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Sample records for prunus persica flesh

  1. Changes in biochemical compounds in flesh and peel from Prunus persica fruits grown in Tunisia during two maturation stages.

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    Dabbou, Samia; Lussiana, Carola; Maatallah, Samira; Gasco, Laura; Hajlaoui, Hichem; Flamini, Guido

    2016-03-01

    Plants can synthesize tens to hundreds of thousands of primary and secondary metabolites with diverse biological properties and functions. Fatty acids (FA), phenolic compounds (PC) and volatile compounds (VC) of flesh and peel from three Prunus persica cultivars were evaluated at the Regional Centre of Agricultural Research--Experimental Farm (Sidi Bouzid, Tunisia) during two maturation stages. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids are the most abundant FA in Prunus persica cultivars. A genetic effect on FA composition was observed throughout the two sampling periods. Peel was rich in oleic acid with the highest content (31.3% on total FA) in 'O'Henry' cultivar at the commercial ripening date; flesh was rich in linoleic acid with the highest content (44.7% on total FA) in 'Sweet Cap' cultivar at the full ripening date. The monounsaturated/polyunsaturated fatty acids ratios were higher in the commercial ripe than in the full ripe fruits. The analysis of the composition of the VC led to the characterization of 98 different compounds, showing a very high variability among the cultivars. The full ripe fruit (peel and flesh) exhibited the highest total number of terpenoids. Commercial ripe peels were richest in the percentage of hydrocarbons. Comparing cultivars, 'Sweet Cap' cultivar showed the lowest contents of alcohols in peel and flesh of full ripe fruit but highest in peel of commercial ripe fruit, and lowest content of aldehydes in peel and flesh of commercial ripe fruit but highest in peel of ripe ones and the highest ones of lactones. Among PC, the highest contents were observed for o-diphenols and the values showed varietal influence. Total phenols contents decreased during ripening process (p peel and flesh tissues, except found for 'Sweet Cap' cultivar. In conclusion, to achieve better FA composition and greater VC and PC production of the peach fruit, P. persica cultivars should be harvested at the commercial ripening date. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS

  2. Protective Effect of White-fleshed Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) on Chronic Nicotine-induced Toxicity.

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    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Chung, Won-Yoon; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Ki-Rim

    2017-03-01

    Nicotine is a major toxic component of tobacco smoke and has been recognized as a risk factor to induce oxidative tissue damage, which is a precursor to cardiovascular diseases, lung-related diseases, and cancers. Peaches (Prunus persica) have been used for the treatment of degenerative disorders, such as hypermenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and infertility in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of white-fleshed peach on the excretion of nicotine metabolites and 1-hydroxypyrene in smokers and chronic nicotine-induced tissue damages in mice. The concentrations of cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene were measured in urine of smokers before or after intake of white-fleshed peaches. In addition, ICR mice were injected with nicotine (5 mg/kg body weight) and then orally administered with white-fleshed peach extracts (WFPE) (250 or 500 mg/kg body weight) for 36 days. The oxidative stress parameters and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in liver and kidney tissues. Also, histological changes and nitrotyrosine expression were assessed. Intake of white-fleshed peaches increased the urinary concentration of nicotine metabolites and 1-hydroxypyrene in 91.67% and 83.33% of smokers, respectively. WFPE decreased the malondialdehyde levels and recovered the activities of antioxidant enzymes in nicotine-injected mice. In addition, WFPE inhibited nitrotyrosine expression and inflammatory responses in the liver, kidney, and lung tissues of nicotine-treated mice. White-fleshed peaches may increase the metabolism of toxic components in tobacco smoke in smokers and protect normal tissues against nicotine toxicity in mice. Therefore, supplementation of white-fleshed peaches might be beneficial to smokers.

  3. Proanthocyanidin monomers and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside accumulation in blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch fruit

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    Yan Juan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the characteristics and mechanisms of proanthocyanidin monomers and anthocyanin synthesis in blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch, the accumulation of catechin, epicatechin and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was determined, and the expression patterns of structural genes associated with biosynthesis of those compounds were investigated in the blood-flesh peach fruit of cultivar “Dahongpao” during fruit development. Our results show that catechin concentration remained low and comparatively stable throughout fruit development. The concentration of epicatechin remained low at the early stages of fruit development and rapidly accumulated during ripening. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was not detected in theearly stages. Epicatechin started to rapidly accumulate during the ripening period, reaching a maximum at the mature stage. The expressions of the early and common genes, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone isomerase, were less associated with proanthocyanidin monomers and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside accumulation. The expression of other flavonoid ‘early’ biosynthetic genes, including chalcone synthase (CHS, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX, were partly associated with proanthocyanidin monomers and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside levels, with expression quantities peaking synchronously at the mature stage. Leucoanthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin reductase, which were the key genes for proanthocyanidin monomer synthesis, correlated during fruit development with catechin and epicatechin accumulation respectively; UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UGFT, the key gene for anthocyanin synthesis, was correlated with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside levels. The synchronous accumulation of epicatechin and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside in blood-flesh peach could not be explained by the current theory of competitive distribution mechanism of common substrate.

  4. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases in the mesocarp of ripening fruit of Prunus persica genotypes with different flesh characteristics: changes in activity and protein and transcript levels.

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    Gabotti, Damiano; Negrini, Noemi; Morgutti, Silvia; Nocito, Fabio F; Cocucci, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    Development of fruit flesh texture quality traits may involve the metabolism of phenolic compounds. This study presents molecular and biochemical results on the possible role played by cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195) during ripening [S3, S4 I (pre-climacteric) and S4 III (climacteric) stages] of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] fruit with different flesh firmness [non-melting flesh (NMF) 'Oro A'/melting flesh (MF) 'Springcrest' and 'Sanguinella'] and color (blood-flesh Sanguinella). A total of 24 putative full-length PRUPE_CAD genes were identified (in silico analysis) in the peach genome. The most abundant CAD isoforms, encoded by genes located on scaffolds 8 and 6, were probed by specifically developed anti-PRUPE_CAD sc8 and by anti-FaCAD (PRUPE_CAD sc6) polyclonal antibodies, respectively. PRUPE_CAD sc8 proteins (SDS-PAGE and native-PAGE/western blot) appeared responsible for the CAD activity (in vitro/in-gel assays) that increased with ripening (parallel to PRUPE_ACO1 transcripts accumulation and ethylene evolution) only in the mesocarp of Oro A and blood-flesh Sanguinella. Accumulation of PRUPE_CAD sc8 transcripts (semi-quantitative RT-PCR) occurred in all three cultivars, but in Oro A and Springcrest it was not always accompanied by that of the related proteins, suggesting possible post-transcriptional regulation. Flesh firmness, as well as levels of lignin, total phenolics and, where present (Sanguinella), anthocyanins, declined with ripening, suggesting that, at least in the studied peach cultivars, CAD activity is related to neither lignification nor differences in flesh firmness (NMF/MF). Further studies are necessary to clarify whether the high levels of CAD activity/expression in Sanguinella play a role in determining the characteristics of this blood-flesh fruit. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Reductions in flesh discolouration and internal morphological changes in Nanhui peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, cv. Nanhui) by electrolysed water and 1-methylcyclopropene treatment during refrigerated storage.

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    Zhou, Ran; Zhang, Guixiang; Hu, Yunsheng; Wu, Hui; Xie, Jing; Luo, Yudan

    2012-12-01

    The effects of electrolysed water (EW) and EW in combination with 1-methylcyclopropene (EW/MCP) on flesh discolouration of Nanhui peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, cv. Nanhui) were examined during storage at 2°C. Changes in flesh colour, ethylene production, membrane permeability, malondialdehyde (MDA), total phenolic contents and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) were assayed periodically after harvest and during 44days of storage. The internal morphological characteristics of Nanhui peaches were monitored using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the beginning and end of storage. These data revealed that the EW/MCP treatment is more effective than the EW treatment for decreasing ethylene production and maintaining fruit cell membrane integrity, delaying increases in MDA and total phenolic contents, and lessening changes in PPO and POD activities and the internal morphology of peaches. Each of these effects contributes to suppressing flesh discolouration and maintaining the quality of Nanhui peaches during storage. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gene regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in two blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) cultivars during fruit development.

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    Jiao, Yun; Ma, Rui-juan; Shen, Zhi-jun; Yan, Juan; Yu, Ming-liang

    2014-09-01

    The blood-flesh peach has become popular in China due to its attractive anthocyanin-induced pigmentation and antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation by examining the expression of nine genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway found in the peach mesocarp. Expression was measured at six developmental stages in fruit of two blood-flesh and one white-flesh peach cultivars, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results show that the expression of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene was closely related to anthocyanin accumulation in both of the blood-flesh peaches. In the white-flesh peach, we found that the transcription level of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) during fruit development was much lower than that in the blood-flesh peach, even though all other genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were highly expressed, suggesting that the PAL gene may be limiting in anthocyanin production in the white-flesh peach. Moreover, the transcription levels of the CHS and UDP-glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) genes were markedly up-regulated at three days after bag removal (DABR) in the blood-flesh peach, suggesting that CHS and UFGT are the key genes in the process of anthocyanin biosynthesis for both of the blood-flesh peaches. The present study will be of great help in improving understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in anthocyanin accumulation in blood-flesh peaches.

  7. Carotenoids, Phenolic Profile, Mineral Content and Antioxidant Properties in Flesh and Peel of Prunus persica Fruits during Two Maturation Stages.

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    Dabbou, Samia; Maatallah, Samira; Castagna, Antonella; Guizani, Monia; Sghaeir, Wala; Hajlaoui, Hichem; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    Carotenoids and phenolic profile, antioxidant activity as well as concentrations of selected macronutrients (K, N, Mg, Ca and Na) and micronutrients (Zn, Cu and Mn) in flesh and peel of peach fruit were recorded at two harvest dates. Predominant mineral was potassium, followed by calcium, magnesium and sodium. The concentration of most micronutrients was greater in the peel than in the flesh especially in early season. The concentration of most elements in flesh and peel decreased during fruit maturation. Total carotenoids content varied with respect to the cultivar. β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene were the major carotenoids in both tissues and flesh contain the lowest amounts. Neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, rutin, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, were detected in both peel and flesh, with chlorogenic acid and catechin being the predominant components. Peel extracts showed markedly higher antioxidant activities, when estimated by ABTS or DPPH assays, than the flesh counterparts, consistent with the observed higher phenolic content. Overall, total phenolics levels increased at full ripening stage in both peel and flesh. The results found herein provide important data on carotenoids, phenolic and macro- and micronutrient changes during fruit growth, and emphases peach fruit as a potential functional food.

  8. Peach (Prunus persica L.).

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    Sabbadini, Silvia; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Girolomini, Luca; Molesini, Barbara; Navacchi, Oriano

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the application of genetic transformation techniques in peach has been limited by the difficulties in developing efficient regeneration and transformation protocols. Here we describe an efficient regeneration protocol for the commercial micropropagation of GF677 rootstock (Prunus persica × Prunus amygdalus). The method is based on the production, via organogenesis, of meristematic bulk tissues characterized by a high competence for shoot regeneration. This protocol has also been used to obtain GF677 plants genetically engineered with an empty hairpin cassette (hereafter indicated as hp-pBin19), through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. After 7-8 months of selection on media containing kanamycin, we obtained two genetically modified GF677 lines. PCR and Southern blot analyses were performed to confirm the genetic status.

  9. The contribution of stored malate and citrate to the substrate requirements of metabolism of ripening peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) flesh is negligible. Implications for the occurrence of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and gluconeogenesis.

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    Famiani, Franco; Farinelli, Daniela; Moscatello, Stefano; Battistelli, Alberto; Leegood, Richard C; Walker, Robert P

    2016-04-01

    The first aim of this study was to determine the contribution of stored malate and citrate to the substrate requirements of metabolism in the ripening flesh of the peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivar Adriatica. In the flesh, stored malate accumulated before ripening could contribute little or nothing to the net substrate requirements of metabolism. This was because there was synthesis and not dissimilation of malate throughout ripening. Stored citrate could potentially contribute a very small amount (about 5.8%) of the substrate required by metabolism when the whole ripening period was considered, and a maximum of about 7.5% over the latter part of ripening. The second aim of this study was to investigate why phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) an enzyme utilised in gluconeogenesis from malate and citrate is present in peach flesh. The occurrence and localisation of enzymes utilised in the metabolism of malate, citrate and amino acids were determined in peach flesh throughout its development. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (essential for the synthesis of malate and citrate) was present in the same cells and at the same time as PEPCK and NADP-malic enzyme (both utilised in the dissimilation of malate and citrate). A hypothesis is presented to explain the presence of these enzymes and to account for the likely occurrence of gluconeogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of Prunus persica fruit softening using a proteomics approach.

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    P, Ricardo Nilo; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Orellana, Ariel

    2012-02-16

    Fruit ripening in Prunus persica involves a number of physiological changes, being one of the most significant the mesocarp softening in melting varieties. In order to get a better understanding of the molecular processes involved in this phenomenon, the protein accumulation patterns in firm and soft fruit of three peach and two nectarine melting flesh varieties were assessed using 2D gel analysis. A General Linear Model (GLM) two-way analysis of variance determined that 164 of the 621 protein spots analyzed displayed a differential accumulation associated with the softening process. Among them, only 14 proteins changed their accumulation in all the varieties assessed, including proteins mostly involved in carbohydrates and cell wall metabolism as well as fruit senescence. The analysis among varieties showed that 195 and 189 spots changed within the firm and soft fruit conditions, respectively. Despite the changes in relative abundance in the spot proteins, the proteome is conserved among varieties and during the transition from firm to soft fruit. Only two spots proteins exhibited a qualitative change in all the conditions assessed. These results are in agreement with the notion that Prunus persica commercial varieties have a narrow genetic background. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Transcriptome analysis of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) during the late stage of fruit ripening.

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    Pan, H F; Sheng, Y; Gao, Z H; Chen, H L; Qi, Y J; Yi, X K; Qin, G H; Zhang, J Y

    2016-12-23

    Fruit ripening is a complex developmental process, the details of which remain largely unknown in fleshy fruits. In this paper, the fruit flesh of two peach varieties, "Zhongyou9" (a nectarine; Prunus persica L. Batsch) and its mutant "Hongyu", was analyzed by RNA-seq technology during two stages of ripening at 20-day intervals. One hundred and eighty significant upregulated and two hundred and thirty-five downregulated genes were identified in the experiment. Many of these genes were related to plant hormones, chlorophyll breakdown, accumulation of aroma and flavor volatiles, and stress. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome analysis of peach ripening, and our data will be useful for further studies of the molecular basis of fruit ripening.

  12. Association between Chloroplast and Mitochondrial DNA sequences in Chinese Prunus genotypes (Prunus persica, Prunus domestica, and Prunus avium).

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    Pervaiz, Tariq; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Yanyi; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Junhuan; Fang, Jinggui

    2015-01-16

    The nuclear DNA is conventionally used to assess the diversity and relatedness among different species, but variations at the DNA genome level has also been used to study the relationship among different organisms. In most species, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes are inherited maternally; therefore it is anticipated that organelle DNA remains completely associated. Many research studies were conducted simultaneously on organelle genome. The objectives of this study was to analyze the genetic relationship between chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA in three Chinese Prunus genotypes viz., Prunus persica, Prunus domestica, and Prunus avium. We investigated the genetic diversity of Prunus genotypes using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers relevant to the chloroplast and mitochondria. Most of the genotypes were genetically similar as revealed by phylogenetic analysis. The Y2 Wu Xing (Cherry) and L2 Hong Xin Li (Plum) genotypes have a high similarity index (0.89), followed by Zi Ye Li (0.85), whereas; L1 Tai Yang Li (plum) has the lowest genetic similarity (0.35). In case of cpSSR, Hong Tao (Peach) and L1 Tai Yang Li (Plum) genotypes demonstrated similarity index of 0.85 and Huang Tao has the lowest similarity index of 0.50. The mtSSR nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that each genotype has similar amplicon length (509 bp) except M5Y1 i.e., 505 bp with CCB256 primer; while in case of NAD6 primer, all genotypes showed different sizes. The MEHO (Peach), MEY1 (Cherry), MEL2 (Plum) and MEL1 (Plum) have 586 bps; while MEY2 (Cherry), MEZI (Plum) and MEHU (Peach) have 585, 584 and 566 bp, respectively. The CCB256 primer showed highly conserved sequences and minute single polymorphic nucleotides with no deletion or mutation. The cpSSR (ARCP511) microsatellites showed the harmonious amplicon length. The CZI (Plum), CHO (Peach) and CL1 (Plum) showed 182 bp; whileCHU (Peach), CY2 (Cherry), CL2 (Plum) and CY1 (Cherry) showed 181 bp amplicon lengths. These results

  13. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume).

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    Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Il-Doo; Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Kim, Mi-Ok; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample. The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid ( ˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities. Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively. The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health.

  14. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume)

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    Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Il-Doo; Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Kim, Mi-Ok; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample. Methods The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid ( ˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities. Results Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health. PMID:25182279

  15. Genotypic differences in cyanogenic glycosides levels of compatible Prunus persica P. persica and incompatible P. persica P. mume combinations

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    Ivan dos Santos Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Graft incompatibility is a phenomenon associated with complex physiological, biochemical, and genetic interactions between scion and rootstock. The main objective of this work was to assess the role of cyanogenic glycosides (CGs, amygdalin and prunasin, in the graft incompatibility of Prunus and possible biochemical effects in compounds of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Graft compatibility, amygdalin and prunasin content, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity, total phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity, were studied in different graft combinations (Chimarrita/Capdeboscq; Chimarrita/Tsukuba 1; Chimarrita/Umezeiro; Maciel/Capdeboscq; Maciel/’Tsukuba 1; Maciel/Umezeiro and ungrafted genotypes. The results indicate that there was graft incompatibility of Chimarrita and Maciel cultivars grafted into Umezeiro rootstock. Combinations identified as incompatible showed higher prunasin concentration and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL activity in rootstock and greater concentration of total phenolics compounds and antioxidant activity in scion and rootstock. The results indicate that large differences in CGs concentration, especially prunasin, can be the graft incompatibility cause between Prunus persic. and P. mume. The prunasin concentration may be considered a promising marker to predict graft compatibility between P. persica and P. mume.

  16. Dormancy in Peach (Prunus persica L.) Flower Buds 1

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    Luna, Virginia; Lorenzo, Eugenia; Reinoso, Herminda; Tordable, Maria C.; Abdala, Guillermina; Pharis, Richard P.; Bottini, Ruben

    1990-01-01

    Flower buds of peach (Prunus persica L.) trees, cv Novedad de Cordoba (Argentina), were collected near the end of the dormant period and immediately before anthesis. After removal of scale leaves, morphological observations of representative buds, made on transverse and longitudinal microtome sections, showed that all verticils making up the flower are present in an undifferentiated form during the dormant period (June). Flower buds collected at the end of dormant period (August) showed additional growth and differentiation, at which time formation of two ovules was beginning in the unicarpelar gynoecium. Dehiscence of anthers had not yet occurred 10 days before full bloom, and the ovules were still developing. Free endogenous gibberellin (GA)-like substances were quantified by bioassay (Tan-ginbozu dwarf rice microdrop) after SiO2 partition column chromatography, reversed phase C18-high performance liquid chromatography, and finally Nucleosil [N(CH3)2]high performance liquid chromatography. Bioactive fractions were then subjected to capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM). Gibberellins A1, A3, and A8 were tentatively identified in peach flower buds using GC-SIM and Kovat's retention indices, and relative amounts approximated by GC-SIM (2:8:6 for GA1, GA3, and GA8, respectively). The highest concentration (330 nanograms per gram dry weight) of free GA1/GA3 was found in dormant buds (June) and diminished thereafter. The concentration free of GA1/GA3 did not increase immediately prior to bud break. However, high GA1/GA3 concentrations occurred during stages where rate of growth and cellular differentiation of (mainly fertile) verticils can be influenced. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667435

  17. Molecular characterization of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

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    Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is an important medicinal fruit with immense health benefits and antioxidant activity. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as DNA fingerprinting tools for the identification and characterization of peach germplasm in the United States. Eleven microsatel...

  18. The potential of Prunus davidiana for introgression into peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] assessed by comparative mapping.

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    Foulongne, M; Pascal, T; Arús, P; Kervella, J

    2003-07-01

    The potential for introgression of Prunus davidiana, a wild species related to peach, was evaluated with respect to problems of non-Mendelian segregation or suppressed recombination which often hamper breeding processes based on interspecific crosses. Three connected (F1, F2 and BC2) populations, derived from a cross between P. davidiana clone P1908 and the peach cultivar Summergrand were used. The intraspecific map of P. davidiana already established using the F1 progeny was complemented, and two interspecific maps, for the F2 and BC2 progenies, were built with a set of markers selected from the Prunus reference map. With the molecular data collected for the F2 map construction, regions with distorted marker segregation were detected on the genome; one third of all loci deviated significantly from the expected Mendelian ratios. However, some of these distorted segregations were probably not due to the interspecific cross. On linkage group 6, a skewed area under gametic selection was most likely influenced by the self-incompatibility gene of P. davidiana. Using anchor loci, a good colinearity between the three maps built and the Prunus reference map was demonstrated. Comparative mapping also revealed that homologous recombination occurred normally between P. davidiana and the Prunus persica genome. This confirmed the closeness of the two species. Higher recombination rates were generally observed between P. davidiana and P. persica than between Prunus amygdalus and P. persica. The consequences for plant breeding strategy are discussed. The three maps of the F1, F2 and BC2 progenies provide useful tools for QTL detection and marker-assisted selection, as well as for assessing the efficiency of the peach breeding scheme applied to introgress P. davidiana genes into peach cultivated varieties.

  19. Phenotypic diversity among peach and nectarine (Prunus persica L.) fruit in the national prunus collection at the USDA-ARS, National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR)

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    The diversity and relationships of fruit quality traits peach and nectarine (Prunus persica L.) in the National Prunus collection were studied using comprehensive phenotyping methods. The collection was re-propagated in 2013 and planted in 2014 providing a unique opportunity to evaluate an even-aged...

  20. Increased levels of IAA are required for system 2 ethylene synthesis causing fruit softening in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch).

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    Tatsuki, Miho; Nakajima, Naoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Shimada, Takehiko; Nakano, Michiharu; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Hayama, Hiroko; Yoshioka, Hirohito; Nakamura, Yuri

    2013-02-01

    The fruit of melting-flesh peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars produce high levels of ethylene caused by high expression of PpACS1 (an isogene of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase), resulting in rapid fruit softening at the late-ripening stage. In contrast, the fruit of stony hard peach cultivars do not soften and produce little ethylene due to low expression of PpACS1. To elucidate the mechanism for suppressing PpACS1 expression in stony hard peaches, a microarray analysis was performed. Several genes that displayed similar expression patterns as PpACS1 were identified and shown to be indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-inducible genes (Aux/IAA, SAUR). That is, expression of IAA-inducible genes increased at the late-ripening stage in melting flesh peaches; however, these transcripts were low in mature fruit of stony hard peaches. The IAA concentration increased suddenly just before harvest time in melting flesh peaches exactly coinciding with system 2 ethylene production. In contrast, the IAA concentration did not increase in stony hard peaches. Application of 1-naphthalene acetic acid, a synthetic auxin, to stony hard peaches induced a high level of PpACS1 expression, a large amount of ethylene production and softening. Application of an anti-auxin, α-(phenylethyl-2-one)-IAA, to melting flesh peaches reduced levels of PpACS1 expression and ethylene production. These observations indicate that suppression of PpACS1 expression at the late-ripening stage of stony hard peach may result from a low level of IAA and that a high concentration of IAA is required to generate a large amount of system 2 ethylene in peaches.

  1. Variation in resistance mechanisms to the green peach aphid among different Prunus persica commercial cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, J A; Méndez, T; Ortiz-Martínez, S A; Cumsille, R; Ramírez, C C

    2012-10-01

    ABSTRACT Peaches and nectarines are frequently attacked by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer), with significant negative impacts on fruit production. The genetic variability of resistance to this aphid among commercial cultivars of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch and Prunus persica variety nectarina was evaluated in this study. In total, 16 cultivars of P. persica were selected to evaluate the occurrence and population growth rate of M. persicae in commercial orchards, as well as in no-choice and probing behavior laboratory assays. The results showed variability between cultivars in resistance and susceptibility to M. persicae, with three cultivars exhibiting different signatures of resistance. The peach cultivar 'Elegant Lady' exhibited a low occurrence of aphids in the orchard, a low rate of growth, moderate leaf-rejection in a no-choice test and a higher number and longer period of salivation into sieve elements, suggesting resistance at the phloematic level. The nectarine cultivar 'August Red' also exhibited low aphid occurrence in the orchard, a low rate of growth, and resistance at the prephloem and phloem levels. Finally, the nectarine 'July Red-NS92' exhibited a low occurrence of aphids in the orchard, a higher number of rejections in no-choice assays and no ingestion of phloem during the probing behavior experiments, suggesting prephloematic resistance. The rest of the cultivars studied exhibited clear susceptibility. Hence, different resistance mechanisms are apparent among the studied cultivars. The information gathered in this study regarding the resistance to M. persicae may assist breeding programs aimed at increasing aphid resistance to peaches and nectarines.

  2. Treated Dixiland Prunus persica Fruits: Common and Distinct Response to Heat and Cold

    OpenAIRE

    Lauxmann, Martin Alexander; Brun, Bianca; Borsani, Julia; Bustamante, Claudia Anabel; Budde, Claudio; Lara, Maria Valeria; Drincovich, Maria Fabiana

    2017-01-01

    Cold storage is extensively used to slow the rapid deterioration of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit after harvest. However, peach fruit subjected to long periods of cold storage develop chilling injury (CI) symptoms. Post-harvest heat treatment (HT) of peach fruit prior to cold storage is effective in reducing some CI symptoms, maintaining fruit quality, preventing softening and controlling post-harvest diseases. To identify the molecular changes induced by HT, which may be associated ...

  3. Endogenous hormones response to cytokinins with regard to organogenesis in explants of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-11-01

    Organogenesis in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and peach rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis) has been achieved and the action of the regeneration medium on 7 phytohormones, zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA), has been studied using High performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Three scion peach cultivars, 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach × almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677' were cultured in two different media, Murashige and Skoog supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) (regeneration medium) and without PGRs (control medium), in order to study the effects of the media and/or genotypes in the endogenous hormones content and their role in organogenesis. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach × almond rootstocks and showed a lower content of Z, IAA, ABA, ACC and JA. Only Z, ZR and IAA were affected by the action of the culture media. This study shows which hormones are external PGRs-dependent and what is the weight of the genotype and hormones in peach organogenesis that provide an avenue to manipulate in vitro organogenesis in peach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of aqueous sprays of ammonium fluoride on oxygen consumption and firmness of suture and dorsal tissues of Early Improved Elberta peaches. [Prunus persica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facteau, T.J.; Rowe, K.E.

    1976-06-01

    Aqueous ammonium fluoride (NH/sub 4/F) sprays on Early Improved Elberta peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) resulted in increased O/sub 2/ consumption of suture tissue and inconsistent changes in O/sub 2/ consumption of dorsal tissue as the spray concentration was increased. Flesh firmness on the suture side of treated fruit was less than non-sprayed fruit and decreased as either the NH/sub 4/F spray concentration or number of sprays increased. The effect of spray on the dorsal side differed from year to year. Levels of fluoride (F) in the fruit tissue were associated with F concentration and number of F sprays applied only within the same year. 3 references, 1 table.

  5. Anti-allergic inflammatory effects of cyanogenic and phenolic glycosides from the seed of Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geum Jin; Choi, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Ji Hyang; Kim, Sang Hyun; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Seung Ho

    2013-12-01

    A methanol extract of the seed of Prunus persica (Rosaceae) was found to inhibit histamine release in human mast cells. Activity-guided fractionation of the methanol extract yielded three cyanogenic glycosides (1-3) and other phenolic compounds (4-8). To evaluate their anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities, the isolates (1-8) were tested for their inhibitory effects on histamine release and on the gene expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 in human mast cells. Of these, phenolic glycosides 7 and 8 suppressed histamine release and inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6. These results suggest that isolates from P. persica are among the anti-allergic inflammatory principles in this medicinal plant.

  6. Variabilidad interspecifica de duraznos (Prunus persica L. Batsch.) y ciruelos (Prunus domestica) usando RAMs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado; Yacenia Morillo Coronado; Leonardo Ariel González Mendoza; Iván Adiel Ávila Morales

    2015-01-01

      A sample of 41 Prunus materials from the deciduous collection of the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia was selected to evaluate its genetic diversity using eight primers for Random...

  7. Prokinetic Activity of Prunus persica (L. Batsch Flowers Extract and Its Possible Mechanism of Action in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The peach tree, Prunus persica (L. Batsch, is widely cultivated in China, and its flowers have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gut motility disorders. But few studies have explored the pharmacological effect of Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers on gastrointestinal motility. In this study, the activities of different extracts from Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated colon model, and the ethyl acetate extract (EAE showed the strongest effects in vitro. EAE (10−8–10−5 g/mL caused a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect in rat colonic tissue. Additionally, ketotifen (100 µM, cimetidine (10 µM, and pyrilamine (1 µM produced a significant inhibition of contractions caused by EAE. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and toluidine blue staining revealed increased numbers of mast cells in the EAE group, and EAE increased histamine release from the colonic tissues. These data indicate that EAE has significant prokinetic activity and acts by a mechanism that mainly involves mast cell degranulation. Our study provides a pharmacological basis for the use of an extract of Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers in the treatment of gut motility disorders.

  8. Cultivar identification, pedigree verification, and diversity analysis among Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) Cultivars based on Simple Sequence Repeat markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic relationships and pedigree inferences among peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) accessions and breeding lines used in genetic improvement were evaluated using 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 80 alleles were detected among the 37 peach accessions with an average of 5.53...

  9. Prokinetic activity of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers extract and its possible mechanism of action in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Xu, Jing Dong; Wei, Feng Xian; Zheng, Yong Dong; Ma, Jian Zhong; Xu, Xiao Dong; Wei, Zhen Gang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, You Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The peach tree, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, is widely cultivated in China, and its flowers have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gut motility disorders. But few studies have explored the pharmacological effect of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers on gastrointestinal motility. In this study, the activities of different extracts from Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated colon model, and the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) showed the strongest effects in vitro. EAE (10(-8)-10(-5) g/mL) caused a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect in rat colonic tissue. Additionally, ketotifen (100 µM), cimetidine (10 µM), and pyrilamine (1 µM) produced a significant inhibition of contractions caused by EAE. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and toluidine blue staining revealed increased numbers of mast cells in the EAE group, and EAE increased histamine release from the colonic tissues. These data indicate that EAE has significant prokinetic activity and acts by a mechanism that mainly involves mast cell degranulation. Our study provides a pharmacological basis for the use of an extract of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers in the treatment of gut motility disorders.

  10. Development of sequence-tagged site markers linked to the pillar growth type in peach (Prunus persica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], trees showing columnar [also termed pillar or broomy] growth habit are of interest for high density production systems. While the selection of the columnar homozygote (pillar) phenotype (brbr) can be carried out prior to field planting, the intermediate hetero...

  11. Accelerated solvent extraction of carotenoids from: Tunisian Kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoudi, Khalil; Pontvianne, Steve; Framboisier, Xavier; Achard, Mathilde; Kudaibergenova, Rabiga; Ayadi-Trabelsi, Malika; Kalthoum-Cherif, Jamila; Vanderesse, Régis; Frochot, Céline; Guiavarc'h, Yann

    2015-10-01

    Extraction of carotenoids from biological matrices and quantifications remains a difficult task. Accelerated solvent extraction was used as an efficient extraction process for carotenoids extraction from three fruits cultivated in Tunisia: kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Based on a design of experiment (DoE) approach, and using a binary solvent consisting of methanol and tetrahydrofuran, we could identify the best extraction conditions as being 40°C, 20:80 (v:v) methanol/tetrahydrofuran and 5 min of extraction time. Surprisingly and likely due to the high extraction pressure used (103 bars), these conditions appeared to be the best ones both for extracting xanthophylls such as lutein, zeaxanthin or β-cryptoxanthin and carotenes such as β-carotene, which present quite different polarities. Twelve surface responses were generated for lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in kaki, peach and apricot. Further LC-MS analysis allowed comparisons in carotenoids profiles between the fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genome-Wide Analysis Characterization and Evolution of SBP Genes in Fragaria vesca, Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica and Prunus mume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdullah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein (SBP-box proteins are plant-specific transcriptional factors in plants. SBP TFs are known to play important functions in a diverse development process and also related in the process of evolutionary novelties. SBP gene family has been characterized in several plant species, but little is known about molecular evolution, functional divergence and comprehensive study of SBP gene family in Rosacea. We carried out genome-wide investigations and identified 14, 32, 17, and 17 SBP genes from four Rosacea species (Fragaria vesca, Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica and Prunus mume, respectively. According to phylogenetic analysis arranged the SBP protein sequences in seven groups. Localization of SBP genes presented an uneven distribution on corresponding chromosomes of Rosacea species. Our analyses designated that the SBP genes duplication events (segmental and tandem and divergence. In addition, due to highly conserved structure pattern of SBP genes, recommended that highly conserved region of microsyneteny in the Rosacea species. Type I and II functional divergence was detected among various amino acids in SBP proteins, while there was no positive selection according to substitutional model analysis using PMAL software. These results recommended that the purifying selection might be leading force during the evolution process and dominate conservation of SBP genes in Rosacea species according to environmental selection pressure analysis. Our results will provide basic understanding and foundation for future research insights on the evolution of the SBP genes in Rosacea.

  13. Archaeological evidence for peach (Prunus persica) cultivation and domestication in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yunfei; Crawford, Gary W; Chen, Xugao

    2014-01-01

    The cultivated/domesticated peach (Prunus persica var. persica; Rosaceae, subgenus Amygdalus; synonym: Amygdalus persica) originated in China, but its wild ancestor, as well as where, when, and under what circumstances the peach was domesticated, is poorly known. Five populations of archaeological peach stones recovered from Zhejiang Province, China, document peach use and evolution beginning ca. 8000 BP. The majority of the archaeological sites from which the earliest peach stones have been recovered are from the Yangzi River valley, indicating that this is where early selection for favorable peach varieties likely took place. Furthermore, peach stone morphology through time is consistent with the hypothesis that an unknown wild P. persica was the ancestor of the cultivated peach. The oldest archaeological peach stones are from the Kuahuqiao (8000-7000 BP) and Tianluoshan (7000-6500 BP) sites and both stone samples segregate into two size groups, suggesting early selection of preferred types. The first peach stones in China most similar to modern cultivated forms are from the Liangzhu culture (ca. 5300 to 4300 BP), where the peach stones are significantly larger and more compressed than earlier stones. Similar peach stones are reported from Japan much earlier (6700-6400 BP). This large, compressed-stone peach was introduced to Japan and indicates a yet unidentified source population in China that was similar to the Liangzhu culture peach. This study proposes that the lower Yangzi River valley is a region, if not the region, of early peach selection and domestication and that the process began at least 7500 years ago.

  14. Fluidized bed combustion residue as an alternative liming material and Ca source. [Prunus persica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J.H.; Horton, B.D.; White, A.W. Jr.; Bennett, O.L.

    1985-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion residue (FBCR), a by-product of fossil fuel fired boilers, was evaluated as a liming material and a source of calcium for peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch). Incubation studies involving a medium textured soil indicated that FBCR (calcite (FBCRC) or dolomitic (FBCRD) sources) was as effective a liming amendment as the respective agricultural limestone. Maximum soil pH occurred after 26 days incubation with FBCRC, but soil pH increased continuously throughout 137 days incubation with dolomitic limestone. Ammonium acetate extractable Ca was not affected by calcitic source, but Mg concentration increased with rates with the two dolomitic sources, and was highest in the FBCRD source after 137 days incubation. In greenhouse studies with Elberta peach seedlings, FBCRC was more effective in neutralizing soil acidity and increasing extractable soil Ca than calcitic limestone.

  15. Bioactive compounds contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities during ripening of Prunus persica L. varieties from the North West of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj, Feten; Somrani, Imen; Aissaoui, Neyssene; Messaoud, Chokri; Boussaid, Mohamed; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2016-08-01

    Bioactive molecules from fruits of four varieties of Prunus persica at different stages of ripening (green, small orange, red) were studied. For example, contents on polyphenols (20.36mg GAE/g FW) and flavonoids (0.764mg RE/g FW) were high and varied according variety. The antioxidant activity, using four different tests (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, β carotene bleaching system and TBARS assay) showed that the variety Chatos exhibited the highest antioxidant activity comparing with others varieties. The antibacterial activity of Prunus persica varieties studied seems to be more sensitive against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The capacity of peach DMSO extracts to inhibit Candida albicans growth was more pronounced, especially, in the presence of Chatos DMSO extract. Enzymes inhibition gives results which correlate with polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins contents, and so, confirm the fascinating bioactivity of this fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. New insights into the properties of pubescent surfaces: the peach fruit (prunus persica batsch) as a model

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Victoria; Khayet, Mohamed; Montero Prado, Pablo; Heredia Guerrero, Alejandrio; Liakopulos, Georgios; Karabourniotis, George; del Río, Víctor; Domínguez, Eva; Tacchini, Ignacio; Nerín, Csritian¡a; Heredia, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The surface of peach (Prunus persica ‘Calrico’) is covered by a dense indumentum, which may serve various protective purposes. With the aim of relating structure to function, the chemical composition, morphology, and hydrophobicity of the peach skin was assessed as a model for a pubescent plant surface. Distinct physicochemical features were observed for trichomes versus isolated cuticles. Peach cuticles were composed of 53% cutan, 27% waxes, 23% cutin, and 1% hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives...

  17. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of an arginine decarboxylase gene from peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji Hong; Ban, Yusuke; Wen, Xiao-Peng; Nakajima, Ikuko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2009-01-15

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC), one of the enzymes responsible for putrescine (Put) biosynthesis, has been shown to be implicated in stress response. In the current paper attempts were made to clone and characterize a gene encoding ADC from peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, 'Akatsuki'). Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) gave rise to a full-length ADC cDNA (PpADC) with a complete open reading frame of 2178 bp, encoding a 725 amino acid polypeptide. Homology search and sequence multi-alignment demonstrated that the deduced PpADC protein sequence shared a high identity with ADCs from other plants, including several highly conservative motifs and amino acids. Southern blotting indicated that PpADC existed in peach genome as a single gene. Expression levels of PpADC in different tissues of peach (P. persica 'Akatsuki') were spatially and developmentally regulated. Treatment of peach shoots from 'Mochizuki' with exogenous 5 mM Put, an indirect product of ADC, remarkably induced accumulation of PpADC mRNA. Transcripts of PpADC in peach leaves from 'Mochizuki' were quickly induced, either transiently or continuously, in response to dehydration, high salinity (200 mM NaCl), low temperature (4 degrees C) and heavy metal (150 microM CdCl(2)), but repressed by high temperature 37 degrees C) during a 2-day treatment, which changed in an opposite direction when the stresses were otherwise removed with the exception of CdCl(2) treatment. In addition, steady-state of PpADC mRNA could be also transiently up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) in 'Mochizuki' leaves. All of these, taken together, suggest that PpADC is a stress-responsive gene and can be considered as a potential target that is genetically manipulated so as to create novel germplasms with enhanced stress tolerance in the future.

  18. Transcriptional Responses in root and leaf of Prunus persica Under Drought Stress Using RNA Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla Ksouri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prunus persica L. Batch, or peach, is one of the most important crops and it is widely established in irrigated arid and semi-arid regions. However, due to variations in the climate and the increased aridity, drought has become a major constraint, causing crop losses worldwide. The use of drought-tolerant rootstocks in modern fruit production appears to be a useful method of alleviating water deficit problems. However, the transcriptomic variation and the major molecular mechanisms that underlie the adaptation of drought-tolerant rootstocks to water shortage remain unclear. Hence, in this study, high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq was performed to assess the transcriptomic changes and the key genes involved in the response to drought in root tissues (GF677 rootstock and leaf tissues (graft, var. Catherina subjected to 16 days of drought stress. In total, 12 RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced. This generated a total of 315M raw reads from both tissues, which allowed the assembly of 22,079 and 17,854 genes associated with the root and leaf tissues, respectively. Subsets of 500 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in roots and 236 in leaves were identified and functionally annotated with 56 gene ontology (GO terms and 99 metabolic pathways, which were mostly associated with aminobenzoate degradation and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The GO analysis highlighted the biological functions that were exclusive to the root tissue, such as locomotion, hormone metabolic process, and detection of stimulus, indicating the stress-buffering role of the GF677 rootstock. Furthermore, the complex regulatory network involved in the drought response was revealed, involving proteins that are associated with signaling transduction, transcription and hormone regulation, redox homeostasis, and frontline barriers. We identified two poorly characterized genes in P. persica: growth-regulating factor 5 (GRF5, which may be involved in cellular expansion, and AtHB12

  19. Transcriptional Responses in Root and Leaf of Prunus persica under Drought Stress Using RNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksouri, Najla; Jiménez, Sergio; Wells, Christina E; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Gogorcena, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Prunus persica L. Batsch, or peach, is one of the most important crops and it is widely established in irrigated arid and semi-arid regions. However, due to variations in the climate and the increased aridity, drought has become a major constraint, causing crop losses worldwide. The use of drought-tolerant rootstocks in modern fruit production appears to be a useful method of alleviating water deficit problems. However, the transcriptomic variation and the major molecular mechanisms that underlie the adaptation of drought-tolerant rootstocks to water shortage remain unclear. Hence, in this study, high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to assess the transcriptomic changes and the key genes involved in the response to drought in root tissues (GF677 rootstock) and leaf tissues (graft, var. Catherina) subjected to 16 days of drought stress. In total, 12 RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced. This generated a total of 315 M raw reads from both tissues, which allowed the assembly of 22,079 and 17,854 genes associated with the root and leaf tissues, respectively. Subsets of 500 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in roots and 236 in leaves were identified and functionally annotated with 56 gene ontology (GO) terms and 99 metabolic pathways, which were mostly associated with aminobenzoate degradation and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The GO analysis highlighted the biological functions that were exclusive to the root tissue, such as "locomotion," "hormone metabolic process," and "detection of stimulus," indicating the stress-buffering role of the GF677 rootstock. Furthermore, the complex regulatory network involved in the drought response was revealed, involving proteins that are associated with signaling transduction, transcription and hormone regulation, redox homeostasis, and frontline barriers. We identified two poorly characterized genes in P. persica: growth-regulating factor 5 (GRF5), which may be involved in cellular expansion, and AtHB12

  20. Comparative population genomics reveals the domestication history of the peach, Prunus persica, and human influences on perennial fruit crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ke; Zheng, Zhijun; Wang, Lirong; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Gengrui; Fang, Weichao; Cheng, Shifeng; Zeng, Peng; Chen, Changwen; Wang, Xinwei; Xie, Min; Zhong, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhao, Pei; Bian, Chao; Zhu, Yinling; Zhang, Jiahui; Ma, Guosheng; Chen, Chengxuan; Li, Yanjun; Hao, Fengge; Li, Yong; Huang, Guodong; Li, Yuxiang; Li, Haiyan; Guo, Jian; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun

    2014-07-31

    Recently, many studies utilizing next generation sequencing have investigated plant evolution and domestication in annual crops. Peach, Prunus persica, is a typical perennial fruit crop that has ornamental and edible varieties. Unlike other fruit crops, cultivated peach includes a large number of phenotypes but few polymorphisms. In this study, we explore the genetic basis of domestication in peach and the influence of humans on its evolution. We perform large-scale resequencing of 10 wild and 74 cultivated peach varieties, including 9 ornamental, 23 breeding, and 42 landrace lines. We identify 4.6 million SNPs, a large number of which could explain the phenotypic variation in cultivated peach. Population analysis shows a single domestication event, the speciation of P. persica from wild peach. Ornamental and edible peach both belong to P. persica, along with another geographically separated subgroup, Prunus ferganensis. Our analyses enhance our knowledge of the domestication history of perennial fruit crops, and the dataset we generated could be useful for future research on comparative population genomics.

  1. Pattern recognition of peach cultivars (Prunus persica L.) from their volatile components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Prado, Pablo; Bentayeb, Karim; Nerín, Cristina

    2013-05-01

    The volatile compounds of four peach cultivars (Prunus persica L.) were studied: Sudanell, San Lorenzo, Miraflores and Calanda (two clones, Calante and Jesca). 17-23 Samples of each cultivar with the same maturity level were analyzed, measuring color, firmness, and soluble solids content. The pulp was crushed and mixed with water prior to HS-SPME analysis, and GC-MS was used to determine the volatile compounds. Sixty-five compounds were identified using spectral library matching, Kovat's indices and, when available, pure standards. The main components were lactones and C6 compounds. From the distribution of these compounds, Principal Component Analysis led to the clustering of the samples according to their different cultivars. Finally, Canonical Component Analysis was used to create a classification function that identifies the origin of an unknown sample from its volatile composition. The results obtained will help to avoid fraud and protect the European Designation of Origin 'Melocotón de Calanda'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of Proteins from Prunus persica That Interact with Peach Latent Mosaic Viroid▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Audrey; Bisaillon, Martin; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) is a small, single-stranded, circular RNA pathogen that infects Prunus persica trees. As with all other known viroids, the PLMVd genome does not encode any proteins. Consequently, it must interact with host cellular factors in order to ensure its life cycle. With the objective of identifying cellular proteins that interact with PLMVd, Northwestern hybridizations were performed using partially purified peach leaf extracts. Mass spectrometric analysis of the detected RNA-protein complexes led to the identification of six putative RNA-binding proteins. One of these was found to be elongation factor 1-alpha (eEF1A), and because of its known involvement in the replication and translation of various RNA viruses, further characterizations were performed. Initially, the existence of this interaction received support from an experiment that immunoprecipitated the eEF1A from a crude extract of infected peach leaves, coupled with reverse transcription-PCR detection of the PLMVd. Subsequently, eEF1A interaction with PLMVd strands of both polarities was confirmed in vitro by electrophoresis mobility shift assays, fluorescence spectroscopy, and the prediction of an altered PLMVd RNase mapping profile in the presence of the protein. The potential contribution of eEF1A to the molecular biology of PLMVd, including for viroid replication, is discussed. PMID:19759139

  3. Peach (Prunus persica) extract inhibits angiotensin II-induced signal transduction in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Ryohei; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Misa; Inada, Ken-ichi; Tokuda, Akihiko; Yamashita, Miki; Hidaka, Ryu; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi

    2013-08-15

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a vasoactive hormone that has been implicated in cardiovascular diseases. Here, the effect of peach, Prunus persica L. Batsch, pulp extract on Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and signal transduction events in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was investigated. Pretreatment of peach ethyl acetate extract inhibited Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation in VSMCs. Furthermore, Ang II-induced ROS generation, essential for signal transduction events, was diminished by the peach ethyl acetate extract. The peach ethyl acetate extract also attenuated the Ang II-induced phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, both of which are associated with atherosclerosis and hypertension. These results suggest that peach ethyl acetate extract may have clinical potential for preventing cardiovascular diseases by interfering with Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation, the generation of ROS, and then blocking signal transduction events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of different peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Wenna; Yin, Xueren; Su, Mingshen; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-03-12

    China is an important centre of diversity for Prunus persica. In the present study, 17 Chinese peach cultivars were evaluated for phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Neochlorogenic acid (NCHA), chlorogenic acid (CHA), procyanidin B1 (B1), catechin (CAT), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q3GAL), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3GLU), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Q3R), and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (K3R) were identified and quantified. CHA and CAT were the predominant components in both the peel and pulp of this fruit. In general, peel extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than the pulp counterparts, consistent with the observed higher phenolic content. The melting peach cultivar "Xinyu" showed the highest antioxidant potency composite (APC) index. The principal component analysis (PCA) of peel phenolics showed a clear distinction between the melting peach and nectarine. Overall, peach cultivars rich in hydroxycinnamates and flavan-3-ols showed relatively higher antioxidant activities and might be excellent sources of phytochemicals and natural antioxidants.

  5. Identification of genes associated with bud dormancy release in Prunus persica by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leida, Carmen; Terol, Javier; Martí, Gracia; Agustí, Manuel; Llácer, Gerardo; Badenes, María Luisa; Ríos, Gabino

    2010-05-01

    To better understand the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying maintenance and release of seasonal bud dormancy in perennial trees, we identified differentially expressed genes during dormancy progression in reproductive buds from peach (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch) by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and microarray hybridization. Four SSH libraries were constructed, which were respectively enriched in cDNA highly expressed in dormant buds (named DR), in dormancy-released buds (RD) and in the cultivars with different chilling requirement, 'Zincal 5' (ZS) and 'Springlady' (SZ), sampled after dormancy release. About 2500 clones picked from the four libraries were loaded on a glass microarray. Hybridization of microarrays with the final products of SSH procedure was performed in order to validate the selected clones that were effectively enriched in their respective sample. Nearly 400 positive clones were sequenced, which corresponded to 101 different unigenes with diverse functional annotation. We obtained DAM4, 5 and 6 genes coding for MADS-box transcription factors previously related to growth cessation and terminal bud formation in the evergrowing mutant of peach. Several other cDNAs are similar to dormancy factors described in other species, and others have been related to bud dormancy for the first time in this study. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed differential expression of cDNAs coding for a Zn-finger transcription factor, a GRAS-like regulator, a DNA-binding protein and proteins similar to forisome subunits involved in the reversible occlusion of sieve elements in Fabaceae, among others.

  6. Glucitol dehydrogenase from peach (Prunus persica) fruits is regulated by thioredoxin h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Matías D; Figueroa, Carlos M; Piattoni, Claudia V; Iglesias, Alberto A

    2014-06-01

    Glucitol (Gol) is a major photosynthetic product in plants from the Rosaceae family. Herein we report the molecular cloning, heterologous expression and characterization of Gol dehydrogenase (GolDHase, EC 1.1.1.14) from peach (Prunus persica) fruits. The recombinant enzyme showed kinetic parameters similar to those reported for orthologous enzymes purified from apple and pear fruits. The activity of recombinant GolDHase was strongly inhibited by Cu(2+) and Hg(2+), suggesting that it might have cysteine residues critical for functionality. Oxidizing compounds (such as diamide, hydrogen peroxide and oxidized glutathione) inactivated the enzyme, whereas its activity was restored after incubation with reduced glutathione and thioredoxin from Escherichia coli. Recombinant thioredoxin h from peach fruits also recovered the activity of oxidized GolDHase. Our results suggest that peach fruit GolDHase could be redox regulated in vivo and this would be of relevance to determine carbon assimilation and partitioning in plants accumulating sugar alcohols. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Pegamento e crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas Tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings

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    Newton Alex Mayer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o pegamento e o crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas. Realizaram-se dois experimentos, adotando-se a enxertia de borbulhia por escudo (março e borbulhia por escudo modificada (julho. Com os resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que é viável a realização da enxertia do 'Aurora-1' nos Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e no 'Okinawa', tanto em março quanto em julho, com as metodologias utilizadas. O 'Okinawa' induz crescimento mais rápido ao enxerto, de forma que o ponto máximo do comprimento é atingido em tempo menor.This study aimed to evaluate the tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings. Two experiments were carried out, being adopted the chip budding (March and chip budding modified (July. The results showed that accomplishment of 'Aurora-1' peach bud on mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 and 'Okinawa' is viable, in both periods, with the methodologies used. The 'Okinawa' induces faster growth to the bud and the maximum length point is reached in a short time.

  8. Prunus persica crop management as step toward AMF diversity conservation for the sustainable soil management

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    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Lozano, Z.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Roldan, A.

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in roots of Prunus persica under two fertilization treatments (CF: consisted of application of chicken manure (1400 kg.ha-1), urea (140 kg.ha-1), complex fertilizer 12-12-17/2 (280 kg.ha-1), and potassium sulfate (40 kg.ha-1) and IF: consisted of application of urea (140 kg.ha-1), complex fertilizer 12-12-17/2 (400 kg.ha-1) and potassium sulfate (70 kg.ha-1)) combined with integrated pest management (IM) or chemical pest management (CM), in a tropical agroecosystem in the north of Venezuela. Our goal was to ascertain how different fertilizers/pest management can modify the AMF diversity colonizing P. persica roots as an important step towards sustainable soil use and therefore protection of biodiversity. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty-one different phylotypes were identified, which were grouped in five families: Glomeraceae, Paraglomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, Gigasporaceae and Archaeosporaceae. Sixteen of these sequence groups belonged to the genus Glomus, two to Paraglomus, one to Acaulospora, one to Scutellospora and one to Archaeospora. A different distribution of the AMF phylotypes as consequence of the difference between treatments was observed. Thus, the AMF communities of tree roots in the (IF+CM) treatment had the lowest diversity (H'=1.78) with the lowest total number of AMF sequence types (9). The trees from both (CF+IM) and (IF+IM) treatments had similar AMF diversity (H'?2.00); while the treatment (CF+CM) yielded the highest number of different AMF sequence types (17) and showed the highest diversity index (H'=2.69). In conclusion, the crop management including combination of organic and inorganic fertilization and chemical pest control appears to be the most suitable strategy with respect to reactivate the AMF diversity in the roots of this crop and thus, the agricultural and environmental

  9. Genome wide identification of chilling responsive microRNAs in Prunus persica.

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    Barakat, Abdelali; Sriram, Aditya; Park, Joseph; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Main, Dorrie; Abbott, Albert

    2012-09-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs (sRNAs) approximately 21 nucleotides in length that negatively control gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. Within this context, miRNAs and siRNAs are coming to the forefront as molecular mediators of gene regulation in plant responses to annual temperature cycling and cold stress. For this reason, we chose to identify and characterize the conserved and non-conserved miRNA component of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) focusing our efforts on both the recently released whole genome sequence of peach and sRNA transcriptome sequences from two tissues representing non-dormant leaves and dormant leaf buds. Conserved and non-conserved miRNAs, and their targets were identified. These sRNA resources were used to identify cold-responsive miRNAs whose gene targets co-localize with previously described QTLs for chilling requirement (CR). Analysis of 21 million peach sRNA reads allowed us to identify 157 and 230 conserved and non-conserved miRNA sequences. Among the non-conserved miRNAs, we identified 205 that seem to be specific to peach. Comparative genome analysis between peach and Arabidopsis showed that conserved miRNA families, with the exception of miR5021, are similar in size. Sixteen of these conserved miRNA families are deeply rooted in land plant phylogeny as they are present in mosses and/or lycophytes. Within the other conserved miRNA families, five families (miR1446, miR473, miR479, miR3629, and miR3627) were reported only in tree species (Populustrichocarpa, Citrus trifolia, and Prunus persica). Expression analysis identified several up-regulated or down-regulated miRNAs in winter buds versus young leaves. A search of the peach proteome allowed the prediction of target genes for most of the conserved miRNAs and a large fraction of non-conserved miRNAs. A fraction of predicted targets in peach have not been previously reported in other species. Several conserved and non

  10. Genome wide identification of chilling responsive microRNAs in Prunus persica

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    Barakat Abdelali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNAs (sRNAs approximately 21 nucleotides in length that negatively control gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. Within this context, miRNAs and siRNAs are coming to the forefront as molecular mediators of gene regulation in plant responses to annual temperature cycling and cold stress. For this reason, we chose to identify and characterize the conserved and non-conserved miRNA component of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch focusing our efforts on both the recently released whole genome sequence of peach and sRNA transcriptome sequences from two tissues representing non-dormant leaves and dormant leaf buds. Conserved and non-conserved miRNAs, and their targets were identified. These sRNA resources were used to identify cold-responsive miRNAs whose gene targets co-localize with previously described QTLs for chilling requirement (CR. Results Analysis of 21 million peach sRNA reads allowed us to identify 157 and 230 conserved and non-conserved miRNA sequences. Among the non-conserved miRNAs, we identified 205 that seem to be specific to peach. Comparative genome analysis between peach and Arabidopsis showed that conserved miRNA families, with the exception of miR5021, are similar in size. Sixteen of these conserved miRNA families are deeply rooted in land plant phylogeny as they are present in mosses and/or lycophytes. Within the other conserved miRNA families, five families (miR1446, miR473, miR479, miR3629, and miR3627 were reported only in tree species (Populustrichocarpa, Citrus trifolia, and Prunus persica. Expression analysis identified several up-regulated or down-regulated miRNAs in winter buds versus young leaves. A search of the peach proteome allowed the prediction of target genes for most of the conserved miRNAs and a large fraction of non-conserved miRNAs. A fraction of predicted targets in peach have not been previously reported in other

  11. Prunus persica crop management differentially promotes arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity in a tropical agro-ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Lozano, Zenaida; Torres, Maria Pilar; Roldán, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Due to the important role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in ecosystem functioning, determination of the effect of management practices on the AMF diversity in agricultural soils is essential for the sustainability of these agro-ecosystems. The objective of this study was to compare the AMF diversity in Prunus persica roots under two types of fertilisation (inorganic, with or without manure) combined with integrated or chemical pest management in a Venezuelan agro-ecosystem. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty-one different phylotypes were identified: 15 belonged to the genus Glomus, one to Claroideoglomus, two to Paraglomus, one to Acaulospora, one to Scutellospora and one to Archaeospora. The distribution of the AMF community composition differed as a consequence of the treatment effects. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control had the highest AMF richness and the treatment combining inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest had the lowest. The real causes and effects of these differences in the AMF community are very difficult to establish, since the crop management regimes tested were composed of several interacting factors. In conclusion, the crop management practices can exert a significant influence on the populations of AMF. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control appears to be the most suitable agricultural management strategy with respect to improving the AMF diversity in this crop under tropical conditions, and thus for maintaining the agricultural and environmental sustainability of this agro-ecosystem.

  12. Extrafloral nectaries alter arthropod community structure and mediate peach (Prunus persica) plant defense.

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    Mathews, Clarissa R; Bottrell, Dale G; Brown, Mark W

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the role of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) in mediating plant defense for newly established peach (Prunus persica) trees. We used peaches of a single cultivar ("Lovell") that varied with respect to EFN leaf phenotype (with or without EFNs) to determine if the EFNs affected the structure of the arthropod community colonizing newly planted seedlings. We also tested if the plants producing EFNs benefited from reduced herbivory or enhanced productivity. In the first year following planting, the young peach trees with EFNs were dominated by ants, and arthropod community diversity was lower than for trees without EFNs. The young trees with EFNs harbored fewer herbivores and experienced a twofold reduction in folivory compared to trees without EFNs. Productivity was also enhanced for the trees with EFNs, which attained significantly higher rates of trunk growth, greater terminal carbon composition, and a threefold increase in buds produced in subsequent years. In the second year of the field study, ants remained numerically dominant on trees with EFNs, but arthropod community diversity was higher than for trees without EFNs. An additional study revealed that folivory rates in May increased dramatically for trees with EFNs if ants were excluded from their canopies, indicating that ants have a protective function when the perennial trees produce new leaves. However, in later months, regardless of ants' presence, the trees with EFNs suffered less folivory than trees lacking EFNs. The diversity and richness of the predator trophic group increased when ants were excluded from trees with EFNs, but overall community diversity (i.e., herbivores and predators combined) was not affected by the ants' presence. Our research indicates that the EFNs play an important role in attracting predators that protect the trees from herbivores, and the EFN host-plant characteristic should be retained in future peach cultivar selections. Furthermore, peach production programs aimed

  13. Peach (Prunus persica) fruit response to anoxia: reversible ripening delay and biochemical changes.

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    Lara, María V; Budde, Claudio O; Porrini, Lucía; Borsani, Julia; Murray, Ricardo; Andreo, Carlos S; Drincovich, María F

    2011-02-01

    The use of modified atmospheres has been successfully applied in different fruits to delay the ripening process and to prevent physiological disorders. In addition, during normal ripening, hypoxic areas are generated inside the fruit; moreover, anaerobic conditions may also arise during fruit post-harvest storage and handling. In consequence, the fruit is an interesting model to analyze the metabolic modifications due to changes in oxygen levels. In this work, a 72 h anoxic treatment by using an N(2) storage atmosphere was applied to peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch) after harvest. Ripening was effectively delayed in treated fruits, preventing fruit softening, color changes and ethylene production. Metabolic changes induced by anoxia included induction of fermentative pathways, glycolysis and enzymes involved in both sucrose synthesis and degradation. Sucrose, fructose and glucose contents remained unchanged in treated fruit, probably due to sucrose cycling. Sorbitol was not consumed and citrate was increased, correlating with citric acid cycle impairment due to O(2) deprivation. Malate content was not affected, indicating compensation in the reactions producing and consuming malate. Changes in malic enzymes and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase may provide pyruvate for fermentation or even act to regenerate NADP. After fruit transfer to aerobic conditions, no signs of post-anoxia injury were observed and metabolic changes were reversed, with the exception of acetaldehyde levels. The results obtained indicate that peach fruit is an organ with a high capacity for anoxic tolerance, which is in accord with the presence of hypoxic areas inside fruits and the fact that hypoxic pre-treatment improves tolerance to subsequent anoxia.

  14. Unique expression, processing regulation, and regulatory network of peach (Prunus persica) miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Xia, Rui; Zhao, Bingyu; An, Yong-qiang; Dardick, Chris D; Callahan, Ann M; Liu, Zongrang

    2012-08-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as important gene regulators in plants. MiRNAs and their targets have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis and rice. However, relatively little is known about the characterization of miRNAs and their target genes in peach (Prunus persica), which is a complex crop with unique developmental programs. We performed small RNA deep sequencing and identified 47 peach-specific and 47 known miRNAs or families with distinct expression patterns. Together, the identified miRNAs targeted 80 genes, many of which have not been reported previously. Like the model plant systems, peach has two of the three conserved trans-acting siRNA biogenesis pathways with similar mechanistic features and target specificity. Unique to peach, three of the miRNAs collectively target 49 MYBs, 19 of which are known to regulate phenylpropanoid metabolism, a key pathway associated with stone hardening and fruit color development, highlighting a critical role of miRNAs in the regulation of peach fruit development and ripening. We also found that the majority of the miRNAs were differentially regulated in different tissues, in part due to differential processing of miRNA precursors. Up to 16% of the peach-specific miRNAs were differentially processed from their precursors in a tissue specific fashion, which has been rarely observed in plant cells. The miRNA precursor processing activity appeared not to be coupled with its transcriptional activity but rather acted independently in peach. Collectively, the data characterizes the unique expression pattern and processing regulation of peach miRNAs and demonstrates the presence of a complex, multi-level miRNA regulatory network capable of targeting a wide variety of biological functions, including phenylpropanoid pathways which play a multifaceted spatial-temporal role in peach fruit development.

  15. Unique expression, processing regulation, and regulatory network of peach (Prunus persica miRNAs

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    Zhu Hong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs have recently emerged as important gene regulators in plants. MiRNAs and their targets have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis and rice. However, relatively little is known about the characterization of miRNAs and their target genes in peach (Prunus persica, which is a complex crop with unique developmental programs. Results We performed small RNA deep sequencing and identified 47 peach-specific and 47 known miRNAs or families with distinct expression patterns. Together, the identified miRNAs targeted 80 genes, many of which have not been reported previously. Like the model plant systems, peach has two of the three conserved trans-acting siRNA biogenesis pathways with similar mechanistic features and target specificity. Unique to peach, three of the miRNAs collectively target 49 MYBs, 19 of which are known to regulate phenylpropanoid metabolism, a key pathway associated with stone hardening and fruit color development, highlighting a critical role of miRNAs in the regulation of peach fruit development and ripening. We also found that the majority of the miRNAs were differentially regulated in different tissues, in part due to differential processing of miRNA precursors. Up to 16% of the peach-specific miRNAs were differentially processed from their precursors in a tissue specific fashion, which has been rarely observed in plant cells. The miRNA precursor processing activity appeared not to be coupled with its transcriptional activity but rather acted independently in peach. Conclusions Collectively, the data characterizes the unique expression pattern and processing regulation of peach miRNAs and demonstrates the presence of a complex, multi-level miRNA regulatory network capable of targeting a wide variety of biological functions, including phenylpropanoid pathways which play a multifaceted spatial-temporal role in peach fruit development.

  16. Polinização entomófila em pessegueiro (Prunus persica L.

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    Manoel Octávio Silveira da Mota

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento, realizado na região de Jaboticabal (SP, utilizou uma cultura de pêssego (Prunus persica L., durante a sua florada com a finalidade de verificar a atuação dos insetos visitantes nas flores na produção de frutos. A concentração média de açucares no néctar e a quantidade média produzida por dia de néctar é de 27,9% e de 3,2 mg, respectivamente. O peso médio das anteras por flor foi de 1,59 mg. A abelha Apis mellifera (73% foi o principal inseto visitante seguida da Trigona spinipes (17% e Xylocopa sp (4%. Observou-se a presença de beija-flores (6%, coletando néctar. A freqüência máxima das abelhas A. mellifera, para coleta de néctar e pólen, ocorreu as 12 horas. O número de frutos resultantes do tratamento em que as flores recebiam as visitas foi 14% maior que no tratamento em as flores não eram visitadas. Do total de frutos colhidos no tratamento coberto (sem visitas, 82% apresentaram-se perfeitos, com boa formação e simetria. No tratamento descoberto, 90,2% apresentaram-se com boa formação, havendo diferença estatística entre os dois tratamentos.

