer Lombardy provenances (Area Garda, Bosco Fontana, Valtellina were smaller than the Venice Region populations (Monti Lessini and Asiago. Number of alleles and percentage of polymorphic loci within the complex of Monte Baldo provenance and multiplication materials were similar, whilst a variable value of Fis was noted. Indeed, along with the nursery system until the plantation, heterozygosis initially (S1T1 increased, then decreased proceeding to the plantation. This fluctuation of FIS values could be determined by seed lots characterized initially by higher levels of variation, due to self-incompatibility. In the following steps, a possible selection pressure can affect randomly the genotypic structure of wild cherry by increasing the homozygosity. There is not among population a well defined geographic characterization, as suggested by genetic distances, therefore homogeneous seed harvest could be established an area larger than geographic and administrative borders. On this way we could have reproductive material with a wide genetic base and environmental adaptability. To

  18. Dual role of imidazole as activator/inhibitor of sweet almond (Prunus dulcis β-glucosidase

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    Sara Caramia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The activity of Prunus dulcis (sweet almond β-glucosidase at the expense of p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside at pH 6 was determined, both under steady-state and pre-steady-state conditions. Using crude enzyme preparations, competitive inhibition by 1–5 mM imidazole was observed under both kinetic conditions tested. However, when imidazole was added to reaction mixtures at 0.125–0.250 mM, we detected a significant enzyme activation. To further inspect this effect exerted by imidazole, β-glucosidase was purified to homogeneity. Two enzyme isoforms were isolated, i.e. a full-length monomer, and a dimer containing a full-length and a truncated subunit. Dimeric β-glucosidase was found to perform much better than the monomeric enzyme, independently of the kinetic conditions used to assay enzyme activity. In addition, the sensitivity towards imidazole was found to differ between the two isoforms. While monomeric enzyme was indeed found to be relatively insensitive to imidazole, dimeric β-glucosidase was observed to be significantly activated by 0.125–0.250 mM imidazole under pre-steady-state conditions. Further, steady-state assays revealed that the addition of 0.125 mM imidazole to reaction mixtures increases the Km of dimeric enzyme from 2.3 to 6.7 mM. The activation of β-glucosidase dimer by imidazole is proposed to be exerted via a conformational transition poising the enzyme towards proficient catalysis.

  19. Dual role of imidazole as activator/inhibitor of sweet almond (Prunus dulcis) β-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramia, Sara; Gatius, Angela Gala Morena; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Gaja, Denis; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro

    2017-07-01

    The activity of Prunus dulcis (sweet almond) β-glucosidase at the expense of p -nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside at pH 6 was determined, both under steady-state and pre-steady-state conditions. Using crude enzyme preparations, competitive inhibition by 1-5 mM imidazole was observed under both kinetic conditions tested. However, when imidazole was added to reaction mixtures at 0.125-0.250 mM, we detected a significant enzyme activation. To further inspect this effect exerted by imidazole, β-glucosidase was purified to homogeneity. Two enzyme isoforms were isolated, i.e. a full-length monomer, and a dimer containing a full-length and a truncated subunit. Dimeric β-glucosidase was found to perform much better than the monomeric enzyme, independently of the kinetic conditions used to assay enzyme activity. In addition, the sensitivity towards imidazole was found to differ between the two isoforms. While monomeric enzyme was indeed found to be relatively insensitive to imidazole, dimeric β-glucosidase was observed to be significantly activated by 0.125-0.250 mM imidazole under pre-steady-state conditions. Further, steady-state assays revealed that the addition of 0.125 mM imidazole to reaction mixtures increases the K m of dimeric enzyme from 2.3 to 6.7 mM. The activation of β-glucosidase dimer by imidazole is proposed to be exerted via a conformational transition poising the enzyme towards proficient catalysis.

