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Sample records for prunus mexicana native

  1. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt O. Reinhart; Alejandro Royo; Wim H. Van der Putten; Keith Clay

    2005-01-01

    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments, soil sterilization was used to test the...

  2. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, K.O.; Royo, A.A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Clay, K.

    2005-01-01

    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments,

  3. Prunus fruit juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The juice drinks obtained from Prunus fruit species, apricot (Prunus armeniaca), cherry (sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus)), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica), are gaining increasing interest as a convenient alternative to fresh fruits. The conventional

  4. Light energy partitioning, photosynthetic efficiency and biomass allocation in invasive Prunus serotina and native Quercus petraea in relation to light environment, competition and allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robakowski, Piotr; Bielinis, Ernest; Sendall, Kerrie

    2018-05-01

    This study addressed whether competition under different light environments was reflected by changes in leaf absorbed light energy partitioning, photosynthetic efficiency, relative growth rate and biomass allocation in invasive and native competitors. Additionally, a potential allelopathic effect of mulching with invasive Prunus serotina leaves on native Quercus petraea growth and photosynthesis was tested. The effect of light environment on leaf absorbed light energy partitioning and photosynthetic characteristics was more pronounced than the effects of interspecific competition and allelopathy. The quantum yield of PSII of invasive P. serotina increased in the presence of a competitor, indicating a higher plasticity in energy partitioning for the invasive over the native Q. petraea, giving it a competitive advantage. The most striking difference between the two study species was the higher crown-level net CO 2 assimilation rates (A crown ) of P. serotina compared with Q. petraea. At the juvenile life stage, higher relative growth rate and higher biomass allocation to foliage allowed P. serotina to absorb and use light energy for photosynthesis more efficiently than Q. petraea. Species-specific strategies of growth, biomass allocation, light energy partitioning and photosynthetic efficiency varied with the light environment and gave an advantage to the invader over its native competitor in competition for light. However, higher biomass allocation to roots in Q. petraea allows for greater belowground competition for water and nutrients as compared to P. serotina. This niche differentiation may compensate for the lower aboveground competitiveness of the native species and explain its ability to co-occur with the invasive competitor in natural forest settings.

  5. Risico voor fruitbomen en inheemse bomen na bestrijding van Amerikaanse vogelkers (Prunus serotina) met loodglansschimmel (Chondrostereum purpureum) = [Risk to fruit trees and native trees due to control of black cherry (Prunus serotina) by silverleaf fungus (Chondrostereum purpureum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The shrub Prunus serotina , introduced from North America, became a forest pest in the Netherlands. Biological control was considered using the fungus Chondrostereum purpureum , commonly present as a saprophyte and parasite in wood. C. purpureum can cause

  6. Prunus dulcis, Batch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... almond (Prunus dulcis, Batch) genotypes as revealed by PCR analysis. Yavar Sharafi1*, Jafar Hajilou1, Seyed AbolGhasem Mohammadi2, Mohammad Reza Dadpour1 and Sadollah Eskandari3. 1Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 5166614766, Iran.

  7. Gluconeogenesis in Leishmania mexicana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Contreras, Dayana; Hamilton, Nicklas

    2014-01-01

    Gluconeogenesis is an active pathway in Leishmania amastigotes and is essential for their survival within the mammalian cells. However, our knowledge about this pathway in trypanosomatids is very limited. We investigated the role of glycerol kinase (GK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) in gluconeogenesis by generating the respective Leishmania mexicana Δgk, Δpepck, and Δppdk null mutants. Our results demonstrated that indeed GK, PEPCK, and PPDK are key players in the gluconeogenesis pathway in Leishmania, although stage-specific differences in their contribution to this pathway were found. GK participates in the entry of glycerol in promastigotes and amastigotes; PEPCK participates in the entry of aspartate in promastigotes, and PPDK is involved in the entry of alanine in amastigotes. Furthermore, the majority of alanine enters into the pathway via decarboxylation of pyruvate in promastigotes, whereas pathway redundancy is suggested for the entry of aspartate in amastigotes. Interestingly, we also found that l-lactate, an abundant glucogenic precursor in mammals, was used by Leishmania amastigotes to synthesize mannogen, entering the pathway through PPDK. On the basis of these new results, we propose a revision in the current model of gluconeogenesis in Leishmania, emphasizing the differences between amastigotes and promastigotes. This work underlines the importance of studying the trypanosomatid intracellular life cycle stages to gain a better understanding of the pathologies caused in humans. PMID:25288791

  8. Inhibition of growth of Leishmania mexicana mexicana by Leishmania mexicana amazonensis during "in vitro" co-cultivation Inibição do crescimento de Leishmania mexicana mexicana por Leishmania mexicana amazonensis durante o co-cultivo "in vitro"

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    Raquel S. Pacheco

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of one Leishmania subspecies by exometabolites of another subspecies, a phenomenon not previously reported, is suggested by our recent observations in cell cloning experiments with Leishmania mexicana mexicana and Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. Clones were identified using the technique of schizodeme analysis. The phenomenon observed is clearly relevant to studies of parasite isolation, leishmanial metabolism, cross-immunity and chemotherapy.Inhibição do crescimento de um subespécie de Leishmania por exometabólitos de outra subespécie, um fenômeno ainda não notificado, é sugerido em nossas recentes observações em experimentos de clonagem celular com Leishmania mexicana mexicana e Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. Os clones foram identificados usando a técnica de análise de esquizodemas. O fenômeno observado é claramente relevante em estudos de isolamento parasitário, metabolismo, imunidade cruzada e quimioterapia.

  9. The genome of Prunus mume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qixiang; Chen, Wenbin; Sun, Lidan; Zhao, Fangying; Huang, Bangqing; Yang, Weiru; Tao, Ye; Wang, Jia; Yuan, Zhiqiong; Fan, Guangyi; Xing, Zhen; Han, Changlei; Pan, Huitang; Zhong, Xiao; Shi, Wenfang; Liang, Xinming; Du, Dongliang; Sun, Fengming; Xu, Zongda; Hao, Ruijie; Lv, Tian; Lv, Yingmin; Zheng, Zequn; Sun, Ming; Luo, Le; Cai, Ming; Gao, Yike; Wang, Junyi; Yin, Ye; Xu, Xun; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Prunus mume (mei), which was domesticated in China more than 3,000 years ago as ornamental plant and fruit, is one of the first genomes among Prunus subfamilies of Rosaceae been sequenced. Here, we assemble a 280M genome by combining 101-fold next-generation sequencing and optical mapping data. We further anchor 83.9% of scaffolds to eight chromosomes with genetic map constructed by restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing. Combining P. mume genome with available data, we succeed in reconstructing nine ancestral chromosomes of Rosaceae family, as well as depicting chromosome fusion, fission and duplication history in three major subfamilies. We sequence the transcriptome of various tissues and perform genome-wide analysis to reveal the characteristics of P. mume, including its regulation of early blooming in endodormancy, immune response against bacterial infection and biosynthesis of flower scent. The P. mume genome sequence adds to our understanding of Rosaceae evolution and provides important data for improvement of fruit trees.

  10. Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus serotina Erhr.) and wild cherry ( Prunus avium L.) seedlings on low and high elevation sites in the western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  11. Population growth of Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana predates human agricultural activity

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    Cox Murray P

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human activities, such as agriculture, hunting, and habitat modification, exert a significant effect on native species. Although many species have suffered population declines, increased population fragmentation, or even extinction in connection with these human impacts, others seem to have benefitted from human modification of their habitat. Here we examine whether population growth in an insectivorous bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana can be attributed to the widespread expansion of agriculture in North America following European settlement. Colonies of T. b. mexicana are extremely large (~106 individuals and, in the modern era, major agricultural insect pests form an important component of their food resource. It is thus hypothesized that the growth of these insectivorous bat populations was coupled to the expansion of agricultural land use in North America over the last few centuries. Results We sequenced one haploid and one autosomal locus to determine the rate and time of onset of population growth in T. b. mexicana. Using an approximate Maximum Likelihood method, we have determined that T. b. mexicana populations began to grow ~220 kya from a relatively small ancestral effective population size before reaching the large effective population size observed today. Conclusions Our analyses reject the hypothesis that T. b. mexicana populations grew in connection with the expansion of human agriculture in North America, and instead suggest that this growth commenced long before the arrival of humans. As T. brasiliensis is a subtropical species, we hypothesize that the observed signals of population growth may instead reflect range expansions of ancestral bat populations from southern glacial refugia during the tail end of the Pleistocene.

  12. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Syn. Prunus amygdalus) and Prunus cornuta (Wall. ex. Royle) Steudel. These are indigenous to Pakistan. In the ITS strict consensus results for example, the clade consisting of Laurocerasus, Padus and Cerasus subgenera are sister to the rest of the clades in the phylogenetic tree. Key words: Phylogeny, Prunus, Pakistan, ...

  13. Survey of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus in Rose and Its Variability in Rose and Prunus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moury, B; Cardin, L; Onesto, J P; Candresse, T; Poupet, A

    2001-01-01

    ABSTRACT A survey for viruses in rose propagated in Europe resulted in detection of only Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) among seven viruses screened. Four percent of cut-flower roses from different sources were infected with PNRSV. Progression of the disease under greenhouse conditions was very slow, which should make this virus easy to eradicate through sanitary selection. Comparison of the partial coat protein gene sequences for three representative rose isolates indicated that they do not form a distinct phylogenetic group and show close relations to Prunus spp. isolates. However, a comparison of the reactivity of monoclonal antibodies raised against these isolates showed that the most prevalent PNRSV serotype in rose was different from the most prevalent serotype in Prunus spp. All of the 27 rose isolates tested infected P. persica seedlings, whereas three of the four PNRSV isolates tested from Prunus spp. were poorly infectious in Rosa indica plants. These data suggest adaptation of PNRSV isolates from Prunus spp., but not from rose, to their host plants. The test methodologies developed here to evaluate PNRSV pathogenicity in Prunus spp. and rose could also help to screen for resistant genotypes.

  14. Propagation and Growth of Chokecherry (Prunus virginaiana) as an Alternative, Water-wise, Fruit Crop for the Intermountain West

    OpenAIRE

    Crook, Jeremy R.

    2010-01-01

    Utah fruit growers have shown interest in chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) as an alternative crop that has low requirements for water and soil fertility. Consumers want native fruits like chokecherry that are healthy and taste good. Currently, the limiting factor in developing a chokecherry industry in Utah is the ability to propagate large numbers of plants for orchard establishment. Chokecherries are difficult to propagate by traditional means because of their low rooting percentages. Plant ...

  15. Incorporation of an invasive plant into a native insect herbivore food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilthuizen, Menno; Santos Pimenta, Lúcia P; Lammers, Youri; Steenbergen, Peter J; Flohil, Marco; Beveridge, Nils G P; van Duijn, Pieter T; Meulblok, Marjolein M; Sosef, Nils; van de Ven, Robin; Werring, Ralf; Beentjes, Kevin K; Meijer, Kim; Vos, Rutger A; Vrieling, Klaas; Gravendeel, Barbara; Choi, Young; Verpoorte, Robert; Smit, Chris; Beukeboom, Leo W

    2016-01-01

    The integration of invasive species into native food webs represent multifarious dynamics of ecological and evolutionary processes. We document incorporation of Prunus serotina (black cherry) into native insect food webs. We find that P. serotina harbours a herbivore community less dense but more

  16. DIAGNOSTICS OF VIRUS PHYTOPATHOGENS FRUIT TREE PLUM POX VIRUS, PRUNUS NECROTIC RINGSPOT VIRUS AND PRUNUS DWARF VIRUS BY BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Július Rozák; Zdenka Gálová

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of viral phytopathogen Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus in selected localities of Slovakia and diagnose them using a molecular and biological methods. Forty samples of fruit trees of the genus Prunus, twenty samples from intensive plantings and twenty samples from wild subject were analysed. Biological diagnostic by using biological indicators Prunus persica cv. GF 305, Prunus serrulata cv. Schirofugen a...

  17. Derechos de propiedad e industria petrolera mexicana

    OpenAIRE

    Rosío Vargas

    2013-01-01

    De un control de los recursos mineros a fines del siglo antepasado, por parte de las corporaciones internaciona- les, la industria petrolera mexicana transitó a un régimen de soberanía nacional y propiedad pública del petróleo después de 1938 que le permitió el diseño de una política económica con vocación nacional asignando varias tareas a PEMEX. La adopción del modelo neoliberal en los ochenta, como fundamento de la estrategia macroeco- nómica, fue el punto de retorno al contr...

  18. DIAGNOSTICS OF VIRUS PHYTOPATHOGENS FRUIT TREE PLUM POX VIRUS, PRUNUS NECROTIC RINGSPOT VIRUS AND PRUNUS DWARF VIRUS BY BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS

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    Július Rozák

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of viral phytopathogen Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus in selected localities of Slovakia and diagnose them using a molecular and biological methods. Forty samples of fruit trees of the genus Prunus, twenty samples from intensive plantings and twenty samples from wild subject were analysed. Biological diagnostic by using biological indicators Prunus persica cv. GF 305, Prunus serrulata cv. Schirofugen and molecular diagnostic by mRT-PCR were applied. Five samples with Plum pox virus were infected. The two samples positive for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and one sample for Prunus dwarf virus were confirmed. The two samples were found to be infected with two viruses Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus. This work focuses on two techniques, their application to the diagnosis of stone fruit viruses and their routinely used for sanitary and certification programmes.

  19. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of Genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... The genus Prunus L. is an important plant for fruit production and it includes plums, apricots, cherries, almonds ... classification and placement of different genera under different sub-families. ... cultivated primarily or their beautiful flowers, such as ..... described the character evolution in the 37 Prunus and 8.

  20. Complete chloroplast genome of Prunus yedoensis Matsum.(Rosaceae), wild and endemic flowering cherry on Jeju Island, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myong-Suk; Hyun Cho, Chung; Yeon Kim, Su; Su Yoon, Hwan; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequences of the wild flowering cherry, Prunus yedoensis Matsum., which is native and endemic to Jeju Island, Korea, is reported in this study. The genome size is 157 786 bp in length with 36.7% GC content, which is composed of LSC region of 85 908 bp, SSC region of 19 120 bp and two IR copies of 26 379 bp each. The cp genome contains 131 genes, including 86 coding genes, 8 rRNA genes and 37 tRNA genes. The maximum likelihood analysis was conducted to verify a phylogenetic position of the newly sequenced cp genome of P. yedoensis using 11 representatives of complete cp genome sequences within the family Rosaceae. The genus Prunus exhibited monophyly and the result of the phylogenetic relationship agreed with the previous phylogenetic analyses within Rosaceae.

  1. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

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    Bliss Fredrick A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a

  2. Micropropagation of ornamental Prunus spp. and GF305 peach, a Prunus viral indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, Anna; Brown, Daniel C W

    2007-07-01

    A micropropagation approach was developed for nine ornamental Prunus species, P. americana, P. cistena, P. glandulosa, P. serrulata 'Kwanzan', P. laurocerasus, P. sargentii, P. tomentosa, P. triloba, P. virginiana 'Schubert', commercially important in North America, and GF305 peach, commonly used for Prunus virus indexing. The micropropagation cycle based on proliferation of vegetative tissues includes establishment of tissue culture through introduction of shoot meristems in vitro, shoot proliferation, root induction and plant acclimatization steps and can be completed in 5 months. A meristem sterilization protocol minimized bacterial and fungal contamination. Multiple shoot formation in ornamental Prunus was obtained through the use of 1 mg l(-1) 6-benzyladenine. For GF305 peach, alteration in the sugar composition, fructose instead of sucrose, and addition of 1 mg l(-1 )ferulic acid had a significant impact on the shoot proliferation rate and maintenance of long-term in vitro culture. Rooting and plant acclimatization conditions were improved using a two-step protocol with a 4-day root induction in indole-3-butiric acid (IBA)-containing media with consequent 3-week root elongation in IBA-free media. One-month incubation of rooted shoots in a vermiculite-based medium resulted in additional shoot and root growth and provided better acclimatization and plant recovery. The micropropagation approach can be used for maintenance of the clonal properties for Prunus spp. as well as a protocol to support meristem therapy against viral infection.

  3. estadounidense: el caso de la berenjena mexicana

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    Carlos Javier Maya Ambía

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El mercado hortÌcola de Estados Uni- dos es el escenario de una din·mica competencia en la que se enfrentan empresas productoras-distribuidoras de naciones con muy dispares grados de desarrollo. Este artÌculo se enfoca al caso de la berenjena mexicana exportada hacia dicho paÌs, consi- derando que, a partir de su estudio, es posible repensar una serie de conceptos empleados en la inves- tigaciÛn sobre el tema. En particular, se propone, si- guiendo una idea expuesta por Van Sickle y otros autores, tomar el segmento del mercado como indi- cador de la competitividad de los oferentes. De acuerdo con este indi- cador, se trata de ubicar el posicio- namiento actual de las hortalizas mexicanas en el mercado de los Estados Unidos, comparando la berenjena con las otras hortalizas m·s importantes exportadas por MÈxico. Se busca explicar esta participaciÛn a partir de una serie de elementos, como son innovaciones tecnolÛgicas, rendimientos, costos, estrategias de comercializaciÛn y, de especial im- portancia, la atenciÛn a las normas para preservar la inocuidad alimen- taria. El caso estudiado viene a con- firmar la hipÛtesis de autores como Friedland y Bonanno, quienes sos- tienen el car·cter global de la com- petencia en los mercados hortÌcolas. El artÌculo concluye con algunas reflexiones derivadas del estudio de caso, mismas que apuntan hacia el cuestionamiento del concepto de divisiÛn internacional del trabajo.