  17. Investigation of the aroma of commercial peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) types by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and sensory analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso Ferreira Pinhancos de Bianchi, Tiago; Weesepoel, Yannick; Koot, Alex; Iglesias, Ignasi; Eduardo, Iban; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Guerrero, Luis; Hortós, Maria; Ruth, van Saskia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the aroma and sensory profiles of various types of peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch.). Forty-three commercial cultivars comprising peaches, flat peaches, nectarines, and canning peaches (pavías) were grown over two consecutive harvest years. Fruits were

  18. A review on the complexity of insect-plant interactions under varying levels of resources and host resistance: the case of Myzus persicae-Prunus persica

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    Verdugo, JA.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insect-plant interactions are affected directly or indirectly by stress factors. The effect of environmental resource availability on insect-plant interactions is here reviewed. Subsequently, the analysis focuses on aphid-host plant interactions, particularly in the system composed by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae and its primary host plant Prunus persica. Literature. Plant defenses arise in two ways: resistance and tolerance, both are affected by abiotic factors. The information gathered from studies (n = 29 on plant-aphid interactions addressing the reduction in water availability on plant resistance, showed that in 41,4% of the studies, drought stress elicits lower resistance, while 34.5%, 20.1% and 3.4%, showed higher, no change and conditional effects on plant resistance, respectively. Conclusions. Water stress elicits mixed effects on plant resistance to aphids. However, the literature review also suggests that cultural practices play a role in the fate of the peach-aphid interactions, whereas the development of predictive models aimed to assist crop-pest management systems still requires more basic information. Aphid responses to plant defenses under stressed conditions are still largely unexplored.

  19. Characterization of cytokinin signaling and homeostasis gene families in two hardwood tree species: Populus trichocarpa and Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immanen, Juha; Nieminen, Kaisa; Duchens Silva, Héctor; Rodríguez Rojas, Fernanda; Meisel, Lee A; Silva, Herman; Albert, Victor A; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Helariutta, Ykä

    2013-12-16

    Through the diversity of cytokinin regulated processes, this phytohormone has a profound impact on plant growth and development. Cytokinin signaling is involved in the control of apical and lateral meristem activity, branching pattern of the shoot, and leaf senescence. These processes influence several traits, including the stem diameter, shoot architecture, and perennial life cycle, which define the development of woody plants. To facilitate research about the role of cytokinin in regulation of woody plant development, we have identified genes associated with cytokinin signaling and homeostasis pathways from two hardwood tree species. Taking advantage of the sequenced black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and peach (Prunus persica) genomes, we have compiled a comprehensive list of genes involved in these pathways. We identified genes belonging to the six families of cytokinin oxidases (CKXs), isopentenyl transferases (IPTs), LONELY GUY genes (LOGs), two-component receptors, histidine containing phosphotransmitters (HPts), and response regulators (RRs). All together 85 Populus and 45 Prunus genes were identified, and compared to their Arabidopsis orthologs through phylogenetic analyses. In general, when compared to Arabidopsis, differences in gene family structure were often seen in only one of the two tree species. However, one class of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, the CKI1-like family of two-component histidine kinases, was larger in both Populus and Prunus than in Arabidopsis.

  20. Characterization of cytokinin signaling and homeostasis gene families in two hardwood tree species: Populus trichocarpa and Prunus persica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Through the diversity of cytokinin regulated processes, this phytohormone has a profound impact on plant growth and development. Cytokinin signaling is involved in the control of apical and lateral meristem activity, branching pattern of the shoot, and leaf senescence. These processes influence several traits, including the stem diameter, shoot architecture, and perennial life cycle, which define the development of woody plants. To facilitate research about the role of cytokinin in regulation of woody plant development, we have identified genes associated with cytokinin signaling and homeostasis pathways from two hardwood tree species. Results Taking advantage of the sequenced black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and peach (Prunus persica) genomes, we have compiled a comprehensive list of genes involved in these pathways. We identified genes belonging to the six families of cytokinin oxidases (CKXs), isopentenyl transferases (IPTs), LONELY GUY genes (LOGs), two-component receptors, histidine containing phosphotransmitters (HPts), and response regulators (RRs). All together 85 Populus and 45 Prunus genes were identified, and compared to their Arabidopsis orthologs through phylogenetic analyses. Conclusions In general, when compared to Arabidopsis, differences in gene family structure were often seen in only one of the two tree species. However, one class of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, the CKI1-like family of two-component histidine kinases, was larger in both Populus and Prunus than in Arabidopsis. PMID:24341635

  1. Mites fluctuation population on peach tree (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and in associated plants

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    Carla Rosana Eichelberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch in Rio Grande do Sul, little is known about mites fluctuation population considered important to this crop. The objective of this study was to know the population diversity and fluctuation of mite species associated with Premier and Eldorado varieties in Roca Sales and Venâncio Aires counties, Rio Grande do Sul. The study was conducted from July 2008 to June 2009 when 15 plants were randomly chosen in each area. The plants were divided in quadrants and from each one a branch was chosen from which three leaves were removed: one collected in the apical region, another in the medium and the other in the basal region, totalizing 180 leaves/area. Five of the most abundant associated plants were collected monthly in enough amounts for the screening under the stereoscopic microscope during an hour. A total of 1,124 mites were found belonging to 14 families and 28 species. Tetranychus ludeni Zacher, 1913, Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836 and Mononychellus planki (McGregor, 1950 were the most abundant phytophagous mites, whereas Typhlodromalus aripo Deleon, 1967 and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 the most common predatory mites. The period of one hour under stereoscopic microscope was enough to get a representative sample. In both places evaluated the ecologic indices were low, but little higherin Premier (H' 0.56; EqJ: 0.43 when compared to Eldorado (H' 0.53; EqJ 0.40. In Premier constant species were not observed and accessory only Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939, T. ludeni and T. aripo. Higher abundance was observed in December and January and bigger amount in April. Already in Eldorado, T. ludeni and P. ulmi were constants. Greater abundance was observed in November and December, whereas grater richness in December and January. In both orchards were not found mites in buds. Tetranychus ludeni is the most abundant phytophagous mites with outbreak population in November, December and

  2. Transcriptome analysis of seed dormancy after rinsing and chilling in ornamental peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch).

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    Kanjana, Worarad; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Ishii, Kazuo; Kozaki, Toshinori; Iigo, Masayuki; Yamane, Kenji

    2016-08-08

    Ornamental peaches cv. 'Yaguchi' (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) can be propagated via seeds. The establishment of efficient seed treatments for early germination and seedling growth is required to shorten nursery and breeding periods. It is important, therefore, to identify potential candidate genes responsible for the effects of rinsing and chilling on seed germination. We hypothesized that longer rinsing combined with chilling of seeds can alter the genes expression in related to dormancy and then raise the germination rate in the peach. To date, most molecular studies in peaches have involved structural genomics, and few transcriptome studies of seed germination have been conducted. In this study, we investigated the function of key seed dormancy-related genes using next-generation sequencing to profile the transcriptomes involved in seed dormancy in peaches. De novo assembly and analysis of the transcriptome identified differentially expressed and unique genes present in this fruit. De novo RNA-sequencing of peach was performed using the Illumina Miseq 2000 system. Paired-end sequence from mRNAs generated high quality sequence reads (9,049,964, 10,026,362 and 10,101,918 reads) from 'Yaguchi' peach seeds before rinsed (BR) and after rinsed for 2 or 7 days with a chilling period of 4 weeks (termed 2D4W and 7D4W), respectively. The germination rate of 7D4W was significantly higher than that of 2D4W. In total, we obtained 51,366 unique sequences. Differential expression analysis identified 7752, 8469 and 506 differentially expressed genes from BR vs 2D4W, BR vs 7D4W and 2D4W vs 7D4W libraries respectively, filtered based on p-value and an adjusted false discovery rate of less than 0.05. This study identified genes associated with the rinsing and chilling process that included those associated with phytohormones, the stress response and transcription factors. 7D4W treatment downregulated genes involved in ABA synthesis, catabolism and signaling pathways, which

  3. Genome-Wide Analysis Suggests the Relaxed Purifying Selection Affect the Evolution of WOX Genes in Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Meng, Dandan; Li, Guohui; Li, Dahui; Abdullah, Muhammad; Jin, Qing; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2017-01-01

    WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) family is one of the largest group of transcription factors (TFs) specifically found in plant kingdom. WOX TFs play an important role in plant development processes and evolutionary novelties. Although the roles of WOXs in Arabidopsis and rice have been well-studied, however, little are known about the relationships among the main clades in the molecular evolution of these genes in Rosaceae. Here, we carried out a genome-wide analysis and identified 14, 10, 10, and 9 of WOX genes from four Rosaceae species (Fragaria vesca, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Pyrus bretschneideri, respectively). According to evolutionary analysis, as well as amino acid sequences of their homodomains, these genes were divided into three clades with nine subgroups. Furthermore, due to the conserved structural patterns among these WOX genes, it was proposed that there should exist some highly conserved regions of microsynteny in the four Rosaceae species. Moreover, most of WOX gene pairs were presented with the conserved orientation among syntenic genome regions. In addition, according to substitution models analysis using PMAL software, no significant positive selection was detected, but type I functional divergence was identified among certain amino acids in WOX protein. These results revealed that the relaxed purifying selection might be the main driving force during the evolution of WOX genes in the tested Rosaceae species. Our result will be useful for further precise research on evolution of the WOX genes in family Rosaceae.

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis Suggests the Relaxed Purifying Selection Affect the Evolution of WOX Genes in Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Fragaria vesca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Cao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX family is one of the largest group of transcription factors (TFs specifically found in plant kingdom. WOX TFs play an important role in plant development processes and evolutionary novelties. Although the roles of WOXs in Arabidopsis and rice have been well-studied, however, little are known about the relationships among the main clades in the molecular evolution of these genes in Rosaceae. Here, we carried out a genome-wide analysis and identified 14, 10, 10, and 9 of WOX genes from four Rosaceae species (Fragaria vesca, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Pyrus bretschneideri, respectively. According to evolutionary analysis, as well as amino acid sequences of their homodomains, these genes were divided into three clades with nine subgroups. Furthermore, due to the conserved structural patterns among these WOX genes, it was proposed that there should exist some highly conserved regions of microsynteny in the four Rosaceae species. Moreover, most of WOX gene pairs were presented with the conserved orientation among syntenic genome regions. In addition, according to substitution models analysis using PMAL software, no significant positive selection was detected, but type I functional divergence was identified among certain amino acids in WOX protein. These results revealed that the relaxed purifying selection might be the main driving force during the evolution of WOX genes in the tested Rosaceae species. Our result will be useful for further precise research on evolution of the WOX genes in family Rosaceae.

  5. Pomological and biochemical peculiarities of peach hybrids and varieties for genus Persica Mill. (Prunus persica Borkh. with anthocyanidin Persica vulgaris Mill, pigmentation of fruits pulp and leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Ріхтер

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and the links between different groups of substances (content of dry substances, monosaccharides, saccharose, sum of sugars, titratable acids, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanidins, water soluble pectine, protopectin, sum of pectines and sugar-acid index have been studied in hybrids fruits of Persica vulgaris Mill, subsp. erytrocarpa Zajats and Persica vulgaris Mill, subsp. atropurpurea (Schneid. Zajats. The obtained data were compared with the characteristics typical for fruits of P. vulgaris Mill, subsp. nectarina (Ait. Shof. and P. vulgaris Mill. Brief information about the biology of obtained distant hybrids forms have been given. The content of anthocyanine pigments (Cy-3-Glu, Cy-3- Ara, Cy-3-(6-Kum- Glu in fruits and leaves of different taxons for genus Persica Mill, has been analysed.

  6. Green synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets with use of Prunus persica for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atchudan, Raji, E-mail: atchudanr@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Perumal, Suguna [Department of Applied Chemistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • N-GCSs was synthesized from the unripe Prunus persica by direct hydrothermal method. • The resulting N-GCSs-2 exhibit an excellent graphitization with 9.33% of nitrogen. • N-GCSs-2 provide high C{sub s} of 176 F g{sup −1} at current density of 0.1 A g{sup −1} in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. • N-GCSs-2 have high capacitance retention and 20% capacity growth after 2000 cycles. • First time, N-GCSs resulted from peach via green route for flexible supercapacitors. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets (N-GCSs) were prepared from the extract of unripe Prunus persica fruit by a direct hydrothermal method. The synthesized N-GCSs were examined by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HRTEM showed that the synthesized carbon sheets were graphitic with lattice fringes and an inter-layer distance of 0.36 nm. Doping with the nitrogen moiety present over the synthesized GCSs was confirmed by XPS, FT-IR spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping. The fruit extract associated with hydrothermal-carbonization method is economical and eco-friendly with a single step process. The resulting carbon sheets could be modified and are promising candidates for nano-electronic applications, including supercapacitors. The synthesized N-GCSs-2 provided a high specific capacitance of 176 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.1 A g{sup −1}. This electrode material has excellent cyclic stability, even after 2000 cycles of charge-discharge at a current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1}.

  7. Towards further understanding on the antioxidative activities of Prunus persica fruit: A comparative study with four different fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Naveen; Sharma, Rajesh; Kar, Anand

    2014-11-01

    In the present study we have evaluated the antioxidant activities of different fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions) of Prunus persica fruit. For extraction simple warring blender method was employed and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were correlated with different antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H2O2 scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, iron chelating and their reducing power properties). Different in vitro antioxidant studies showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions had the maximum activities that were well correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Maximum yield (25.14 ± 2.2%) was obtained in its aqueous fraction. Both ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed significant inhibitory effects on different antioxidant activities. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between total antioxidant activities and with total phenolic as well as total flavonoid contents. It appears that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. persica may serve as new potential sources of natural antioxidants and could be of therapeutic use in treating several diseases.

  8. Prunus persica var. platycarpa (Tabacchiera Peach): Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Pulp, Peel and Seed Ethanolic Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica R; Pacetti, Deborah; Lucci, Paolo; Núñez, Oscar; Menichini, Francesco; Frega, Natale Giuseppe; Tundis, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    A comparative analysis of ethanol extracts from peel, pulp and seed of Prunus persica var. platycarpa (Tabacchiera peach) was done. The total phenol, flavonoid and carotenoid content as well as the antioxidant properties by using different in vitro assays (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, Fe-chelating, β-carotene bleaching test) were evaluated. Pulp extract was subjected to liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, protocatechualdehyde, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid were identified as main constituents. Pulp extract was characterized by the highest total phytonutrients content and exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in all in vitro assays (IC(50) values of 2.2 μg/mL after 60 min of incubation by using β-carotene bleaching test and 2.9 μg/mL by using Fe-chelating assay). Overall, the obtained results suggest that P. persica var. platycarpa displays a good antioxidant activity and its consumption could be promoted.

  9. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profile Analysis of Prunus persica in Response to Low Sink Demand after Fruit Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Hongguo; Liu, Guotian; Fan, Peige; Liang, Zhenchang; Li, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Prunus persica fruits were removed from 1-year-old shoots to analysis photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and genes changes in leaves to low sink demand caused by fruit removal (-fruit) during the final stage of rapid fruit growth. A decline in net photosynthesis rate was observed, accompanied with a decrease in stomatal conductance. The intercellular CO2 concentrations and leaf temperature increased as compared with a normal fruit load (+fruit). Moreover, low sink demand significantly inhibited the donor side and the reaction center of photosystem II. 382 genes in leaf with an absolute fold change ≥1 change in expression level, representing 116 up- and 266 down-regulated genes except for unknown transcripts. Among these, 25 genes for photosynthesis were down-regulated, 69 stress and 19 redox related genes up-regulated under the low sink demand. These studies revealed high leaf temperature may result in a decline of net photosynthesis rate through down-regulation in photosynthetic related genes and up-regulation in redox and stress related genes, especially heat shock proteins genes. The complex changes in genes at the transcriptional level under low sink demand provided useful starting points for in-depth analyses of source-sink relationship in P. persica.

  10. Variation in Minerals, Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Peel and Pulp of Different Varieties of Peach (Prunus persica L.) Fruit from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Ashraf; Zahed Mahmood; Umer Rashid; Maleeha Manzoor; Farooq Anwar

    2012-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica L.), being a potential source of bioactive compounds, has been demonstrated to have medicinal benefits. In this study variation of minerals and antioxidant characteristics (total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of peroxidation using linoleic acid system and DPPH free radical scavenging activity) between peel and pulp parts of different peach varieties, namely Golden, Shireen, and Shahpasand were investigated. T...

  11. Improvement of Root System Architecture in Peach (Prunus persica) Seedlings by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, Related to Allocation of Glucose/Sucrose to Root

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Guo-Huai LI; Zou, Ying-Ning

    2011-01-01

    Root system architecture (RSA) is used to describe the spatial configuration of a root system in the soil, which substantially determines the capacity of a plant to take up nutrients and water. The present study was to assess if arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Glomus mosseae, G. versiforme, and Paraglomus occultum would alter RSA of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) seedlings, and the alteration due to mycorrhization was related to allocation of glucose/sucrose to root (Aglucose/sucrose). ...

  12. Reação de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e cultivares de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] ao nematóide anelado Mesocriconema xenoplax (Nemata: Criconematidae Reaction of mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and peach tree cultivars [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] to ring nematode Mesocriconema xenoplax (Nemata: Criconematidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a reação de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e cultivares de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] ao nematóide anelado Mesocriconema xenoplax (Raski Loof & de Grise, realizou-se o presente estudo em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Fitossanidade da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de cerâmica com 6 litros de capacidade, contendo uma mistura de solo e areia (1:1, v/v, previamente autoclavada a 121°C e 1kgf.cm-2 por 2 horas. Cada planta foi inoculada com 10mL de uma suspensão de 200 M. xenoplax por mL. Com os resultados obtidos, após 105 dias da inoculação, pode-se concluir que os Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e as cultivares Okinawa e Aurora-1 de pessegueiro são suscetíveis a M. xenoplax. A cultivar Aurora-1 apresentou maior Fator de Reprodução (93,06.With the objective of evaluating the reaction of mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and peach tree cultivars [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] to ring nematode Mesocriconema xenoplax (Raski Loof & de Grise, was conducted the present study at a greenhouse, belonging to the Phytosanity Department of Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. The plants were maintained in ceramic boxes with 6 liters of capacity, contends a soil-sand mixture (1:1, v/v, previously autoclaved at 121°C and 1kgf.cm-2 for 2 hours. Each plant was inoculated with a 10mL suspension of 200 M. xenoplax/mL. With the results, after 105 days of inoculation, was verified that mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 and 'Okinawa' and 'Aurora-1' peach tree cultivars are susceptible to M. xenoplax. The cultivar 'Aurora-1' presented larger reproduction factor (93,06.

  13. Effect of pulsed electric fields on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Kristine Ann Gualberto; Hamid, Nazimah; Oey, Indrawati; Gutierrez-Maddox, Noemi; Ma, Qianli; Leong, Sze Ying

    2015-03-23

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella). The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3) generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2). Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds.

  14. UTILIZACION DE ISOENZIMAS DE EXTRACTOS DE HOJAS EN LA CARACTERIZACION DE CULTIVARES DE DURAZNERO (Prunus persica (L Batsch THE USE OF ISOZYME LEAF EXTRACTS IN THE CHARACTERIZATION OF PEACH CULTIVARS (Prunus persica L Batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HECTOR ABEL ALTUBE

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available La caracterización de cultivares de duraznero (Prunus persica (L Batsch se hace por medio de la descripción de caracteres agronómicos y morfológicos codificados por organizaciones internacionales, los cuales están fuertemente influenciados por el ambiente. Se han buscado métodos alternativos de caracterización y las isoenzimas han sido utilizadas por su independencia de las condiciones del ambiente, además de identificar individuos en etapas tempranas de su desarrollo. El objetivo del presente estudio es caracterizar cultivares de duraznero mediante el análisis isoenzimático de catecol oxidasas, fosfatasas ácidas, esterazas y peroxidazos en extractos de hojas. Los cultivares de duraznero analizados presentaron bajo polimorfismo isoenzimático, las esterazas caracterizaron diez cultivares, las catecol oxidasas un cultivar agrupándose el resto en cinco modelos, las fosfatasas ácidas caracterizaron dos cultivares agrupándose los otros en siete modelos y las peroxidazos formaron tres grupos. Ello puede explicarse ya que el duraznero es una especie autofértil y presenta una base genética muy reducida. Los evidentes límites discriminatorios de este tipo de análisis hacen que su aporte sea sólo complementario a los métodos de los caracteres agronómicos y morfológicos.Characterization of peach cultivars (Prunus persica (L Batsh was made by description of agronomical and morphological characters codified from international organizations, which are strongly affected by environmental conditions. Alternative methods of characterization have been searched, and isoenzymes have been used as independent of environmental conditions in addition to identify some individuals in early stages of development. The goal of this study is the peach cultivars characterization by isoenzymatic analysis of catecol oxidases, acid phosphatases, esterases and peroxidases within the leaf extracts. The peach cultivars analyzed have showed low isoenzymatic

  15. Discovery and Annotation of Plant Endogenous Target Mimicry Sequences from Public Transcriptome Libraries: A Case Study of Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakülah, Gökhan

    2017-06-28

    Novel transcript discovery through RNA sequencing has substantially improved our understanding of the transcriptome dynamics of biological systems. Endogenous target mimicry (eTM) transcripts, a novel class of regulatory molecules, bind to their target microRNAs (miRNAs) by base pairing and block their biological activity. The objective of this study was to provide a computational analysis framework for the prediction of putative eTM sequences in plants, and as an example, to discover previously un-annotated eTMs in Prunus persica (peach) transcriptome. Therefore, two public peach transcriptome libraries downloaded from Sequence Read Archive (SRA) and a previously published set of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were investigated with multi-step analysis pipeline, and 44 putative eTMs were found. Additionally, an eTM-miRNA-mRNA regulatory network module associated with peach fruit organ development was built via integration of the miRNA target information and predicted eTM-miRNA interactions. My findings suggest that one of the most widely expressed miRNA families among diverse plant species, miR156, might be potentially sponged by seven putative eTMs. Besides, the study indicates eTMs potentially play roles in the regulation of development processes in peach fruit via targeting specific miRNAs. In conclusion, by following the step-by step instructions provided in this study, novel eTMs can be identified and annotated effectively in public plant transcriptome libraries.

  16. Green synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets with use of Prunus persica for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Perumal, Suguna; Lee, Yong Rok

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets (N-GCSs) were prepared from the extract of unripe Prunus persica fruit by a direct hydrothermal method. The synthesized N-GCSs were examined by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HRTEM showed that the synthesized carbon sheets were graphitic with lattice fringes and an inter-layer distance of 0.36 nm. Doping with the nitrogen moiety present over the synthesized GCSs was confirmed by XPS, FT-IR spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping. The fruit extract associated with hydrothermal-carbonization method is economical and eco-friendly with a single step process. The resulting carbon sheets could be modified and are promising candidates for nano-electronic applications, including supercapacitors. The synthesized N-GCSs-2 provided a high specific capacitance of 176 F g-1 at a current density of 0.1 A g-1. This electrode material has excellent cyclic stability, even after 2000 cycles of charge-discharge at a current density of 0.5 A g-1.

  17. Variation Of Odour Profile Detected In The Floral Stages of Prunus Persica (L) Batsch Using An Electronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeria, Messina; Silvia, Radice; Rosa, Baby; de Reca Noemí, Walsöe

    2009-05-01

    Bees use signals from plants to identify worthwhile visits. They learn quickly to differentiate mainly their floral odor than their colour. In some species the flowers remain open, intact and turgid until they are pollinated (anthesis) after which they are no longer attractive to pollinators (post-anthesis). Pollinators use fragrance for distance orientation, approach, landing, feeding and associative learning. The aim of this work was to study the variation of odor profile between anthesis and post-anthesis produced in flowers of different cultivars of Prunus Persica (L.) batsch, using an electronic nose since odor is a communication between flowering plants and bees. Visual results on field showed that peach flowers are generally more visited in the anthesis stage. Among all the analysed cultivars, Forastero cultivar was the only one visited in this floral stage. Statistical analysis of the electronic nose data showed that doped semiconductuvtive SnO2 sensors could differentiate between stages (anthesis and post-anthesis) only in case of Forastero cultivar.

  18. Comparison between in toto peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) supplementation and its polyphenolic extract on rat liver xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canistro, Donatella; Vivarelli, Fabio; Cirillo, Silvia; Costa, Guglielmo; Andreotti, Carlo; Paolini, Moreno

    2016-11-01

    Over the past years, there has been a growing interest in the natural constituents of foods as a potential means of cancer control. To date, epidemiology studies seem to indicate an inverse association between regular consumption of fruit and vegetables and cancer risk. Here, the potential chemopreventive activity of the polyphenolic extract (PPE) of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and of the freeze-dried fruit in toto (LFT), focusing on the modulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) in vivo, was investigated. Rats were daily supplemented with LFT at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. or with the corresponding amount of PPE (2.5 and 5 mL/kg b.w., respectively) for either 7 or 14 days. While PPE treatment resulted in a widespread phase-I inactivation, a complex modulation pattern with drastic decreases (7α-testosterone hydroxylase, pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD)), coupled with marked up-regulations of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) after LFT administration, was seen. A notable down-regulation (over 50%) following LFT or PPE treatment for the phase-II enzymes was also recorded. The observed remarkable changes in XMEs, if reproduced in humans, might have public health implications. These data suggest caution in promoting peach fruit (mono-diet) consumption or its polyphenolic extract in the field of chemoprevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shenghua; Bielenberg, Douglas G; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana N; Reighard, Gregory L; Okie, William R; Holland, Doron; Abbott, Albert G

    2010-03-01

    *Chilling requirement, together with heat requirement, determines the bloom date, which has an impact on the climatic distribution of the genotypes of tree species. The molecular basis of floral bud chilling requirement is poorly understood, despite its importance to the adaptation and production of fruit trees. In addition, the genetic nature of heat requirement and the genetic interrelationships among chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date remain unclear. *A peach (Prunus persica) F(2) population of 378 genotypes developed from two genotypes with contrasting chilling requirements was used for linkage map construction and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. The floral bud chilling and heat requirements of each genotype were evaluated over 2 yr and the bloom date was scored over 4 yr. *Twenty QTLs with additive effects were identified for three traits, including one major QTL for chilling requirement and two major QTLs for bloom date. The majority of QTLs colocalized with QTLs for other trait(s). In particular, one genomic region of 2 cM, pleiotropic for the three traits, overlapped with the sequenced peach EVG region. *This first report on the QTL mapping of floral bud chilling requirement will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for low chilling requirement cultivars and the map-based cloning of genes controlling chilling requirement. The extensive colocalization of QTLs suggests that there may be one unified temperature sensing and action system regulating chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date together.

  20. Copigmentation triggers the development of skin burning disorder on peach and nectarine fruit [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantín, Celia M; Tian, Li; Qin, Xiaoqiong; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2011-03-23

    Skin burning is a new type of skin damage related to exposure to high pH values during the brushing-waxing postharvest operations that has been observed recently on some newly released peach and nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars. In this work, we described this skin disorder for the first time and studied its triggers and biological basis. Different skin burning susceptibility was observed after screening 21 peach and nectarine cultivars. The stability of the skin phenolic extracts to pH in the range 7-10 was studied by UV-visible spectroscopy. This study demonstrated that fruit skin phenolics are not stable at high pH and that the transformations occurring at high pH are reversible and time-dependent. The changes on the UV-visible absorption spectra at different pH values pointed out the copigmentation of anthocyanins as the mechanism beyond the skin burning disorder. Finally, some recommendations to minimize this postharvest damage are also discussed.

  1. Genome-wide analysis and identification of KT/HAK/KUP potassium transporter gene family in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z Z; Ma, R J; Yu, M L

    2015-01-30

    The KT/HAK/KUP family members encoding high-affinity potassium (K(+)) transporters mediate K(+) transport across the plasma membranes of plant cells to maintain plant normal growth and metabolic activities. In this paper, we identified 16 potassium transporter genes in the peach (Prunus persica) using the Hidden Markov model scanning strategy and searching the peach genome database. Utilizing the Arabidopsis KT/HAK/KUP family as a reference, phylogenetic analysis indicates that the KT/HAK/KUP family in the peach can be classified into 3 groups. Genomic localization indicated that 16 KT/HAK/KUP family genes were well distributed on 7 scaffolds. Gene structure analysis showed that the KT/HAK/KUP family genes have 6-9 introns. In addition, all of the KT/HAK/KUP family members were hydrophobic proteins; they exhibited similar secondary structure patterns and homologous tertiary structures. Putative cis-elements involved in abiotic stress adaption, Ca(2+) response, light and circadian rhythm regulation, and seed development were observed in the promoters of the KT/HAK/KUP family genes. Subcellular localization prediction indicated that the KT/HAK/KUP members were mainly located in the plasma membrane. Expression levels of the KT/HAK/ KUP family genes were much higher in the fruit and flower than those in the other 7 tissues examined, indicating that the KT/HAK/KUP family genes may have important roles in K(+) uptake and transport, which mainly contribute to flower formation and fruit development in the peach.

  2. Chemometric evaluation of trace metals in Prunus persica L. Batech and Malus domestica from Minićevo (Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagić, Slađana Č; Tošić, Snežana B; Dimitrijević, Mile D; Petrović, Jelena V; Medić, Dragana V

    2017-02-15

    The samples of spatial soils and different organs of Prunus persica L. Batech and Malus domestica were analyzed by methods such as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), One-way ANOVA, and calculation of biological accumulation factors (BAFs) with the aim of investigating whether these methods may help in the evaluation of trace metals in plants, as well as in the estimation of plant bioaccumulation potentials. ICP-OES provided accurate data on present concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, and Ni which showed that most concentrations were in normal ranges, except in some cases for Cu, Zn, and As. HCA illustrated nicely various specifics in the distribution of metals in both investigated systems plant-soil. One-way ANOVA pointed successfully on the existing statistical differences between metal concentrations. Calculated BAFs showed that both plants had very low accumulation rates for all elements; they acted as metal excluders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anti-allergic inflammatory activity of the fruit of Prunus persica: role of calcium and NF-kappaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Tae-Yong; Park, Seung-Bin; Yoo, Jin-Su; Kim, In Kyeom; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kim, Moon Kyu; Kim, Jung Chul; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2010-10-01

    Mast cell-mediated allergic symptoms are involved in many diseases, such as asthma and sinusitis. In this study, we investigated the effect of ethanol extract of fruits of Prunus persica (L) Batsch (FPP) on the mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation and studied the possible mechanism of action. FPP dose-dependently inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis and immunoglobulin E-mediated local allergic reactions. Histamine releasing from mast cells was reduced by FPP, which was mediated by modulation of intracellular calcium. In addition, FPP attenuated the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human mast cells. The inhibitory effect of FPP on pro-inflammatory cytokines was nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB dependent. Our findings provide evidence that FPP inhibits mast cell-derived allergic inflammation and involvement of calcium and NF-kappaB in these effects. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical characterization and thermal properties of kernel oils from Tunisian peach and nectarine varieties of Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chamli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was conducted to determine the fatty acids, triacylglycerol compositions and thermal properties of Tunisian kernel oils from the Prunus persica varieties, peach and nectarine, grown in two areas of Tunisia, Gabes and Morneg. Qualitatively, the fatty acids composition and triacylglycerol species were identical for all samples. Oleic acid (67.7-75.0% was the main fatty acid, followed by linoleic (15.7-22.1% and palmitic (5.6-6.3% acids. The major triacylglycerol species were triolein, OOO (38.4-50.5%, followed by OOL (18.2-23.2%, POO (8.3-9.7% and OLL (6.3-10.1%. The thermal profiles were highly influenced by the high content of triolein due to the importance of oleic acid in these oils. Moreover, the fatty acids distribution in TAG external positions was determined as corresponding to an α asymmetry coefficient that was between 0.10 and 0.12, indicating a high asymmetry in the distribution of saturated fatty acids in the position sn-1 and sn-3 in the TAG species of all samples.

  5. Improvement of physicochemical properties and phenolic compounds bioavailability by concentrating dietary fiber of peach (Prunus persica) juice by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Sarahí; Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Amaya-Llano, Silvia; Rodríguez-García, Mario E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2017-12-06

    This study aimed to concentrate dietary fiber (DF) from peach (Prunus persica) juice by-product (PJBP), to improve its functional properties, and its polyphenols bioavailability. The dietary fiber concentrates (DFC) were obtained from PJBP using water/ethanol treatments (100:0, 20:80, 50:50, 80:20, and 0:100, v/v) at 1:5 ratio (wet weight/solvent, w/v) for 5 and 20 min at 21 °C. All treatments concentrated condensed tannins, total and insoluble DF, founding the highest content with 100% H2O treatment. The major polyphenols of DFC were 4-O-caffeoylquinic, chlorogenic, and 1,5-Di-O-caffeoylquinic acids. Water and oil retention capacity and maximum glucose diffusion rate were improved mainly with 100% H2O treatment. Healthy rats were fed with standard diet supplemented with 8% of PJBP, DFC obtained with 100% H2O for 5 min, or DFC obtained with 20% EtOH for 5 min. Gastrointestinal digesta weight and viscosity were increased in animals supplemented with 100% H2O DFC. Moreover, the urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites, mainly glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, was increased with this treatment, indicating a greater bioavailability of PJBP polyphenols, which was associated with an increased dietary fiber porosity. Water treatment could be used to potentiate PJBP functional properties and polyphenols bioavailability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Pulsed Electric Fields on the Flavour Profile of Red-Fleshed Sweet Cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Ann Gualberto Sotelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella. The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS–SPME method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS. A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E-2-hexenal, (Z-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3 generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2. Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds.

  7. Effect prediction of identified SNPs linked to fruit quality and chilling injury in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Pedro J; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Parfitt, Dan E; Gradziel, Thomas M; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are a fundamental source of genomic variation. Large SNP panels have been developed for Prunus species. Fruit quality traits are essential peach breeding program objectives since they determine consumer acceptance, fruit consumption, industry trends and cultivar adoption. For many cultivars, these traits are negatively impacted by cold storage, used to extend fruit market life. The major symptoms of chilling injury are lack of flavor, off flavor, mealiness, flesh browning, and flesh bleeding. A set of 1,109 SNPs was mapped previously and 67 were linked with these complex traits. The prediction of the effects associated with these SNPs on downstream products from the 'peach v1.0' genome sequence was carried out. A total of 2,163 effects were detected, 282 effects (non-synonymous, synonymous or stop codon gained) were located in exonic regions (13.04 %) and 294 placed in intronic regions (13.59 %). An extended list of genes and proteins that could be related to these traits was developed. Two SNP markers that explain a high percentage of the observed phenotypic variance, UCD_SNP_1084 and UCD_SNP_46, are associated with zinc finger (C3HC4-type RING finger) family protein and AOX1A (alternative oxidase 1a) protein groups, respectively. In addition, phenotypic variation suggests that the observed polymorphism for SNP UCD_SNP_1084 [A/G] mutation could be a candidate quantitative trait nucleotide affecting quantitative trait loci for mealiness. The interaction and expression of affected proteins could explain the variation observed in each individual and facilitate understanding of gene regulatory networks for fruit quality traits in peach.

  8. DETERMINATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE AREA AND DRY WEIGHT OF THE LEAF LIMBO OF Prunus persica CV. Jarillo DETERMINACIÓN DE UN MODELO MATEMÁTICO PARA LA ESTIMACIÓN DEL ÁREA FOLIAR Y PESO SECO DEL LIMBO DE Prunus persica CV. Jarillo

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Quevedo García; Martha Esperanza Arévalo González; Giovanni Orlando Cancino Escalante

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. A study was conducted to determine the variables that estimated the leaf limbo area and the leaf limbo dry weight of peach Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cv. Jarillo. Fifty leaves, aged 2.5 months, were selected and measured: leaf limbo length and width, petiole length, leaf length, petiole diameter, leaf limbo fresh weight, petiole fresh weight, leaf fresh weight, leaf limbo dry weight, petiole dry weight, leaf dry weight, length/width limbo, petiole length/limbo length and leaf limbo ...

  9. Determination of a mathematical model to estimate the area and dry weight of the leaf limbo of prunus persica cv. jarillo / determinación de un modelo matemático para la estimación del área foliar y peso seco del limbo de prunus persica cv. jarillo

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo García, Enrique; Arévalo González, Martha Esperanza; Cancino Escalante, Giovanni Orlando

    2013-01-01

    study was conducted to determine the variables that estimated the leaf limbo area and the leaf limbo dry weight of peach Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cv. Jarillo. Fifty leaves, aged 2.5 months, were selected and measured: leaf limbo length and width, petiole length, leaf length, petiole diameter, leaf limbo fresh weight, petiole fresh weight, leaf fresh weight, leaf limbo dry weight, petiole dry weight, leaf dry weight, length/ width limbo, petiole length/limbo length and leaf limbo area. Th...

  10. Evaluación productiva, económica y social del agua de riego de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch) en Zacatecas (México)

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Ríos-Flores; Miriam Torres-Moreno; José Ruiz-Torres; Marco Antonio Torres-Moreno; Jesús Enrique Cantú-Brito

    2015-01-01

    La escasez de agua limita la agricultura, por lo que su uso debe ser más eficiente en la producción de alimentos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la productividad económica, física y social del agua del cultivo de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch), en la región del Distrito de Desarrollo Rural 183 —correspondiente a Fresnillo, Zacatecas— para el ciclo 2012; se desarrollaron modelos matemáticos para estimar la productividad y eficiencia del agua. En Zacatecas se cosecharon 817 ha d...

  11. Evaluation of different doses of gamma radiation on physicochemical characteristics of peach Prunus persica (cv. Chimarrita) minimally processed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ana Claudia S.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Perecin, Thalita Neme; Arthur, Valter; Harder, Marcia N.C. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente], e-mail: acsoliveira@usp.br, e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br; Mansi, Debora N.; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2009-07-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the physico-chemical characteristics of peach Prunus persica (cv. Chimarrita) minimally processed, to increase the useful life of the fruit. The peaches were purchased at Ceasa of Campinas/SP and taken to the Laboratory of Radiobiology and Environment of CENA/USP (Piracicaba/SP), which were washed in tap water, peeled and cut into four pieces. The pieces of peach were dipped in sodium hypochlorite solution of 15 mL/L for 4 minutes and dry in a plastic support. Then it were placed in plastic containers (polypropylene). Subsequently, they were irradiated in a Cobalt-60 source, type Gammacell-220 (dose rate of 0,543 kGy/hour) with doses of: 0 (control), 1.0 and 2.0 kGy and stored at a temperature of 8 deg C. The experimental was developed entirely at random with 3 replicates for each treatment. For the statistic analysis was using the Tuckey test at 5% level of probability. Subsequently, analysis was carried out: color factors (l, a, b), pH, soluble solids (deg Brix), acidity and vitamin C. The tests were performed at 1, 3 and 6 days after irradiation. According to the results concluded that the analysis of color and acidity there was no significant difference between treatments, however, for the soluble solids (deg Brix), vitamin C and texture significant difference showing a decrease proportional to increasing doses of radiation and storage time. But the pH increased in relation to dose and during the analysis. (author)

  12. Differences in cold hardiness, carbohydrates, dehydrins and related gene expressions under an experimental deacclimation and reacclimation in Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunsuk; Oh, Youngjae; Kim, Daeil

    2015-08-01

    To boost our understanding of a recent outbreak of freezing injury, we sought to confirm distinctive features between the shoot tissues of the peach (Prunus persica) cultivars Daewol and Kiraranokiwami by mimicking unseasonable changes of temperatures that occur in the early spring through repeated deacclimation and reacclimation treatments. Patterns of cold hardiness declined dramatically during the deacclimation and rose during the reacclimation in both cultivars. Our results indicated that 'Daewol' possessed higher capacity in response to repeated deacclimation and reacclimation treatments than 'Kiraranokiwami'. 'Daewol' showed more sensitive changes in the carbohydrates in response to warm and low temperatures compared with 'Kiraranokiwami'. 'Daewol' indicated almost similar repeated down- and up-patterns in soluble sugar content in response to repeated deacclimation and reacclimation, whereas it indicated repeated up- and down-patterns in starch content. However, 'Kiraranokiwami' showed a progressive increase in the soluble sugar content and a progressive decrease in starch content. Notably, patterns of accumulation of a 60-kDa dehydrin protein encoded by the PpDhn1 gene were confirmed through western blotting and paralleled fluctuations of cold hardiness in both cultivars. Expression of this dehydrin was weak in both cultivars during deacclimation but its band intensity increased during reacclimation. Changes in related genes (β-amylase, PpDhn1, PpDhn2 and PpDhn3) were positively correlated with changes in cold hardiness throughout the experiment. Our results indicate that recent repeated warm periods may cause premature deacclimation in the early spring, and that more cold-tolerant cultivar may be more resilient to freezing injury caused by unstable temperature conditions. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. Transcriptional regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis in nectarine (Prunus persica) by a set of R2R3 MYB transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaglia, Daniela; Espley, Richard V; Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A; Andreotti, Carlo; Ziosi, Vanina; Hellens, Roger P; Costa, Guglielmo; Allan, Andrew C

    2013-04-25

    Flavonoids such as anthocyanins, flavonols and proanthocyanidins, play a central role in fruit colour, flavour and health attributes. In peach and nectarine (Prunus persica) these compounds vary during fruit growth and ripening. Flavonoids are produced by a well studied pathway which is transcriptionally regulated by members of the MYB and bHLH transcription factor families. We have isolated nectarine flavonoid regulating genes and examined their expression patterns, which suggests a critical role in the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis. In nectarine, expression of the genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid pathway correlated with the concentration of proanthocyanidins, which strongly increases at mid-development. In contrast, the only gene which showed a similar pattern to anthocyanin concentration was UDP-glucose-flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), which was high at the beginning and end of fruit growth, remaining low during the other developmental stages. Expression of flavonol synthase (FLS1) correlated with flavonol levels, both temporally and in a tissue specific manner. The pattern of UFGT gene expression may be explained by the involvement of different transcription factors, which up-regulate flavonoid biosynthesis (MYB10, MYB123, and bHLH3), or repress (MYB111 and MYB16) the transcription of the biosynthetic genes. The expression of a potential proanthocyanidin-regulating transcription factor, MYBPA1, corresponded with proanthocyanidin levels. Functional assays of these transcription factors were used to test the specificity for flavonoid regulation. MYB10 positively regulates the promoters of UFGT and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) but not leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR). In contrast, MYBPA1 trans-activates the promoters of DFR and LAR, but not UFGT. This suggests exclusive roles of anthocyanin regulation by MYB10 and proanthocyanidin regulation by MYBPA1. Further, these transcription factors appeared to be responsive to both

  14. Evaluation of Antioxidant Compounds and Total Sugar Content in a Nectarine [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] Progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Gogorcena

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of fruit rich in phenolic compounds is associated with health-protective effects due to their antioxidant properties. For these reasons quality evaluation has become an important issue in fruit industry and in breeding programs. Phytochemical traits such as total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, L-ascorbic acid, sugar content and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC were analyzed over four years in flesh fruit of an F1 population “Venus” × “Big Top” nectarines. Other traits such as harvesting date, yield, fruit weight, firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC, pH, titratable acidity (TA and ripening index (RI were also determined in the progeny. Results showed high variability among genotypes for all analyzed traits. Total phenolics and flavonoids showed significant positive correlations with RAC implying that both are important antioxidant bioactive compounds in peaches. We found genotypes with enhanced antioxidant capacity and a better performance than progenitors, and in consequence the best marketability.

  15. Evaluation of antioxidant compounds and total sugar content in a nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Walid; Jiménez, Sergio; Moreno, María Ángeles; Gogorcena, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of fruit rich in phenolic compounds is associated with health-protective effects due to their antioxidant properties. For these reasons quality evaluation has become an important issue in fruit industry and in breeding programs. Phytochemical traits such as total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, L-ascorbic acid, sugar content and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC) were analyzed over four years in flesh fruit of an F1 population "Venus" × "Big Top" nectarines. Other traits such as harvesting date, yield, fruit weight, firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC), pH, titratable acidity (TA) and ripening index (RI) were also determined in the progeny. Results showed high variability among genotypes for all analyzed traits. Total phenolics and flavonoids showed significant positive correlations with RAC implying that both are important antioxidant bioactive compounds in peaches. We found genotypes with enhanced antioxidant capacity and a better performance than progenitors, and in consequence the best marketability.

  16. Mites fluctuation population on peach tree (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and in associated plants Flutuação populacional de ácaros na cultura do pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch e em plantas associadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosana Eichelberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch in Rio Grande do Sul, little is known about mites fluctuation population considered important to this crop. The objective of this study was to know the population diversity and fluctuation of mite species associated with Premier and Eldorado varieties in Roca Sales and Venâncio Aires counties, Rio Grande do Sul. The study was conducted from July 2008 to June 2009 when 15 plants were randomly chosen in each area. The plants were divided in quadrants and from each one a branch was chosen from which three leaves were removed: one collected in the apical region, another in the medium and the other in the basal region, totalizing 180 leaves/area. Five of the most abundant associated plants were collected monthly in enough amounts for the screening under the stereoscopic microscope during an hour. A total of 1,124 mites were found belonging to 14 families and 28 species. Tetranychus ludeni Zacher, 1913, Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836 and Mononychellus planki (McGregor, 1950 were the most abundant phytophagous mites, whereas Typhlodromalus aripo Deleon, 1967 and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 the most common predatory mites. The period of one hour under stereoscopic microscope was enough to get a representative sample. In both places evaluated the ecologic indices were low, but little higherin Premier (H' 0.56; EqJ: 0.43 when compared to Eldorado (H' 0.53; EqJ 0.40. In Premier constant species were not observed and accessory only Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939, T. ludeni and T. aripo. Higher abundance was observed in December and January and bigger amount in April. Already in Eldorado, T. ludeni and P. ulmi were constants. Greater abundance was observed in November and December, whereas grater richness in December and January. In both orchards were not found mites in buds. Tetranychus ludeni is the most abundant phytophagous mites with outbreak population in November, December and

  17. LA RELACIÓN HOJA: FRUTO AFECTA LA PRODUCCIÓN, EL CRECIMIENTO Y LA CALIDAD DEL FRUTO EN DURAZNERO (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. ‘Rubidoux’) LEAF TO FRUIT RATIO AFFECTS YIELD, FRUIT GROWTH AND FRUIT QUALITY OF PEACH (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. ‘Rubidoux’)

    OpenAIRE

    Fánor Casierra-Posada; José Israel Rodríguez Puerto; Julián Cárdenas Hernández

    2007-01-01

    El raleo de frutos es un práctica agrícola común en los árboles de melocotón con miras a una cosecha moderada a abundante. Sin embargo, a pesar de las muchas ventajas del raleo, demostradas a lo largo de años de experiencia en la zona templada, esta práctica es a menudo una de las operaciones conducidas de manera ineficiente en el cultivo del duraznero. Árboles de duraznero (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. ‘Rubidoux’) se ralearon manualmente con el objeto de mejorar la calidad comercial del frut...

  18. Unravelling early events in the Taphrina deformans-Prunus persica interaction: an insight into the differential responses in resistant and susceptible genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetaz, Laura A; Bustamante, Claudia A; Goldy, Camila; Rivero, Nery; Müller, Gabriela L; Valentini, Gabriel H; Fernie, Alisdair R; Drincovich, María F; Lara, María V

    2017-08-01

    Leaf peach curl is a devastating disease affecting leaves, flowers and fruits, caused by the dimorphic fungus Taphrina deformans. To gain insight into the mechanisms of fungus pathogenesis and plant responses, leaves of a resistant and two susceptible Prunus persica genotypes were inoculated with blastospores (yeast), and the infection was monitored during 120 h post inoculation (h.p.i.). Fungal dimorphism to the filamentous form and induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), callose synthesis, cell death and defence compound production were observed independently of the genotype. Fungal load significantly decreased after 120 h.p.i. in the resistant genotype, while the pathogen tended to grow in the susceptible genotypes. Metabolic profiling revealed a biphasic re-programming of plant tissue in susceptible genotypes, with an initial stage co-incident with the yeast form of the fungus and a second when the hypha is developed. Transcriptional analysis of PRs and plant hormone-related genes indicated that pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are involved in P. persica defence responses against T. deformans and that salicylic acid is induced in the resistant genotype. Conducted experiments allowed the elucidation of common and differential responses in susceptible versus resistant genotypes and thus allow us to construct a picture of early events during T. deformans infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Evidence of differences between the communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing galls and roots of Prunus persica infected by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Lozano, Zenaida; Roldán, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play important roles as plant protection agents, reducing or suppressing nematode colonization. However, it has never been investigated whether the galls produced in roots by nematode infection are colonized by AMF. This study tested whether galls produced by Meloidogyne incognita infection in Prunus persica roots are colonized by AMF. We also determined the changes in AMF composition and biodiversity mediated by infection with this root-knot nematode. DNA from galls and roots of plants infected by M. incognita and from roots of noninfected plants was extracted, amplified, cloned, and sequenced using AMF-specific primers. Phylogenetic analysis using the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) data set revealed 22 different AMF sequence types (17 Glomus sequence types, 3 Paraglomus sequence types, 1 Scutellospora sequence type, and 1 Acaulospora sequence type). The highest AMF diversity was found in uninfected roots, followed by infected roots and galls. This study indicates that the galls produced in P. persica roots due to infection with M. incognita were colonized extensively by a community of AMF, belonging to the families Paraglomeraceae and Glomeraceae, that was different from the community detected in roots. Although the function of the AMF in the galls is still unknown, we hypothesize that they act as protection agents against opportunistic pathogens.

  20. Bioinformatics prediction of miRNAs in the Prunus persica genome with validation of their precise sequences by miR-RACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanping; Bai, Youhuang; Han, Jian; Chen, Ming; Kayesh, Emrul; Jiang, Weibing; Fang, Jinggui

    2013-01-01

    We predicted 262 potential MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belonging to 70 miRNA families from the peach (Prunus persica) genome and two specific 5' and 3' miRNA rapid amplification of cDNA ends (miR-RACE) PCR reactions and sequence-directed cloning were employed to accurately validate 61 unique P. persica miRNAs (Ppe-miRNAs) sequences belonging to 61 families comprising 97 Ppe-miRNAs. Validation of the termini nucleotides in particular can define the real sequences of the Ppe-miRNAs on peach genome. Comparison between predicted and validated Ppe-miRNAs through alignment revealed that 43 unique orthologous sequences were identical, while the remaining 18 exhibited some divergences at their termini nucleotides. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was further employed to analyze the expression of all the 61 miRNAs and 10 putative targets of 8 randomly selected Ppe-miRNAs in peach leaves, flowers and fruits at different stages of development, where both the miRNAs and the putative target genes showed tissue-specific expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Heterogeneity in the entire genome for three genotypes of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] as distinguished from sequence analysis of genomic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Martínez-García, Pedro J; Parfitt, Dan E; Crisosto, Carlos H; Gradziel, Thomas M

    2013-11-01

    Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is an economically important fruit crop that has become a genetic-genomic model for all Prunus species in the family Rosaceae. A doubled haploid reference genome sequence length of 227.3 Mb, a narrow genetic base contrasted by a wide phenotypic variability, the generation of cultivars through hybridization with subsequent clonal propagation, and the current accessibility of many founder genotypes, as well as the pedigree of modern commercial cultivars make peach a model for the study of inter-cultivar genomic heterogeneity and its shaping by artificial selection. The quantitative genomic differences among the three genotypes studied as genomic variants, included small variants (SNPs and InDels) and structural variants (SV) (duplications, inversions and translocations). The heirloom cultivar 'Georgia Belle' and an almond by peach introgression breeding line 'F8,1-42' are more heterogeneous than is the modern cultivar 'Dr. Davis' when compared to the peach reference genome ('Lovell'). A pair-wise comparison of consensus genome sequences with 'Lovell' showed that 'F8,1-42' and 'Georgia Belle' were more divergent than were 'Dr. Davis' and 'Lovell'. A novel application of emerging bioinformatics tools to the analysis of ongoing genome sequencing project outputs has led to the identification of a range of genomic variants. Results can be used to delineate the genomic and phenotypic differences among peach genotypes. For crops such as fruit trees, the availability of old cultivars, breeding selections and their pedigrees, make them suitable models for the study of genome shaping by artificial selection. The findings from the study of such genomic variants can then elucidate the control of pomological traits and the characterization of metabolic pathways, thus facilitating the development of protocols for the improvement of Prunus crops.

  2. The high-quality draft genome of peach (Prunus persica) identifies unique patterns of genetic diversity, domestication and genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Ignazio; Abbott, Albert G; Scalabrin, Simone; Jung, Sook; Shu, Shengqiang; Marroni, Fabio; Zhebentyayeva, Tatyana; Dettori, Maria Teresa; Grimwood, Jane; Cattonaro, Federica; Zuccolo, Andrea; Rossini, Laura; Jenkins, Jerry; Vendramin, Elisa; Meisel, Lee A; Decroocq, Veronique; Sosinski, Bryon; Prochnik, Simon; Mitros, Therese; Policriti, Alberto; Cipriani, Guido; Dondini, Luca; Ficklin, Stephen; Goodstein, David M; Xuan, Pengfei; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Aramini, Valeria; Copetti, Dario; Gonzalez, Susana; Horner, David S; Falchi, Rachele; Lucas, Susan; Mica, Erica; Maldonado, Jonathan; Lazzari, Barbara; Bielenberg, Douglas; Pirona, Raul; Miculan, Mara; Barakat, Abdelali; Testolin, Raffaele; Stella, Alessandra; Tartarini, Stefano; Tonutti, Pietro; Arús, Pere; Orellana, Ariel; Wells, Christina; Main, Dorrie; Vizzotto, Giannina; Silva, Herman; Salamini, Francesco; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2013-05-01

    Rosaceae is the most important fruit-producing clade, and its key commercially relevant genera (Fragaria, Rosa, Rubus and Prunus) show broadly diverse growth habits, fruit types and compact diploid genomes. Peach, a diploid Prunus species, is one of the best genetically characterized deciduous trees. Here we describe the high-quality genome sequence of peach obtained from a completely homozygous genotype. We obtained a complete chromosome-scale assembly using Sanger whole-genome shotgun methods. We predicted 27,852 protein-coding genes, as well as noncoding RNAs. We investigated the path of peach domestication through whole-genome resequencing of 14 Prunus accessions. The analyses suggest major genetic bottlenecks that have substantially shaped peach genome diversity. Furthermore, comparative analyses showed that peach has not undergone recent whole-genome duplication, and even though the ancestral triplicated blocks in peach are fragmentary compared to those in grape, all seven paleosets of paralogs from the putative paleoancestor are detectable.

  3. Perspectives of breeding fungal diseases resistant cultivars of nectarine (Prunus persica (L. Batsch. subsp. nectarina (Ait. Shof.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є. П. Шоферістов

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There are allocated some forms of distant hybrids with weak degree of fungal diseases lesion (Taphrina deformans (Berk. Tul., Sphaerotheca pannosa (Lev. var. persicae Woron., Clasterosporium carpophilum Aderh., Monilia cinerea Bonord. и Monilia fructigena Fr. that are of practical interest for breeding such cultivars of peach and nectarine that will resist these pathogens.

  4. Effects of different products of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) from a variety developed in southern Brazil on oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in vitro and ex vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Somensi, Nauana; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Girardi, Carolina Saibro; Klafke, Karina; Rabelo, Thallita Kelly; Morrone, Maurilio Da Silva; Vizzotto, Márcia; Raseira, Maria do Carmo Bassols; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant, anti-glycation and anti-inflammatory activities of fresh and conserved peach fruits (Prunus persica L. Batsch) were compared. Fresh peach pulps, peels, preserve peach pulps and the preserve syrup were prepared at equal concentrations. Rat liver, kidney and brain cortex tissue slices were pre-incubated with peach samples, subjected to oxidative stress with FeSO4 and hydrogen peroxide. Fresh peach pulps and peel conferred higher protection against cytotoxicity and oxidative stress than preserve peach pulps in most tissues. Release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β was also significantly decreased by Fresh peach pulps and peel, followed by preserve peach pulps. Total phenolic determination and HPLC analysis of carotenoids showed that the content of secondary metabolites in Fresh peach pulps and peel is significantly higher than in preserve peach pulps, while the syrup had only small or trace amounts of these compounds. Fresh peach pulps and Peel demonstrated high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects preventing against induced damage. PMID:25320458

  5. Firmness prediction in Prunus persica 'Calrico' peaches by visible/short-wave near infrared spectroscopy and acoustic measurements using optimised linear and non-linear chemometric models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Victoria; Herrera, Luis J; Pérez, María del Mar; Val, Jesús; Negueruela, Ignacio

    2015-08-15

    In this work, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and an acoustic measure (AWETA) (two non-destructive methods) were applied in Prunus persica fruit 'Calrico' (n = 260) to predict Magness-Taylor (MT) firmness. Separate and combined use of these measures was evaluated and compared using partial least squares (PLS) and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) regression methods. Also, a mutual-information-based variable selection method, seeking to find the most significant variables to produce optimal accuracy of the regression models, was applied to a joint set of variables (NIR wavelengths and AWETA measure). The newly proposed combined NIR-AWETA model gave good values of the determination coefficient (R(2)) for PLS and LS-SVM methods (0.77 and 0.78, respectively), improving the reliability of MT firmness prediction in comparison with separate NIR and AWETA predictions. The three variables selected by the variable selection method (AWETA measure plus NIR wavelengths 675 and 697 nm) achieved R(2) values 0.76 and 0.77, PLS and LS-SVM. These results indicated that the proposed mutual-information-based variable selection algorithm was a powerful tool for the selection of the most relevant variables. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Characterization and expression analysis of AGAMOUS-like, SEEDSTICK-like, and SEPALLATA-like MADS-box genes in peach (Prunus persica) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Polidoros, Alexios N; Flemetakis, Emmanouil; Stedel, Catalina; Kalloniati, Chrissanthi; Demetriou, Kyproula; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios S

    2009-08-01

    MADS-box genes encode transcriptional regulators that are critical for flowering, flower organogenesis and plant development. Although there are extensive reports on genes involved in flower organogenesis in model and economically important plant species, there are few reports on MADS-box genes in woody plants. In this study, we have cloned and characterized AGAMOUS (AG), SEEDSTICK (STK) and SEPALLATA (SEP) homologs from peach tree (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and studied their expression patterns in different tissues as well as in fruit pericarp during pit hardening. AG- STK- and SEP-like homologs, representative of the C-, D-, E-like MADS-box gene lineages, respectively, play key roles in stamen, carpel, ovule and fruit development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Sequence similarities, phylogenetic analysis and structural characteristics were used to provide classification of the isolated genes in type C (PPERAG), type D (PPERSTK) and type E (PPERSEP1, PPERSEP3, PPERFB9) organ identity genes. Expression patterns were determined and in combination with phylogenetic data provided useful indications on the function of these genes. These data suggest the involvement of MADS-box genes in peach flower and fruit development and provide further evidence for the role of these genes in woody perennial trees that is compatible with their function in model plant species.

  7. Rootstock and fruit canopy position affect peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] (cv. Rich May) plant productivity and fruit sensorial and nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Gregorio; Motisi, Antonio; Zappia, Rocco; Dattola, Agostino; Diamanti, Jacopo; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2014-06-15

    The right combination of rootstock and training system is important for increased yield and fruit sensorial and nutritional homogeneity and quality with peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]. We investigated the effects of rootstock and training system on these parameters, testing the effect of vigorous GF677 and weaker Penta rootstock on 'Rich May' peach cultivar. Fruit position effects regarding photosynthetically active radiation availability, along the canopy profile using the Y training system, were investigated. The positive relationships between total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity according to canopy vigour and architecture were determined for the two scion/stock combinations. Changes in fruit epicarp colour and content of bioactive compounds were also determined. Lower-vigour trees from Penta rootstock grafting yielded larger fruit with improved skin overcolour, and greater total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity. GF677 rootstock produced more vigorous trees with fruit with lower sensorial and nutritional parameters. Canopy position strongly affects fruit sensorial and nutritional qualities. These data define potential for improvements to peach production efficiency and fruit quality, particularly for southern Europe peach cultivation conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of iron chlorosis and iron resupply on leaf xylem architecture, water relations, gas exchange and stomatal performance of field-grown peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichert, Thomas; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Heredia, Antonio; Fernández, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that iron (Fe) deficiency induces not only leaf chlorosis and a decline of photosynthesis, but also structural changes in leaf morphology, which might affect the functionality of leaves. In this study, we investigated the effects of Fe deficiency on the water relations of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.) leaves and the responses of previously chlorotic leaves to Fe resupply via the root or the leaf. Iron deficiency induced a decline of maximum potential photosystem II (PSII) efficiency (F(V)/F(M)), of rates of net photosynthesis and transpiration and of water use efficiency. Iron chlorosis was associated with a reduction of leaf xylem vessel size and of leaf hydraulic conductance. In the course of the day, water potentials in chlorotic leaves remained higher (less negative) than in green leaves. In chlorotic leaves, normal stomatal functioning was disturbed, as evidenced by the lack of opening upon withdrawal of external CO(2) and stomatal closure after sudden illumination of previously darkened leaves. We conclude that the Fe deficiency induced limitations of xylem conductivity elicited a water saving strategy, which poses an additional challenge to plant growth on high pH, calcareous soils. Fertilisation with Fe improved photosynthetic performance but the proper xylem structure and water relations of leaves were not fully restored, indicating that Fe must be available at the first stages of leaf growth and development.

  9. Investigation of the aroma of commercial peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) types by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Tiago; Weesepoel, Yannick; Koot, Alex; Iglesias, Ignasi; Eduardo, Iban; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Guerrero, Luis; Hortós, Maria; van Ruth, Saskia

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the aroma and sensory profiles of various types of peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch.). Forty-three commercial cultivars comprising peaches, flat peaches, nectarines, and canning peaches (pavías) were grown over two consecutive harvest years. Fruits were assessed for chemical aroma and sensory profiles. Chemical aroma profile was obtained by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and spectral masses were tentatively identified with PTR-Time of Flight-MS (PTR-Tof-MS). Sensory analysis was performed at commercial maturity considering seven aroma/flavor attributes. The four types of peaches showed both distinct chemical aroma and sensory profiles. Flat peaches and canning peaches showed most distinct patterns according to discriminant analysis. The sensory data were related to the volatile compounds by partial least square regression. γ-Hexalactone, γ-octalactone, hotrienol, acetic acid and ethyl acetate correlated positively, and benzeneacetaldehyde, trimethylbenzene and acetaldehyde negatively to the intensities of aroma and ripe fruit sensory scores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of miRNAs and their target genes in peach (Prunus persica L.) using high-throughput sequencing and degradome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoyan; Gao, Zhihong; Shi, Ting; Cheng, Zongming; Zhang, Zhen; Ni, Zhaojun

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs play critical roles in various biological and metabolic processes. The function of miRNAs has been widely studied in model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. However, the number of identified miRNAs and related miRNA targets in peach (Prunus persica) is limited. To understand further the relationship between miRNAs and their target genes during tissue development in peach, a small RNA library and three degradome libraries were constructed from three tissues for deep sequencing. We identified 117 conserved miRNAs and 186 novel miRNA candidates in peach by deep sequencing and 19 conserved miRNAs and 13 novel miRNAs were further evaluated for their expression by RT-qPCR. The number of gene targets that were identified for 26 conserved miRNA families and 38 novel miRNA candidates, were 172 and 87, respectively. Some of the identified miRNA targets were abundantly represented as conserved miRNA targets in plant. However, some of them were first identified and showed important roles in peach development. Our study provides information concerning the regulatory network of miRNAs in peach and advances our understanding of miRNA functions during tissue development.

  11. Dormancy-associated MADS genes from the EVG locus of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] have distinct seasonal and photoperiodic expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Reighard, Gregory Lynn; Abbott, Albert Glenn; Bielenberg, Douglas Gary

    2009-01-01

    Mapping and sequencing of the non-dormant evg mutant in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] identified six tandem-arrayed DAM (dormancy-associated MADS-box) genes as candidates for regulating growth cessation and terminal bud formation. To narrow the list of candidate genes, an attempt was made to associate bud phenology with the seasonal and environmental patterns of expression of the candidates in wild-type trees. The expression of the six peach DAM genes at the EVG locus of peach was characterized throughout an annual growing cycle in the field, and under controlled conditions in response to a long day-short day photoperiod transition. DAM1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 were responsive to a reduction in photoperiod in controlled conditions and the direction of response correlated with the seasonal timing of expression in field-grown trees. DAM3 did not respond to photoperiod and may be regulated by chilling temperatures. The DAM genes in peach appear to have at least four distinct patterns of expression. DAM1, 2, and 4 are temporally associated with seasonal elongation cessation and bud formation and are the most likely candidates for control of the evg phenotype.