  20. Whole genome comparisons of Fragaria, Prunus and Malus reveal different modes of evolution between Rosaceous subfamilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sook

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rosaceae include numerous economically important and morphologically diverse species. Comparative mapping between the member species in Rosaceae have indicated some level of synteny. Recently the whole genome of three crop species, peach, apple and strawberry, which belong to different genera of the Rosaceae family, have been sequenced, allowing in-depth comparison of these genomes. Results Our analysis using the whole genome sequences of peach, apple and strawberry identified 1399 orthologous regions between the three genomes, with a mean length of around 100 kb. Each peach chromosome showed major orthology mostly to one strawberry chromosome, but to more than two apple chromosomes, suggesting that the apple genome went through more chromosomal fissions in addition to the whole genome duplication after the divergence of the three genera. However, the distribution of contiguous ancestral regions, identified using the multiple genome rearrangements and ancestors (MGRA algorithm, suggested that the Fragaria genome went through a greater number of small scale rearrangements compared to the other genomes since they diverged from a common ancestor. Using the contiguous ancestral regions, we reconstructed a hypothetical ancestral genome for the Rosaceae 7 composed of nine chromosomes and propose the evolutionary steps from the ancestral genome to the extant Fragaria, Prunus and Malus genomes. Conclusion Our analysis shows that different modes of evolution may have played major roles in different subfamilies of Rosaceae. The hypothetical ancestral genome of Rosaceae and the evolutionary steps that lead to three different lineages of Rosaceae will facilitate our understanding of plant genome evolution as well as have a practical impact on knowledge transfer among member species of Rosaceae.

  1. Effects of Lactic Acid Fermentation on the Retention of Β-Carotene Content in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benard O. Oloo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish the effects of lactic fermentation on the levels of β-carotene in selected  orange fleshed sweet potato (OFSP varieties from Kenya.  Furthermore,it sought to demonstrate fermentation as a potential process for making new products from sweet potato with enhanced nutraceutical attributes. The varieties (Zapallo, Nyathiodiewo and SPK004/06 were fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1407 at 25 ± 2°C for 48 h and kept for 28 days to make lacto-pickles. During fermentation both analytical [pH, titratable acidity (TA, lactic acid (LA, starch, total sugar, reducing sugar (g/kg roots, texture (N/m2, β-carotene (mg/kg roots] and sensory (texture, taste, flavour and after taste attributes of sweet potato lacto-juice were evaluated. Process conditions were optimized by varying brine levels, with fermentation time. A UV-visible spectrophotometer was used to identify and quantify β-carotene. Any significant variations (p < 0.05 in analytical attributes between the fermented and unfermented samples (pH, LA, TA and β-carotene concentration of lacto-pickles, prepared from the potato roots, were assessed. The study reported a final composition of 156.49mg/kg, 0.53mg/kg, 0.3N/m2, 1.3g/kg, 5.86g/kg, 0.5g/kg and 5.86g/kg for β-carotene, Ascorbic acid, texture; Starch, total sugars, LA and TA respectively, and a pH of 3.27. The fermented products were subjected to flavour profiling by a panel. The product sensory scores were 1.5 to 2.5 on a 5 point hedonic scale, ranging from dislike slightly to like much. The products with brine levels at 4 and 6% were most preferred. The retention of β-carotene was 93.97%. This demonstrated lactic acid fermentation as a better method for processing OFSP as the main nutritional attributes are retained. The final product was resistant to spoilage microorganisms after 28 days of fermentation. Further preservation could be obtained by addition of sodium metabisulphite. In conclusion, Lactic

  2. Multiple Events of Allopolyploidy in the Evolution of the Racemose Lineages in Prunus (Rosaceae Based on Integrated Evidence from Nuclear and Plastid Data.