  4. Spasmogenic and spasmolytic activities of Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana methanolic extracts on the guinea pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Martínez, Rosa; Rodríguez, Rodolfo; González-Trujano, María Eva; Ángeles-López, Guadalupe E; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Gómez, Claudia

    2017-01-20

    Agastache mexicana has been used in traditional medicine for relief of abdominal pain and treatment of other diseases. Two subspecies have been identified: A. mexicana ssp. mexicana (AMM) and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana (AMX) and both are used traditionally without distinction or in combination. To determine the effect of methanol extracts of A. mexicana ssp. mexicana and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana on gut motility and their possible mechanism of action. The effect of AMM and AMX methanol extracts were tested on the spontaneous activity in the isolated guinea pig ileum and on tissues pre-contracted with KCl, electrical field stimulation (EFS) or ACh. In addition, the possible mechanism of action of each subspecies on gut motility was analyzed in the presence of hexametonium, indomethacin, L-NAME, verapamil, atropine or pyrylamine. A comparative chromatographic profile of these extracts was also done to indicate the most abundant flavonoids presents in methanol extracts of both subspecies. AMM, but not AMX, induced a contractile effect in the guinea pig ileum. This spasmogenic effect was partially inhibited by atropine, antagonist of muscarinic receptors; and pyrilamine, antagonist of H 1 receptors. In contrast, AMX, but not AMM, diminished the contractions induced by KCl, EFS or ACh. The spasmolytic activity of AMX was partially inhibited by hexamethonium, ganglionic blocker; and indomethacin, inhibitor of the synthesis of prostaglandins; but not by L-NAME, inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. In addition, AMX diminished the maximal contraction induced by CaCl 2 in a calcium-free medium. Chromatographic analyses of these methanol extracts showed the presence of acacetin and tilanin in both. These results suggest that in folk medicine only AMX should be used as spasmolytic, and not in combination with AMM as traditionally occurs, due to the spasmogenic effects of the latter. In addition, activation of nicotinic receptors, prostaglandins and calcium channels, but

  5. Dihydrotestosterone enhances growth and infectivity of Leishmania Mexicana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, L; Wilkins-Rodriguez, A; Salaiza-Suazo, N; Morales-Montor, J; Becker, I

    2018-03-01

    A strong sex-associated susceptibility towards Leishmania has been reported in males, yet little is known on the effect of hormones in Leishmania physiopathogenicity. Due to the enhanced susceptibility of males to Leishmania mexicana infections, we were interested in analysing the effect exerted by the main androgen produced in males (DHT) on L. mexicana promastigotes. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the regulation exerted by dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on L. mexicana replication, infectivity, survival and development of tissue lesions. Experiments included growth curves of L. mexicana promastigotes incubated with different doses of DHT, their infection rate, intracellular survival and lesion development in BALB/c mice. Our data show that DHT significantly enhances parasite replication, infection rate and survival in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMФ). Promastigotes in the presence of DHT produced significantly larger lesions in BALB/c earlobes. These results suggest that DHT probably plays a critical role during L. mexicana infections, and the higher susceptibility of males possibly relates to benefits gained by the parasite from host-derived hormones. Our data shed new light on the physiopathology of Leishmania infections and are the first attempt to understand the direct interaction between Leishmania and androgens, particularly DHT. Understanding this trans-regulation process employed by parasites to exploit host molecules sheds new light on L. mexicana physiopathogenesis and opens a possible field for studies on drug development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Contributions of Zea mays subspecies mexicana haplotypes to modern maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Xu, Xi-Wen; Wang, Rui-Ru; Peng, Wen-Lei; Cai, Lichun; Song, Jia-Ming; Li, Wenqiang; Luo, Xin; Niu, Luyao; Wang, Yuebin; Jin, Min; Chen, Lu; Luo, Jingyun; Deng, Min; Wang, Long; Pan, Qingchun; Liu, Feng; Jackson, David; Yang, Xiaohong; Chen, Ling-Ling; Yan, Jianbing

    2017-11-30

    Maize was domesticated from lowland teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis), but the contribution of highland teosinte (Zea mays ssp. mexicana, hereafter mexicana) to modern maize is not clear. Here, two genomes for Mo17 (a modern maize inbred) and mexicana are assembled using a meta-assembly strategy after sequencing of 10 lines derived from a maize-teosinte cross. Comparative analyses reveal a high level of diversity between Mo17, B73, and mexicana, including three Mb-size structural rearrangements. The maize spontaneous mutation rate is estimated to be 2.17 × 10 -8 ~3.87 × 10 -8 per site per generation with a nonrandom distribution across the genome. A higher deleterious mutation rate is observed in the pericentromeric regions, and might be caused by differences in recombination frequency. Over 10% of the maize genome shows evidence of introgression from the mexicana genome, suggesting that mexicana contributed to maize adaptation and improvement. Our data offer a rich resource for constructing the pan-genome of Zea mays and genetic improvement of modern maize varieties.

  7. A radioattenuated Leishmania major vaccine markedly increases the resistance of CBA mice to subsequent infection with Leishmania mexicana mexicana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.

    1982-01-01

    Vaccinating CBA mice with radioattenuated Leishmania major amastigotes but not with radioattenuated L. mexicana amastigotes rendered them highly resistant to subsequent infection with L. m. mexicana. Unvaccinated CBA mice were highly susceptible to infection with L. m. mexicana producing rapidly growing non-ulcerating cutaneous lesions. Two manifestations of resistance were induced in vaccinated animals depending on the timing of the challenge infection: no lesions appeared at the site of subcutaneous challenge in animals vaccinated four or more weeks previously, while lesions grew rapidly but ulcerated and healed in animals vaccinated less than 3 weeks beforehand. L. major amastigotes were found to be markedly more resistant to γ irradiation than L. m.mexicana amastigotes both as measured by their ability to infect susceptible strains of mice and to transform and multiply as promastigotes in NNN medium. (author)

  8. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  9. Derechos de propiedad e industria petrolera mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosío Vargas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available De un control de los recursos mineros a fines del siglo antepasado, por parte de las corporaciones internaciona- les, la industria petrolera mexicana transitó a un régimen de soberanía nacional y propiedad pública del petróleo después de 1938 que le permitió el diseño de una política económica con vocación nacional asignando varias tareas a PEMEX. La adopción del modelo neoliberal en los ochenta, como fundamento de la estrategia macroeco- nómica, fue el punto de retorno al control privado de la industria y la empresa petrolera. Con la puesta en opera- ción del modelo neoliberal se desmantela la integración vertical lograda años atrás, se obliga a PEMEX a endeu- darse para poder realizar sus inversiones, y se confiscan los recursos fiscales de la empresa. Bajo el argumento de que es preferible exportar más ahí donde es viable multiplicar los aportes a la balanza de pagos e importar pro- ductos que la competencia internacional ha abaratado, no sólo se regresa a un modelo especializado en la pro- ducción de una materia prima en detrimento de los sectores industriales, sino que se renuncia a la autosuficiencia energética llevando al país a una peligrosa dependencia estratégica de derivados del petróleo. Bajo la dinámica de la integración en América del Norte liderada por los Estados Unidos, se logra la apertura total en los sectores corriente arriba de la empresa petrolera mexicana. El regreso a la propiedad privada es visible a partir de los contratos negociados en la reforma energética de 2008, y la desincorporación de actividades sustantivas de la industria que constituyen prerrogativas constitucionales, la empresa se encamina bajo una dinámica de gobernanza corporativa a la conformación legal de una corporación privada por lo que un cambio mayor surge con la ruptura del binomio Estado- PEMEX.

  10. Crystal Macropattern Development in Prunus serotina (Rosaceae, Prunoideae) Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    LERSTEN, NELS R.; HORNER, HARRY T.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Prunus, subgenus Padus, exhibits two completely different calcium oxalate crystal macropatterns in mature leaves. Foliar macropattern development has been described previously in P. virginiana, representing one version. Prunus serotina, in the group exhibiting the second macropattern, is described here. The goal was to describe developmental details for comparison with P. virginiana, and to extend the sparse current knowledge of crystal macropatterns.

  11. Panorama de la violencia estatal en las entidades federativas mexicanas

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Aguirre, Manuel Ernesto

    2018-01-01

    Resumen: ¿Qué factores inciden en la violencia estatal de las entidades federativas mexicanas en el nivel estatal de gobierno? Desde la perspectiva del modelo maximizador (cálculo costo-beneficio), este artículo analiza la influencia de la democracia electoral y las capacidades estatales sobre la violencia estatal en México, aprovechando la heterogeneidad de las entidades federativas mexicanas. A partir de la estimación de modelos estadísticos con una base original de datos tipo panel, el te...

  12. Tetracycline-inducible gene expression system in Leishmania mexicana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraeva, N.; Ishemgulova, A.; Lukeš, Julius; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 198, č. 1 (2014), s. 11-13 ISSN 0166-6851 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Leishmania mexicana * Gene expression * Tet-inducible system Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.787, year: 2014

  13. Leishmania (L.) mexicana Infected Bats in Mexico: Novel Potential Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; González-Salazar, Constantino; Stephens, Christopher R.; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Marina, Carlos F.; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Bailón-Martínez, Dulce; Balcells, Cristina Domingo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology. PMID:25629729

  14. Leishmania (L. mexicana infected bats in Mexico: novel potential reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Berzunza-Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L. mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L. mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%, belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus, and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L. mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L. mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology.

  15. Molecular Variability Among Isolates of Prunus Necrotic Ringspot Virus from Different Prunus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, F; Myrta, A; Di Terlizzi, B; Pallás, V

    1999-11-01

    ABSTRACT Viral sequences amplified by polymerase chain reaction from 25 isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), varying in the symptomatology they cause in six different Prunus spp., were analyzed for restriction fragment polymorphisms. Most of the isolates could be discriminated by using a combination of three different restriction enzymes. The nucleotide sequences of the RNA 4 of 15 of these isolates were determined. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses of the RNA 4 and coat proteins (CPs) revealed that all of the isolates clustered into three different groups, represented by three previously sequenced PNRSV isolates: PV32, PE5, and PV96. The PE5-type group was characterized by a 5' untranslated region that was clearly different from that of the other two groups. The PV32-type group was characterized by an extra hexanucleotide consisting of a duplication of the six immediately preceding nucleotides. Although most of the variability was observed in the first third of the CP, the amino acid residues in this region, which were previously thought to be functionally important in the replication cycle of the virus, were strictly conserved. No clear correlation with the type of symptom or host specificity could be observed. The validity of this grouping was confirmed when other isolates recently characterized by other authors were included in these analyses.

  16. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... 52 - 56°C with the primers ITS-9 and ITS-6 or Trn-L and Trn-F. Polymerase chain .... The sub-genus Prunus has also relatively good support (81%) including .... Stevens, Michael J, Donoghue (1999). Plant Systematics. A.

  17. Characterization of polymorphic SSRs among Prunus chloroplast genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An in silico mining process yielded 80, 75, and 78 microsatellites in the chloroplast genome of Prunus persica, P. kansuensis, and P. mume. A and T repeats were predominant in the three genomes, accounting for 67.8% on average and most of them were successful in primer design. For the 80 P. persica ...

  18. Optimization of microwave roasting of almond (Prunus dulcis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave (MW) almond roasting was investigated as an alternative to hot air (HA) roasting. Nonpareil almonds (Prunus dulcis) were roasted at 140°C in a convection oven for different times to achieve light, medium, and dark roasting levels. Several instrumental measurements were taken, establishin...

  19. Cryopreservation of in vitro -grown shoot tips of apricot ( Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro grown apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. El-Hamawey shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved using an encapsulation-dehydration procedure. Shoot tips were encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads before preculture on woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with different sucrose concentrations; 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, ...

  20. Molecular characterization of the plum collection [Prunus domestica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight Random Amplified Microsatellite markers (RAMs) were used to characterize the genetic diversity found in 14 Prunus materials belonging to the deciduous collection of the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia. A total of 121 bands were generated: they range from nine for the GT primer to 26 for the ...

  1. Slaat Xanthomonas dit jaar weer toe in Prunus laurocerasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Dalfsen, van P.; Pham, K.T.K.

    2012-01-01

    Een diagnostische test moet duidelijk maken of er sprake is van Xanthomonas in Prunus laurocerasus. De bacterieziekte is namelijk makkelijk te verwarren met andere ziekten. Onderzoek, gefinancierd door het Productschap Tuinbouw, richt zich op het toetsen van moerplanten voordat hier van gestekt gaat

  2. Vasorelaxant effect of Prunus yedoensis bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kyungjin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus yedoensis Matsum. is used as traditional medicine—‘Yaeng-Pi’ or ‘Hua-Pi’—in Japan and Korea. However, no studies have examined the pharmacological activities of the P. yedoensis bark. Only the antioxidant and antiviral activities of P. yedoensis fruit and the anti-hyperglycaemic effect of P. yedoensis leaf have been investigated. While studying the antihypertensive effects of several medicinal plants, we found that a methanol extract of P. yedoensis bark (MEPY had distinct vasorelaxant effects on rat aortic rings. Methods The aortic rings were removed from Sprague–Dawley rats and suspended in organ chambers containing 10 ml Krebs-Henseleit solution. The aortic rings were placed between 2 tungsten stirrups and connected to an isometric force transducer. Changes in tension were recorded via isometric transducers connected to a data acquisition system. Results MEPY relaxed the contraction induced by phenylephrine (PE both in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings concentration dependently. However, the vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-denuded aortic rings were lower than endothelium-intact aortic rings. The vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-intact aortic rings were reduced by pre-treatment with l-NAME, methylene blue, or ODQ. However, pre-treatment with indomethacin, atropine, glibenclamide, tetraethylammonium, or 4-aminopyridine had no affection. In addition, MEPY inhibited the contraction induced by extracellular Ca2+ in endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted by PE (1 μM or KCl (60 mM in Ca2+-free solution. Conclusions Our results suggest that MEPY exerts its vasorelaxant effects via the activation of NO formation by means of l-Arg and NO-cGMP pathways and via the blockage of extracellular Ca2+ channels.

  3. Enraizamento in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus In vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rogalski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Na micropropagação de Prunus sp., o enraizamento tem sido considerado uma fase crítica, pois determina a sobrevivência das plantas durante a aclimatização. Dentre os fatores importantes ao enraizamento in vitro, destacam-se o genótipo e as auxinas por serem determinantes na indução e na formação de raízes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de IBA no enraizamento in vitro dos porta-enxertos de espécies do gênero Prunus: cultivares Capdeboscq e GF677, e seleções VP411 e VP417. Para o enraizamento in vitro, brotos com 2-3cm de comprimento foram introduzidos em meio de Lepoivre suplementado com 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg.L-1 IBA. Observou-se que o porta-enxerto 'Capdeboscq' apresentou maior taxa de enraizamento e maior número de raízes in vitro, sendo superior aos demais genótipos quanto a estas características. O nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA esteve associado à maior taxa média de enraizamento (100%, 64% e 64,0%, respectivamente para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq', 'GF677' e VP411. O nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA foi superior para a seleção VP417 com taxa de 64% de enraizamento. Para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq' e 'GF677', o número máximo de raízes foi de 9,6 e 5,2 raízes por broto, respectivamente, em resposta ao nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA, enquanto as seleções VP411 e VP417 apresentaram o maior número de raízes (3,6 e 3,9, respectivamente em resposta ao nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA.In Prunus sp. micropropagation of rooting is considered a critical stage, since it determines the plant survival during the acclimatization. Among important factors associated with rooting, the genotype and the auxins are considered important in the induction and formation of roots. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of different IBA on the in vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks Capdeboscq and GF677, and the selections VP411 and VP417. For the in vitro rooting stage, shoots of

  4. Native excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, T.

    1992-01-01

    Syncrude Canada Ltd., operator of the oil sands mine and processing plant near Fort McMurray, Alberta, produces 11% of Canada's crude oil and is the country's largest private-sector employer of native Canadians. Syncrude has the goal of employing about 10% native Canadians, which is about the percentage of natives in the regional population. Examples are presented of successful native employment and entrepreneurship at Syncrude. Doreen Janvier, once employed at Syncrude's mine wash bays, was challenged to form her own company to contract out labor services. Her company, DJM Enterprises, now has a 2-year contract to operate three highly sophisticated wash bays used to clean mining equipment, and is looking to bid on other labor contracts. Mabel Laviolette serves as liaison between the oil containment and recovery team, who recover oil skimmed off Syncrude's tailings basin, and the area manager. The team approach and the seasonal nature of the employment fit in well with native cultural patterns. The excellence of native teamwork is also illustrated in the mine rescue team, one unit of which is entirely native Canadian. Part of Syncrude's aboriginal policy is to encourage development of aboriginal enterprises, such as native-owned Clearwater Welding and Fabricating Ltd., which has held welding and fabricating contracts with most major companies in the region and is a major supplier of skilled tradesmen to Syncrude. Syncrude also provides employment and training, encourages natives to continue their education, and promotes local community development. 4 figs

  5. Las telenovelas juveniles mexicanas y las adolescentas obesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Meza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación analiza la opresión por cuerpo (obesidad a la que las mujeres son sometidas dentro del sistema patriarcal durante la adolescencia, específicamente a través de la representación televisiva que de las jóvenes gordas se hace en la telenovela juvenil mexicana. Los enormes niveles de audiencia que poseen las telenovelas en nuestro país hace indispensable, para los estudios de género desde las ciencias dela comunicación, estudiar el papel de las mujeres en dichas teleseries. En este análisis se pretende mostrar la triple marginación a la que son sometidas las adolescentes obesas en las telenovelas juveniles mexicanas: por ser mujeres, por ser jóvenes y por ser gordas.

  6. Native listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.

    2002-01-01

    Becoming a native listener is the necessary precursor to becoming a native speaker. Babies in the first year of life undertake a remarkable amount of work; by the time they begin to speak, they have perceptually mastered the phonological repertoire and phoneme co-occurrence probabilities of the

  7. Oxidative stress induction by Prunus necrotic ringspot virus infection in apricot seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, Khalid; Díaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Pallás, Vincente; Sánchez-Pina, María Amelia; Hernández, José Antonio

    2007-10-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot rvirus (PNRSV) was able to invade the immature apricot seed including the embryo. The amount of virus was very high inside the embryo compared with that present in the cotyledons. PNRSV infection produced an oxidative stress in apricot seeds as indicated by the increase in lipid peroxidation, measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. This lipid peroxidation increase was parallelled with an imbalance in the seed antioxidant enzymes. A significant decrease in the ascorbate-GSH cycle enzymes as well as in peroxidase (POX) activity took place in infected seeds, suggesting a low capability to eliminate H2O2. No changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase activity were observed. A significant decrease in polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity was also observed. Native PAGE revealed the presence of three different SOD activity bands in apricot seeds: a Mn-containing SOD and two CuZn-containing SODs. Only an isozyme with catalase, glutathione reductase (GR) or PPO activity was detected in both healthy and infected apricot seeds. Regarding POX staining, three bands with POX activity were detected in native gels in both healthy and infected seeds. The gel results emphasise that the drop detected in POX, GR and PPO activities in PNRSV-infected apricot seeds by kinetic analyses was also evident from the results obtained by native PAGE. The oxidative stress and the imbalance in the antioxidant systems from PNRSV-infected apricot seeds resemble the hypersensitive response observed in some virus-host interactions. This defence mechanism would inactivate PNRSV during seed formation and/or the storage period or even during seed germination. Those results can explain the decrease in seed germination and the low transmission of PNRSV by seeds in apricot trees.

  8. Micropropagation of Prunus species relevant to cherry fruit production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druart, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Cherry tree micropropagation is limited to the production of healthy cultivars of Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus, and their rootstocks; mainly the dwarfing ones. By using meristem-tip (0.1 mm long) or healthy shoot tips/nodes, four successive steps are needed to obtain whole plants capable of growing in the nursery: multiplication by axillary branching, shoot elongation, rooting, and plantlet acclimation. Along this process, several parameters have to be adjusted for each phase of the culture, including media composition, environmental culture conditions and plant handling. These parameters vary depending on genotypic response and specific vulnerability to physiological disorders such as hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, unstable propagation, and rooting rates. Based on a 40 year-long experience of study and application of culture conditions to large-scale plant production, this document summarizes the main problems (variability of the propagation rate, hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, plant re-growth) and solutions encountered to solve them, with means validated on many mericlones.

  9. Preparation of recombinant coat protein of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrzik, K; Mráz, I; Kubelková, D

    2001-02-01

    The coat protein (CP) gene of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) was cloned into pET 16b vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. CP-enriched fractions were prepared from whole cell lysate by differential centrifugation. The fraction sedimenting at 20,000 x g for 30 mins was used for preparation of a rabbit antiserum to CP. This antiserum had a titer of 1:2048 and reacted in a double-antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA).