  12. Expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, by low temperature and dormancy-breaking reagent treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Yamane, Hisayo; Ooka, Tomomi; Jotatsu, Hiroaki; Hosaka, Yukari; Sasaki, Ryuta; Tao, Ryutaro

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, two of the six peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, in relation to lateral bud endodormancy. PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 were originally identified as homologues of Arabidopsis SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE/AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 identified in the EVERGROWING locus of peach. Furthermore, PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 have recently been suggested to be involved in terminal bud dormancy. In this study, seasonal expression analys...

  13. Fibra dietaria de durazno (Prunus persica L.): influencia de la técnica de obtención en las propiedades químicas, físicas y funcionales

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto Calvache, Jhon Edinson

    2013-01-01

    Se estudió la optimización de las condiciones de proceso en relación a la obtención de fracciones enriquecidas en fibra dietaria a partir de residuos de duraznos (Prunus persica L.). Se evaluó la influencia de la relación etanol/muestra durante la extracción de la fibra y de la temperatura de secado con microondas, sobre las propiedades funcionales evaluadas: capacidad de atrapamiento de agua, de retención de agua, de hinchamiento, porcentaje de retención de agua, capacidad de absorción de ac...

  14. Variation in minerals, phenolics and antioxidant activity of peel and pulp of different varieties of peach (Prunus persica L.) fruit from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Maleeha; Anwar, Farooq; Mahmood, Zahed; Rashid, Umer; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2012-05-30

    Peach (Prunus persica L.), being a potential source of bioactive compounds, has been demonstrated to have medicinal benefits. In this study variation of minerals and antioxidant characteristics (total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of peroxidation using linoleic acid system and DPPH free radical scavenging activity) between peel and pulp parts of different peach varieties, namely Golden, Shireen, and Shahpasand were investigated. The peel and pulp extracts, derived from the varieties analyzed, exhibited an appreciable amount of total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF), ranging from 1,209.3-1,354.5, 711.7-881.3 mg GAE/100 g and 599.7-785.5, 301.3-499.7 mg CE/100 g on a dry weight basis, respectively. Reducing power of peel and pulp extracts (12.5 mg/mL concentration) ranged from 2.57-2.77 and 1.54-1.99.The inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts varied from 70.8-80.9% and 66.8-76.5% in peels, and 51.9-60.1% and 43.4-49.1% in pulps. The mineral analysis revealed that the content of K was highest in both parts of the peach fruit followed by Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn and Zn. The results of our present study indicate that peach peel had significantly higher levels of minerals, antioxidant capacity and phenolics than those of the pulp, suggesting the intake of unpeeled peach as a potential source of high-value components. The peach peel can be a useful as a viable source of natural antioxidants for functional foods and nutraceutical applications.

  15. Variation in Minerals, Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Peel and Pulp of Different Varieties of Peach (Prunus persica L. Fruit from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashraf

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L., being a potential source of bioactive compounds, has been demonstrated to have medicinal benefits. In this study variation of minerals and antioxidant characteristics (total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of peroxidation using linoleic acid system and DPPH free radical scavenging activity between peel and pulp parts of different peach varieties, namely Golden, Shireen, and Shahpasand were investigated. The peel and pulp extracts, derived from the varieties analyzed, exhibited an appreciable amount of total phenolics (TP and total flavonoids (TF, ranging from 1,209.3–1,354.5, 711.7–881.3 mg GAE/100 g and 599.7–785.5, 301.3–499.7 mg CE/100 g on a dry weight basis, respectively. Reducing power of peel and pulp extracts (12.5 mg/mL concentration ranged from 2.57–2.77 and 1.54–1.99.The inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts varied from 70.8–80.9% and 66.8–76.5% in peels, and 51.9–60.1% and 43.4–49.1% in pulps. The mineral analysis revealed that the content of K was highest in both parts of the peach fruit followed by Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn and Zn. The results of our present study indicate that peach peel had significantly higher levels of minerals, antioxidant capacity and phenolics than those of the pulp, suggesting the intake of unpeeled peach as a potential source of high-value components. The peach peel can be a useful as a viable source of natural antioxidants for functional foods and nutraceutical applications.

  16. Differential responses of peach (Prunus persica) seedlings to elevated ozone are related with leaf mass per area, antioxidant enzymes activity rather than stomatal conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lulu; Li, Pin; Shang, Bo; Liu, Shuo; Yang, Aizhen; Wang, Younian; Feng, Zhaozhong

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the ozone (O3) sensitivity among peach tree (Prunus persica) cultivars widely planted in Beijing region and explore the possible eco-physiological response mechanisms, thirteen cultivars of peach seedlings were exposed to either charcoal-filtered air or elevated O3 (E-O3, non-filtered ambient air plus 60 ppb) for one growing season in open-top chambers. Leaf structure, stomatal structure, gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidation were measured in three replicated chambers. Results showed that E-O3 significantly reduced abaxial epidemis thickness, but no effects on the thicknesses of adaxial epidemis, palisade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma. Stomatal area, density and conductance were not significantly affected by E-O3. E-O3 significantly accelerated leaf senescence, as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation and more declines in light-saturated photosynthetic rate and pigments contents. The reduced ascorbate content (ASC) was decreased but antioxidant enzyme activity (CAT, APX and SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were significantly increased by E-O3 among cultivars. The cultivars with visible symptoms also had more reductions in net photosynthetic rate than those without visible symptoms. Ozone sensitivity among cultivars was strongly linked to leaf mass per area (LMA), antioxidant enzymes activity e.g. SOD, APX rather than stomatal parameters (stomatal area, density and conductance) and ASC. Results could provide a theoretical basis for selecting and breeding the ozone-resistant cultivars of peach trees grown in high O3-polluted regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transcriptomic profiling during the post-harvest of heat-treated Dixiland Prunus persica fruits: common and distinct response to heat and cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauxmann, Martin A; Brun, Bianca; Borsani, Julia; Bustamante, Claudia A; Budde, Claudio O; Lara, María V; Drincovich, María F

    2012-01-01

    Cold storage is extensively used to slow the rapid deterioration of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit after harvest. However, peach fruit subjected to long periods of cold storage develop chilling injury (CI) symptoms. Post-harvest heat treatment (HT) of peach fruit prior to cold storage is effective in reducing some CI symptoms, maintaining fruit quality, preventing softening and controlling post-harvest diseases. To identify the molecular changes induced by HT, which may be associated to CI protection, the differential transcriptome of peach fruit subjected to HT was characterized by the differential display technique. A total of 127 differentially expressed unigenes (DEUs), with a presence-absence pattern, were identified comparing peach fruit ripening at 20°C with those exposed to a 39°C-HT for 3 days. The 127 DEUs were divided into four expression profile clusters, among which the heat-induced (47%) and heat-repressed (36%) groups resulted the most represented, including genes with unknown function, or involved in protein modification, transcription or RNA metabolism. Considering the CI-protection induced by HT, 23-heat-responsive genes were selected and analyzed during and after short-term cold storage of peach fruit. More than 90% of the genes selected resulted modified by cold, from which nearly 60% followed the same and nearly 40% opposite response to heat and cold. Moreover, by using available Arabidopsis microarray data, it was found that nearly 70% of the peach-heat responsive genes also respond to cold in Arabidopsis, either following the same trend or showing an opposite response. Overall, the high number of common responsive genes to heat and cold identified in the present work indicates that HT of peach fruit after harvest induces a cold response involving complex cellular processes; identifying genes that are involved in the better preparation of peach fruit for cold-storage and unraveling the basis for the CI protection induced by HT.

  18. Dormancy in Peach (Prunus persica L.) Flower Buds : I. Floral Morphogenesis and Endogenous Gibberellins at the End of the Dormancy Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, V; Lorenzo, E; Reinoso, H; Tordable, M C; Abdala, G; Pharis, R P; Bottini, R

    1990-05-01

    Flower buds of peach (Prunus persica L.) trees, cv Novedad de Cordoba (Argentina), were collected near the end of the dormant period and immediately before anthesis. After removal of scale leaves, morphological observations of representative buds, made on transverse and longitudinal microtome sections, showed that all verticils making up the flower are present in an undifferentiated form during the dormant period (June). Flower buds collected at the end of dormant period (August) showed additional growth and differentiation, at which time formation of two ovules was beginning in the unicarpelar gynoecium. Dehiscence of anthers had not yet occurred 10 days before full bloom, and the ovules were still developing. Free endogenous gibberellin (GA)-like substances were quantified by bioassay (Tan-ginbozu dwarf rice microdrop) after SiO(2) partition column chromatography, reversed phase C18-high performance liquid chromatography, and finally Nucleosil [N(CH(3))(2)]high performance liquid chromatography. Bioactive fractions were then subjected to capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM). Gibberellins A(1), A(3), and A(8) were tentatively identified in peach flower buds using GC-SIM and Kovat's retention indices, and relative amounts approximated by GC-SIM (2:8:6 for GA(1), GA(3), and GA(8), respectively). The highest concentration (330 nanograms per gram dry weight) of free GA(1)/GA(3) was found in dormant buds (June) and diminished thereafter. The concentration free of GA(1)/GA(3) did not increase immediately prior to bud break. However, high GA(1)/GA(3) concentrations occurred during stages where rate of growth and cellular differentiation of (mainly fertile) verticils can be influenced.

  19. Elaboración de néctar de durazno (Prunus persica L., endulzado con sucralosa como aprovechamiento de pérdidas poscosecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Alberto Pinto Medina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el durazno (Prunus persica L, así como en la mayoría de los frutos climatéricos, la calidad y el tiempo de vida útil comercial son afectados por los inadecuados manejos durante la cosecha, transporte y empaque, evidenciados por una serie de daños y defectos que el consumidor rechaza a la hora de adquirir el producto en fresco y que representan cuantiosas pérdidas al final del proceso de mercadeo, esta investigación se basó principalmente en el aprovechamiento de las pérdidas en durazno en el eslabón de la poscosecha, agroindustrializando la materia prima; se realizaron pruebas sensoriales para determinar la variedad más aceptada de tres probadas: Rubidoux, Dorado y Rubidoux-Dorado, no se evidenciaron diferencias significativas entre las muestras. Para darle valor agregado al producto, se fabricó néctar de la variedad Rubidoux endulzado con sucralosa, se realizaron análisis fisicoquímicos, microbiológicos y bromatológicos siguiendo la normatividad vigente. Se encontró que la sucralosa contribuyó a disminuir considerablemente el aporte calórico en el néctar elaborado, pasando de 48 Kcal/100g a 38,69 Kcal/100g. Se concluye que el costo de producción unitario para envase de 350ml ($ 1.054 resulta favorable, puesto que la rentabilidad puede superar el 40%, para un precio de venta de $1.476, generando un producto competitivo en el mercado, dada la calidad y el valor agregado como alimento funcional

  20. DETERMINATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE AREA AND DRY WEIGHT OF THE LEAF LIMBO OF Prunus persica CV. Jarillo DETERMINACIÓN DE UN MODELO MATEMÁTICO PARA LA ESTIMACIÓN DEL ÁREA FOLIAR Y PESO SECO DEL LIMBO DE Prunus persica CV. Jarillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Quevedo García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A study was conducted to determine the variables that estimated the leaf limbo area and the leaf limbo dry weight of peach Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. Jarillo. Fifty leaves, aged 2.5 months, were selected and measured: leaf limbo length and width, petiole length, leaf length, petiole diameter, leaf limbo fresh weight, petiole fresh weight, leaf fresh weight, leaf limbo dry weight, petiole dry weight, leaf dry weight, length/width limbo, petiole length/limbo length and leaf limbo area. The results allowed to obtain regression equations for estimating the leaf area and the limbo dry weight. Using the lineal models LA = b1 + b2 (LLL x LLW and LA= b1+ b2LLL + b3LLW a leaf area equation was determined. Alternative models to calculate limbo dry weight were evaluated LLDW = -b1+ b2 LLFW and LLDW= - b1 + b2LLL + b3PL. The best equations found with an R2 of 0.99 were LA = 1.572 + 0.65169(LLL x LLW, LA=-23.106+2.8064LLW + 3.6761LLL and LLDW = -0.002+0.401(LLFW.Resumen. Se realizó un estudio para determinar las variables que estimaran el área del limbo foliar y el peso seco del limbo de durazno Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. Jarillo. Se seleccionaron cincuenta hojas con 2,5 meses de edad, fueron medidos: ancho del limbo, longitud del limbo, longitud del peciolo, longitud hoja, diámetro peciolo, peso fresco del limbo, peso fresco del peciolo, peso fresco de la hoja, peso seco del limbo, peso seco peciolo, peso seco de la hoja, longitud /ancho limbo, longitud del peciolo/longitud del limbo, área foliar del limbo. Los resultados alcanzados permitieron obtener ecuaciones de regresión para estimar el área foliar del limbo y el peso seco del limbo. Se halló una ecuación para la determinación del área foliar del limbo con los modelos lineales LA = b1 + b2 (LLL x LLW y LA= b1 + b2LLL + b3LLW. También se evaluaron modelos alternativas para calcular el peso seco del limbo, LLDW = -b1+ b2LLFW y LLDW= - b1 + b2LLL + b3PL. Las mejores ecuaciones

  1. Cianamida hidrogenada no raleio químico de flores e frutos de pessegueiros (Prunus persica, L. Batsch cv. Eldorado Hydrogen cyanamide on chemical thinning of peach-tree (Prunus persica, L. Batsch Flowers and fruits of Eldorado cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Couto Rodrigues

    1999-12-01

    , color, diameter, flesh firmness and total soluble solids at harvest time were evaluated. It was observed statistical difference among treatments on the thinning of flowers. The use of CH2N2 0.5% showed high intensity of thinning (50,96%. Differences were also observed for the percentage of thinned fruits, however, the highest thinning was reached at 9.53% of CH2N2 0.6%. Fruit weight increased with chemical thinning, however, no changes in total soluble solids, color and fruit flesh firmness were observed.

  2. Transcriptomic analysis of fruit stored under cold conditions using controlled atmosphere in Prunus persica cv. ‘Red Pearl’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayan eSanhueza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cold storage (CS can induce a physiological disorder known as chilling injury (CI in nectarine fruits. The main symptom is mealiness that is perceived as non-juicy fruit by consumers. Postharvest treatments such as controlled atmosphere (CA; a high CO2 concentration and low O2 have been used under cold conditions to avoid this disorder. With the objective of exploring the mechanisms involved in the CA effect on mealiness prevention, we analyzed transcriptomic changes under six conditions of ‘Red Pearl’ nectarines by RNA-Seq. Our analysis included just harvested nectarines, juicy non-stored fruits, fruits affected for CI after CS and fruits stored in a combination of CA plus CS without CI phenotype. Nectarines stored in cold conditions combined with CA treatment resulted in less mealiness; we obtained 21.6% of juice content compared with just CS fruits (7.7%; mealy flesh. RNA-Seq data analyses were carried out to study the gene expression for different conditions assayed. During ripening, we detected that nectarines exposed to CA treatment expressed a similar number of genes compared with fruits that were not exposed to cold conditions. Firm fruits have more differentially expressed genes than soft fruits, which suggest that most important changes occur during CS. On the other hand, gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment mainly in metabolic and cellular processes. Differentially expressed genes analysis showed that low O2 concentrations combined with cold conditions slows the metabolic processes more than just the cold storage, resulting mainly in the suppression of primary metabolism and cold stress response. This is a significant step toward unraveling the molecular mechanism that explains the effectiveness of CA as a tool to prevent CI development on fruits.

  3. Evaluación productiva, económica y social del agua de riego de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch en Zacatecas (México

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    José Luis Ríos-Flores

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La escasez de agua limita la agricultura, por lo que su uso debe ser más eficiente en la producción de alimentos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la productividad económica, física y social del agua del cultivo de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch, en la región del Distrito de Desarrollo Rural 183 —correspondiente a Fresnillo, Zacatecas— para el ciclo 2012; se desarrollaron modelos matemáticos para estimar la productividad y eficiencia del agua. En Zacatecas se cosecharon 817 ha de durazno; mismas que produjeron 3,954.1 t; con un valor de $32.79 millones de pesos, utilizando un total de 8.17 Mm3 en todo el estado; mientras que en el DDR183-Fresnillo (compuesto por los municipios Fresnillo y Valparaíso se emplearon 3.39 Mm3. La determinación de la huella hídrica azul mostró que, por cada kg de durazno se emplearon 2,066 L en Zacatecas, 2,000 L en Fresnillo, y 1,851 L en Valparaíso. En cuanto al ingreso por metro cúbico, se determinó que en Zacatecas se obtuvo un ingreso de $4.01 m-3, $4.38 m-3 en Fresnillo y $4.83 m-3 en Valparaíso. Mientras, la productividad laboral en Zacatecas fue 97.53 h t-1, en Fresnillo 94.40 h t-1, y en Valparaíso 87.35 h t-1. El trabajador adscrito a la producción de durazno en Zacatecas generó $97.53 h-1, en Fresnillo $94.40 h-1, y $87.35 h-1 en Valparaíso. La producción de durazno en Valparaíso resultó altamente eficiente y productiva, lo que se tradujo en una menor huella hídrica; ello promueve la sustentabilidad del recurso agua en esa región.

  4. Identification of Known and Novel microRNAs and Their Targets in Peach (Prunus persica) Fruit by High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Zhang, Binbin; Ma, Ruijuan; Yu, Mingliang; Guo, Shaolei; Guo, Lei; Korir, Nicholas Kibet

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs that have functions in post-transcriptional gene regulation in plants. Although the most important economic component of peach trees (Prunus persica) is the fruit, not much is known about miRNAs in this organ. In this study, miRNAs and their targets were identified and characterized from libraries of small RNAs of peach fruit through Solexa based-sequencing and bioinformatics approaches. A total of 557 known peach miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified, and some of these miRNAs were found to be highly conserved in at least four other plant species. Using the most current criteria for miRNA annotation, 275 putative novel miRNAs were predicted, and the sequencing frequencies of these novel miRNAs were less than those of the conserved miRNAs. In total, 3959 and 1614 target genes for 349 known and 193 novel miRNAs, respectively, were predicted with the criteria that a single target gene can be targeted by different miRNAs and that a single miRNA can also have a large number of target genes. Three targets were even found to be targeted by 13 novel miRNAs that contained the same complete miRNA sequence at different locations and had different scaffolds. The proteins predicted to be targeted by the miRNAs identified in this study encompass a wide range of transcription factors and are involved in many biological processes and pathways, including development, metabolism, stress responses and signal transduction. A total of 115 and 101 target genes were identified to be cleaved by 60 known miRNAs and 27 novel miRNAs through degradome sequencing, respectively. These miRNAs induce cleavage of their targets precisely at the position between nucleotides 10 and 11 of the miRNA sequences from the 5' to the 3' end. Thirty conserved miRNAs and 19 novel miRNAs exhibited differential expression profiles in the peach, and the expression patterns of some miRNAs appeared to be tissue- or developmental stage-specific. The

  5. Genome-wide identification of miRNAs responsive to drought in peach (Prunus persica) by high-throughput deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldem, Vahap; Çelikkol Akçay, Ufuk; Ozhuner, Esma; Bakır, Yakup; Uranbey, Serkan; Unver, Turgay

    2012-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica L.) is one of the most important worldwide fresh fruits. Since fruit growth largely depends on adequate water supply, drought stress is considered as the most important abiotic stress limiting fleshy fruit production and quality in peach. Plant responses to drought stress are regulated both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. As post-transcriptional gene regulators, miRNAs (miRNAs) are small (19-25 nucleotides in length), endogenous, non-coding RNAs. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are involved in plant responses to drought. Therefore, Illumina deep sequencing technology was used for genome-wide identification of miRNAs and their expression profile in response to drought in peach. In this study, four sRNA libraries were constructed from leaf control (LC), leaf stress (LS), root control (RC) and root stress (RS) samples. We identified a total of 531, 471, 535 and 487 known mature miRNAs in LC, LS, RC and RS libraries, respectively. The expression level of 262 (104 up-regulated, 158 down-regulated) of the 453 miRNAs changed significantly in leaf tissue, whereas 368 (221 up-regulated, 147 down-regulated) of the 465 miRNAs had expression levels that changed significantly in root tissue upon drought stress. Additionally, a total of 197, 221, 238 and 265 novel miRNA precursor candidates were identified from LC, LS, RC and RS libraries, respectively. Target transcripts (137 for LC, 133 for LS, 148 for RC and 153 for RS) generated significant Gene Ontology (GO) terms related to DNA binding and catalytic activities. Genome-wide miRNA expression analysis of peach by deep sequencing approach helped to expand our understanding of miRNA function in response to drought stress in peach and Rosaceae. A set of differentially expressed miRNAs could pave the way for developing new strategies to alleviate the adverse effects of drought stress on plant growth and development.

  6. The early spring N uptake of young peach trees (Prunus persica) is affected by past and current fertilizations and levels of C and N stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Marie-Odile; Vercambre, Gilles; Gomez, Laurent; Pagès, Loïc

    2014-01-01

    In deciduous trees, shoot development in early spring is assumed to be achieved mainly at the expense of nitrogen (N) stores. Indeed, the possible compensation for poor autumn N storage by early spring N uptake has been little studied. We therefore determined the dynamics of spring N uptake in relation to spring N supply, carbon and N storage and shoot development. Young peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. 'GF305') were raised outdoors in a hydroponic set-up during the spring and summer, with an excessive N supply. During the autumn, half of the trees were then N limited. The following spring, the N supply remained either high or low, or changed from high to low or low to high. Between 6 March and 13 May, N uptake was measured automatically on an hourly basis, while shoot growth was monitored once a week. These in situ measurements were completed by three destructive harvests to assess organ composition in N and total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC). Until the end of April, N uptake was dependent on the autumn N treatment, being higher in trees that had been N limited in the autumn. Total non-structural carbohydrate mobilization was also higher in those trees that had lost at least 17 g TNC by 24 April, while TNC levels in non-limited trees remained stable or even rose. Shoot development, estimated by the number of elongated axes and leaves per axis, was also slightly delayed by an N limitation in autumn. After 24 April, N uptake rates increased notably under all treatments and was determined by the spring N supply. In trees receiving a high N supply in the spring, the uptake rates also displayed marked short-term variations. That reduced the differences between treatments and by 13 May no differences could be evidenced between the trees in terms of organ biomass and TNC and N contents, whatever the treatment. We concluded that in the early spring, N uptake may compensate for a deficit of N storage insofar as large quantities of TNC can be mobilized for

  7. Genome-wide identification of miRNAs responsive to drought in peach (Prunus persica by high-throughput deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahap Eldem

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is one of the most important worldwide fresh fruits. Since fruit growth largely depends on adequate water supply, drought stress is considered as the most important abiotic stress limiting fleshy fruit production and quality in peach. Plant responses to drought stress are regulated both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. As post-transcriptional gene regulators, miRNAs (miRNAs are small (19-25 nucleotides in length, endogenous, non-coding RNAs. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are involved in plant responses to drought. Therefore, Illumina deep sequencing technology was used for genome-wide identification of miRNAs and their expression profile in response to drought in peach. In this study, four sRNA libraries were constructed from leaf control (LC, leaf stress (LS, root control (RC and root stress (RS samples. We identified a total of 531, 471, 535 and 487 known mature miRNAs in LC, LS, RC and RS libraries, respectively. The expression level of 262 (104 up-regulated, 158 down-regulated of the 453 miRNAs changed significantly in leaf tissue, whereas 368 (221 up-regulated, 147 down-regulated of the 465 miRNAs had expression levels that changed significantly in root tissue upon drought stress. Additionally, a total of 197, 221, 238 and 265 novel miRNA precursor candidates were identified from LC, LS, RC and RS libraries, respectively. Target transcripts (137 for LC, 133 for LS, 148 for RC and 153 for RS generated significant Gene Ontology (GO terms related to DNA binding and catalytic activities. Genome-wide miRNA expression analysis of peach by deep sequencing approach helped to expand our understanding of miRNA function in response to drought stress in peach and Rosaceae. A set of differentially expressed miRNAs could pave the way for developing new strategies to alleviate the adverse effects of drought stress on plant growth and development.

  8. Identification of Known and Novel microRNAs and Their Targets in Peach (Prunus persica) Fruit by High-Throughput Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs that have functions in post-transcriptional gene regulation in plants. Although the most important economic component of peach trees (Prunus persica) is the fruit, not much is known about miRNAs in this organ. In this study, miRNAs and their targets were identified and characterized from libraries of small RNAs of peach fruit through Solexa based-sequencing and bioinformatics approaches. A total of 557 known peach miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified, and some of these miRNAs were found to be highly conserved in at least four other plant species. Using the most current criteria for miRNA annotation, 275 putative novel miRNAs were predicted, and the sequencing frequencies of these novel miRNAs were less than those of the conserved miRNAs. In total, 3959 and 1614 target genes for 349 known and 193 novel miRNAs, respectively, were predicted with the criteria that a single target gene can be targeted by different miRNAs and that a single miRNA can also have a large number of target genes. Three targets were even found to be targeted by 13 novel miRNAs that contained the same complete miRNA sequence at different locations and had different scaffolds. The proteins predicted to be targeted by the miRNAs identified in this study encompass a wide range of transcription factors and are involved in many biological processes and pathways, including development, metabolism, stress responses and signal transduction. A total of 115 and 101 target genes were identified to be cleaved by 60 known miRNAs and 27 novel miRNAs through degradome sequencing, respectively. These miRNAs induce cleavage of their targets precisely at the position between nucleotides 10 and 11 of the miRNA sequences from the 5’ to the 3’ end. Thirty conserved miRNAs and 19 novel miRNAs exhibited differential expression profiles in the peach, and the expression patterns of some miRNAs appeared to be tissue- or developmental stage

  9. Controle da infestação natural de ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 (Diptera, Tephritidae em pêssegos(Prunus persica através das radiações gama Control of naturally infested peaches (Prunus persica by mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata through the use of gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Arthur

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a dose desinfestante de radiações gama para pêssegos, Prunus persica, infestados com larvas da mosca do Mediterrâneo, Ceratitis capitata. Utilizaram-se frutas de procedência conhecida no campo fazendo-se uma amostragem prévia, constatando-se que cada fruta continha em média nove larvas do último ínstar da mosca praga. As frutas foram irradiadas em uma fonte de Cobalto-60 com as seguintes doses de radiação gama: 0 (test., 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 e 1200 Gy, sob uma taxa de 58 Gy por minuto. Após a irradiação as frutas foram colocadas em câmaras climatizadas com a temperatura variando entre 23 e 27°C e a umidade relativa variando entre 65 e 75%. Aguardou-se que as larvas deixassem as frutas e se transformassem em pupas e adultos. A dose letal para larvas, pelos resultados obtidos no experimento, concluiu-se ser de 600 Gy. A dose letal para pupas provenientes de larvas irradiadas dentro das frutas foi de 50 Gy, impedindo totalmente a emergência de adultos.Determination of the dose of gamma radiation to disinfest peaches, Prunus pérsica infested with larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 was made. Fruits were collected in the field, each one holding about nine larvae of the last instar of the fruit-fly. The fruits were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation source at the following doses: 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 Gy; at a dose rate of 58 Gy per minute. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted between 23 and 27°C, and relative humidity between 65 and 75 percent, until the larvae left the fruits and were transformed into pupae and adults. It was concluded that the lethal dose of gamma radiation for larvae at the last instar, in naturally infested peaches, was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the emergency of adults.

  10. Flutuação populacional e previsão de gerações de Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em pessegueiro, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch = Populational fluctuation and generation prediction of Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in peach, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A mariposa-oriental, Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916, encontra-se distribuída em quase todas as partes do mundo, constituindo importante praga do pessegueiro, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch. Este estudo foi desenvolvido em pomar comercial de pessegueiro localizado em Taiúva, São Paulo, durante os anos 1997 a 2003, visando obter a flutuação populacional de adultos de G. molesta relacionando-a com fatores meteorológicos. O estudo também visou determinar uma data biofix adequada para prever a ocorrência de gerações da praga por meio de um modelo de graus-dia. A amostragem da mariposa-oriental e de insetos predadores foi efetuada com armadilha plástica com suco de pêssego e armadilha adesiva amarela, respectivamente. A influência de fatores físicos e biológicos foi avaliada por análise de correlação linear simples. Os maiores picos populacionais de G. molesta ocorreram nos meses de maio, julho e outubro. As correlações obtidas sugerem que a baixa umidade ambiental pode ter sido fator de mortalidade para G. molesta. O elevado número de pulverizações de inseticida pode ter causado impacto negativo sobre inimigos naturais contribuindo para a elevada densidade do inseto-praga no período de 1998 a 1999. A data de constatação dapresença de gemas vegetativas e de flor diferenciadas no pessegueiro mostrou-se adequada para se iniciar a contagem de graus-dia para prever gerações de G. molesta. Esses resultados devem ajudar aimplementação de programas para prever picos populacionais de adultos de G. molesta visando à aplicação de inseticidas. Recomenda-se a validação do modelo de graus-dia em outras localidades para comprovar os resultados obtidos.The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916, is spread around the world and is considered an important pest on peach, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch. This work was carried out at a commercial peach orchard located in Taiúva, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1997 to

  11. Atividade da peroxidase durante o período hibernal de plantas de pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch. cv. jubileu com e sem sintomas da morte precoce Peroxidase activity during the rest period of peach trees (Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. jubileu in plants with and without symptoms ofpeach-tree-short-life (PTSL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Carlos Marafon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A morte precoce do pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch é uma síndrome caracterizada por um colapso da planta durante a floração ou no início da brotação, após drástica redução da temperatura. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a atividade da peroxidase (UE min-1 g-1 MF durante o período hibernal, em gemas e ramos de plantas de pessegueiro cv. Jubileu, com e sem sintomas de morte precoce. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos separadamente, um para cada tipo de tecido, em dois pomares próximos, ambos com quatro anos de implantação, situados na região colonial de Pelotas - RS, nas localidades de Santa Helena e Cascata. As amostras foram constituídas por dois tipos de tecidos (gemas e ramos e foram coletadas em quatro datas (11-06, 11-07, 29-07 e 05-08 durante o inverno de 2003. As determinações da atividade da peroxidase nos tecidos foram realizadas no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Embrapa Clima Temperado. As plantas com sintomas de morte precoce apresentaram, durante a dormência, maior atividade da peroxidase nos dois tipos de tecidos, quando comparadas com as plantas sem sintomas da síndrome. Provavelmente, o desencadeamento da síndrome provoca alterações na dormência das plantas afetadas, que resultam na antecipação da retomada do crescimento das gemas e na exposição dos tecidos recém-formados aos danos causados pelas baixas temperaturas. Os níveis populacionais donematoide-anelado (Mesocriconema xenoplax e dos nematoides do gênero Helicotylenchus sp. foram superiores nas amostras de solo coletadas na rizosfera das plantas com sintomas de morte precoce do que os verificados nas amostras coletadas das plantas sem sintomas da síndrome, resultando também na maior atividade da peroxidase em ambos os tecidos (gemas e ramos, durante o período hibernal das plantas afetadas.Peach Tree Short Life (PTSL is a syndrome characterized by a collapse of the peach trees (Prunus persica (L. Batsch during the

  12. LA RELACIÓN HOJA: FRUTO AFECTA LA PRODUCCIÓN, EL CRECIMIENTO Y LA CALIDAD DEL FRUTO EN DURAZNERO (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. ‘Rubidoux’ LEAF TO FRUIT RATIO AFFECTS YIELD, FRUIT GROWTH AND FRUIT QUALITY OF PEACH (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. ‘Rubidoux’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El raleo de frutos es un práctica agrícola común en los árboles de melocotón con miras a una cosecha moderada a abundante. Sin embargo, a pesar de las muchas ventajas del raleo, demostradas a lo largo de años de experiencia en la zona templada, esta práctica es a menudo una de las operaciones conducidas de manera ineficiente en el cultivo del duraznero. Árboles de duraznero (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. ‘Rubidoux’ se ralearon manualmente con el objeto de mejorar la calidad comercial del fruto. Se evaluaron los cambios en el crecimiento del fruto, los sólidos solubles totales, la relación pulpa: semilla, la producción, la calidad del fruto y el diámetro de la fruta, durante una temporada de crecimiento de los frutos según el efecto de la relación hoja: fruto (10; 20; 30; 40 y 50 hojas por fruto, en Guasca - Cundinamarca - Colombia. El raleo se realizó 85 días después de plena floración. Los árboles del tratamiento control no se ralearon. Se observaron diferencias en las curvas de crecimiento del fruto, en el promedio de fruto cosechado, en el peso fresco de los frutos y en su calidad comercial. El contenido de sólidos solubles totales en los frutos y la relación pulpa:semilla aumentaron con el raleo. Al momento de la cosecha, la producción se redujo en los árboles raleados, pero se mejoró la cantidad del fruto comercial. Los tratamientos con 40 y 50 hojas por fruto tuvieron la mayor proporción de frutos de mejor calidad en comparación con los árboles control.Fruit thinning is a standard practice on peach trees carrying a moderate to heavy crop. However, in spite of the many benefits from thinning demostrated through long years of experience in the temperate zone, fruit thinning is too often one of the most unefficiently conducted operations in peach growing. With a view to improve marketable yield and fruit quality, trees of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. ‘Rubidoux’ were subjected to hand thinning. Changes

  13. A simple model to predict the probability of a peach (Prunus persicae tree bud to develop as a long or short shoot as a consequence of winter pruning intensity and previous year growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bevacqua

    Full Text Available In many woody plants, shoots emerging from buds can develop as short or long shoots. The probability of a bud to develop as a long or short shoot relies upon genetic, environmental and management factors and controlling it is an important issue in commercial orchard. We use peach (Prunus persicae trees, subjected to different winter pruning levels and monitored for two years, to develop and calibrate a model linking the probability of a bud to develop as a long shoot to winter pruning intensity and previous year vegetative growth. Eventually we show how our model can be used to adjust pruning intensity to obtain a desired proportion of long and short shoots.

  14. Nutraceutical Value of Yellow- and Red-Fleshed South African Plums (Prunus salicina Lindl.: Evaluation of Total Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Composition

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    Alet Venter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten South African plum cultivars and selections, including yellow- and red-fleshed plums from two harvest seasons were evaluated in terms of nutraceutical value (phenolic composition, total polyphenol content (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC and fruit attributes (colour, fruit mass, etc.. Plums were evaluated at two maturity stages, i.e., directly after harvest (unripe and after a commercial cold storage and ripening regime (ripe. The phenolic composition of South African plums varied greatly, both qualitatively and quantitatively, between cultivars and selections. Neochlorogenic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were the predominant hydroxycinnamic acid, anthocyanin and flavonol, respectively, although not present in all plums. The flavan-3-ols, (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin and procyanidins B1 and B2, were present in all plums. Red-fleshed plums tended to display higher TAC and TPC than yellow-fleshed plums. The flavan-3-ol content was highly correlated with TAC. The effect of harvest season was cultivar-dependent, but cultivar differences were not obscured. In terms of maturity stage, the ripe fruits tended to contain higher levels of anthocyanins and some flavonol compounds, although the TPC and TAC were not affected in most cases. South African plums, especially the red-fleshed selections PR04-32 and PR04-35, were shown to provide generally high TAC and TPC compared to literature values.

  15. Three distinct mutational mechanisms acting on a single gene underpin the origin of yellow flesh in peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, Rachele; Vendramin, Elisa; Zanon, Laura; Scalabrin, Simone; Cipriani, Guido; Verde, Ignazio; Vizzotto, Giannina; Morgante, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Peach flesh color (white or yellow) is among the most popular commercial criteria for peach classification, and has implications for consumer acceptance and fruit nutritional quality. Despite the increasing interest in improving cultivars of both flesh types, little is known about the genetic basis for the carotenoid content diversity in peach. Here we describe the association between genotypes at a locus encoding the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (PpCCD4), localized in pseudomolecule 1 of the Prunus persica reference genome sequence, and the flesh color for 37 peach varieties, including two somatic revertants, and three ancestral relatives of peach, providing definitive evidence that this locus is responsible for flesh color phenotype. We show that yellow peach alleles have arisen from various ancestral haplotypes by at least three independent mutational events involving nucleotide substitutions, small insertions and transposable element insertions, and that these mutations, despite being located within the transcribed portion of the gene, also result in marked differences in transcript levels, presumably as a consequence of differential transcript stability involving nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. The PpCCD4 gene provides a unique example of a gene for which humans, in their quest to diversify phenotypic appearance and qualitative characteristics of a fruit, have been able to select and exploit multiple mutations resulting from a variety of mechanisms. PMID:23855972

  16. The peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) genome harbours 10 KNOX genes, which are differentially expressed in stem development, and the class 1 KNOPE1 regulates elongation and lignification during primary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testone, Giulio; Condello, Emiliano; Verde, Ignazio; Nicolodi, Chiara; Caboni, Emilia; Dettori, Maria Teresa; Vendramin, Elisa; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice; Mele, Giovanni; Giannino, Donato

    2012-09-01

    The KNOTTED-like (KNOX) genes encode homeodomain transcription factors and regulate several processes of plant organ development. The peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) genome was found to contain 10 KNOX members (KNOPE genes); six of them were experimentally located on the Prunus reference map and the class 1 KNOPE1 was found to link to a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the internode length in the peach×Ferganensis population. All the KNOPE genes were differentially transcribed in the internodes of growing shoots; the KNOPE1 mRNA abundance decreased progressively from primary (elongation) to secondary growth (radial expansion). During primary growth, the KNOPE1 mRNA was localized in the cortex and in the procambium/metaphloem zones, whereas it was undetected in incipient phloem and xylem fibres. KNOPE1 overexpression in the Arabidopsis bp4 loss-of-function background (35S:KNOPE1/bp genotype) restored the rachis length, suggesting, together with the QTL association, a role for KNOPE1 in peach shoot elongation. Several lignin biosynthesis genes were up-regulated in the bp4 internodes but repressed in the 35S:KNOPE1/bp lines similarly to the wild type. Moreover, the lignin deposition pattern of the 35S:KNOPE1/bp and the wild-type internodes were the same. The KNOPE1 protein was found to recognize in vitro one of the typical KNOX DNA-binding sites that recurred in peach and Arabidopsis lignin genes. KNOPE1 expression was inversely correlated with that of lignin genes and lignin deposition along the peach shoot stems and was down-regulated in lignifying vascular tissues. These data strongly support that KNOPE1 prevents cell lignification by repressing lignin genes during peach stem primary growth.

  17. PpYUC11, a strong candidate gene for the stony hard phenotype in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), participates in IAA biosynthesis during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Zeng, Wenfang; Niu, Liang; Lu, Zhenhua; Liu, Hui; Cui, Guochao; Zhu, Yunqin; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Weiping; Fang, Weichao; Cai, Zuguo; Li, Guohuai; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-12-01

    High concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are required for climacteric ethylene biosynthesis to cause fruit softening in melting flesh peaches at the late ripening stage. By contrast, the fruits of stony hard peach cultivars do not soften and produce little ethylene due to the low IAA concentrations. To investigate the regulation of IAA accumulation during peach ripening [the transition from stage S3 to stage S4 III (climacteric)], a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performed. The expression patterns of auxin-homeostasis-related genes were compared in fruits of the melting flesh peach 'Goldhoney 3' and the stony hard flesh peach 'Yumyeong' during the ripening stage. It is revealed here that a YUCCA flavin mono-oxygenase gene (PpYUC11, ppa008176m), a key gene in auxin biosynthesis, displayed an identical differential expression profile to the profiles of IAA accumulation and PpACS1 transcription: the mRNA transcripts increased at the late ripening stage in melting flesh peaches but were below the limit of detection in mature fruits of stony hard peaches. In addition, the strong association between intron TC microsatellite genotypes of PpYUC11 and the flesh texture (normal or stony hard) is described in 43 peach varieties, indicating that this locus may be responsible for the stony hard phenotype in peach. These findings support the hypothesis that PpYUC11 may play an essential role in auxin biosynthesis during peach fruit ripening and is a candidate gene for the control of the stony hard phenotype in peach. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Prunus domestica, Prunus persica and Prunus avium extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    water emulsions. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) ... Test formulations containing fruit extracts (6%) showed good stability compared to control formulations and pH and conductivity were found as desired. Formulations were studied for patch ...

  19. Characterization of polymorphic SSRs among Prunus chloroplast genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An in silico mining process yielded 80, 75, and 78 microsatellites in the chloroplast genome of Prunus persica, P. kansuensis, and P. mume. A and T repeats were predominant in the three genomes, accounting for 67.8% on average and most of them were successful in primer design. For the 80 P. persica ...

  20. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was used as an oviposition surrogate for the congeneric S. exitiosa (Say) to examine possible preference for Prunus germplasm. We assayed limbs of a peach cultivar (Prunus persica), peach rootstocks, plum-peach hybrid rootstocks, the...

  1. Influence of antioxidant compounds, total sugars and genetic background on the chilling injury susceptibility of a non-melting peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Walid; Cantín, Celia M; Jiménez, Sergio; Giménez, Rosa; Moreno, María Ángeles; Gogorcena, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    To identify genotypes with good organoleptic properties, antioxidant-rich content and low susceptibility to chilling injury (CI), fruits from 130 peach cultivars were studied over three consecutive years. Pomological traits, l-ascorbic acid, flavonoids, total phenolics, relative antioxidant capacity (RAC) and sugars were determined. Major symptoms of CI developed at 5 °C, such as leatheriness, flesh browning, bleeding and loss of flavor, were evaluated. The population exhibited wide phenotypic variation in agronomic and biochemical traits. Six genotypes with high total phenolics, RAC, flavonoids and total sugars were selected. The progeny also showed variability for all evaluated CI symptoms, and 16 genotypes showed considerably lower susceptibility to CI. After 2 weeks of cold storage, leatheriness and bleeding were the main CI symptoms observed, whereas flesh browning was predominant after 4 weeks. It was possible to find varieties with high phenolic concentration and relatively low or intermediate CI susceptibility (22, 33, 68, 80, 81, 96 and 120). However, the correlations observed between CI and phenolic contents highlight their potential influence on susceptibility to internal browning. This relationship should be considered in the current breeding programs to select cultivars with high bioactive compound contents, health-enhancing properties and good postharvest performance. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Angeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. "Orbis") grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  3. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. grown in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi eEl-Jendoubi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. ‘Orbis’ grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated and basal (untreated leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  4. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Ángeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. “Orbis”) grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs. PMID:24478782

  5. Expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, by low temperature and dormancy-breaking reagent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Hisayo; Ooka, Tomomi; Jotatsu, Hiroaki; Hosaka, Yukari; Sasaki, Ryuta; Tao, Ryutaro

    2011-06-01

    The present study investigated the expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, two of the six peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, in relation to lateral bud endodormancy. PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 were originally identified as homologues of Arabidopsis SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE/AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 identified in the EVERGROWING locus of peach. Furthermore, PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 have recently been suggested to be involved in terminal bud dormancy. In this study, seasonal expression analyses using leaves, stems, and lateral buds of high-chill and low-chill peaches in field conditions indicated that both genes were up-regulated during the endodormancy period and down-regulated with endodormancy release. Controlled environment experiments showed that the expression of both PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 were up-regulated by ambient cool temperatures in autumn, while they were down-regulated by the prolonged period of cold temperatures in winter. A negative correlation between expression levels of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 and bud burst percentage was found in the prolonged cold temperature treatment. Application of the dormancy-breaking reagent cyanamide to endo/ecodormant lateral buds induced early bud break and down-regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 expression at the same time. These results collectively suggest that PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 may function in the chilling requirement of peach lateral buds through growth-inhibiting functions for bud break.

  6. DIAGNOSTICS OF VIRUS PHYTOPATHOGENS FRUIT TREE PLUM POX VIRUS, PRUNUS NECROTIC RINGSPOT VIRUS AND PRUNUS DWARF VIRUS BY BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Rozák

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of viral phytopathogen Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus in selected localities of Slovakia and diagnose them using a molecular and biological methods. Forty samples of fruit trees of the genus Prunus, twenty samples from intensive plantings and twenty samples from wild subject were analysed. Biological diagnostic by using biological indicators Prunus persica cv. GF 305, Prunus serrulata cv. Schirofugen and molecular diagnostic by mRT-PCR were applied. Five samples with Plum pox virus were infected. The two samples positive for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and one sample for Prunus dwarf virus were confirmed. The two samples were found to be infected with two viruses Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus. This work focuses on two techniques, their application to the diagnosis of stone fruit viruses and their routinely used for sanitary and certification programmes.

  7. Current-year and Subsequent-year Effects of Crop-load Manipulation and Epicormic-shoot Removal on Distribution of Long, Short and Epicormic Shoot Growth in Prunus persica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, D.; Dejong, T. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The distribution of canopy growth among different shoot types such as epicormic, long and short shoots is not well understood in the peach tree. In this experiment, the effects of crop load and early epicormic sprout removal on current and subsequent-year distribution of vegetative growth among epicormic, long and short shoots was investigated in Prunus persica. Methods Field trials were conducted in Winters, California, in 2003–2004. Crop load was manipulated with fruit thinning in 2003 to produce trees that were de-fruited, commercially thinned or full crop, and half of the trees in each cropping treatment had all current year epicormic sprouts removed at the time of fruit thinning. Yield was recorded and trunk and root carbohydrates were sampled to confirm the effect of 2003 crop load differences on tissue carbohydrate concentration. All current-season vegetative-shoot extension growth was harvested from half of the trees in each treatment in the autumn of 2003 and from the other half in the autumn of 2004. Epicormic, long and short shoots were separately evaluated for dry weight, node number and leaf-stem parameters. Key Results In 2003, long-shoot dry weight and node number were significantly affected by crop load; however, short-shoot dry weight and node number were not significantly affected. The 2003 crop-load treatments did not affect 2004 vegetative growth of any shoot type. Some re-growth of epicormic shoots followed early epicormic sprout removal: by the end of the 2003 season, trees in the early shoot-removal treatment had approximately one-third of the epicormic-shoot dry weight as unpruned trees. Conclusions Fruit thinning promoted distribution of growth similar to that of de-fruited trees. While thinning was effective in increasing fruit size, it exacerbated the problem of epicormic sprouting. Early epicormic sprout removal did not stimulate the excessive epicormic re-growth in the same or subsequent year relative to previously

  8. Procyanidins in fruit from Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) differ strongly in chainlength from those in Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus) and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus), and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) fruits are widely used in Turkey, both as food and as traditional medicines. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacities of these three cherry types were compared. Fruit flesh was

  9. Field assessment of vulnerability to fungi diseases of varieties and forms of nectarine (Prunus persica (L. Batsch. subsp. nectarina (Ait. Shof. displaying male sterility characteristic from Niktskyi Botanic Garden collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. О. Іващенко

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The varieties and forms of nectarine resistant to fungi diseases (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lev. Aderh., Taphrina deformans Tul., Sphaerotheca pannosa (Wallr. Fr. Lev. var. persicae Woronich having the practical interest for modern technology growing and for breeding on these characteristics have been selected.

  10. Six-year performance of 14 Prunus rootstocks at 11 sites in the 2001 NC-140 peach trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with either ‘Redtop’, ‘Redhaven’ or ‘Cresthaven’ peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] were planted at 11 locations in North America in 2001 in a randomized block design with a tree spacing of 5 by 6 m and 8 replicates. This test planting was a...

  11. Caracterización con RAMs de la colección de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch) existente en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado; Yacenia Morillo Coronado; Elberth Hernando Pinzón Sandoval

    2014-01-01

    Utilizando ocho cebadores Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAMs) fue evaluada la diversidad genética de 31 materiales de Prunus de la colección de caducifolios existente en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia. Se generaron un total de 121 amplicones con pesos moleculares entre 260 y 1000 Kb. Con un coeficiente de similitud de 0.75, se formaron tres grupos, de acuerdo principalmente con las características del fruto, encontrando en el grupo 2 las variedades de importancia e...

  12. Caracterización con rams de la colección de durazno (prunus persica (l.) batsch existente en la universidad pedagógica y tecnológica de colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Morillo Coronado, Ana Cruz; Morillo Coronado, Yacenia; Pinzón Sandoval, Elberth Hernando

    2014-01-01

    Utilizando ocho cebadores Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAMs) fue evaluada la diversidad genética de 31 materiales de Prunus de la colección de caducifolios existente en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia. Se generaron un total de 121 amplicones con pesos moleculares entre 260 y 1000 Kb. Con un coeficiente de similaridad de a 0.75 se formaron tres grupos, de acuerdo principalmente con las características del fruto, encontrando en el grupo 2 las variedades de importan...

  13. Caracterización con RAMs de la colección de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch existente en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando ocho cebadores Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAMs fue evaluada la diversidad genética de 31 materiales de Prunus de la colección de caducifolios existente en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia. Se generaron un total de 121 amplicones con pesos moleculares entre 260 y 1000 Kb. Con un coeficiente de similitud de 0.75, se formaron tres grupos, de acuerdo principalmente con las características del fruto, encontrando en el grupo 2 las variedades de importancia económica. El número de loci polimórficos varió entre 5 y 16 para los cebadores GT y CCA, respectivamente. El valor promedio de heterocigosidad fue de 0.22, más bajo que los encontrados en otros estudios de diversidad genética en el género Prunus; por tanto, se deben buscar estrategias para incrementar la variabilidad genética de la colección como la introducción de nuevos materiales o híbridos interespecíficos. La técnica RAMs es útil para evaluar la diversidad genética en especies caducifolias.

  14. The peach (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch) homeobox gene KNOPE3, which encodes a class 2 knotted-like transcription factor, is regulated during leaf development and triggered by sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testone, Giulio; Condello, Emiliano; Verde, Ignazio; Caboni, Emilia; Iannelli, Maria Adelaide; Bruno, Leonardo; Mariotti, Domenico; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice; Giannino, Donato

    2009-07-01

    Class 1 KNOTTED1-like transcription factors (KNOX) are known to regulate plant development, whereas information on class 2 KNOX has been limited. The peach KNOPE3 gene was cloned, belonged to a family of few class 2 members and was located at 66 cM in the Prunus spp. G1 linkage-group. The mRNA localization was diversified in leaf, stem, flower and drupe, but recurred in all organ sieves, suggesting a role in sap nutrient transport. During leaf development, the mRNA earliest localized to primordia sieves and subsequently to mesophyll cells of growing leaves. Consistently, its abundance augmented with leaf expansion. The transcription was monitored in leaves responding to darkening, supply and transport block of sugars. It peaked at 4 h after darkness and dropped under prolonged obscurity, showing a similar kinetic to that of sucrose content variation. Feeding leaflets via the transpiration stream caused KNOPE3 up-regulation at 3 h after fructose, glucose and sucrose absorption and at 12 h after sorbitol. In girdling experiments, leaf KNOPE3 was triggered from 6 h onwards along with sucrose and sorbitol raise. Both the phloem-associated expression and sugar-specific gene modulation suggest that KNOPE3 may play a role in sugar translocation during the development of agro-relevant organs such as drupe.

  15. Flesh as communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Falk

    2012-01-01

    , action. A correlative bond lies in communication theory as the operational difference between ego and alter-ego. This article investigates the non-semiotic intertwinement of ‘flesh’ in art perception and theory based on communication theory in performance art (body art). The thesis is that ‘flesh...

  16. Role of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its secondary hosts in plum pox virus propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manachini, B; Casati, P; Cinanni, L; Bianco, P

    2007-08-01

    Plum pox virus (family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus, PPV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of plants in the genus Prunus, particularly Prunus persica L. The role of the Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as a vector of PPV-M, and its role in spreading PPV-M, was investigated. PPV-M-infected peach trees were used as inoculum sources, and transmission to 15 herbaceous species commonly present in and around peach orchards was evaluated. The presence of PPV-M in secondary hosts after aphid transmission was verified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests. The results indicate that Saponaria ocymoides L., Pisum sativum L., Trifolium repens L., Trifolium pratense L., Lepidium sativum L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Centaurea cyanus L., Bellis perennis L., Papaver rhoeas L., and Zinnia elegans L. became infected. Although Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley, Taraxacum officinale L., Achillea millefolium L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., and Linum rubrum L. did not become infected, they are hosts of M. persicae. Among the 10 positive species that were infected, the species most common in peach orchards, T. pratense, T. repens, B. perennis, and M. chamomilla, were used as source plants for the transmission studies to the peach tree. Our study reveals the ability of M. persicae to transmit PPV-M from herbaceous hosts to peach trees, describes PPV-M symptoms in herbaceous species, and discusses the role of M. persicae and its hosts as a source of PPV-M in peach orchards.

  17. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  18. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bliss Fredrick A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a

  19. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica) progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a valuable tool for dissecting the

  20. Growth and Yield of Peaches on Rootstocks of Prunus tomentosa and Prunus persica

    OpenAIRE

    中野, 幹夫; 島村, 和夫

    1983-01-01

    モモ栽培の省力化を目的に台木及び仕立方を異にした低木・密植栽培を試みた. すなわち,ユスラウメ台を用いた主幹仕立,共台を用いた架線仕立と平行並列仕立である. ユスラウメ台樹の生育は品種及び個体により大きく変異したが,共台に比べ強くわい化した. 収穫期は早く,果実の品質も良かった. 収量はほぼ生育と一致し,品種及び個体により大きく変異したが,生育の良い場合には共台樹より多収であった. したがって,台木の系統選抜などにより健全で均一な生育が得られれば,有望な栽培様式となりえよう. 共台樹では平行並列仕立の方が架線仕立より収量,品質とも優れた. その原因は,平行並列仕立の方が目標樹冠面積が大きく,自由に生長させられたのに対し,架線仕立樹はそれが狭く,しかも,主枝を早くから低く誘引したため,樹勢が強すぎ,徒長的な側枝が多発し,過繁茂となったためであろう。...

  1. Relationship between endogenous hormonal content and somatic organogenesis in callus of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and Prunus persica×Prunus dulcis rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Le-Disquet, Isabel; Guivarc'h, Anne; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between endogenous hormones content and the induction of somatic peach plant was studied. To induce multiple shoots from callus derived from the base of stem explants of the scion cultivars 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach×almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677', propagated plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog salts augmented with 0.1mgL(-1) of indolebutyric acid, 1mgL(-1) of 6-benzylaminopurine and 3% sucrose. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach×almond rootstocks. Endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) were analyzed in the organogenic callus. Lower levels of several hormones, namely Z, ZR, ABA, and ACC were found in the peach×almond rootstock compared to peach cultivars, while IAA and SA presented inconclusive returns. These results suggest that the difference in somatic organogenesis capacity observed in peach and peach×almond hybrids is markedly affected by the endogenous hormonal content of the studied genotypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. 'Candidatus Phytoplasmas pruni', a novel taxon associated with X-disease of stone fruits, Prunus spp.: multilocus characterization based on 16S rRNA, secY, and ribosomal protein genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-disease is one of the most serious diseases known in peach (Prunus persica). Based on RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, peach X-disease phytoplasma strains from eastern and western United States and eastern Canada were classified in 16S rDNA RFLP group 16SrIII, subgroup A. Phylogenetic a...

  3. Identification of the Population Structure of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Peach Trees in China Using Microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Cao, Jinjun; Niu, Jianqun; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the genetic structure of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations in China using microsatellites. We expected that these data will reveal the genetic relationships among various populations of M. persicae and will be of value in the development of better methods for pest control. Four hundred sixty individuals from 23 areas over 13 provinces were collected in the early spring of 2010, all from their primary host, Prunus persicae. The markers analyzed were highly polymorphic, as demonstrated by the expected heterozygosity value (He = 0.861) and the Polymorphism Information Content (PIC = 0.847), which indicated that M. persicae maintains a high level of genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance revealed an intermediate level of population differentiation among M. persicae populations (F(ST) = 0.1215). Geographic isolation existed among these populations, and, consequently, the genetic structure of the populations was split into a southern group and a northern group divided by the Yangtse River. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  4. Genética de la introgresión de genes del almendro (prunus dulcis Mill.) en el melocotonero [P. persica (l.) Batsch]: desarrollo de una estrategia de selección de líneas casi isogénicas (Nils) con marcadores moleculares

    OpenAIRE

    Donoso Contreras, José M.

    2014-01-01

    El melocotonero es el frutal de hueso más importante a nivel mundial, y el tercer árbol de fruta dulce cultivada después del manzano y el peral. A nivel genético es una de las especies mejor caracterizadas de la familia Rosaceae. El melocotonero presenta un bajo nivel de variabilidad genética pero es sexualmente compatible con otras especies de Prunus, como el almendro, los cuales podrían ser una posible fuente de nuevos genes para enriquecer su pool genético. Estudiamos un conjunto de caract...

  5. Isolation and characterization of a TERMINAL FLOWER 1 homolog from Prunus serotina Ehrh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Pijut, Paula M

    2013-08-01

    Flowering control is one of the several strategies for gene containment of transgenic plants. TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) is known to be involved in the transcriptional repression of genes for inflorescence development. Two TFL1 transcripts with different 3' UTR were cloned from black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Corresponding to the two TFL1 transcripts, two PsTFL1 gene sequences, 1248 bp and 1579 bp, were obtained and both contained the same 519 bp coding region which encoded a putative protein of 172 amino acid residues. The phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences showed high identity of PsTFL1 to TFL1 orthologs of other Prunus species, including Yoshino cherry (Prunus × yedoensis Matsum.), peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch), apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.). The real-time quantitative PCR detected a single copy of PsTFL1 gene sequences in the black cherry genome with two alleles. The gene expression of PsTFL1 was examined in several tissues including the stems, leaves, shoot tips, and vegetative and floral buds. The highest mRNA level was detected in shoot tips, and the lowest level in the leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants overexpressing PsTFL1 showed significantly delayed flowering. These plants also showed largely increased vegetative growth, plant height, number of nodes, trichome density, and the conversion of flower to shoot was observed at each node and shoot apex.

  6. Human Flesh Search Engine and Online Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Gao, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Human flesh search engine can be a double-edged sword, bringing convenience on the one hand and leading to infringement of personal privacy on the other hand. This paper discusses the ethical problems brought about by the human flesh search engine, as well as possible solutions.

  7. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, T E; Beckman, T G; Horton, D L

    2011-12-01

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious pest of peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, across the southeastern United States. We examined oviposition by S. pictipes on field-grown Prunus scion and rootstock cultivars and two endemic Prunus spp. when sawn limbs, not roots, were assayed in the laboratory. A choice test compared oviposition on the peach scion 'Harvester', peach rootstock 'Guardian', plum×peach hybrid rootstock 'MP-29', and the plum hybrid rootstock 'Sharpe'. A significantly lower percentage of eggs occurred on limbs of Sharpe rootstock than other choices. A choice test using two endemic hosts, black cherry (P. serotina Ehrh.) and Chickasaw plum (P. angustifolia Marsh.), along with Sharpe rootstock, found a lower percentage of eggs on limbs of Sharpe than either endemic host. However, when only limbs of Sharpe and a decoy were used, almost all eggs were laid on Sharpe. Interestingly, when Harvester and Sharpe limbs were paired side by side, a higher percentage of eggs were recovered from the Harvester limb than from the Sharpe limb. An analysis of volatiles from Sharpe may identify why fewer eggs were laid on it. Because S. pictipes attacks host trees above ground and Sharpe rootstock on grafted trees grows below ground, this rootstock might be a management option against the congeneric, root-attacking peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say). Our results suggest that high budding a peach scion onto Sharpe rootstock, thus allowing the rootstock to serve as the trunk, warrants further investigation against S. exitiosa under orchard conditions.

  8. Adaptation to nicotine feeding in Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, John S; Elzinga, Dezi A; Sarkar, Pooja; Xin, Yi-Ran; Ghanim, Murad; Jander, Georg

    2014-08-01

    Lineages of the generalist hemipteran herbivore Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) that have expanded their host range to include tobacco often have elevated nicotine tolerance. The tobacco-adapted M. persicae lineage used in this study was able to reproduce on nicotine-containing artificial diets at concentrations that were 15-fold higher than those that were lethal to a non-adapted M. persicae lineage. Fecundity of the nicotine-tolerant M. persicae lineage was increased by 100 μM nicotine in artificial diet, suggesting that this otherwise toxic alkaloid can serve as a feeding stimulant at low concentrations. This lineage also was pre-adapted to growth on tobacco, exhibiting no drop in fecundity when it was moved onto tobacco from a different host plant. Although growth of the non-tobacco-adapted M. persicae lineage improved after three generations on tobacco, this higher reproductive rate was not associated with increased nicotine tolerance. Myzus persicae gene expression microarrays were used to identify transcripts that are up-regulated in response to nicotine in the tobacco-adapted lineage. Induced expression was found for CYP6CY3, which detoxifies nicotine in M. persicae, other genes encoding known classes of detoxifying enzymes, and genes encoding secreted M. persicae salivary proteins.

  9. Protein (Viridiplantae): 939130 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Prunus persica MGFHLPLIVAILSLAAVALANNAAQPAPQLYWNSVLPNTQMPRSISELLHPDSTNEEKSKPENIPL...ARSGYSRKRYGGGPPPSDEGKPESIPLRNSGYQRKNYGGRPPPSDEGKPESIPLRNSGYQRKNYGGRPPPSDEGKPESIPLRNSGYQRKNYGGRPPPSDEGKPESIPL...RNSGYQRKNYGGRPPPSDEGKPESIPLRNSGYQRKNYGGRPPPSDEEKPESIPLRNSGYQRKNYGGRPPPSDEGKPESIPLRNSGYQRKNYGGRPPPSDEGKPESVP

  10. Identification and expression analysis of the SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein (SBP)-box gene family in Prunus mume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zongda; Sun, Lidan; Zhou, Yuzhen; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2015-10-01

    SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein (SBP)-box family genes encode plant-specific transcription factors that play crucial roles in plant development, especially flower and fruit development. However, little information on this gene family is available for Prunus mume, an ornamental and fruit tree widely cultivated in East Asia. To explore the evolution of SBP-box genes in Prunus and explore their functions in flower and fruit development, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in P. mume. Fifteen SBP-box genes were identified, and 11 of them contained an miR156 target site. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses revealed that different groups of SBP-box genes have undergone different evolutionary processes and varied in their length, structure, and motif composition. Purifying selection has been the main selective constraint on both paralogous and orthologous SBP-box genes. In addition, the sequences of orthologous SBP-box genes did not diverge widely after the split of P. mume and Prunus persica. Expression analysis of P. mume SBP-box genes revealed their diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns. Three duplicated SBP-box genes may have undergone subfunctionalization in Prunus. Most of the SBP-box genes showed high transcript levels in flower buds and young fruit. The four miR156-nontargeted genes were upregulated during fruit ripening. Together, these results provide information about the evolution of SBP-box genes in Prunus. The expression analysis lays the foundation for further research on the functions of SBP-box genes in P. mume and other Prunus species, especially during flower and fruit development.

  11. Flavonoids from Prunus serotina Ehrh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Monika

    2005-01-01

    In the course of chemotaxonomic study of the genus Prunus, seven flavonol glycosides were isolated from the leaves of Prunus serotina Ehrh., characterized by UV and NMR spectroscopy, and identified finally as three quercetin monosides: hyperoside, avicularin, reynoutrin, three quercetin biosides: 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside as well isorhamnetin 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The presence of determined flavonoids in the flowers was confirmed by TLC.

  12. Carbohydrate-free peach (Prunus persica and plum (Prunus domestica juice affects fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana D Noratto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growing evidence shows the potential of nutritional interventions to treat obesity but most investigations have utilized non-digestible carbohydrates only. Peach and plum contain high amounts of polyphenols, compounds with demonstrated anti-obesity effects. The underlying process of successfully treating obesity using polyphenols may involve an alteration of the intestinal microbiota. However, this phenomenon is not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obese Zucker rats were assigned to three groups (peach, plum, and control, n = 10 each, wild-type group was named lean (n = 10. Carbohydrates in the fruit juices were eliminated using enzymatic hydrolysis. Fecal samples were obtained after 11 weeks of fruit or control juice administration. Real-time PCR and 454-pyrosequencing were used to evaluate changes in fecal microbiota. Over 1,500 different Operational Taxonomic Units at 97% similarity were detected in all rats. Several bacterial groups (e.g. Lactobacillus and members of Ruminococcacea were found to be more abundant in the peach but especially in the plum group (plum juice contained 3 times more total polyphenolics compared to peach juice. Principal coordinate analysis based on Unifrac-based unweighted distance matrices revealed a distinct separation between the microbiota of control and treatment groups. These changes in fecal microbiota occurred simultaneously with differences in fecal short-chain acids concentrations between the control and treatment groups as well as a significant decrease in body weight in the plum group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that consumption of carbohydrate-free peach and plum juice has the potential to modify fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model. The separate contribution of polyphenols and non-polyphenols compounds (vitamins and minerals to the observed changes is unknown.