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    Liang Zhao

    Full Text Available Prunus is an economically important genus well-known for cherries, plums, almonds, and peaches. The genus can be divided into three major groups based on inflorescence structure and ploidy levels: (1 the diploid solitary-flower group (subg. Prunus, Amygdalus and Emplectocladus; (2 the diploid corymbose group (subg. Cerasus; and (3 the polyploid racemose group (subg. Padus, subg. Laurocerasus, and the Maddenia group. The plastid phylogeny suggests three major clades within Prunus: Prunus-Amygdalus-Emplectocladus, Cerasus, and Laurocerasus-Padus-Maddenia, while nuclear ITS trees resolve Laurocerasus-Padus-Maddenia as a paraphyletic group. In this study, we employed sequences of the nuclear loci At103, ITS and s6pdh to explore the origins and evolution of the racemose group. Two copies of the At103 gene were identified in Prunus. One copy is found in Prunus species with solitary and corymbose inflorescences as well as those with racemose inflorescences, while the second copy (II is present only in taxa with racemose inflorescences. The copy I sequences suggest that all racemose species form a paraphyletic group composed of four clades, each of which is definable by morphology and geography. The tree from the combined At103 and ITS sequences and the tree based on the single gene s6pdh had similar general topologies to the tree based on the copy I sequences of At103, with the combined At103-ITS tree showing stronger support in most clades. The nuclear At103, ITS and s6pdh data in conjunction with the plastid data are consistent with the hypothesis that multiple independent allopolyploidy events contributed to the origins of the racemose group. A widespread species or lineage may have served as the maternal parent for multiple hybridizations involving several paternal lineages. This hypothesis of the complex evolutionary history of the racemose group in Prunus reflects a major step forward in our understanding of diversification of the genus and has

  3. Multiyear evaluation of the durability of the resistance conferred by Ma and RMia genes to Meloidogyne incognita in Prunus under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallouk, Samira; Voisin, Roger; Portier, Ulysse; Polidori, Joël; Van Ghelder, Cyril; Esmenjaud, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) (Meloidogyne spp.) are highly polyphagous pests that parasitize Prunus crops in Mediterranean climates. Breeding for RKN-resistant Prunus cultivars, as an alternative to the now-banned use of nematicides, is a real challenge, because the perennial nature of these trees increases the risk of resistance breakdown. The Ma plum resistance (R) gene, with a complete spectrum, and the RMia peach R gene, with a more restricted spectrum, both provide total control of Meloidogyne incognita, the model parthenogenetic species of the genus and the most important RKN in terms of economic losses. We investigated the durability of the resistance to this nematode conferred by these genes, comparing the results obtained with those for the tomato Mi-1 reference gene. In multiyear experiments, we applied a high and continuous nematode inoculum pressure by cultivating nematode-infested susceptible tomato plants with either Prunus accessions carrying Ma or RMia R genes, or with resistant tomato plants carrying the Mi-1 gene. Suitable conditions for Prunus development were achieved by carrying out the studies in a glasshouse, in controlled conditions allowing a short winter leaf fall and dormancy. We first assessed the plum accession 'P.2175', which is heterozygous for the Ma gene, in two successive 2-year evaluations, for resistance to two M. incognita isolates. Whatever the isolate used, no nematodes reproducing on P.2175 were detected, whereas galls and nematodes reproducing on tomato plants carrying Mi-1 were observed. In a second experiment with the most aggressive isolate, interspecific full-sib material (P.2175 × ['Garfi' almond × 'Nemared' peach]), carrying either Ma or RMia (from Nemared) or both (in the heterozygous state) or neither of these genes, was evaluated for 4 years. No virulent nematodes developed on Prunus spp. carrying R genes, whereas galling and virulent individuals were observed on Mi-1-resistant tomato plants. Thus, the resistance to

  4. Evaluation of multiple approaches to identify genome-wide polymorphisms in closely related genotypes of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.

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    Seanna Hewitt

    Full Text Available Identification of genetic polymorphisms and subsequent development of molecular markers is important for marker assisted breeding of superior cultivars of economically important species. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. is an economically important non-climacteric tree fruit crop in the Rosaceae family and has undergone a genetic bottleneck due to breeding, resulting in limited genetic diversity in the germplasm that is utilized for breeding new cultivars. Therefore, it is critical to recognize the best platforms for identifying genome-wide polymorphisms that can help identify, and consequently preserve, the diversity in a genetically constrained species. For the identification of polymorphisms in five closely related genotypes of sweet cherry, a gel-based approach (TRAP, reduced representation sequencing (TRAPseq, a 6k cherry SNParray, and whole genome sequencing (WGS approaches were evaluated in the identification of genome-wide polymorphisms in sweet cherry cultivars. All platforms facilitated detection of polymorphisms among the genotypes with variable efficiency. In assessing multiple SNP detection platforms, this study has demonstrated that a combination of appropriate approaches is necessary for efficient polymorphism identification, especially between closely related cultivars of a species. The information generated in this study provides a valuable resource for future genetic and genomic studies in sweet cherry, and the insights gained from the evaluation of multiple approaches can be utilized for other closely related species with limited genetic diversity in the breeding germplasm. Keywords: Polymorphisms, Prunus avium, Next-generation sequencing, Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP, Genetic diversity, SNParray, Reduced representation sequencing, Whole genome sequencing (WGS