  10. CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF PGIP FROM ‘JIN SERIES’ ALMOND (PRUNUS DULCIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhu Han

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Specific primers synthesized according to conservative regions of polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP gene were used to amplify Prunus Dulcis genomic DNA by polymerase-chain reaction (PCR. Six bands (pgip1, pgip2, pgip3, pgip4, pgip5 and pgip6 of genes were obtained and cloned into PBS-T vector. According to the length of bands, 717bp, 864bp, 796bp were A1 (pgip1, pgip2, pgip3, A2 (pgip4, A4 (pgip5, pgip6, respectively. DNA sequences showed that the fragments taken together were the gene encoding PGIP. A2 and A3 contained two exons interrupted by one intron, which has GT-AG sequence. Its DNA and amino acid sequences were highly homologies to those from Prunus Persica; Prunus Salicina; Prunus Americana; Prunus Mume, respectively. A conserved lencinerial fragment exists in the derived protein sequence.

  11. Construcciones de identidad en novelas mexicanas de infancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Pfeiffer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mientras que en el siglo XIX, apogeo del bildungsroman burgués en Europa, el tema de la infancia no desempeña un papel muy importante en la literatura mexicana, es la segunda mitad del siglo XX la que verá brotar una proliferación de novelas de infancia, que parecen tener que ver con una necesidad de búsqueda de identidad, cada vez más problemática, del sujeto moderno y postmoderno. Desde Cartucho (1931 y Las manos de mamá (1937 de Nellie Campobello, llama la atención el que la mayoría de estos textos sea obra de mujeres y tengan niñas como protagonistas, incluso en terrenos tan “masculinos” como es, sin duda, la Revolución Mexicana, tratada por Campobello. El corpus analizado en el presente artículo, que abarca la segunda mitad del siglo XX, comprende doce obras, diez de las cuales fueron escritas por mujeres y ocho tienen protagonistas o narradoras femeninas (en la mayoría de los casos, estos dos roles coinciden, ya que se trata casi siempre de narraciones en primera persona, fenómeno que también puede que tenga que ver con la búsqueda de identidad.

  12. Mapping X-Disease Phytoplasma Resistance in Prunus virginiana

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan R. Lenz; Wenhao Dai

    2017-01-01

    Phytoplasmas such as “Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni,” the causal agent of X-disease of stone fruits, lack detailed biological analysis. This has limited the understanding of plant resistance mechanisms. Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana L.) is a promising model to be used for the plant-phytoplasma interaction due to its documented ability to resist X-disease infection. A consensus chokecherry genetic map “Cho” was developed with JoinMap 4.0 by joining two parental maps. The new map contains a com...

  13. Informalidad y dualismo en la economía mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Puyana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza el fenómeno de la informalidad a partir de la década de 1950; se aplica el enfoque de Arthur Lewis, para quien el empleo informal es un resultado del funcionamiento de las economías en desarrollo, en las cuales existe una oferta laboral ilimitada a un determinado salario de equilibrio. En este trabajo la informalidad es el residuo, es la mano de obra sobrante una vez que el sector moderno ocupa la fuerza laboral necesaria a un salario real dado y conforme al capital disponible. En el documento se presenta primero una versión formal del modelo de Lewis, en el cual hay dos sectores: el moderno y el atrasado; a este último con salvedades, lo asimilamos al informal, para luego proceder a estimar una de sus principales conclusiones con datos de la economía mexicana. En este ejercicio se constata que el modelo de Lewis es una representación adecuada de los hechos estilizados que caracterizan a la economía mexicana, y que la importante intensificación de capital, es decir la relación entre el capital y el trabajo en el sector formal que se ha experimentado a partir de las reformas, ha elevado los costos de la creación de empleo formal. En estas condiciones, aunado a la escasa inversión en los últimos veinte años, se ha presentado un estancamiento de la proporción del empleo formal en el total y además unos muy precarios, casi nulos, avances en la productividad total promedio y en el ingreso por habitante.

  14. Self-compatible peach (Prunus persica) has mutant versions of the S haplotypes found in self-incompatible Prunus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ryutaro; Watari, Akiko; Hanada, Toshio; Habu, Tsuyoshi; Yaegaki, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Masami; Yamane, Hisayo

    2007-01-01

    This study demonstrates that self-compatible (SC) peach has mutant versions of S haplotypes that are present in self-incompatible (SI) Prunus species. All three peach S haplotypes, S (1), S (2), and S (2m), found in this study encode mutated pollen determinants, SFB, while only S (2m) has a mutation that affects the function of the pistil determinant S-RNase. A cysteine residue in the C5 domain of the S (2m)-RNase is substituted by a tyrosine residue, thereby reducing RNase stability. The peach SFB mutations are similar to the SFB mutations found in SC haplotypes of sweet cherry (P. avium) and Japanese apricot (P. mume). SFB (1) of the S (1) haplotype, a mutant version of almond (P. dulcis) S (k) haplotype, encodes truncated SFB due to a 155 bp insertion. SFB (2) of the S (2) and S (2m) haplotypes, both of which are mutant versions of the S (a) haplotype in Japanese plum (P. salicina), encodes a truncated SFB due to a 5 bp insertion. Thus, regardless of the functionality of the pistil determinant, all three peach S haplotypes are SC haplotypes. Our finding that peach has mutant versions of S haplotypes that function in almond and Japanese plum, which are phylogenetically close and remote species, respectively, to peach in the subfamily Prunoideae of the Roasaceae, provides insight into the SC/SI evolution in Prunus. We discuss the significance of SC pollen part mutation in peach with special reference to possible differences in the SI mechanisms between Prunus and Solanaceae.

  15. Mapping X-Disease Phytoplasma Resistance in Prunus virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Ryan R; Dai, Wenhao

    2017-01-01

    Phytoplasmas such as " Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni," the causal agent of X-disease of stone fruits, lack detailed biological analysis. This has limited the understanding of plant resistance mechanisms. Chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana L.) is a promising model to be used for the plant-phytoplasma interaction due to its documented ability to resist X-disease infection. A consensus chokecherry genetic map "Cho" was developed with JoinMap 4.0 by joining two parental maps. The new map contains a complete set of 16 linkage groups, spanning a genetic distance of 2,172 cM with an average marker density of 3.97 cM. Three significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with X-disease resistance were identified contributing to a total of 45.9% of the phenotypic variation. This updated genetic linkage map and the identified QTL will provide the framework needed to facilitate molecular genetics, genomics, breeding, and biotechnology research concerning X-disease in chokecherry and other Prunus species.

  16. Mapping X-Disease Phytoplasma Resistance in Prunus virginiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R. Lenz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplasmas such as “Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni,” the causal agent of X-disease of stone fruits, lack detailed biological analysis. This has limited the understanding of plant resistance mechanisms. Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana L. is a promising model to be used for the plant-phytoplasma interaction due to its documented ability to resist X-disease infection. A consensus chokecherry genetic map “Cho” was developed with JoinMap 4.0 by joining two parental maps. The new map contains a complete set of 16 linkage groups, spanning a genetic distance of 2,172 cM with an average marker density of 3.97 cM. Three significant quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with X-disease resistance were identified contributing to a total of 45.9% of the phenotypic variation. This updated genetic linkage map and the identified QTL will provide the framework needed to facilitate molecular genetics, genomics, breeding, and biotechnology research concerning X-disease in chokecherry and other Prunus species.

  17. Crystal macropattern development in Prunus serotina (Rosaceae, Prunoideae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lersten, Nels R; Horner, Harry T

    2006-05-01

    Prunus, subgenus Padus, exhibits two completely different calcium oxalate crystal macropatterns in mature leaves. Foliar macropattern development has been described previously in P. virginiana, representing one version. Prunus serotina, in the group exhibiting the second macropattern, is described here. The goal was to describe developmental details for comparison with P. virginiana, and to extend the sparse current knowledge of crystal macropatterns. Leaves at various developmental stages were removed from local trees and from herbarium specimens. Early leaf stages and freehand leaf and stem sections were mounted directly in aqueous glycerine; larger leaves were processed whole or in representative pieces in household bleach, dehydrated in alcohol/xylol, and mounted in Permount. Crystals were detected microscopically between crossed polarizers. Bud scales have a dense druse population. Druses appear first at the stipule tip and proliferate basipetally but soon stop forming; growing stipules therefore have a declining density of druses. Druses appear at the tip of leaves virginiana, and shows that two closely related species can develop radically different modes of crystallization. The few detailed macropattern studies to date reveal striking variations that indicate a new level of organization that must be integrated with the anatomical, physiological and molecular approaches that have been dominant so far.

  18. Growth and fruit bearing of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radunic

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... Modern intensive production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) tends to planting of high ... the highest was recorded on "V", while the smallest was in Spanish bush. Training system and density did not affect the fruit weight.

  19. Accelerated solvent extraction of carotenoids from: Tunisian Kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoudi, Khalil; Pontvianne, Steve; Framboisier, Xavier; Achard, Mathilde; Kudaibergenova, Rabiga; Ayadi-Trabelsi, Malika; Kalthoum-Cherif, Jamila; Vanderesse, Régis; Frochot, Céline; Guiavarc'h, Yann

    2015-10-01

    Extraction of carotenoids from biological matrices and quantifications remains a difficult task. Accelerated solvent extraction was used as an efficient extraction process for carotenoids extraction from three fruits cultivated in Tunisia: kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Based on a design of experiment (DoE) approach, and using a binary solvent consisting of methanol and tetrahydrofuran, we could identify the best extraction conditions as being 40°C, 20:80 (v:v) methanol/tetrahydrofuran and 5 min of extraction time. Surprisingly and likely due to the high extraction pressure used (103 bars), these conditions appeared to be the best ones both for extracting xanthophylls such as lutein, zeaxanthin or β-cryptoxanthin and carotenes such as β-carotene, which present quite different polarities. Twelve surface responses were generated for lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in kaki, peach and apricot. Further LC-MS analysis allowed comparisons in carotenoids profiles between the fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Two Types of New Natural Materials for Fruit Vinegar in Prunus Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica and P. domestica × P. armeniaca added value; three natural fruit vinegars were designed. The results showed the nutrition of Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca cultivar Fengweimeigui vinegar (T1 had high minerals and microelements, especially the Ca and Mg reached to the 150.00mg/L, 85.40 mg/L, respectively; the vinegar of Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica cultivar Zhongren No.1 (T2 not only have rich Na (2800.00 mg/L, P (123.00 mg/L, but also have plentiful amino acid that content reached to 200.08 mg/L. However, the mixture vinegar (T3 with pulps from Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca and Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica had the middle nutrient contents, but the property was balanced. We therefore conclude that solid fermentation is a suitable method to preserve nutrients and value-added for Prunus plants fruit, and three types vinegars are suitable for different age people, and the difference nutrient contents and typical characteristic indicate that three vinegars are competitive products in market.

  1. Spatial heterogeneity in post-dispersal predation on Prunus and Uvularia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Sara L; Willson, Mary F

    1985-08-01

    We investigated effects of seed density, distance from parent, and habitat (woods, open field) on post-dispersal predation risk (chiefly by rodents) for seeds of Prunus virginiana (Rosaceae). Additional study of the habitat effect (woods, open field, treefall gap) was made with seeds of Prunus avium (Rosaceae) and Uvularia grandiflora (Liliaceae). Density of Prunus seeds (range 2-40 seeds/group) did not affect predation risk for individual seeds. Distance from parent plants did influence predation risk, which was greatest directly beneath parents. This distance effect primarily comprised a sharp drop in risk within 2 m of parents, a distance too small to generate a "spacing rule" for conspecifics.We found that habitat strongly influenced predation intensity. Rates of removal of Prunus seeds were higher in woods than in open fields, except when overall predation intensity was very low and no pattern could be discerned. Prunus seed removal rates were higher in closed woods than in treefall gaps. Consequently, a Prunus seed will more likely escape predation if dispersed to an open site. In contrast, Uvularia seed removal rates were higher in open fields than in woods but did not differ between closed woods and tree-fall gaps.Predation intensity was spatially patchy between and within experimental arrays, but was consistent over time at some specific points in space, possibly reflecting home ranges of seed predators.

  2. Diversidad de la Oferta Televisiva Mexicana: Dos Semanas de 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Enrique Huerta Wong

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo reporta el análisis de la programación de la televisión abierta mexicana y forma parte del programa de investigación realizado bajo el auspicio de la Cátedra Televisa. La muestra pretende ser representativa del primer semestre de 1999. Las vari ables centrales fueron origen de la programación, macrogénero y género. Al discutir que la diversidad en la oferta es un fac tor importante para hablar de un sistema de medios de comunicación deseable en el tránsito a la democracia, encuentra amplia concentración tanto en géneros como orígenes de la programación; lo cual se enfatiza aún más en los horarios de mayor audiencia. Se concluye que la televisión se comporta de manera contraria a los intereses de una población diversa, sesgando la percepción de la realidad e incumpliendo así sus funciones.

  3. Leishmania mexicana Gp63 cDNA Using Gene Gun Induced Higher Immunity to L. mexicana Infection Compared to Soluble Leishmania Antigen in BALB/C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvan, H; Rees, R; Ali, SA

    2011-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is a worldwide disease prevalent in tropical and sub tropical countries. Many attempts have been made and different strategies have been approached to develop a potent vaccine against Leishmania. DNA immunisation is a method, which is shown to be effective in Leishmania vaccination. Leishmania Soluble Antigen (SLA) has also recently been used Leishmania vaccination. Methods The immunity generated by SLA and L. mexicana gp63 cDNA was compared in groups of 6 mice, which were statistically analysed by student t- test with the P-value of 0.05. SLA was administered by two different methods; intramuscular injection and injection of dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with SLA. L. mexicana gp63 cDNA was administered by the gene gun. Results Immunisation of BALB/c mice with L. mexicana gp63 resulted in high levels of Th1-type immune response and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) activity, which were accompanied with protection induced by the immunisation against L. mexicana infection. In contrast, administration of SLA, produced a mixed Th1/Th2-type immune responses as well as a high level of CTL activity but did not protect mice from the infection. Conclusion The results indicate higher protection by DNA immunisation using L. mexicana gp63 cDNA compared to SLA, which is accompanied by a high level of Th1 immune response. However, the CTL activity does not necessarily correlate with the protection induced by the vaccine. Also, gene gun immunisation is a potential approach in Leishmania vaccination. These findings would be helpful in opening new windows in Leishmania vaccine research. PMID:22347315

  4. Incidence of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salem

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV incidence in Jordan stone-fruit growing areas was conducted during 2000–2002. A total of 2552 samples were collected from 72 commercial orchards, a mother block, 15 nurseries, and a varietal collection. A total of 208 almond, 451 apricot, 149 cherry, 250 nectarine, 1016 peach, and 478 plum trees were tested individually for PNRSV by the double-antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. Around 15% of tested samples were infected with PNRSV. The virus incidence in almond, nectarine, plum, peach, cherry, and apricot was 24, 16, 16, 14, 13, and 10% of tested trees respectively. The level of viral infection was highest in the mother block (19%, and lowest in the samples from the nurseries (10%.

  5. Virulence and molecular polymorphism of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R W; Crosslin, J M

    1998-07-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) occurs as numerous strains or isolates that vary widely in their pathogenic, biophysical and serological properties. Prior attempts to distinguish pathotypes based upon physical properties have not been successful; our approach was to examine the molecular properties that may distinguish these isolates. The nucleic acid sequence was determined from 1.65 kbp RT-PCR products derived from RNA 3 of seven distinct isolates of PNRSV that differ serologically and in pathology on sweet cherry. Sequence comparisons of ORF 3a (putative movement protein) and ORF 3b (coat protein) revealed single nucleotide and amino acid differences with strong correlations to serology and symptom types (pathotypes). Sequence differences between serotypes and pathotypes were also reflected in the overall phylogenetic relationships between the isolates.

  6. Ilarviruses of Prunus spp.: a continued concern for fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, V; Aparicio, F; Herranz, M C; Amari, K; Sanchez-Pina, M A; Myrta, A; Sanchez-Navarro, J A

    2012-12-01

    Prunus spp. are affected by a large number of viruses, causing significant economic losses through either direct or indirect damage, which results in reduced yield and fruit quality. Among these viruses, members of the genus Ilarvirus (isometric labile ringspot viruses) occupy a significant position due to their distribution worldwide. Although symptoms caused by these types of viruses were reported early in the last century, their molecular characterization was not achieved until the 1990s, much later than for other agronomically relevant viruses. This was mainly due to the characteristic liability of virus particles in tissue extracts. In addition, ilarviruses, together with Alfalfa mosaic virus, are unique among plant viruses in that they require a few molecules of the coat protein in the inoculum in order to be infectious, a phenomenon known as genome activation. Another factor that has made the study of this group of viruses difficult is that infectious clones have been obtained only for the type member of the genus, Tobacco streak virus. Four ilarviruses, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, Prune dwarf virus, Apple mosaic virus, and American plum line pattern virus, are pathogens of the main cultivated fruit trees. As stated in the 9th Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, virions of this genus are "unpromising subjects for the raising of good antisera." With the advent of molecular approaches for their detection and characterization, it has been possible to get a more precise view of their prevalence and genome organization. This review updates our knowledge on the incidence, genome organization and expression, genetic diversity, modes of transmission, and diagnosis, as well as control of this peculiar group of viruses affecting fruit trees.

  7. NKT cell activation by Leishmania mexicana LPG: Description of a novel pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Chimal, Jaime; Fernández-Figueroa, Edith A; Ruiz-Remigio, Adriana; Wilkins-Rodríguez, Arturo A; Delgado-Domínguez, José; Salaiza-Suazo, Norma; Gutiérrez-Kobeh, Laila; Becker, Ingeborg

    2017-02-01

    NKT cells have been associated with protection against Leishmania donovani, yet their role in infections with Leishmania mexicana has not been addressed, nor has the activation pathway been defined after stimulation with Leishmania mexicana lipophosphoglycan (LPG). We analyzed the activation of NKT cells and their cytokine production in response to Leishmania mexicana LPG. Additionally we compared NKT-cell numbers and cytokine profile in lymph nodes of skin lesions induced by Leishmania mexicana in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. We show that LPG activates NKT cells primarily through the indirect pathway, initiating with TLR2 stimulation of dendritic cells (DC), thereby enhancing TLR2, MHC II, and CD86 expressions and IL-12p70 production. This leads to IFN-γ production by NKT cells. C57BL/6 mice showed enhanced DC activation, which correlated with augmented IFN-γ production by NKT cells. Additionally, infected C57BL/6 mice showed elevated percentages of NKT cells with higher IFN-γ and IL-4 production in lymph nodes. We conclude that the response of NKT cells towards Leishmania mexicana LPG initiates with the indirect activation, after binding of LPG to TLR2 in DC. This indirect activation pathway enables NKT cells to produce IFN-γ during the innate phase of Leishmania infection, the magnitude of which differs between mouse strains. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  8. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  9. Temporal and spatial distribution of Leishmania mexicana infections in a population of Neotoma micropus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Russell W

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19-month mark-release-recapture study of Neotoma micropus with sequential screening for Leishmania mexicana was conducted in Bexar County, Texas, USA. The overall prevalence rate was 14.7% and the seasonal prevalence rates ranged from 3.8 to 26.7%. Nine incident cases were detected, giving an incidence rate of 15.5/100 rats/year. Follow-up of 101 individuals captured two or more times ranged from 14 to 462 days. Persistence of L. mexicana infections averaged 190 days and ranged from 104 to 379 days. Data on dispersal, density, dispersion, and weight are presented, and the role of N. micropus as a reservoir host for L. mexicana is discussed.