  13. Convergent evolution at the gametophytic self-incompatibility system in Malus and Prunus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Aguiar

    Full Text Available S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI; tribe Pyreae, P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC; Amygdaleae, P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae, Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae, and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen.

  14. Convergent Evolution at the Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility System in Malus and Prunus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Ana E.; Fonseca, Nuno A.; Iezzoni, Amy; van Nocker, Steve; Vieira, Cristina P.

    2015-01-01

    S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus) revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI); tribe Pyreae), P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC); Amygdaleae), P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae), Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae), and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen. PMID:25993016

  15. Application of GFP-tagged Plum pox virus to study Prunus-PPV interactions at the whole plant and cellular levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansac, M; Eyquard, J P; Salvador, B; Garcia, J A; Le Gall, O; Decroocq, V; Schurdi-Levraud Escalettes, V

    2005-11-01

    The Sharka disease caused by the potyvirus Plum pox virus (PPV) is one of the most serious viral diseases affecting stone fruit trees. The study of PPV/Prunus interaction under greenhouse controlled conditions is space, time, labor consuming. While the PPV/Prunus interactions are now quite well known at the whole plant level, few data however are available on the interactions between the virus and the Prunus host plants at the cellular level. Using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged M type PPV strain, combined to an in vitro inoculation procedure, we developed a novel tool to track PPV invasion in Prunus persica (peach) cv. GF305 and Prunus armeniaca (apricot) cv. Screara susceptible hosts. Different graft combinations were performed using in vitro-maintained healthy or GFP-tagged PPV infected 'GF305' and 'Screara'. Contact for 30 days in grafts between the inoculum and the genotype to be tested were found sufficient to allow the systemic spread of the recombinant virus: fluorescence from GFP-tagged PPV could easily be detected in the entire plant under a binocular microscope allowing quick and reliable sorting of infected plants. Using a fluorescence stereomicroscopy or confocal microscopy, GFP could also be observed in stem cross-sections especially in epidermis and pith cells. In vitro grafting inoculation with GFP-tagged PPV provides a new and powerful tool to facilitate mid-term virus maintenance. Moreover, this tool will be of special importance in the study of PPV infection dynamics in Prunus, allowing as well precise observations of cellular events related to PPV/Prunus interactions.

  16. Teknologi pengambilan lemak dari sisa fleshing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sutyasmi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to recover the fat from fleshing in order it could be useful for many kinds of industries such as soap, oil/grease for tanning manufactures, etc. There are some systems to recover the fat from fleshings, those are heat systems (cooking, steaming, smoking and extrac system using solvent (hexan, CCl4, alcohol, etc. Over all of the systems cooking and steaming are the most simply system to recover the fat. By cooking, smoking, and steaming from 5 kg fleshing with the time variation of 15,30, 45 and 60 minutes could produce fat with the quantity of which varied from 0,220 – 0,425 kg. The highest quantity of fat, produced by heating system in 60 minutes could be gained by steaming, but the quality of it was low. The quantity of fat produced by extract system using hexan, CCl4, and alcohol as solvents with the time variation of 3,4 and 5 hours were varied from 5,21 % to 10,20 % of dried weight. The highest quantity of fat gained by extract system was found by using hexan solvent. Fat from fleshing should be sulphated prior for substantial application. The economical evaluation shows that the basic price of 1 kg of fat was Rp. 1.250,- whereas the basic price of 1 kg of sulphated fat was Rp. 3.200,-

  17. ‘Liberty’ Dry-Fleshed Sweetpotato

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivar, ‘Liberty’ was jointly developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and Clemson University, South Carolina Agriculture and Forestry Research System. This cultivar is a dry-fleshed type with attracti...

  18. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of an antibacterial compound from Ferula persica var. persica roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad-Reza Shahverdi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activities of the chloroform and water extracts of Ferula persica var. persica (Apiaceaeroots were studied by the disk diffusion method. While the chloroform extract of F. persica roots showed antibacterial activity, the water extract of the roots at the concentrations that tested did not show any activity. By bioassay-guided fractionation of the chloroform extract of the roots by preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC a compound was found which was active against some bacteria. By conventional spectroscopy methods the active fraction was identified as umbelliprenin. This coumarin was mostly active against B. subtillis, B. cereus, E. coli, K. ponumoniae, S. typhi, S. aureus, and S. epidermilis.

  19. Genome-wide association links candidate genes to resistance to Plum Pox Virus in apricot (Prunus armeniaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariette, Stéphanie; Wong Jun Tai, Fabienne; Roch, Guillaume; Barre, Aurélien; Chague, Aurélie; Decroocq, Stéphane; Groppi, Alexis; Laizet, Yec'han; Lambert, Patrick; Tricon, David; Nikolski, Macha; Audergon, Jean-Marc; Abbott, Albert G; Decroocq, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    In fruit tree species, many important traits have been characterized genetically by using single-family descent mapping in progenies segregating for the traits. However, most mapped loci have not been sufficiently resolved to the individual genes due to insufficient progeny sizes for high resolution mapping and the previous lack of whole-genome sequence resources of the study species. To address this problem for Plum Pox Virus (PPV) candidate resistance gene identification in Prunus species, we implemented a genome-wide association (GWA) approach in apricot. This study exploited the broad genetic diversity of the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) germplasm containing resistance to PPV, next-generation sequence-based genotyping, and the high-quality peach (Prunus persica) genome reference sequence for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification. The results of this GWA study validated previously reported PPV resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) intervals, highlighted other potential resistance loci, and resolved each to a limited set of candidate genes for further study. This work substantiates the association genetics approach for resolution of QTL to candidate genes in apricot and suggests that this approach could simplify identification of other candidate genes for other marked trait intervals in this germplasm. © 2015 INRA, UMR 1332 BFP New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Plastid structure and carotenogenic gene expression in red- and white-fleshed loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, X.; Kong, W.; Peng, G.; Zhou, J.; Azam, M.; Xu, C.; Grierson, D.; Chen, K.

    2012-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) can be sorted into red- and white-fleshed cultivars. The flesh of Luoyangqing (LYQ, red-fleshed) appears red-orange because of a high content of carotenoids while the flesh of Baisha (BS, white-fleshed) appears ivory white due to a lack of carotenoid accumulation.

  1. Supercritical fluid extraction of peach (Prunus persica) almond oil: process yield and extract composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Natália; Mileo, Bruna R; Friedrich, Maria T; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2010-07-01

    Peach kernels are industrial residues from the peach processing, contain oil with important therapeutic properties and attractive nutritional aspects because of the high concentration of oleic and linoleic acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw matter is critical for product quality definition. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare peach almond extraction yields obtained by different procedures: soxhlet extractions (Sox) with different solvents; hydrodistillation (HD); ethanolic maceration (Mac) followed by fractionation with various solvents, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 30, 40 and 50 degrees C and at 100, 200 and 300bar, performed with pure CO(2) and with a co-solvent. The extracts were evaluated with respect to fatty acid composition (FAC), fractionated chemical profile (FCP) and total phenolic content (TPC). The Sox total yields were generally higher than those obtained by SFE. The crossover pressure for SFE was between 260 and 280bar. The FAC results show oleic and linoleic acids as main components, especially for Sox and SFE extracts. The FCP for samples obtained by Sox and Mac indicated the presence of benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol, components responsible for almond flavor and with important industrial uses, whereas the SFE extracts present a high content of a possible flavonoid. The higher TPC values were obtained by Sox and Mac with ethanol. In general, the maximum pressure in SFE produced the highest yield, TPC and oleic acid content. The use of ethanol at 5% as co-solvent in SFE did not result in a significant effect on any evaluated parameter. The production of peach almond oil through all techniques is substantially adequate and SFE presented advantages, with respect to the quality of the extracts due to the high oleic acid content, as presented by some Sox samples. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification and validation of potential conserved microRNAs and their targets in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhihong; Luo, Xiaoyan; Shi, Ting; Cai, Bin; Zhang, Zhen; Cheng, Zongming; Zhuang, Weibing

    2012-09-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of small, endogenous, non-coding RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression at the transcriptional or the post-transcriptional level. Although a large number of miRNAs have been identified in many plant species, especially from model plants and crops, they remain largely unknown in peach. In this study, 110 potential miRNAs belonging to 37 families were identified using computational methods. A total of 43 potential targets were found for 21 families based on near-perfect or perfect complementarity between the plant miRNA and the target sequences. A majority of the targets were transcription factors which play important roles in peach development. qRT-PCR analysis of RNA samples prepared from different peach tissues for 25 miRNA families revealed that miRNAs were differentially expressed in different tissues. Furthermore, two target genes were experimentally verified by detection of the miRNA-mediated mRNA cleavage sites in peach using RNA ligase-mediated 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE). Finally, we studied the expression pattern of the two target genes in three different tissues of peach to further understand the mechanism of the interaction between miRNAs and their target genes.

  3. Carbohydrate metabolism changes in Prunus persica gummosis infected with Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Gao, L; Wang, Y T; Zhu, W; Ye, J L; Li, G H

    2014-05-01

    Peach gummosis represents a significant global disease of stone fruit trees and a major disease in the south peach production area of the Yangtze River of China. In this study, the carbohydrate composition of peach shoots during infection by Lasiodiplodia theobromae was examined. The expression of genes related to metabolic enzymes was also investigated. Control wounded and noninoculated tissue, lesion tissue, and wounded and inoculated surrounding lesion tissue of peach shoots were analyzed. Soluble sugars, glucose, mannose, arabinose, and xylose significantly increased in inoculated tissues of peach shoots compared with control tissues at different times after inoculation. Accumulation of polysaccharides was also observed by section observation and periodic acid Schiff's reagent staining during infection. Analysis using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that the abundance of key transcripts on the synthesis pathway of uridine diphosphate (UDP)-D-glucuronate, UDP-D-galactose, and UDP-D-arabinose increased but the synthesis of L-galactose and guanosine diphosphate-L-galactose were inhibited. After inoculation, the transcript levels of sugar transport-related genes (namely, SUT, SOT, GMT, and UGT) was induced. These changes in sugar content and gene expression were directly associated with peach gum polysaccharide formation and may be responsible for the symptoms of peach gummosis.

  4. Detection of seed dormancy QTL in three F2 families of peach (Prunus persica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormancy is a condition that delays or inhibits growth in seed, vegetative buds, and floral buds. In peach, seed germination occurs when seed accumulate sufficient stratification and growing degree hours to break dormancy and begin growing. Correlations have been reported between mean seed stratifi...

  5. Response of early-peach [Prunus persica (L.)] trees to deficit irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrisqueta, I.; Tapia, L. M.; Conejero, W.; Sanchez-Toribio, M. I.; Abrisqueta, J. M.; Vera, J.; Ruiz-Sanchez, C.

    2010-07-01

    The effect of different irrigation strategies in water relations, vegetative growth and yield of early maturing peach trees, growing in Murcia, (Spain) was studied during two years. Treatments consisted on: a control T1, full irrigated (150% of ETc); T2, continuous deficit irrigation at 50% of ETc; T3, regulated deficit irrigation (RDI), irrigated at 100% of ETc only during stage III of fruit growth and 25% the rest of the growing season; and T4, with automatic control of irrigation based on capacitance FDR-type probe data, varying threshold values. The results indicated that irrigation deficits in T2 and T3 treatments induced the lowest soil water content and stem water potential(?stem) values during the post harvest period (e.g {psi}{sub s}tem up to -1.8 MPa in T3 during summer 2008); thus, a reduction in trunk growth and pruning weight, respect to control treatment values, was noted in both years. Also, peach yield was significantly reduced in both deficit irrigated treatments. The greatest irrigation water saving in T3 treatment (=60%) caused the higher water use efficiency values in this treatment. For these reasons, water deficit during the post harvest periods (extended in the early maturing varieties) must be limited if fruit yield is not to be reduced. Irrigation scheduling based on capacitance probes have become a useful tool in the control of soil water content. When threshold values were precisely defined, the slight water deficits limited only vegetative growth while maintaining similar peach yield to that of well irrigated trees. (Author) 31 refs.

  6. Some effects of fuel oil on plants. [Lycopericum esculentum; Prunus persica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, G.D.; Leadbeater, M.R.

    1935-01-01

    Commercial fuel oil has a harmful effect on plants when brought into contact with their roots, through the soil. The effect becomes fatal when the quantity is raised above the critical point for a species. The effect may or may not be due to penetration. If the oil has penetrated the tissues, it is most commonly found in the primary xylem; to a lesser extent it enters the secondary xylem, and the intercellular spaces of the pith and cortex. Contact does not seem to be a primary cause of death.

  7. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF superfamily in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C H; Shangguan, L F; Ma, R J; Sun, X; Tao, R; Guo, L; Korir, N K; Yu, M L

    2012-10-17

    We identified 131 AP2/ERF (APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor) genes in material from peach using the gene sequences of AP2/ERF amino acids of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) as probes. Based on the number of AP2/ERF domains and individual gene characteristics, the AP2/ERF superfamily gene in peach can be classified broadly into three families, ERF (ethylene-responsive factor), RAV (related to ABI3/VP1), and AP2 (APETALA2), containing 104, 5, and 21 members, respectively, along with a solo gene (ppa005376m). The 104 genes in the ERF family were further divided into 11 groups based on the group classification made for Arabidopsis. The scaffold localizations of the AP2/ERF genes indicated that 129 AP2/ERF genes were all located on scaffolds 1 to 8, except for two genes, which were on scaffolds 17 and 10. Although the primary structure varied among AP2/ERF superfamily proteins, their tertiary structures were similar. Most ERF family genes have no introns, while members of the AP2 family have more introns than genes in the ERF and RAV families. All sequences of AP2 family genes were disrupted by introns into several segments of varying sizes. The expression of the AP2/ERF superfamily genes was highest in the mesocarp; it was far higher than in the other seven tissues that we examined, implying that AP2/ERF superfamily genes play an important role in fruit growth and development in the peach. These results will be useful for selecting candidate genes from specific subgroups for functional analysis.

  8. The molecular basis for tree growth habit in Prunus persica (peach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The large size and spreading growth habit of trees requires excessive labor, land space, and pesticides. Genetically improving tree shapes so they can be planted at higher density and/or more readily adapted to mechanization would increase productivity and be more environmentally friendly. Current...

  9. A genome-wide analysis of MADS-box genes in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Christina E; Vendramin, Elisa; Jimenez Tarodo, Sergio; Verde, Ignazio; Bielenberg, Douglas G

    2015-02-07

    MADS-box genes encode a family of eukaryotic transcription factors distinguished by the presence of a highly-conserved ~58 amino acid DNA-binding and dimerization domain (the MADS-box). The central role played by MADS-box genes in peach endodormancy regulation led us to examine this large gene family in more detail. We identified the locations and sequences of 79 MADS-box genes in peach, separated them into established subfamilies, and broadly surveyed their tissue-specific and dormancy-induced expression patterns using next-generation sequencing. We then focused on the dormancy-related SVP/AGL24 and FLC subfamilies, comparing their numbers and phylogenetic relationships with those of other sequenced woody perennial genomes. We identified 79 MADS-box genes distributed across all eight peach chromosomes and frequently located in clusters of two or more genes. They encode proteins with a mean length of 248 ± 72 amino acids and include representatives from most of the thirteen Type II (MIKC) subfamilies, as well as members of the Type I Mα, Mβ, and Mγ subfamilies. Most Type I genes were present in species-specific monophyletic lineages, and their expression in the peach sporophyte was low or absent. Most Type II genes had Arabidopsis orthologs and were expressed at much higher levels throughout vegetative and fruit tissues. During short-day-induced growth cessation, seven Type II genes from the SVP/AGL24, AGL17, and SEP subfamilies showed significant changes in expression. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that multiple, independent expansions have taken place within the SVP/AGL24 and FLC lineages in woody perennial species. Most Type I genes appear to have arisen through tandem duplications after the divergence of the Arabidopsis and peach lineages, whereas Type II genes appear to have increased following whole genome duplication events. An exception to the latter rule occurs in the FLC and SVP/AGL24 Type II subfamilies, in which species-specific tandem duplicates have been retained in a number of perennial species. These subfamilies comprise part of a genetic toolkit that regulates endodormancy transitions, but phylogenetic and expression data suggest that individual orthologs may not function identically across all species.

  10. Analysis of basic leucine zipper genes and their expression during bud dormancy in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming-Yue; Fu, Xi-Ling; Tan, Qiu-Ping; Liu, Li; Chen, Min; Zhu, Cui-Ying; Li, Ling; Chen, Xiu-De; Gao, Dong-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Dormancy is a biological characteristic developed to resist the cold conditions in winter. The bZIP transcription factors are present exclusively in eukaryotes and have been identified and classified in many species. bZIP proteins are known to regulate numerous biological processes, however, the role of bZIP in bud dodormancy has not been studied extensively. In total, 50 PpbZIP transcription factor-encoding genes were identified and categorized them into 10 groups (A-I and S). Similar intron/exon structures, additional conserved motifs, and DNA-binding site specificity supported our classification scheme. Additionally, chromosomal distribution and collinearity analyses suggested that expansion of the PpbZIP transcription factor family was due to segment/chromosomal duplications. We also predicted the dimerization properties based on characteristic features of the leucine zipper and classified PpbZIP proteins into 23 subfamilies. Furthermore, qRT-PCR results indicated that PpbZIPs genes may be involved in regulating dormancy. The same gene of different species might participate in different regulating networks through interactions with specific partners. Our expression profiling results complemented the microarray data, suggesting that co-expression patterns of bZIP transcription factors during dormancy differed among deciduous fruit trees. Our findings further clarify the molecular characteristics of the PpbZIP transcription factor family, including potential gene functions during dormancy. This information may facilitate further research on the evolutionary history and biological functions of bZIP proteins in peach and other rosaceae plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Whole genome sequencing of peach (Prunus persica L.) for SNP identification and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Riaz; Parfitt, Dan E; Fass, Joseph; Ogundiwin, Ebenezer; Dhingra, Amit; Gradziel, Thomas M; Lin, Dawei; Joshi, Nikhil A; Martinez-Garcia, Pedro J; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2011-11-22

    The application of next generation sequencing technologies and bioinformatic scripts to identify high frequency SNPs distributed throughout the peach genome is described. Three peach genomes were sequenced using Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa technologies to obtain long contigs for alignment to the draft 'Lovell' peach sequence as well as sufficient depth of coverage for 'in silico' SNP discovery. The sequences were aligned to the 'Lovell' peach genome released April 01, 2010 by the International Peach Genome Initiative (IPGI). 'Dr. Davis', 'F8, 1-42' and 'Georgia Belle' were sequenced to add SNPs segregating in two breeding populations, Pop DF ('Dr. Davis' × 'F8, 1-42') and Pop DG ('Dr. Davis' × 'Georgia Belle'). Roche 454 sequencing produced 980,000 total reads with 236 Mb sequence for 'Dr. Davis' and 735,000 total reads with 172 Mb sequence for 'F8, 1-42'. 84 bp × 84 bp paired end Illumina/Solexa sequences yielded 25.5, 21.4, 25.5 million sequences for 'Dr. Davis', 'F8, 1-42' and 'Georgia Belle', respectively. BWA/SAMtools were used for alignment of raw reads and SNP detection, with custom PERL scripts for SNP filtering. Velvet's Columbus module was used for sequence assembly. Comparison of aligned and overlapping sequences from both Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa resulted in the selection of 6654 high quality SNPs for 'Dr. Davis' vs. 'F8, 1-42' and 'Georgia Belle', distributed on eight major peach genome scaffolds as defined from the 'Lovell' assembly. The eight scaffolds contained about 215-225 Mb of peach genomic sequences with one SNP/~ 40,000 bases. All sequences from Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa have been submitted to NCBI for public use in the Short Read Archive database. SNPs have been deposited in the NCBI SNP database.

  12. Modelling of Peach Tree (Prunus persica) Full Blooming Dates Using APCC MME Seasonal Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jong; Kim, Sung; Lee, Hyojin; Han, Hyun-Hee; Son, In-Chang; Cho, Kyung Hwa

    2016-04-01

    Due to global warming, recently, bud-burst and flowering dates of fruit crops have become earlier and the abnormal climate increases the variabilities of temperature in spring, suggesting that the risk of frost damage has increased. However, the full blooming date prediction model for peach tree used by the Rural Developmental Administration (RDA) were developed using only one cultivar (Youmyeong) and observations from a station (Suwon). This model might not adequately reflect the characteristics of peach cultivars or local orchards. the objectives of this study were to develops the site-and cultivar-specific blooming date prediction models for major peach cultivation regions and cultivars and presents a framework for applications of the APEC Climate Center Multimodel Ensemble (APCC MME) seasonal datasets.Developmental rate (DVR), and Sequential dormancy models (Chill day, New chill day, and fraction-time models) were used to develop the locally tailored full blooming date prediction models for major peach cultivars. For the development of these models, bud-burst and full blooming dates of peach tree for 5 cultivars (Cheonhong, Youmyeong, Changbangjosaeng, Cheonjoongdo, and Janghowon) were collected from the 6 major peach cultivation sites: Chuncheon, Suwon, Cheongwon, Cheongdo, Naju, and Jinju. For the chill day model, those measures for the entire dataset regardless the location and cultivar were 2.31%, 0.79, and 3.36 day for MAPE, R2, RMSE, respectively. For the new chill day model, those values (2.19%, 0.82, and 3.16 day for MAPE, R2, RMSE, respectively) were slightly better than those of the chill day model. The model results showed that the new chill day model was found slightly highest performance than others. Based on the considerations of the predictability of the statistical downscaling method and the observed periods of the full blooming dates at each site, we determined that the APCC MME seasonal datasets were applied for the new chill day model for the Changbangjosaeng and Youmyeong cultivars at the Suwon site. The values of the goodness-of-fit measures using the selected synthetic daily maximum and minimum temperatures reflecting APCC MME seasonal datasets and selected were worse than those using those collected from the Suwon station. It is concluded that further work was recommended that the predictability of APCC MME seasonal forecasts should be improved to reduce the prediction errors of full blooming dates of peach trees.

  13. Integrated nutrient management for orange-fleshed sweet potato in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the rainforest of south eastern Nigeria, new varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas Lam) have been introduced but appropriate soil nutrient management for these cultivars is lacking. The present study evaluated the response of two varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (Umuspo 1 and Umuspo ...

  14. Potential of orange and yellow fleshed sweetpotato cultivars for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of orange and yellow fleshed sweetpotato cultivars as a dietary source of Vitamin A in Mpigi and Luwero Districts of central Uganda was evaluated. On-farm agronomic performance, acceptability and b-carotene content of two orange (SPK004 and 316) and two yellow fleshed (Tanzania and 52) sweetpotato ...

  15. Farmers' willingness to pay for quality orange fleshed sweetpotato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers' willingness to pay for quality orange fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) vines in North Central Nigeria: A case of Benue and Nasarawa States. ... Research should be carried out and more awareness should be made to improve on OFSP production especially among women and youth. Keywords: Orange Fleshed Sweet ...

  16. Caracterização de três genótipos de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. por marcadores RAPD Characterization of three mume genotypes (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Um projeto de pesquisa visando à utilização de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. como porta-enxertos para pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] está sendo conduzido na FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, com promissoras perspectivas de sucesso. Três genótipos de umezeiro foram selecionados de acordo com características agronômicas desejáveis para esta finalidade. A distinção dos três genótipos entre si, baseada exclusivamente em características morfológicas, apresenta limitações. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar marcadores RAPD capazes de diferenciar e caracterizar os Clones 05, 15 e a cv. Rigitano (Clone 10 de umezeiro, utilizando-se das cultivares Aurora-1 e Okinawa de pessegueiro como outgroup. Dos 220 primers testados, foram selecionados 42, que amplificaram todos os cinco genótipos. Verificou-se que os marcadores RAPD permitiram a distinção entre o Clone 05, o Clone 15 e a cv. Rigitano de umezeiro, demonstrando a existência de variabilidade genética entre os mesmos. Dentre os três genótipos de umezeiro estudados, constatou-se que a similaridade genética é maior entre o Clone 05 e o Clone 15.A research project with the objective do develop mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., to be used as rootstocks for peach tree [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] is been carried out at the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. These project showed promising perspectives of success, with three clones that were selected according to their characteristics for peach rootstock. But the distinction of the three clones among them, based only in morphologic characteristics, has presented limitations. The objective of the present research was to identify RAPD markers able to characterize and differentiate the 05 and 15 Clones and Rigitano mume cultivar, using Aurora-1 and Okinawa peach tree as outgroup. Among the 220 tested

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: peach [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g Prunus_persica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus+persica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus+persica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus...+persica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus+persica&t=NS ...

  18. Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus serotina Erhr.) and wild cherry ( Prunus avium L.) seedlings on low and high elevation sites in the western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  19. Pemanfaatan limbah fleshing kulit kambing untuk pembuatan kompos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sutyasmi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to create method for managing the environmental pollution caused by fleshing from leather tanning industry. Compos production was carried out by using the cooked fleshing and uncooked fleshing with variation of fleshing 85,60,45, and 30 % respectively mixed with 13.8% of chaff, 0.2% of brand, and 1% of lime and the rest was soil to gain 100% of compound. Protein bio-city as much as 50 ml/kg was used as a starter and it was added after having diluted and fermented for 48 hours. The compound was filled in the 10 I of plastic bucket and cured by lid on it. Every two days they were agitated and sprayed with water regarding to keep the humidity to be constant. The C/N ratio of the compos was analyzed chemically. The compos had been nature for about one month, and they were characterized by the change of the natural color into dark brown with soil smell, and the volume decreased would be 30% of the initial volume. The mean C/N ratio of compos from cooked fleshing was 14 which varied between 12.46-15.50. That value has a smaller range compared with the compos from uncooked fleshing, the mean value of which was 11, with the variation of C/N ratio of that was bigger 7.07-16.24.

  20. Godzilla's Body: Reviving Memories through Collective Flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Dosen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Through Merleau-Ponty’s philosophy of the body, this paper explores the one of the most recognizable characters of Japanese pop culture – Godzilla. Born in specific historical conditions of the postwar Japan, Godzilla stands as a cinematic behemoth which has been countlessly (regenerated ever since, both domestically and internationally. In Godzilla narrative, Merleau-Ponty’s statement that „I am my Body“ can be extended to „we are other’s Body“ by transcending Japanese collective entity into its monstrous embodiment. Positioning Godzilla’s body as a site of remembrance, a walking monument, the memories of nuclear attack and fallen soldiers in South Seas battle become alive. Variety of those memories in flesh is followed by abundant Godzilla filmography which can be understood by Deleuze’s argument „that each multiplicity is already composed of heterogeneous terms in symbiosis, and that a multiplicity is continually transforming itself into a string of other multiplicities“. Godzilla’s identity shifts, from terrifying invading force meant to reflect on a national trauma, morphing to benevolent protector of Japan from foreign intruders, into a global phenomenon preying the western audience.

  1. Using Perls Staining to Trace the Iron Uptake Pathway in Leaves of a Prunus Rootstock Treated with Iron Foliar Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Juan J; Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves of Prunus rootstock (GF 677; Prunus dulcis × Prunus persica) plants treated with foliar Fe compounds using the Perls blue method, which detects labile Fe pools. Young expanded leaves of Fe-deficient plants grown in nutrient solution were treated with Fe-compounds using a brush. Iron compounds used were the ferrous salt FeSO4, the ferric salts Fe2(SO4)3 and FeCl3, and the chelate Fe(III)-EDTA, all of them at concentrations of 9 mM Fe. Leaf Fe concentration increases were measured at 30, 60, 90 min, and 24 h, and 70 μm-thick leaf transversal sections were obtained with a vibrating microtome and stained with Perls blue. In vitro results show that the Perls blue method is a good tool to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves when using Fe salts, but is not sensitive enough when using synthetic Fe(III)-chelates such as Fe(III)-EDTA and Fe(III)-IDHA. Foliar Fe fertilization increased leaf Fe concentrations with all Fe compounds used, with inorganic Fe salts causing larger leaf Fe concentration increases than Fe(III)-EDTA. Results show that Perls blue stain appeared within 30 min in the stomatal areas, indicating that Fe applied as inorganic salts was taken up rapidly via stomata. In the case of using FeSO4 a progression of the stain was seen with time toward vascular areas in the leaf blade and the central vein, whereas in the case of Fe(III) salts the stain mainly remained in the stomatal areas. Perls stain was never observed in the mesophyll areas, possibly due to the low concentration of labile Fe pools.

  2. Pembuatan vermikompos menggunakan limbah fleshing di industri penyamakan kulit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayitno Prayitno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A research on utilization of fleshing waste at the tannery industry by vermicomposting have been conducted. The growth media consist of dung, fleshing waste, and stubbles. Ratio of dung and fleshing waste were varied at 100:0; 90:10; 80:20; 70:30; 60:40; and 50:50 respectively. All the media were fermented for three weeks and then proceeded by incubation process of earthworm for another six weeks. The changes of the volume per weight of media, the earthworm weight, C, N, and C/N ratio were observed and measured every week. The result showed that media volume per weight value were decreased in direct proportional to weight of the fleshing waste added in the media, those were 1.66; 1.64; 1.53; 1.50; 1.39; and 1.31 cm3/g, respectively. C/N ratio were below 15 for all combination of media ratio after two weeks incubation. The optimum result was achieved for compost with dung and fleshing waste ratio of 60:40.

  3. Pemanfaatan lemak fleshing tersulfonasi untuk peminyakan pada proses penyamakan kulit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sutyasmi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to produce sulfonated oil of fleshing grease and to use for fat liquoring process in leather tanning industries. Fleshing wastes were collected from Yogyakarta. The extract was obtained from fleshing waste by boiling at 100o C for 15 minute 400 – 450 g of extract contained 99.96% of fat were obtained from 5 kg of fleshing. The extract then was sulfonated to increase solubility in water and more reactive with the fiber of processed skin. The sulfonated extract was then analyzed to determine content, iodine value, acid value and saponification value. The result of analysis showed that fat/grease content 158.48. While fat content of goat skin fleshing was 30.27%, iodine value 92.30, acid value 23.74and saponification value 157.03. The quantity parameters are able to meet requirement for leather tanning. Sulfonated extract was then used for fat liquoring process of goat skin with the variation of concentration 4,5 and 6% respectively. Control was made by using 5% synthetic oil. The result of crust testing in this research showed that all of quality parameters meet the document of SNI 06-3536-1994 about goat/sheep crust leather.

  4. Penggunaan lemak fleshing industri penyamakan kulit untuk pembuatan sabun mandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ign. Sunaryo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An experimentation the Use of Fat from Fleshing of Leather Tanning Industry to Produce Bath Soap was aimed to use the fat from fleshing to gain the alternative source of basic material for bath soap, to assist the industry to solve the environmental pollution and increasing the population income. The point to be gained after finishing this experiment was to find out the problem solving of environmental pollution problem caused by fleshing from leather tanning industry. Goat/sheep fleshing from one of leather tannings in Yogyakarta was collected and had been used as a source of fat. Fat from fleshing was produced by 3 kinds of heating those were coocked, “kukus”, and steam. The results of fat analysis showed that the average of saphonification value was 201.01; free faty acid value was 0.86%; acid value was 1.72 and the unsaphonification fat value was 1.44%. The variations of fat used for bath soap manufacture were 55%, 60%, 65%, 70% and 75%; whereas the variations of sodium hydrokside were 11, 14, 17. 20 and 23, each of which was in parts. The result of this experiment showed that the fat from fleshing could be a source of fat and could be used for bath soap manufacture. In such way, it could be as a pollultion problem solving to the industry. The result of bath soap analysis showed that almost all of the variations of fat and sodium hydrokside could meet the SNI 06-3532-1994 about bath soap. Economically point of view showed that the value of producing fat in various regions such as Jabotabek, West Java, Center Java, DIY and East would vary from Rp6,000,000,- to Rp.200,000,000,-; whereas the value of producing bath soap would vary from Rp 21,000,000,- - Rp 700,000,000,-

  5. Investigation on the pollen morphology of traditional cultivars of Prunus species in Sicily

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    Anna Geraci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study pollen grains of 13 cultivars and 3 rootstocks belonging to 5 species (P. armeniaca, P. domestica, P. dulcis, P. persica, P. avium of the genus Prunus collected from North-East Sicily were examined for the micromorphological characterization through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The length of polar axis (P and the equatorial diameter (E of grain, P/E ratio, the length of colpi (C, diameter of perforations (DP and the number of perforations in 25 μm2 (PN, the width of muri (WM, the distance between muri (DM and their number in 25 μm2 (MN, the width of grooves (WG were measured and their variation was compared among studied taxa. Moreover multivariate statistical analysis was carried out to distinguish morphometric information from measured parameters. All pollen grains are trizonocolpate, isopolar, medium-large sized and their shape varies from prolate to perprolate. Regarding outline pollen grains are subtriangular in polar view and elliptic in equatorial view. Exine sculpturing is striate with perforations on grain surface. The arrangement of ridges appears roughly parallel but too sloped (sometimes curved compared to polar axis, or branched and oriented in different directions, or perfectly parallel or more irregular with bifurcated ridges often sinuous. The analyses showed a great variability (particularly in P. domestica cultivars related in some cases to the diversity in the morphological features of the leaves and the fruits of the investigated entities.

  6. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  7. Silvical characteristics of black cherry (Prunus serotina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbel F. Hough

    1960-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) is the largest of the native cherry trees of the United States. It may grow to more than 100 feet in height, and to as much as 5 feet in diameter. It is the only species of its genus that provides lumber for commerce. And this lumber, because of its stability and its superior working qualities, is one of the most...

  8. Transcription of densovirus endogenous sequences in the Myzus persicae genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo, Gabriel; van Munster, Manuella; Monsion, Baptiste; Bochet, Nicole; Brault, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    Integration of non-retroviral sequences in the genome of different organisms has been observed and, in some cases, a relationship of these integrations with immunity has been established. The genome of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (clone G006), was screened for densovirus-like sequence (DLS) integrations. A total of 21 DLSs localized on 10 scaffolds were retrieved that mostly shared sequence identity with two aphid-infecting viruses, Myzus persicae densovirus (MpDNV) and Dysaphis plantaginea densovirus (DplDNV). In some cases, uninterrupted potential ORFs corresponding to non-structural viral proteins or capsid proteins were found within DLSs identified in the aphid genome. In particular, one scaffold harboured a complete virus-like genome, while another scaffold contained two virus-like genomes in reverse orientation. Remarkably, transcription of some of these ORFs was observed in M. persicae, suggesting a biological effect of these viral integrations. In contrast to most of the other densoviruses identified so far that induce acute host infection, it has been reported previously that MpDNV has only a minor effect on M. persicae fitness, while DplDNV can even have a beneficial effect on its aphid host. This suggests that DLS integration in the M. persicae genome may be responsible for the latency of MpDNV infection in the aphid host.

  9. Arsenic Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Salvadora persica Stem Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdos Kord Mostafapour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid, which is widely distributed in nature and is regarded as the largest mass poisoning in history. In the present study, the adsorption potential of Salvadora persica (S. persica stem ash in a batch system for the removal of As(V from aqueous solutions was investigated. Isotherm studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of contact time (20–240 min, pH (2–11, initial arsenic concentration (50–500 μg/L, and adsorbent dose on sorption efficiency. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.33% and 99.32% was obtained at pH 6, adsorbent dosage 3.5 g/L, initial As(V concentration 500 μg/L, and contact time 80 and 60 min for S. persica stem ash at 300 °C and 500 °C, respectively. Also, the adsorption equilibriums were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Such equilibriums showed that the adsorption data was well fitted with the Freundlich isotherm model for S. persica stem ash at both 300 °C and 500 °C (R2=0.8983 and 0.9274, resp.. According to achieved results, it was defined that S. persica stem ash can be used effectively for As(V removal from the aqueous environment.

  10. Farmers' perceptions of orange-fleshed sweetpotato: Do common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JJ Okello, KM Shikuku, K Sindi, J Low. Abstract. Efforts to combat vitamin A deficiency in developing countries have focused on the promotion of growing and consuming orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP), among other crops. Past studies have found increased intake and even incomes among households that have been ...

  11. opportunities for promoting orange-fleshed sweetpotato as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Potato Centre (CIP), Box 22274, Kampala, Uganda. 'CIP, Apartado, Pox 1558, ... Activities include: breeding and selecting varieties for high dry matter content and high beta- carotene, participatory ..... Performance of local orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties at RRC-Kakamega Kenya. Variety Total root y ...

  12. Carbohydrate-Free Peach (Prunus persica) and Plum (Prunus salicina) [corrected] Juice Affects Fecal Microbial Ecology in an Obese Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noratto, Giuliana D; Garcia-Mazcorro, Jose F; Markel, Melissa; Martino, Hercia S; Minamoto, Yasushi; Steiner, Jörg M; Byrne, David; Suchodolski, Jan S; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence shows the potential of nutritional interventions to treat obesity but most investigations have utilized non-digestible carbohydrates only. Peach and plum contain high amounts of polyphenols, compounds with demonstrated anti-obesity effects. The underlying process of successfully treating obesity using polyphenols may involve an alteration of the intestinal microbiota. However, this phenomenon is not well understood. Obese Zucker rats were assigned to three groups (peach, plum, and control, n = 10 each), wild-type group was named lean (n = 10). Carbohydrates in the fruit juices were eliminated using enzymatic hydrolysis. Fecal samples were obtained after 11 weeks of fruit or control juice administration. Real-time PCR and 454-pyrosequencing were used to evaluate changes in fecal microbiota. Over 1,500 different Operational Taxonomic Units at 97% similarity were detected in all rats. Several bacterial groups (e.g. Lactobacillus and members of Ruminococcacea) were found to be more abundant in the peach but especially in the plum group (plum juice contained 3 times more total polyphenolics compared to peach juice). Principal coordinate analysis based on Unifrac-based unweighted distance matrices revealed a distinct separation between the microbiota of control and treatment groups. These changes in fecal microbiota occurred simultaneously with differences in fecal short-chain acids concentrations between the control and treatment groups as well as a significant decrease in body weight in the plum group. This study suggests that consumption of carbohydrate-free peach and plum juice has the potential to modify fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model. The separate contribution of polyphenols and non-polyphenols compounds (vitamins and minerals) to the observed changes is unknown.

  13. Interspecific hybridizations in ornamental flowering cherries (Prunus species)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering cherries belong to the genus Prunus L., consisting primarily of species native to Asia. Despite the popularity of ornamental cherry trees in the landscape, most ornamental Prunus planted in the U.S. are derived from a limited genetic base of Japanese flowering cherry taxa. Controlled cross...

  14. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of Genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the genus Prunus was studied in detail to find out the phylogenetic relationship among the 12 species of Prunus selected from different regions of Pakistan and GenBank using the maximum parsimony analysis of sequence polymorphism in chloroplast TRN-L and TRN-F spacer DNA. The results for the ...

  15. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of Genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... Sorbus L. (mountain ash) and Spiraea L. (bridal wreath). (Potter, 2003). According to Rehder (1940), Prunus has nearly 200 species, mostly in ... DNA was extracted from the fresh and herbarium samples of. Prunus by the method of Doyle and Doyle (1987). For the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis ...

  16. Enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de quatro clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. durante o inverno ameno, em Jaboticabal-SP Rooting of herbaceous cuttings of four mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. during soft winter, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos realizados no Brasil com o umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. relatam promissoras perspectivas de utilização desta espécie como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro e nectarineira, em função de sua rusticidade, adaptação ao inverno brando, compatibilidade com Prunus persica, redução do vigor das plantas e melhoria da qualidade dos frutos. Entretanto, em função da propagação por sementes, tem sido observadas diferenças de vigor entre as plantas, resultando em pomares muito heterogêneos. Assim, o presente estudo teve por objetivo estudar o enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de quatro clones de umezeiro (Clones 02, 05, 10 e 15 durante o inverno ameno, em Jaboticabal-SP. O experimento foi conduzido entre os meses de junho e agosto, sendo avaliado aos 70 dias após a estaquia. Pelos resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que é viável a propagação dos clones estudados por enraizamento de estacas herbáceas durante o inverno. Foram observadas diferenças entre os clones quanto à porcentagem de enraizamento, porcentagem de estacas com calo, número e comprimento das raízes. No conjunto das variáveis analisadas, os melhores resultados foram obtidos com os Clones 10 e 15.Studies developed in Brazil with the mume (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. have shown promising perspectives of using this species as rootstock for peach and nectarine trees, in function of its rusticity, adaptation to soft winter, compatibility with Prunus persica, plant vigor reduction and improvement of the fruit quality. However, due to seed propagation, vigor differences have been observed among plants, resulting in very heterogeneous orchards. Thus, the present study had the objective of studying the rooting of herbaceous cuttings of four mume clones (Clones 02, 05, 10 and 15 in intermittent mist during the soft winter, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was carried out between June and August, being evaluated 70 days after the cutting

  17. Influência do ácido indolbutírico e ethefon no enraizamento de estacas de pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch Influence of indolebutyric acid and ethephon on rooting of cuttings of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Tonietto

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, em estufa com nebulização intermitente, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do ácido indolbutírico(AIB e ethefon (ácido 2-cloroetil fosfônico no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de pessegueiro. Utilizou-se estacas medianas retiradas de ramos de plantas com seis anos de idade, da cultivar Diamante, com comprimento de 15cm. Efetuou-se duas lesões laterais na base das estacas que foram tratadas com ácido indolbutírico nas concentrações 0; 1000; 2000 e 3000ppm, na forma líquida e, ethefon nas concentrações de 0; 50; 100 e 150ppm. Após a imersão de 5 segundos, acondicionou-se as estacas em sacos de polietileno contendo como substrato a mistura de areia+cinza (2:1 v/v. Pelos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que o ácido indolbutírico aumentou o percentual de estacas realizadas até a concentração de 1752ppm. e o número de raízes até a concentração de 1791ppm. O ethefon não apresentou resultados significativos na forma e concentração utilizadas.This work was conducted at the Plant Science Departament Eliseu Maciel Agronomy College of Federal University of Pelotas, in greenhouse with intermitent mist, aiming to evaluate the effect of indolebutyric acid and ethephon (2-chloroetyl phosphonic acid on peach hranch cutting rooting. Median cuttings with 15cm length removed from Diamante cultivar branch were used. Two lateral lesions were made on cutting basis and they were treated with indolebutyric acid in liquid at 0; 1000; 2000; and 3000ppm concentrations and ethefon at 0; 50; 100 and 150ppm concentrations. The immersion time was five seconds and the cuttings were packed in polietylene sacks containing a mixture of sand and rice husk ash substrate (2:1 v/v. Results showed that the indolebutyric acid increased the rooted cuttings percentage up to 1752ppm concentration and the number of roots until 1791ppm concentration. The ethephon did not show significant variation for the form and concentrations used.

  18. Comportamento do pessegueiro (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. Chimarrita em diferentes sistemas de condução Behavior of the peach tree (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. Chimarrita in different training systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clevison Luiz Giacobbo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A persicultura, no Brasil, é praticada há bastante tempo, porém poucos estudos foram realizados visando alternativas de manejo nos pomares para aumento de produtividade. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento anual do diâmetro do tronco e produção nos terceiro e quarto anos, em pessegueiro cv. Chimarrita, enxertado sobre o porta-enxerto Capdeboscq. Foram avaliados quatro sistemas de condução: I - espaçamento de 0,5 m entre plantas, conduzido em 'Áxis colunar'; II e III - 1,0 m e 2,0 m, respectivamente, conduzidos em 'Y' e IV - 4,0 m em 'Vaso' (sistema tradicional. Entre as linhas de plantio o espaçamento foi constante de 5,0 m para todos os sistemas de condução. O pomar foi implantado em julho de 1997 na Fazenda experimental do Centro Agropecuário da Palma, propriedade da Universidade Federal de Pelotas, localizada no município de Capão do Leão, RS. Avaliou-se a taxa de crescimento anual do diâmetro do tronco, produtividade, qualidade físico-química das frutas e ocorrência de podridão parda. Os resultados obtidos na taxa de crescimento foram semelhantes em ambos os anos, porém observou-se maior incremento relativo no período 2000/2001, no sistema de condução I. A produtividade foi superior no sistema I e II diferindo do sistema IV, no entanto, a qualidade físico-química e a ocorrência de podridão parda foram semelhantes em todos os sistemas.The peach culture has been practiced for a long time in Brazil but a few studies were performed aiming to define choices of orchard management for increasing productivity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate fruit production and annual growth rate of the trunk diameter in the third and fourth year after planting of peach-trees cv. "Chimarrita" on Capdeboscq rootstock. Four training systems were evaluated, as follow: I -spacing of 0,5 m among plants trained as "columnar axis"; II and III - spacing of 1 and 2 m, respectively trained as an "Y shape" and IV - 4,0 m as an "open vase" (traditional system. The space between tree rows was steady in 5,0 m for all the training systems. The orchard was implanted in July 1997 in the Experimental Farm of Centro Agropecuário da Palma, Universidade Federal de Pelotas located in a rural district of Capão do Leão, RS. The annual growth rate of the trunk diameter, productivity, physicochemical quality of fruits and rottenness occurrence were evaluated. The trunk rate was similar in both years, but a greater relative increasing was observed in 2000/2001 period for training system I. The productivity was higher in system I and II differing from the IV system, nonetheless the physicochemical quality and rottenness occurrence were similar in all systems.

  19. Exceso de agua en el suelo: efecto sobre la calidad del fruto del duraznero prunus persica (L.) batsch Excess water in the soil: effect on fruit quality of peach prunus persica (l.) batsch

    OpenAIRE

    Mirta G González; Gisela Moreno; Giardina, Ernesto B.; Mariano Di Miro

    2006-01-01

    El duraznero es un cultivo perenne que requiere para su crecimiento un suelo sin limitaciones, en base a ello el objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los cambios químicos producidos en el suelo en condiciones de anegamiento, desde floración hasta fructificación, relacionándolo a la calidad y cantidad de la fruta. Se trabajó con un suelo Argiudol de características vérticas, con un destacado horizonte Bt que posee 35-38% de arcilla. Se realizaron dos tratamientos: control, sin anegamiento (C)...

  20. Exceso de agua en el suelo: efecto sobre la calidad del fruto del duraznero prunus persica (L. batsch Excess water in the soil: effect on fruit quality of peach prunus persica (l. batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta G. González

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available El duraznero es un cultivo perenne que requiere para su crecimiento un suelo sin limitaciones, en base a ello el objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los cambios químicos producidos en el suelo en condiciones de anegamiento, desde floración hasta fructificación, relacionándolo a la calidad y cantidad de la fruta. Se trabajó con un suelo Argiudol de características vérticas, con un destacado horizonte Bt que posee 35-38% de arcilla. Se realizaron dos tratamientos: control, sin anegamiento (C y con anegamiento (T. En el tratamiento (C, la disponibilidad hídrica de los mismos estuvo sujeta a las condiciones climáticas que se presentaron durante el ensayo, incluyendo la realización de riego complementario permitiendo en todo momento que el suelo se mantenga en condiciones óptimas de humedad. Los resultados del ensayo estuvieron relacionados a los cambios en las características químicas del suelo, planta y fruto. Los suelos anegados tuvieron, contenidos de fósforo y potasio deficientes que repercutió en un menor rendimiento (peso del fruto fresco y seco. Los análisis químicos en planta siguieron la misma tendencia en relación a los contenidos de nitrógeno total, fósforo y potasio que disminuyeron sustancialmente como así también el contenido de materia seca. Estas variables determinaron la disminución de la calidad de fruta en relación a su firmeza y tamaño.Peach is a perennial culture that requires for its growth soils without limitations, on the basis of it the objective of this work was to study the chemical changes produced in soils on flooding conditions, from flowering to fruit production, relating it to the quality and amount of the fruit. The experiment was a done at an Argiudoll soil of vertic characteristics, with an outstanding Bt horizon that has 35- 38% of clay. Two treatments were made: control, without flooding (c and with flooding (T. In the treatment (C, the hydric availability was subject to the climatic conditions that happened during the test, including the accomplishment of complementary irrigation allowing at any moment soil to stay in optimal conditions of moisture. The results of the test were related to changes in soil chemical characteristics. Flooded soils had, deficient levels of phosphorus and potassium that resulted in a smaller yield (Fresh and dry weight of fruit. Chemical analyses in plant followed the same tendency in relation to the contents of total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium that diminished substantially as the content of dry matter, that was reflected in the diminution of the quality of fruit in relation to its firmness and size.

  1. The Utilization of Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Flesh as Fish Ball

    OpenAIRE

    YANAR, Yasemen

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the sensory properties and shelf life of fish balls prepared from carp flesh were investigated. Four study groups were prepared with different combinations of ingredients: garlic, garlic-sunflower oil, onion and onion-sunflower oil. A control group was also prepared. At the end of the sensory evaluation, the groups received between 7.4 and 9.07 points from the panelists regarding appearance, texture, succulence, odour and flavour and general acceptance. The onion and garlic ...

  2. Haemangiosarcoma in a captive Asiatic lion ( Panthera leo persica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although these tumours mainly appear to be occurring in older cats, they are sometimes observed in younger animals, as in the present case. This is the first description of haemangiosarcoma in a young Asiatic lion. Keywords: Asiatic lion, Haemangiosarcoma, Histopathology, Neoplasia, Panthera leo persica ...

  3. The antibacterial activity of traditionally used Salvadora Persica L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nowadays there is a need to find naturally occurring substances from plants with antimicrobial activity as an alternative to available used antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Salvadora persica (miswak) and Commiphora gileadensis were collected, dried and extracted with either methanol or warm water and the ...

  4. Antibacterial potential of extracts of leaves of Parrotia persica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-19

    Nov 19, 2007 ... persica. Mohammad Ahanjan1, Mohana, D. C1, Raveesha, K. A.1* and M. Azadbakht2. 1Microbiology laboratory, Department of studies in Botany and Microbiology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri,. Mysore 570 006, India. 2Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Mazandaran Medical Sciences, Sary, Iran.

  5. Screening Quality Evaluation Factors of Freeze-Dried Peach (Prunus Persica L. Batsch Powders from Different Ripening Time Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-ju Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality evaluation of processed products is complex. To simplify the quality evaluation process and improve the efficiency, fourteen evaluation factors of freeze-dried powders of seventeen cultivars of peach at different ripening times were analyzed. The most important evaluation indicators and criteria were obtained by analysis of variance (ANOVA, correlation analysis (CA, principal component analysis (PCA, system cluster analysis (SCA, and analytic hierarchy process (AHP. Results showed that the peach powders had the significant differences in quality (P<0.05, and some processing factors were related with some physicochemical and nutritional factors. Five principle components were extracted by PCA and the cumulative contribution achieved was 84.46%. Through the score plot of the first two principal components, a clear differentiation among ripening times was found and three distinct groups were separated according to ripening time. Five characteristic factors were obtained as titratable acid, browning index, hemicellulose, hygroscopicity, and vitamin C by SCA. Their weights of 0.1249, 0.3007, 0.0514, 0.4916, and 0.0315 were obtained by AHP, respectively. The peach cultivars were divided into four evaluation grades by the comprehensive quality score.

  6. Obtaining of nectarinum (Prunus persica (L. Batsch subsp. nectarina (Ait. Shof. polyploid plants in Nikitsky Botanical Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є. П. Шоферістов

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Firstly in Ukraine as the result of resiprocal interbreedings of autotetraploid (2n=4x=32 / diploid (2n=2x=16 and diploid (2n=2x=16 / autotetraploid (2n=4x=32 four sintetic triploid (2n=3x=24 hybrid forms (611-91, 13-93, 14-93, 18-93 have been obtained. Spontaneous triploid nectarinum 166-80 has been shared out from diploid hybrid seedlings population. Tetraploid and triploid nectarinum forms are valuable sources for directoinal selection and making hybrids with the complex of new signs, which are difficult or impossible to receive on diploid level.

  7. Occupational Allergy to Peach (Prunus persica) Tree Pollen and Potential Cross-Reactivity between Rosaceae Family Pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Mak, Philip; Wen, Liping

    2015-10-01

    Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry) were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%), with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%). Western blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China.

  8. Genome-wide identification and analysis of FK506-binding protein gene family in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanping; Han, Jan; Liu, Dan; Wen, Xicheng; Li, Yu; Tao, Ran; Peng, Yongbin; Fang, Jinggui; Wang, Chen

    2014-02-25

    The FKBP protein family has prolyl isomerase activity and is related in function to cyclophilins. FKBPs are known to be involved in many biological processes including hormone signaling, plant growth, and stress responses through a chaperone or an isomerization of proline residues during protein folding. The availability of complete peach genome sequences allowed the identification of 21 FKBP genes by HMMER and BLAST analyses. Scaffold locations of these FKBP genes in the peach genome were determined and the protein domain and motif organization of peach FKBPs were analyzed. The phylogenetic relationships between peach FKBPs were also assessed. The expression profiles of peach FKBP gene results revealed that most peach FKBPs were expressed in all tissues, while a few peach FKBPs were specifically expressed in some of the tissues. This data could contribute to better understanding of the complex regulation of the peach FKBP gene family, and also provide valuable information for further research in peach functional genomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Antioxidant capacity, quality, and anthocyanin and nutrient contents of several peach cultivars [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] grown in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, G; Iglesias, I; Gatius, F; Alegre, S

    2013-07-03

    Antioxidant capacity, quality, and anthocyanin and nutrient contents of 106 peach cultivars from different breeding programs were evaluated at the Estació Experimental de Lleida, IRTA (Catalonia, Spain), during two growing seasons (2010 and 2011). High variability was found among cultivars within each quality trait, where different cultivars were scored as the best and the worst. For example, a 5-fold range (2.17-12.07 g of malic acid L⁻¹), 6-fold range (144.20-711.73 μg of Trolox g⁻¹ of FW), and 11-fold range (0.70-11.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside kg⁻¹ of FW) were observed in titratable acidity, relative antioxidant capacity, and anthocyanin content, respectively. The breeding program within each fruit type (melting peach, nectarine, and flat peach) and qualitative pomological traits also had significant effects on the quality. Nevertheless, each breeding program had specific characteristics that distinguished it from the others. Even so, within each breeding program, there is high variability among cultivars. Therefore, growers should not base their strategy exclusively on the choice of breeding program. Principal component analysis for each fruit type (melting peach, nectarine, nonmelting peach, and flat peach) allowed a selection of a set of cultivars from different breeding programs with the highest quality performance. For example, cultivars such as 'Azurite', 'IFF 1230', 'Amiga', 'Fire Top', 'African Bonnigold', 'Ferlot', 'Mesembrine', and 'Platifirst' had higher sweetness and flavor compared to the others. Therefore, this study could help breeders to make decisions for the selection of new cultivars able to improve the quality features of fruit intake, technicians to know better quality performance of peach cultivars, and consumers to meet their expectations for fruit with high health benefits and a specific taste.

  10. Potassium contributes to zinc stress tolerance in peach (Prunus persica) seedlings by enhancing photosynthesis and the antioxidant defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z Z; Duan, C L; Guo, S L; Yang, Y; Feng, Y F; Ma, R J; Yu, M L

    2015-07-27

    Zinc (Zn) is considered to be a major industrial pollutant because excessive amounts can impair plant growth. In this paper, we found that peach 'Yoshihime' seedlings are promising Zn tolerant plants. However, heavy Zn toxicity (2 mM) damaged plant performance by disrupting biochemical processes, including photosynthesis, proline production, and K(+) nutrition. Notably, elevated external K(+) supply (10 mM) alleviated peach seedlings from Zn toxicity, evidenced by enhanced photosynthesis, antioxidant defense systems, and plant K(+) nutritional status. Moreover, the transcript levels of KUP (K(+) uptake) genes involved in K(+) acquisition, transport, and homeostasis were significantly upregulated following supply of sufficient K(+) upon Zn toxicity. In general, K(+) favorably contributes to improvements in internal K(+) homeostasis, via the help of K(+) transporters, further protecting plant photosynthesis and the antioxidative defense system. Our findings further benefit the study of the mechanisms underpinning heavy metal tolerance in woody plants.

  11. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the Type-B Authentic Response Regulator Gene Family in Peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jingjue; Zhu, Xudong; Haider, Muhammad S; Wang, Xicheng; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    The type-B authentic response regulator (ARR-B) family members serve as DNA-binding transcriptional regulators, whose activities are probably regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, resulting in the rapid induction of type-A ARR genes. Type-B ARRs are believed to be involved in many biological processes, including cytokinin signaling, plant growth, and stress responses through a chaperone or by isomerization of proline residues during protein folding. The public availability of complete peach genome sequences allows the identification of 23 ARR-B genes by HMMER and blast analysis. Scaffold locations of these genes in the peach genome were determined, and the protein domain and motif organization of peach type-B ARRs were analyzed. The phylogenetic relationships between peach type-B ARRs were also assessed. The expression profiles of peach ARR-B genes revealed that most of the type-B ARRs showed high expression levels in tissues undergoing rapid cell division and may engage more cytokinins, like half-opened flowers, fruits at expansion stages, and young leaves. These findings not only contribute to a better understanding of the complex regulation of the peach ARR-B gene family, but also provide valuable information for future research in peach functional genomics. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Genetic diversity in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] at the University of Florida: past present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    The University of Florida (UF) stone fruit breeding and genetics program was created in 1952 to develop early ripening stone fruit cultivars with high quality, adaptation to summer rainfall, low chilling requirements, and the ability to withstand high disease pressure. Diverse germplasm sources were...

  13. Gamma irradiation induced enhancement of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in peach ( Prunus persica Bausch, Cv. Elberta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Peerzada R.; Wani, Ali M.; Meena, Raghuveer S.; Dar, Mohd A.

    2010-09-01

    Effect of medium dose gamma irradiation on PAL and antioxidant activity of peach fruit was investigated. Peach fruit after harvest at commercial maturity was irradiated in the dose range 1.0-2.0 kGy, stored under refrigerated conditions (3±1 °C, RH 80%) and evaluated at intervals of 7 days. The antioxidant activity as determined by DPPH and FRAP methods revealed significant ( p≤0.05) increase particularly in the dose range 1.6-2.0 kGy. During storage, maximum increase in both PAL and antioxidant activity was observed after 21 days. Positive correlation ( r=0.75) existed between antioxidant activity and total phenols. EC 50 values as obtained from DPPH and FRAP experiments were significantly ( p≤0.05) lower in irradiated fruits compared to control.

  14. Studies on enhancing the keeping quality of peach ( Prunus persica Bausch) Cv. Elberta by gamma-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, P. R.; Meena, R. S.; Dar, M. A.; Wani, A. M.

    2008-04-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on keeping quality of peach fruit was studied. The fruit, after harvesting at proper maturity stage, was irradiated in the dose range of 1.0-2.0 kGy, stored under ambient (temp. 25±2 °C, RH 70%) and refrigerated (temp. 3±1 °C, RH 80%) conditions and evaluated periodically for firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), anthocyanins, water-soluble pectic fractions, loss in weight and decay percentage. The anthocyanin evaluation of the fruits revealed that irradiation enhanced the colour development under both the storage conditions. The gamma-irradiation dose range of 1.2-1.4 kGy proved effective in maintaining higher TSS concentration, reducing weight loss and significantly ( p⩽0.05) delaying the decaying of the fruit by 6 days under ambient conditions and by 20 days under refrigerated storage conditions.

  15. Genome-wide analysis of the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) gene family in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C H; Ma, R J; Shen, Z J; Sun, X; Korir, N K; Yu, M L

    2014-04-08

    In this study, 33 homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) genes were identified in peach using the HD-ZIP amino acid sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana as a probe. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and the individual gene or protein characteristics, the HD-ZIP gene family in peach can be classified into 4 subfamilies, HD-ZIP I, II, III, and IV, containing 14, 7, 4, and 8 members, respectively. The most closely related peach HD-ZIP members within the same subfamilies shared very similar gene structure in terms of either intron/exon numbers or lengths. Almost all members of the same subfamily shared common motif compositions, thereby implying that the HD-ZIP proteins within the same subfamily may have functional similarity. The 33 peach HD-ZIP genes were distributed across scaffolds 1 to 7. Although the primary structure varied among HD-ZIP family proteins, their tertiary structures were similar. The results from this study will be useful in selecting candidate genes from specific subfamilies for functional analysis.

  16. The study of a SPATULA-like bHLH transcription factor expressed during peach (Prunus persica) fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Tsaballa, Aphrodite; Stedel, Catalina; Kalloniati, Chrissanthi; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Polidoros, Alexios; Darzentas, Nikos; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Flemetakis, Emmanouil; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios

    2011-06-01

    Extensive studies on the dry fruits of the model plant arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have revealed various gene regulators of the development and dehiscence of the siliques. Peach pericarp is analogous to the valve tissues of the arabidopsis siliques. The stone (otherwise called pit) in drupes is formed through lignification of the fruit endocarp. The lignified endocarp in peach can be susceptible to split-pit formation under certain genetic as well as environmental factors. This phenomenon delays processing of the clingstone varieties of peach and causes economical losses for the peach fruit canning industry. The fruitfull (FUL) and shatterproof (SHP) genes are key MADS-box transcription protein coding factors that control fruit development and dehiscence in arabidopsis by promoting the expression of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors like Spatula (SPT) and Alcatraz (ALC). Results from our previous studies on peach suggested that temporal regulation of PPERFUL and PPERSHP gene expression may be involved in the regulation of endocarp margin development. In the present study a PPERSPATULA-like (PPERSPT) gene was cloned and characterized. Comparative analysis of temporal regulation of PPERSPT gene expression during pit hardening in a resistant and a susceptible to split-pit variety, suggests that this gene adds one more component to the genes network that controls endocarp margins development in peach. Taking into consideration that no ALC-like genes have been identified in any dicot plant species outside the Brassicaceae family, where arabidopsis belongs, PPERSPT may have additional role(s) in peach that are fulfilled in arabidopsis by ALC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Complete nucleotide sequences of two isolates of cherry green ring mottle virus from peach (Prunus persica) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihui; Jiang, Dongmei; Niu, Feiqing; Lu, Meiguang; Wang, Hongqing; Li, Shifang

    2013-03-01

    Two complete nucleotide sequences of cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) isolated from peach in Hebei (Hs10) and Fujian (F9) Provinces, China, were determined. Five open reading frames (ORFs) were found in the genomes of both isolates. The F9 and Hs10 isolates shared 82.2 % and 83.4-94.4 % nucleotide sequence identity, respectively, with two CGRMV isolates from cherry. Analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences from the five ORFs of both isolates showed that Hs10 shares the greatest sequence identity with P1A (GenBank AJ291761) from cherry. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CGRMV isolates from peach and cherry are closely related to members of the genus Foveavirus.

  18. Studies on enhancing the keeping quality of peach (Prunus persica Bausch) Cv. Elberta by gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, P.R.; Meena, R.S.; Dar, M.A. [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar-190006 (India); Wani, A.M. [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar-190006 (India)], E-mail: alimwani@yahoo.co.uk

    2008-04-15

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on keeping quality of peach fruit was studied. The fruit, after harvesting at proper maturity stage, was irradiated in the dose range of 1.0-2.0 kGy, stored under ambient (temp. 25{+-}2 deg. C, RH 70%) and refrigerated (temp. 3{+-}1 deg. C, RH 80%) conditions and evaluated periodically for firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), anthocyanins, water-soluble pectic fractions, loss in weight and decay percentage. The anthocyanin evaluation of the fruits revealed that irradiation enhanced the colour development under both the storage conditions. The gamma-irradiation dose range of 1.2-1.4 kGy proved effective in maintaining higher TSS concentration, reducing weight loss and significantly (p{<=}0.05) delaying the decaying of the fruit by 6 days under ambient conditions and by 20 days under refrigerated storage conditions.

  19. Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilling requirement (CR), together with heat requirement (HR), determines blooming date (BD) and climatic distribution of genotypes of temperate tree species. However, information on the genetic components underlying these important traits remains unknown or fragmentary. Here the identification o...

  20. The Impact of Maturity Stage on Cell Membrane Integrity and Enzymatic Browning Reactions in High Pressure Processed Peaches (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techakanon, Chukwan; Gradziel, Thomas M; Zhang, Lu; Barrett, Diane M

    2016-09-28

    Fruit maturity is an important factor associated with final product quality, and it may have an effect on the level of browning in peaches that are high pressure processed (HPP). Peaches from three different maturities, as determined by firmness (M1 = 50-55 N, M2 = 35-40 N, and M3 = 15-20 N), were subjected to pressure levels at 0.1, 200, and 400 MPa for 10 min. The damage from HPP treatment results in loss of fruit integrity and the development of browning during storage. Increasing pressure levels of HPP treatment resulted in greater damage, particularly in the more mature peaches, as determined by shifts in transverse relaxation time (T2) of the vacuolar component and by light microscopy. The discoloration of peach slices of different maturities processed at the same pressure was comparable, indicating that the effect of pressure level is greater than that of maturity in the development of browning.