  5. Genotyping-by-sequencing in an orphan plant species Physocarpus opulifolius helps identify the evolutionary origins of the genus Prunus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buti, Matteo; Sargent, Daniel J; Mhelembe, Khethani G; Delfino, Pietro; Tobutt, Kenneth R; Velasco, Riccardo

    2016-05-11

    The Rosaceae family encompasses numerous genera exhibiting morphological diversification in fruit types and plant habit as well as a wide variety of chromosome numbers. Comparative genomics between various Rosaceous genera has led to the hypothesis that the ancestral genome of the family contained nine chromosomes, however, the synteny studies performed in the Rosaceae to date encompass species with base chromosome numbers x = 7 (Fragaria), x = 8 (Prunus), and x = 17 (Malus), and no study has included species from one of the many Rosaceous genera containing a base chromosome number of x = 9. A genetic linkage map of the species Physocarpus opulifolius (x = 9) was populated with sequence characterised SNP markers using genotyping by sequencing. This allowed for the first time, the extent of the genome diversification of a Rosaceous genus with a base chromosome number of x = 9 to be performed. Orthologous loci distributed throughout the nine chromosomes of Physocarpus and the eight chromosomes of Prunus were identified which permitted a meaningful comparison of the genomes of these two genera to be made. The study revealed a high level of macro-synteny between the two genomes, and relatively few chromosomal rearrangements, as has been observed in studies of other Rosaceous genomes, lending further support for a relatively simple model of genomic evolution in Rosaceae.

  6. Development of novel techniques to extract phenolic compounds from Romanian cultivars of Prunus domestica L. and their biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Andrei; Diuzheva, Alina; Carradori, Simone; Andruch, Vasil; Massafra, Chiara; Moldovan, Cadmiel; Sisea, Cristian; Petzer, Jacobus P; Petzer, Anél; Zara, Susi; Marconi, Guya Diletta; Zengin, Gokhan; Crișan, Gianina; Locatelli, Marcello

    2018-04-21

    In the present work, fourteen cultivars of Prunus domestica were analysed to investigate their phenolic pattern with the purpose of using the leaves as potential resources of bioactive compounds in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and sugaring-out liquid-liquid extraction techniques were optimized in order to obtain an exhaustive multi-component panel of phenolic compounds. The best phenolic-enriched recovery was achieved using MAE in water:methanol (30:70), and this procedure was further applied for quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds in real samples. In order to prove the safeness of these extracts, the biological potential of the Prunus cultivars was tested by several in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory assays. Moreover, their cytotoxicity was evaluated on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), and in most of the cases the treatment with different concentrations of extracts didn't show cytotoxicity up to 500 μg/mL. Only 'Carpatin' and 'Minerva' cultivars, at 250 and 500 μg/mL, reduced partially cell viability of HGFs population. Noteworthy, Centenar cultivar was the most active for the α-glucosidase inhibition (6.77 mmolACAE/g extract), whereas Ialomița cultivar showed the best antityrosinase activity (23.07 mgKAE/g extract). Overall, leaves of P. domestica represent a rich alternative source of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. History in the Flesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencard, Adam

    drevet af en historisering, en vilje til at placere historie hvor der før var biologi.   Denne afhandling undersøger denne interesse i kroppen gennem en analyse af hvad jeg kalder den historiserede krop som diskursiv figur. Den historiserede krop er ikke et klart aftegnet koncept eller en skarp afgrænset...