  10. Genomic segments RNA1 and RNA2 of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus codetermine viral pathogenicity to adapt to alternating natural Prunus hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongguang; Hong, Ni; Wang, Guoping; Wang, Aiming

    2013-05-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) affects Prunus fruit production worldwide. To date, numerous PNRSV isolates with diverse pathological properties have been documented. To study the pathogenicity of PNRSV, which directly or indirectly determines the economic losses of infected fruit trees, we have recently sequenced the complete genome of peach isolate Pch12 and cherry isolate Chr3, belonging to the pathogenically aggressive PV32 group and mild PV96 group, respectively. Here, we constructed the Chr3- and Pch12-derived full-length cDNA clones that were infectious in the experimental host cucumber and their respective natural Prunus hosts. Pch12-derived clones induced much more severe symptoms than Chr3 in cucumber, and the pathogenicity discrepancy between Chr3 and Pch12 was associated with virus accumulation. By reassortment of genomic segments, swapping of partial genomic segments, and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified the 3' terminal nucleotide sequence (1C region) in RNA1 and amino acid K at residue 279 in RNA2-encoded P2 as the severe virulence determinants in Pch12. Gain-of-function experiments demonstrated that both the 1C region and K279 of Pch12 were required for severe virulence and high levels of viral accumulation. Our results suggest that PNRSV RNA1 and RNA2 codetermine viral pathogenicity to adapt to alternating natural Prunus hosts, likely through mediating viral accumulation.

  11. Self-incompatibility of Prunus tenella and evidence that reproductively isolated species of Prunus have different SFB alleles coupled with an identical S-RNase allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbanovski, Nada; Tobutt, Kenneth R; Konstantinović, Miroslav; Maksimović, Vesna; Sargent, Daniel J; Stevanović, Vladimir; Bosković, Radovan I

    2007-05-01

    Many species of Prunus display an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI), controlled by a single highly polymorphic multigene complex termed the S-locus. This comprises tightly linked stylar- and pollen-expressed genes that determine the specificity of the SI response. We investigated SI of Prunus tenella, a wild species found in small, isolated populations on the Balkan peninsula, initially by pollination experiments and identifying stylar-expressed RNase alleles. Nine P. tenella S-RNase alleles (S(1)-S(9)) were cloned; their sequence analysis showed a very high ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions (K(a)/K(s)) and revealed that S-RNase alleles of P. tenella, unlike those of Prunus dulcis, show positive selection in all regions except the conserved regions and that between C2 and RHV. Remarkably, S(8)-RNase, was found to be identical to S(1)-RNase from Prunus avium, a species that does not interbreed with P. tenella and, except for just one amino acid, to S(11) of P. dulcis. However, the corresponding introns and S-RNase-SFB intergenic regions showed considerable differences. Moreover, protein sequences of the pollen-expressed SFB alleles were not identical, harbouring 12 amino-acid replacements between those of P. tenella SFB(8) and P. avium SFB(1). Implications of this finding for hypotheses about the evolution of new S-specificities are discussed.

  12. Comportamiento experimental del Sporothrix schenckii y la Leishmania mexicana en el hamster Experimental behavior of Sporothrix schenckii and Leishmania mexicana in hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Angela González de Polanía

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available La descripción macroscópica del proceso de patogénesis en hamsters inoculados subcutáneamente en nariz con Sporothrix schenckii ó Leishmania mexicana spp. proporcionó bases para diferenciar estos dos microorganismos en un modelo animal utilizado comunmente para estudiarlos. Observaciones secuenciales durante 150 días permitieron afirmar que en las infecciones causadas por estos patógenos se presentaron edema y eritema como signos primarios, seguidos de alopecia, necrosis y ulceración. La producción de pus fué una característica distintiva para el S. schenckii. Estos signos clínicos se observaron más temprano en la esporotricosis que en la infección por L. mexicana, mostrando diferencias estadísticas significantes en días promedio de aparición. El presente trabajo muestra que las lesiones producidas tanto por el S. schenckii como la L. mexicana en este modelo experimental comparten signos clínicos, pero el tiempo de aparición de los mismos y su frecuencia relativa permiten diferenciarlas. Las condiciones de inoculación como: cepa de los microorganismos, dosis del inóculo, sitio y vía de inoculación, deben tenerse presentes en la evaluación de su comportamiento experimental.The macroscopic description of the pathogenic process of Sporothrix schenckii and Leishmania mexicana spp in hamsters inoculated subcutaneously in the nose provided bases for the differentiation of the behavior of these two microorganisms in a model frequently utilized for their study. Sequential observations over 150 days demonstrated that infections caused by these pathogens results initially in edema and erythema followed by loss of hair, necrosis and ulceration. The pus production was a characteristic presented only by S. schenckii. These clinical signs were observed earlier in sporotrichosis than in L. mexicana infection. Differences in the mean day of appearance were statistically significant. The lesions produced by S. schenckii and L. mexicana

  13. Escala mexicana de calidad en el servicio en restaurantes (emcaser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Vera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se describe el desarrollo de una escala para medir la calidad en el servicio en restaurantes en México. El objetivo es ofrecer una escala redactada en español para medir calidad en el servicio en restaurantes de servicio a mesa, que se ha denominado Escala mexicana de calidad en el servicio en restaurantes (emcaser. Se realiza una revisión del concepto de calidad en el servicio, su medición en general y su medición específicamente en restaurantes, explicando cómo se realizó la detección inicial de atributos y dimensiones mediante un estudio exploratorio. Posteriormente, se exponen los resultados de diversas pruebas empíricas a través de las cuales se fue corrigiendo la escala y con las que se fueron mejorando indicadores de confianza y validez. Finalmente, se comparten los reactivos de esta escala ofreciéndolos abiertamente para su uso en estudios posteriores. En este trabajo, además, se examina el efecto de las dimensiones resultantes del instrumento sobre la opinión general, satisfacción e intención de recomendar. Una aportación importante de esta escala radica en que se basa en una detección amplia de atributos particularmente detectados en este sector, en lugar de partir de las dimensiones genéricas del instrumento de medición de calidad en el servicio más citado en la literatura: servqual.

  14. Analysis of Agromorphological Descriptors to Differentiate between Duke Cherry (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & TurpinRehd. and Its Progenitors: Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. and Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Análisis de Descriptores Agromorfológicos para Diferenciar entre Cerezo Duke (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin Rehd. y sus Progenitores: Cerezo (Prunus avium L. y Guindo (Prunus cerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid identification of the hybrids between sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. is not easy. In order to resolve this problem, 18 Spanish sweet, sour and duke cherry cultivars were surveyed and characterized using 43 agromorphological descriptors evaluated in flowers, leaves, dormant 1-yr-old shoots, fruits, and trees during 2005 and 2006. Based on quantitative parameters, ANOVA and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA were carried out. For qualitative descriptors, statistical comparisons were done by means of the chi-square (χ2 test. As result of the study, two quantitative (titratable acidity and number of lenticels and six qualitative descriptors (shape of the central and lateral lobes in the internal bracts of the flower fascicles, leaf shape and margin, pubescence in the veins of the lower side of the leaf, and type of sulci of the seed coat were identified as differential parameters in P. avium, P. cerasus and P. x gondouinii(Poit. & Turpin Rehd. Also, another four qualitative descriptors (petal coloration at the end of blooming, leaf stipule type, and seed shape and viability were found to be useful for easy differentiation between sour and duke cherry. None of these parameters has been employed previously to discriminate among sweet, sour and duke cherry.Los híbridos de cerezo (Prunus avium L. y guindo (Prunus cerasus L. no son fáciles de identificar. Para resolver este problema, 18 cultivares de cerezo, guindo y sus híbridos fueron prospectados y caracterizados agromorfológicamente mediante el estudio de 43 descriptores evaluados en flores, hojas, frutos, ramas de 1 año y árbol durante los años 2005 y 2006. En base a los resultados obtenidos del estudio de los diferentes parámetros cuantitativos se realizaron un ANDEVA y un análisis discriminante escalonado (SDA. Los descriptores cualitativos fueron analizados mediante el test de Chi-cuadrado (χ². Como resultado del estudio se identificaron

  15. RNA-seq Analysis of Cold and Drought Responsive Transcriptomes of Zea mays ssp. mexicana L.

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiang; Zhou, Xuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Meixue; McNeil, David; Liang, Shan; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-01-01

    The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is a member of teosinte, a wild relative of the Zea mays spp. mays L. This subspecies has strong growth and regeneration ability, high tiller numbers, high protein and lysine content as well as resistance to many fungal diseases, and it can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, we reported a Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. transcriptome by merging data from untreated control (CK), cold (4?C) and drought (PEG2000, 20%) treated plant samples. A ...

  16. De una singular leche alabastrina: el pulque en la literatura mexicana del siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Olea Franco, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    En este ensayo se analiza el pulque como motivo en la literatura mexicana, empezando por dos de sus representaciones más extensas: las Leyendas mexicanas de José María Roa Bárcena y Los bandidos de Río Frío de Manuel Payno. De este modo se describe cómo el primer escritor se basa en el mito y la leyenda, mientras el segundo ensaya un exhaustivo registro costumbrista basado en la amplia presencia del pulque en la cultura cotidiana del siglo XIX. Al final, mediante el examen de un ensayo de Jos...

  17. ELEMENTOS ESENCIALES PARA EL ÉXITO DE LAS EMPRESAS MEXICANAS

    OpenAIRE

    Rios Manríquez Sanjuana Martha; Ferrer Guerra Julián; Regalado Hernandez Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta un análisis de las estrategias que siguen las empresas mexicanas para posicionarse a nivel global. Respondiendo a dos preguntas de investigación: ¿Cuáles son las estrategias que permiten a las empresas crear ventajas competitivas? ¿Qué impacto tiene la adopción de estrategias en estas empresas? Para realizar el análisis se utiliza información de quince empresas que cotiza en la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores y que de alguna forma pueden ser consideradas como empresasas mexica...

  18. Actividad "in vivo" del cloruro de berberina frente a una leishmaniasis cutánea causada por la especie Leishmania mexicana mexicana 856/INS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador Avila T.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En una leishmaniasis experimental inducida con Leishmania mexicana mexicana en hocico de hamsters dorados Mesocricetus auratus, después de 30 días post infección tomando como criterio la reducción del área de lesión, dosis de 100 mg/kg. de Cloruro de Berberina intralesionales en los días 30, 33 y 36 tuvieron el mismo efecto antileishmaniásico que el Antimonial Pentavalente "Glucantime", el cual fue administrado de igual modo en dosis de 20 mg/kg/día entre los días 30 a 38. El análisis histopatológico, demostró una proliferación de células gigantes de Langhans en las pápulas tratadas con Cloruro de Berberina.

  19. ACTIVIDAD "In Vivo" DEL CLORURO DE BERBERINA FRENTE A UNA LEISHMANIASIS CUTÁNEA CAUSADA POR LA ESPECIE Leishmania mexicana mexicana 856/INS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J Acero M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available En una leishmaniasis experimental inducida con Leishmania mexicana mexicana en hocico de hamsters dorados Mesocricetus auratus, después de 30 días post infección tomando como criterio la reducción del área de lesión, dosis de 100 mg/kg. de Cloruro de Berberina intralesionales en los días 30, 33 y 36 tuvieron el mismo efecto antileishmaniásico que el Antimonial Pentavalente "Glucantime", el cual fue administrado de igual modo en dosis de 20 mg/kg/día entre los días 30 a 38. El análisis histopatológico, demostró una proliferación de células gigantes de Langhans en las pápulas tratadas con Cloruro de Berberina.

  20. Non-Native & Native English Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Tosuncuoglu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries the primary (mother tongue language is not English but there is a great demand for English language teachers all over the world. The demand in this field is try to be filled largely by non-native English speaking teachers who have learned English in the country or abroad, or from another non native English peaking teachers. In some countries, particularly those where English speaking is a a sign of status, the students prefer to learn English from a native English speaker. The perception is that a non-native English speaking teacher is a less authentic teacher than a native English speaker and their instruction is not satifactory in some ways. This paper will try to examine the literature to explore whether there is a difference in instructional effectiveness between NNESTs and native English teachers.

  1. Mexican official Norms in constructions; Normas oficiales mexicanas en edificaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Martinez, Norma Eneida [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The Federal Law on Metrology and Normalization operative since July 16 1992, establishes that it corresponds to the dependencies of Federal Public Administration (APF), in its scope of competence, to constitute the National Consultative Committee of Normalization (CCNN) to issue the Mexican official norms (NOM) on products, systems, processes, methods, facilities, services or activities, as well as to certify, to verify and inspect its fulfillment. The NOMs are of obligatory application since their purpose is the establishment of the characteristics and/or specifications, criteria and procedures that allow to protect and to promote the improvement of the environment and ecosystems, as well as the preservation of the natural resources. The normalization for the power efficiency in the constructions represents an effort directed to the improvement of the thermal design of buildings and to the obtaining of its inhabitants' comfort with a smaller energy consumption. The heat gain by solar radiation is the source most important to control, a control obtained with a suitable design of the building covering. [Spanish] La Ley Federal sobre Metrologia y Normalizacion en vigor desde el 16 de julio de 1992, establece que corresponde a las dependencias de la Administracion Publica Federal (APF), en su ambito de competencia, constituir los Comite consultivo Nacional de Normalizacion (CCNN) para expedir las normas oficiales mexicanas (NOM) sobre productos, sistemas, procesos, metodos, instalaciones, servicios o actividades, asi como certificar, verificar e inspeccionar su cumplimiento. Las NOM son de aplicacion obligatoria porque tienen como finalidad establecer las caracteristicas y/o especificaciones, criterios y procedimientos que permitan proteger y promover el mejoramiento del ambiente y los ecosistemas, asi como la preservacion de los recursos naturales. La normalizacion para la eficiencia energetica en las edificaciones representa un esfuerzo encaminado a mejorar el

  2. Territorio flexible en la semiperiferia: La frontera norte mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidio González Gómez

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realiza una discusión sobre la aplicabilidad de la propuesta de la denominada corriente regulacionista en torno a la espacialidad de los procesos recientes de industrialización, para un caso dentro de los países no centrales, en particular sobre el proceso de industrialización ocurrido en la Frontera Norte mexicana, desde mediados de la década pasada. Lo que se cuestiona, primeramente, a nivel teórico, es la utilidad de esta propuesta para parte de los estados no-centrales del Sistema Mundial. También se desarrollan, en el mismo plano, las objeciones principales en relación a sus supuestos generales al aplicarse esta teoría tanto al centro del Sistema Mundial como también al resto de ésta. Las características principales de este reciente proceso de industrialización en el territorio del norte mexicano son esbozadas para luego ser confrontadas a los supuestos subyacentes a la teoría regulacionista. Desde la crítica formulada a esta escuela de pensamiento, se genera una propuesta interpretativa, basada primeramente sobre el concepto de espacio de flujos, y después sobre la flexibilidad en el uso de la región fronteriza del norte mexicanoA debate is proposed in this paper on the suitability of the regulationist proposal to explain the spatial implications of recent industrial processes. This suitability is questioned for a particular territory in a non-central Nation-State, the Mexican Northern Border, from the mid-dle 1980´s. At a theoretical level, the usefulness of this for parts of the non-central nations of the World-System. On the same level the main objections on its general assumptions when this theory is applied to the center of the World-System as well as to the rest of it. Are also developed he main characteristics of the new industrialization process in the northern Mexican territory are depicted. These features are then confronted to the underlying assumptions of the regulationist theory. And, from

  3. Resultados perinatales en mujeres mexicanas con lupus eritematoso sistémico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Farfan-Labonne

    2017-03-01

    Conclusiones: Las mujeres mexicanas con lupus eritematoso sistémico tienen una alta incidencia de nacimiento pretérmino, preeclampsia, anemia, preeclampsia de inicio temprano, restricción del crecimiento intrauterino y cesárea, si bien la incidencia de nacidos vivos está entre las más altas reportadas en la literatura.

  4. T7 polymerase-driven transcription is downregulated in metacyclic promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania mexicana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ishemgulova, A.; Kraeva, N.; Faktorová, Drahomíra; Podešvová, L.; Lukeš, Julius; Yurchenko, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 63, MAY 18 (2016), č. článku 016. ISSN 1803-6465 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : gene expression * untranslated regions * Tet-inducible system * Leishmania mexicana Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.082, year: 2016

  5. Leucism in Mexican small-eared shrew Cryptotis mexicana (Mammalia : Soricomorpha), endemic to Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara, Lazaro; Ramirez-Chaves, Hector E.; Cervantes, Fernando A.

    Leucism is the partial or complete reduction of the fur pigmentation where eyes and skin maintain their normal coloration. In this paper, we report the record of an individual of the endemic Mexican shrew Cryptotis mexicana from Veracruz, Mexico, that displays leucism. This lack of pigmentation,

  6. Rapid Sequestration of Leishmania mexicana by Neutrophils Contributes to the Development of Chronic Lesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P Hurrell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan Leishmania mexicana parasite causes chronic non-healing cutaneous lesions in humans and mice with poor parasite control. The mechanisms preventing the development of a protective immune response against this parasite are unclear. Here we provide data demonstrating that parasite sequestration by neutrophils is responsible for disease progression in mice. Within hours of infection L. mexicana induced the local recruitment of neutrophils, which ingested parasites and formed extracellular traps without markedly impairing parasite survival. We further showed that the L. mexicana-induced recruitment of neutrophils impaired the early recruitment of dendritic cells at the site of infection as observed by intravital 2-photon microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. Indeed, infection of neutropenic Genista mice and of mice depleted of neutrophils at the onset of infection demonstrated a prominent role for neutrophils in this process. Furthermore, an increase in monocyte-derived dendritic cells was also observed in draining lymph nodes of neutropenic mice, correlating with subsequent increased frequency of IFNγ-secreting T helper cells, and better parasite control leading ultimately to complete healing of the lesion. Altogether, these findings show that L. mexicana exploits neutrophils to block the induction of a protective immune response and impairs the control of lesion development. Our data thus demonstrate an unanticipated negative role for these innate immune cells in host defense, suggesting that in certain forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis, regulating neutrophil recruitment could be a strategy to promote lesion healing.

  7. Seeking a "Mexicana"/"Mestiza" Ethic of Care: Rosa's "Revolución" of Carrying Alongside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Provencio, Mia Angélica

    2017-01-01

    This Chicana Critical Feminist "Testimonio" reveals a Mexican/Mexican-American Ethic of Care particular to the needs and strengths of "Mexicana/o" students and "Testimonios" of struggle, survival informing one Mexican/Mexican-American female educator of predominantly Mexican/Mexican-American students. This work,…

  8. Impact of Leishmania mexicana infection on dendritic cell signaling and functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irazú Contreras

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania parasites have the ability to modify macrophage signaling pathways in order to survive and multiply within its mammalian host. They are also known to invade other cells including neutrophils, fibroblasts and dendritic cells (DCs. DCs have an important role in immunity as the link between innate and adaptive immunity, necessary for the development of an effective response; however, the impact of Leishmania mexicana infection on DCs has been poorly studied. Herein, we report that Leishmania infection rapidly induced DC protein tyrosine phosphatases activity, leading to MAP kinases inactivation. In line with this, L. mexicana was found to decrease the nuclear translocation of transcription factors such as AP-1 and NF-κB. Concomitantly, L. mexicana-infected DCs showed reduced expression of several surface antigen-presenting and co-stimulatory molecules upon LPS stimulation. Leishmania-induced interference on DC maturation was further reflected by their reduced capacity to present OVA antigen to OVA-specific T cells, as shown by abrogation of IL-2 production by the T cells. Collectively, our data revealed that DC infection by L. mexicana appears to affect the cellular and immunological mechanisms necessary for the development of an effective and protective immune response, therefore favouring the survival and propagation of the parasite within its host.