  1. Gamma irradiation induced enhancement of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in peach (Prunus persica Bausch, Cv. Elberta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Peerzada R., E-mail: hussainpr@rediffmail.co [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar 190006, Kashmir (India); Wani, Ali M.; Meena, Raghuveer S.; Dar, Mohd A. [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar 190006, Kashmir (India)

    2010-09-15

    Effect of medium dose gamma irradiation on PAL and antioxidant activity of peach fruit was investigated. Peach fruit after harvest at commercial maturity was irradiated in the dose range 1.0-2.0 kGy, stored under refrigerated conditions (3{+-}1 {sup o}C, RH 80%) and evaluated at intervals of 7 days. The antioxidant activity as determined by DPPH and FRAP methods revealed significant (p{<=}0.05) increase particularly in the dose range 1.6-2.0 kGy. During storage, maximum increase in both PAL and antioxidant activity was observed after 21 days. Positive correlation (r=0.75) existed between antioxidant activity and total phenols. EC{sub 50} values as obtained from DPPH and FRAP experiments were significantly (p{<=}0.05) lower in irradiated fruits compared to control.

  2. Responses of canopy transpiration and canopy conductance of peach (Prunus persica) trees to alternate partial root zone drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Daozhi; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua

    2005-08-01

    We investigated canopy transpiration and canopy conductance of peach trees under three irrigation patterns: fixed 1/2 partial root zone drip irrigation (FPRDI), alternate 1/2 partial root zone drip irrigation (APRDI) and full root zone drip irrigation (FDI). Canopy transpiration was measured using heat pulse sensors, and canopy conductance was calculated using the Jarvis model and the inversion of the Penman-Monteith equation. Results showed that the transpiration rate and canopy conductance in FPRDI and APRDI were smaller than those in FDI. More significantly, the total irrigation amount was greatly reduced, by 34.7% and 39.6%, respectively for APRDI and FPRDI in the PRDI (partial root zone drip irrigation) treatment period. The daily transpiration was linearly related to the reference evapotranspiration in the three treatments, but daily transpiration of FDI is more than that of APRDI and FPRDI under the same evaporation demand, suggesting a restriction of transpiration water loss in the APRDI and FPRDI trees. FDI needed a higher soil water content to carry the same amount of transpiration as the APRDI and FPRDI trees, suggesting the hydraulic conductance of roots of APRDI and FPRDI trees was enhanced, and the roots had a greater water uptake than in FDI when the average soil water content in the root zone was the same. By a comparison between the transpiration rates predicted by the Penman-Monteith equation and the measured canopy transpiration rates for 60 days during the experimental period, an excellent correlation along the 1:1 line was found for all the treatments (R2 > 0.80), proving the reliability of the methodology.

  3. Acyl-CoA oxidase 1 is involved in γ-decalactone release from peach (Prunus persica) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Li, Haiyan; Gao, Ling; Qi, Yujie; Fu, Wanyi; Li, Xiongwei; Zhou, Xiang; Gao, Qikang; Gao, Zhongshan; Jia, Huijuan

    2017-06-01

    γ-Decalactone accumulation in peach mesocarp was highly correlated with ACX enzyme activity and natural PpACX1 content. Adding the purified recombinant PpACX1 induced γ-decalactone biosynthesis in cultured mesocarp discs in vitro. Previous gene expression studies have implied that acyl coenzyme A oxidase (ACX) is related to lactones synthesis, the characteristic aroma compounds of peach. Here, we analysed the correlation between γ-decalactone content and ACX enzyme activity in mesocarp of five different types of fully ripe peach varieties. Furthermore, 'Hu Jing Mi Lu' ('HJ') and 'Feng Hua Yu Lu' ('YL'), which have strong aroma among them, at four ripening stages were selected to study the role of ACX in lactone biosynthesis. The result showed that γ-decalactone was the most abundant lactone compound. γ-Decalactone accumulation was highly correlated with ACX enzyme activity. Mass spectrometry (MS) showed that PpACX1 was the most abundant PpACX protein in fully ripe mesocarp of cv. 'HJ'. To further elucidate the function of the PpACX1 protein, the PpACX1 gene was heterologously expressed in a bacterial system and characterized in vitro. MS identification gave the molecular weight of the recombinant PpACX1 as 94.44 kDa and the coverage rate of the peptide segments was 47.3%. In cultured mesocarp discs in vitro, adding the purified recombinant PpACX1 and C16-CoA substrate induced the expected γ-decalactone biosynthesis. Using a sandwich ELISA based on mixed mono- and polyclonal antibodies against recombinant PpACX1, PpACX1 content in mesocarp was found to be highly correlated with γ-decalactone accumulation in mesocarp of five fully ripe varieties and four ripening stages of 'HJ' and 'YL'. This study revealed the vital function of PpACX1 in γ-decalactone biosynthesis in peach fruit.

  4. Evaluación del comportamiento agroindustrial de variedades de duraznos conserveros (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) en Mendoza, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Alejandro Ojer

    2010-01-01

    Con el objeto de aumentar los rendimientos a campo, mejorar la calidad de la materia prima y sentar las bases de futuros programas de introducción de nuevas variedades, se evaluaron 13 variedades de duraznos conserveros. A fin de dar marco a la propuesta, se analizó la situación del sector industrial, el sector de producción primaria y el panorama varietal. Se efectuaron mediciones en 5 áreas: maduración, comportamiento en la cosecha, capacidad productiva, parámetros vinculados al procesamien...

  5. Evaluación del comportamiento agroindustrial de variedades de duraznos conserveros (Prunus persica (L. Batsch en Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Ojer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de aumentar los rendimientos a campo, mejorar la calidad de la materia prima y sentar las bases de futuros programas de introducción de nuevas variedades, se evaluaron 13 variedades de duraznos conserveros. A fin de dar marco a la propuesta, se analizó la situación del sector industrial, el sector de producción primaria y el panorama varietal. Se efectuaron mediciones en 5 áreas: maduración, comportamiento en la cosecha, capacidad productiva, parámetros vinculados al procesamiento en mitades y comportamiento en la agroindustria. Las determinaciones se realizaron durante 6 temporadas en 2 montes frutales en plena producción comercial. La oferta varietal se caracterizó por una sobreoferta (56,0 % del total implantado entre la última semana de enero y primera de febrero, y una escasa oferta, tan sólo del 12,2 %, a partir de mediados de febrero. Se observó un progresivo y sostenido reemplazo de las máquinas descarozadotas de torsión por las de sección. El máximo valor de la producción depende de los rendimientos, el peso de los frutos y su distribución en categorías comerciales. Sólo las variedades, Fortuna, Loadel y Carson, no superaron el nivel de producción mínimo (40 t/ha, pretendido por el sector primario. Sullivan’s Late mostró un comportamiento errático, con años de alto rendimiento y otros con baja producción. El rendimiento industrial es función principalmente del peso de frutos y la firmeza de pulpa. En el ingreso a la línea de procesamiento, la firmeza de pulpa debe estar en el rango 6 a 12 lb, aunque el óptimo es de 7 a 10 lb. Una visión integral del problema indica que la definición de la carga frutal óptima para cada variedad y el manejo de la cosecha son los dos factores de determinantes del rendimiento en campo, la calidad de la materia prima y del rendimiento industrial.

  6. Evaluación del comportamiento agroindustrial de variedades de duraznos conserveros (Prunus persica (L. Batsch en Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Ojer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de aumentar los rendimientos a campo, mejorar la calidad de la materia prima y sentar las bases de futuros programas de introducción de nuevas variedades, se evaluaron 13 variedades de duraznos conserveros. A fin de dar marco a la propuesta, se analizó la situación del sector industrial, el sector de producción primaria y el panorama varietal. Se efectuaron mediciones en 5 áreas: maduración, comportamiento en la cosecha, capacidad productiva, parámetros vinculados al procesamiento en mitades y comportamiento en la agroindustria. Las determinaciones se realizaron durante 6 temporadas en 2 montes frutales en plena producción comercial. La oferta varietal se caracterizó por una sobreoferta (56,0 % del total implantado entre la última semana de enero y primera de febrero, y una escasa oferta, tan sólo del 12,2 %, a partir de mediados de febrero. Se observó un progresivo y sostenido reemplazo de las máquinas descarozadoras de torsión por las de sección. El máximo valor de la producción depende de los rendimientos, el peso de los frutos y su distribución en categorías comerciales. Sólo las variedades, Fortuna, Loadel y Carson, no superaron el nivel de producción mínimo (40 t/ha, pretendido por el sector primario. Sullivan’s Late mostró un comportamiento errático, con años de alto rendimiento y otros con baja producción. El rendimiento industrial es función principalmente del peso de frutos y la firmeza de pulpa. En el ingreso a la línea de procesamiento, la firmeza de pulpa debe estar en el rango 6 a 12 lb, aunque el óptimo es de 7 a 10 lb. Una visión integral del problema indica que la definición de la carga frutal óptima para cada variedad y el manejo de la cosecha son los dos factores determinantes del rendimiento en campo, la calidad de la materia prima y del rendimiento industrial.

  7. Parámetros de calidad durante la cosecha de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. “Rubidoux”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisney Alessandra Bastidas Parrado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El durazno es una fruta de importancia agrícola como parte de los cultivos caducifolios producidos en Colombia; su calidad y aceptacion comercial, asi como el momento de la cosecha, estan definidos en funcion de sus características fisicoquimicas. Esta investigacion tuvo como propósito caracterizar algunos parametros de calidad de durazno variedad Rubidoux durante el periodo de cosecha, a partir de la seleccion hecha por operarios en campo, de acuerdo al color de la piel como indicador de madurez. Durante seis semanas de la cosecha se evaluaron muestras de frutos, considerando aspectos como peso fresco, contenido de solidos solubles (oBrix, categoria comercial de acuerdo al diametro ecuatorial y color del fruto. Se registro un peso fresco promedio de 130,7 g por fruto, con un contenido de solidos solubles promedio de 11,8 oBrix, parametro que incremento progresivamente de la semana uno a la cinco. La clasificacion visual por el color de la piel permitio definir siete categorias, tres predominaron durante la cosecha (pinton, pinton-maduro y maduro, estos se correspondieron con el contenido de solidos solubles; es asi como el analisis de varianza mostro diferencias estadisticas entre oBrix y el color de piel. Durante el periodo evaluado, se cosecharon con mayor frecuencia duraznos pintones y frutos con diametro entre 60 mm a 70 mm.

  8. Parámetros de calidad durante la cosecha de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. “Rubidoux”)

    OpenAIRE

    Lisney Alessandra Bastidas Parrado; Gloria Acened Puentes Montañez; Angela Lemus Cerón

    2015-01-01

    El durazno es una fruta de importancia agrícola como parte de los cultivos caducifolios producidos en Colombia; su calidad y aceptacion comercial, asi como el momento de la cosecha, estan definidos en funcion de sus características fisicoquimicas. Esta investigacion tuvo como propósito caracterizar algunos parametros de calidad de durazno variedad Rubidoux durante el periodo de cosecha, a partir de la seleccion hecha por operarios en campo, de acuerdo al color de la piel como indicador de mad...

  9. Estudo de conservação de pêssego [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] minimamente processado.

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Amauri Costa da

    2010-01-01

    O escurecimento enzimático e o amolecimento são as principais alterações em pêssegos minimamente processados. Inicialmente estudou-se a combinação de moléculas antioxidantes e protetores de textura no controle da atividade das enzimas polifenoloxidase (PPO) e peroxidase (POD), do escurecimento enzimático e do amolecimento da polpa de pêssegos, cv. Esmeralda, minimamente processados e refrigerados (MPR). Para isso testou-se o uso de L-cisteína (Cis), ácido L-ascórbico (AA) e cloreto de cálcio ...

  10. Improved dry-fleshed sweetpotato genotypes resistant to insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D Michael; Bohac, J R

    2006-10-01

    Thirty-five mostly dry-fleshed sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae), genotypes from the USDA-ARS/Clemson University sweetpotato breeding program were evaluated in nine field experiments at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC, from 1998 to 2004. There were highly significant entry effects for percentage of uninjured roots; wireworm, Diabrotica, and Systena (WDS) index; percentage of roots damaged by sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers); percentage of roots damaged by sweetpotato flea beetle, Chaetocnema confinis Crotch); and percentage of roots damaged by white grub larvae (primarily Plectris aliena Chapin). The susceptible control, 'SC1149-19', had a significantly lower percentage of uninjured roots, a significantly higher WDS rating, and higher percentage infestations of flea beetle, grubs, and sweetpotato weevils than all other sweetpotato entries in this study. Twenty-seven genotypes had significantly less insect damage than 'Beauregard', the leading commercial orange-fleshed cultivar in the United States. In addition, 11 genotypes had significantly less insect injury than 'Picadito', a commercial boniato-type sweetpotato grown extensively in southern Florida. Overall, no genotypes were more resistant to soil insect pests than the resistant checks 'Sumor' and 'Regal'. Many of the advanced dry-flesh sweetpotato genotypes had high levels of resistance to soil insect pests, and they represent a useful source of advanced germplasm for use in sweetpotato breeding programs.

  11. Dehydrogenase isoenzyme polymorphism in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolić Slavica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrogenase polymorphism was studied in 36 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., sweet cherry (Prunus avuim L., mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L., ground cherry (Prunus fruticosa Pall., duke cherry (Prunus gondounii Redh., Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus serrulata Lindl. and four iterspecific hybrids (standard cherry rootstocks ‘Gisela 5’, ‘Gisela 6’, ‘Max Ma’ and ‘Colt’. Inner bark of one-year-old shoots, in dormant stage, was used for enzyme extraction. Vertical PAGE was used for isoenzyme analysis: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, formate dehydrogenase (FDH, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, isocitrate dehydrogenaze (IDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH. All studied systems were polymorphic at 10 loci: Adh -1 (3 genotypes and Adh-2 (5 genotypes, Fdh-1 (2 genotypes, Gdh-1 (3 genotypes, Idh-1 (4 genotypes i Idh -2 (5 genotypes, Mdh-1 (3 genotypes, Pgd-1 (4 genotypes, Sdh-1 (1 genotype i Sdh-2 (3 genotypes. Cluster analysis was used to construct dendrogram on which four groups of similar genotypes were separated. Obtained results indicate that studied enzyme systems can be used for determination of genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus. Among studied enzyme systems ADH, IDH and SDH were the most polymorphic and most useful to identify genetic variability. Polymorphism of FDH and GDH in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus was described first time in this work. First results for dehydrogenase variability of Oblačinska indicate that polymorphism of loci Idh-2 and Sdh-2 can be useful for discrimination of different clones.

  12. Diphyllobothrium latum infection after eating domestic salmon flesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Suhk, Hyo-Chung; Shin, Ho-Jun; Jung, Suk-Yul; Han, Eun-Taek; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2001-01-01

    Diphyllobothrium latum infection in human is not common in Korea and only thirty seven cases have been reported since 1921. We report two cases of fish tapeworm infection after Ingestion of raw cherry salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) caught in the domestic river. Among four family members who ate together raw salmon flesh six months ago, just two, mother and daughter, were infected. It is our expectation that the salmon associated tapeworm infections would be enlisted as one of the major parasitic problems with the growing consumption of salmon in Korea. PMID:11775333

  13. Numerical Discrimination of Persicae Semen and Armeniacae Semen

    OpenAIRE

    TADATO, TANI; TADAHISA, KATSUKI; MICHINORI, KUBO; SHIGERU, ARICHI; The Research Institute of Oriental Medicine, Kinki University

    1986-01-01

    Multivariate analysis of the eight numerical characteristics (weight, three ratios of length, width, thickness, and angle of the pointed end and the three color characteristics of the seed coat) of commercially available Persicae Semen and Armeniacae Semen (eleven samples, each) was performed to identify their original plant species. It was found that by means of principal component analysis, the first principal component consisting of shape factors is considered to have discriminatory value ...

  14. Pengaruh Larutan Kumur Ekstrak Siwak (Salvadora Persica) Terhadap Ph Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Kusumasari, Nila; Santoso, Oedijani

    2012-01-01

    Latar belakang : pH saliva merupakan salah satu komponen yang memberikan kontribusi terhadap pH mulut. Bakteri patogen dalam rongga mulut memfermentasi gula menjadi asam laktat yang akan menurunkan keasaman mulutsehingga menyebabkan demineralisasi email gigi. Untuk mencegah penurunan pH saliva dapat dilakukan secara kimiawi. Pada penelitian ini digunakan larutan ekstrak siwak (Salvadora persica) sebagai obat kumur karena terdapat fitokemikal yang mampu mencegah penurunan pH saliva dengan cara...

  15. Effectiveness of Salvadora persica extracts against common oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balto, Hanan; Al-Sanie, Ibrahim; Al-Beshri, Sultan; Aldrees, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ethanol and hexane extracts of Salvadora persica against common oral pathogens. Well diffusion, Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC), and Broth microdilution tests were used to determine the optimum antimicrobial concentrations of S. persica extracts against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Streptococcus sanguis (S. sanguis), and Streptococcus salivarius (S. salivarius) over 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. Chlorhexidine (CHX) 0.2% was used as a positive control. The findings showed that the microbial activity of both extracts was concentration-dependent. Ethanol extract of S. persica at 25, 50, and 100 mg/ml had more growth inhibitory effect against all isolates compared to hexane extract. In addition, ethanol extract at 8 mg/ml (MBC value) was able to eradicate the growth of all isolates. S. sanguis and S. salivarius were very sensitive to hexane extract and required 4 mg/ml (MBC value) for their eradication while S. mutans was the most resistant (MBC = 8 mg/ml).The statistical findings of CFU counts showed no significant difference (p = 1.000) in antibacterial effectiveness between the two extracts against all isolates. A significant decline overtime in CFU counts was noted, except at 12 h and 24 h where no significant difference (p = 0.793) was observed and was comparable to CHX. Ethanol and hexane extracts of S. persica were found to exhibit maximum antimicrobial activity against S. mutans, S. sanguis and S. salivarius at high concentrations.

  16. Characterisation of Phenolic Compounds in South African Plum Fruits (Prunus salicina Lindl. using HPLC Coupled with Diode-Array, Fluorescence, Mass Spectrometry and On-Line Antioxidant Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalene de Beer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are abundant secondary metabolites in plums, with potential health benefits believed to be due to their antioxidant activity, amongst others. Phenolic characterisation of South African Prunus salicina Lindl. plums is necessary to fully evaluate their potential health benefits. An HPLC method using diode-array detection (DAD for quantification of phenolic compounds was improved and fluorescence detection (FLD was added for quantification of flavan-3-ols. Validation of the HPLC-DAD-FLD method showed its suitability for quantification of 18 phenolic compounds, including flavan-3-ols using FLD, and phenolic acids, anthocyanins and flavonols using DAD. The method was suitable for characterisation of the phenolic composition of 11 South African plum cultivars and selections, including various types with yellow and red skin and flesh. The method was used in conjunction with mass spectrometry (MS to identify 24 phenolic compounds. Neochlorogenic acid and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside were the major compounds in most of the plums, while cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was absent in Sun Breeze plums with yellow skin and flesh. Post-column on-line coupling of the ABTS•+ scavenging assay with HPLC-DAD enabled qualitative evaluation of the relative contribution of individual phenolic compounds to the antioxidant activity. The flavan-3-ols, neochlorogenic acid and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside displayed the largest antioxidant response peaks.

  17. Host Plant Resistance to Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzar), by Some Wild Types of Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzar), is an important pest of many vegetable crops. It damages crops by feeding and vectoring viruses. Potential sources of plant resistance against M. persicae were examined for watermelon. A multiple choice experiment was conducted with leaves of six wi...

  18. The hysteria in The Flesh, of Julio Ribeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Masiero

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the novel The flesh of Julio Ribeiro, from the perspective of freudian psychoanalysis. The book, a naturalistic novel published in 1888, criticizes the formation of gender roles in nineteenth-century culture and anticipates psychoanalytic ideas about sexuality and hysteria, which allows an interesting approach between literature and psychoanalysis. The analysis is focused on the development of the two central characters, Lenita and Manduca. We observed in Lenita a transformation of hysteria, first it appears like a illness, after to transgression and thence like a critique of sexuality and gender roles. The male anxieties and conflicts are marked by silence, a discursive failure which does not allow psychopathological ratings. At the end the hysteric Lenita interrupts a long cycle of compulsive repetition and Manduca linearly stay mute and succumbs. Returning to the beginning of psychoanalysis observe the same phenomenon: the difficulty, admitted by Freud, in exposing male hysteria.

  19. Flesh-Eating Disease: A Note on Necrotizing Fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Dele Davies

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been much media attention in the past few years to the condition dubbed 'flesh-eating disease', which refers, primarily, to a form of invasive group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS infection that leads to fascia and muscle necrosis. In 1999, the Canadian Paediatric Society issued a statement on the state of knowledge and management of children, and close contacts of persons with all-invasive GABHS disease (1. The present note is intended to deal specifically with necrotizing fasciitis (NF by providing an update on the limited current state of knowledge, diagnosis and management. Surveillance to establish actual national rates and epidemiology of NF through the Canadian Paediatric Society is proposed.

  20. Gene flow in Prunus species in the context of novel trait risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cici, S Zahra H; Van Acker, Rene C

    2010-01-01

    Prunus species are important commercial fruit (plums, apricot, peach and cherries), nut (almond) and ornamental trees cultivated broadly worldwide. This review compiles information from available literature on Prunus species in regard to gene flow and hybridization within this complex of species. The review serves as a resource for environmental risk assessment related to pollen mediated gene flow and the release of transgenic Prunus. It reveals that Prunus species, especially plums and cherries show high potential for transgene flow. A range of characteristics including; genetic diversity, genetic bridging capacity, inter- and intra-specific genetic compatibility, self sterility (in most species), high frequency of open pollination, insect assisted pollination, perennial nature, complex phenotypic architecture (canopy height, heterogeneous crown, number of flowers produced in an individual plant), tendency to escape from cultivation, and the existence of ornamental and road side Prunus species suggest that there is a tremendous and complicated ability for pollen mediated gene movement among Prunus species. Ploidy differences among Prunus species do not necessarily provide genetic segregation. The characteristics of Prunu s species highlight the complexity of maintaining coexistence between GM and non-GM Prunus if there were commercial production of GM Prunus species. The results of this review suggest that the commercialization of one GM Prunus species can create coexistence issues for commercial non-GM Prunus production. Despite advances in molecular markers and genetic analysis in agroecology, there remains limited information on the ecological diversity, metapopulation nature, population dynamics, and direct measures of gene flow among different subgenera represented in the Prunus genus. Robust environmental impact, biosafety and coexistence assessments for GM Prunus species will require better understanding of the mechanisms of gene flow and hybridization

  1. Chemical composition and antiprolifrative activity of Artemisia persica Boiss. and Artemisia turcomanica Gand. essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakht, M R; Sharifi, S; Emami, S A; Khodaie, L

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Artemisia persica and Artemisia turcomanica were analyzed by GC/MS. While 28 components representing 91.01 % of A. persica were identified, the identity of 50 components, constituting 81.93 % of the total oil, was confirmed in A. turcomanica. β-thujone was the main compound (75.23%) in A. persica while the major identified phytochemicals in A. turcomanica were 1,8-cineol (19.23%), camphor (15.55%) and filifolone (15.53%). Both of the essential oils were predominantly made up of monoterpenes. Time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of A. persica and A. turcomanica on MCF-7 cell line evaluated by MTT assay at 24, 48 and 72 h, showed that the highest cytotoxic effect of A. persica and A. turcomanica were appeared at 72 h incubation. At that incubation period, CI50 of A. persica was found to be 0.15 μg/ml, while that of A. turcomanica was 0.1 μg/ml. Thus, cytotoxicity of A. turcomanica was slightly higher than A. persica which could be attributed to the higher content of sesquiterpene present in A. turcomanica. As a conclusion, these volatile oils could have chemotherapeutic potentials.

  2. Chemical composition and antiprolifrative activity of Artemisia persica Boiss. and Artemisia turcomanica Gand. essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakht, M.R.; Sharifi, S.; Emami, S.A.; Khodaie, L.

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Artemisia persica and Artemisia turcomanica were analyzed by GC/MS. While 28 components representing 91.01 % of A. persica were identified, the identity of 50 components, constituting 81.93 % of the total oil, was confirmed in A. turcomanica. β-thujone was the main compound (75.23%) in A. persica while the major identified phytochemicals in A. turcomanica were 1,8-cineol (19.23%), camphor (15.55%) and filifolone (15.53%). Both of the essential oils were predominantly made up of monoterpenes. Time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of A. persica and A. turcomanica on MCF-7 cell line evaluated by MTT assay at 24, 48 and 72 h, showed that the highest cytotoxic effect of A. persica and A. turcomanica were appeared at 72 h incubation. At that incubation period, CI50 of A. persica was found to be 0.15 μg/ml, while that of A. turcomanica was 0.1 μg/ml. Thus, cytotoxicity of A. turcomanica was slightly higher than A. persica which could be attributed to the higher content of sesquiterpene present in A. turcomanica. As a conclusion, these volatile oils could have chemotherapeutic potentials. PMID:25657784

  3. Vasorelaxant effect of Prunus yedoensis bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kyungjin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus yedoensis Matsum. is used as traditional medicine—‘Yaeng-Pi’ or ‘Hua-Pi’—in Japan and Korea. However, no studies have examined the pharmacological activities of the P. yedoensis bark. Only the antioxidant and antiviral activities of P. yedoensis fruit and the anti-hyperglycaemic effect of P. yedoensis leaf have been investigated. While studying the antihypertensive effects of several medicinal plants, we found that a methanol extract of P. yedoensis bark (MEPY had distinct vasorelaxant effects on rat aortic rings. Methods The aortic rings were removed from Sprague–Dawley rats and suspended in organ chambers containing 10 ml Krebs-Henseleit solution. The aortic rings were placed between 2 tungsten stirrups and connected to an isometric force transducer. Changes in tension were recorded via isometric transducers connected to a data acquisition system. Results MEPY relaxed the contraction induced by phenylephrine (PE both in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings concentration dependently. However, the vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-denuded aortic rings were lower than endothelium-intact aortic rings. The vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-intact aortic rings were reduced by pre-treatment with l-NAME, methylene blue, or ODQ. However, pre-treatment with indomethacin, atropine, glibenclamide, tetraethylammonium, or 4-aminopyridine had no affection. In addition, MEPY inhibited the contraction induced by extracellular Ca2+ in endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted by PE (1 μM or KCl (60 mM in Ca2+-free solution. Conclusions Our results suggest that MEPY exerts its vasorelaxant effects via the activation of NO formation by means of l-Arg and NO-cGMP pathways and via the blockage of extracellular Ca2+ channels.

  4. Enraizamento in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus In vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks

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    Marcelo Rogalski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Na micropropagação de Prunus sp., o enraizamento tem sido considerado uma fase crítica, pois determina a sobrevivência das plantas durante a aclimatização. Dentre os fatores importantes ao enraizamento in vitro, destacam-se o genótipo e as auxinas por serem determinantes na indução e na formação de raízes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de IBA no enraizamento in vitro dos porta-enxertos de espécies do gênero Prunus: cultivares Capdeboscq e GF677, e seleções VP411 e VP417. Para o enraizamento in vitro, brotos com 2-3cm de comprimento foram introduzidos em meio de Lepoivre suplementado com 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg.L-1 IBA. Observou-se que o porta-enxerto 'Capdeboscq' apresentou maior taxa de enraizamento e maior número de raízes in vitro, sendo superior aos demais genótipos quanto a estas características. O nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA esteve associado à maior taxa média de enraizamento (100%, 64% e 64,0%, respectivamente para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq', 'GF677' e VP411. O nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA foi superior para a seleção VP417 com taxa de 64% de enraizamento. Para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq' e 'GF677', o número máximo de raízes foi de 9,6 e 5,2 raízes por broto, respectivamente, em resposta ao nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA, enquanto as seleções VP411 e VP417 apresentaram o maior número de raízes (3,6 e 3,9, respectivamente em resposta ao nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA.In Prunus sp. micropropagation of rooting is considered a critical stage, since it determines the plant survival during the acclimatization. Among important factors associated with rooting, the genotype and the auxins are considered important in the induction and formation of roots. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of different IBA on the in vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks Capdeboscq and GF677, and the selections VP411 and VP417. For the in vitro rooting stage, shoots of

  5. Otostegia persica extraction on healing process of burn wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ganjali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate if the methanolic extract of the Otostegia persica can accelerating healing process of burn wound because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. METHODS:Forty eight male Wistar rats were randomized into three study groups of 16 rats each. Burn wounds were created on dorsal part of shaved rats using a metal rod. In group I the burn wound was left without any treatment. Group was treated with topical silver sulfadiazine pomade. In group III, ointment containing the OP extract was administered. Skin biopsies were harvested from burn area on the 3rd, 5th, 14th and 21st days after burn and examined histologically. RESULTS: Re-epithelialization in the control group and in group II was lower than in group III. Re-epithelialization in groups II and III was significantly different from that in the control group. On the 5th day of the experiment, we assessed lower inflammation in the burn area compared to control group. This means that the inflammation was suppressed by methanolic extract of OP. From day 5 to 14; the fibroblast proliferation peaked and was associated with increased collagen accumulation. It was obvious that angiogenesis improved more in the groups II and III, which facilitated re-epithelialisation. CONCLUSION:Methanolic extract of Otostegia persica exhibited significant healing activity when topically applied on rats. OP is an effective treatment for saving the burn site.

  6. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... For the out groups, Sorbaria sorbifolia and Spiraea canto- niensis, were selected which have been proposed as the sister to Prunus in past studies e.g. Spiraea and Sorbaria which were supported by data from PGIP and Mat-K, separately and combined (Potter et al., 1999). ITS analysis. The aligned ITS ...

  7. Molecular characterization of the plum collection [Prunus domestica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight Random Amplified Microsatellite markers (RAMs) were used to characterize the genetic diversity found in 14 Prunus materials belonging to the deciduous collection of the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia. A total of 121 bands were generated: they range from nine for the GT primer to 26 for the ...

  8. Novel Phaeoacremonium species associated with necrotic wood of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Mostert, L.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The genus Phaeoacremonium is associated with opportunistic human infections, as well as stunted growth and die-back of various woody hosts, especially grapevines. In this study, Phaeoacremonium species were isolated from necrotic woody tissue of Prunus spp. (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) from

  9. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prunus is found in all four provinces of Pakistan, that is, Punjab, NWFP, Sindh and Baluchistan including Azad Kashmir region. Studies on the family Rosaceae is scanty in the Flora of Pakistan and there is a lot of taxonomic work yet to be done, for the proper classification and placement of different genera under different ...

  10. ( Prunus avium L.) as affected by training system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern intensive production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) tends to planting of high quality cultivars on the dwarfing rootstocks in high density orchards. The most productive training system is used, providing an ideal condition for undisturbed growth and yield. The main objective of this study was to determine the best ...

  11. Cryopreservation of in vitro -grown shoot tips of apricot ( Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro grown apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. El-Hamawey shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved using an encapsulation-dehydration procedure. Shoot tips were encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads before preculture on woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with different sucrose concentrations; 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, ...

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Prunus salicina

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation from hypocotyls slices of two Prunus salicina varieties, 'Angeleno' and 'Larry Anne', using a modification of the technique previously described for P. domestica. Regeneration rates on thidiazuron (TDZ) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supp...

  13. Kweker kan zelf toetsen op Xanthomonas in Prunus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Martin, W.S.; Kuik, van A.J.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.; Raaij, van H.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Prime Diagnostics uit Wageningen heeft een methode ontwikkeld waarmee kwekers eenvoudig kunnen bepalen of Prunus is aangetast door de bacterie Xanthomonas arboricola pv pruni. Voor een officiële uitslag is nog steeds wel een test uitgevoerd door de nVWA of Naktuinbouw nodig.

  14. Slaat Xanthomonas dit jaar weer toe in Prunus laurocerasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Dalfsen, van P.; Pham, K.T.K.

    2012-01-01

    Een diagnostische test moet duidelijk maken of er sprake is van Xanthomonas in Prunus laurocerasus. De bacterieziekte is namelijk makkelijk te verwarren met andere ziekten. Onderzoek, gefinancierd door het Productschap Tuinbouw, richt zich op het toetsen van moerplanten voordat hier van gestekt gaat

  15. Study of Bioavailability of Ca and Zn in the Flesh of Yellow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linn) Fruits. MI Barde, LG Hassan, UZ Faruq, SA Maigandi, KJ Umar. Abstract. The analyses of antinutritional and mineral composition of the flesh of yellow fruits variety of Terminal catappa using standard methods were conducted. The results ...

  16. Study of Bioavailability of Ca and Zn in the Flesh of Yellow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, ... ABSTRACT: The analyses of antinutritional and mineral composition of the flesh of yellow fruits variety of .... and Fiber Content in Thai Fruits commonly.

  17. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzińska, Magdalena; Czerko, Zbigniew; Zarzyńska, Krystyna; Borowska-Komenda, Monika

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic), cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolics (TPs), and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE) in Solanum tuberosum (potato) tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave) increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer) than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  18. Apple SEPALLATA1/2-like genes control fruit flesh development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Hilary S; Yao, Jia-Long; Tomes, Sumathi; Sutherland, Paul W; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Winz, Robert A; David, Karine M; Schaffer, Robert J

    2013-03-01

    Flowering plants utilize different floral structures to develop flesh tissue in fruits. Here we show that suppression of the homeologous SEPALLATA1/2-like genes MADS8 and MADS9 in the fleshy fruit apple (Malus x domestica) leads to sepaloid petals and greatly reduced fruit flesh. Immunolabelling of cell-wall epitopes and differential staining showed that the developing hypanthium (from which the apple flesh develops) of MADS8/9-suppressed apple flowers lacks a tissue layer, and the remaining flesh tissue of fully developed apples has considerably smaller cells. From these observations, it is proposed that MADS8 and MADS9 control the development of discrete zones within the hypanthium tissue, and therefore fruit flesh, and also act as foundations for development of different floral organs. At fruit maturity, the MADS8/9-suppressed apples do not ripen in terms of both developmentally controlled ripening characters, such as starch degradation, and ethylene-modulated ripening traits. Transient assays suggest that, like the RIN gene in tomato, the MADS9 gene acts as a transcriptional activator of the ethylene biosynthesis enzyme, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase 1. The existence of a single class of genes that regulate both flesh formation and ripening provides an evolutionary tool for controlling two critical aspects of fleshy fruit development. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grudzińska

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA and total phenolics (TPs, and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE in Solanum tuberosum (potato tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  20. Differential protein expression in the susceptible and resistant Myzus persicae (Sulzer) to imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, JianYu; Zhang, ChangYu; Chen, XingJiang; Cao, Yi; Shang, ShengHua

    2014-10-01

    Myzus persicae, a serious economic agricultural pest, has developed resistance to imidacloprid (IMI), which was widely used to control this aphid worldwide. To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of IMI resistance in M. persicae, we carried out a comparative proteomic analysis. Total proteins of the IMI-susceptible and resistant strains were extracted and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. More than 1300 protein spots were reproducibly detected, including 14 that were more abundant and 14 less abundant. Mass spectrometry analysis and database searching helped us to identify 25 differentially abundant proteins. The identified proteins were categorized into several functional groups including signal transduction, RNA processing, protein processing, transport processing, stress response, metabolisms, and cytoskeleton structure, etc. This study is the first analysis of differentially expressed proteins in IMI-susceptible and resistant M. Persicae, and gives new insights into the mechanisms of IMI resistance in M. persicae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Efeito do comprimento de estacas herbáceas de dois clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. no enraizamento adventício Effect of the length of herbaceous cuttings of two clones of japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. in adventicious rooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEWTON ALEX MAYER

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O umezeiro (Prunus mumeSieb & Zucc. é uma rosácea de folhas caducas, nativa da China, cujos frutos e flores são muito apreciados pelos povos orientais. No Brasil, alguns estudos foram realizados visando a sua utilização como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro e nectarineira, dadas as suas características de adaptação, rusticidade, redução do porte da planta e compatibilidade com algumas cultivares de Prunus persica. O presente estudo foi conduzido em câmara de nebulização sob ripado, pertencente ao Departamento de Produção Vegetal da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP. Objetivou-se verificar a influência de quatro comprimentos de estacas herbáceas no enraizamento de dois clones de umezeiro. O material vegetal, identificado como Clone 10 e Clone 15, foi oriundo do Programa de Melhoramento Genético do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas-SP. O experimento foi constituido de fatorial 2 x 4, em blocos casualizados, sendo o fator clone em 2 níveis (Clone 10 e Clone 15 e o fator comprimento de estaca em 4 níveis (12; 15; 18 e 25cm. Pelos resultados observados, verificou-se diferença entre os clones somente na porcentagem de estacas brotadas e número de raízes por estaca. O comprimento da estaca influenciou na porcentagem de enraizamento e na mortalidade das estacas, sendo que estacas maiores tenderam a apresentar maiores porcentagens de enraizamento e menores de mortalidade. As estacas com 12cm, embora apresentando menor número de raízes por estaca, são recomendadas por permitirem a obtenção de um maior número de estacas por planta-matriz. Houve efeito significativo da interação entre os fatores para número e comprimento de raízes.The japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. is a Rosaceae of falling leaves, native of China, whose fruits and flowers are quite appreciated by the oriental people. In Brazil, some studies were accomplished seeking its use as rootstock for peach and nectarine trees, due its adaptation

  2. The occurrence of the cicada Cicadatra persica on apple trees, Malus domestica, in Erneh, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardar, Marah A; Belal, Hamzeh M R; Basheer, Abedlnabi M

    2013-01-01

    An infestation of Cicadatra persica KirKaldy (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) on apple trees, Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosales: Rosaceae), was reported for the first time in the apple fruit orchards of Erneh, Syria. Nymphs, adults, exuvia, and exit holes in the soil were observed. The species was identified as C. persica based on morphological characters. Some biological observations and an acoustic analysis of the male's songs were also achieved.

  3. Genomic resources for Myzus persicae: EST sequencing, SNP identification, and microarray design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malloch Gaynor

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer, is a world-wide insect pest capable of infesting more than 40 plant families, including many crop species. However, despite the significant damage inflicted by M. persicae in agricultural systems through direct feeding damage and by its ability to transmit plant viruses, limited genomic information is available for this species. Results Sequencing of 16 M. persicae cDNA libraries generated 26,669 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Aphids for library construction were raised on Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana, Brassica oleracea, B. napus, and Physalis floridana (with and without Potato leafroll virus infection. The M. persicae cDNA libraries include ones made from sexual and asexual whole aphids, guts, heads, and salivary glands. In silico comparison of cDNA libraries identified aphid genes with tissue-specific expression patterns, and gene expression that is induced by feeding on Nicotiana benthamiana. Furthermore, 2423 genes that are novel to science and potentially aphid-specific were identified. Comparison of cDNA data from three aphid lineages identified single nucleotide polymorphisms that can be used as genetic markers and, in some cases, may represent functional differences in the protein products. In particular, non-conservative amino acid substitutions in a highly expressed gut protease may be of adaptive significance for M. persicae feeding on different host plants. The Agilent eArray platform was used to design an M. persicae oligonucleotide microarray representing over 10,000 unique genes. Conclusion New genomic resources have been developed for M. persicae, an agriculturally important insect pest. These include previously unknown sequence data, a collection of expressed genes, molecular markers, and a DNA microarray that can be used to study aphid gene expression. These resources will help elucidate the adaptations that allow M. persicae to develop compatible

  4. Storage of 'Laetitia' plums ( Prunus salicina ) under controlled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upon removal from the cold storage chamber and after four days in ambient conditions (20±2°C/60±5% RH), the fruit were assessed in terms of: respiration and ethylene production rates; flesh firmness; texture; titrable acidity; red color index and hue angle (ho) of the skin; incidence of fruit cracking and internal breakdown ...

  5. Use of Genetic Diversity of the Genus Prunus L. in Selection of Clonal Rootstocks for Stone Fruit Crops and Features of Their Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremin Gennadiy V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of diversity of wild types of the genus Prunus L. (P. cerasifera, P. armeniaca, P. persica, P. fruticosa, P. lannesiana, P. maackii, P. tomentosa, P. pumila, and P. incana in the collection of the Krymsk Experiment Breeding Station, highly adaptive, medium or weak vigour clonal rootstocks for stone fruit crops with good compatibility with grafted cultivars were selected: for plum, apricot and peach - Kuban 86, VVA-1, Evrika 99, Zarevo (Glow, Alab 1, Speaker, Best, VSV-1; and for sweet cherries and sour cherries - L-2, LC-52, VSL-1, VSL-2, and RVL-9. Part of the rootstocks were tested and successfully used in different parts of Russia and some near and far countries. The applied integration of tissue culture in vitro in the selection process at the station considerably promoted the rapid introduction of new rootstocks into world production. Technologies were developed for microclonal reproduction, and green and woody cuttings. The revealed light rooting of woody cuttings of stocks Kuban 86, Evrika 99, Zarevo, Best, VSL-1, RVL-9 (50-80% allowed to develop technology for growing of young plants on these rootstocks directly in the first field of the nursery.

  6. Life cycle variation of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritopoulos, J T; Tsitsipis, J A; Goudoudaki, S; Blackman, R L

    2002-08-01

    During the years 1995-1999 the life cycle category of 2797 clones of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) was examined. The clones originated from primary and secondary hosts from different localities of North and Central Greece and the island of Crete in the south. Four different overwintering life cycle strategies were found that have also been described for M. persicae and other heteroecious species previously. A geographical variation was found in the proportion of holocyclic clones from tobacco and other secondary hosts associated with the abundance of the primary host in the sampling regions. In Central Macedonia, around the main peach-growing regions, the proportion of holocyclic clones was mostly above 50% and in some cases reached 100%. In localities of East Macedonia, holocyclic clones were also frequent. On the other hand, further south or in north-eastern Greece, where peach is not common, the proportion of holocyclic clones varied between 0 and 33%. Fifty seven percent of examined anholocyclic clones produced males under short day conditions, suggesting that androcyclic clones in Greece represent an important factor of genetic variability. Intermediate clones were sampled from all host-plants but at low frequencies (3.6% of total examined clones and 6.9% of non-holocyclic ones). Moreover, a regional variation was found in different colour forms feeding on tobacco plants. Red clones were predominant in regions where aphids overwinter parthenogenetically on weeds or winter crops. However, almost all clones from the primary host were green. The ecological aspects of life cycle variation are discussed.

  7. Identification of Candidate Anthocyanin-related Genes by Transcriptomic Analysis of ‘Furongli’ Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. During Fruit Ripening Using RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhen Fang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are important pigments and are responsible for red coloration in plums. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation in plum fruits. In this study, the RNA-seq technique was used to analyze the transcriptomic changes during fruit ripening in the red-fleshed plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivar ‘Furongli’. Over 161 million high-quality reads were assembled into 52,093 unigenes and 49.4% of these were annotated using public databases. Of these, 25,681 unigenes had significant hits to the sequences in the NCBI Nr database, 17,203 unigenes showed significant similarity to known proteins in the Swiss-Prot database and 5,816 and 8,585 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and the Cluster of Orthologous Groups databases, respectively. A total of 3,548 unigenes were differentially expressed during fruit ripening and 119 of these were annotated as involved in ‘biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites’. Biological pathway analysis and gene ontology term enrichment analysis revealed that 13 differentially expressed genes are involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, transcription factors such as MYB and bHLH, which may control anthocyanin biosynthesis, were identified through coexpression analysis of transcription factors and structural genes. Real-time qPCR analysis of candidate genes showed good correlation with the transcriptome data. These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis in plum flesh. The transcriptomic data generated in this study provide a basis for further studies of fruit ripening in plum.

  8. Carotenoid content and flesh color of selected banana cultivars growing in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englberger, Lois; Wills, Ron B H; Blades, Barbara; Dufficy, Lisa; Daniells, Jeff W; Coyne, Terry

    2006-12-01

    The problems of vitamin A deficiency and chronic diseases have emerged in recent years in some countries in the Micronesian region. These problems are associated with the dietary shift towards imported processed foods and lifestyle changes. Research in the Federated States of Micronesia indicates that yellow- and orange-fleshed banana cultivars contain significant levels of provitamin A carotenoids. To identify further banana cultivars that may be promoted to alleviate vitamin A deficiency among children and women and chronic disease problems among adults. Ripe fruit of banana cultivars growing in Australia (sourced mostly from a field research collection) were assessed for carotenoid content and flesh color. Ten cultivars with yellow or yellow/orange flesh color (including common cultivars of Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands) were selected and compared with two cream-fleshed cultivars, including Williams, of the Cavendish group, the most commonly marketed banana worldwide. Carotenoid content was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Flesh color was analyzed by HunterLab colorimetry. The yellow/orange-fleshed Asupina (a Fe'i banana) contained the highest level (1,412 microg/100 g) of trans beta-carotene, the most important provitamin A carotenoid, a level more than 20 times higher than that of Williams. All 10 yellow or yellow/orange-fleshed cultivars (Asupina, Kirkirnan, Pisang Raja, Horn Plantain, Pacific Plantain, Kluai Khai Bonng, Wain, Red Dacca, Lakatan, and Sucrier) had significant carotenoid levels, potentially meeting half or all of the estimated vitamin A requirements for a nonpregnant, nonlactating adult woman within normal consumption patterns. All were acceptable for taste and other attributes. The cream-fleshed cultivars had minimal carotenoid levels. There was a positive significant correlation between carotenoid content and deeper yellow/orange coloration indicators. These yellow- or yellow/orange-fleshed carotenoid

  9. Utilization of Black Tiger Shrimp Flesh Waste for Pop Shrimp Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Eko Irianto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the utilization of black  tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon flesh waste in the processing of pop shrimp has been carried out.  So far, shrimp flesh waste is used for the production of shrimp paste, and shrimp cracker.   The objective of this study was to develop a fomula for pop shrimp production using shrimp flesh waste. Experimental design applied in this study was three-variables mixture design, in which variables observed were shrimp flesh waste, surimi and tapioca flour. Pop shrimp obtained was evaluated for sensory properties. The best product processed using a selected formula was analysed chemically and microbiologically, particularly for proxymate composition and total plate count respectively. Selected formula of pop shrimp consisted of 50.91% shrimp flesh waste, 18.18% surimi, 3.64% tapioca flour, 10.91% onion, 2.18% garlic, 0.73% pepper powder, 1.45% sugar, 0.36% monosodium glutamate, 0.73% ginger, 1.45% salt, 4.44% butter mix, 1.38% corn flour (maizena and 3.64% bread crumb. Proxymate composition of the best pop shrimp was 70.52% moisture, 0.73% ash, 0.39% fat, and 7.44% protein, while microbiological load in terms of total plate count was 3.3x103 colonies/g.

  10. In vitro anti-biofilm activity of Quercus brantii subsp. persica on human pathogenic bacteria

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    Z. Bahar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Quercus brantii subsp. persica is used in folk medicine to treat infections in Iran. There is not available report on the anti-biofilm activity of Quercus brantii subsp.  persica. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Quercus brantii subsp. persica against bacterial biofilms. Methods: Eighty biofilm producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected. Quercus brantii subsp. persica fruits aqueous extraction (QBAE was prepared though maceration method. Chemical analysis to distinguish the main components of the QBAE was carried out using thin-layer chromatography. The antibacterial effects of QBAE on bacterial isolates were determined by the Kirby-Bauer and broth microdilution methods. The antibiofilm effects of QBAE on bacterial isolates were determined using a microtiter assay. Results: The Quercus brantii subsp. persica exhibited bacterial growth inhibition and bactericidal activity on the majority of the strains at concentrations between 0.2 and 1.2 mg/mL. The average of biofilm formation inhibition by Quercus brantii subsp. persica at a minimum inhibitory concentration MIC50 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus strains were 35%, 45%, 57% and 61%, respectively. coumarins, phenols, terpenes and steroids were found in the QBAE by TLC. Conclusion: The results showed that Quercus brantii subsp. persica aqueous extraction was effective against the tested microorganisms and showed anti-biofilm activity which can be a basis for future studies to investigate for new anti-biofilm drugs.

  11. Susceptibility, Oviposition Preference, and Biology of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Prunus Spp. Rootstock Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, D; Lazzari, J C; Andreazza, F; Mayer, N A; Botton, M; Nava, D E

    2017-08-01

    Studying the susceptibility of peach trees to Grapholita molesta (Busck) is one of the major steps in the development of pest-resistant peach varieties. This work evaluated the susceptibility of 55 genotypes of the "Prunus Rootstock Collection" ("Coleção Porta-enxerto de Prunus") of Embrapa Temperate Climate (Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) to the natural infestation of G. molesta, assessed the oviposition preference of G. molesta in choice and no-choice bioassays, and estimated the biological parameters and the fertility life table on different Prunus spp. genotypes in the laboratory. Genotypes Prunus kansuensis (Rehder), I-67-52-9, and I-67-52-4 were the most susceptible to G. molesta infestation in the field (>60% of branches infested), while 'Sharpe' (Prunus angustifolia x Prunus spp.) and Prunus sellowii (Koehne) were the least infested (0% of branches infested). In choice and no-choice bioassays, G. molesta preferred to oviposit on P. kansuensis when compared with Sharpe. The Sharpe genotype also showed an antibiosis effect, resulting in negative effects on the fertility life table parameters when compared with the genotypes P. kansuensis and 'Capdeboscq.' The results found in the present study can provide information to initiate a long-term breeding program moving desired G. molesta resistance traits from the rootstock into the Prunus spp. cultivars. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Genomic analysis reveals candidate genes for PPV resistance in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharka disease, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV), is the most important disease affecting Prunus species. A major PPV resistance locus (PPVres) was previously mapped to the upper part of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) linkage group 1. In this study, a physical map of the PPVres locus in the PPV resistan...

  13. Low accumulation of chlorogenic acids represses reddening during flesh browning in Japanese peach "Okayama PEH7".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokotani, Naoki; Uraji, Misugi; Hara, Miyuki; Hihara, Seisuke; Hatanaka, Tadashi; Oda, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    In peaches, fruit flesh browns unattractively after peeling or cutting. A recently developed cultivar, Okayama PEH7, was distinct from other Japanese cultivars, including Okayama PEH8, with respect to its reduced browning potential. Homogenate prepared from Okayama PEH7 flesh had significantly less reddening during the browning reaction. Okayama PEH7 had less soluble phenolic compounds and higher polyphenol oxidase activity than Okayama PEH8. Reduced browning was observed even when phenols prepared from Okayama PEH7 were incubated with crude extract from Okayama PEH8, suggesting that phenols lower the browning potential of Okayama PEH7. In Okayama PEH7, contents of chlorogenic acid and its isomers were about one-tenth compared to Okayama PEH8. Exogenous addition of chlorogenic acid to Okayama PEH7 homogenate increased the browning potential and visibly enhanced reddening. These results indicate that the reduced browning of Okayama PEH7 flesh is due to a defect in chlorogenic acid accumulation.

  14. Berry flesh and skin ripening features in Vitis vinifera as assessed by transcriptional profiling.

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    Diego Lijavetzky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ripening of fleshy fruit is a complex developmental process involving the differentiation of tissues with separate functions. During grapevine berry ripening important processes contributing to table and wine grape quality take place, some of them flesh- or skin-specific. In this study, transcriptional profiles throughout flesh and skin ripening were followed during two different seasons in a table grape cultivar 'Muscat Hamburg' to determine tissue-specific as well as common developmental programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an updated GrapeGen Affymetrix GeneChip® annotation based on grapevine 12×v1 gene predictions, 2188 differentially accumulated transcripts between flesh and skin and 2839 transcripts differentially accumulated throughout ripening in the same manner in both tissues were identified. Transcriptional profiles were dominated by changes at the beginning of veraison which affect both pericarp tissues, although frequently delayed or with lower intensity in the skin than in the flesh. Functional enrichment analysis identified the decay on biosynthetic processes, photosynthesis and transport as a major part of the program delayed in the skin. In addition, a higher number of functional categories, including several related to macromolecule transport and phenylpropanoid and lipid biosynthesis, were over-represented in transcripts accumulated to higher levels in the skin. Functional enrichment also indicated auxin, gibberellins and bHLH transcription factors to take part in the regulation of pre-veraison processes in the pericarp, whereas WRKY and C2H2 family transcription factors seems to more specifically participate in the regulation of skin and flesh ripening, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A transcriptomic analysis indicates that a large part of the ripening program is shared by both pericarp tissues despite some components are delayed in the skin. In addition, important tissue differences are

  15. Largely different contents of terpenoids in beef red-flesh tangerine and its wild type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyun; Liu, Cuihua; He, Min; Li, Jinqiang; Cai, Yongqiang; Ma, Yuhua; Xu, Juan

    2017-02-03

    Niurouhong (Citrus reticulata Blanco. Niurouhong) (NRH) is a spontaneous beef-red flesh mutant with distinctive flavor compared with its wild type orange-red flesh Zhuhongju (ZHJ). To illustrate the biochemical mechanism of its special flesh color and flavor, fruits at commercial mature stage were used to profile the volatiles in the flavedo and determine the levels of carotenoids, limonoid aglycones and phytohormones in the juice sacs in two seasons. Our results showed the content of total volatile terpenoids in NRH was 1.27-fold that in ZHJ. The components of volatiles were found to be common between the two tangerines. This result indicates that the distinctive flavor of NRH might not be derived from the presence/absence of specific volatiles; instead, it was derived from the altered concentrations or balance of α-citral, β-citral, 2-cyclohexen-1-one, (S)-3-methyl-6-(1-methylethenyl) and n-hexadecanoic acid. Analyses of the contents of total and specific carotenoids indicated that the beef-red color of NRH flesh might be largely attributed to the over accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene. However, lower ABA level was found in NRH than in ZHJ, reflecting a possible feedback regulation of ABA biosynthesis on carotenogenesis and the balance in the metabolism among terpenoids. Collectively, our study suggested that the MEP pathway was enhanced in NRH tangerine. However, a certain unknown co-regulatory mechanism might be present in the metabolism pathway of secondary metabolites (especially terpenoids) in beef-red flesh mutant. Our study provides new insights into the regulatory network of terpenoid metabolism and mutation mechanism of red-fleshed citrus.

  16. Effects of mti-2 Transgenic Potato Plants on the Aphid Myzus persicae (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae

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    Julien Saguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexpressed in transgenic plants, protease inhibitors showed insecticidal effects against several insect taxa. We transformed potato internodes with the mustard trypsin inhibitor mti-2 gene. Among the 35 independent transgenic potato lines obtained via Agrobacterium tumefasciens transformation, four (DM6, DM7, DM11, and DM19 were selected for their high level of MTI-2 (at least to 30% of trypsin activity inhibition. Feeding assays were carried out to evaluate their effects on the green-peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae. Prereproductive period, nymphal mortality, adult fecundity, and doubling time of M. persicae populations were monitored on nontransformed potato plants (NT and the four selected DM lines. Compared to NT plants, DM19 did not induce any effect on M. persicae. In contrast, DM7 and DM11 increased nymphal survival by approximately 20%. DM6 and DM11 lines slightly enhanced M. persicae daily fecundity and intrinsic rate of natural increase, leading to a reduction of the doubling time of the populations by 1 day. DM6 did not impact nymphal mortality, whereas with the DM11 almost all the nymphs survived. Potato plants transformed with the mti-2 gene variably affected the life history of M. persicae but did not show any insecticidal effect on the aphid.

  17. An Iconography of the Flesh: How Corpses Mean As Matter

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    Margaret Shwartz

    2013-09-01

    the processes of decomposition, with the interventions of photography and embalming, with the cultural practices of disposal that ritually encounter and resolve this “remaining.” The corpse diversely and dynamically organizes the cultural, the representational, the biological, the subjective and the objective, the ritual and the metaphysical. I argue that lingering with the corpse as a dynamic assemblage allows for the development of a nuanced and materialistic notion of agency. I further suggest that this kind of reading provocatively develops Bill Brown’s question, “What might scholars accomplish through a materialist analysis of media?” Corpses are unique objects in that they already suggest themselves as figures of the material, thus literally embodying the question of what a materialist media studies might look like. Corpses communicate something to us about the flesh; they are the not-so-passive objects of technological, ritual and representational practices; they are the perfect starting point for a materialist communication and media studies.

  18. The morphological variation of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae from peach and tobacco in Serbia and Montenegro

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    Vučetić Anđa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate morphometric analysis was used to compare nine characteristics of 47 populations of Myzus persicae (Sulzer originating from two host-plants, peach and tobacco, from 13 localities in 2004 and 34 localities in 2005, in Serbia and Montenegro. Multivariant discriminant analysis showed there to be a distinct discrimination between the populations from the peach and tobacco host-plants. The most important discrimination characteristics are the ultimate rostral segment length and processes terminalis length, which are greater in the aphids from tobacco than in those from peach. This is the first indication that in this part of Europe there are two subspecies: M. persicae (Sulzer and M. persicae nicotianae Blackman. .

  19. Determination of Resistance Levels of Myzus persicae (Sulzer by Biochemical Methods

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    Olivera Petrović-Obradović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Peach/potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer has developed three mechanisms of resistance: overproduction of one or two closely related carboxylesterases (E4 and FE4, production of modified acetylcholinesterase (MACE and knockdown resistance. Biochemicaldiagnostic methods can be used to identify levels of carboxylesterase production and sensitivity of modified acetylcholinesterase and, based on the values acquired we can classify aphids into one of the resistance cathegories. We used two tests: the total esterase activitytest and test for checking sensitivity of acetylcholinesterase (MACE. Myzus periscae persicae from peach and Myzus persicae nicotianae from tobacco were tested. The total esterase activity test showed that 65% of the aphids tested were moderately resistant and 35% were highly resistant. Resistance based on the production of modified acetylcholinesterase is less represented because 80% of the aphids tested were susceptible to pirimicarb, which was used in the experiment. Also, both tests showed that aphids from tobacco were more susceptible than aphids from peach.

  20. Sublethal Effects of Thiamethoxam on the Demographic Parameters of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Zhou, Li-Lin; Yang, Fan; Li, Mang; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Yong; Lei, Chao-Liang; Si, Sheng-Yun

    2017-08-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an important sap-sucking pest of many crops, including Chinese cabbage, Brassinca oleracea L. The neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam has been used as an effective insecticide to control M. persicae in cabbage fields. In this study, we assessed the effects of sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam on demographic parameters of M. persicae. In leaf-dip bioassays, thiamethoxam showed a relatively high toxicity against M. persicae with an LC50 of 6.80 mg liter-1. The duration of the preadult stage was not significantly affected in the sublethal bioassay. Additionally, the longevity and adult preoviposition period were not significantly affected by sublethal thiamethoxam. However, sublethal thiamethoxam significantly increased fecundity (LC10) and prolonged the total preoviposition period (LC40). Consequently, the finite rate of increase (λ) and the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) of aphids exposed to the LC40 were significantly lower than those of control aphids, whereas the net reproductive rate (R0) was higher, and the generation time (T) and the population doubling time (DT) were longer in the treated group. Based on these results, hormesis was induced by sublethal thiamethoxam in M. persicae, with the population growth of M. persicae negatively affected at higher sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam. Therefore, our study indicated that the possible effects of thiamethoxam on aphids require further study to develop optimized integrated pest management strategies. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Flesh color inheritance and gene interactions among canary yellow, pale yellow and red watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two loci, C and i-C were previously reported to determine flesh color between canary yellow and red watermelon. Recently LCYB was found as a color determinant gene for canary yellow (C) and co-dominant CAPS marker was developed to identify canary yellow and red alleles. Another report suggested th...

  2. Effect of added purple-fleshed sweet potato and cassava flour on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to find alternatives to wheat flour for bakery applications has become pressing, especially in countries where wheat is not grown. This study was undertaken to assess the quality of biscuits produced from a composite flour of purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP), high quality cassava flour (HQCF) and wheat flour ...

  3. Purple Pelisse: A specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and flesh and medium specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple Pelisse is a specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and dark purple flesh. It has medium maturity and sets a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers. The tubers have medium specific gravity and high levels of antioxidants. This potato variety is mainly intended for the f...

  4. The potential of orange-fleshed sweet potato to prevent vitamin A deficiency in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmu, Fekadu; Hussein, Shimelis; Laing, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is among major health problems worldwide that leads to blindness, retarded growth and death, particularly in developing countries. In these countries, vitamin A deficiency largely affects pre-school children, pregnant and lactating mothers, and the rural poor. For instance, the predicted prevalence of vitamin A deficiency for 36 sub-Saharan African countries is 19.1%. Different strategies, including vitamin A supplementation, food fortification and dietary diversification, have been used to combat this problem. However, these strategies are not sustainable due to their high costs. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) is a low priced crop, which is part of staple foods in most of sub-Saharan Africa that can be a year-round source of vitamin A. Most of the orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties contain 3000-16000 μg 100 g(-1) of β-carotene and this contributes to 250 to 1300 μg 100 g(-1) Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE). Therefore, by using orange-fleshed sweet potato, it is possible to improve vitamin A status, increase the bio-availability of different micro-nutrients such as Fe, Zn, Ca and Mg, reduce vitamin A deficiency and hence reduce child mortality rates by 23 to 30%. The article highlights the significance of vitamin A for human nutrition, the effect of vitamin A deficiency, the different prevention methods and the potential of orange- fleshed sweet potato as a food crop to prevent vitamin A deficiency.

  5. Evaluation of flesh and serum concentrations of Al, Zn, Mn and Sb in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of flesh and serum concentrations of Al, Zn, Mn and Sb in African cat fish ( Clarias gariepinus ) reared in plastic ponds in Benin City, Nigeria. ... of aluminum, antimony, manganese and zinc in the body and serum of Clarias gariepinus were above the WHO recommended limit for fish and fish products. Hence, it is ...

  6. The influence of anaerobic muscle activity, maturation and season on the flesh quality of farmed turbot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, B.; Imsland, A.; Stien, L.H.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Gunnarsson, S.; Foss, A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to test seasonal, rearing, maturing and anaerobic muscle activity effect on the flesh quality of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) a total of 80 farmed turbot from three different strains from reared under natural or continuous light were killed by a percussive blow to the head in November

  7. An Optimal Set of Flesh Points on Tongue and Lips for Speech-Movement Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Samal, Ashok; Rong, Panying; Green, Jordan R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors sought to determine an optimal set of flesh points on the tongue and lips for classifying speech movements. Method: The authors used electromagnetic articulographs (Carstens AG500 and NDI Wave) to record tongue and lip movements from 13 healthy talkers who articulated 8 vowels, 11 consonants, a phonetically balanced set of…

  8. Continuous flow microwave-assisted processing and aseptic packaging of purple-fleshed sweetpotato purees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpable purees from purple-flesh sweetpotatoes (PFSP) were subjected to microwave heating using a 915 MHz continuous flow system, followed by aseptic packaging in flexible containers to obtain a shelf-stable product. Initial test runs were conducted using a 5 kW microwave unit to measure dielectr...