  8. Bias in the Flesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, Solomon; Jabon, Maria; Plaut, Ethan

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence linking skin complexion to negative stereotypes and adverse real-world outcomes. We extend these findings to political ad campaigns, in which skin complexion can be easily manipulated in ways that are difficult to detect. Devising a method to measure how dark a candidate appears in an image, this paper examines how complexion varied with ad content during the 2008 presidential election campaign (study 1). Findings show that darker images were more frequent in negative ads—especially those linking Obama to crime—which aired more frequently as Election Day approached. We then conduct an experiment to document how these darker images can activate stereotypes, and show that a subtle darkness manipulation is sufficient to activate the most negative stereotypes about Blacks—even when the candidate is a famous counter-stereotypical exemplar—Barack Obama (study 2). Further evidence of an evaluative penalty for darker skin comes from an observational study measuring affective responses to depictions of Obama with varying skin complexion, presented via the Affect Misattribution Procedure in the 2008 American National Election Study (study 3). This study demonstrates that darker images are used in a way that complements ad content, and shows that doing so can negatively affect how individuals evaluate candidates and think about politics. PMID:27257306

  9. From flesh to fossils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek-Thomsen, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    was influenced by humanistic uses of historia. The use of historia enabled Steno to produce a knowledge that was both useful as a Medicean instrument of power, and allowed him to secure a truthful geological thesis without Aristotelian causes. From this perspective it becomes not so much a question of how...

  10. Anti-plaque effect of a synergistic combination of green tea and Salvadora persica L. against primary colonizers of dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulbaqi, Hayder Raad; Himratul-Aznita, Wan Harun; Baharuddin, Nor Adinar

    2016-10-01

    Green tea (Gt), leafs of Camellia sinensis var. assamica, is widely consumed as healthy beverage since thousands of years in Asian countries. Chewing sticks (miswak) of Salvadora persica L. (Sp) are traditionally used as natural brush to ensure oral health in developing countries. Both Gt and Sp extracts were reported to have anti-bacterial activity against many dental plaque bacteria. However, their combination has never been tested to have anti-bacterial and anti-adherence effect against primary dental plaque colonizers, playing an initial role in the dental plaque development, which was investigated in this study. Two-fold serial micro-dilution method was used to measure minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of aqueous extracts of Gt, Sp and their combinations. Adsorption to hexadecane was used to determine the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of bacterial cells. Glass beads were used to mimic the hard tissue surfaces, and were coated with saliva to develop experimental pellicles for the adhesion of the primary colonizing bacteria. Gt aqueous extracts exhibited better anti-plaque effect than Sp aqueous extracts. Their combination, equivalent to 1/4 and 1/2 of MIC values of Gt and Sp extracts respectively, showed synergistic anti-plaque properties with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) equal to 0.75. This combination was found to significantly reduce CSH (pplaque activity, and could be used as a useful active agent to produce oral health care products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aphid (Myzus persicae) feeding on the parasitic plant dodder (Cuscuta australis) activates defense responses in both the parasite and soybean host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Huifu; Li, Juan; Song, Juan; Hettenhausen, Christian; Schuman, Meredith C; Sun, Guiling; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Jing; Song, Dunlun; Wu, Jianqiang

    2018-06-01

    Dodders (Cuscuta spp.) are shoot holoparasites, whose haustoria penetrate host tissues to enable fusion between the parasite and host vascular systems, allowing Cuscuta to extract water, nutrients and other molecules from hosts. Aphids are piercing-sucking herbivores that use specialized stylets to feed on phloem sap. Aphids are known to feed on Cuscuta, but how Cuscuta and its host plant respond to aphids attacking the parasite was unknown. Phytohormone quantification, transcriptomic analysis and bioassays were performed to determine the responses of Cuscuta australis and its soybean (Glycine max) hosts to the feeding of green peach aphid (GPA; Myzus persicae) on C. australis. Decreased salicylic acid levels and 172 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found in GPA-attacked C. australis, and the soybean hosts exhibited increased jasmonic acid contents and 1015 DEGs, including > 100 transcription factor genes. Importantly, GPA feeding on C. australis increased the resistance of the soybean host to subsequent feeding by the leafworm Spodoptera litura and soybean aphid Aphis glycines, resulting in 21% decreased leafworm mass and 41% reduced aphid survival rate. These data strongly suggest that GPA feeding on Cuscuta induces a systemic signal, which is translocated to hosts and activates defense against herbivores. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Mitodepressive, antioxidant, antifungal and anti-inflammatory effects of wild-growing Romanian native Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) and Veronica persica Poiret (Plantaginaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierascu, Radu Claudiu; Georgiev, Milen I; Fierascu, Irina; Ungureanu, Camelia; Avramescu, Sorin Marius; Ortan, Alina; Georgescu, Mihaela Ioana; Sutan, Anca Nicoleta; Zanfirescu, Anca; Dinu-Pirvu, Cristina Elena; Velescu, Bruno Stefan; Anuta, Valentina