  9. Leishmania mexicana in Didelphis marsupialis aurita in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. A. Yoshida

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi identificada pela primeira vez a presença de L. mexicana em Didelphis marsupialis aurita, no Estado de São Paulo — Município de Conchas, através de caracterização bioquímica.

  10. SSR allelic variation in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hua; Sui, Yi; Chang, Feng-Qi; Xu, Yong; Ma, Rong-Cai

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen SSR markers including eight EST-SSR and eight genomic SSRs were used for genetic diversity analysis of 23 Chinese and 15 international almond cultivars. EST- and genomic SSR markers previously reported in species of Prunus, mainly peach, proved to be useful for almond genetic analysis. DNA sequences of 117 alleles of six of the 16 SSR loci were analysed to reveal sequence variation among the 38 almond accessions. For the four SSR loci with AG/CT repeats, no insertions or deletions were observed in the flanking regions of the 98 alleles sequenced. Allelic size variation of these loci resulted exclusively from differences in the structures of repeat motifs, which involved interruptions or occurrences of new motif repeats in addition to varying number of AG/CT repeats. Some alleles had a high number of uninterrupted repeat motifs, indicating that SSR mutational patterns differ among alleles at a given SSR locus within the almond species. Allelic homoplasy was observed in the SSR loci because of base substitutions, interruptions or compound repeat motifs. Substitutions in the repeat regions were found at two SSR loci, suggesting that point mutations operate on SSRs and hinder the further SSR expansion by introducing repeat interruptions to stabilize SSR loci. Furthermore, it was shown that some potential point mutations in the flanking regions are linked with new SSR repeat motif variation in almond and peach.

  11. Effects of cadmium on lipids of almond seedlings (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elloumi, Nada; Zouari, Mohamed; Chaari, Leila; Jomni, Chiraz; Marzouk, Brahim; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani

    2014-12-01

    Cadmium uptake and distribution, as well as its effects on lipid composition was investigated in almond seedlings (Prunus dulcis) grown in culture solution supplied with two concentrations of Cd (50 and 150 μM). The accumulation of Cd increased with external metal concentrations, and was considerably higher in roots than in leaves. Fourteen days after Cd treatment, the membrane lipids were extracted and separated on silica-gel thin layer chromatography (TLC). Fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by FID-GC on a capillary column. Our results showed that Cd stress decreased the quantities of all lipids classes (phospholipids, galactolipids and neutral lipids). Galactolipid, phospholipid and neutral lipid concentrations decreased more in roots than in leaves by Cd-treatment. In almost all lipid classes the proportion of palmitic acid (16:0), linoleic (18: 2) and that of linolenic (18: 3) acid decreased, suggesting that heavy metal treatment induced an alteration in the fatty acid synthesis processes. In conclusion, our results show that the changes found in total fatty acids, in the quantities of all lipids classes, and in the in the profiles of individual polar lipids suggest that membrane structure and function might be altered by Cd stress.

  12. Proteome analysis of the almond kernel (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shugang; Geng, Fang; Wang, Ping; Lu, Jiankang; Ma, Meihu

    2016-08-01

    Almond (Prunus dulcis) is a popular tree nut worldwide and offers many benefits to human health. However, the importance of almond kernel proteins in the nutrition and function in human health requires further evaluation. The present study presents a systematic evaluation of the proteins in the almond kernel using proteomic analysis. The nutrient and amino acid content in almond kernels from Xinjiang is similar to that of American varieties; however, Xinjiang varieties have a higher protein content. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis demonstrated a wide distribution of molecular weights and isoelectric points of almond kernel proteins. A total of 434 proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS, and most were proteins that were experimentally confirmed for the first time. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of the 434 proteins indicated that proteins involved in primary biological processes including metabolic processes (67.5%), cellular processes (54.1%), and single-organism processes (43.4%), the main molecular function of almond kernel proteins are in catalytic activity (48.0%), binding (45.4%) and structural molecule activity (11.9%), and proteins are primarily distributed in cell (59.9%), organelle (44.9%), and membrane (22.8%). Almond kernel is a source of a wide variety of proteins. This study provides important information contributing to the screening and identification of almond proteins, the understanding of almond protein function, and the development of almond protein products. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Food and biomass potential of Prunus virginiana L. (chokecherry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sunmin; Young, Lester; Faye, Amberly; Li, Bonnie; Clancy, Johanna; Bors, Bob; Reaney, Martin

    2012-03-14

    Prunus virginiana L. (chokecherry) fruit has potential to provide both food and energy and as annual yield of biomass and energy are much greater than annual crops such as canola and wheat. We determined chokecherry fruit weight fractions as well as pit and extracted seed oil concentrations and fatty acid composition. Gross energy for each of the fractions was determined, as were carbon and nitrogen content. Extrapolation of these data suggests that gross energy from pits alone over a 24-year period (890 GJ·ha(-1)) is equivalent to that from an entire canola/wheat rotation (850 GJ·ha(-1)). After maturity, pulp contributes an additional 1130 GJ·ha(-1) over 21 years from ~3.4 t·ha(-1)·year(-1) (dw), while wood from pruning could add another 60 GJ·ha(-1)·year(-1). Over this time period, chokecherry would produce 1.5-2.5 times the amount of oil produced by a canola/wheat rotation.

  14. Geothermal potential in Mexico; Potencial geotermico de la republica mexicana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordaz Mendez, Christian Arturo; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Ramirez Silva, German [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: christian.ordaz@cfe.gob.mx

    2011-01-15

    parte de la estrategia de la CFE para incrementar la generacion de energia electrica mediante fuentes no convencionales llevo a cabo un calculo del potencial geotermico del pais. Este calculo se efectuo a traves del inventario nacional de manifestaciones termales con que cuenta la GPG, el cual ha permitido identificar 1380 manifestaciones termales distribuidas en todo el pais, con informacion de las temperaturas tomadas superficialmente y las temperaturas obtenidas por medio de geotermometros. El calculo del potencial geotermico se hizo con base en la clasificacion de estas manifestaciones por rangos de temperatura geotermometrica, obteniendose asi recursos de alta, media y baja entalpia. Posteriormente se utilizo el metodo volumetrico para obtener el potencial geotermico nacional. Los resultados indican que para las Reservas Posibles los recursos de alta entalpia ascienden a 5691 MWe, para los de moderada entalpia son de 881 MWe y los de baja entalpia de 849 MWe dando un total de 7422 MWe. Por otra parte, las Reservas Probables para el recurso de alta entalpia son de 1643 MWe, para los de moderada entalpia de 220 MWe y para los de baja entalpia de 212 MWe dando un total de 2077 MWe. Por ultimo las Reservas Probadas se tomaron como la capacidad adicional que puede instalarse en cada uno de los campos geotermicos conocidos, dando un total de 186 MWe. La informacion se proceso y se integro por medio del Sistema de Informacion Geografica (SIG) ArcGis 9.2 (c), dando como resultado la publicacion via Intranet del Mapa del Potencial Geotermico de la Republica Mexicana.

  15. Native Health Research Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Indian Health Board) Welcome to the Native Health Database. Please enter your search terms. Basic Search Advanced ... To learn more about searching the Native Health Database, click here. Tutorial Video The NHD has made ...

  16. Tractor-mounted, GPS-based spot fumigation system manages Prunus replant disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our research goal was to use recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) and computer technology to apply just the right amount of fumigant where it is most needed (i.e., in a small target treatment zone in and around each tree replanting site) to control Prunus replant disease (PRD). We deve...

  17. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov. And Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Fourie, P.H.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal

  18. Alternaria cerasidanica sp nov., isolated in Denmark from drupes of Prunus avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, R. G.; Reymond, S. T.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The ex-type strain of Alternaria cerasidanica was isolated in 2001 from an immature, asymptomatic drupe of Prunus avium collected at a commercial cherry orchard near Skaelskor, Denmark. Cultural morphology, sporulation pattern and cluster analyses of combined RAPD, RAMS (microsatellite), and AFLP...

  19. Changes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) antioxidants during nectar processing and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Kamiloglu, S.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is rich in polyphenols, and like its processed products, is especially rich in anthocyanins. We have applied HPLC, spectrophotometric and on-line antioxidant detection methods to follow the fate of cherry antioxidants during an entire multi-step industrial-scale

  20. Can Prunus serotina be genetically engineered for reproductive sterility and insect pest resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina) is a valuable hardwood timber species, and its value highly depends on the wood quality which is often threatened by insect pests. Transgenic black cherry plants that are more resistant to cambial-mining insects may reduce the occurrence of gummosis and have great economic benefits to landowners and the forest products...

  1. Whole-Genome Characterization of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus Infecting Sweet Cherry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiawei; Zhai, Ying; Zhu, Dongzi; Liu, Weizhen; Pappu, Hanu R; Liu, Qingzhong

    2018-03-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) causes yield loss in most cultivated stone fruits, including sweet cherry. Using a small RNA deep-sequencing approach combined with end-genome sequence cloning, we identified the complete genomes of all three PNRSV strands from PNRSV-infected sweet cherry trees and compared them with those of two previously reported isolates. Copyright © 2018 Wang et al.

  2. Molecular characterization of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is an important medicinal fruit with immense health benefits and antioxidant activity. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as DNA fingerprinting tools for the identification and characterization of peach germplasm in the United States. Eleven microsatel...

  3. Industrial processing effects on phenolic compounds in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The processed juice (or nectar) of the sour cherry, Prunus cerasus L., is widely consumed in the Balkan region and Turkey. Sour cherry is known to be rich in polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and procyanidins. In this work, the effects of processing of sour cherry fruit to nectar on

  4. Agrobacterium-medicated transformation of mature Prunus serotina (black cherry) and regeneration of trangenic shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was developed for in vitro leaf explants of an elite, mature Prunus serotina tree. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring an RNAi plasmid with the black cherry AGAMOUS (AG) gene was used. Bacteria were induced...

  5. Physicochemical characterisation of four cherry species (Prunus spp.) grown in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinping; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-15

    The physicochemical characteristics of four cherry species (Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus pseudocerasus and Prunus tomentosa) were evaluated. Inter-species variability was greater than intra-species differences. Glucose and fructose were the main sugars, and malic acid was the main organic acid in all species. Combining HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS/MS technologies, total 25 phenolic components were preliminarily identified. P. avium was characterised by high fruit weight, edible proportion, sugar content and low acid content, which made it suitable for fresh eating. P. cerasus was high in acid content and anthocyanins content, making it a good processing species. P. pseudocerasus had rich flavonols varieties and high proportion of hydrocinnamic acids. P. tomentosa was characterised by high total phenolics content (especially flavonols and tannins) and antioxidant activity, indicating a great developmental potential as a health fruit. The results of the present study might provide theoretical guidance for the further development and utilisation of cherries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pegamento e crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas Tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o pegamento e o crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas. Realizaram-se dois experimentos, adotando-se a enxertia de borbulhia por escudo (março e borbulhia por escudo modificada (julho. Com os resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que é viável a realização da enxertia do 'Aurora-1' nos Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e no 'Okinawa', tanto em março quanto em julho, com as metodologias utilizadas. O 'Okinawa' induz crescimento mais rápido ao enxerto, de forma que o ponto máximo do comprimento é atingido em tempo menor.This study aimed to evaluate the tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings. Two experiments were carried out, being adopted the chip budding (March and chip budding modified (July. The results showed that accomplishment of 'Aurora-1' peach bud on mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 and 'Okinawa' is viable, in both periods, with the methodologies used. The 'Okinawa' induces faster growth to the bud and the maximum length point is reached in a short time.

  7. In situ volatiles from a single cultivar of Prunus dulcis and their relationship to navel orangeworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonpareil almonds, Prunus dulcis, account for the largest percentage of almond varieties grown in the Central and San Joaquin valleys of California. Several studies have investigated the various non-volatile and volatile components of various plant parts; however, the volatile organic compound (VOC)...

  8. Looking into flowering time in almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill) D. A. Webb): the candidate gene approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C; Garcia-Mas, J; Sánchez, A M; Arús, P; Oliveira, M M

    2005-03-01

    Blooming time is one of the most important agronomic traits in almond. Biochemical and molecular events underlying flowering regulation must be understood before methods to stimulate late flowering can be developed. Attempts to elucidate the genetic control of this process have led to the identification of a major gene (Lb) and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked to observed phenotypic differences, but although this gene and these QTLs have been placed on the Prunus reference genetic map, their sequences and specific functions remain unknown. The aim of our investigation was to associate these loci with known genes using a candidate gene approach. Two almond cDNAs and eight Prunus expressed sequence tags were selected as candidate genes (CGs) since their sequences were highly identical to those of flowering regulatory genes characterized in other species. The CGs were amplified from both parental lines of the mapping population using specific primers. Sequence comparison revealed DNA polymorphisms between the parental lines, mainly of the single nucleotide type. Polymorphisms were used to develop co-dominant cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers or length polymorphisms based on insertion/deletion events for mapping the candidate genes on the Prunus reference map. Ten candidate genes were assigned to six linkage groups in the Prunus genome. The positions of two of these were compatible with the regions where two QTLs for blooming time were detected. One additional candidate was localized close to the position of the Evergrowing gene, which determines a non-deciduous behaviour in peach.

  9. Hanseniaspora nodinigri, a new yeast species found in black knots (Dibotryon morbosum) of Prunus virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, M A

    1981-07-01

    The new yeast species Hanseniaspora nodinigri is described to accommodate members of the genus Hanseniaspora that are unable to assimilate glucono-sigma-lactone and isolated from stromatal tissue of black knots (Dobotryon morbosum) of chokecherry, Prunus virginiana. The newly described taxon shows much resemblance, by other criteria, to H. vineae van der Walt et Tscheuschner and H. osmophila (Niehaus) Phaff, Miller et Shifrine.

  10. Cloning and characterization of prunus serotina AGAMOUS, a putative flower homeotic gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Joseph Anderson; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Members of the AGAMOUS subfamily of MADS-box transcription factors play an important role in regulating the development of reproductive organs in flowering plants. To help understand the mechanism of floral development in black cherry (Prunus serotina), PsAG (a putative flower homeotic identity gene) was isolated...

  11. Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) : [luuletused] / R. W. Stedingh ; tlk. ja saatesõna: Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stedingh, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) ; Rubus spectabilis ; Rododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum) ; Lysuchitum americanum ; Tulp (Tulipa gesneriana) ; Kanada hani (Branta canadensis) ; Metsorava pärastlõuna (Sciurus carolinensis) ; Ohakalind (Spinus tristis) ; Shakespeare'i mälestusmärk (kogust "Stanley pargi süit")

  12. Mechanism of action of relaxant effect of Agastache mexicana ssp.mexicana essential oil in guinea-pig trachea smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Andrés; Ávila-Rosas, Natalia; Majín-León, Mateo; Balderas-López, José Luis; Alfaro-Romero, Alejandro; Tavares-Carvalho, José Carlos

    2017-12-01

    Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Lamiaceae), popularly known as 'toronjil morado', is used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases such as hypertension, anxiety and respiratory disorders. This study investigates the relaxant action mechanism of A. mexicana ssp. mexicana essential oil (AMEO) in guinea-pig isolated trachea model. AMEO was analyzed by GC/MS. The relaxant effect of AMEO (5-50 μg/mL) was tested in guinea-pig trachea pre-contracted with carbachol (3 × 10  -   6  M) or histamine (3 × 10  -   5  M) in the presence or absence of glibenclamide (10  -   5  M), propranolol (3 × 10  -   6  M) or 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (10  -   5  M). The antagonist effect of AMEO (10-300 μg/mL) against contractions elicited by carbachol (10  -   15 -10  -   3  M), histamine (10  -   15 -10  -   3  M) or calcium (10-300 μg/mL) was evaluated. Essential oil composition was estragole, d-limonene and linalyl anthranilate. AMEO relaxed the carbachol (EC 50  =   18.25 ± 1.03 μg/mL) and histamine (EC 50  =   13.3 ± 1.02 μg/mL)-induced contractions. The relaxant effect of AMEO was not modified by the presence of propranolol, glibenclamide or 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, suggesting that effect of AMEO is not related to β 2 -adrenergic receptors, ATP-sensitive potassium channels or adenylate cyclase activation. AMEO was more potent to antagonize histamine (pA 2 ' = -1.507 ± 0.122) than carbachol (pA 2 ' = -2.180 ± 0.357). Also, AMEO antagonized the calcium chloride-induced contractions. The results suggest that relaxant effect of AMEO might be due to blockade of calcium influx in guinea-pig trachea smooth muscle. It is possible that estragole and d-limonene could contribute majority in the relaxant effect of AMEO.

  13. AVALIAÇÃO DA COMPATIBILIDADE DA ENXERTIA EM Prunus sp. EVALUATION OF THE GRAFT COMPATIBILITY IN Prunus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE COUTO RODRIGUES

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de peroxidase e concentração de fenóis foi determinada com o objetivo de se avaliar aspectos de compatibilidade entre porta-enxertos e enxertos. As amostras foram processadas e obtidas a partir da casca e lenho dos porta-enxertos de pessegueiros (GF 677, Okinawa, Capdeboscq e Aldrighi e de ameixeiras (Mirabolano e Marianna, enxertados ou não com as cultivares Diamante, Eldorado e Santa Rosa. Concluiu-se que a atividade de peroxidase e a concentração de fenóis foram relacionadas com união entre enxerto e porta-enxerto, particularmente, em Marianna e Mirabolano, onde a atividade de peroxidase e a concentração de fenóis foram mais elevados. A cultivar Santa Rosa foi compatível tanto com os porta-enxertos de ameixeiras quanto com os de pessegueiros.The work was accomplished aiming to quantify the peroxidase activity and total phenols, in order to verify the physiological and biochemical processes in grafting of Prunus sp. cultivars. The samples were processed and obtained in bark and wood of the peach rootstocks (GF 677, Okinawa, Capdeboscq and Aldrighi and plum rootstocks (Mirabolano and Marianna, after they had or not been grafted with the stock Diamante, Eldorado and Santa Rosa. It could be concluded that the peroxidase and the total phenols activity influenced the union between stock and rootstock; after grafting, the incompatibility degree is related with high peroxidase activity and total phenols in the rootstock Marianna and Mirabolano. The Santa Rosa plum graft is as compatible to plum rootstocks as to the peach ones.

  14. NATIVE VS NON-NATIVE ENGLISH TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrizal Masrizal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the majority of English language teachers worldwide are non-native English speakers (NNS, no research was conducted on these teachers until recently. A pioneer research by Peter Medgyes in 1994 took quite a long time until the other researchers found their interests in this issue. There is a widespread stereotype that a native speaker (NS is by nature the best person to teach his/her foreign language. In regard to this assumption, we then see a very limited room and opportunities for a non native teacher to teach language that is not his/hers. The aim of this article is to analyze the differences among these teachers in order to prove that non-native teachers have equal advantages that should be taken into account. The writer expects that the result of this short article could be a valuable input to the area of teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia.