  9. Desenvolvimento ninfal de Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae sobre berinjela em diferentes temperaturas Nymphal development of Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae on eggplant at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton Rodrigues Chagas Filho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas no desenvolvimento ninfal de Myzus persicae sobre folhas de berinjela (Solanum melongena. O experimento foi desenvolvido em câmaras climatizadas, sob condições controladas de temperatura de 15, 20, 25 e 30 ± 1 ºC, umidade relativa do ar de 70% ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. A biologia de M. persicae foi acompanhada sobre discos foliares de berinjela (3 cm de diâmetro mantidos em placas de Petri contendo solução ágar-água a 1% geleificada. Foram estimadas as curvas mais ajustadas à duração dos estádios ninfais de M. persicae, suas equações de regressão e os respectivos coeficientes de determinação (R². O número de estádios ninfais foi afetado pela temperatura; a 15 e 20 ºC, respectivamente, em 30,4% e 4,2% das ninfas observou-se um estádio adicional. Afídeos mantidos a 30 ºC apresentaram a menor viabilidade na fase ninfal (8%. A duração da fase ninfal foi de 9,4; 7,6; 5,9 e 7,0 dias, respectivamente, a 15, 20, 25 e 30 ºC. As temperaturas de 15 e 20 ºC foram as mais favoráveis para o desenvolvimento ninfal de M. persicae sobre discos de folha de berinjela.The objective of this work was to study the nymphal development of Myzus persicae on leaves of eggplant (Solanum melongena at four constant temperatures. The experiment was carried out in the bio-control laboratory, with the following controlled conditions: temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30 ºC ± 1 ºC; relative humidity (70% ± 10%, and photophase (12 hours. The biology of M. persicae was followed on leaf discs (3 cm diameter kept in Petri dishes containing a layer of agar-water (1%. It was evaluated the best fitted curve to the biological aspects of M. persicae, as well as their regression equations and respective determination coefficients (R². The number of nymphal stage was affected by temperature: 15 and 20 ºC, resulted in 30.4% and 4.2% of nymphs showing an 5th nymphal stage

  10. A review of the traditional and modern uses of Salvadora persica L. (Miswak): Toothbrush tree of Prophet Muhammad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumeeruddy, Muhammad Zakariyyah; Zengin, Gokhan; Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi

    2018-03-01

    Salvadora persica L., also known as Arak (in Arabic) and Peelu (in Urdu), is the most common traditional source of tooth or chewing stick (miswak) highly recommended by Prophet Muhammad. To date, extensive studies have probed primarily into the validation of its traditional uses in oral care. Nonetheless, there is still a dearth of updated compilation and critical analysis of other potential ethnopharmacological properties of S. persica. This review therefore aims to provide an up-to-date detailed structured description of the traditional uses of S. persica and a critical analysis of its modern uses, highlighting its phytochemistry, pharmacological properties, and bioapplications. Various databases (Science Direct, PubMed, Wiley Online Library, and Google Scholar), books, and relevant primary sources were probed, surveyed, analysed, and included in this review. The literature cited in this review dated from 1979 to 2017. S. persica was found to possess a plethora of bioactive compounds and broad pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory activity, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, sedative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antiosteoporosis, and antitumor activities. Studies also revealed the potential use of S. persica as a natural food preservative and a novel functional food ingredient. In addition, improvement in growth and reproductive performances have been observed by the introduction of S. persica in animal feed. Lastly, S. persica has also been used in the green synthesis of nanoparticles showing potential biotechnological applications. S. persica showed a wide scope of application and its uses have been extended far beyond the initial traditional uses of its roots, stems, and twigs in oral care. We found a number of other ethnopharmacological uses and potential bioapplications of different parts of S. persica that warrants further investigations. Though widely studied using several in vitro and in

  11. Evaluación en pérdidas de durazno (Prunus persica variedad rubidoux en la granja experimental Tunguavita Paipa, Boyacá, Colombia

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    Angela Johana Lemus Cerón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Boyacá es un departamento colombiano con una posición geográfica privilegiada, cuya economía se basa principalmente en la producción agropecuaria; el durazno representa un renglón importante en la economía frutícola de Boyacá, sin embargo algunas prácticas culturales y de manejo de cultivos inadecuados han generado pérdidas graduales en el proceso productivo. A fin de comparar la producción en un huerto con extensión de 4 ha, distribuido en tres lotes de durazno variedad Rubidoux, en la granja experimental Tunguavita, municipio de Paipa, Boyacá, Colombia, se seleccionó una muestra aleatoria de 150 árboles frutales, marcados de acuerdo a la distribución del huerto de durazno, los datos recopilados en campo se tomaron con base en la producción y a variables de pérdida como número de frutos totales por árbol, frutos sobremaduros, frutos caídos por accidente, frutos aptos no cosechados, frutos desechados por daño. El análisis mostró que al obtener los 3 intervalos de diferencias en cuanto al límite superior e inferior, la producción es mayor en los lotes 1 y 2 respecto al lote 3, para las variables de pérdida el porcentaje fue del 14%, y los parámetros obtenidos, no presentaron diferencias estadísticas.

  12. Ectopic expression of a novel peach (Prunus persica) CBF transcription factor in apple (Malus × domestica) results in short-day induced dormancy and increased cold hardiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Michael; Norelli, John; Bassett, Carole; Artlip, Timothy; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2011-05-01

    Low, non-freezing temperatures and/or short daylength (SD) regulates cold acclimation and dormancy in fruit trees. Regarding cold acclimation, C-repeat binding factor (CBF/DREB) transcriptional activator genes have the well-documented ability to induce the expression of a suite of genes associated with increased cold tolerance. We isolated a full-length cDNA of a peach CBF gene, designated PpCBF1 (GenBank Accession HM992943), and constitutively expressed it using an enhanced 35S promoter in apple. Unexpectedly, constitutive overexpression of the PpCBF1 in apple resulted in strong sensitivity to short daylength. Growth cessation and leaf senescence were induced in transgenic lines exposed to SD and optimal growth temperatures of 25°C over a 4-week period. Following 1-4 weeks of SD and 25°C trees were returned to LD and 25°C in the greenhouse. Control (untransformed) plants continued to grow while transgenic lines receiving two or more weeks of SD remained dormant and began to drop leaves. Constitutive overexpression of the PpCBF1 in apple resulted in a 4-6°C increase in freezing tolerance in both the non-acclimated and acclimated states, respectively, compared with untransformed M.26 trees. This is the first instance that constitutive overexpression of a CBF gene has resulted in SD-induction of dormancy and to our knowledge the first time apple has been shown to strongly respond to short daylength as a result of the insertion of a transgene.

  13. Drought resistance of introdused nectarine varieties (Prunus persica (L. Batsch subsp. nucipersica Dipp. in the conditions of South Coast of the Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. В. Шишова

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The studying results of drought resistance for introdused nectarine varieties in the conditions of South Coast of the Crimea have been given. Four varieties shoved high resistance to drought conditions during two years have been selected.

  14. Drought-resistant of nectarine varieties and forms (Prunus persica (L. Batsch subsp. nectarina (Ait. Shof. with the sign of male infertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Іващенко

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The drought-resistance of 15 nectarine varieties and forms with a sign of male infertility is studied. The research identified genotypes with varying degrees of drought-resistance. The greatest degree of drought-resistance demonstrated the form 33-3-1, 512-86,41-15-2, and grade Kul'dzhinskiy 4x, Krymtsuht, Elbertaziya.

  15. DIVERSIDAD LOCAL Y PRÁCTICAS AGRÍCOLAS ASOCIADAS AL CULTIVO TRADICIONAL DE DURAZNOS, PRUNUS PERSICA (ROSACEAE, EN EL NOROESTE DE ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alejandra Lambaré

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo constituye una aproximación etnobotánica a la diversidad de grupos y variedades locales de duraznos y los criterios para delimitar esos etnotaxones. Además, se describen las prácticas de manejo que acompañan la conservación de este cultivo en una comunidad del noroeste argentino. Se estableció una clasificación principal, denominada grupos de cultivariedades, la cual se define como el conjunto de variedades reunidas bajo un único nombre vulgar, resultado de la suma de atributos y diversos criterios definidos localmente. Asimismo, se estableció una subcategorización en etnovariedades definidas por características particulares. Este primer acercamiento evidencia el valor trascendental que adquiere la incorporación y apropiación de un recurso foráneo como elemento representativo del paisaje y del contexto sociocultural de la comunidad, el cual se expresa en el profundo conocimiento que poseen los pobladores para diseñar una clasificación e incorporar prácticas agrícolas asociadas a este cultivo.

  16. Changes in fruit sugar concentrations in response to assimilate supply, metabolism and dilution: a modeling approach applied to peach fruit (Prunus persica)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Génard, M; Lescourret, F; Gomez, L; Habib, R

    2003-01-01

    ...) fruit during the main stage of fruit enlargement was analyzed with the SUGAR model of Génard and Souty (1996). The model predicts the partitioning of carbon into sucrose, sorbitol, glucose and fructose in the mesocarp of peach fruit...

  17. Variation in minerals, phenolics and antioxidant activity of peel and pulp of different varieties of peach (Prunus persica L.) fruit from Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manzoor, Maleeha; Anwar, Farooq; Mahmood, Zahed; Rashid, Umer; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    .... In this study variation of minerals and antioxidant characteristics (total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of peroxidation using linoleic acid system and DPPH free radical scavenging activity...

  18. Deciphering the interplay among genotype, maturity stage and low-temperature storage on phytochemical composition and transcript levels of enzymatic antioxidants in Prunus persica fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganaris, George A; Drogoudi, Pavlina; Goulas, Vlasios; Tanou, Georgia; Georgiadou, Egli C; Pantelidis, George E; Paschalidis, Konstantinos A; Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Manganaris, Athanasios

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the antioxidant metabolic changes of peach (cvs. 'Royal Glory', 'Red Haven' and 'Sun Cloud') and nectarine fruits (cv. 'Big Top') exposed to different combinations of low-temperature storage (0, 2, 4 weeks storage at 0 °C, 90% R.H.) and additional ripening at room temperature (1, 3 and 5 d, shelf life, 20 °C) with an array of analytical, biochemical and molecular approaches. Initially, harvested fruit of the examined cultivars were segregated non-destructively at advanced and less pronounced maturity stages and qualitative traits, physiological parameters, phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity were determined. 'Big Top' and 'Royal Glory' fruits were characterized by slower softening rate and less pronounced ripening-related alterations. The coupling of HPLC fingerprints, consisted of 7 phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, neochlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, rutin, quecetin-3-O-glucoside, procyanidin B1) and spectrophotometric methods disclosed a great impact of genotype on peach bioactive composition, with 'Sun Cloud' generally displaying the highest contents. Maturity stage at harvest did not seem to affect fruit phenolic composition and no general guidelines for the impact of cold storage and shelf-life on individual phenolic compounds can be extrapolated. Subsequently, fruit of less pronounced maturity at harvest were used for further molecular analysis. 'Sun Cloud' was proven efficient in protecting plasmid pBR322 DNA against ROO attack throughout the experimental period and against HO attack after 2 and 4 weeks of cold storage. Interestingly, a general down-regulation of key genes implicated in the antioxidant apparatus with the prolongation of storage period was recorded; this was more evident for CAT, cAPX, Cu/ZnSOD2, perAPX3 and GPX8 genes. Higher antioxidant capacity of 'Sun Cloud' fruit could potentially be linked with compounds other than enzymatic antioxidants that further regulate peach fruit ripening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. The antitussive activity of polysaccharides from Althaea officinalis l., var. Robusta, Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules, and Prunus persica L., Batsch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutovska, M; Nosalova, G; Franova, S; Kardosova, A

    2007-01-01

    The therapy of pathological type of cough presents serious medical problem. The aim of experiments was to investigate polysaccacharide influence on experimentally induced cough. The purified and/or modified polysaccharides from the flowers and plants, characterized by chemical composition and molecular properties were subjected to tests for antitussive activity on cough, induced mechanically in conscious cats of both sexes. The results revealed that the tested polysaccharides exhibited statistically significant cough-suppressing activity, which was noticeably higher than that of the non-narcotic drug used in clinical practice to treat coughing. The most expressive antitussive activity was observed with the polysaccharide from marsh mallow, containing the highest proportion of the uronic acid constituent. Negative influence of the tested compounds on expectoration was negligible when compared to that of codeine. Antitussive activity of various plant polysaccharides was confirmed. These results allow ranging them among prospective antitussive agents (Tab. 2, Fig. 6, Ref. 15) Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  20. DNA-based identification of Armillaria isolates from peach [Prunus persica (l.) batsch] orchards in méxico state, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben D. Elias-Roman; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim; Dionicio Alvarado-Rosales; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Remigio Anastacio Guzman-Plazola; Guillermo Calderon-Zavala; Antonio Mora-Aguilera

    2013-01-01

    A collaborative project between the Programa de Fitopatología, Colegio de Postgraduados, Texcoco, Edo. de México and the USDA Forest Service-RMRS, Moscow Forest Pathology Laboratory began in 2011 to identify which species of Armillaria are causing widespread and severe damage to the peach orchards from México State, México. We are employing a DNA-based approach in...

  1. Effects of storage temperature, storage duration, and subsequent ripening on the physicochemical characteristics, volatile compounds, and phytochemicals of Western Red nectarine (Prunus persica L. Batsch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Christophe; Bony, Philippe; Chalot, Guillaume; Landry, Pierre; Lurol, Sebastien

    2014-05-21

    Western Red nectarines, harvested at commercial maturity, were stored for up to 20 days at 1, 4, or 8 °C and then transferred to 25 °C for 0 or 4 days. The main physicochemical attributes, phytochemicals, and volatile compounds were then determined. During storage and ripening, firmness, titratable acidity, organic acids, and C6 volatile compounds decreased, whereas ethylene production, lactones, and C13 norisoprenoids greatly increased. Soluble solids content, sugars, and polyphenols remained quite constant during both stages. During storage, vitamin C decreased and carotenoids did not significantly change, whereas both greatly increased during ripening. Increased time of low-temperature storage has been found to decrease lactones and C13 norisoprenoids in nectarine and, consequently, to limit its aroma during maturation. Finally, Western Red nectarine was found hardly chilling injury sensitive, and trends for sugars, polyphenols and lactones observed in this study were contrary to those generally reported in the literature for chilling-injured fruit.

  2. Ecotopic expression of a novel peach (Prunus persica) CBF transcription factor in apple (Malus x domestica) results in short-day induced dormancy and increased cold hardiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulation of growth and dormancy in temperate perennials such as fruit trees is essential, as is the ability to acclimate to freezing temperatures. Depending on the species, the onset of either dormancy and or cold acclimation can be triggered to varying degrees by either or both low, non-freezing...

  3. The KNOTTED-like genes of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) are differentially expressed during drupe growth and the class 1 KNOPE1 contributes to mesocarp development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testone, Giulio; Condello, Emiliano; Di Giacomo, Elisabetta; Nicolodi, Chiara; Caboni, Emilia; Rasori, Angela; Bonghi, Claudio; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice; Giannino, Donato

    2015-08-01

    The Knotted-like transcription factors (KNOX) contribute to plant organ development. The expression patterns of peach KNOX genes showed that the class 1 members act precociously (S1-S2 stages) and differentially during drupe growth. Specifically, the transcription of KNOPE1 and 6 decreased from early (cell division) to late (cell expansion) S1 sub-stages, whilst that of STMlike1, 2, KNOPE2, 2.1 ceased at early S1. The KNOPE1 role in mesocarp was further addressed by studying the mRNA localization in the pulp cells and vascular net at early and late S1. The message signal was first diffuse in parenchymatous cells and then confined to hypodermal cell layers, showing that the gene down-tuning accompanied cell expansion. As for bundles, the mRNA mainly featured in the procambium/phloem of collateral open types and subsequently in the phloem side of complex structures (converging bundles, ducts). The KNOPE1 overexpression in Arabidopsis caused fruit shortening, decrease of mesocarp cell size, diminution of vascular lignification together with the repression of the major gibberellin synthesis genes AtGA20ox1 and AtGA3ox1. Negative correlation between the expression of KNOPE1 and PpGA3ox1 was observed in four cultivars at S1, suggesting that the KNOPE1 repression of PpGA3ox1 may regulate mesocarp differentiation by acting on gibberellin homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiação gama na conservação pós-colheita da nectarina (Prunus persica var. Nucipersica frigoconservada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Leandro Camargo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido no laboratório de Frutas e Hortaliças do Departamento de Gestão e Tecnologia Agroindustrial da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP - Câmpus de Botucatu, tendo como objetivo principal a caracterização do comportamento da radiação gama, na conservação pós-colheita da nectarina cv. "Sunred". Os frutos foram colhidos no início do estádio de maturação, selecionados, limpos, pré-resfriados (4masculineC por 12 horas e submetidos a diferentes doses de radiação gama, constituindo assim os tratamentos: 1 0,0 kGy, 2 - 0,2 kGy, 3 - 0,4 kGy, 4 - 0,6 kGy, 5 - 0,8 kGy, sendo após armazenados em câmara fria com temperaturas de 0masculineC e 90-95% de UR, por 28 dias. As análises foram realizadas a cada sete dias, determinando-se o aspecto visual dos frutos, a perda de massa fresca, a firmeza de polpa, a acidez total titulável (ATT, os sólidos solúveis totais (STT e a razão STT/ATT. Após 28 dias de armazenamento, verificou-se que os frutos submetidos à dose de 0,4 kGy apresentaram o melhor aspecto visual, as menores perdas de massa fresca, e a maior firmeza de polpa, não ocorrendo, entretanto, variações significativas nos teores de acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis totais e nos valores da razão SST/ATT.

  5. Seasonal CO[sub 2] exchange patterns of developing peach (Prunus persica) fruits in response to temperature, light and CO[sub 2] concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavel, E.W.; DeJong, T.M. (Dept. of Pomology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    CO[sub 2] exchange rates per unit dry weight, measured in the field on attached fruits of the late-maturing Cal Red peach cultivar, at 1200 [mu]mol photons m[sup -2] s[sup -1] and in dark, and photosynthetic rates, calculated by the difference between the rates of CO[sub 2] evolution in light and dark, declined over the growing season. Photosynthetic rates per fruit increased with increasing fruit dry matter, but declined in maturing fruits, coinciding with the loss of chlorophyll. Slight net fruit photosynthetic rates were measured in midseason under optimal temperature and light conditions. Fruit photosynthetic rates increased with increasing temperatures and photon flux densities during fruit development. Dark respiration rates per unit dry weight doubled within a temperature interval of 10 deg. C; the mean seasonal Q[sub 10] value was 2.03 between 20 and 30 deg. C. Highest photosynthetic rates were measured at 35 deg. C. Fruit photosynthesis was stimulated by high internal CO[sub 2] concentrations via CO[sub 2] refixation. At 15 deg. C, fruit photosynthetic rates were saturated at about 600 [mu]mol photons m[sup -2] s[sup -1]. Young peach fruits responded to increasing ambient CO[sub 2] concentrations with decreasing net CO[sub 2] exchange rates in light, but mature fruits did not. Fruit CO[sub 2] exchange rates in the dark were uninfluenced by ambient CO[sub 2] concentrations. Photosynthetic rates of younger peach fruits approached saturation at 370 [mu]l CO[sub 2] l[sup -1]. In CO[sub 2]-free air, fruit photosynthesis was dependent on CO[sub 2] refixation. Young peach fruits were able to take up CO[sub 2] from the external atmosphere. CO[sub 2] uptake by peach fruits contributed between 28 and 16% to the fruit photosynthetic rate early in the season, whereas photosynthesis in maturing fruits was supplied entirely by CO[sub 2] refixation. (AB) (42 refs.)

  6. Polyphenolics from peach (Prunus persica var. Rich Lady) inhibit tumor growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noratto, Giuliana; Porter, Weston; Byrne, David; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2014-07-01

    The tumor growth inhibition and anti-metastatic effects of peach polyphenolics were investigated in vivo using a xenograft model and MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells. Results showed that tumor growth and lung metastasis were inhibited in vivo by peach polyphenolics in a dose range of 0.8-1.6 mg/day, and these effects were mediated by inhibition of metalloproteinases gene expression. Modulation of metalloproteinase-2, metalloproteinase-3 and metalloproteinase-13 gene expression may be some of the molecular targets for anti-metastatic activity of peach polyphenolics. Therefore, these compounds may constitute a novel chemopreventive tool to reduce the risk of metastasis in the combination therapy when primary cancer is diagnosed. Conversion to equivalent human intake for future clinical studies using the body surface area normalization method gave a dose of ~370.6 mg/day for a human adult of 60 kg, which can be supplied by consuming two to three peach fruit per day or alternatively using a dietary supplement peach polyphenol extract powder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genotyping by Sequencing for SNP-Based Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Chilling Requirement and Bloom Date in Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielenberg, Douglas Gary; Rauh, Bradley; Fan, Shenghua; Gasic, Ksenija; Abbott, Albert Glenn; Reighard, Gregory Lynn; Okie, William R; Wells, Christina Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Low-cost, high throughput genotyping methods are crucial to marker discovery and marker-assisted breeding efforts, but have not been available for many 'specialty crops' such as fruit and nut trees. Here we apply the Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS) method developed for cereals to the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a peach F2 mapping population. Peach is a genetic and genomic model within the Rosaceae and will provide a template for the use of this method with other members of this family. Our F2 mapping population of 57 genotypes segregates for bloom time (BD) and chilling requirement (CR) and we have extensively phenotyped this population. The population derives from a selfed F1 progeny of a cross between 'Hakuho' (high CR) and 'UFGold' (low CR). We were able to successfully employ GBS and the TASSEL GBS pipeline without modification of the original methodology using the ApeKI restriction enzyme and multiplexing at an equivalent of 96 samples per Illumina HiSeq 2000 lane. We obtained hundreds of SNP markers which were then used to construct a genetic linkage map and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BD and CR.

  8. Complete nucleotide sequences of the genomes of two isolates of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus from peach (Prunus persica) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Feiqing; Pan, Song; Wu, Zujian; Jiang, Dongmei; Li, Shifang

    2012-04-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of two isolates of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (Z1 and Z3) collected from peach in Henan Province, China, were determined. The genomes of both Z1 and Z3 were found to contain three open reading frames (ORFs). Sequence analysis showed that genomic sequences of Z1 and Z3 isolates shared 67.4%-82.9% and 67.2%-82.6% identity, respectively, with the other eight isolates of ACLSV that have been reported previously. Based on the putative amino acid sequences of the products of the three ORFs, Z1 and Z3 isolates showed the greatest identity to isolate PBM1 (GenBank accession number AJ243438) from plum and the least identity with isolate Ta Tao5 (GenBank Accession Number: EU223295) from peach. Considering the low level of sequence identity between Z1/Z3 isolate and Ta Tao5 isolate, two types of ACLSV may exist in peach.

  9. Genotyping by Sequencing for SNP-Based Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Chilling Requirement and Bloom Date in Peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Gary Bielenberg

    Full Text Available Low-cost, high throughput genotyping methods are crucial to marker discovery and marker-assisted breeding efforts, but have not been available for many 'specialty crops' such as fruit and nut trees. Here we apply the Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS method developed for cereals to the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in a peach F2 mapping population. Peach is a genetic and genomic model within the Rosaceae and will provide a template for the use of this method with other members of this family. Our F2 mapping population of 57 genotypes segregates for bloom time (BD and chilling requirement (CR and we have extensively phenotyped this population. The population derives from a selfed F1 progeny of a cross between 'Hakuho' (high CR and 'UFGold' (low CR. We were able to successfully employ GBS and the TASSEL GBS pipeline without modification of the original methodology using the ApeKI restriction enzyme and multiplexing at an equivalent of 96 samples per Illumina HiSeq 2000 lane. We obtained hundreds of SNP markers which were then used to construct a genetic linkage map and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for BD and CR.

  10. Overexpression of a peach (Prunus persica) AP2/ERF-family transcription factor in apple (Malus x domestica) induces growth cessation in response to short photoperiod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change will result in extreme swings in temperature during late fall and early spring that will have a negative impact on woody plants. Apple may be especially sensitive to the predicted weather patterns since growth cessation is regulated by low temperature rather than daylength. We have ...

  11. Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response associated genes in seed stratification and bud endodormancy during chilling accumulation in Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xi Ling; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Dong Ling; Chen, Min; Tan, Qiu Ping; Li, Ling; De Chen, Xiu; Gao, Dong Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Dormancy mechanisms in seeds and buds arrest growth until environmental conditions are optimal for development. A genotype-specific period of chilling is usually required to release dormancy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. To discover transcriptional pathways associated with dormancy release common to seed stratification and bud endodormancy, we explored the chilling-dependent expression of 11 genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response signal pathways. We propose that endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response impact on seed as well as bud germination and development by chilling-dependent mechanisms. The emerging discovery of similarities between seed stratification and bud endodormancy status indicate that these two processes are probably regulated by common endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response signalling pathways. Clarification of regulatory pathways common to both seed and bud dormancy may enhance understanding of the mechanisms underlying dormancy and breeding programs may benefit from earlier prediction of chilling requirements for uniform blooming of novel genotypes of deciduous fruit tree species.

  12. Construction of a genetic linkage map for identification of molecular markers associated with resistance to Xanthomonas arboriciola pv. pruni in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni, is a serious disease that can affect peach fruit quality and production. The molecular basis of its tolerance and susceptibility is yet to be understood. To study the genetics of the peach in response to bacterial spot, an F2 population of ...

  13. Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response associated genes in seed stratification and bud endodormancy during chilling accumulation in Prunus persica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Ling Fu

    Full Text Available Dormancy mechanisms in seeds and buds arrest growth until environmental conditions are optimal for development. A genotype-specific period of chilling is usually required to release dormancy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. To discover transcriptional pathways associated with dormancy release common to seed stratification and bud endodormancy, we explored the chilling-dependent expression of 11 genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response signal pathways. We propose that endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response impact on seed as well as bud germination and development by chilling-dependent mechanisms. The emerging discovery of similarities between seed stratification and bud endodormancy status indicate that these two processes are probably regulated by common endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response signalling pathways. Clarification of regulatory pathways common to both seed and bud dormancy may enhance understanding of the mechanisms underlying dormancy and breeding programs may benefit from earlier prediction of chilling requirements for uniform blooming of novel genotypes of deciduous fruit tree species.

  14. DIVERSIDAD LOCAL Y PRÁCTICAS AGRÍCOLAS ASOCIADAS AL CULTIVO TRADICIONAL DE DURAZNOS, PRUNUS PERSICA (ROSACEAE), EN EL NOROESTE DE ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    D. Alejandra Lambaré; M. Lelia Pochettino

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo constituye una aproximación etnobotánica a la diversidad de grupos y variedades locales de duraznos y los criterios para delimitar esos etnotaxones. Además, se describen las prácticas de manejo que acompañan la conservación de este cultivo en una comunidad del noroeste argentino. Se estableció una clasificación principal, denominada grupos de cultivariedades, la cual se define como el conjunto de variedades reunidas bajo un único nombre vulgar, resultado de la suma de atributos y...

  15. Determinación del requerimiento de frío y de calor en duraznero [Prunus persica (L. Batsch.] mediante un modelo de correlación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAAR, J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Los árboles frutales de hoja no persistente poseen un período de reposo entre los ciclos vegetativos. Para salir de reposo invernal, las yemas deben acumular primero frío (endodormancia y luego calor (ecodormancia.El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el requerimiento de frío y de calor en cinco cultivares de duraznero mediante un método de correlación, con datos de fecha de plena floración y temperatura del aire de siete años, en el este de Mendoza. El requerimiento de frío varió entre 914 y 1262 unidades de frío, mientras que el de calor fluctuó entre 2177 y 6490 horas grado de crecimiento. Excepto en cv. “Prima”, la variabilidad entre años del requerimiento de frío (coeficiente de variación, CV: 18,3 a 18,9% fue mayor que la correspondiente al requerimiento de calor, (CV: 6,9 a 13,9%. Los requerimientos de calor disminuyeron en años de mayor acumulación de frío e indicaron una compensación. El modelo utilizado, permite disponer de información más precisa sobre los requerimientos térmicos de los cultivares, y así poder realizar una zonificación que racionaliceel cultivo y maximice su aprovechamiento, en las áreas agroclimáticamente adecuadas.

  16. IDENTIFICACION DE LA REGULACION TRANSCRIPCIONAL DE GENES INVOLUCRADOS EN LA RESPUESTA AL FRIO Y/O MADURACION EN FRUTOS DE PRUNUS PERSICA

    OpenAIRE

    VIZOSO LATUZ, PAULA SUSANA

    2012-01-01

    Desde el punto de vista agroindustrial chileno, el durazno es un cultivo económicamente importante. Chile está situado entre los principales exportadores de fruta fresca al hemisferio norte. El traslado de los frutos desde nuestro país hasta el consumidor final dura alrededor de 20 días, periodo en el que la calidad del fruto se ve alterada. Por esto los productores y exportadores han debido enfocarse en la búsqueda de diferentes metodologías para conservar en mejor estado los ...

  17. Aplicação de revestimentos comestíveis em pêssego (Prunus persica Use of edible coating in peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle de Assis Jacometti

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência de revestimentos comestíveis sobre a vida-de-prateleira, perda de massa, atividade metabólica e contaminação microbiológicas em pêssegos in natura. Foram utilizados pêssegos brancos cv. Perola de Mairinque (IAC 769-8 revestidos com soluções de 1% de goma gelana (p/v e 1% goma gelana + 1% sorbitol (p/v, embalados em caixas de papelão e armazenados a 10ºC / 80-85% UR por 16 dias. Frutos sem revestimento serviram de controle. Os revestimentos à base de goma gelana e gelana+sorbitol não alteraram a atividade fisiológica dos pêssegos, medida através da taxa de respiração, teor de sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável ao longo da armazenagem. Não houve diferença entre as taxas de perda de massa, que ficaram em torno de 1,4g/100g.dia. Os revestimentos não alteraram a aceitação dos pêssegos em termos de sabor e em termos de aparência, o controle obteve notas superiores aos revestidos devida a opacidade que o revestimento conferiu aos frutos. Na contagem total de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos e bolores e leveduras não houve diferença entre os tratamentos ao longo da armazenagem, mas em termos de microrganismos psicrotróficos os frutos revestidos apresentaram uma menor contagem em relação ao controle. Revestimentos à base de goma gelana e gelana+sorbitol não aumentaram a vida-de-prateleira de pêssegos armazenados sob refrigeração devido à composição do revestimento, que não reduziu a perda de massa nem a atividade fisiológica dos frutos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of edible coatings on shelf-life, weight loss, metabolic activity and microbial contamination of peaches in natura. White peaches cv. Perola de Mairinque (IAC 769-8 were coated with 1% gelan gum (p/v and 1% gelan gum + 1% sorbitol (p/v solutions, packed in paperboard box and stored at 10ºC/80-85% RH during 16 days. No coated fruits served as control. Gelan and gelan+sorbitol coatings had no effect on physiological activity of peaches, measured by respiration rates, total soluble solid content and total titratable acidity during storage. There was no difference among weight loss rates (~1.4 g/100g.day of all treatments. Edible coatings had no influence on flavor acceptance of the peaches but control fruits had higher scores than coated ones on appearance acceptance evaluation because the opacity caused by the coating. There was no difference among treatments in total count of aerobic mesophiles microorganisms and molds and yeasts during storage but for psychotropic microorganisms, coated fruits presented lower counts than control ones. Gelan and gelan+sorbitol based coatings have not extended shelf-life of cold stored peaches due to coating composition that did not reduced the weight loss and physiological metabolism of the fruits.

  18. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong-Gi [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong-Sun, E-mail: yhsuny@naver.co [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20+-3 deg. C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  19. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon; Kim, Hong-Gi; Yook, Hong-Sun

    2010-04-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20±3 °C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  20. Expression of ABA Metabolism-Related Genes Suggests Similarities and Differences Between Seed Dormancy and Bud Dormancy of Peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongling; Gao, Zhenzhen; Du, Peiyong; Xiao, Wei; Tan, Qiuping; Chen, Xiude; Li, Ling; Gao, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Dormancy inhibits seed and bud growth of perennial plants until the environmental conditions are optimal for survival. Previous studies indicated that certain co-regulation pathways exist in seed and bud dormancy. In our study, we found that seed and bud dormancy are similar to some extent but show different reactions to chemical treatments that induce breaking of dormancy. Whether the abscisic acid (ABA) regulatory networks are similar in dormant peach seeds and buds is not well known; however, ABA is generally believed to play a critical role in seed and bud dormancy. In peach, some genes putatively involved in ABA synthesis and catabolism were identified and their expression patterns were studied to learn more about ABA homeostasis and the possible crosstalk between bud dormancy and seed dormancy mechanisms. The analysis demonstrated that two 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase-encoding genes seem to be key in regulating ABA biosynthesis to induce seed and bud dormancy. Three CYP707As play an overlapping role in controlling ABA inactivation, resulting in dormancy-release. In addition, Transcript analysis of ABA metabolism-related genes was much similar demonstrated that ABA pathways was similar in the regulation of vegetative and flower bud dormancy, whereas, expression patterns of ABA metabolism-related genes were different in seed dormancy showed that ABA pathway maybe different in regulating seed dormancy in peach.

  1. Results of primary study of the remote hybrids of nectarine (Prunus persica L. Batsh var. Nucipersica (Suckow Sc and peach (Prunus persipa L. Batsh with amygdalys ordinary (Amygdalus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є. П. Шоферістов

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Created in Nikitskyi botanical garden Remote hybrids of nectarine and peach with almond ordinary can be used in Breeding of nectarine and peach fok high resistauce to fundi, as wengs for creation of varieties of nectarine with high drought resistance, sweet seed kernels, high contents of organic substance, and other important Breeding characteristics. Late blossoming hybrid forms can be used in Breeding of almond fok late time of flowering and selfcompatibility.

  2. Influence of Silicon on Resistance of Zinnia Elegans to Myzus Persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to examine the effect of treating Zinnia elegans Jacq. with soluble silicon on the performance of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Zinnia elegans plants were irrigated every 2 days throughout the duration of the experiment with a nutrient solution amended with ...

  3. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Salvadora Persica L. and it's Chloroform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Salvadora Persica L. and it's Chloroform Fraction in Experimentally Induced Hyperlipidemia in Rats. ... Blood was collected by ocular puncture 2 and 4 h after olive oil treatment and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 20 min. Serum samples were further subjected to biochemical analysis. The study dose ...

  4. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Myzus persicae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures t...

  5. Microsatellite marker analysis of peach-potato aphids (Myzus persicae, Homoptera: Aphididae) from Scottish suction traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloch, G; Highet, F; Kasprowicz, L; Pickup, J; Neilson, R; Fenton, B

    2006-12-01

    The peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is an important vector of plant viruses. A network of suction traps collects aerial samples of this aphid in order to monitor and help predict its spatial distribution and likely impact on virus transmission in crops. A suction trap catch is thought to be a good representation of the total aphid pool. Sensitive molecular markers have been developed that determine the genetic composition of the M. persicae population. In Scotland, UK, these were applied to field collections revealing a limited number of clones. Molecular markers are less successful when applied to specimens that have been preserved in an ethanol-based trap fluid designed to preserve morphology. An assessment of different DNA extraction and PCR techniques is presented and the most efficient are used to analyse M. persicae specimens caught in the Dundee suction trap in 2001, a year when exceptionally high numbers were caught. The results reveal that the majority of the M. persicae caught belonged to two highly insecticide resistant clones. In addition, it was possible to compare the relative frequencies of genotypes caught in the trap with those collected at insecticide treated and untreated field sites in the vicinity. These results indicate that, in addition to suction trap data, the ability to sample field sites provides valuable early warning data which have implications for pest control and virus management strategies.

  6. Susceptibility of Australian Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to Three Recently Registered Insecticides: Spirotetramat, Cyantraniliprole, and Sulfoxaflor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Little, Siobhan C; Umina, Paul A

    2017-08-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is a significant agricultural pest that has developed resistance to a large number of insecticides globally. Within Australia, resistance has previously been confirmed for multiple chemical groups, including pyrethroids, carbamates, organophosphates, and neonicotinoids. In this study, we use leaf-dip and topical bioassays to investigate susceptibility and potential cross-resistance of 12 field-collected populations of Australian M. persicae to three recently registered insecticides: sulfoxaflor, spirotetramat, and cyantraniliprole. Despite all 12 populations carrying known resistance mechanisms to carbamates, organophosphates, and pyrethroids, and two populations also exhibiting low-level metabolic resistance to neonicotinoids, we found little evidence of variation in susceptibility to sulfoxafor, spirotetramat, or cyantraniliprole. This provides further evidence that cross-resistance to spirotetramat, cyantraniliprole, and sulfoxaflor in M. persicae is not conferred by the commonly occurring resistance mechanisms MACE, super-kdr, amplification of the E4 esterase gene, or enhanced expression and copy number of the P450 gene, CYP6CY3. Importantly, this study also established toxicity baseline data that will be important for future monitoring of insecticide responses of M. persicae from both broadacre and horticultural crops. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Acquisition and transmission of potato leafroll virus by Myzus persicae : quantitative aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Studying the transmission of potato leafroll virus (PLRV) by Myzus persicae from infected Physalis floridana plants, revealed that the ability of aphids to transmit the virus differed widely among individuals and strongly depended on the biotype of

  8. The site of potato leafroll virus multiplication in its vector, Myzus persicae : an anatomical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsen, M.B.

    1972-01-01

    In search of the site of PLRV multiplication in its vector a detailed study was made of the anatomy of the aphid, Myzus persicae SULZ. The findings are summarized in the following lines:

    Alimentary canal

    The most anterior part of

  9. Influence of Cultivar and Industrial Processing on Polyphenols in Concentrated Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Juice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maja Repajic; Danijela Bursac Kovacevic; Predrag Putnik; Verica Dragovic-Uzelac; Josipa Kust; Zrinka Cosic; Branka Levaj

    2015-01-01

      The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of cultivar and industrial processing on total polyphenols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids and antioxidant activity in concentrated sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., cvs...

  10. Screening of natural organic volatiles from Prunus mahaleb L. honey: coumarin and vomifoliol as nonspecific biomarkers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Staver, Mladenka Malenica

    2011-01-01

    ...) were used for the analysis of Prunus mahaleb L. honey samples. Screening was focused toward chemical composition of natural organic volatiles to determine if it is useful as a method of determining honey-sourcing...

  11. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of Salvadora persica in IBD-induced rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nomani*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are among the most prevalent diseases in developed countries. In general, IL-6 and TNF-α are considered as the main causes of tissue damage in the intestine. Salvadora persica is a domestic and abundant plant growing in some central and southern areas of Iran. The main objective of the current study was to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Salvadora persica in a rat model of IBD. Methods: Acute colitis was induced by intra-rectal administration of 100 mg/kg TNBS dissolved in a total volume of 0.25 mL of 50% ethanol. Twenty-four h after colitis induction, saline, S. persica extracts (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg and sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg were orally administered to the corresponding groups of animals. The dose administration was repeated daily for seven consecutive days. Aftewards, body weight changes, macroscopic and microscopic lesions were assessed by dissecting 8 cm of the distal colons of the animals. TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression were also evaluated by real-time PCR. Results: The obtained results showed that sulfasalazine and S. persica extracts were significantly able to reduce the body weight loss, macroscopic and microscopic lesions compared to the untreated control. Additionally, they were able to decrease the expression of TNF-α mRNA in the colon tissue. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that Salvadora persica extract had an acceptable anti-inflammatory effect on the induced colitis in rat, and one of its notable mechanisms could be through TNF-α pathway.

  12. Disomic segregation of microsatellites in the tetraploid Prunus serotina Ehrh. (Rosaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, Marie; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2005-01-01

    Tetraploid black cherry (Prunus serotina) is the only Prunus L. species that has commercial importance as a timber tree in North America and is well known in Europe for its invasive behavior. Inheritance studies have never been performed and it is not known whether the species is allo or autotetraploid. Six microsatellite nuclear markers were used to test the inheritance in progenies of controlled crosses. Inheritance was proven to be disomic at all loci and a typical diploid mendelian inheri...

  13. Two Types of New Natural Materials for Fruit Vinegar in Prunus Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica and P. domestica × P. armeniaca added value; three natural fruit vinegars were designed. The results showed the nutrition of Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca cultivar Fengweimeigui vinegar (T1 had high minerals and microelements, especially the Ca and Mg reached to the 150.00mg/L, 85.40 mg/L, respectively; the vinegar of Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica cultivar Zhongren No.1 (T2 not only have rich Na (2800.00 mg/L, P (123.00 mg/L, but also have plentiful amino acid that content reached to 200.08 mg/L. However, the mixture vinegar (T3 with pulps from Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca and Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica had the middle nutrient contents, but the property was balanced. We therefore conclude that solid fermentation is a suitable method to preserve nutrients and value-added for Prunus plants fruit, and three types vinegars are suitable for different age people, and the difference nutrient contents and typical characteristic indicate that three vinegars are competitive products in market.

  14. The use of photon correlation spectroscopy method for determining diffusion coefficient in brine and herring flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumanova M.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The process fish salting has been studied by the method of photon correlation spectroscopy; the distribution of salt concentration in the solution and herring flesh with skin has been found, diffusion coefficients and salt concentrations used for creating a mathematical model of the salting technology have been worked out; the possibility of determination by this method the coefficient of dynamic viscosity of solutions and different media (minced meat etc. has been considered

  15. An opinion paper: emphasis on white muscle development and growth to improve farmed fish flesh quality

    OpenAIRE

    Videler, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Due to rapid depletion of wild stocks, the necessity to cultivate fish is eminent. Current fish farming practices seek to improve flesh quality. The notion that white muscles are the main target of the fishing industry is emphasized. A novel approach is suggested based on the development of white muscles in wild fish from eggs to adults. A compilation of facts about white muscle structure, function and ontogeny is followed by an account of the changes in swimming behaviour and performance rel...

  16. Chemical Effectiveness of Salvadora Persica and Commercially Available Whitening Toothpaste on Preventing Tea and Chlorhexidine Stain (in Vitro Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Mahanani, Erlina Sih; Arief, Erry Mochamad; Ismail, Puteri Ezdiani Binti Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Salvadora persica, a plant that contains a wide range of healthy components, has been used as chewing stick for ages to maintain good oral hygiene and currently has been approved to remove stains. However, its stain-preventing effect is still under investigation. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Salvadora persica and commercially available whitening toothpastes on preventing tea and chlorhexidine stains. Sixty clear acrylic blocks were used and divided into 3 groups, 20 fo...

  17. Biofouling leads to reduced shell growth and flesh weight in the cultured mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Michael; Fitridge, Isla; Dempster, Tim; Keough, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Competitive interactions between cultured mussels and fouling organisms may result in growth and weight reductions in mussels, and compromised aquaculture productivity. Mussel ropes were inoculated with Ciona intestinalis, Ectopleura crocea or Styela clava, and growth parameters of fouled and unfouled Mytilus galloprovincialis were compared after two months. Small mussels (≈ 50 mm) fouled by C. intestinalis and E. crocea were 4.0 and 3.2% shorter in shell length and had 21 and 13% reduced flesh weight, respectively, compared to the controls. Large mussels (≈ 68 mm) fouled by S. clava, C. intestinalis and E. crocea were 4.4, 3.9 and 2.1% shorter than control mussels, respectively, but flesh weights were not significantly reduced. A series of competitive feeding experiments indicated that S. clava and C. intestinalis did not reduce mussels' food consumption, but that E. crocea, through interference competition, did. Fouling by these species at the densities used here reduced mussel growth and flesh weight, likely resulting in economic losses for the industry, and requires consideration when developing biofouling mitigation strategies.

  18. Development of Robots with Soft Sensor Flesh for Achieving Close Interaction Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Yoshikai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve robots' working around humans, safe contacts against objects, humans, and environments with broad area of their body should be allowed. Furthermore, it is desirable to actively use those contacts for achieving tasks. Considering that, many practical applications will be realized by whole-body close interaction of many contacts with others. Therefore, robots are strongly expected to achieve whole-body interaction behavior with objects around them. Recently, it becomes possible to construct whole-body tactile sensor network by the advancement of research for tactile sensing system. Using such tactile sensors, some research groups have developed robots with whole-body tactile sensing exterior. However, their basic strategy is making a distributed 1-axis tactile sensor network covered with soft thin material. Those are not sufficient for achieving close interaction and detecting complicated contact changes. Therefore, we propose “Soft Sensor Flesh.” Basic idea of “Soft Sensor Flesh” is constructing robots' exterior with soft and thick foam with many sensor elements including multiaxis tactile sensors. In this paper, a constructing method for the robot systems with such soft sensor flesh is argued. Also, we develop some prototypes of soft sensor flesh and verify the feasibility of the proposed idea by actual behavior experiments.

  19. Selection of reference genes for expression analyses of red-fleshed sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, T T; Nishimura, D S; De Nadai, F B; Figueira, A; Latado, R R

    2015-12-28

    Red-fleshed oranges (Citrus sinensis) contain high levels of carotenoids and lycopene. The growing consumer demand for products with health benefits has increased interest in these types of Citrus cultivars as a potential source of nutraceuticals. However, little is known about the physiology of these cultivars under Brazilian conditions. Transcriptome and gene expression analyses are important tools in the breeding and management of red-fleshed sweet orange cultivars. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction is a method of quantifying gene expression, but various standardizations are required to obtain precise, accurate, and specific results. Among the standardizations required, the choice of suitable stable reference genes is fundamental. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of 11 candidate genes using various tissue and organ samples from healthy plants or leaves from citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing)-symptomatic plants of a Brazilian red-fleshed cultivar ('Sanguínea de Mombuca'), in order to select the most suitable reference gene for investigating gene expression under these conditions. geNorm and NormFinder identified genes that encoded translation initiation factor 3, ribosomal protein L35, and translation initiation factor 5A as the most stable genes under the biological conditions tested, and genes coding actin (ACT) and the subunit of the PSI reaction center subunit III were the least stable. Phosphatase, malate dehydrogenase, and ACT were the most stable genes in the leaf samples of infected plants.

  20. The influence of nutritional history on the functional response of Geocoris pallidipennis to its prey, Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Zeng, F

    2014-12-01

    Insect artificial diets are the foundation for mass production of insect predators. Whether there is an influence of long-term rearing with artificial diet on the control ability of predators should be considered. Here, we focused on the effect of nutritional history on the functional response of Geocoris pallidipennis to Myzus persicae. The influence of nutritional history (artificial diet versus natural prey, M. persicae) on the functional response of third to fifth instar nymphs and female G. pallidipennis was examined in the laboratory. The results showed that the functional response curve of both the nymphs and the adult female of G. pallidipennis to M. persicae reflected similar trends on both nutritional histories and confirmed the type II response. Adult female G. pallidipennis reared on either M. persicae or artificial diet produced a significantly better performance than the juvenile stages tested. We estimated that adult female G. pallidipennis can consume 141.6 (artificial diet) or 131.6 (M. persicae) aphids per day, respectively. This indicated that G. pallidipennis reared on both artificial diet and M. persicae displayed high rates of predation.

  1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation identifies amygdalin as a potent neurotrophic agent from herbal medicine Semen Persicae extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanbin; Zhao, Jia; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Li, Xuechen; Rong, Jianhui

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. The resultant fractions were assayed for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells based on microscopic assessment. Through liquid-liquid extraction and reverse phase HPLC separation, a botanical glycoside amygdalin was isolated as the active compound responsible for the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. Moreover, we found that amygdalin rapidly induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). A specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the stimulatory effect of amygdalin on neurite outgrowth. Taken together, amygdalin was identified as a potent neurotrophic agent from Semen Persicae extract through a bioactivity-guided fractional procedure. The neurotrophic activity of amygdalin may be mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

  2. Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation Identifies Amygdalin as a Potent Neurotrophic Agent from Herbal Medicine Semen Persicae Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanbin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. The resultant fractions were assayed for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells based on microscopic assessment. Through liquid-liquid extraction and reverse phase HPLC separation, a botanical glycoside amygdalin was isolated as the active compound responsible for the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. Moreover, we found that amygdalin rapidly induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2. A specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the stimulatory effect of amygdalin on neurite outgrowth. Taken together, amygdalin was identified as a potent neurotrophic agent from Semen Persicae extract through a bioactivity-guided fractional procedure. The neurotrophic activity of amygdalin may be mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

  3. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers in Prunus sibirica (Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bo Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for Prunus sibirica to investigate genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and marker-assisted selection of late-blooming cultivars in the breeding of P. sibirica. Methods and Results: Using a magnetic bead enrichment strategy, 19 primer pairs were developed and characterized across 40 individuals from three P. sibirica wild populations and six individuals of P. armeniaca. The number of alleles per locus varied from three to 11 and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.063 to 0.917 and 0.295 to 0.876, respectively, in the three P. sibirica wild populations. All primer pairs could be successfully amplified in six individuals of P. armeniaca. Conclusions: These microsatellite primer pairs should be useful for population genetics, germplasm identification, and marker-assisted selection in the breeding of P. sibirica and related species.

  4. Borrelia persica infection in dogs and cats: clinical manifestations, clinicopathological findings and genetic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, Gad; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Halperin, Tamar; Hershko, Yizhak; Kleinerman, Gabriela; Anug, Yigal; Abdeen, Ziad; Lavy, Eran; Aroch, Itamar; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2016-05-10

    Relapsing fever (RF) is an acute infectious disease caused by arthropod-borne spirochetes of the genus Borrelia. The disease is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever that concur with spirochetemia. The RF borrelioses include louse-borne RF caused by Borrelia recurrentis and tick-borne endemic RF transmitted by argasid soft ticks and caused by several Borrelia spp. such as B. crocidurae, B. coriaceae, B. duttoni, B. hermsii, B. hispanica and B. persica. Human infection with B. persica is transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros tholozani and has been reported from Iran, Israel, Egypt, India, and Central Asia. During 2003-2015, five cats and five dogs from northern, central and southern Israel were presented for veterinary care and detected with borrelia spirochetemia by blood smear microscopy. The causative infective agent in these animals was identified and characterized by PCR from blood and sequencing of parts of the flagellin (flab), 16S rRNA and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiestrase (GlpQ) genes. All animals were infected with B. persica genetically identical to the causative agent of human RF. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that DNA sequences from these pet carnivores clustered together with B. persica genotypes I and II from humans and O. tholozani ticks and distinctly from other RF Borrelia spp. The main clinical findings in cats included lethargy, anorexia, anemia in 5/5 cats and thrombocytopenia in 4/5. All dogs were lethargic and anorectic, 4/5 were febrile and anemic and 3/5 were thrombocytopenic. Three dogs were co-infected with Babesia spp. The animals were all treated with antibiotics and the survival rate of both dogs and cats was 80 %. The cat and dog that succumbed to disease died one day after the initiation of antibiotic treatment, while survival in the others was followed by the rapid disappearance of spirochetemia. This is the first report of disease due to B. persica infection in cats and the first case series in dogs. Infection was

  5. Host generated siRNAs attenuate expression of serine protease gene in Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Varnika; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan; Uniyal, Prem L; Singh, Rajendra; Niranjan, Rampal S

    2012-01-01

    Sap sucking hemipteran aphids damage diverse crop species. Although delivery of ds-RNA or siRNA through microinjection/feeding has been demonstrated, the efficacy of host-mediated delivery of aphid-specific dsRNA in developing aphid resistance has been far from being elucidated. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing ds-RNA of Myzus persicae serine protease (MySP) was developed that triggered the generation of corresponding siRNAs amenable for delivery to the feeding aphids. M. persicae when fed on the transgenic plants for different time intervals under controlled growth conditions resulted in a significant attenuation of the expression of MySP and a commensurate decline in gut protease activity. Although the survivability of these aphids was not affected, there was a noticeable decline in their fecundity resulting in a significant reduction in parthenogenetic population. The study highlighted the feasibility of developing host based RNAi-mediated resistance against hemipteran pest aphids.

  6. Analysis of Agromorphological Descriptors to Differentiate between Duke Cherry (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & TurpinRehd. and Its Progenitors: Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. and Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Análisis de Descriptores Agromorfológicos para Diferenciar entre Cerezo Duke (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin Rehd. y sus Progenitores: Cerezo (Prunus avium L. y Guindo (Prunus cerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid identification of the hybrids between sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. is not easy. In order to resolve this problem, 18 Spanish sweet, sour and duke cherry cultivars were surveyed and characterized using 43 agromorphological descriptors evaluated in flowers, leaves, dormant 1-yr-old shoots, fruits, and trees during 2005 and 2006. Based on quantitative parameters, ANOVA and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA were carried out. For qualitative descriptors, statistical comparisons were done by means of the chi-square (χ2 test. As result of the study, two quantitative (titratable acidity and number of lenticels and six qualitative descriptors (shape of the central and lateral lobes in the internal bracts of the flower fascicles, leaf shape and margin, pubescence in the veins of the lower side of the leaf, and type of sulci of the seed coat were identified as differential parameters in P. avium, P. cerasus and P. x gondouinii(Poit. & Turpin Rehd. Also, another four qualitative descriptors (petal coloration at the end of blooming, leaf stipule type, and seed shape and viability were found to be useful for easy differentiation between sour and duke cherry. None of these parameters has been employed previously to discriminate among sweet, sour and duke cherry.Los híbridos de cerezo (Prunus avium L. y guindo (Prunus cerasus L. no son fáciles de identificar. Para resolver este problema, 18 cultivares de cerezo, guindo y sus híbridos fueron prospectados y caracterizados agromorfológicamente mediante el estudio de 43 descriptores evaluados en flores, hojas, frutos, ramas de 1 año y árbol durante los años 2005 y 2006. En base a los resultados obtenidos del estudio de los diferentes parámetros cuantitativos se realizaron un ANDEVA y un análisis discriminante escalonado (SDA. Los descriptores cualitativos fueron analizados mediante el test de Chi-cuadrado (χ². Como resultado del estudio se identificaron

  7. Salvadora persica agro-ecological suitability for oil production in Argentine dryland salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasca, Silvia; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra; del Fresno, Carolina Miranda

    2015-12-15

    One of the major causes of crop stress is soil or water salinity. Thus, selection of the best species for cultivation in semiarid and arid climates is fundamental. Salvadora persica is an evergreen perennial halophyte that can grow under extreme conditions, from very dry environments to highly saline soils. Based on international bibliography, the authors outlined an agro-ecological zoning model to determine the potential cultivation zones for S. persica in Argentina. This model may be applied to any part of the world, using the agro-ecological limits presented in this work. All the maps were developed by the implementation of a geographic information system (GIS) that can be updated by the further incorporation of complementary information, with the consequent improvement of the original database. The overlap of the agroclimatic suitability map on the drylands' saline soils and the drylands' alkaline soils maps, determined the agro-ecological zoning. Since some areas in the agro-ecological zoning can overlap with land that is already assigned for other uses, protected areas, current land use/cover of the different zones, and urban areas maps were incorporated into the GIS and subtracted by a mask. This resulted in the delimitation of "potential cultivation zoning", thus avoiding possible conflicts surrounding the use of land and making the agro-ecological zonation more efficient. There is a broad agro-ecological zone for cultivation of S. persica that extends from Northern Argentina to approximately 41° South latitude, under dry-subhumid to semiarid climates. Lands classified with different degrees of suitability in the potential cultivation zoning could be used for production of this species for energy purposes on lands that are either unsuitable for food production or currently assigned for other purposes. This paper represents pioneering work since there are no previous studies concerning the introduction of S. persica in Argentina. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  8. Borrelia persica Infection in Immunocompetent Mice--A New Tool to Study the Infection Kinetics In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Sandra; Overzier, Evelyn; Hermanns, Walter; Baneth, Gad; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2016-02-01

    Borrelia persica, a bacterium transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros tholozani, causes tick-borne relapsing fever in humans in the Middle East, Central Asia and the Indian peninsula. Immunocompetent C3H/HeOuJ mice were infected intradermally with B. persica at varying doses: 1 x 10(6), 1 x 10(4), 1 x 10(2) and 4 x 10(0) spirochetes/mouse. Subsequently, blood samples were collected and screened for the presence of B. persica DNA. Spirochetes were detected in all mice infected with 1 x 10(6), 1 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(2) borrelia by real-time PCR targeting the flaB gene of the bacterium. Spirochetemia developed with a one- to two-day delay when 1 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(2) borrelia were inoculated. Mice injected with only four organisms were negative in all tests. No clinical signs were observed when infected mice were compared to negative control animals. Organs (heart, spleen, urinary bladder, tarsal joint, skin and brain) were tested for B. persica-specific DNA and cultured for the detection of viable spirochetes. Compiled data show that the target organs of B. persica infections are the brain and the skin. A newly developed serological two-tiered test system (ELISA and western blot) for the detection of murine IgM, IgG and IgA antibody titers against B. persica showed a vigorous antibody response of the mice during infection. In conclusion, the infection model described here for B. persica is a platform for in vivo studies to decipher the so far unexplored survival strategies of this Borrelia species.

  9. Evaluation of the Anxiolytic Effect of Nepeta persica Boiss. in Mice

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    M. Rabbani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of hydroalcoholic extract (HE of Nepeta persica Boiss. (Lamiaceae on the elevated plus-maze (EPM model of anxiety. The extract of arial parts of the plant was administered intraperitoneally to male NMRI mice, at various doses, 30 min before behavioural evaluation. The HE extract of N. persica at the dose of 50 mg kg−1 significantly increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms of the EPM. This dose of plant extract affected neither animal's locomotor activity nor ketamine-induced sleeping time. The 50 mg kg−1 dose of the plant extract seemed to be the optimal dose in producing the anxiolytic effects, lower or higher doses of the plant produce either sedative or stimulant effects. At 100 mg kg−1, the plant extract increased the locomotor activity. These results suggested that the extract of N. persica at dose of 50 mg kg−1 possess anxiolytic effect with less sedative and hypnotic effects than that of diazepam and causes a non-specific stimulation at 100 mg kg−1.

  10. Discovery of metabolic resistance to neonicotinoids in green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Little, Siobhan C; Edwards, Owain; van Rooyen, Anthony R; Weeks, Andrew; Umina, Paul A

    2017-08-01

    Myzus persicae is a serious pest that attacks a broad range of agricultural crops. This species has developed chemical resistance to many insecticides globally, and within Australia resistance to multiple chemical groups has been identified. Resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides has been discovered in several countries, but has not previously been confirmed in Australia. We use biomolecular assays and bioassays on field-collected populations to investigate neonicotinoid resistance in M. persicae within Australia. Several geographically and genetically distinct populations showed evidence for resistance in bioassays. Genetic markers identified that the mechanism of neonicotinoid resistance in Australia is metabolic resistance through the enhanced expression of a cytochrome P450 gene, CYP6CY3. M. persicae populations in parts of Australia are now resistant to four different insecticide chemical groups, raising concerns about the long-term management of this pest. While higher copy numbers of CYP6CY3 were seen in all resistant populations, the number of gene copies was not strongly correlated with the level of resistance as determined by LD 50 values generated through bioassays. This finding sheds further light on the complexity of the P450 genes in regulating neonicotinoid resistance. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Abscisic acid deficiency increases defence responses against Myzus persicae in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillwig, Melissa S; Chiozza, Mariana; Casteel, Clare L; Lau, Siau Ting; Hohenstein, Jessica; Hernández, Enrique; Jander, Georg; MacIntosh, Gustavo C

    2016-02-01

    Comparison of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) gene expression induced by Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) feeding, aphid saliva infiltration and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment showed a significant positive correlation. In particular, ABA-regulated genes are over-represented among genes that are induced by M. persicae saliva infiltration into Arabidopsis leaves. This suggests that the induction of ABA-related gene expression could be an important component of the Arabidopsis-aphid interaction. Consistent with this hypothesis, M. persicae populations induced ABA production in wild-type plants. Furthermore, aphid populations were smaller on Arabidopsis aba1-1 mutants, which cannot synthesize ABA, and showed a significant preference for wild-type plants compared with the mutant. Total free amino acids, which play an important role in aphid nutrition, were not altered in the aba1-1 mutant line, but the levels of isoleucine (Ile) and tryptophan (Trp) were differentially affected by aphids in wild-type and mutant plants. Recently, indole glucosinolates have been shown to promote aphid resistance in Arabidopsis. In this study, 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate was more abundant in the aba1-1 mutant than in wild-type Arabidopsis, suggesting that the induction of ABA signals that decrease the accumulation of defence compounds may be beneficial for aphids. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  12. Temperature-Mediated Effects of Host Alternation on the Adaptation of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Zhao, Huiyan; Gao, Huanhuan; Hu, Zuqing; Hu, Xiangshun

    2015-04-01

    Local adaptation, an important phenomenon in ecological speciation, occurs in Myzus persicae (Sulzer), with the tobacco-adapted line proposed as a subspecies. Recent studies showed that temperature could alter the selection strength and direction in host-herbivore interactions. To understand the formation of host-adapted speciation and the effects of temperature on host adaptation, the parthenogenetic progeny of an M. persicae egg were conditioned on two hosts for >10 generations. Then, their life table parameters were studied after reciprocal transfer under a temperature gradient. The results showed that aphids habituated on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and rape (Brassica napus L.) had different optimal temperatures, including different upper thresholds of development and reproduction on original and alternative hosts. After habituation for >10 generations, local adaptation of aphids on the host of origin was formed, which was observed as the better performance of the native aphids compared with the foreign ones. The M. persicae that habituated on rape appeared more generalized to the host plants than the aphids that habituated on tobacco. The adaptation patterns of green peach aphids on two hosts varied differentially according to temperature, which verified the temperature-mediated effects of host selection on herbivores, implying the presence of a demographic basis of aphid seasonal migration. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. TOKSISITAS BEBERAPA HASIL EKSTRAK DAUN TEMBAKAU TERHADAP Myzus persicae (Homoptera;Aphididae

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    - Sudjak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan pestisida kimia sintetik yang tidak rasional dapat menyebabkan pencemaran air, tanah, udara, produk pertanian, keracunan manusia/pekerja, resistensi/resurgensi hama, terbunuhnya hewan bermanfaat, perubahan status hama, dan ledakan hama. Untuk itu dirasa perlu mencari pestisida alternatif untuk mendukung pertanian yang berkelanjutan . Melalui kegiatan penelitian yang bertahap telah diperoleh produk pestisida yang diesktrak dari sisa-sisa tanaman tembakau rakyat di lapang yaitu ekstrak 1, ekstrak 2, ekstrak 3, dan ekstrak 4.Kegiatan penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Entomologi Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pemanis dan Serat, Malang mulai bulan Januari sampai dengan Desember 2011.Tujuan penelitian untuk memanfaatkan tembakau sebagai bahan aktif pembuatan pestisida nabati.Untuk tiap-tiap ekstrak di buat lima macam konsentrasi, yaitu 100%, 50%, 25%, 12,5%, 6,25%, 3,125%, dan 0 (kontrol. Serangga uji yang digunakan adalah hama pengisap daun tembakau Myzus persicae. Masing-masing ulangan dengan 20 serangga uji.Data yang diperoleh dari setiap pengamatan dianalisis menggunakan Analisis Probit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa empat ekstrak daun tembakau yang diuji terbukti menyebabkan toksisitas pada kutu daun tembakau M. persicae. Ekstrak 3 merupakan ekstrak yang paling toksit dibanding 3 ekstrak yang lain.  LC50 ekstrak 1, ekstrak 2, ekstrak 3, dan ekstrak 4 berturut-turut 35,53%, 26,93%, 5,08%, dan 5,2%. Kata kunci: Ekstrak tembakau, pestisida botani, M. persicae.

  14. Uso de cuatro extractos organicos para el control del pulgon verde (Myzus persicae Sulz (ING

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    Hernán Rodríguez Navas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of leaves and stems of Neurolaena lobata; leaves, stems and fruits of Momordica charantia, wood of Quassia amara and seeds of Annona muricata, were tested regarding their effectiveness for control of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae. In a first stage, groups of 10 individuals of M. persicae were placed inside petri dishes together with a small and slight piece of synthetic cloth soaked with either substance extracted. Several concentrations were used. After two hours; more than 50% of the individuals had been killed in every petri dish, which allowed all extracts to pass on to the second stage. The second stage consisted of two experiments. The first one was done in spring at a greenhouse day temperature of 10°C,  using only the first three substances, each of them diluted 1:100. The second one was conducted in Summer at about 25°C with the four substances. Distilled water acted as a control in both experiments. Tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum infested with M. persicae were sprayed with the solutions and survivors counted 24 and 72 hours later. In the first experiment Q amara  and M. charantia had 78% and 77% effectiveness respectively, which were statiscally (P< 0.05 higher than that of N. lobata  (63%. In the second experiment, because of the warmer weather, they improved their performance, specially N. lobata (98%. This and A. muricata were found statistically (P< 0.05 higher than the others.

  15. The evolution of insecticide resistance in the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Chris; Puinean, Alin M; Zimmer, Christoph T; Denholm, Ian; Field, Linda M; Foster, Stephen P; Gutbrod, Oliver; Nauen, Ralf; Slater, Russell; Williamson, Martin S

    2014-08-01

    The peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae is a globally distributed crop pest with a host range of over 400 species including many economically important crop plants. The intensive use of insecticides to control this species over many years has led to populations that are now resistant to several classes of insecticide. Work spanning over 40 years has shown that M. persicae has a remarkable ability to evolve mechanisms that avoid or overcome the toxic effect of insecticides with at least seven independent mechanisms of resistance described in this species to date. The array of novel resistance mechanisms, including several 'first examples', that have evolved in this species represents an important case study for the evolution of insecticide resistance and also rapid adaptive change in insects more generally. In this review we summarise the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying resistance in M. persicae and the insights study of this topic has provided on how resistance evolves, the selectivity of insecticides, and the link between resistance and host plant adaptation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. [Pathogenicity of hyphomycet fungi to aphids Aphis gossypii Glover and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Elisângela de S; oino, Alcides

    2006-01-01

    The aphids Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae are cosmopolitan, poliphagous and damage cultivated plants. The effects of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (isolate IBCB 66), Metarhizium anisopliae (isolate IBCB 121), Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (isolate IBCB 141) and Lecanicillium (= Verticillium) lecanii (isolate JAB 02) on third instar nymphs of A. gossypii and M. persicae were evaluated in the laboratory at 25 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% RH and 12h photophase. The aphids were transferred to petri dishes with a foliar disk (cotton or pepper) with a layer of 1 cm tick of agar-water. The fungi were applied in a suspension containing 1.0 x 106 to 1.0 x 108 conidia/ml. In the control treatment 1 ml of sterilized water was added to the foliar disks. The mortality of aphids was evaluated daily. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae caused 100% mortality at the seventh day after inoculation, for both species. L. lecanii was the fungus that provided mortality later in the aphids and M. persicae was more susceptible to both fungi than A. gossypii.