    2018-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the potential uses of hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from Romanian native wild-growing plants. The hydroalcoholic extracts were obtained from the burdock roots and respectively the aerial parts of birdeye speedwell. The extracts were characterised by HPLC (quantifying 13 compounds in the V. persica extract, 6 compounds in the A. lappa extract and confirming the presence of arctiin and arctigenin in the burdock extract). The antioxidant potential of the crude extracts was evaluated using two methods: the DPPH assay (79.91% for speedwell extract, 76.23% for burdock extract) and the phosphomolybdate method (296.5 mg/g ascorbic acid equivalents for burdock, 324.4 mg/g for speedwell). The crude extracts were found to be active against both fungal lines used (Aspergillus niger and Penicillium hirsutum), inhibition zones - 17.1 mm and 13.1 mm against P. hirsutum, respectively ca. 22 mm for both extracts against A. niger. The cytogenetic effects (assessed using the Allium cepa assay) revealed a series of chromosomal aberrations and nuclear aberrations induced in the meristematic root cells. The anti-inflammatory effect, estimated in two inflammation experimental models, showed a significant effect, especially for the speedwell extract. The results recommend the evaluated extracts as promising sources of biologically-active compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterisation of some exotic fruits (Morus nigra, Morus alba, Salvadora persica and Carissa opaca) used as herbal medicines by neutron activation analysis and estimation of their nutritional value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Wasim; Muhammad Daud; Mohammad Arif; Sajid Iqbal; Yasir Anwar

    2012-01-01

    In the under developed countries, the people of far-flung rural areas still depend to a large extent upon herbal medicines. At the foundation of usage of herbal medicine is the experience of thousands of years. The present paper deals with the characterisation of exotic fruits for essential and toxic elements. The samples include Morus nigra, Morus alba, Salvadora persica and Carissa opaca (from low and high altitude). Two standardizations of neutron activation analysis, that is, semi-absolute k 0-instrumental neutron activation analysis (k 0 -INAA) and epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) were employed for the quantification of elements. The analysis methodologies were validated by analyzing the IAEA-336 (lichen) and NIST-SRM-1572 (citrus leaves). Sixteen elements including Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc Sr, and Zn were determined in all samples. Daily intakes of various elements from the samples were measured and compared with the dietary reference intakes. Additionally, principal component analysis was performed to extract information regarding samples and elements. (author)

  14. Infestation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by the peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) alters cellular redox status and is influenced by ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchev, Pavel I; Fenton, Brian; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2012-02-01

    The peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) is a major pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) but the molecular characterization of this interaction particularly with regard to oxidants and antioxidants remains to be undertaken. Aphid colonies reared on potato leaves containing high ascorbate were twice the size of those grown on leaves with low ascorbate. Infestation-dependent decreases in the abundance of key transcripts such as chloroplastic FeSOD, peroxisomal catalase 2, PR1 and JAZ1 preceded detectable leaf H(2)O(2) or polyphenol accumulation. The leaf glutathione pool was increased 48 h after infestation, but the amount of ascorbate was unchanged. The ascorbate/dehydroacorbate (DHA) ratio was lower at 48 h but the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was unchanged. While DHA reductase and GSSG reductase activities were unaffected by aphid feeding, non-specific peroxidase activities were enhanced 48 h following aphid infestation. Brown ethanol-insoluble deposits were observed close to leaf veins following aphid infestation. Taken together, the results demonstrate that high ascorbate favours aphid colony expansion and that perturbations in the leaf antioxidant system are intrinsic to the potato leaf response to aphids. Moreover, these changes together with the induction of hormone-related transcripts precede the deposition of defence-associated oxidized polyphenols along the stylet track. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Phenotypic plasticity of Myzus persicae (Hemíptera: Aphididae raised on Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale and Raphanus sativus L. (radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peppe Fernanda Borja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of variability generated by phenotypic plasticity is crucial for predicting evolutionary patterns in insect-plant systems. Given sufficient variation for plasticity, host race formation can be favored and maintained, even simpatrically. The plasticity of size and performance (assessed by the lifetime fitness index r m of six clones of Myzus persicae was tested, with replicates allowed to develop on two hosts, kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala and radish (Raphanus sativus. The clones showed significant variability in their plasticity. Reaction norms varied through generations and negative genetic correlation, although not significant, tend to increase with the duration of host use. The lack of plasticity in lifetime fitness among generalist clones occurred as an after-effect of the highly plastic determinants. Significant morphological plasticity in host used was observed, but no variation in the plastic responses (GxE interaction was detected. Strong selection for a larger size occurred among individuals reared on radish, the most unfavorable host. Morphological plasticity in general body size (in a multivariate sense was not linear related to fitness plasticity. These observations suggest that a high potential for the evolution of host divergence favors host race formation.