  15. Native American nurse leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lee A

    2004-07-01

    To identify which characteristics, wisdom, and skills are essential in becoming an effective Native American nurse leader. This will lead to the development of a curriculum suitable for Native American nurses. A qualitative, descriptive design was used for this study. Focus groups were conducted in Polson, Montana. A total of 67 Native and non-Native nurses participated. Sixty-seven percent of them were members of Indian tribes. Data were content analyzed using Spradley's ethnographic methodology. Three domains of analysis emerged: point of reference for the leader (individual, family, community), what a leader is (self-actualized, wise, experienced, political, bicultural, recognized, quiet presence, humble, spiritual, and visionary), and what a leader does (mentors, role models, communicates, listens, demonstrates values, mobilizes, and inspires). Native nurse leaders lead differently. Thus, a leadership curriculum suitable for Native nurses may lead to increased work productivity and therefore improved patient care for Native Americans.

  16. Risks of herbalism: a case report of Mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana L induced liver toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfredo Meléndez González

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing consumption of alternative medicines has lead to a greater awareness about the deleterious effects and interactions that these products can induce. Consequently, medical literature reports liver toxicity from Aloe, Camellia sinensis (green tea, Rhammus purshianus, Aesculus hippocastanum (buckeye and Valeriana officinalis (valerian, among others. This article reports a female patient who twice consumed Mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana L with a one-year interval between ingestions. Both times she developed diarrhea, jaundice and general malaise with impaired liver function tests. Other causes of liver disease were ruled out. Questionnaires were used to assess the possibility of drug-induced liver damage. Clinical information was collected from the patient’s medical record and the literature on the subject was reviewed. We conclude that, at least in this case, the most likely cause of liver toxicity was Argemone mexicana L consumption.

  17. Molecular characterization using ISSR primers of Magnolia mexicana DC. from two regions in Zongolica, Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Medrano-Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Magnolia mexicana DC . es una especie amenazada según la NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010, situación atribuida a la fragmentación y destrucción del hábitat. No existen estudios sobre la diversidad genética de M. mexicana, a pesar de que es endémica de nuestro país. Objetivo: Evaluar la variabilidad genética en dos poblaciones de M. mexicana mediante marcadores moleculares tipo ISSR. Materiales y métodos: Las colectas provienen de Amatitla y Zapotla en Zongolica, Veracruz. El ADN se extrajo de las hojas jóvenes. Se probaron 55 iniciadores ISSR, se seleccionaron los 10 que produjeron mayor número de bandas con polimorfismo y se amplificaron por PCR. Resultados y discusión: Los iniciadores ISSR mostraron 86 % de polimorfismo. El análisis de agrupamiento, con el método de varianza mínima de Ward, fue capaz de separar las colectas por su procedencia geográfica. El análisis de varianza molecular demostró que la mayor variabilidad (90.88 % se encuentra dentro de cada población. El índice de diversidad de Shannon-Weaver fue de 0.47 y 0.41 para Amatitla y Zapotla, respectivamente. Conclusión: Las poblaciones de M. mexicana no han sufrido cambios en su estructura genética; no hay evidencia, a nivel genético, de alteraciones ocasionadas por la reducción de poblaciones o fragmentación del hábitat.

  18. FIRST RECORDS OF THE INVASIVE AMERICAN WASP ISODONTIA MEXICANA (HYMENOPTERA: SPHECIDAE) IN SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ćetković, Aleksandar; Čubrilović, Branka; Plećaš, Milan; Popović, Anđelka; Savić, Dragiša; Stanisavljević, Ljubiša

    2012-01-01

    The first verified occurrences of the invasive American sphecid wasp, Isodontia mexicana (Saussure, 1867), in Serbia are reported. It was first collected from a trap-nest sample in the northern surroundings of Belgrade in 2010. During 2012, we recorded well-established, abundant populations in the central city area of Belgrade, its surroundings, and also at a single site on the Fruška Gora Mt. We briefly review the circumstances and course of its recent eastward and northeastward spreading in...

  19. Breeding rootstocks for Prunus species: Advances in genetic and genomics of peach and cherry as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Guajardo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prunus rootstock is an important choice in optimizing productivity of grafted cultivars. Nevertheless, many Prunus rootstocks are notoriously intolerant to hypoxia which is caused by waterlogging and/or heavy soils. There is no available information to help select Prunus rootstocks that are tolerant to stress conditions such as root hypoxia caused by excess moisture. Information from genetic maps has demonstrated a high level of synteny among Prunus species, and this suggests that they all share a similar genomic structure. It should be possible to identify the genetic determinants involved in tolerance to hypoxia and other traits in Prunus rootstocks by applying methods to identify regions of the genome involved in the expression of important traits; these have been developed mainly in peach which is the model species for the genus. Molecular markers that are tightly linked to major genes would be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS to optimize new rootstock selection. This article provides insight on the advances in the development of molecular markers, genetic maps, and gene identification in Prunus, mainly in peach; the aim is to provide a general approach for identifying the genetic determinants of hypoxia stress in rootstocks.

  20. In vivo and in vitro control of Leishmania mexicana due to garlic-induced NO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-León, M R; Aranda-González, I; Mut-Martín, M; García-Miss, M R; Dumonteil, E

    2007-11-01

    Leishmania mexicana is the main causal agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Yucatán peninsula in Mexico. Control of this disease is associated with a Th1-type immune response and garlic extract has been reported as a Th1 immunomodulator in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major. In this study, we investigated the effect of garlic extracts on L. mexicana infection in vivo and in vitro. Garlic extract reduced footpad lesions in L. mexicana-infected BALB/c mice by inducing IFN-gamma production from T cells. In vitro, garlic extract reduced macrophage infection through induction of nitric oxide (NO) production. Garlic extract may thus act on both T cells and macrophages to stimulate IFN-gamma production and NO synthesis for parasite killing. A 10- to 14-kDa fraction was identified as responsible for the in vitro effect of the whole extract and may lead to the identification of novel immunomodulating drugs and therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  1. Nitric oxide production by Peromyscus yucatanicus (Rodentia infected with Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsy Nalleli Loría-Cervera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Peromyscus yucatanicus (Rodentia: Cricetidae is a primary reservoir of Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae. Nitric oxide (NO generally plays a crucial role in the containment and elimination of Leishmania. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of NO produced by P. yucatanicus infected with L. (L. mexicana. Subclinical and clinical infections were established in P. yucatanicus through inoculation with 1 x 10 2 and 2.5 x 10 6 promastigotes, respectively. Peritoneal macrophages were cultured alone or co-cultured with lymphocytes with or without soluble Leishmania antigen. The level of NO production was determined using the Griess reaction. The amount of NO produced was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.0001 in co-cultured macrophages and lymphocytes than in macrophages cultured alone. No differences in NO production were found between P. yucatanicus with subclinical L. (L. mexicana infections and animals with clinical infections. These results support the hypothesis that the immunological mechanisms of NO production in P. yucatanicus are similar to those described in mouse models of leishmaniasis and, despite NO production, P. yucatanicus is unable to clear the parasite infection.

  2. Variation and Genetic Structure in Platanus mexicana (Platanaceae along Riparian Altitudinal Gradient

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    Dulce M. Galván-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Platanus mexicana is a dominant arboreal species of riparian ecosystems. These ecosystems are associated with altitudinal gradients that can generate genetic differences in the species, especially in the extremes of the distribution. However, studies on the altitudinal effect on genetic variation to riparian species are scarce. In Mexico, the population of P. mexicana along the Colipa River (Veracruz State grows below its reported minimum altitude range, possibly the lowest where this tree grows. This suggests that altitude might be an important factor in population genetics differentiation. We examined the genetic variation and population structuring at four sites with different altitudes (70, 200, 600 and 1700 m a.s.l. using ten inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR markers. The highest value for Shannon index and Nei’s gene diversity was obtained at 1700 m a.s.l. (He = 0.27, Ne = 1.47, I = 0.42 and polymorphism reached the top value at the middle altitude (% p = 88.57. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA and STRUCTURE analysis indicated intrapopulation genetic differentiation. The arithmetic average (UPGMA dendrogram identified 70 m a.s.l. as the most genetically distant site. The genetic structuring resulted from limited gene flow and genetic drift. This is the first report of genetic variation in populations of P. mexicana in Mexico. This research highlights its importance as a dominant species, and its ecological and evolutionary implications in altitudinal gradients of riparian ecosystems.

  3. Comunidades mexicanas en EU e inversión en México. Un estudio exploratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerjes Izcoatl Aguirre Ochoa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza las actitudes generales de inversión en México de la población mexicana en eu, buscando precisar la intención de inversión en México por parte de aquellos individuos de origen mexicano con mayores niveles de ingreso. Los resultados muestran un interés aparente por realizar inversiones en México aun cuando estas inversiones impliquen rendimientos menores a los de mercado. Se plantea que las comunidades mexicanas en eu pueden efectivamente convertirse en poblaciones objeto de políticas de atracción de inversión extranjera directa (ied a México. Asimismo, no se aprecia que exista una percepción de ventajas étnicas para la inversión en México por parte de los entrevistados. Los resultados muestran que cualquier política de atracción de inversiones dirigidas a las comunidades mexicanas en eu implica necesariamente una mejora en los niveles de inseguridad y corrupción existentes en el país

  4. Validación de la Sexual Assertiveness Scale en mujeres mexicanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Torres-Obregon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La asertividad sexual constituye una dimensión fundamental de la sexualidad humana por su relación con distintos indicadores de la salud sexual. Es la capacidad de las personas para iniciar la actividad sexual, rechazar la actividad sexual no deseada y emplear métodos anticonceptivos y así desarrollar comportamientos saludables. Esta se mide a través de la Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS. Hasta la fecha, la SAS no se ha validado en población mexicana, por lo que se considera importante examinar sus propiedades psicométricas en esta población. Por lo tanto, este estudio tuvo como objetivo validar la SAS en una muestra de 202 mujeres mexicanas. Mediante un análisis factorial confirmatorio, se confirmó la estructura trifactorial del SAS: inicio, rechazo y embarazo-enfermedades de transmisión sexual (CFI = .953; TLI = .927. Asimismo, se obtuvo una confiabilidad adecuada en las tres subescalas y, de forma global (ω = .85, sus puntuaciones correlacionaron significativamente en la dirección esperada con autoestima sexual y depresión rasgo. Se concluye que la SAS presenta buenas propiedades psicométricas en población femenina mexicana.

  5. RNA-seq Analysis of Cold and Drought Responsive Transcriptomes of Zea mays ssp. mexicana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiang; Zhou, Xuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Meixue; McNeil, David; Liang, Shan; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-01-01

    The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is a member of teosinte, a wild relative of the Zea mays spp. mays L. This subspecies has strong growth and regeneration ability, high tiller numbers, high protein and lysine content as well as resistance to many fungal diseases, and it can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, we reported a Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. transcriptome by merging data from untreated control (CK), cold (4°C) and drought (PEG2000, 20%) treated plant samples. A total of 251,145 transcripts (N50 = 1,269 bp) and 184,280 unigenes (N50 = 923 bp) were predicted, which code for homologs of near 47% of the published maize proteome. Under cold conditions, 2,232 and 817 genes were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, while fewer genes were up-regulated (532) and down-regulated (82) under drought stress, indicating that Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is more sensitive to the applied cold rather than to the applied drought stresses. Functional enrichment analyses identified many common or specific biological processes and gene sets in response to drought and cold stresses. The ABA dependent pathway, trehalose synthetic pathway and the ICE1-CBF pathway were up-regulated by both stresses. GA associated genes have been shown to differentially regulate the responses to cold in close subspecies in Zea mays . These findings and the identified functional genes can provide useful clues for improving abiotic stress tolerance of maize.

  6. Transactions of the Second Annual Congress of the Sociedad Nuclear Mexicana A.C.; Memorias del Segundo Congreso Anual de la Sociedad Nuclear Mexicana A.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-11-01

    With no doubt, 1991 has been a good year for Nuclear Energy in Mexico. The record imposed by Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant, the first in his type in the world, operating without interruption in its first operating cycle, represents a splendid incentive for we all the nuclear workers. This fact is reflected in the percentage of papers presented in this congress, dealing with several aspects of Laguna Verde Central. This achievement should serve as an impulse for the development of other areas of application of nuclear energy in the country and at the same time be a reflection of the participation of the members of our society with good quality papers. In this Second Congress of Sociedad Nuclear Mexicana A.C., around thirty papers were presented in the technical sessions, in areas as: fuel management, radiation protection, reactor physics, transients analysis, nuclear materials and others. A special section is dedicated to present the experiences of the first fuel reload of Unit 1 in Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant,as well as different plenary meetings dedicated to subjects of general interest as advanced reactors, waste disposal and others. It is the wish of all the members of Sociedad Nuclear Mexicana A.C., that this annual meetings will be enriched with the enthusiastic participation of the scholars of nuclear field and that they represent the forum that we all need for the exchange of knowledge and experiences. (Author).

  7. Simultaneous quantification by HPLC of the phenolic compounds for the crude drug of Prunus serotina subsp. capuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Cruz, Blanca

    2014-08-01

    Prunus serotina Ehrenb. subsp. capuli (Cav.) McVaugh (Rosaceae), commonly known as "capulin", is a native North American tree, commercialized and used in folk medicine for the treatment of the hypertension, gastrointestinal illnesses, and cough. This work developed a suitable HPLC method for quantifying the major active constituents of the infusion of P. serotina, the most important preparation consumed by populations around the world. The analytical method was performed using a Fortis-RP column (150 mm × 4.6 mm; film thickness 5 µm). The mobile phase consisted of an isocratic acetate buffer solution (pH 2.7; A) and methanol (B) (65:35 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The proposed method was applied to the quantification of 1-3 in several samples of the leaves of P. serotina. The results indicated that amounts of 1-3 in the samples analyzed are uniform, and greater amounts of chlorogenic acid (2; 479.9 ± 33.6 µg g(-1), dry matter) along with hyperoside (1; 185.7 ± 55.3 µg g(-1), dry matter) were present. On the other hand, benzaldehyde (3; 118.2 ± 12.1 µg g(-1) dry matter) was found to be in lower concentration. A simple, sensitive, precise, and reproducible HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of 1-3 in P. serotina was developed and validated. This is the first report on the quantification of 1-3 as active principles, and compound 1 was selected as a marker of P. serotina, which could be useful to guarantee the quality of the crude drug and herbal products.

  8. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  9. Immunochemical and biological properties of a mouse monoclonal antibody reactive to prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebig, J A; Jordan, R L; Lawson, R H; Hsu, H T

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody reacting with prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus was tested in immunochemical studies, neutralization of infectivity assays, and by immuno-electron microscopy. The antibody was able to detect the 27,000 Mr coat protein of prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus in western blots and also detected all polypeptide fragments generated after incubation of whole virus with proteolytic enzymes. In neutralization of infectivity studies, the antibody blocked virus infectivity, although it did not precipitate the antigen in agar gel Ouchterlony double diffusion tests. Immuno-electron microscopy confirmed that the antibody coats virions but does not cause clumping. The antibody may be a useful tool for investigating coat protein-dependent initiation of ilarvirus infection.

  10. Biodegradation of carbamazepine using freshwater microalgae Chlamydomonas mexicana and Scenedesmus obliquus and the determination of its metabolic fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jiu-Qiang; Kurade, Mayur B; Abou-Shanab, Reda A I; Ji, Min-Kyu; Choi, Jaeyoung; Kim, Jong Oh; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity and cellular stresses of carbamazepine (CBZ) on Chlamydomonas mexicana and Scenedesmus obliquus, and its biodegradation by both microalgal species. The growth of both microalgal species decreased with increase of CBZ concentration. The growth of S. obliquus was significantly inhibited (97%) at 200 mg CBZ L(-1), as compared to the control after 10days; whereas, C. mexicana showed 30% inhibition at the same experimental conditions. Biochemical characteristics including total chlorophyll, carotenoid contents and enzyme activities (SOD and CAT) for both species were affected by CBZ at relatively high concentration. C. mexicana and S. obliquus could achieve a maximum of 35% and 28% biodegradation of CBZ, respectively. Two metabolites (10,11-dihydro-10,11-expoxycarbamazepine and n-hydroxy-CBZ) were identified by UPLC-MS, as a result of CBZ biodegradation by C. mexicana. This study demonstrated that C. mexicana was more tolerant to CBZ and could be used for treatment of CBZ contaminated wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Listen to the Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2006-01-01

    "Digital natives" refer to today's students because they are native speakers of technology, fluent in the digital language of computers, video games, and the Internet. Those who were not born into the digital world are referred to as digital immigrants. Educators, considered digital immigrants, have slid into the 21st century--and into the digital…

  12. Molecular characterization of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus isolated from rose in Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    FAJARDO, T. V. M.; NASCIMENTO, M. B.; EIRAS, M.; NICKEL, O.; PIO-RIBEIRO, G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: There is no molecular characterization of Brazilian isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), except for those infecting peach. In this research, the causal agent of rose mosaic was determined and the movement (MP) and coat (CP) protein genes of a PNRSV isolate from rose were molecularly characterized for the first time in Brazil. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of MP and CP complete genes were aligned and compared with other isolates. Molecular analysis of...

  13. Microclonal Multiplication of wild Cherry (Prunus avium L.) from Shoot Tips and Root Sucker Buds

    OpenAIRE

    Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka; Michler, Charles H.; Jelaska, Sibila

    1994-01-01

    The effects of different combinations and concentrations of the growth regulators: 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 6-furfurylaminopurine (KIN), N6- (2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on axillary shoot multiplication rates for wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) shoot explants were determined. Apical shoot tips and axillary buds from juvenile trees (5-year old) and from root suckers of mature trees (55-year old) were us...

  14. Composition and antioxidant properties of fresh and frozen stored blackthorn fruits (Prunus spinosa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Sikora; Małgorzata I. Bieniek; Barbara Borczak

    2013-01-01

      Aim. Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) is quite widespread bush occurring in Poland. Its fruits are easily available food products. The aim of this study was to investigate the basal chemical composition, especially antioxidant compounds in fresh and frozen stored blackthorn fruits. Material  and methods. Research material consisted of blackthorn fruits collected from the wild grown bushes, near Łącko. In the wash-out, dried and stone-loss fruits, the content of dry matter, protein, ...

  15. Characterization of sour (Prunus cerasus L. and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. varieties with five isozyme systems Caracterização de variedades de ginjeira (Prunus cerasus L. e cerejeira (Prunus avium L. em cinco sistemas isoenzimáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remedios Morales Corts

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from young leaves of nine sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and eight sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. varieties, located in the germplasm collection of the 'Direção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior' (Fundão, Portugal, were analysed for five isozyme systems in order to characterise these varieties and detect problems of synonymies and homonymies that frequently present. The sweet and sour cherry varieties analyzed showed low isoenzymatic polymorphism, being PGM and PGI the systems with the highest discrimination power. These systems presented seven and five different zymogrames, respectively. IDH showed four patterns. SKDH and 6-PGD grouped the varieties only into two patterns. The evident and discriminant restrictions of this type of analysis had got results that have only been a complement for agronomical and morphological characterization.Nove extratos de folhas com desenvolvimento encompleto foram obtidos de 9 variedades de cerejeira (Prunus avium L. e 8 de ginjeira (Prunus cerasus L., localizados no campo de germoplasma da "Direcção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior" (Fundão, Portugal. Esses extratos foram analisados para 5 sistemas isoenzimáticos a fim de caracterizar essas variedades e simultaneamente detectar sinonímias e homonímias, freqüentes neste tipo de estudos. As variedades de cerejeira e ginjeira analisadas mostraram baixo polimorfismo isoenzimático, sendo que os sistemas PGM e PGI mostraram maior poder de discriminação. Estes sistemas apresentaram 7 e 5 zimogramas diferentes, respectivamente. IDH mostrou 4 padrões. SKDH e 6-PGD agruparam as variedades em 2 padrões. Os evidentes limites discriminatórios desse tipo de análise serviram somente de complemento para a caracterização agronômica e morfológica.