  17. Suppression of plant defenses by a Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary effector protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, Dezi A; De Vos, Martin; Jander, Georg

    2014-07-01

    The complex interactions between aphids and their host plant are species-specific and involve multiple layers of recognition and defense. Aphid salivary proteins, which are released into the plant during phloem feeding, are a likely mediator of these interactions. In an approach to identify aphid effectors that facilitate feeding from host plants, eleven Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary proteins and the GroEL protein of Buchnera aphidicola, a bacterial endosymbiont of this aphid species, were expressed transiently in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Whereas two salivary proteins increased aphid reproduction, expression of three other aphid proteins and GroEL significantly decreased aphid reproduction on N. tabacum. These effects were recapitulated in stable transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Further experiments with A. thaliana expressing Mp55, a salivary protein that increased aphid reproduction, showed lower accumulation of 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate, callose and hydrogen peroxide in response to aphid feeding. Mp55-expressing plants also were more attractive for aphids in choice assays. Silencing Mp55 gene expression in M. persicae using RNA interference approaches reduced aphid reproduction on N. tabacum, A. thaliana, and N. benthamiana. Together, these results demonstrate a role for Mp55, a protein with as-yet-unknown molecular function, in the interaction of M. persicae with its host plants.

  18. Effect of Natural β-Glucosidase Inhibitors in Reducing Toxicity of Amygdalin in Persicae Semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Li, Xia; Yang, Honggai; Mao, Xinhui; Wang, Juan; Gao, Wenyuan

    2017-05-01

    Amygdalin can be decomposed into hydrocyanic acid, which is the primary source of Persicae Semen toxicity, by gut flora. Here, the inhibitory activity of β-glucosidase for test herb extracts was first determined and compared. In turn, optimization of the ratio of substrate and inhibitor in vitro and LD50 values of extracts, serum and liver contents of amygdalin in vivo was measured. Lycii Cortex was found to be the best inhibitory activity for β-glucosidase. The ratio of amygdalin-to-Lycii Cortex extract of 7.19:8.18 (mmol L-1 /mg mL-1 ) can be relatively suitable for inhibiting β-glucosidase activity in test in vitro reaction system. After mixed with Lycii Cortex extract, the toxicity of Persicae Semen ethanol extract in mice is significantly reduced and more amygdalin can be absorbed into the bloodstream. The study provides useful information for reducing toxicity of Persicae Semen and suggests how to better use these natural β-glucosidase inhibitors in the utilization of glycosides and aglycones. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Relationship between LAI of Quercus persica and Pistacia atlantica with Field Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Poorghasemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is a key variable in primary production and carbon cycling in ecosystems. It is used as an important predictor to explain the processes of forest ecology, forest management, and remote sensing studies. Most of the remote sensing instruments such as LAI-2000 and Fisheye photography are based on three-dimensional space and they consider the geometry of the crown to estimate LAI. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between spectral behaviour of Quercus persica and Pistacia atlantica with two-dimensional and three-dimensional LAI. To estimate LAI, a box (0.5× 0.5× 0.5 meters was placed in the four directions of the crown and all the leaves were harvested. In situ spectral measurements of leaves were done with ASD Fieldspec spectroradiometer. The results of partial least squares regression to model LAI form spectral data of Quercus persica showed maximum regression coefficient at visible and near infrared wavelengths for both LAI3D and LAI2D. The coefficient of determination (R2 between the measured and estimated LAI2D and LAI3D values for Quercus persica was 0.16 and 0.23 respectively, and for Pistacia atlantica was 0.15 and to 0.42, respectively. Generally, LAI3D showed better relationship with spectral reflectance for both species.

  20. Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities of the Extracts from Chinese Yam (Dioscorea opposite Thunb.) Flesh and Peel and the Effective Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanxue; Li, Hongfa; Fan, Yaya; Man, Shuli; Liu, Zhen; Gao, Wenyuan; Wang, Tingting

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the antioxidant and antitumor activities of the water and ethanol extracts isolated from Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposite Thunb.) flesh (CYF) and peel (CYP) and the effective compounds. It was found that all peel portions have a better effect on reactive oxygen (ROS) scavenging assay than meat portions, especially for the water extract of Chinese yam peel (CYP-W). Its IC50 values for hydroxyl radical (OH•) scavenging assay (744.25 ± 3.46 μg/mL) and for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay (374.85 ± 6.78 μg/mL) were both lower than that of yam flesh (CYF-W). Furthermore, the antitumor property of yam peel was more effective than that of yam flesh (CYF-W) on mouse models, with tumor inhibition rates were 47.92% and 27.41% for Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAC) model and 40.44% and 24.22% for H22 hepatocarcinoma tumor (H22) model. Meanwhile, extracts of peel showed higher allantoin, total flavonoids, and total phenolics contents than extracts of flesh. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CYP-W exerted better antitumor activity than flesh extracts and the scavenging ROS effects were also significantly higher in the CYP-W in vitro. Moreover, the data indicated that allantoin may play an important role on antioxidative and antitumor capacity in yam peel. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. A comparison study on flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larimichthys croceus) cultured with three different modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqin; Li, Baian; Chen, Naisong; Huang, Xuxiong; Hua, Xuemin; Leng, Xiangjun

    2017-12-01

    To compare the flesh quality of large yellow croaker cultured with three different modes, enclosure culture (EC), cage culture with feeding trash fish (CCF) and cage culture with feeding formula diet (CCD), thirty six fish individuals of EC (484.6 ± 79.8 g), CCF (432.7 ± 87.9 g) and CCD (416.9 ± 49.5 g) were sampled to measure body color, flesh water holding capacity, flesh proximate composition, amino acids and fatty acids composition, and collagen and inosinic acid contents. The analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the yellowness of skin and the contents of crude protein and inosinic acid between CCD and EC (P >0.05), and the two modes showed higher values than CCF ( P amino acids (AA) in flesh were higher in EC than in CCF ( P 0.05). EC and CCD had higher contents of collagen, free AA and lower drip loss than CC ( P acids, EC showed significantly higher levels of C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 than CCF and CCD ( P fish is similar to EC fish, and these two modes have better flesh quality than CCF.

  2. Modeling the Disintegration Process in Anaerobic Digestion of Tannery Sludge and Fleshing

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    Cecilia Polizzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of anaerobic digestion (AD is widely acknowledged as a powerful tool to v of the process and to support full-scale plant design, operation and optimization. In this work, a modified version of the IWA-ADM1 model is proposed to simulate the AD of tannery primary sludge (TPS and fleshing, with special emphasis on the disintegration formulation. Multiple batch tests were performed at different inoculum/substrate VS-mass ratio, in order to evaluate the biodegradability of the two substrates and to provide experimental data for modeling purposes. Beside the necessary adjustments of substrates' COD fractionation, the structure modifications of the model focused on the disintegration and hydrolysis. The Contois Monod-based model was adopted to describe disintegration kinetics and the results were compared to the traditionally adopted first-order kinetic. The fate of particulate matter generated from biomass lysis was also questioned and a new model variable was introduced to account for cellular lysis products. Finally, a further modification differentiated substrate particulate matter into a readily and a slowly hydrolysable fraction. Batch tests confirmed that TPS and fleshing are suitable substrates for AD, exhibiting specific methane productions of: 0.26 ± 0.06 and 0.47 ± 0.05 Nm3 Kg−1 VS, respectively. Modeling results showed that the proposed modifications were crucial for successful simulation of experimental data referring to fleshing, whereas did not have a significant effect on the results related to primary sludge degradation. This work is the first application of an IWA-ADM1-based model to AD of tannery waste.

  3. Postharvest Sensory and Phenolic Characterization of ‘Elegant Lady’ and ‘Carson’ Peaches Caracterización Fenólica y Sensorial en Poscosecha de Duraznos ‘Elegant Lady’ y ‘Carson’

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Infante; Loreto Contador; Pía Rubio; Danilo Aros; Álvaro Peña-Neira

    2011-01-01

    High quality fruits are increasingly demanded along with the need to ensure this attribute to consumers. Thus, this study was aimed at characterizing a melting (‘Elegant Lady’) and a non-melting flesh (‘Carson’) peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) varieties by considering both their bioactive compound contribution and their sensory quality in ripe fruit at harvest and after a prolonged period of cold storage. Cultivars were evaluated at harvest (F0) and after 30 d of cold storage (F30), as wel...

  4. Dinâmica populacional e incidência de moscas-das-frutas e parasitoides em cultivares de pessegueiros (Prunus Persica L. Batsch no município de presidente prudente-sp Population dynamic and occurrence of fruit flies and their parasitoids in peach cultivars (Prunus persica L. Batsch in presidente prudente municipality, sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Nalesso Marangoni Montes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos avaliar a dinâmica populacional e registrar a diversidade de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea em cultivares de pessegueiro Tropical, Talismã, Aurora 2, Aurora 1, Dourado 2 e Doçura 2, enxertadas sobre os porta-enxertos 'Okinawa' e Umê, em Presidente Prudente-SP. Foram realizadas as correlações da dinâmica populacional com a temperatura e a precipitação, e também a infestação com as características químicas dos frutos, Sólidos Solúveis e Acidez Titulável. No período de julho de 2004 a dezembro de 2006, a dinâmica populacional de moscas-das-frutas foi obtida através de coletas semanais de moscas-das-frutas em armadilhas McPhail, e a incidência foi determinada através da coleta de 30 frutos/planta/cultivar. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Ceratitis capitata foi predominante nas cultivares de pessegueiros estudadas. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre população de moscas-das-frutas e as variáveis de temperatura e precipitação, e sólidos solúveis e ácidez titulável. Entre as cultivares de pêssego, Aurora 2 apresentou maior infestação por C. capitata, da ordem de 22 e 23% nos anos 2004 e 2006, respectivamente. Também foi registrada a incidência de Neosilba spp. em frutos de pêssego. Doryctobracon areolatus (Braconidae, Tetrastichus giffardianus (Eulophidae e Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Pteromalidae foram recuperados de pupários de Tephritidae.The objectives of this research were evaluate the population dynamic and diversity of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea on peach cultivars Tropical, Talisma, Aurora 2, Aurora 1, Dourado 2 and Doçura 2, under the rootstocks 'Okinawa' and Umê, in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil. The dynamic population of fruit flies was correlated with temperature and precipitation. The fruit fly infestation was correlated with chemical characteristics of fruits. During July 2004 to December 2006, the fruit fly population was monitored weekly using McPhail traps. The natural infestation was estimated from 30 fruits of each cultivar collected per year. The experiment was conducted under randomized design with five replications. Ceratitis capitata was dominant on peach cultivars for the both rootstocks. No significant correlations were detected between the fruit fly densities and the temperature and precipitation, and the variables soluble solids and titratable acidity. Among peach cultivars, Aurora 2 presented the highest infestation by C. capitata, reaching 22% and 23%, in 2004 and 2006, respectively. Neosilba spp. (Lonchaeidae was also recovered from peaches. Doryctobracon areolatus (Braconidae, Tetrastichus giffardianus (Eulophidae and Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Pteromalidae were recovered from Tephritidae pulparium.

  5. Reação de genótipos de nectarina (Prunus persica var. nucipersica à ferrugem da folha, ao chumbinho e evolução da desfolha Reaction of genotypes of the nectarine (Prunus persica var. Nucipersica to leaf rust and shot hole, and the development of defoliation

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    Ricardo Antônio Ayub

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A resistência genética às doenças é um progresso na produção de todas as culturas e fontes de resistência devem ser reportadas, auxiliando os programas de melhoramento. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a resistência de genótipos de nectarina à ferrugem da folha e ao chumbinho, assim como, correlacionar a intensidade das doenças com a desfolha prematura. Foram avaliados três genótipos de nectarina em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com dez repeticões. Com base nos resultados obtidos, o genótipo Bruna mostrou-se resistente ao chumbinho e suscetível à ferrugem, ao passo que o genótipo Sunripe foi resistente à ferrugem; FLA 9-15N foi moderadamente suscetível à ferrugem. Houve correlação apenas entre severidade da ferrugem e desfolha.Genetic resistance to disease can be seen as progress in the production of all crops, and sources of resistance have to be reported, thus helping improvement programs. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance of nectarine genotypes to leaf rust and shot hole, as well as to correlate the severity of the diseases with premature defoliation. Three genotypes of the nectarine were evaluated in a randomized block design with ten replications. Based on the results, the genotype Bruna proved resistant to shot hole and susceptible to leaf rust, while the genotype Sunripe was resistant to leaf rust. FLA 9-15N was moderately susceptible to leaf rust. There was correlation between leaf-rust severity and defoliation only.

  6. The Cuticle Protein Gene MPCP4 of Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) Plays a Critical Role in Cucumber Mosaic Virus Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Gao, Xi-Wu

    2017-06-01

    Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) is one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. In addition to sucking phloem sap, M. persicae also transmits Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) as a vector in a nonpersistent manner. At present, the infection mechanism remains unclear, especially the process of aphid virus acquisition. In this study, we isolated four M. persicae cuticle protein genes (MPCP1, MPCP2, MPCP4, and MPCP5) from M. persicae. The relative amount of the gene encoding Cucumber mosaic virus capsid protein (CMV CP) and the transcript levels of these four cuticle protein genes were investigated in aphid virus acquisition by feeding the tobacco preinfested by CMV. The relative expression of MPCP1, MPCP2, and MPCP4 were significantly higher than MPCP5 at 24 h after aphids feeding on virus-infested tobacco. Yeast two-hybrid assays demonstrated that the protein encoded by MPCP4 gene was closely associated with the CMV CP through the direct interaction. Moreover, the ability of M. persicae to acquire CMV was suppressed by RNA interference of MPCP4. All these lines of evidence indicate that MPCP4, as a viral putative receptor in the stylet of aphid, plays an important role in aphid acquisition of CMV. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Molecular characterization of Prunus mahaleb L. rootstock canditates by ISSR markers

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    Ozyurt Ibrahim Kursat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus mahaleb is widely used as rootstocks particularly on calcareous and dry soils for both sweet and sour cherry cultivars in Turkey. Genetic diversity and relationships among members of Prunus mahaleb including 29 preselected rootstock candidate accessions from Tokat region in Turkey were investigated by using 15 ISSR markers. The study revealed high genetic diversity among accessions, detecting 138 fragments, of which 103 (75% were polymorphic. The number of polymorphic bands per primer was between 3-13, with average of 6.86. The primers 890 and 891 gave the highest polymorphism ratio (100%. The UPGMA dendrogram and the principal coordinate analysis revealed a clear differentiation among accessions. Reference rootstock, SL-64 clustered separately. The study demonstrates that ISSRs provide promising marker tools in revealing genetic diversity and relationships in Prunus mahaleb rootstock candidate accessions and can contribute to efficient identification, conservation, and utilization of germplasm for rootstock improvement through conventional as well as molecular breeding approaches.

  8. Antibacterial efficacy of Salvadora persica as a cleansing teeth towards Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli colonies

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    Erlina Sih Mahanani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salvadora persica is a traditional chewing stick for cleaning teeth that it is known Siwak. Several studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial effects of Salvadora persica. Purpose: This study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of Salvadora persica in several modified preparation against the salivary Streptoccocus mutans and Lactobacilli. Methods: A single-blind, randomized clinical trial study with crossover design was used. The study comprised of 5 groups, per group consisted of 14 healthy dental students who had good oral hygiene. Each participant was given 5 intervention to clean their teeth using, electric toothbrush modified with siwak, electric toothbrush with siwak toothpaste (colgate kayu sugi toothpaste, electric toothbrush with general toothpaste (colgate total toothpaste, original siwak chewing stick and normal saline. The wash out periode each intervention was 3 days. Patients’ saliva was used to quantify the levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli using caries risk test (CRT kit from Vivadent. Results: The results showed that there was a reduction in Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli risk score after cleansing different intervention except electric toothbrush modified with siwak. However, there was no significant difference for Streptococcus mutans (p=0.158 and Lactobacilli (p=0.396 risk score reduction when comparison was done between the groups. Conclusion: The original siwak chewing stick has antimicrobial effects similar to toothbrushing with general toothpaste and salvadora persica toothpaste. However, electric toothbrush modified with siwak has no effect on microbial reduction.Latar belakang: Salvadora persica adalah pembersih gigi tradisional yang lebih dikenal dengan sebutan Siwak. Beberapa penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Salvadora persica memiliki daya antibakteri. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas Salvadora persica dalam berbagai bentuk sediaan untuk membersihkan

  9. [Feasibility of the use of different binding agents for the development of products based on deboned fish flesh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, O; Bello, R A

    1984-03-01

    Blocks of deboned fish flesh capable of developing binding, stable and adequate properties were prepared. Procedures with fish flesh and binding agents were investigated, with emphasis on the rheologic and hydration properties. Starches and precooked maize and cassava flours were used as binding agents. Flours presented a high binding capacity, even at low concentrations (10%-15%); however, at higher concentrations this property tended to be counterbalanced by the water absorption capacity. On the other hand, it was observed that application of thermal gelatinizing treatments was required when crude starch was used. As far as color is concerned, the observed changes depended both on the type of binder used and on its concentration. Findings revealed that the flesh-binding texture procedure depends on the viscosity developed by the starchy product.

  10. Flesh & Foil

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    Roduit, Johann A R

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This poem reflects on the possibility of human enhancement. It shows that if enhancements are embraced step-by-step, without any long-term vision, one might get lost along the way.

  11. Utilization of Amygdalin during Seedling Development of Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, E.; Poulton, J. E.

    1994-10-01

    Cotyledons of mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds contain the cyanogenic diglucoside (R)-amygdalin. The levels of amygdalin, its corresponding monoglucoside (R)-prunasin, and the enzymes that metabolize these cyanoglycosides were measured during the course of seedling development. During the first 3 weeks following imbibition, cotyledonary amygdalin levels declined by more than 80%, but free hydrogen cyanide was not released to the atmosphere. Concomitantly, prunasin, which was not present in mature, ungerminated seeds, accumulated in the seedling epicotyls, hypocotyls, and cotyledons to levels approaching 4 [mu]mol per seedling. Whether this prunasin resulted from amygdalin hydrolysis remains unclear, however, because these organs also possess UDPG:mandelonitrile glucosyltransferase, which catalyzes de novo prunasin biosynthesis. The reduction in amygdalin levels was paralleled by declines in the levels of amygdalin hydrolase (AH), prunasin hydrolase (PH), mandelonitrile lyase (MDL), and [beta]-cyanoalanine synthase. At all stages of seedling development, AH and PH were localized by immunocytochemistry within the vascular tissues. In contrast, MDL occurred mostly in the cotyledonary parenchyma cells but was also present in the vascular tissues. Soon after imbibition, AH, PH, and MDL were found within protein bodies but were later detected in vacuoles derived from these organelles.

  12. Screening of solvent dependent antibacterial activity of Prunus domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqeen, Zahra; Naqvi, Naim-ul-Hasan; Sohail, Tehmina; Rehman, Zakir-ur; Fatima, Nudrat; Imran, Hina; Rehman, Atiqur

    2013-03-01

    Fruit of Prunus domestica was extracted in ethanol. The ethanol extract was further extracted with two solvents ethyl acetate and chloroform. The crude ethanol extract and two fractions (ethyl acetate and chloroform) were screened for their antibacterial activity using the agar well diffusion method .They were tested against nine bacteria; five Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcuc intermedius, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus) and four Gram negative bacteria (Eschrichia coli, Proteus mirabilis Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiela pneumoniae). The susceptibility of microorganisms to all three fractions was compared with each other and with standard antibiotic (Ampicillin) Among all fractions ethyl acetate exhibited highest antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 34.57mm ± 1.3) while ethyl alcohol exhibited least antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 17.42mm ± 3.3). Minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions was found in the range of 78 μ g/ml to 2500 μ gl/ml against gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

  13. Insecticidal activity of citronella grass essential oil on Frankliniella schultzei and Myzus persicae Atividade inseticida do óleo essencial de capim-citronela sobre Frankliniella schultzei e Myzus persicae

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    Patrícia Fontes Pinheiro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The thrips, Frankliniella schultzei, and green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, cause direct damage to plants of economic importance and transmit phytoviruses, causing large economic losses. Chemical constituents of essential oils present a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this work was to evaluate insecticidal activity of essential oil from citronella grass, Cymbopogon winterianus, on F. schultzei and M. persicae. This essential oil was obtained by steam distillation and components were identified by GC/FID and GC/MS. A Potter spray tower was used to spray insects with the essential oil. The major constituents are geraniol (28.62%, citronellal (23.62% and citronellol (17.10%. Essential oil of C. winterianus at 1% (w v-1 causes mortality in F. schultzei and M. persicae at 34.3% and 96.9%, respectively. The LC50 value for M. persicae was 0.36% and LC90 0.66%. Thus, citronella grass essential oil at 1% (w v-1 is more toxic to M. persicae than F. schultzei. This essential oil shows promise for developing pesticides to manage M. persicae.O tripes, Frankliniella schultzei, e o pulgão-verde, Myzus persicae, além de causarem danos diretos a plantas de importância econômica, também são importantes transmissores de fitoviroses, acarretando grandes perdas econômicas. Os constituintes químicos dos óleos essenciais têm sido cada vez mais estudados, pois apresentam uma ampla gama de atividades biológicas. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a atividade inseticida do óleo essencial de capim-citronela, Cymbopogon winterianus, sobre F. schultzei e M. persicae. O óleo essencial foi obtido por hidrodestilação e a identificação dos seus componentes foi realizada por CG/DIC e CG/EM. Uma torre de Potter foi utilizada para pulverizar os insetos com óleo essencial. Os componentes majoritários encontrados são geraniol (28,62%, citronelal (23,62% e citronelol (17,10%. O óleo essencial de C. winterianus a 1% (m v-1 causa mortalidade de F

  14. Enhanced production of Aspergillus tamarii lipase for recovery of fat from tannery fleshings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayanandan, A; Rani, S Hilda Vimala; Shanmugavel, M; Gnanamani, A; Rajakumar, G Suseela

    2013-12-01

    The influence of various oil cakes has been investigated for high level production of lipase using Aspergillus tamarii MTCC 5152. By solid state fermentation in wheat bran containing 2.5% w/w gingili oil cake at 70% v/w moisture content the fungus produced a maximal yield of lipase (758 ± 3.61 u/g) after 5 days of incubation using 2% v/w inoculum containing 10(6) spores/mL. Wheat bran and gingili oil cake with supplementation of gingili oil (1.0% w/w), glucose (0.5% w/w) and peptone (0.5% w/w) gives an increased enzyme production of 793 ± 6.56 u/g. The enzyme shows maximum activity at pH 7.0, temperature 50 °C and was stable between the pH 5.0-8.0 and temperature up to 60 °C. Crude lipase (3%) applied to tannery fleshing shows 92% fat solubility. The results demonstrate that fat obtained from tannery fleshing, a by-product of the leather industry has a high potential for biodiesel production and the proteinaceous residue obtained can be used as animal feed.

  15. Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2011-11-01

    Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids.

  16. Enhanced production of Aspergillus tamarii lipase for recovery of fat from tannery fleshings

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    A. Dayanandan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of various oil cakes has been investigated for high level production of lipase using Aspergillus tamarii MTCC 5152. By solid state fermentation in wheat bran containing 2.5% w/w gingili oil cake at 70% v/w moisture content the fungus produced a maximal yield of lipase (758 ± 3.61 u/g after 5 days of incubation using 2% v/w inoculum containing 10(6 spores/mL. Wheat bran and gingili oil cake with supplementation of gingili oil (1.0% w/w, glucose (0.5% w/w and peptone (0.5% w/w gives an increased enzyme production of 793 ± 6.56 u/g. The enzyme shows maximum activity at pH 7.0, temperature 50 °C and was stable between the pH 5.0-8.0 and temperature up to 60 °C. Crude lipase (3% applied to tannery fleshing shows 92% fat solubility. The results demonstrate that fat obtained from tannery fleshing, a by-product of the leather industry has a high potential for biodiesel production and the proteinaceous residue obtained can be used as animal feed.

  17. [Determination of elements in the leaves of Prunus mongolica by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shu-Fang; Shi, Song-Li; Wang, Deng-Kui; Cheng, Xiang-Hui; Liu, Zong-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    For determination of elements in the leaves of Prunus mongolica, the samples were digested by nitric acid-perchloric. The contents of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Al, Sr, Sn and Pb in the leaves of Prunus mongolica were determined by ICP-AES, at the same time a blank experiment was carried out. The results showed that the recovery rate of the ten elements was between 93% and 110%, and the relative standard deviation was between 0.33% and 2.94%. This method is fast, simple and accurate.

  18. Light conditions affect the performance of Yponomeuta evonymellus on its native host Prunus padus and the alien Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukowski, A; Giertych, M J; Walczak, U; Baraniak, E; Karolewski, P

    2017-04-01

    The bird cherry ermine moth, Yponomeuta evonymellus L., is considered an obligatory monophagous insect pest that feeds only on native European Prunus padus L. In recent years, however, increased larval feeding on alien P. serotina Ehrh. has been observed. In both species, general defoliation is extensive for shade grown trees, whereas it is high in P. padus, but very low in P. serotina, when trees are grown in full light conditions. The aim of the present study was to identify how the plant host species and light conditions affect the performance of Y. evonymellus. The influence of host species and light condition on their growth and development, characterized by the parameters of pupation, adult eclosion, body mass, potential fecundity, and wing size, was measured in a 2 × 2 experimental design (two light treatments, two hosts). In comparison with high light (HL) conditions, a greater percentage of pupation and a longer period and less dynamic adult emerge was observed under low light (LL) conditions. The effect of host species on these parameters was not significant. In contrast, mass, fecundity and all of the studied wing parameters were higher in larvae that grazed on P. padus than on P. serotina. Similarly the same parameters were also higher on shrubs in HL as compared with those grown under LL conditions. In general, light conditions, rather than plant species, were more often and to a greater extent, responsible for differences in the observed parameters of insect development and potential fecundity.

  19. Dynamics of membrane potential variation and gene expression induced by Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis.

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    Irene Bricchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biotic stress induced by various herbivores and pathogens invokes plant responses involving different defense mechanisms. However, we do not know whether different biotic stresses share a common response or which signaling pathways are involved in responses to different biotic stresses. We investigated the common and specific responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to three biotic stress agents: Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used electrophysiology to determine the plasma membrane potential (V(m and we performed a gene microarray transcriptome analysis on Arabidopsis upon either herbivory or bacterial infection. V(m depolarization was induced by insect attack; however, the response was much more rapid to S. littoralis (30 min -2 h than to M. persicae (4-6 h. M. persicae differentially regulated almost 10-fold more genes than by S. littoralis with an opposite regulation. M. persicae modulated genes involved in flavonoid, fatty acid, hormone, drug transport and chitin metabolism. S. littoralis regulated responses to heat, transcription and ion transport. The latest Vm depolarization (16 h was found for P. syringae. The pathogen regulated responses to salicylate, jasmonate and to microorganisms. Despite this late response, the number of genes differentially regulated by P. syringae was closer to those regulated by S. littoralis than by M. persicae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Arabidopsis plasma membranes respond with a V(m depolarization at times depending on the nature of biotic attack which allow setting a time point for comparative genome-wide analysis. A clear relationship between V(m depolarization and gene expression was found. At V(m depolarization timing, M. persicae regulates a wider array of Arabidopsis genes with a clear and distinct regulation than S. littoralis. An almost completely opposite regulation was observed between the aphid and the pathogen

  20. Benzyl isothiocyanate, a major component from the roots of Salvadora persica is highly active against Gram-negative bacteria.

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    Abier Sofrata

    Full Text Available Plants produce a number of antimicrobial substances and the roots of the shrub Salvadora persica have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activity. Sticks from the roots of S. persica, Miswak sticks, have been used for centuries as a traditional method of cleaning teeth. Diverging reports on the chemical nature and antimicrobial repertoire of the chewing sticks from S. persica led us to explore its antibacterial properties against a panel of pathogenic or commensal bacteria and to identify the antibacterial component/s by methodical chemical characterization. S. persica root essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and solid-phase microextraction was used to sample volatiles released from fresh root. The active compound was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antibacterial assays. The antibacterial compound was isolated using medium-pressure liquid chromatography. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize the effect on bacterial cells. The main antibacterial component of both S. persica root extracts and volatiles was benzyl isothiocyanate. Root extracts as well as commercial synthetic benzyl isothiocyanate exhibited rapid and strong bactericidal effect against oral pathogens involved in periodontal disease as well as against other Gram-negative bacteria, while Gram-positive bacteria mainly displayed growth inhibition or remained unaffected. The short exposure needed to obtain bactericidal effect implies that the chewing sticks and the essential oil may have a specific role in treatment of periodontal disease in reducing Gram-negative periodontal pathogens. Our results indicate the need for further investigation into the mechanism of the specific killing of Gram-negative bacteria by S. persica root stick extracts and its active component benzyl isothiocyanate.

  1. The Issues of Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca L. Micropropagation

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    Martina Kudělková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four modified mediums for apricot multiplication was observed in this study. A total number of 1864 single nodes of 20 Prunus armeniaca L.varieties were established. Explants surface was disinfected with 0.2 % mercuric chloride for 5 minutes. MS (1962 medium with 0.5 mg.l−1 BA, 0.01 mg.l−1 NAA and 0.5 mg.l−1 GA3 was used as a medium for primary culture. ‘Velkopavlovická’, ‘Bergeron’, genotype 1128 and genotype LE 2927 Š9 were successfully transferred to aseptic conditions and multiplied. Modified MS medium (1962, DKW/Juglans medium, Quoirin, Lepoivre (1977 medium and Marino et al. (1991 medium were used for multiplication. Modified MS medium and modified DKW/Juglans medium were not suitable for apricot multiplication at all and explants did not grow. The best results were observed in the case of Quoirin, Lepoivre (1977 medium with 0.4 mg.l−1 BA and 0.01 mg.l−1 NAA. Young plants multiplied well, were fresh and vital and no damage was observed. The highest number of new shoots was observed in the case of Marino et al. (1991 medium. The average growth of new shoots after the last passaging was 600 %, rate 7.33 (Velkopavlovická; 566 %, rate 7.0 (Bergeron; 475 %, rate 6.25 (1128 and 483 %, rate 6.33 (LE 2927 Š9. However, new shoots in clusters were too dense and stunted and this medium is not recommended for apricot multiplication.

  2. Prunus serotina Amygdalin Hydrolase and Prunasin Hydrolase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun Ping; Swain, Elisabeth; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seed homogenates, amygdalin hydrolase (AH) participates with prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitrile lyase in the sequential degradation of (R)-amygdalin to HCN, benzaldehyde, and glucose. Four isozymes of AH (designated AH I, I′, II, II′) were purified from mature cherry seeds by concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and chromatofocusing. All isozymes were monomeric glycoproteins with native molecular masses of 52 kD. They showed similar kinetic properties (pH optima, Km, Vmax) but differed in their isoelectric points and N-terminal amino acid sequences. Analytical isoelectric focusing revealed the presence of subisozymes of each isozyme. The relative abundance of these isozymes and/or subisozymes varied from seed to seed. Three isozymes of PH (designated PH I, IIa, and IIb) were purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity, ion-exchange, and hydroxyapatite chromatography and by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PH I and PH IIb are 68-kD monomeric glycoproteins, whereas PH IIa is dimeric (140 kD). The N-terminal sequences of all PH and AH isozymes showed considerable similarity. Polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against deglycosylated AH I or a mixture of the three deglycosylated PH isozymes were not monospecific as judged by immunoblotting analysis, but also cross-reacted with the opposing glucosidase. Monospecific antisera deemed suitable for immunocytochemistry and screening of expression libraries were obtained by affinity chromatography. Each antiserum recognized all known isozymes of the specific glucosidase used as antigen. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 PMID:16652959

  3. Insecticide Resistance Mechanisms in the Green Peach Aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) I: A Transcriptomic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andrea X.; Jander, Georg; Samaniego, Horacio; Ramsey, John S; Figueroa, Christian C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance is one of the best examples of rapid micro-evolution found in nature. Since the development of the first synthetic insecticide in 1939, humans have invested considerable effort to stay ahead of resistance phenotypes that repeatedly develop in insects. Aphids are a group of insects that have become global pests in agriculture and frequently exhibit insecticide resistance. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, has developed resistance to at least seventy different synthetic compounds, and different insecticide resistance mechanisms have been reported worldwide. Methodology/Principal Findings To further characterize this resistance, we analyzed genome-wide transcriptional responses in three genotypes of M. persicae, each exhibiting different resistance mechanisms, in response to an anti-cholinesterase insecticide. The sensitive genotype (exhibiting no resistance mechanism) responded to the insecticide by up-regulating 183 genes primarily ones related to energy metabolism, detoxifying enzymes, proteins of extracellular transport, peptidases and cuticular proteins. The second genotype (resistant through a kdr sodium channel mutation), up-regulated 17 genes coding for detoxifying enzymes, peptidase and cuticular proteins. Finally, a multiply resistant genotype (carrying kdr and a modified acetylcholinesterase), up-regulated only 7 genes, appears not to require induced insecticide detoxification, and instead down-regulated many genes. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests strongly that insecticide resistance in M. persicae is more complex that has been described, with the participation of a broad array of resistance mechanisms. The sensitive genotype exhibited the highest transcriptional plasticity, accounting for the wide range of potential adaptations to insecticides that this species can evolve. In contrast, the multiply resistant genotype exhibited a low transcriptional plasticity, even for the expression of genes encoding

  4. Insecticide Resistance Mechanisms in the Green Peach Aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) II: Costs and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andrea X.; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D.; Luna-Rudloff, Manuela; Figueroa, Christian C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Among herbivorous insects that have exploited agro-ecosystems, the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae, is recognized as one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Uses over 400 plant species and has evolved different insecticides resistance mechanisms. As M. persicae feeds upon a huge diversity of hosts, it has been exposed to a wide variety of plant allelochemicals, which probably have promoted a wide range of detoxification systems. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work we (i) evaluated whether insecticide resistance mutations (IRM) in M. persicae can give an advantage in terms of reproductive fitness when aphids face two hosts, pepper (Capsicum annuum) a suitable host and radish (Raphanus sativus) the unfavorable host and (ii) examined the transcriptional expression of six genes that are known to be up-regulated in response to insecticides. Our results show a significant interaction between host and IRM on the intrinsic rate of increase (rm). Susceptible genotypes (not carrying insensitivity mutations) had a higher rm on pepper, and the transcriptional levels of five genes increased on radish. The rm relationship was reversed on the unfavorable host; genotypes with multiple IRM exhibited higher rm, without altering the transcriptional levels of the studied genes. Genotypes with one IRM kept a similar rm on both hosts, but they increased the transcriptional levels of two genes. Conclusions/Significance Although we have studied only nine genotypes, overall our results are in agreement with the general idea that allelochemical detoxification systems could constitute a pre-adaptation for the development of insecticide resistance. Genotypes carrying IRM exhibited a higher rm than susceptible genotypes on radish, the more unfavorable host. Susceptible genotypes should be able to tolerate the defended host by up-regulating some metabolic genes that are also responding to insecticides. Hence, our results suggest that the trade-off among

  5. Insecticide resistance mechanisms in the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae I: A transcriptomic survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea X Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance is one of the best examples of rapid micro-evolution found in nature. Since the development of the first synthetic insecticide in 1939, humans have invested considerable effort to stay ahead of resistance phenotypes that repeatedly develop in insects. Aphids are a group of insects that have become global pests in agriculture and frequently exhibit insecticide resistance. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, has developed resistance to at least seventy different synthetic compounds, and different insecticide resistance mechanisms have been reported worldwide. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further characterize this resistance, we analyzed genome-wide transcriptional responses in three genotypes of M. persicae, each exhibiting different resistance mechanisms, in response to an anti-cholinesterase insecticide. The sensitive genotype (exhibiting no resistance mechanism responded to the insecticide by up-regulating 183 genes primarily ones related to energy metabolism, detoxifying enzymes, proteins of extracellular transport, peptidases and cuticular proteins. The second genotype (resistant through a kdr sodium channel mutation, up-regulated 17 genes coding for detoxifying enzymes, peptidase and cuticular proteins. Finally, a multiply resistant genotype (carrying kdr and a modified acetylcholinesterase, up-regulated only 7 genes, appears not to require induced insecticide detoxification, and instead down-regulated many genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests strongly that insecticide resistance in M. persicae is more complex that has been described, with the participation of a broad array of resistance mechanisms. The sensitive genotype exhibited the highest transcriptional plasticity, accounting for the wide range of potential adaptations to insecticides that this species can evolve. In contrast, the multiply resistant genotype exhibited a low transcriptional plasticity, even for the expression

  6. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt O. Reinhart; Alejandro Royo; Wim H. Van der Putten; Keith Clay

    2005-01-01

    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments, soil sterilization was used to test the...

  7. Agrobacterium-medicated transformation of mature Prunus serotina (black cherry) and regeneration of trangenic shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was developed for in vitro leaf explants of an elite, mature Prunus serotina tree. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring an RNAi plasmid with the black cherry AGAMOUS (AG) gene was used. Bacteria were induced...

  8. Molecular mechanisms regulating flowering time in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionescu, Irina Alexandra

    as a result of hydrogen cyanamide treatment: the jasmonate pathway, the hydrogen cyanide pathway and the cytokinin pathway. We further analyzed the levels of cyanogenic glucosides and their derivatives during endodormancy and its release in sweet cherry and almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb). Prunasin...

  9. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, K.O.; Royo, A.A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Clay, K.

    2005-01-01

    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments,

  10. Adventitious shoot regeneration and rooting of Prunus serotina in vitro cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana Carolina Espinosa; Paula M. Pijut; Charles H. Michler

    2006-01-01

    A complete regeneration protocol was developed for Prunus serotina Ehrh., an important hardwood species for timber and sawlog production in the central and eastern United States. Nodal sections were cultures on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.44 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.49 µM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA),...

  11. Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) : [luuletused] / R. W. Stedingh ; tlk. ja saatesõna: Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stedingh, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) ; Rubus spectabilis ; Rododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum) ; Lysuchitum americanum ; Tulp (Tulipa gesneriana) ; Kanada hani (Branta canadensis) ; Metsorava pärastlõuna (Sciurus carolinensis) ; Ohakalind (Spinus tristis) ; Shakespeare'i mälestusmärk (kogust "Stanley pargi süit")

  12. Cloning and characterization of prunus serotina AGAMOUS, a putative flower homeotic gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Joseph Anderson; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Members of the AGAMOUS subfamily of MADS-box transcription factors play an important role in regulating the development of reproductive organs in flowering plants. To help understand the mechanism of floral development in black cherry (Prunus serotina), PsAG (a putative flower homeotic identity gene) was isolated...

  13. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Anthocyanins: effects of juice processing on phenolic compounds and bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Capanoglu, E.

    2014-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.), has gained growing interest in recent years due to the envisaged health benefits associated with a regular intake of anthocyanins and related polyphenolic compounds. Turkish sour cherries are widely consumed as processed products and are renowned for their high juice

  14. Changes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) antioxidants during nectar processing and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Kamiloglu, S.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is rich in polyphenols, and like its processed products, is especially rich in anthocyanins. We have applied HPLC, spectrophotometric and on-line antioxidant detection methods to follow the fate of cherry antioxidants during an entire multi-step industrial-scale

  15. Mass of Prunus africana stem barks on Tchabal mbabo and Tchabal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study which aimed to produce a formula for establishing the mass of the bark of Prunus africana specimens was carried out in May 2011 on Tchabal Mbabo and Tchabal Gang Daba mountain forests, in the Adamaoua region of Cameroon. The diameter at breast height (DBH), the height of the tree and the thickness of the ...

  16. A synonymic revision of the Prunus-infesting aphid genus Hyalopterus Koch 1854 (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three species of Hyalopterus Koch cause economic damage to various stone fruit trees of the genus Prunus L., H. pruni (Geoffroy), H. amygdali (Blanchard), and H. persikonus Miller et al. Although the third species was established recently, it has been suggested that one of the twelve older synon...

  17. Quantitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in Prunus serotina Ehrh. using 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Pimenta, Lucia P.; Schilthuizen, Menno; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    Introduction Prunus serotina is native to North America but has been invasively introduced in Europe since the seventeenth century. This plant contains cyanogenic glycosides that are believed to be related to its success as an invasive plant. For these compounds, chromatographic- or

  18. Can Prunus serotina be genetically engineered for reproductive sterility and insect pest resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina) is a valuable hardwood timber species, and its value highly depends on the wood quality which is often threatened by insect pests. Transgenic black cherry plants that are more resistant to cambial-mining insects may reduce the occurrence of gummosis and have great economic benefits to landowners and the forest products...

  19. Plant regeneration from in vitro leaves of mature black cherry (Prunus serotina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Paula M. Pijut

    2008-01-01

    A regeneration system was developed for Prunus serotina from a juvenile (F) and two mature genotypes (#3 and #4). Adventitious shoots regenerated from leaves of in vitro cultures on woody plant medium with thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The best regeneration for genotype F (91.4%) was observed on medium with 9.08 µM TDZ...

  20. Performance of Prunus rootstocks in the 2001 NC-140 peach trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with either ‘Redtop’, ‘Redhaven’ or ‘Cresthaven’ peach were planted at 11 locations in North America in 2001 in a randomized block design with a tree spacing of 5 by 6 m and 8 replicates. These rootstocks included three peach seedling rootst...

  1. The anti-viral effect of Acacia mellifera, Melia azedarach and Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous extracts from the stem barks of Prunus africana(Hook.f.) Kalkm, Acacia mellifera (Vahl.) Benth. and Melia azedarach L. were evaluated for in vivo antiviral activity in Balb/C mice following a cutaneous wild type strain 7401H herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. A significant therapeutic effect was observed ...

  2. Transformation of somatic embryos of Prunus incisa ‘February Pink’ with a visible reporter gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system was developed for the ornamental cherry species Prunus incisa. This system uses both an antibiotic resistance gene (NPTII) and a visible selectable marker, the green fluorescent protein (GFP), to select plants. Cells from leaf and root explants were tr...

  3. Evaluation of extraction methods for the identification of proteins from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seed and flesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hooi Xian; Ahmad, Fisal; Saad, Bahruddin; Ismail, Mohd Nazri

    2017-11-26

    Date fruits are well known to be very nutritious. Nevertheless, the protein contents of the fruit, particularly the seed and flesh, are still understudied, largely due to their difficult physical characteristics. This study was conducted to compare three different protein extraction methods which were the trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-acetone (TCA-A), phenol (Phe), and TCA-acetone-phenol (TCA-A-Phe), and to perform proteomic analysis on date palm seed and flesh. Phe extraction method showed the highest protein yields for both seed (8.26 mg/g) and flesh (1.57 mg/g). Through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Phe, and TCA-A-Phe extraction methods were shown to be efficient in removing interfering compounds and gave well-resolved bands over a wide range of molecular weights. Following liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, about 50-64% of extracted proteins were identified with known functions including those involved in glycolysis, Krebs cycle, defense, and storage. Phe protein extraction method was proven to be the optimal method for date flesh and seed.

  4. A Multidisciplinary Approach Providing New Insight into Fruit Flesh Browning Physiology in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farneti, Brian; Lorenz, Giorgia; Masuero, Domenico; Vrhovsek, Urska; Costa, Guglielmo; Velasco, Riccardo; Costa, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In terms of the quality of minimally processed fruit, flesh browning is fundamentally important in the development of an aesthetically unpleasant appearance, with consequent off-flavours. The development of browning depends on the enzymatic action of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO). In the ‘Golden Delicious’ apple genome ten PPO genes were initially identified and located on three main chromosomes (2, 5 and 10). Of these genes, one element in particular, here called Md-PPO, located on chromosome 10, was further investigated and genetically mapped in two apple progenies (‘Fuji x Pink Lady’ and ‘Golden Delicious x Braeburn’). Both linkage maps, made up of 481 and 608 markers respectively, were then employed to find QTL regions associated with fruit flesh browning, allowing the detection of 25 QTLs related to several browning parameters. These were distributed over six linkage groups with LOD values spanning from 3.08 to 4.99 and showed a rate of phenotypic variance from 26.1 to 38.6%. Anchoring of these intervals to the apple genome led to the identification of several genes involved in polyphenol synthesis and cell wall metabolism. Finally, the expression profile of two specific candidate genes, up and downstream of the polyphenolic pathway, namely phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), provided insight into flesh browning physiology. Md-PPO was further analyzed and two haplotypes were characterised and associated with fruit flesh browning in apple. PMID:24205065

  5. A multidisciplinary approach providing new insight into fruit flesh browning physiology in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guardo, Mario; Tadiello, Alice; Farneti, Brian; Lorenz, Giorgia; Masuero, Domenico; Vrhovsek, Urska; Costa, Guglielmo; Velasco, Riccardo; Costa, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In terms of the quality of minimally processed fruit, flesh browning is fundamentally important in the development of an aesthetically unpleasant appearance, with consequent off-flavours. The development of browning depends on the enzymatic action of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO). In the 'Golden Delicious' apple genome ten PPO genes were initially identified and located on three main chromosomes (2, 5 and 10). Of these genes, one element in particular, here called Md-PPO, located on chromosome 10, was further investigated and genetically mapped in two apple progenies ('Fuji x Pink Lady' and 'Golden Delicious x Braeburn'). Both linkage maps, made up of 481 and 608 markers respectively, were then employed to find QTL regions associated with fruit flesh browning, allowing the detection of 25 QTLs related to several browning parameters. These were distributed over six linkage groups with LOD values spanning from 3.08 to 4.99 and showed a rate of phenotypic variance from 26.1 to 38.6%. Anchoring of these intervals to the apple genome led to the identification of several genes involved in polyphenol synthesis and cell wall metabolism. Finally, the expression profile of two specific candidate genes, up and downstream of the polyphenolic pathway, namely phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), provided insight into flesh browning physiology. Md-PPO was further analyzed and two haplotypes were characterised and associated with fruit flesh browning in apple.

  6. A multidisciplinary approach providing new insight into fruit flesh browning physiology in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Di Guardo

    Full Text Available In terms of the quality of minimally processed fruit, flesh browning is fundamentally important in the development of an aesthetically unpleasant appearance, with consequent off-flavours. The development of browning depends on the enzymatic action of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO. In the 'Golden Delicious' apple genome ten PPO genes were initially identified and located on three main chromosomes (2, 5 and 10. Of these genes, one element in particular, here called Md-PPO, located on chromosome 10, was further investigated and genetically mapped in two apple progenies ('Fuji x Pink Lady' and 'Golden Delicious x Braeburn'. Both linkage maps, made up of 481 and 608 markers respectively, were then employed to find QTL regions associated with fruit flesh browning, allowing the detection of 25 QTLs related to several browning parameters. These were distributed over six linkage groups with LOD values spanning from 3.08 to 4.99 and showed a rate of phenotypic variance from 26.1 to 38.6%. Anchoring of these intervals to the apple genome led to the identification of several genes involved in polyphenol synthesis and cell wall metabolism. Finally, the expression profile of two specific candidate genes, up and downstream of the polyphenolic pathway, namely phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and polyphenol oxidase (PPO, provided insight into flesh browning physiology. Md-PPO was further analyzed and two haplotypes were characterised and associated with fruit flesh browning in apple.

  7. Agent based simulation on the process of human flesh search-From perspective of knowledge and emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hou; Hu, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Human flesh search as a new net crowed behavior, on the one hand can help us to find some special information, on the other hand may lead to privacy leaking and offending human right. In order to study the mechanism of human flesh search, this paper proposes a simulation model based on agent-based model and complex networks. The computational experiments show some useful results. Discovered information quantity and involved personal ratio are highly correlated, and most of net citizens will take part in the human flesh search or will not take part in the human flesh search. Knowledge quantity does not influence involved personal ratio, but influences whether HFS can find out the target human. When the knowledge concentrates on hub nodes, the discovered information quantity is either perfect or almost zero. Emotion of net citizens influences both discovered information quantity and involved personal ratio. Concretely, when net citizens are calm to face the search topic, it will be hardly to find out the target; But when net citizens are agitated, the target will be found out easily.

  8. Quality of fresh-cut purple fleshed sweet potatoes after x-ray irradiation treatment and refrigerated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of x-ray irradiation on the quality of fresh-cut, refrigerated purple-fleshed sweetpotato (PFSP) cubes was investigated. Packaged sweetpotato cubes were treated with 0, 250, 500, 750 or 1000 Gy x-ray irradiation and stored at 4 ± 1 ºC for 14 days. After 14 days, total aerobic bacteria cou...

  9. Antioxidant properties and prevention of cell cytotoxicity of Phlomis persica Boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The free radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and inhibition of β–carotene peroxidation of Phlomis persica (PP extracts was investigated. In addition, the effect of this extract on reduction of the hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in non-immortalized fibroblast was examined. The extracts showed free radical scavenging capacity, and the ethyl acetate extract showed marked effect on inhibition of lipid peroxidation similar to that of gallic acid. These results were further supported by a protective effect of Phlomis crude extract on H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in human non-immortalized fibroblasts.

  10. [Effects of bagging on pigment, sugar and endogenous hormone contents of Cara Cara orange flesh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiyuan; Xia, Renxue; Zeng, Xiangguo; Hu, Liming

    2006-02-01

    This paper studied the effects of bagging during the period from young fruit formation to fruit coloration on the contents of pigment, sugar and endogenous hormone in Cara Cara orange flesh. The results showed that bagging could significantly increase the lycopene and beta-carotene contents of matured fruit, but didn't have any effects on its GA and ABA contents. The GA content decreased rapidly during fruit-expanding period, and maintained at a lower level in the period from fruit coloration to maturing. The ABA content reached the maximum when the bag was removed, decreased rapidly then, and there was a small peak before fruit maturation. Glucose and fructose contents were decreased, while sucrose content was increased significantly. No significant change was observed in total sugar content.

  11. [Representation in life sciences (6). Cultural images of the body: Organism and flesh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Breton, David

    2011-03-01

    In the social and historical plan, the « body » is not still a datum of evidence. This formulation with a dualist connotation does not appear in all the human societies, certain do not distinguish the man from his flesh. The body is rather a question than an answer, a misleading evidence which reveals a multitude of different representations which assign to it a position determined within the general symbolism of the society, dependent on a social status, on a vision of the world, and inside this last one on a definition of the person. The body is a changeable reality from a society to an other one : the images which define it, the systems of knowledge which clarify its nature, the accomplished performances are strickingly diverse, contradictory. The body is a symbolic construction. It seems to be obvious, but nothing is more imperceptible. © 2011 médecine/sciences - Inserm / SRMS.

  12. An opinion paper: emphasis on white muscle development and growth to improve farmed fish flesh quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videler, J J

    2011-06-01

    Due to rapid depletion of wild stocks, the necessity to cultivate fish is eminent. Current fish farming practices seek to improve flesh quality. The notion that white muscles are the main target of the fishing industry is emphasized. A novel approach is suggested based on the development of white muscles in wild fish from eggs to adults. A compilation of facts about white muscle structure, function and ontogeny is followed by an account of the changes in swimming behaviour and performance related to the use of white muscle during growth from larva to adult. Ecological data narrate early swimming performance with white muscle development and growth, unveiling some of the important natural selection factors eliminating weak swimmers and poor growers from the breeding stock. A comparison between fish culture practise and natural conditions reveals fundamental differences. New approaches following wild breeding processes promise several important advantages regarding the quality of white muscle.

  13. AVALIAÇÃO DA COMPATIBILIDADE DA ENXERTIA EM Prunus sp. EVALUATION OF THE GRAFT COMPATIBILITY IN Prunus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE COUTO RODRIGUES

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de peroxidase e concentração de fenóis foi determinada com o objetivo de se avaliar aspectos de compatibilidade entre porta-enxertos e enxertos. As amostras foram processadas e obtidas a partir da casca e lenho dos porta-enxertos de pessegueiros (GF 677, Okinawa, Capdeboscq e Aldrighi e de ameixeiras (Mirabolano e Marianna, enxertados ou não com as cultivares Diamante, Eldorado e Santa Rosa. Concluiu-se que a atividade de peroxidase e a concentração de fenóis foram relacionadas com união entre enxerto e porta-enxerto, particularmente, em Marianna e Mirabolano, onde a atividade de peroxidase e a concentração de fenóis foram mais elevados. A cultivar Santa Rosa foi compatível tanto com os porta-enxertos de ameixeiras quanto com os de pessegueiros.The work was accomplished aiming to quantify the peroxidase activity and total phenols, in order to verify the physiological and biochemical processes in grafting of Prunus sp. cultivars. The samples were processed and obtained in bark and wood of the peach rootstocks (GF 677, Okinawa, Capdeboscq and Aldrighi and plum rootstocks (Mirabolano and Marianna, after they had or not been grafted with the stock Diamante, Eldorado and Santa Rosa. It could be concluded that the peroxidase and the total phenols activity influenced the union between stock and rootstock; after grafting, the incompatibility degree is related with high peroxidase activity and total phenols in the rootstock Marianna and Mirabolano. The Santa Rosa plum graft is as compatible to plum rootstocks as to the peach ones.

  14. Endogenous cytokinin in developing kiwifruit is implicated in maintaining fruit flesh chlorophyll levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Sarah M; Montefiori, Mirco; Galer, Amy L; Neil Emery, R J; Allan, Andrew C; Jameson, Paula E

    2013-07-01

    Green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) retain high concentrations of chlorophyll in the fruit flesh, whereas in gold-fleshed kiwifruit (A. chinensis) chlorophyll is degraded to colourless catabolites during fruit development, leaving yellow carotenoids visible. The plant hormone group the cytokinins has been implicated in the delay of senescence, and so the aim of this work was to investigate the link between cytokinin levels in ripening fruit and chlorophyll de-greening. The expression of genes related to cytokinin metabolism and signal transduction and the concentration of cytokinin metabolites were measured. The regulation of gene expression was assayed using transient activation of the promoter of STAY-GREEN2 (SGR2) by cytokinin response regulators. While the total amount of cytokinin increased in fruit of both species during maturation and ripening, a high level of expression of two cytokinin biosynthetic gene family members, adenylate isopentenyltransferases, was only detected in green kiwifruit fruit during ripening. Additionally, high levels of O-glucosylated cytokinins were detected only in green kiwifruit, as was the expression of the gene for zeatin O-glucosyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for glucosylating cytokinin into a storage form. Season to season variation in gene expression was seen, and some de-greening of the green kiwifruit fruit occurred in the second season, suggesting environmental effects on the chlorophyll degradation pathway. Two cytokinin-related response regulators, RRA17 and RRB120, showed activity against the promoter of kiwifruit SGR2. The results show that in kiwifruit, levels of cytokinin increase markedly during fruit ripening, and that cytokinin metabolism is differentially regulated in the fruit of the green and gold species. However, the causal factor(s) associated with the maintenance or loss of chlorophyll in kiwifruit during ripening remains obscure.

  15. The Mendelian inheritance of rare flesh and shell colour variants in the black-lipped pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ky, Chin-Long; Nakasai, Seiji; Pommier, Steve; Sham Koua, Manaarii; Devaux, Dominique

    2016-10-01

    Pinctada margaritifera is French Polynesia's most economically important aquaculture species. This pearl oyster has the specific ability to produce cultured pearls with a very wide range of colours, depending on the colour phenotypes of donor oysters used. Its aquaculture is still based on natural spat collection from wild stocks. We investigated three rare colour variants of P. margaritifera - orange flesh, and red and white shell colour phenotypes - in comparison with the wild-type black flesh and shell commonly found in this species. The study aimed to assess the geographic distribution and genetic basis of these colour variants. Colour frequencies were evaluated during transfer and graft processes of pearl oyster seed captured at collector stations. Among the collection locations studied, Mangareva Island showed the highest rate of the orange flesh phenotype, whereas Takaroa and Takume atolls had relatively high rates of red and white shell phenotypes respectively. Broodstocks were made of these rare colour variants, and crosses were performed to produce first- and second-generation progenies to investigate segregation. The results were consistent with Mendelian ratios and suggest a distinct model with no co-dominance: (i) a two-allele model for flesh trait, whereby the orange allele is recessive to the black fleshed type, and (ii) a three-allele model for shell trait, whereby the black wild-type allele is dominant to the red coloration, which is dominant to the white shell. Furthermore, the proposed model provides the basis for producing selected donor pearl oyster lines through hatchery propagation. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. Armazenamento de melão 'Orange Flesh' minimamente processado sob atmosfera modificada Storage of 'Orange Flesh' mellons minimally processed and packaged under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Elisabeth Torres Prado

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da demanda por produtos minimamente processados traz um grande desafio para a ciência e tecnologia de alimentos, considerando-se a escassez de informações sobre a manutenção da qualidade desses produtos. O armazenamento desses em condições adequadas é um ponto fundamental para o sucesso dessa tecnologia. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da atmosfera modificada ativa na conservação do melão tipo Orange Flesh minimamente processado. Os frutos, após o processamento, foram embalados sob atmosfera modificada (AM Passiva- Controle, AM Ativa com 5% de CO2 e 5% de O2 e AM Ativa com 10% de CO2 e 2% de O2, armazenados em câmara fria (6 ± 1 ºC e UR 85 ± 5% durante 8 dias e as amostras retiradas para análises de pH, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, açúcares solúveis totais (AST, firmeza, pectina total (PT, pectina solúvel (PS, e as enzimas pectinametilesterase (PME e poligalacturonase (PG a cada 2 dias de armazenamento. A atmosfera modificada ativa pouco influenciou no comportamento das variáveis pH, acidez total titulável (ATT, firmeza e pectina total com relação á atmosfera modificada passiva. No entanto, menor solubilização de pectinas foi detectada nas amostras armazenadas sob atmosfera com 10% de CO2 e 2% de O2. Não foram detectadas atividades das enzimas pectinametilesterase e poligalacturonase nos tratamentos analisados.The increase of the demand for products minimally processed brings a great challenge for the food science and technology, considering the shortage of information about the maintenance of the quality of those products. The storage of those products in appropriate conditions is a fundamental point for the success of such technology. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the active modified atmosphere on the quality and conservation of the 'Orange Flesh' melons processed minimally. The fruits, after the processing, were wrapped under

  17. Differences in the Detoxification Metabolism between Two clonal Lineages of the Aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae Reared on Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. Diferencias en el Metabolismo de Detoxificación entre dos Linajes Clonales del Áfido Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae creados sobre tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Cabrera-Brandt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Myzus persicae (Sulzer is a highly polyphagous aphid species, with a subspecies (M. persicae nicotianae well adapted to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.. We evaluated the effect of this host plant on the aphid performance and detoxification enzymes, in order to test the participation of xenobiotic metabolism on the ability of this aphid to overcome the tobacco chemical defences. Two genotypes, one corresponding to the only M. persicae nicotianae genotype reported in Chile on tobacco, and one genotype belonging to M. persicae sensu stricto were reared on tobacco and pepper (Capsicum annuum L., respectively. M. persicae nicotianae showed a significantly higher intrinsic rate of increase (r m on pepper than on tobacco, and M. persicae s.s. performed similarly, but with no reproduction at all on tobacco. In order to evaluate the effect of tobacco on detoxification enzymes, esterases, glutathione S-transferases (GST and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MO were determined in both selected aphid genotypes after 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h of rearing on tobacco and pepper. M. persicae nicotianae exhibited the higher total esterase activities when reared on tobacco than on pepper after 48 h of rearing, while the activities of GST and MO did not show any significant difference between host-plants and duration of treatment. For M. persicae s.s., no significant differences were observed among host-plants for the studied enzymes. These results suggest a participation of the esterases, on the ability of this M. persicae nicotianae to overcome the tobacco defences.Myzus persicae (Sulzer es un áfido polífago que incluye a Myzus persicae nicotianae, una subespecie altamente adaptada sobre tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum L.. Evaluamos el efecto del tabaco sobre el desempeño biológico y sobre determinadas enzimas de detoxificación en áfidos, para estudiar su participación en la capacidad de M. persicae nicotianae de superar las defensas químicas del tabaco. Dos

  18. Effect of traditional processing methods on the β-carotene, ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor content of orange-fleshed sweet potato for production of amala in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Abbas Bazata; Fuchs, Richard; Nicolaides, Linda

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the work was to study the effect of traditional processing methods on the β-carotene, ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor contents of orange-fleshed sweet potato amala. The most common sweet potato in Nigeria is white or yellow fleshed, which is very low in provitamin A. However, efforts are underway to promote orange-fleshed sweet potato to improve provitamin A intake. This paper describes how orange-fleshed sweet potato slices were traditionally processed into amala, which is increasingly consumed in Nigeria. The study revealed that both the cold and hot fermentation methods resulted in increased vitamin A levels and lower vitamin C levels in orange-fleshed sweet potato. Further processing to make amala resulted in a fall in both vitamin A and C content. The study found an increase in trypsin inhibitor activity following the cold-water fermentation and a decrease following the hot-water fermentation compared to raw orange-fleshed sweet potato. Trypsin inhibitor activity in amala produced using both the cold and hot methods was below detectable levels. The results indicate that amala produced from traditionally fermented orange-fleshed sweet potato could be a good source of vitamins A and C for the rural poor and that the processing removes any potential negative effects of trypsin inhibitors. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. THE EFFECT OF NUTRIENT MEDIA IN MICROPROPAGATION AND IN VITRO CONSERVATION OF WILD POPULATION OF MAHALEB CHERRY (PRUNUS MAHALEB L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valbona Sota; Efigjeni Kongjika

    2014-01-01

      Shoot tips of Prunus mahaleb L. isolated from wild populations of Zejmen (Lezhe), promising as rootstocks for sweet cherry cultivars, were submitted to in vitro culture to test if micropropagation could be used for their rapid production...

  20. Endophytic bacteria in plant tissue culture: differences between easy- and difficult-to-propagate Prunus avium genotypes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quambusch, Mona; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Winkelmann, Traud; Bartsch, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The endophytic bacterial communities of six Prunus avium L. genotypes differing in their growth patterns during in vitro propagation were identified by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods...

  1. Induced senescence promotes the feeding activities and nymph development of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on potato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Assefh, Cristina R; Lucatti, Alejandro F; Alvarez, Adriana E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of dark-induced senescence on Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae) plants was assessed on the feeding behavior and performance of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Senescence was induced by covering the basal part of the plant with a black cloth for 5 d, avoiding the light passage, but keeping the apical buds uncovered. The basal part of control plants was covered with a white nonwoven cloth. The degree of senescence was determined by measuring the chlorophyll content of the covered leaves. The performance and feeding behavior of M. persicae were studied on the uncovered nonsenescent apical leaves. The aphid's performance was evaluated by measuring nymphal mortality and prereproductive time. Aphid feeding behavior was monitored by the electrical penetration graph technique. In plants with dark-induced senescence, the aphids showed a reduction in their prereproductive time. Aphids also spent more time ingesting sap from the phloem than in control plants and performed more test probes after the first sustained ingestion of phloem sap. These data suggest that M. persicae's phloem activities and nymph development benefit from the nutritional enrichment of phloem sap, derived from dark-induced senescence on potato plants. The induced senescence improved plant acceptance by M. persicae through an increase in sap ingestion that likely resulted in a reduction in developmental time. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  2. Cellulomonas persica sp. nov. and Cellulomonas iranensis sp. nov., mesophilic cellulose-degrading bacteria isolated from forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberson, M A; Malekzadeh, F; Yazdi, M T; Kameranpour, N; Noori-Daloii, M R; Matte, M H; Shahamat, M; Colwell, R R; Sowers, K R

    2000-05-01

    Two newly described species of mesophilic, cellulose-degrading, aerobic bacteria were isolated from forest humus soils along the southern border of the Caspian Sea. Cellulomonas persica and Cellulomonas iranensis are proposed as new specific epithets based on comparative sequence analyses of 16S rDNA, DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic characteristics. Formal species descriptions are provided.

  3. A dietary test of putative deleterious sterols for the aphid Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvaine, Sophie; Faure, Marie-Line; Grebenok, Robert J; Behmer, Spencer T; Douglas, Angela E

    2014-01-01

    The aphid Myzus persicae displays high mortality on tobacco plants bearing a transgene which results in the accumulation of the ketosteroids cholestan-3-one and cholest-4-en-3-one in the phloem sap. To test whether the ketosteroids are the basis of the plant resistance to the aphids, M. persicae were reared on chemically-defined diets with different steroid contents at 0.1-10 µg ml(-1). Relative to sterol-free diet and dietary supplements of the two ketosteroids and two phytosterols, dietary cholesterol significantly extended aphid lifespan and increased fecundity at one or more dietary concentrations tested. Median lifespan was 50% lower on the diet supplemented with cholest-4-en-3-one than on the cholesterol-supplemented diet. Aphid feeding rate did not vary significantly across the treatments, indicative of no anti-feedant effect of any sterol/steroid. Aphids reared on diets containing equal amounts of cholesterol and cholest-4-en-3-one showed fecundity equivalent to aphids on diets containing only cholesterol. Aphids were reared on diets that reproduced the relative steroid abundance in the phloem sap of the control and modified tobacco plants, and their performance on the two diet formulations was broadly equivalent. We conclude that, at the concentrations tested, plant ketosteroids support weaker aphid performance than cholesterol, but do not cause acute toxicity to the aphids. In plants, the ketosteroids may act synergistically with plant factors absent from artificial diets but are unlikely to be solely responsible for resistance of modified tobacco plants.