  16. Biochemical and functional characterization of AcUFGT3a, a galactosyltransferase involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the red-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfei; Zhou, Bin; Qi, Yingwei; Liu, Cuihua; Liu, Zhande; Ren, Xiaolin

    2018-04-01

    Much of the diversity of anthocyanin pigmentation in plant tissues is due to the action of glycosyltransferases, which attach sugar moieties to the anthocyanin aglycone. This step can increase both their solubility and stability. We investigated the pigmentation of the outer and inner pericarps of developing fruits of the red-fleshed kiwifruit Actinidia chinensis cv. 'Hongyang'. The results show that the red color of the inner pericarp is due to anthocyanin. Based on expression analyses of structural genes, AcUFGT was shown to be the key gene involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. Expression of AcUFGT in developing fruit paralleled changes in anthocyanin concentration. Thirteen putative UFGT genes, including different transcripts, were identified in the genome of 'Hongyang'. Among these, only the expression of AcUFGT3a was found to be highly consistent with anthocyanin accumulation. Fruit infiltrated with virus-induced gene silencing showed delayed red colorations, lower anthocyanin contents and lower expressions of AcUFGT3a. At the same time, transient overexpression of AcUFGT3a in both Actinidia arguta and green apple fruit resulted in higher anthocyanin contents and deeper red coloration. In vitro biochemical assays revealed that recombinant AcUFGT3a recognized only anthocyanidins as substrate but not flavonols. Also, UDP-galactose was used preferentially as the sugar donor. These results indicate AcUFGT3a is the key enzyme regulating anthocyanin accumulation in red-fleshed kiwifruit. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  17. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khairul Alam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC and total polyphenol content (TPC. Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI Sweet Potato 7 (SP7 contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  18. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Khairul; Rana, Ziaul Hasan; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2016-09-14

    In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC) and total polyphenol content (TPC). Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) Sweet Potato 7 (SP7) contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  19. Inactivation of Anisakis simplex L3 in the flesh of white spotted conger (Conger myriaster) by high hydrostatic pressure and its effect on quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Hoon; Park, Shin Young; Ha, Sang-Do

    2016-06-01

    Koreans consume much seafood; the country is surrounded on the east, west and south by the sea. Koreans have eaten raw sashimi for a long time. However, a concern in the raw sea food industry is that the parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex L3 occurs naturally in marine fish. Thus, the fishery industry needs a non-thermal processing method. High hydrostatic pressure (HPP) has been demonstrated to be effective. White spotted conger flesh containing 20 live larvae was exposed to different pressures (150 and 200 MPa for 1 and 5 min; 250 and 300 MPa each for 1 min). The viability of A. simplex L3 was significantly (p  0.05) in any of the Hunter colour ('L', 'a' and 'b') values were found after HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min. The fresh treated at 300 MPa for 1 min scored hedonic scale. However, the flesh treated at 200 MPa for 5 min scored > 5.0 ('like') for all sensory parameters. This study suggested that HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min could potentially be used for the inactivation of A. simplex L3 in raw fishery food products without any concomitant changes in their colour or sensory qualities.

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