  16. Native SAD is maturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, John P; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Weiss, Manfred S

    2015-07-01

    Native SAD phasing uses the anomalous scattering signal of light atoms in the crystalline, native samples of macromolecules collected from single-wavelength X-ray diffraction experiments. These atoms include sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, potassium and calcium. Native SAD phasing is challenging and is critically dependent on the collection of accurate data. Over the past five years, advances in diffraction hardware, crystallographic software, data-collection methods and strategies, and the use of data statistics have been witnessed which allow 'highly accurate data' to be routinely collected. Today, native SAD sits on the verge of becoming a 'first-choice' method for both de novo and molecular-replacement structure determination. This article will focus on advances that have caught the attention of the community over the past five years. It will also highlight both de novo native SAD structures and recent structures that were key to methods development.

  17. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; San León, David; Mühlberger, Louisa; Candresse, Thierry; Neumüller, Michael; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01). Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  18. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Rodamilans

    Full Text Available Plum pox virus (PPV infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01. Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  19. Wild Prunus Fruit Species as a Rich Source of Bioactive Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Sircelj, Helena

    2016-08-01

    Sugars, organic acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds were quantified in fruit of 4 wild growing Prunus species (wild cherry, bird cherry, blackthorn, and mahaleb cherry) using HPLC-DAD-MSn. In wild Prunus, the major sugars were glucose and fructose, whereas malic and citric acids dominated among organic acids. The most abundant classes of phenolic compounds in the analyzed fruit species were anthocyanins, flavonols, derivatives of cinnamic acids, and flavanols. Two major groups of anthocyanins measured in Prunus fruits were cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Flavonols were represented by 19 derivatives of quercetin, 10 derivatives of kaempferol, and 2 derivatives of isorhamnetin. The highest total flavonol content was measured in mahaleb cherry and bird cherry, followed by blackthorn and wild cherry fruit. Total phenolic content varied from 2373 (wild cherry) to 11053 mg GAE per kg (bird cherry) and ferric reducing antioxidant power antioxidant activity from 7.26 to 31.54 mM trolox equivalents per kg fruits. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Anatomy and cell wall polysaccharides of almond (Prunus dulcis D. A. Webb) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Fernando; Barros, António; Mota, Manuel; Coimbra, Manuel A; Gama, Francisco M

    2004-03-10

    The anatomy of Prunus dulcis was analyzed by applying several differential staining techniques and light microscopy. Prunus dulcis seed has a thin and structurally complex seed coat, with lignified cellulosic tissue. The embryo has two voluminous cotyledons. Cotyledon cells have a high number of protein and lipid bodies, some of which have phytin. The provascular tissue, located in the cotyledons, is oriented in small bundles perpendicular to the transverse embryonic axis. Prunus dulcis cell wall material is very rich in arabinose (45 mol %). Glucose (23%), uronic acids (12%), and xylose (12%) are also major sugar components. The polymers obtained from the imidazole and Na(2)CO(3) extracts contain mainly pectic substances rich in arabinose, but the sugar content of these extracts was very low. The majority of the pectic substances (also rich in arabinose) was recovered with the KOH extracts. These extracts, with high sugar content, yielded also xyloglucans and acidic xylans. The 4 M KOH + H(3)BO(3) extracts yielded polysaccharides rich in uronic acids and xylose and very rich in arabinose, accounting for 27% of the cell wall material.

  1. [Analysis of total proteins in the seed of almond (Prunus dulcis) by two-dimensional electrophoresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-dong; He, Shao-heng

    2004-07-01

    To analyse the total proteins in the seeds of almond (Prunus dulcis), one of the popular ingestent allergens in China, by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The total proteins of the seeds were extracted by trichloracetic acid (TCA) method, and then separated by isoelectric focusing as first dimension and SDS-PAGE as the second dimension. The spots of proteins were visualized by staining with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250. After analysis with software (ImageMaster 2D), 188 different proteins were detected. The isoelectric points (pI) for approximately 28% of total proteins were between 4.5-5.5, and the relative molecular mass (M(r)) of approximately 62% total proteins were between (20-25)x10(3). This was the first high-resolution, two-dimensional protein map of the seed of almond (Prunus dulcis) in China. Our finding has laid a solid foundation for further identification, characterization, gene cloning and standardization of allergenic proteins in the seed of almond (Prunus dulcis).

  2. La sociedad civil mexicana y el reto de la justicia epistémica en el regionalismo contemporáneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Introducción__ En respuesta a la pregunta fundamental de cuáles son los retos de la sociedad civil mexicana frente al multilateralismo del siglo xxi, en este artículo se argumentará que uno de los retos más urgentes que enfrenta la sociedad civil mexicana que busca incidir

  3. Effects of fertilization and rootstock on nutrient status and fruit set in sour cherry Prunus cerasus 'Stevnsbaer'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N. L.; Toldam-Andersen, Torben; Dencker, Ivar Blücher

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects of two potassium fertilization treatments on fruit set and flower bud, flower and bract leaf nutrient concentrations in Prunus cerasus 'Stevnsbaer' on Prunus avium and 'Colt' rootstocks. Single applications of KNO3 or KCl were applied ...

  4. Basic RNases of wild almond (Prunus webbii): cloning and characterization of six new S-RNase and one "non-S RNase" genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banović, Bojana; Surbanovski, Nada; Konstantinović, Miroslav; Maksimović, Vesna

    2009-03-01

    In order to investigate the S-RNase allele structure of a Prunus webbii population from the Montenegrin region of the Balkans, we analyzed 10 Prunus webbii accessions. We detected 10 different S-RNase allelic variants and obtained the nucleotide sequences for six S-RNases. The BLAST analysis showed that these six sequences were new Prunus webbii S-RNase alleles. It also revealed that one of sequenced alleles, S(9)-RNase, coded for an amino acid sequence identical to that for Prunus dulcis S(14)-RNase, except for a single conservative amino acid replacement in the signal peptide region. Another, S(3)-RNase, was shown to differ by only three amino acid residues from Prunus salicina Se-RNase. The allele S(7)-RNase was found to be inactive by stylar protein isoelectric focusing followed by RNase-specific staining, but the reason for the inactivity was not at the coding sequence level. Further, in five of the 10 analyzed accessions, we detected the presence of one active basic RNase (marked PW(1)) that did not amplify with S-RNase-specific DNA primers. However, it was amplified with primers designed from the PA1 RNase nucleotide sequence (basic "non-S RNase" of Prunus avium) and the obtained sequence showed high homology (80%) with the PA1 allele. Although homologs of PA1 "non-S RNases" have been reported in four other Prunus species, this is the first recorded homolog in Prunus webbii. The evolutionary implications of the data are discussed.

  5. Conexiones revolucionarias: repercusiones de la expropiación petrolera mexicana en Bolivia, 1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Zuleta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo trata un tema relevante en la historiografía latinoamericana como es la expropiación petrolera mexicana durante el gobierno de Lázaro Cárdenas y aporta información original así como un enfoque innovador que desborda las historiografías estrictamente nacionales, intentando contribuir tanto a la historia de Bolivia como a la mexicana. La expropiación mexicana de 1938 alcanzó una dimensión trasnacional más allá de sus repercusiones diplomáticas: una experiencia percibida bajo muy diversos prismas en cada país latinoamericano. ¿Cómo fue vista la expropiación mexicana en los Andes bolivianos? Se argumenta que en la Paz, y en Sucre, diversos sectores de la sociedad leyeron esa expropiación tras los filtros del conflicto con la Standard Oil of Bolivia y del debate ideológico y político en torno a la recién creada YPFB, y cargaron de otro significado este episodio nacionalista al adaptarlo al contexto boliviano, dialogando simultáneamente con el sustrato previo de recepción de la revolución mexicana en la región, así como con el especial contexto político, económico y diplomático andino. Razones de orden nacional e internacional explican las reacciones ante el episodio petrolero mexicano en Bolivia, tanto como la percepción de estas por parte de la diplomacia mexicana.This article deals with a relevant subject in Latin American historiography, that being the Mexican oil expropriation during the Lázaro Cárdenas government and provides original information as well as an innovative approach that goes beyond strictly national historiographies, with the intention of contributing both to Bolivian and Mexican history. The Mexican expropriation of 1938 reached a transnational dimension beyond its diplomatic implications; an experience perceived through quite different prisms in each Latin American country. How was the Mexican expropriation viewed in the Bolivian Andes? We have argued that in La Paz and Sucre, various

  6. Association of Lutzomyia columbiana (Diptera: Psychodidae with a Leishmaniasis Focus in Colombia Due to Species of the Leishmania mexicana Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Montoya-lerma

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, Leishmania mexicana has a scattered geographical distribution and no sand fly vectors have been associated with its transmission. During the present study, the anthropophilic sand fly Lutzomyia columbiana was found to be the only species collected using diverse methods, in a small focus of Le. mexicana in the municipality of Samaniego, SW Colombia. Ecological data indicate that this sand fly species is present in both peri and intradomestic habitats, where it readily bites man. Further evidence comes from experimental itnfections of wild-caught Lu. columbiana with Le. mexicana after feeding on itnfected hamsters. Based on these results, it is suggested that this sand fly is the most likely vector in the study area, suggesting the existence of a previously unknown sand fly-parasite association.

  7. Association of Lutzomyia columbiana (Diptera: Psychodidae) with a leishmaniasis focus in Colombia due to species of the Leishmania mexicana complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Lerma, J; Cadena, H; Segura, I; Travi, B L

    1999-01-01

    In Colombia, Leishmania mexicana has a scattered geographical distribution and no sand fly vectors have been associated with its transmission. During the present study, the anthropophilic sand fly Lutzomyia columbiana was found to be the only species collected using diverse methods, in a small focus of Le. mexicana in the municipality of Samaniego, SW Colombia. Ecological data indicate that this sand fly species is present in both peri and intradomestic habitats, where it readily bites man. Further evidence comes from experimental infections of wild-caught Lu. columbiana with Le. mexicana after feeding on infected hamsters. Based on these results, it is suggested that this sand fly is the most likely vector in the study area, suggesting the existence of a previously unknown sand fly-parasite association.

  8. Genome-Wide Analysis Suggests the Relaxed Purifying Selection Affect the Evolution of WOX Genes in Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Fragaria vesca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Cao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX family is one of the largest group of transcription factors (TFs specifically found in plant kingdom. WOX TFs play an important role in plant development processes and evolutionary novelties. Although the roles of WOXs in Arabidopsis and rice have been well-studied, however, little are known about the relationships among the main clades in the molecular evolution of these genes in Rosaceae. Here, we carried out a genome-wide analysis and identified 14, 10, 10, and 9 of WOX genes from four Rosaceae species (Fragaria vesca, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Pyrus bretschneideri, respectively. According to evolutionary analysis, as well as amino acid sequences of their homodomains, these genes were divided into three clades with nine subgroups. Furthermore, due to the conserved structural patterns among these WOX genes, it was proposed that there should exist some highly conserved regions of microsynteny in the four Rosaceae species. Moreover, most of WOX gene pairs were presented with the conserved orientation among syntenic genome regions. In addition, according to substitution models analysis using PMAL software, no significant positive selection was detected, but type I functional divergence was identified among certain amino acids in WOX protein. These results revealed that the relaxed purifying selection might be the main driving force during the evolution of WOX genes in the tested Rosaceae species. Our result will be useful for further precise research on evolution of the WOX genes in family Rosaceae.

  9. Endogenous hormones response to cytokinins with regard to organogenesis in explants of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-11-01

    Organogenesis in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and peach rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis) has been achieved and the action of the regeneration medium on 7 phytohormones, zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA), has been studied using High performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Three scion peach cultivars, 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach × almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677' were cultured in two different media, Murashige and Skoog supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) (regeneration medium) and without PGRs (control medium), in order to study the effects of the media and/or genotypes in the endogenous hormones content and their role in organogenesis. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach × almond rootstocks and showed a lower content of Z, IAA, ABA, ACC and JA. Only Z, ZR and IAA were affected by the action of the culture media. This study shows which hormones are external PGRs-dependent and what is the weight of the genotype and hormones in peach organogenesis that provide an avenue to manipulate in vitro organogenesis in peach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Exposición a Estreptococo del grupo B en mujeres mexicanas en edad reproductiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios-Saucedo Gerardo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la seroprevalencia de la infección por Estreptococo del grupo B (EGB en una muestra representativa de mujeres en edad reproductiva de la República Mexicana. Material y métodos. Se estudió una muestra representativa de sueros de la población femenina mexicana de 15 a 40 años de edad, de todos los niveles socioeconómicos. La muestra fue seleccionada del Banco Nacional de Sueros por muestreo aleatorio simple por computadora. Los sueros se obtuvieron durante la última encuesta seroepidemiológica nacional realizada en 1987 y 1988. Los ensayos para la estandarización y la evaluación de la seroprevalencia se llevaron a cabo en el Hospital de Pediatría del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS entre enero y noviembre de 1995. Se midieron anticuerpos IgG antipolisacárido de grupo de EGB usando un ensayo inmunoenzimático (ELISA estandarizado y validado en el laboratorio, utilizando un antígeno específico de grupo, producido y purificado a partir de la cepa de referencia de EGB 110. Resultados. Se estudió un total de 2 669 muestras de suero, de las cuales 2 405 fueron positivas para la presencia de anticuerpos IgG contra el antígeno de grupo de EGB. Esto corresponde a una seroprevalencia de 90.2 %. No hubo diferencia en los porcentajes de seropositividad por grupos de edad ni por entidades federativas. Conclusiones. Se detectó una elevada prevalencia de anticuerpos contra el antígeno de grupo del EGB. Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que existe una elevada exposición de las mujeres mexicanas jóvenes a este microrganismo.

  11. 8. Bebidas alcohólicas mexicanas extraídas de agaves, 19071

    OpenAIRE

    Diguet, Léon

    2013-01-01

    Desde una época probablemente bastante remota, los agaves o magueyes han proporcionado a las poblaciones mexicanas valiosos recursos económicos, entre los cuales destacaban las bebidas. Cuando llegaron los conquistadores españoles, la fabricación de estas bebidas tenía un auge considerable; el gobierno español consideraba el cultivo de las viñas en México como contrario a los intereses de la metrópoli, y lo prohibió terminantemente en toda la extensión del territorio conquistado. Con esta pro...

  12. Altitudinal gradient effect on morphometric variation and leaf symmetry of Platanus mexicana Moric

    OpenAIRE

    Dulce Ma. Galván-Hernández; J. Armando Lozada-García; Norma Flores-Estévez; Jorge Galindo-González; S. Mario Vázquez-Torres

    2015-01-01

    La variación morfométrica y simetría foliar de una población de Platanus mexicana se caracterizaron en un gradiente altitudinal ripario del estado de Veracruz. Ocho caracteres morfométricos se evaluaron en 1,800 hojas provenientes de 15 individuos por sitio (70, 200, 600 y 1,700 m de altitud). Las diferencias morfométricas entre sitios (F(24, 5189) = 21.1, P < 0.05) se determinaron con un análisis de funciones discriminantes. Los caracteres relacionados con el largo y ancho de las hojas deter...

  13. Em busca de uma ideologia para a revolução mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cantarelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Vários pesquisadores, desde 1910, teceram reflexões sobre a existência ou não de uma ideologia manifesta na estrutura da revolução mexicana. Neste texto, dedicamo-nos a retomar de forma breve tais discussões a partir da análise do romance Pedro Páramo, de Juan Rulfo. Nosso intuito é apresentar uma proposta de leitura dessa obra considerando, principalmente, os estudos de Octavio Paz (1998 e Arnaldo Córdova (1989 e 2003 que possuem perspectivas distintas sobre esse tema.

  14. Resultados perinatales en mujeres mexicanas con lupus eritematoso sistémico

    OpenAIRE

    B. Farfan-Labonne; I. Luis-Vásquez; A. Ávila-Carrasco; J. Ramírez-Peredo; M. Rodríguez-Bosch; J. Beltrán-Montoya; E. Reyes-Muñoz

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: Conocer la incidencia de resultados perinatales en mujeres mexicanas con embarazo único y lupus eritematoso sistémico. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de cohorte histórica en el que se incluyeron mujeres diagnosticadas con lupus eritematoso sistémico, embarazo único, control prenatal y resolución entre 2010 y 2015. Se calculó la incidencia de los siguientes resultados perinatales: nacimiento pretérmino, muerte fetal temprana, oligohidramnios, aborto, rotura prematura de membranas, ...

  15. El “consentimiento” negociado entre dos comunidades mineras mexicanas y las trasnacionales Goldcorp y Ternium

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca Ruth Santos Cordero; Eleocadio Martínez Silva

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se busca reconstruir la dinámica de la relación entre empresas trasnacionales y comunidades rurales mexicanas, a partir de dos estudios de caso: la minera canadiense Goldcorp, en Mazapil, Zacatecas, y la italo-argentina Ternium, en San Miguel Arcángel, en Aquila, Michoacán. La hipótesis sostiene que la racionalidad de la máxima ganancia y el cálculo del riesgo están presentes en las negociaciones entabladas entre las comunidades campesinas y las corporaciones. Y, si bien e...

  16. A Revolução Mexicana na obra Biografia del Poder de Enrique Krauze

    OpenAIRE

    Cleverson Rodrigues Silva

    2010-01-01

    A Revolução Mexicana de 1910, foi marcada pela luta por Justiça Social e Reforma Agrária. Muitos personagens destacaram-se e foram alçados à categoria de heróis e baluartes da Revolução.  É neste cenário que Enri...

  17. Responsabilidad social corporativa (RSC y comunicación: la agenda de las grandes empresas mexicanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Pérez Chavarría

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación pionera en México acerca de cómo es la comunicación de la responsabilidad social corporativa(rsc en el país y cómo es esa responsabilidad (prácticas más comunes, áreas más atendidas, programas, stakeholders, etc., a partir de lo que dicen al respecto (por internet las 25 empresas más importantes de México, según la revista mexicana Expansión.

  18. Cartografía urbana mexicana 1880-1910: Guadalajara, México, Puebla y Veracruz

    OpenAIRE

    Irma Beatriz García Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Este ensayo se propone analizar, desde una perspectiva interdisciplinaria, pero con acento histórico cultural, cuatro ejemplos cartográficos de otras tantas ciudades mexicanas de finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX, cuando esa escala geopolítica, geoeconómica y geocultural adquiere gran relevancia en el proyecto de "orden y progreso" enarbolado por el gobierno porfiriano. Las ciudades de México, Guadalajara, Veracruz y Puebla, entre otras, fueron construidas y reconstruidas en ese perio...