  4. Proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh responses to a generalist sucking pest (Myzus persicae Sulzer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, D-H; Bauwens, J; Delaplace, P; Mazzucchelli, G; Lognay, G; Francis, F

    2015-11-01

    Herbivorous insects can cause severe cellular changes to plant foliage following infestations, depending on feeding behaviour. Here, a proteomic study was conducted to investigate the influence of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) as a polyphagous pest on the defence response of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh after aphid colony establishment on the host plant (3 days). Analysis of about 574 protein spots on 2-DE gels revealed 31 differentially expressed protein spots. Twenty out of these 31 differential proteins were selected for analysis by mass spectrometry. In 12 of the 20 analysed spots, we identified seven and nine proteins using MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-ESI-MS/MS, respectively. Of the analysed spots, 25% contain two proteins. Different metabolic pathways were modulated in Arabidopsis leaves according to aphid feeding: most corresponded to carbohydrate, amino acid and energy metabolism, photosynthesis, defence response and translation. This paper has established a survey of early alterations induced in the proteome of Arabidopsis by M. persicae aphids. It provides valuable insights into the complex responses of plants to biological stress, particularly for herbivorous insects with sucking feeding behaviour. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. A case of canine borreliosis in Iran caused by Borrelia persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Darush; Rakhshanpoor, Alaleh; Cutler, Sally Jane; Ghazinezhad, Behnaz; Naddaf, Saied Reza

    2016-04-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever is an endemic disease in Iran, with most cases attributed to infection by Borrelia persica, which is transmitted by Ornithodoros tholozani soft ticks. Here, we report spirochetemia in blood of a puppy residing in Tehran, Iran. The causative species was identified by use of highly discriminative IGS sequencing; the 489 bp IGS sequence obtained in our study showed 99% identity (100% coverage) when compared with B. persica sequences derived from clinical cases or from O. tholozani ticks. Our IGS sequence also showed 99% similarity over 414 bp (85% coverage) with a strain from a domestic dog, and 96% over 328 bp (69% coverage) with a strain from a domestic cat. Pet-keeping in cosmopolitan cities like Tehran has become increasingly popular in recent years. Animals are often transported into the city in cages or cardboard boxes that might also harbor minute tick larvae and/or early stages of the nymphs bringing them into the urban environment. This may pose a threat to household members who buy and keep these puppies and as a result may come into close contact with infected ticks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Sublethal Effects of Cyantraniliprole and Imidacloprid on Feeding Behavior and Life Table Parameters of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianyi; He, Yingqin; Wu, Jiaxing; Tang, Yuanman; Gu, Jitao; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Yongqiang

    2016-08-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an agricultural pest that seriously infests many crops worldwide. This study used electrical penetration graphs (EPGs) and life table parameters to estimate the sublethal effects of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid on the feeding behavior and hormesis of M. persicae The sublethal concentrations (LC30) of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid against adult M. persicae were 4.933 and 0.541 mg L(-1), respectively. The feeding data obtained from EPG analysis indicated that the count probes and number of short probes (<3 min) were significantly increased when aphids were exposed to LC30 of imidacloprid-treated plants. In addition, the phloem-feeding behavior of M persicae was significantly impaired on fed tobacco plants treated with cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid at LC30 Analysis of life table parameters indicated that the growth and reproduction of F1 generation aphids were significantly affected when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid. The nymphal period, female longevity, total preoviposition period, and mean generation time were significantly prolonged when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of imidacloprid. By comparison, these parameters were prolonged but not significantly in the cyantraniliprole treatment. The fecundity and gross reproductive rate were significantly increased in the treated groups. Similarly, the net reproductive rate was greater in the treated group than the control group. Our results indicate that treatment with LC30 of imidacloprid and cyantraniliprole would lead to a hormetic response of M. persicae, with higher likelihood of occurrence when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of cyantraniliprole. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Amplification of a cytochrome P450 gene is associated with resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in the aphid Myzus persicae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin M Puinean

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aphid Myzus persicae is a globally significant crop pest that has evolved high levels of resistance to almost all classes of insecticide. To date, the neonicotinoids, an economically important class of insecticides that target nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, have remained an effective control measure; however, recent reports of resistance in M. persicae represent a threat to the long-term efficacy of this chemical class. In this study, the mechanisms underlying resistance to the neonicotinoid insecticides were investigated using biological, biochemical, and genomic approaches. Bioassays on a resistant M. persicae clone (5191A suggested that P450-mediated detoxification plays a primary role in resistance, although additional mechanism(s may also contribute. Microarray analysis, using an array populated with probes corresponding to all known detoxification genes in M. persicae, revealed constitutive over-expression (22-fold of a single P450 gene (CYP6CY3; and quantitative PCR showed that the over-expression is due, at least in part, to gene amplification. This is the first report of a P450 gene amplification event associated with insecticide resistance in an agriculturally important insect pest. The microarray analysis also showed over-expression of several gene sequences that encode cuticular proteins (2-16-fold, and artificial feeding assays and in vivo penetration assays using radiolabeled insecticide provided direct evidence of a role for reduced cuticular penetration in neonicotinoid resistance. Conversely, receptor radioligand binding studies and nucleotide sequencing of nAChR subunit genes suggest that target-site changes are unlikely to contribute to resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in M. persicae.

  8. Comparative analysis of Solanum stoloniferum responses to probing by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae and the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Adriana E; Broglia, Viviana G; Alberti D'Amato, Anahí M; Wouters, Doret; van der Vossen, Edwin; Garzo, Elisa; Tjallingii, W Fred; Dicke, Marcel; Vosman, Ben

    2013-04-01

    Plants protect themselves against aphid attacks by species-specific defense mechanisms. Previously, we have shown that Solanum stoloniferum Schlechtd has resistance factors to Myzus persicae Sulzer (Homoptera: Aphididae) at the epidermal/mesophyll level that are not effective against Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (Homoptera: Aphididae). Here, we compare the nymphal mortality, the pre-reproductive development time, and the probing behavior of M. persicae and M. euphorbiae on S. stoloniferum and Solanum tuberosum L. Furthermore, we analyze the changes in gene expression in S. stoloniferum 96 hours post infestation by either aphid species. Although the M. euphorbiae probing behavior shows that aphids encounter more probing constrains on phloem activities-longer probing and salivation time- on S. stoloniferum than on S. tuberosum, the aphids succeeded in reaching a sustained ingestion of phloem sap on both plants. Probing by M. persicae on S. stoloniferum plants resulted in limited feeding only. Survival of M. euphorbiae and M. persicae was affected on young leaves, but not on senescent leaves of S. stoloniferum. Infestation by M. euphorbiae changed the expression of more genes than M. persicae did. At the systemic level both aphids elicited a weak response. Infestation of S. stoloniferum plants with a large number of M. persicae induced morphological changes in the leaves, leading to the development of pustules that were caused by disrupted vascular parenchyma and surrounding tissue. In contrast, an infestation by M. euphorbiae had no morphological effects. Both plant species can be regarded as good host for M. euphorbiae, whereas only S. tuberosum is a good host for M. persicae and S. stoloniferum is not. Infestation of S. stoloniferum by M. persicae or M. euphorbiae changed the expression of a set of plant genes specific for each of the aphids as well as a set of common genes. © 2012 The Authors Insect Science © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of

  9. A wild origin of the loss‐of‐function lycopene beta cyclase (CYC‐b) allele in cultivated, red‐fleshed papaya (Carica papaya)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Meng; Lewis, Jamicia; Moore, Richard C

    2017-01-01

      PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The red flesh of some papaya cultivars is caused by a recessive loss-of-function mutation in the coding region of the chromoplast-specific lycopene beta cyclase gene (CYC-b...

  10. Salemea sororia sp. n. and Heteronychia obvia sp. n., two new species of flesh-flies from Sicily (Diptera, Sarcophagidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Povolný

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Salemea sororia sp. n. and Heteronychia obvia sp. n. are next two new discoveries of flesh-flies from Erico arboreae-Quercetum Ilicis formation above Trabia (Palermo. These two obviously very rare taxa were collected near the hilltop of Pizzo Onofrio-Casina (Trabia near Palermo at 773 m a.s.l., where the flesh-flies were systematically captured in a hilltopping situation at the turn of May/June of the years 1997 –2003. In connection with the description of Salemea sororia sp. n. the complicated taxonomy, synonymy and distribution of Salemea ferox (Villeneuve, 1908 are discussed. As for Heteronychia obvia sp. n., its description is completed by the comparison with three related species of the genus Heteronychia Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889. Male genitalia and last abdominal segments are figured (partly in colour.

  11. Comparative study of flavonoid production in lycopene-accumulated and blonde-flesh sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajing; Zhang, Hongyan; Pang, Yibo; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Four main flavanone glycosides (FGs) and four main polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) were determined in fruits of 'Cara Cara' navel orange, 'Seike' navel orange, 'Anliu' and 'Honganliu' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). No bitter neohesperidosides were detected in the FG profiles, indicating the functional inability of 1,2-rhamnosyltransferase, though relatively high transcription levels were detected in the fruit tissues of 'Anliu' and 'Honganliu' sweet oranges. Different to the FGs, the PMFs only exist abundantly in the peel and decreased gradually throughout fruit development of sweet oranges, suggesting the expression of methylation-related genes accounting for PMF biosynthesis have tissue-specificity. Significant changes in production of the eight flavonoids were found between red-flesh and blonde-flesh sweet oranges, indicating that lycopene accumulation might have direct or indirect effects on the modification of flavonoid biosynthesis in these citrus fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutrient compositions and antioxidant capacity of kiwifruit (Actinidia) and their relationship with flesh color and commercial value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tingting; Sun, Xiangyu; Zhao, Jinmei; You, Yilin; Lei, Yushan; Gao, Guitian; Zhan, Jicheng

    2017-03-01

    The nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity of China domestic kiwifruit and imported kiwifruit with different prices and the relationships of retail price among cultivars, nutritional qualities and flesh color were investigated. Results showed that cultivar was the main factor influencing nutritional quality, though the product region could also affect the cultivar characteristics to some extent. Additionally, nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity of kiwifruit had no relationship to the product region. What's more, there was no correlation among the nutrient compositions, antioxidant capacity and retail price of kiwifruit. At the same time, the flesh color was associated with greater commercial value but was not higher nutritional quality or antioxidant capacity. Thus indicates to consumers that imported kiwifruit were not all superior to local versions, and the priciest kiwifruit did not equal to the most nutritious kiwifruit, also the color kiwifruit. There still need more research to help consumers to choose kiwifruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Insecticide resistance mechanisms in the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae II: Costs and benefits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea X Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among herbivorous insects that have exploited agro-ecosystems, the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae, is recognized as one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Uses over 400 plant species and has evolved different insecticides resistance mechanisms. As M. persicae feeds upon a huge diversity of hosts, it has been exposed to a wide variety of plant allelochemicals, which probably have promoted a wide range of detoxification systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we (i evaluated whether insecticide resistance mutations (IRM in M. persicae can give an advantage in terms of reproductive fitness when aphids face two hosts, pepper (Capsicum annuum a suitable host and radish (Raphanus sativus the unfavorable host and (ii examined the transcriptional expression of six genes that are known to be up-regulated in response to insecticides. Our results show a significant interaction between host and IRM on the intrinsic rate of increase (r(m. Susceptible genotypes (not carrying insensitivity mutations had a higher r(m on pepper, and the transcriptional levels of five genes increased on radish. The r(m relationship was reversed on the unfavorable host; genotypes with multiple IRM exhibited higher r(m, without altering the transcriptional levels of the studied genes. Genotypes with one IRM kept a similar r(m on both hosts, but they increased the transcriptional levels of two genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although we have studied only nine genotypes, overall our results are in agreement with the general idea that allelochemical detoxification systems could constitute a pre-adaptation for the development of insecticide resistance. Genotypes carrying IRM exhibited a higher r(m than susceptible genotypes on radish, the more unfavorable host. Susceptible genotypes should be able to tolerate the defended host by up-regulating some metabolic genes that are also responding to insecticides. Hence, our results suggest that

  14. Comparative analysis of genome sequences from four strains of the Buchnera aphidicola Mp endosymbion of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhijie; Jones, Derek H; Khuri, Sawsan; Tsinoremas, Nicholas F; Wyss, Tania; Jander, Georg; Wilson, Alex C C

    2013-12-24

    Myzus persicae, the green peach aphid, is a polyphagous herbivore that feeds from hundreds of species of mostly dicot crop plants. Like other phloem-feeding aphids, M. persicae rely on the endosymbiotic bacterium, Buchnera aphidicola (Buchnera Mp), for biosynthesis of essential amino acids and other nutrients that are not sufficiently abundant in their phloem sap diet. Tobacco-specialized M. persicae are typically red and somewhat distinct from other lineages of this species. To determine whether the endosymbiotic bacteria of M. persicae could play a role in tobacco adaptation, we sequenced the Buchnera Mp genomes from two tobacco-adapted and two non-tobacco M. persicae lineages. With a genome size of 643.5 kb and 579 predicted genes, Buchnera Mp is the largest Buchnera genome sequenced to date. No differences in gene content were found between the four sequenced Buchnera Mp strains. Compared to Buchnera APS from the well-studied pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, Buchnera Mp has 21 additional genes. These include genes encoding five enzymes required for biosynthesis of the modified nucleoside queosine, the heme pathway enzyme uroporphyrinogen III synthase, and asparaginase. Asparaginase, which is also encoded by the genome of the aphid host, may allow Buchnera Mp to synthesize essential amino acids from asparagine, a relatively abundant phloem amino acid. Together our results indicate that the obligate intracellular symbiont Buchnera aphidicola does not contribute to the adaptation of Myzus persicae to feeding on tobacco.

  15. Evaluation of the reference genes for expression analysis using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Fang-Hua; Tian, Hong-Gang; Zhang, Meng; Guo, Shan-Shan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2017-04-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera, Aphididae), is an important cosmopolitan pest. Real time qRT-PCR has been used for target gene expression analysis on M. persicae. Using real time qRT-PCR, the expression levels are normalized on the basis of the reliable reference genes. However, to date, the stability of available reference genes has been insufficient. In this study, we evaluated nine candidate reference genes from M. persicae under diverse experimental conditions. The tested candidate genes were comprehensively ranked based on five alternative methods (RefFinder, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper and the comparative ΔC t method). 18s, Actin and ribosomal protein L27 (L27) were recommended as the most stable reference genes for M. persicae, whereas ribosomal protein L27 (L27) was found to be the least stable reference genes for abiotic studies (photoperiod, temperature and insecticide susceptibility). Our finding not only sheds light on establishing an accurate and reliable normalization of real time qRT-PCR data in M. persicae but also lays a solid foundation for further studies of M. persicae involving RNA interference and functional gene research. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. CAROTENOID EXTRACTION OF ORANGE-FLESHED SWEET POTATO AND ITS APPLICATION AS NATURAL FOOD COLORANT [Ekstraksi Karotenoid Ubi Jalar Jingga dan Aplikasinya sebagai Pewarna Makanan Alami

    OpenAIRE

    Erliana Ginting

    2013-01-01

    The orange-fleshed sweet potato is rich in carotenoids, which can potentially be used as a natural food colorant. However, effective and safe extraction techniques are needed. The carotenoid extraction of deep orange-fleshed cultivar (Beta 1) at different moisture contents of fresh tubers using combined solvents was studied. The research design was a factorial randomized complete design with two factors and three replicates. The first factor was moisture content of the grated tubers. The seco...

  17. A constitutive model for mechanical response characterization of pumpkin peel and flesh tissues under tensile and compressive loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirmohammadi, Maryam; Yarlagadda, Prasad K D V; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-08-01

    Enhancing quality of food products and reducing volume of waste during mechanical operations of food industry requires a comprehensive knowledge of material response under loadings. While research has focused on mechanical response of food material, the volume of waste after harvesting and during processing stages is still considerably high in both developing and developed countries. This research aims to develop and evaluate a constitutive model of mechanical response of tough skinned vegetables under postharvest and processing operations. The model focuses on both tensile and compressive properties of pumpkin flesh and peel tissues where the behaviours of these tissues vary depending on various factors such as rheological response and cellular structure. Both elastic and plastic response of tissue were considered in the modelling process and finite elasticity combined with pseudo elasticity theory was applied to generate the model. The outcomes were then validated using the published results of experimental work on pumpkin flesh and peel under uniaxial tensile and compression. The constitutive coefficients for peel under tensile test was α = 25.66 and β = -18.48 Mpa and for flesh α = -5.29 and β = 5.27 Mpa. under compression the constitutive coefficients were α = 4.74 and β = -1.71 Mpa for peel and α = 0.76 and β = -1.86 Mpa for flesh samples. Constitutive curves predicted the values of force precisely and close to the experimental values. The curves were fit for whole stress versus strain curve as well as a section of curve up to bio yield point. The modelling outputs had presented good agreement with the empirical values and the constructive curves exhibited a very similar pattern to the experimental curves. The presented constitutive model can be applied next to other agricultural materials under loading in future.

  18. Is cut-stump and girdling an efficient method of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. eradication?

    OpenAIRE

    Otręba Anna; Marciszewska Katarzyna; Janik Daria

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to prevent the invasion of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. have a long history in Western Europe. However, effective methods of eliminating it that do not bear negative side effects for ecosystems have not yet been developed. Mechanical methods are the first choice in environmentally sensitive areas. In this study, we aimed to find answers to the questions: does the application of cutting at a height of 1 m from the ground limit the sprouting capacities of black cherry? And, is ste...

  19. Detection and characterization of genome-specific microsatellite markers in the allotetraploid Prunus serotina

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, Marie; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; Potter, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The utility of microsatellite markers to characterize the genetic diversity of a polyploid species with disomic inheritance is often hampered by the impossibility of determining allele frequencies and the complexity of inheritance patterns. The objective of this study was to solve these problems in the allotetraploid Prunus serotina Ehrh. by finding genome-specific primers (i.e., primers that are specific to one of the two genomes that initially formed the species). Sixty-seven microsatellite...

  20. Occurrence of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) in the State Forests in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Bijak Szymon; Czajkowski Maciej; Ludwisiak Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    Among the invasive tree species identified in Polish forests, black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) appears to pose the greatest threat. The objective of this study was i), to determine the abundance of this species in the forests managed by the State Forests National Forest Holding (PGLLP) and ii), to characterise the ecological conditions that it is found in. The source data was obtained from the State Forests Information System (SILP) database. In Polish forests, black cherry mostly occurs ...

  1. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez; César Ibarra-Alvarado; Alejandra Rojas-Molina; Juana I. Rojas-Molina; Elhadi M. Yahia; Dulce M. Rivera-Pastrana; Adriana Rojas-Molina; Ángel Miguel Zavala-Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits po...

  2. Quantitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in Prunus serotina Ehrh. using (1) H-NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Pimenta, Lúcia P; Schilthuizen, Menno; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2014-01-01

    Prunus serotina is native to North America but has been invasively introduced in Europe since the seventeenth century. This plant contains cyanogenic glycosides that are believed to be related to its success as an invasive plant. For these compounds, chromatographic- or spectrometric-based (targeting on HCN hydrolysis) methods of analysis have been employed so far. However, the conventional methods require tedious preparation steps and a long measuring time. To develop a fast and simple method to quantify the cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin and prunasin in dried Prunus serotina leaves without any pre-purification steps using (1) H-NMR spectroscopy. Extracts of Prunus serotina leaves using CH3 OH-d4 and KH2 PO4 buffer in D2 O (1:1) were quantitatively analysed for amygdalin and prunasin using (1) H-NMR spectroscopy. Different internal standards were evaluated for accuracy and stability. The purity of quantitated (1) H-NMR signals was evaluated using several two-dimensional NMR experiments. Trimethylsilylpropionic acid sodium salt-d4 proved most suitable as the internal standard for quantitative (1) H-NMR analysis. Two-dimensional J-resolved NMR was shown to be a useful tool to confirm the structures and to check for possible signal overlapping with the target signals for the quantitation. Twenty-two samples of P. serotina were subsequently quantitatively analysed for the cyanogenic glycosides prunasin and amygdalin. The NMR method offers a fast, high-throughput analysis of cyanogenic glycosides in dried leaves permitting simultaneous quantification and identification of prunasin and amygdalin in Prunus serotina. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. MYBs affect the variation in the ratio of anthocyanin and flavanol in fruit peel and flesh in response to shade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanfen; Bu, Yufen; Hao, Suxiao; Wang, Yaru; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Ji; Yao, Yuncong

    2017-03-01

    Fruit pigment accumulation, which represents an important indicator of nutrient quality and appearance value, is often affected by low light under rain, cloud, fog and haze conditions during the veraison period. It is not known whether continuous low light interferes with the production and accumulation of secondary metabolites in veraison fruit. In this paper, we measured pigments and the transcriptional level of genes related to secondary metabolites, i.e., flavonoid biosynthesis in the peel and flesh of Malus crabapple 'Radiant' fruit in response to normal light and shade from 10th July to 30th August. The results showed crosstalk between the flavonoid biosynthetic genes and the involvement of key transcription factors such as McMYB4, McMYB7, McMYB10, and McMYB16 in the regulation of the ratio of anthocyanins and flavanols, which accounted for the different colouration of the fruit peel and flesh under shade conditions. A model is proposed for the regulation of the flavonoid pathway in the peel and flesh of 'Radiant' fruit based on our study results. Moreover, the molecular mechanism for 'Radiant' fruit colouration provides reference information for understanding the light regulatory mechanism involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids and for designing the next generation of apple breeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An ancient duplication of apple MYB transcription factors is responsible for novel red fruit-flesh phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagné, David; Lin-Wang, Kui; Espley, Richard V; Volz, Richard K; How, Natalie M; Rouse, Simon; Brendolise, Cyril; Carlisle, Charmaine M; Kumar, Satish; De Silva, Nihal; Micheletti, Diego; McGhie, Tony; Crowhurst, Ross N; Storey, Roy D; Velasco, Riccardo; Hellens, Roger P; Gardiner, Susan E; Allan, Andrew C

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanin accumulation is coordinated in plants by a number of conserved transcription factors. In apple (Malus × domestica), an R2R3 MYB transcription factor has been shown to control fruit flesh and foliage anthocyanin pigmentation (MYB10) and fruit skin color (MYB1). However, the pattern of expression and allelic variation at these loci does not explain all anthocyanin-related apple phenotypes. One such example is an open-pollinated seedling of cv Sangrado that has green foliage and develops red flesh in the fruit cortex late in maturity. We used methods that combine plant breeding, molecular biology, and genomics to identify duplicated MYB transcription factors that could control this phenotype. We then demonstrated that the red-flesh cortex phenotype is associated with enhanced expression of MYB110a, a paralog of MYB10. Functional characterization of MYB110a showed that it was able to up-regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The chromosomal location of MYB110a is consistent with a whole-genome duplication event that occurred during the evolution of apple within the Maloideae family. Both MYB10 and MYB110a have conserved function in some cultivars, but they differ in their expression pattern and response to fruit maturity.

  5. Reducing waste contamination from animal-processing plants by anaerobic thermophilic fermentation and by flesh fly digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchaim, U; Gelman, A; Braverman, Y

    2003-01-01

    There is currently no market in Israel for the large amounts of waste from fish- and poultry-processing plants. Therefore, this waste is incinerated, as part of the measures to prevent the spread of pathogens. Anaerobic methanogenic thermophilic fermentation (AMTF) of wastes from the cattle-slaughtering industry was examined previously, as an effective system to treat pathogenic bacteria, and in this article, we discuss a combined method of digestion by thermophilic anaerobic bacteria and by flesh flies, as a means of waste treatment. The AMTF process was applied to the wastes on a laboratory scale, and digestion by rearing of flesh fly (Phaenicia sericata) and housefly (Musca domestica) larvae on the untreated raw material was done on a small scale and showed remarkable weight conversion to larvae. The yield from degradation of poultry waste by flesh fly was 22.47% (SD = 3.89) and that from fish waste degradation was 35.34% (SD = 12.42), which is significantly higher than that from rearing houseflies on a regular rearing medium. Bacterial contents before and after thermophilic anaerobic digestion, as well as the changes in the chemical composition of the components during the rearing of larvae, were also examined.

  6. Quality Changes of Light Flesh Tuna at Water of Tomini Bay, Gorontalo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wila Rumina Nento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuna is one of the mainstay fisheries commodities that involve many of the ordinary fishermen. The handling usually still not follows the principles of good handling that causing the poor quality as the result.The aims of this research were to analyze and to determine the quality of tuna meat (the abdominal wall, dorsal fin, and caudal fin. Raw material yellowfin tuna meat prepared for the light, the meat section of the abdominal wall, dorsal fin, and caudal fin. The result of organoleptic analysis showed that the tuna meat was above the minimum value for the criteria of fresh fish. The result of TVB analysis showed that the meat on the caudal fin had the highest value and significantly different with the other, but still exist on the safe limits and on the fresh category. For the result of analysis in histamine, it shown that at the fourth hour the meat at the dorsal fin had the histamine content which were above the minimum that have been recommended. For the result of analysis in peroxide number, it shown that the tuna meat did not sustain the fat damage until the fourth hour after the catching process. And for the result of analysis in TPC, it showed that at the fourth hour the tuna meat on the pectoral fin had the highest number of total colony and significantly different with the other.Keywords: handling, histamine, light flesh, microbiology, yellowfin

  7. In vitro characterisation of the fermentation profile and prebiotic capacity of gold-fleshed kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchford, P; Bentley-Hewitt, K L; Stoklosinski, H; McGhie, T; Gearry, R; Gibson, G; Ansell, J

    2015-01-01

    A new Actinidia chinensis gold-fleshed kiwifruit cultivar 'Zesy002' was tested to investigate whether it could positively modulate the composition of the human colonic microbiota. Digested Zesy002 kiwifruit was added to in vitro pH-controlled anaerobic batch fermenters that were inoculated with representative human faecal microbiota. Alterations to the gut microbial ecology were determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolic end products were measured using gas chromatography and liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry. Results indicated a substantial shift in the composition of bacteria within the gut models caused by kiwifruit supplementation. Zesy002 supplemented microbiota had a significantly higher abundance of Bacteroides spp., Parabacteroides spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. after 48 h of fermentation compared with the start of the fermentation. Organic acids from kiwifruit were able to endure simulated gastrointestinal digestion and were detectable in the first 10 h of fermentation. The fermentable carbohydrates were converted to beneficial organic acids with a particular predilection for propionate production, corresponding with the rise in Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides spp. These results support the claim that Zesy002 kiwifruit non-digestible fractions can effect favourable changes to the human colonic microbial community and primary metabolites, and demonstrate a hitherto unknown effect of Zesy002 on colonic microbiota under in vitro conditions.

  8. Biotransformation of anthocyanins from two purple-fleshed sweet potato accessions in a dynamic gastrointestinal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Stan; Iskandar, Michèle M; Sabally, Kebba; Azadi, Behnam; Sadeghi Ekbatan, Shima; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Das, Dharani Dhar; Prakash, Satya; Burgos, Gabriela; Zum Felde, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Cooked, milled purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) accessions, PM09.812 and PM09.960, underwent digestion in a dynamic human gastrointestinal (GI) model that simulates gut digestive conditions to study the bioaccessibility and biotransformation of anthocyanins. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed accession-dependent variations in anthocyanin release and degradation. After 24h, more anthocyanin species were detected in the small intestinal vessel relative to other vessels for accession PM09.960 whereas more species appeared in the ascending colonic vessel for accession PM09.812. The ferric reducing antioxidant power was increased in the small intestinal vessel for PM09.960 and in the ascending colonic vessel for accession PM09.812, corresponding to the appearance of a majority of anthocyanins for each accession. These results show that intestinal and colonic microbial digestion of PFSP leads to an accession-dependent pattern for anthocyanin bioaccessibility and degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis during fruit maturation in the red-fleshed orange mutant Cara Cara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquezar, Berta; Rodrigo, Maria J; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2008-07-01

    Cara Cara is a spontaneous bud mutation of Navel orange (Citrus. sinensis L. Osbeck) characterized by developing fruits with a pulp of bright red coloration due to the presence of lycopene. Peel of mutant fruits is however orange and indistinguishable from its parental. To elucidate the basis of lycopene accumulation in Cara Cara, we analyzed carotenoid profile and expression of three isoprenoid and nine carotenoid genes in flavedo and pulp of Cara Cara and Navel fruits throughout development and maturation. The pulp of the mutant accumulated high amounts of lycopene, but also phytoene and phytofluene, from early developmental stages. The peel of Cara Cara also accumulated phytoene and phytofluene. The expression of isoprenoid genes and of carotenoid biosynthetic genes downstream PDS (phytoene desaturase) was higher in the pulp of Cara Cara than in Navel. Not important differences in the expression of these genes were observed between the peel of both oranges. Moreover, the content of the plant hormone ABA (abscisic acid) was lower in the pulp of Cara Cara, but the expression of two genes involved in its biosynthesis was higher. The results suggest that an altered carotenoid composition may conduct to a positive feedback regulatory mechanism of carotenoid biosynthesis in citrus fruits. Increased levels of isoprenoid precursors in the mutant that could be channeled to carotenoid biosynthesis may be related to the red-fleshed phenotype of Cara Cara.

  10. Domestic cooking methods affect the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of purple-fleshed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jinhu; Chen, Jianle; Lv, Feiyan; Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Jianchu; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-04-15

    The effects of domestic cooking methods (boiling, baking, steaming, microwaving, frying, and stir-frying) and a new cooking method (air-frying) on the composition of phytochemicals (phenolics, anthocyanins, and carotenoids) and the antioxidant activity in purple-fleshed potatoes were investigated. Compared with raw potatoes, reductions of 23.59-90.42%, 7.09-72.44%, 7.45-83.15%, and 20.15-76.16% in the vitamin C, total phenolic, anthocyanin and carotenoid contents, respectively, was observed after cooking. Decreases of 7.88%, 21.55%, 22.48, 6.31%, and 61.38% in DPPH radical-scavenging activity was also observed after boiling, steaming, baking, microwaving and stir-frying, respectively, whereas an increase of 30.52% was noted after air-frying. A correlation analysis revealed that the antioxidant activity was in accordance with the total phenolic content and that this activity showed the lowest correlation with the vitamin C content. Among all of the cooking methods investigated in this study, stir-frying retained only slight levels of the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity observed in raw potatoes, whereas steaming and microwaving were able to retain most of the health-promoting compounds found in raw potatoes and may thus be suitable methods for cooking potatoes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Confessions of the flesh and biopedagogies: discursive constructions of obesity on Nip/Tuck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rail, G; Lafrance, M

    2009-12-01

    Informed by the work of Michel Foucault, the authors discuss the Nip/Tuck episode entitled "Momma Boone" and how it discursively constructs "obesity". They show how this popular media text can be understood as a crystallisation of the dominant discourse surrounding fat bodies. In the process, how the episode can be seen as a "biopedagogy" that instructs its viewers in how to think and feel about the fat body is examined. Foucault's formulation of the confessional is seen to be useful to theorise the ways in which biopedagogy leads subjects to believe and ultimately take part in processes leading to salvation. It is argued that in this Nip/Tuck episode, biopedagogy functions in and through Momma Boone's "confessions of the flesh", that is, confessions aimed at revealing her obese body so that it can be rescued, rehabilitated and saved. Momma Boone's salvation is shown to require three stages: first, the "confession" of obesity; second, the conversion to the "truth" of the "dominant obesity discourse"; and third, the codification of a "new life" for the obese subject. In the end, it is argued that since it is represented as abject, monstrous and out of control, Momma Boone's body is made to inspire fear and panic in so far as it provides constructed "evidence" regarding the consequences of the obese subject's failure to convert to the truth of obesity discourse.

  12. Theology in the flesh – a model for theological anthropology as embodied sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Meiring

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes a model for theological anthropology as embodied sensing that is based on an interdisciplinary exploration of the corporeal turn from a southern African perspective. The work of James B. Nelson is acknowledged, stating that body theology starts with the concrete, the bodily expressions of life and not with doctrines about God and humanity. The theological anthropology of David H. Kelsey is evaluated as a theological anthropology with a sentiment of the flesh. Based on clearings in the work of David Kelsey and an interdisciplinary research, the author proposes a model for theological anthropology as embodied sensing which functions within the intricate and complex connection of the living body, language and experiencing in a concrete lifeworld with an openness to the ‘more than’. The author considers the use of bodymapping within narrative therapy as a way in which to uncover the intimate and intricate connection between the living body, experience and language, and implementing insights from theological anthropology as embodied sensing.

  13. Theology in the flesh – a model for theological anthropology as embodied sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Meiring

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes a model for theological anthropology as embodied sensing that is based on an interdisciplinary exploration of the corporeal turn from a southern African perspective. The work of James B. Nelson is acknowledged, stating that body theology starts with the concrete, the bodily expressions of life and not with doctrines about God and humanity. The theological anthropology of David H. Kelsey is evaluated as a theological anthropology with a sentiment of the flesh. Based on clearings in the work of David Kelsey and an interdisciplinary research, the author proposes a model for theological anthropology as embodied sensing which functions within the intricate and complex connection of the living body, language and experiencing in a concrete lifeworld with an openness to the ‘more than’. The author considers the use of bodymapping within narrative therapy as a way in which to uncover the intimate and intricate connection between the living body, experience and language, and implementing insights from theological anthropology as embodied sensing.

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Rodamilans

    Full Text Available Plum pox virus (PPV infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01. Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  15. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; San León, David; Mühlberger, Louisa; Candresse, Thierry; Neumüller, Michael; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01). Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  16. Experimental study of 『PERSICAE SEMEN』 on the blood injected by Endotoxin in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Keun

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effects of 「Persicae Semen」(PS on the blood injected by Endotoxin in rats. The blood was induced by Endotoxin injection into the caudal vein of rats and PS group taken a measurement of RBC, Hb, Hct, Platelet, WBC, ESR, CRP. The results were obtained as follows: 1. RBC, Hb, Hct, Platelet, WBC were increased with statistical significance at PS group as compared with those of the control group. 2. ESR, CRP were decreased with statistical significance at PS group as compared with those of the control group. It is concluded that PS group has significant effects on the blood injected by Endotoxin in rats. Therefore, PS group seems to be applicable to the diseases related to Endotoxin in clinics.

  17. A review on phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of miswak (Salvadora persica Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The miswak is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae. Its use predates the inception of Islam and is frequently advocated in the Hadith (the traditions relating to the life of Prophet Muhammad PBUH . In addition to strengthening the gums, it prevents tooth decay, eliminating toothaches and halt further increase in decay that has already set in. It creates a fragrance in the mouth, eliminates bad odor, improves the sense of taste, and causes the teeth to glow and shine. The other parts of the tree have therapeutic values as corrective, deobstruent, liver tonic, diuretic, analgesic, anthelmintic, astringent, lithontriptic, carminative, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and stomachic. The present review is therefore an effort to give detailed survey of the literature on phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of miswak.

  18. Arabidopsis thaliana - Myzus persicae interaction: shaping the understanding of plant defense against phloem-feeding aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe eLouis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phloem provides a unique niche for several organisms. Aphids are a large group of Hemipteran insects that utilize stylets present in their mouthparts to pierce sieve elements and drink large volumes of phloem sap. In addition, many aphids also vector viral diseases. Myzus persicae, commonly known as the green peach aphid (GPA, is an important pest of a large variety of plants that includes Arabidopsis thaliana. This review summarizes recent studies that have exploited the compatible interaction between Arabidopsis and GPA to understand the molecular and physiological mechanisms utilized by plants to control aphid infestation, as well as genes and mechanisms that contribute to susceptibility. In addition, recent efforts to identify aphid-delivered elicitors of plant defenses and novel aphid salivary components that facilitate infestation are also discussed.

  19. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil the leaf of Nepeta persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya AKHSHI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the leaf of Nepeta persica Boiss, analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography (GC/mass spectrometry (MS, were shown to contain 4aα, 7α, 7aβ-nepetalactone (49.46% and 4aα, 7α, 7aα-nepetalactone (14.18%. The other main constituents were n-octane (13.10%, n-decane (3.67% and germacrene-D (2.04%. Antibacterial activities of the leaf oil were evaluated using the micro-dilution broth method. Inhibitory effects on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Enterococcus faecalis were recorded. The leaf oil has difference activities against the test microorganisms. The antibacterial property of the essential oil might be ascribed to their high content of nepetalactone isomers.

  20. Insecticidal activity of three plants extracts against Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 and their phytochemical screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billal NIA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the use of synthetic pesticides and their negative effects on the environment, leaves extracts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh and Rosmarinus officinalis L. were obtained with petroleum ether, ethanol and distilled water as solvents. These extracts were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their insecticidal effect against 3 to 4 days-old Myzus persicae individuals (Homoptera: Aphididae at 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 %. We made observations after 24 hours. Etheric extract of all plants was effective and caused mortalities (100 %, 53 % and 60 % respectively at the highest concentration. However, ethanolic and aqueous extracts did not show any significant insecticidal effect. The phytochemical screening showed the richness of etheric extract in terpenes. The results obtained suggest that we can make bioinsecticides based on leaves etheric extracts from these plants for use in integrated pest management.

  1. A review on phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of miswak (Salvadora persica Linn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Jamal; Siddique, Khalid M; Bi, Salma; Mujeeb, Mohd

    2011-01-01

    The miswak is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). Its use predates the inception of Islam and is frequently advocated in the Hadith (the traditions relating to the life of Prophet Muhammad(PBUH)). In addition to strengthening the gums, it prevents tooth decay, eliminating toothaches and halt further increase in decay that has already set in. It creates a fragrance in the mouth, eliminates bad odor, improves the sense of taste, and causes the teeth to glow and shine. The other parts of the tree have therapeutic values as corrective, deobstruent, liver tonic, diuretic, analgesic, anthelmintic, astringent, lithontriptic, carminative, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and stomachic. The present review is therefore an effort to give detailed survey of the literature on phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of miswak.

  2. Role of Glyco-Persica® in Targeting Diabetes Type 2: an Integrative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashtdar Mehrab

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine how an integrated approach to type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment could improve glycemic control and immune-potentiating activities adherent to oral hypoglycemic agents along with a botanical compound, among primary care patients. Methods: In this study, we used the self-control and the group-control methods. Candidates meeting the trial conditions were selected from among volunteers who had taken the test substance for 45 days. During the trial, all groups were on a controlled diet; neither were the original medications nor their dosages changed. Results: The results showed that the botanical compound (Glyco-Persica® significantly reduced the main clinical symptoms in diabetes type 2. In the treatment group, 36 of 52 patients (69.23% and in the control group 10 of 52 patients (19.23% showed reduced symptoms, and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05. The fasting blood sugar in the treatment group after treatment compared with that before treatment and with that in the control group after treatment was statistically different (P < 0.05. The post-prandial glucose in the treatment group after treatment was significantly different from that before treatment and from that in the control group after treatment (P < 0.05; the post-prandial blood sugar in the treatment group was reduced by 8.98%. Conclusions: The results revealed that the botanical compound (Glyco-Persica® has significant hypoglycemic properties which affect main clinical symptoms in diabetes type 2. Body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, routine blood, stool and urine tests showed no meaningful negative changes after the course of treatment. There was no significant adverse reaction during the trial.

  3. Alarm pheromone habituation in Myzus persicae has fitness consequences and causes extensive gene expression changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Martin; Cheng, Wing Yin; Summers, Holly E; Raguso, Robert A; Jander, Georg

    2010-08-17

    In most aphid species, facultative parthenogenetic reproduction allows rapid growth and formation of large single-genotype colonies. Upon predator attack, individual aphids emit an alarm pheromone to warn the colony of this danger. (E)-beta-farnesene (EBF) is the predominant constituent of the alarm pheromone in Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) and many other aphid species. Continuous exposure to alarm pheromone in aphid colonies raised on transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants that produce EBF leads to habituation within three generations. Whereas naive aphids are repelled by EBF, habituated aphids show no avoidance response. Similarly, individual aphids from the habituated colony can revert back to being EBF-sensitive in three generations, indicating that this behavioral change is not caused by a genetic mutation. Instead, DNA microarray experiments comparing gene expression in naive and habituated aphids treated with EBF demonstrate an almost complete desensitization in the transcriptional response to EBF. Furthermore, EBF-habituated aphids show increased progeny production relative to EBF-responsive aphids, with or without EBF treatment. Although both naive and habituated aphids emit EBF upon damage, EBF-responsive aphids have a higher survival rate in the presence of a coccinellid predator (Hippodamia convergens), and thus outperform habituated aphids that do not show an avoidance response. These results provide evidence that aphid perception of conspecific alarm pheromone aids in predator avoidance and thereby bestows fitness benefits in survivorship and fecundity. Therefore, although habituated M. persicae produce more progeny, EBF-emitting transgenic plants may have practical applications in agriculture as a result of increased predation of habituated aphids.

  4. Genetic variability of Myzus persicae nicotianae densovirus based on partial NS and VP gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X R; Tang, S H; Tang, Z Q; Yang, X M; Wang, X W; Wang, X F; Xu, P J; Ren, G W

    2016-11-21

    We previously described a novel densovirus [Myzus persicae nicotianae densovirus (MpnDV)] infecting M. persicae nicotianae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) with 34% prevalence. This single-stranded DNA virus has a 5480-nucleotide ambisense genome and belongs to the Densovirinae subfamily within the family Parvoviridae. In the present study, we estimated the genetic diversity of MpnDV using partial nonstructural protein (NS) and capsid protein (VP) gene sequences from 10 locations in China. First, we identified MpnDV-positive samples by amplifying a 445-bp fragment with primers MpDVF/MpDVR. Subsequently, we amplified and sequenced COI genes with primers MpCOIF/ MpCOIR, and partial NS and VP sequences with primers MpnDVF1/MpnDVR1. The respective 655-, 1461-, and 423-bp COI, NS, and VP fragments were used to analyze the genetic diversity of MpnDV using MEGA 6.0 and DnaSP 5.0. The high level of identity shared by all COI sequences (>99%) suggested that the aphids sampled were of the same species, and indicated population homogeneity across the 10 locations investigated. The nucleotide diversity of MpnDV sequences (0.0020 ± 0.0025) was significantly higher than that of the COI genes (0.0002 ± 0.0005). The pairwise fixation index for MpnDV was 0.832, and the total gene flow was 0.05. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the MpnDV haplotypes clustered according to geographical location, except for those from the Liaoning and Shanxi provinces. In conclusion, MpnDV demonstrated a low level of gene flow and high genetic diversity, suggesting that it is vertically transmitted, and implying that endosymbiotic viruses could be used as markers in studies of insect population genetics.

  5. Comparative antifeedant activities of polygodial and pyrethrins against whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) and aphids (Myzus persicae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prota, Neli; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2014-04-01

    Polygodial, a sesquiterpene dialdehyde of the drimane family, has been shown to have deterrent and antifeedant effects on various insect species, including Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Spodoptera spp. and Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). This compound may have potential as a broad-spectrum biocontrol agent, similar to pyrethrins, given that it was previously reported to improve yield when sprayed on barley fields. This study compares the deterrent effect of polygodial and pyrethrins against the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and the green peach aphid M. persicae in dual-choice assays using compound-coated tomato leaf discs. B. tabaci adults were deterred by polygodial at an ED50 (effective dose at which 50% of the insects are deterred) of about 25 µg g(-1) fresh weight (FW), and green peach aphids at about 54 µg g(-1) FW. Bioassays were benchmarked with pyrethrins that had a 20-fold lower ED50 of approximately 1.4 µg g(-1) FW against whiteflies, but only a twofold lower ED50 (about 28 µg g(-1) FW) against peach aphids. Polygodial showed moderate phytotoxic effects (score of 2 on a scale of 1-5) on tomato leaves at concentrations above the ED50 concentrations (≥ 90 µg g(-1) FW). The sesquiterpene dialdehyde polygodial is 2-20 times less deterrent than pyrethrins, depending on the insect species, but it could provide a useful complement to pyrethrin sprays as it has a different mode of action, is food grade and has low volatility. However, a formulation that reduces the risks of phytotoxic effects should be developed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. A dietary test of putative deleterious sterols for the aphid Myzus persicae.

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    Sophie Bouvaine

    Full Text Available The aphid Myzus persicae displays high mortality on tobacco plants bearing a transgene which results in the accumulation of the ketosteroids cholestan-3-one and cholest-4-en-3-one in the phloem sap. To test whether the ketosteroids are the basis of the plant resistance to the aphids, M. persicae were reared on chemically-defined diets with different steroid contents at 0.1-10 µg ml(-1. Relative to sterol-free diet and dietary supplements of the two ketosteroids and two phytosterols, dietary cholesterol significantly extended aphid lifespan and increased fecundity at one or more dietary concentrations tested. Median lifespan was 50% lower on the diet supplemented with cholest-4-en-3-one than on the cholesterol-supplemented diet. Aphid feeding rate did not vary significantly across the treatments, indicative of no anti-feedant effect of any sterol/steroid. Aphids reared on diets containing equal amounts of cholesterol and cholest-4-en-3-one showed fecundity equivalent to aphids on diets containing only cholesterol. Aphids were reared on diets that reproduced the relative steroid abundance in the phloem sap of the control and modified tobacco plants, and their performance on the two diet formulations was broadly equivalent. We conclude that, at the concentrations tested, plant ketosteroids support weaker aphid performance than cholesterol, but do not cause acute toxicity to the aphids. In plants, the ketosteroids may act synergistically with plant factors absent from artificial diets but are unlikely to be solely responsible for resistance of modified tobacco plants.

  7. Characterization and Distribution Analysis of a Densovirus Infecting Myzus persicae nicotianae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shihao; Song, Xueru; Xue, Lin; Wang, Xinwei; Wang, Xiufang; Xu, Pengjun; Ren, Guangwei

    2016-04-01

    Densoviruses (DVs) are a group of viruses that contain a linear single-stranded DNA genome between 4–6 kb in length. Herein, we report a DV with a 5,480-nt genome, isolated from tobacco aphid (Myzus persicae nicotianae Blackman), named MpnDV. Unlike the genome of M. persicae densovirus (MpDV), which possesses five open reading frames (ORFs), the genome of MpnDV contains four putative ORFs—the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) and NS2 from MpnDV are 98- and 52-amino acids longer than those of MpDV, respectively, at the N-terminus, and the capsid proteins (VP) are 102 amino acids longer at the C-terminus than those of MpDV. Mapping of the MpnDV transcripts by RACE method indicated that the ORF of NS2 started at nt 340 and the right two putative ORFs were combined together by deleting two introns, one of 95 bp located at nt 2,932–3,026 and the other of 145 bp located at nt 4,715–4,859, suggesting transcript mapping was necessary for analyzing of genome organization. Alignment analysis indicated that MpnDV shows 97% sequence identity with MpDV, and that the shortened ORFs resulted from nucleotide indels, suggesting MpnDV and MpDV were two isolates of the same virus. Thus, MpnDV and MpDV clustered together in a tree-based analysis. The prevalence of MpnDV infection in wild populations of tobacco aphids differed among 29 locations; 34% of the 622 individuals sampled were positive. The genome organization, transcript strategy, and widespread distribution in wild populations suggest that MpnDV might possess a biological function different from that of MpDV.

  8. Efeito da temperatura na biologia de Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae criado em pimentão = Effect of temperature on biology of Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae reared in sweet pepper

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    Leonardo Rodrigues Barbosa

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de temperaturas constantes e variáveis sobre a biologia de M. persicae em pimentão. As ninfas foram individualizadas em discos foliares de pimentão mantidos em placas de Petri às temperaturas constantes de 15ºC, 20ºC, 25ºC e 30ºC. Em casa de vegetação, as temperaturas foram oscilantes, com média de 24,9ºC, e as ninfas foram colocadas em gaiolas apropriadas e fixadas em folhas de pimentão. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com 45 e 30 repetições para os ensaios em laboratório e em casa de vegetação, respectivamente. Ficou evidenciado que as temperaturas constantes de 20ºC e 25ºC foram mais favoráveis para M. persicae, por proporcionarem redução do ciclo biológico e maior fecundidade do que as temperaturas oscilantes em casa de vegetação.The influence of constant and variable temperatures on biology of M. persicae in sweet pepper was evaluated. The nymphs were individualized on pepper leaf discs and maintained in Petri dishes at constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30ºC. In greenhouse the temperature was variable with an average of 24.9ºC and the nymphs were kept in appropriate cages and fixed in sweet pepper leaves. The experimental design was completely randomized with 45 and 30 replicates for the laboratory and greenhouse assays, respectively. It was evidenced that constant temperatures of 20 and 25ºC were more favorable to M. persicae, decreasing the biological cycle and increasing the fecundity, than the oscillatory temperatures in the greenhouse.

  9. Use of silicon as inductor of the resistance in potato to Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae); Uso de silicio como indutor de resistencia em batata a Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Flavia B.; Moraes, Jair C.; Antunes, Cristiana [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia; Santos, Custodio D. dos [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-03-15

    The aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is an important pest of potato and causes direct harm, due to the quantity of sap extracted and for being vector of important phytovirus. This work was carried out to evaluate the action of silicon as a resistance inducer of potato to M. persicae. Four treatments were tried: foliar fertilization with silicon acid at 1%; soil fertilization with 250 ml silicic acid solution at 1%; foliar fertilization with silicon acid at 1% + soil fertilization with 250 ml silicic acid solution at 1%; and a control. The treatments were applied thirty days after the explants emergence. Fifteen days after the application of the treatments, feeding preference and some biological aspects of the aphids were evaluated. After, the content of tannins and lignin present in the leaves and the activity of the enzymes peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were also determined. The silicon fertilization did not affect the preference of the aphids; however it reduced fecundity and the rate of population growth of the insects. The lignin percentage increased in the leaves of plants fertilized with silicon via soil and/or foliar and the percentage of tannins increased only in the leaves fertilized via soil plus foliar. The silicon acted as a resistance inducer to M. persicae in potato. (author)

  10. The antibacterial activity of traditionally used Salvadora persica L. (miswak) and Commiphora gileadensis (palsam) in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-sieni, Abdulbasit I I

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays there is a need to find naturally occurring substances from plants with antimicrobial activity as an alternative to available used antibiotics. Salvadora persica (miswak) and Commiphora gileadensis were collected, dried and extracted with either methanol or warm water and the obtained extracts were assessed for their antibacterial activity against 5 different genera of bacteria using agar well diffusion method. The tested bacteria included some human pathogens. The obtained extracts exhibited considerable inhibitory effects against all the tested bacteria with various degrees of growth inhibition. It was shown that methanol extract was more effective compared to water extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the methanol extracts ranged from 50-100 °g/ml. No toxicity was found using Artimia salina as test organism and no antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. S. persica and C. gileadensis showed moderate to high inhibitory activity on pathogenic bacteria with no toxicity and can be used traditionally as alternative medicine.

  11. Molecular characterization of Borrelia persica, the agent of tick borne relapsing fever in Israel and the Palestinian Authority.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracia Safdie

    Full Text Available The identification of the Tick Borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF agent in Israel and the Palestinian Authority relies on the morphology and the association of Borrelia persica with its vector Ornithodoros tholozani. Molecular based data on B. persica are very scarce as the organism is still non-cultivable. In this study, we were able to sequence three complete 16S rRNA genes, 12 partial flaB genes, 18 partial glpQ genes, 16 rrs-ileT intergenic spacers (IGS from nine ticks and ten human blood samples originating from the West Bank and Israel. In one sample we sequenced 7231 contiguous base pairs that covered completely the region from the 5'end of the 16S rRNA gene to the 5'end of the 23S rRNA gene comprising the whole 16S rRNA (rrs, and the following genes: Ala tRNA (alaT, Ile tRNA (ileT, adenylosuccinate lyase (purB, adenylosuccinate synthetase (purA, methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (mag, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hpt, an hydrolase (HAD superfamily and a 135 bp 5' fragment of the 23S rRNA (rrlA genes. Phylogenic sequence analysis defined all the Borrelia isolates from O. tholozani and from human TBRF cases in Israel and the West Bank as B. persica that clustered between the African and the New World TBRF species. Gene organization of the intergenic spacer between the 16S rRNA and the 23S rRNA was similar to that of other TBRF Borrelia species and different from the Lyme disease Borrelia species. Variants of B. persica were found among the different genes of the different isolates even in the same sampling area.

  12. Antioxidant Activities, Metabolic Profiling, Proximate Analysis, Mineral Nutrient Composition of Salvadora persica Fruit Unravel a Potential Functional Food and a Natural Source of Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Asha; Parida, Asish K; Rangani, Jaykumar; Panda, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Salvadora persica is a medicinally important plant mainly used in oral hygiene. However, little attention has been given towards the nutritional prominence of this plant. This study encloses the proximate and mineral nutrient contents, amino acid composition, metabolite profiling and antioxidant potential of S. persica fruit. The ripen fruit contained substantial amount of sugars, mineral nutrients, carotenoids, polyphenols and flavonoids. The metabolic profiling of the fruit extract by GC-MS revealed a total of 22 metabolites comprising of sugars, sugar alcohols, organic acids, organic base, and aromatic silica compound. The identified metabolites have been previously reported to have potential antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-hyperglycemic, and antitumor properties. The GC-MS analysis indicated high glucose and glucopyranose (247.62 and 42.90 mg g(-1) FW respectively) contents in fruit of S. persica. The fruit extract demonstrated a significantly higher antioxidant and ROS scavenging properties along with high contents of mineral nutrients and essential amino acids. HPLC analysis revealed presence of essential and non-essential amino acid required for healthy body metabolism. The cysteine was found to be in highest amount (733.69 mg 100 g(-1) DW) among all amino acids quantified. Specifically, compared to similar medicinal plants, previously reported as a source of non-conventional food and with some of the commercially important fruits, S. persica fruit appears to be a potential source of essential mineral nutrients, amino acids, vitamins (ascorbic acid and carotenoid) and pharmaceutically important metabolites contributing towards fulfilling the recommended daily requirement of these for a healthy human being. This is the first report establishing importance of S. persica fruit as nutraceuticals. The data presented here proposed that fruit of S. persica may be used as functional food or reinvigorating ingredient for processed food to reduce deficiency of

  13. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. and Heldr.) Hayek var. persica (Boiss.) Wagenitz from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zengin, G.; Guler, G.O.; Cakmak, Y.S.; Aktumseka, A.

    2011-07-01

    The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 ig/ml (in the DPPH assay). In the {beta}carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE)/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 u3 ({beta}-linolenic acid) by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. (Author).

  14. Molecular cloning, characterisation and mRNA expression of the ryanodine receptor from the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troczka, B J; Williams, A J; Bass, C; Williamson, M S; Field, L M; Davies, T G E

    2015-02-10

    The peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae, is one of the most important agricultural pests of temperate climates. It is mainly controlled through the judicious application of insecticides; however, over time, aphids have developed resistance to many insecticidal classes. The recent introduction of synthetic diamide insecticides, with a novel mode of action, potentially offers new tools to control aphid populations. These diamides act on the ryanodine receptor (RyR), a large endoplasmic calcium release channel. In this study we have cloned cDNAs encoding the complete open reading frame of the RyR from M. persicae. The open reading frame is 15,306 base pairs long and encodes a protein of 5101 amino acids. The aphid RyR shares many of the features of other insect and vertebrate RyRs, including a highly conserved transmembrane region. However, unlike the other RyRs characterised to date, the M. persicae channel does not display alternative splicing at any stage of its developmental cycle, so it cannot generate functional variants of the channel. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Extensive reorganization of behavior accompanies ontogeny of aggression in male flesh flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Darrell; Paquette, Caleb; Shropshire, J Dylan; Seier, Edith; Joplin, Karl H

    2014-01-01

    Aggression, costly in both time and energy, is often expressed by male animals in defense of valuable resources such as food or potential mates. Here we present a new insect model system for the study of aggression, the male flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis, and ask whether there is an ontogeny of aggression that coincides with reproductive maturity. After establishing that reproductive maturity occurs by day 3 of age (post-eclosion), we examined the behavior of socially isolated males from different age cohorts (days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6) upon introduction, in a test arena, with another male of the same age. The results show a pronounced development of aggression with age. The change from relative indifference to heightened aggression involves a profound increase in the frequency of high-intensity aggressive behaviors between days 1 and 3. Also noteworthy is an abrupt increase in the number of statistically significant transitions involving these full-contact agonistic behaviors on day 2. This elevated activity is trimmed back somewhat by day 3 and appears to maintain a stable plateau thereafter. No convincing evidence was found for escalation of aggression nor the establishment of a dominance relationship over the duration of the encounters. Despite the fact that aggressive interactions are brief, lasting only a few seconds, a major reorganization in the relative proportions of four major non-aggressive behaviors (accounting for at least 96% of the total observation time for each age cohort) accompanies the switch from low to high aggression. A series of control experiments, with single flies in the test arenas, indicates that these changes occur in the absence of the performance of aggressive behaviors. This parallel ontogeny of aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors has implications for understanding how the entire behavioral repertoire may be organized and reorganized to accommodate the needs of the organism.

  16. Changes in microRNA abundance may regulate diapause in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Julie A; Peyton, Justin T; Denlinger, David L

    2017-05-01

    Diapause, an alternative developmental pathway characterized by changes in developmental timing and metabolism, is coordinated by molecular mechanisms that are not completely understood. MicroRNA (miRNA) mediated gene silencing is emerging as a key component of animal development and may have a significant role in initiating, maintaining, and terminating insect diapause. In the present study, we test this possibility by using high-throughput sequencing and qRT-PCR to discover diapause-related shifts in miRNA abundance in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata. We identified ten evolutionarily conserved miRNAs that were differentially expressed in diapausing pupae compared to their nondiapausing counterparts. miR-289-5p and miR-1-3p were overexpressed in diapausing pupae and may be responsible for silencing expression of candidate genes during diapause. miR-9c-5p, miR-13b-3p, miR-31a-5p, miR-92b-3p, miR-275-3p, miR-276a-3p, miR-277-3p, and miR-305-5p were underexpressed in diapausing pupae and may contribute to increased expression of heat shock proteins and other factors necessary for the enhanced environmental stress-response that is a feature of diapause. In S. bullata, a maternal effect blocks the programming of diapause in progeny of females that have experienced pupal diapause, and in this study we report that several miRNAs, including miR-263a-5p, miR-100-5p, miR-125-5p, and let-7-5p were significantly overexpressed in such nondiapausing flies and may prevent entry into diapause. Together these miRNAs appear to be integral to the molecular processes that mediate entry into diapause. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Changes in histone acetylation as potential mediators of pupal diapause in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J A; Bautista-Jimenez, Robin; Denlinger, D L

    2016-09-01

    The growing appreciation that epigenetic processes are integral to the responses of many organisms to changes in the environment suggests a possible role for epigenetics in coordination of insect diapause. The results we present suggest that histone modification may be one type of epigenetic process that contributes to regulation of pupal diapause in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata. Reduction in total histone H3 acetylation in diapausing pupae, shifts in mRNA expression profiles of genes encoding histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) in pre-diapause, diapause and post-diapause flies compared to their nondiapause counterparts, and alterations in HDAC enzyme activity during and post-diapause lend support to the hypothesis that this specific type of histone modification is involved in regulating diapause programming, maintenance, and termination. Transcription of genes encoding HDAC1, HDAC3, HDAC6, and Sirtuin2 were all upregulated in photosensitive first instar larvae programmed to enter pupal diapause, suggesting that histone deacetylation may be linked to the early decision to enter diapause. A 50% reduction in transcription of hdac3 and a corresponding 30% reduction in HDAC activity during diapause suggest that removal of acetyl groups from histones primarily occurs prior to diapause entry and that further histone deacetylation is not necessary to maintain diapause. Transcription of the HDAC genes was quickly elevated when diapause was terminated, followed by an increase in enzyme activity after a short delay. A maternal effect operating in these flies prevents pupal diapause in progeny whose mothers experienced pupal diapause, even if the progeny are reared in strong diapause-inducing short-day conditions. Such nondiapausing pupae had HDAC transcription profiles nearly identical to the profiles seen in nondiapausing pupae generated under a long-day photoperiod. Together, these results provide consistent evidence for histone acetylation

  18. Transcriptional evidence for small RNA regulation of pupal diapause in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Julie A; Clark, Jennifer; Diakoff, Stephen J; Denlinger, David L

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the molecular basis of diapause, a phenotypically plastic, alternative developmental pathway, is key to predicting the seasonal distribution of economically and medically important insect species. Small regulatory RNAs, including piwi-related RNAs, small-interfering RNAs, and miRNAs, represent one type of epigenetic process that can alter the phenotype of organisms independent of changes in genome sequence. We hypothesize that small RNAs regulate pupal diapause and a maternal block of diapause in the flesh fly Sarcophaga bullata. We assessed the relative abundance of eight genes related to small RNA biogenesis and function using qRT-PCR in pre-diapause and diapause stages compared to their non-diapause counterparts. Elevated mRNA expression of piwi and spindle-E, as well as argonaute2 and r2d2, in photosensitive 1st instar larvae reared in diapause-inducing conditions indicate involvement of the piwi-associated RNA and small-interfering RNA pathways, respectively, in programming the switch from direct development to a developmental pathway that includes diapause. Two genes, related to the microRNA pathway, argonaute1 and loquacious, are upregulated during pupal diapause, suggesting a role for this pathway in maintaining diapause. Substantial reduction in transcript abundance of small RNA-related genes in photosensitive 1st instar larvae from mothers with a diapause history compared to those from mothers with no diapause history also suggest a role for small RNA pathways in regulating a diapause maternal effect in S. bullata. Together, the results point to a role for small RNAs in regulating the developmental trajectory in this species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Does it Pay to Delay? Flesh Flies Show Adaptive Plasticity in Reproductive Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristal, Ross; Netter, Fleta; Hatle, John D.; Hahn, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Life-history plasticity is widespread among organisms. However, an important question is whether this plasticity is adaptive, enhancing the organism’s fitness. Most models for plasticity in life-history timing predict that once they have reached the minimal nutritional threshold animals under poor conditions will accelerate timing to development or reproduction. Adaptive delays in reproductive timing are not common, especially in short-lived species. Examples of adaptive reproductive delays exist in mammalian populations experiencing strong interspecific (e.g. predation) and intraspecific (e.g. infanticide) competition. But are there other environmental factors that may trigger an adaptive delay in reproductive timing? We show that the short-lived flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis will delay reproductive timing under nutrient poor conditions, even though it has already met the minimal nutritional threshold for reproduction. We test if this delay strategy is consistent with an adaptive response allowing the scavenger time to locate more resources by providing additional protein pulses (early, mid and late) throughout the reproductive delay period. Flies receiving additional protein produced more eggs and larger eggs, demonstrating a benefit of the delay. In addition, by tracking the allocation of carbon from the pulses using stable isotopes, we show that flies receiving earlier pulses incorporated more carbon into eggs and somatic tissue than those provided a later pulse. These results indicate that the reproductive delay in S. crassipalpis is consistent with adaptive post-threshold plasticity, a nutritionally-linked reproductive strategy that has not been previously reported in an invertebrate species. PMID:20953961

  20. Profiling of anthocyanins in transgenic purple-fleshed sweet potatoes by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jingqiu; Hu, Yijie; Wang, Hongxia; Huang, Yuanshe; Zhang, Peng; Liao, Zhihua; Chen, Min

    2017-11-01

    Anthocyanins in purple-fleshed sweet potato (PSP) are beneficial to human health. The leaf color (Lc) gene is a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. The anthocyanin profiles of wild-type PSP of Ayamurasaki and its three Lc-transgenic lines were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). In vitro antioxidant activities of wild-type and Lc-transgenic lines, including reducing power activity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, linoleic acid autoxidation inhibition activity, ABTS free radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity activity, were measured. The results showed that the total anthocyanin contents increased 1.5-1.9 times in three transgenic lines compared with that in wild-type PSP. Seventeen anthocyanins were found in wild-type PSP, while 19 in Lc-transgenic lines including cyanidin-based, peonidin-based and pelargonidin-based anthocyanins. Three pelargonidin-based anthocyanins were detected in three Lc-transgenic lines. Among them, the relative contents of cyanidin-based and pelargonidin-based anthocyanins increased 1.9-2.0 and 3.4-4.5 times respectively, while peonidin-based anthocyanins decreased 1.8-1.9 times in Lc-transgenic lines, compared with wild-type PSP. PSP from wild-type Ayamurasaki and three Lc-transgenic lines exhibited potent antioxidant activities, whereas there was no distinct difference among them. The transgene Lc significantly increased the content of total anthocyanins and remarkably changed the anthocyanin profiles in Ayamurasaki. Such novel and high content of anthocyanins obtained in the Lc-transgenic lines with potent antioxidant activities may provide unique functional products with potential helpful for human health. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.