  19. Efeito do comprimento de estacas herbáceas de dois clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. no enraizamento adventício Effect of the length of herbaceous cuttings of two clones of japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. in adventicious rooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEWTON ALEX MAYER

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O umezeiro (Prunus mumeSieb & Zucc. é uma rosácea de folhas caducas, nativa da China, cujos frutos e flores são muito apreciados pelos povos orientais. No Brasil, alguns estudos foram realizados visando a sua utilização como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro e nectarineira, dadas as suas características de adaptação, rusticidade, redução do porte da planta e compatibilidade com algumas cultivares de Prunus persica. O presente estudo foi conduzido em câmara de nebulização sob ripado, pertencente ao Departamento de Produção Vegetal da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP. Objetivou-se verificar a influência de quatro comprimentos de estacas herbáceas no enraizamento de dois clones de umezeiro. O material vegetal, identificado como Clone 10 e Clone 15, foi oriundo do Programa de Melhoramento Genético do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas-SP. O experimento foi constituido de fatorial 2 x 4, em blocos casualizados, sendo o fator clone em 2 níveis (Clone 10 e Clone 15 e o fator comprimento de estaca em 4 níveis (12; 15; 18 e 25cm. Pelos resultados observados, verificou-se diferença entre os clones somente na porcentagem de estacas brotadas e número de raízes por estaca. O comprimento da estaca influenciou na porcentagem de enraizamento e na mortalidade das estacas, sendo que estacas maiores tenderam a apresentar maiores porcentagens de enraizamento e menores de mortalidade. As estacas com 12cm, embora apresentando menor número de raízes por estaca, são recomendadas por permitirem a obtenção de um maior número de estacas por planta-matriz. Houve efeito significativo da interação entre os fatores para número e comprimento de raízes.The japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. is a Rosaceae of falling leaves, native of China, whose fruits and flowers are quite appreciated by the oriental people. In Brazil, some studies were accomplished seeking its use as rootstock for peach and nectarine trees, due its adaptation

  20. A Rapid and Efficient Method for Purifying High Quality Total RNA from Peaches (Prunus persica for Functional Genomics Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE MEISEL

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus persica has been proposed as a genomic model for deciduous trees and the Rosaceae family. Optimized protocols for RNA isolation are necessary to further advance studies in this model species such that functional genomics analyses may be performed. Here we present an optimized protocol to rapidly and efficiently purify high quality total RNA from peach fruits (Prunus persica. Isolating high-quality RNA from fruit tissue is often difficult due to large quantities of polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds that accumulate in this tissue and co-purify with the RNA. Here we demonstrate that a modified version of the method used to isolate RNA from pine trees and the woody plant Cinnamomun tenuipilum is ideal for isolating high quality RNA from the fruits of Prunus persica. This RNA may be used for many functional genomic based experiments such as RT-PCR and the construction of large-insert cDNA libraries.

  1. Rapid detection of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus using magnetic nanoparticle-assisted reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xiaojuan; Wang, Wenwen; Wei, Hairong; Wang, Jiawei; Chen, Xin; Xu, Li; Zhu, Dongzi; Tan, Yue; Liu, Qingzhong

    2014-11-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) has seriously reduced the yield of Prunus species worldwide. In this study, a highly efficient and specific two-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was developed to detect PNRSV. Total RNA was extracted from sweet cherry leaf samples using a commercial kit based on a magnetic nanoparticle technique. Transcripts were used as the templates for the assay. The results of this assay can be detected using agarose gel electrophoresis or by assessing in-tube fluorescence after adding SYBR Green I. The assay is highly specific for PNRSV, and it is more sensitive than reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Restriction enzyme digestion verified further the reliability of this RT-LAMP assay. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the application of RT-LAMP to PNRSV detection in Prunus species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Triatoma mexicana (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in Guanajuato, Mexico: house infestation and seasonal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz María Salazar Schettino

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma mexicana was described by Herrich-Schaeffer in 1848. In 1940, a male specimen was found in Hidalgo. In 1970, this species was recorded in the state of Queretaro. Later, it was registered in Guanajuato and San Luis Potosi. In the present paper we performed an investigation in 545 dwellings from three counties in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, from March 2003 to May 2004. The search and capture of triatomines were seasonally performed indoors and outdoors. Entomological indexes were calculated. The risk and no risk relations between triatomine presence and housing construction materials were analyzed. Fourteen triatomines were collected indoors and 151 outdoors. The vectors were collected in houses built with either risky and non-risky materials. Adults go indoors but do not settle there, hence, no relationship was found between the building materials and infestation of houses. Conventional interventions like house improvement or insecticide spraying are not efficient for the control of T. mexicana, because its developmental cycle is accomplished outdoors in the area surrounding the houses.

  3. Identification of semicarbazones, thiosemicarbazones and triazine nitriles as inhibitors of Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease CPB.

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    Jörg Schröder

    Full Text Available Cysteine proteases of the papain superfamily are present in nearly all eukaryotes. They play pivotal roles in the biology of parasites and inhibition of cysteine proteases is emerging as an important strategy to combat parasitic diseases such as sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease and leishmaniasis. Homology modeling of the mature Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease CPB2.8 suggested that it differs significantly from bovine cathepsin B and thus could be a good drug target. High throughput screening of a compound library against this enzyme and bovine cathepsin B in a counter assay identified four novel inhibitors, containing the warhead-types semicarbazone, thiosemicarbazone and triazine nitrile, that can be used as leads for antiparasite drug design. Covalent docking experiments confirmed the SARs of these lead compounds in an effort to understand the structural elements required for specific inhibition of CPB2.8. This study has provided starting points for the design of selective and highly potent inhibitors of L. mexicana cysteine protease CPB that may also have useful efficacy against other important cysteine proteases.

  4. Isolation of an enriched plasma membrame subpellicular microtubule fraction of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis

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    Solange L. Timm

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available A cell fractionation procedure previously developed for Trypanosoma cruzi was applied to isolated the plasma membrane of promastigotes of Leishania mexicana amazonensis. The cell, swollen in an hypotonic mediun, were disrupted in the presence of a nonionic detergent and the membrane fraction isolated by differencial centrifugation. Electron microscopy showed that the fraction consisted of pieces of the plasma membrane associated with subpellicular microtubules. It was also shown that this fraction is able to induce cell-mediated immune response in mice.Um método de fracionamento subcelular, previamente desenvolvido para Trypanosoma cruzi, foi aplicado para isolar a membrana plasmática de promastigotas de Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. As células, após turgimento em meio hipotônico, foram rompidas na presença de um detergente não iônico e a fração de membrana isolada por centrifugação diferencial. A microscopia eletrônica mostrou consistir a fração de fragmentos de membrana plasmática associados com microtúbulos subpeliculares. Foi também mostrado que esta fração era capaz de induzir resposta celular em camundongos.

  5. An improved strategy for the crystallization of Leishmania mexicana pyruvate kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, Hugh P.; McNae, Iain W.; Hsin, Kun-Yi; Michels, Paul A. M.; Fothergill-Gilmore, Linda A.; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D.

    2010-01-01

    The first crystal structure of Leishmania mexicana pyruvate kinase (LmPYK) obtained at a neutral pH. LmPYK was co-crystallized with the small molecule 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid, which provides a helpful intermolecular bridge between macromolecules. The inclusion of novel small molecules in crystallization experiments has provided very encouraging results and this method is now emerging as a promising alternative strategy for crystallizing ‘problematic’ biological macromolecules. These small molecules have the ability to promote lattice formation through stabilizing intermolecular interactions in protein crystals. Here, the use of 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid (PTS), which provides a helpful intermolecular bridge between Leishmania mexicana PYK (LmPYK) macromolecules in the crystal, is reported, resulting in the rapid formation of a more stable crystal lattice at neutral pH and greatly improved X-ray diffraction results. The refined structure of the LmPYK–PTS complex revealed the negatively charged PTS molecule to be stacked between positively charged (surface-exposed) arginine side chains from neighbouring LmPYK molecules in the crystal lattice

  6. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF Ceratozamia mexicana BRONGN. (ZAMIACEAE IN PRESERVED AND DISTURBED ENVIRONMENTS

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    Andrés Rivera-Fernández

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal populations are affected by biotic and abiotic factors that influence the regeneration processes. The aims of this study were to know the population structure of Ceratozamia mexicana under two contrasting conditions (conserved site and disturbed site, and to determine if the sexual structure, the population density and the spatial distribution of C. mexicana are modified by effect of disturbance. Eight plots of 25 m2 within each site (conserved and disturbed were used. The structure and spatial distribution of the sites were determined. Methods included analysis of variance, spatial distribution indexes, and climatic and edaphic factors determined by conventional methods for their comparison. The conserved site showed a demographic structure of an inverted "J", while the disturbed site varied slightly with more discontinuous distribution. Population density was 0.78 individuals/m2 in the conserved site and 0.26 individuals/m2 in the disturbed site. Spatial distribution for all development stages of the plant was random, with the exception of the seedling stage, which was aggregated. Results showed that perturbation decreases the density of plants and removes reproductive individuals, which threatens the persistence of the population.

  7. A Revolução Mexicana na obra Biografia del Poder de Enrique Krauze

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    Cleverson Rodrigues Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    A Revolução Mexicana de 1910, foi marcada pela luta por Justiça Social e Reforma Agrária. Muitos personagens destacaram-se e foram alçados à categoria de heróis e baluartes da Revolução.  É neste cenário que Enrique Krauze situa os seus personagens e os coloca diante de um processo extremamente relevante para a história do México contemporâneo, a Revolução Mexicana. Desse modo, o recorte proposto no tempo e no espaço compreende o México revolucionário de 1910 a 1940, sob a ótica do historiador, ensaísta e editor Enrique Krauze, na obra intitulada Biografia del Poder.

  8. Escala SERVQUAL: validación en población mexicana

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    Maria Gloria Calixto-Olalde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación de servicios se ha vuelto una exigencia debido a una sociedad cada vez más demandante de servicios de calidad. En el área de la salud, la satisfacción del paciente se hace un indicador determinante en la mensuración de la calidad del cuidado. Con objeto de poner a disposición un instrumento válido y confiable para esa evaluación, la finalidad del presente estudio es adaptar la Escala SERVQUAL para la cultura mexicana. La adaptación cultural y semántica fue realizada por cuatro jueces peritos en el área, que evaluaron la equivalencia conceptual y cultural de los elementos de la escala. La consistencia interna del instrumento fue evaluada por el test Alfa de Cronbach con resultado α=0,74 en la escala total y análisis factorial en que fueron detectadas las cinco dimensiones de la escala, demostrando que la misma es válida y confiable para medir el servicio de enfermería en la población mexicana.

  9. Experience, but not distance, influences the recruitment precision in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Daniel; Kraus, F. Bernhard; Hernández, Manuel De Jesús; Vandame, Rémy

    2007-07-01

    Recruitment precision, i.e. the proportion of recruits that reach an advertised food source, is a crucial adaptation of social bees to their environment. Studies with honeybees showed that recruitment precision is not a fixed feature, but it may be enhanced by factors like experience and distance. However, little is known regarding the recruitment precision of stingless bees. Hence, in this study, we examined the effects of experience and spatial distance on the precision of the food communication system of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana. We conducted the experiments by training bees to a three-dimensional artificial patch at several distances from the colony. We recorded the choices of individual recruited foragers, either being newcomers (foragers without experience with the advertised food source) or experienced (foragers that had previously visited the feeder). We found that the average precision of newcomers (95.6 ± 2.61%) was significantly higher than that of experienced bees (80.2 ± 1.12%). While this might seem counter-intuitive on first sight, this “loss” of precision can be explained by the tendency of experienced recruits to explore nearby areas to find new rewarding food sources after they had initially learned the exact location of the food source. Increasing the distance from the colony had no significant effect on the precision of the foraging bees. Thus, our data show that experience, but not the distance of the food source, affected the patch precision of S. mexicana foragers.

  10. Synteny conservation between two distantly-related Rosaceae genomes: Prunus (the stone fruits and Fragaria (the strawberry

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    Sargent Daniel J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Rosaceae encompass a large number of economically-important diploid and polyploid fruit and ornamental species in many different genera. The basic chromosome numbers of these genera are x = 7, 8 and 9 and all have compact and relatively similar genome sizes. Comparative mapping between distantly-related genera has been performed to a limited extent in the Rosaceae including a comparison between Malus (subfamily Maloideae and Prunus (subfamily Prunoideae; however no data has been published to date comparing Malus or Prunus to a member of the subfamily Rosoideae. In this paper we compare the genome of Fragaria, a member of the Rosoideae, to Prunus, a member of the Prunoideae. Results The diploid genomes of Prunus (2n = 2x = 16 and Fragaria (2n = 2x = 14 were compared through the mapping of 71 anchor markers – 40 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs, 29 indels or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs and two simple-sequence repeats (SSRs – on the reference maps of both genera. These markers provided good coverage of the Prunus (78% and Fragaria (78% genomes, with maximum gaps and average densities of 22 cM and 7.3 cM/marker in Prunus and 32 cM and 8.0 cM/marker in Fragaria. Conclusion Our results indicate a clear pattern of synteny, with most markers of each chromosome of one of these species mapping to one or two chromosomes of the other. A large number of rearrangements (36, most of which produced by inversions (27 and the rest (9 by translocations or fission/fusion events could also be inferred. We have provided the first framework for the comparison of the position of genes or DNA sequences of these two economically valuable and yet distantly-related genera of the Rosaceae.

  11. Purification and chemical characterisation of a cell wall-associated β-galactosidase from mature sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Carmela; Blando, Federica; Santino, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    Using four different chromatographic steps, β-galactosidase was purified from the ripe fruit of sweet cherry to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity with approximately 131-fold purification. The Prunus avium β-galactosidase showed an apparent molecular mass of about 100 kDa and consisted of four different active polypeptides with pIs of about 7.9, 7.4, 6.9 and 6.4 as estimated by native IEF and β-galactosidase-activity staining. The active polypeptides were individually excised from the gel and subjected to SDS-PAGE. Each of the four native enzymes showing β-galactosidase activity was composed of two polypeptides with an estimated mass of 54 and 33 kDa. Both of these polypeptides were subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. The 54 kDa polypeptide of sweet cherry β-galactosidase showed a 43% identity with the 44 kDa subunit of persimmon and apple β-galactosidases and the 48 kDa subunit of carambola galactosidase I. The sweet cherry β-galactosidase exhibited a strict specificity towards p-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside, a pH optimum of 4.0 and K(m) and V(max) values of 0.42 mM and 4.12 mmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein respectively with this substrate. The enzyme was also active towards complex glycans. Taken together the results of this study prompted a role for this class of enzymes on sweet cherry fruit ripening and softening. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Native Knowledge in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    1985-01-01

    Native American science is defined as activities of native peoples of the New World in observing physical phenomena and attempting to explain and control them. Problems in studying native science, ethnoscience and native science, archaeostronomy and ethnoastronomy, ethnobotany, agriculture, technology, and future directions are discussed. (JN)

  13. Nissan Mexicana. First place in national prize of electrical energy saving 1998; Nissan Mexicana. Primer lugar en premio nacional de ahorro de energia electrica 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez S, Enrique [Nissan Mexicana, S.A. de C.V., Planta Civac, Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    For Plant CIVAC of Nissan Mexicana, the energy saving began in the year of 1990. From then, different programs have been developed using different strategies for energy saving until arriving at the Benchmarking with other Plants of Japan, which represents a new challenge, since it opened up an area of opportunity of saving in processes that generally were known in detail as far as to its main function (to make vehicles with quality, cost and opportunity of delivery), but the parameter of energy consumption of by unit and its benefits in relation to the cost was unknown. This was endorsed by the high Direction and began with the optimization of training for the operation of each equipment with the involvement of the user (Production), the engineering area (that establishes the process) and the maintenance area. We designed a general program where the basic activities were included, such as the general and special activities. Each one of them fulfilled its objective, but the special activities took us to the optimization of the processes, finding excess of energy in the design conditions. [Spanish] Para Planta CIVAC de Nissan Mexicana, el ahorro de energia se inicio en el ano de 1990. A partir de entonces se han desarrollado programas de ahorro de energia usando estrategias diferentes hasta llegar al Benchmarking con otras Plantas de Japon, el cual representa un reto nuevo, ya que puso al descubierto una area de oportunidad de ahorro en los procesos que por lo general se conocian a detalle en cuanto a la funcion principal (hacer vehiculos con calidad, costo y oportunidad de entrega), pero se desconocia el parametro de consumo de energia por unidad y sus beneficios en relacion con el costo. Esto fue avalado por la alta Direccion y se inicio con la capacitacion de la optimizacion de la operacion de cada equipo y se involucro al usuario (Produccion), al area de ingenieria (que establece el proceso) y al area de mantenimiento. Elaboramos un programa general donde se

  14. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae, False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Estrada-Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg, an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td, or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg, Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  15. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae), False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Reyes, R; Ferreyra-Cruz, O A; Jiménez-Rubio, G; Hernández-Hernández, O T; Martínez-Mota, L

    Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae) and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae) are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana . The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm) stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh) male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg), an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td), or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg), Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg) improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  16. First records of the American wasps Sceliphron caementarium (Drury, 1770 and Isodontia mexicana (de Saussure, 1867 (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENIS GRADINAROV

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Two alien sphecid species are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Nearctic species Sceliphron caementarium (Drury, 1770 and Isodontia mexicana (de Saussure, 1867 were found in Sofia. The first species is collected as well from the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, near Varna.

  17. Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana en el corregimiento de San Matías, municipio de Gómez Plata, Antioquia, Colombia

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    Diana Sierra

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La leishmaniaisis es una enfermedad encontrada en focos naturales de infección donde están presentes insectos vectores y mamíferos reservorios deLeishmania. Objetivo. Registrar por primera vez la presencia de Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana Biagi, 1953, en el corregimiento de San Matías, municipio de Gómez Plata, departamento de Antioquia. Materiales y métodos. La especie fue aislada de un paciente con leishmaniasis cutánea localizada e identificada por la técnica de Inmunofluorescencia utilizando anticuerpos monoclonales específicos de especie y electroforesis de enzimas . Resultados y conclusión. Su perfil isoenzimático similar al de las cepas de referencia L. (L. mexicana (MNCY/BZ/62/M379 y L. (L. mexicana (MHOM/BE/82/BEL21, permitió concluír que la especie aislada del paciente es L. (L. mexicana.

  18. Native fruit traits may mediate dispersal competition between native and non-native plants

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    Clare Aslan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed disperser preferences may mediate the impact of invasive, non-native plant species on their new ecological communities. Significant seed disperser preference for invasives over native species could facilitate the spread of the invasives while impeding native plant dispersal. Such competition for dispersers could negatively impact the fitness of some native plants. Here, we review published literature to identify circumstances under which preference for non-native fruits occurs. The importance of fruit attraction is underscored by several studies demonstrating that invasive, fleshy-fruited plant species are particularly attractive to regional frugivores. A small set of studies directly compare frugivore preference for native vs. invasive species, and we find that different designs and goals within such studies frequently yield contrasting results. When similar native and non-native plant species have been compared, frugivores have tended to show preference for the non-natives. This preference appears to stem from enhanced feeding efficiency or accessibility associated with the non-native fruits. On the other hand, studies examining preference within existing suites of co-occurring species, with no attempt to maximize fruit similarity, show mixed results, with frugivores in most cases acting opportunistically or preferring native species. A simple, exploratory meta-analysis finds significant preference for native species when these studies are examined as a group. We illustrate the contrasting findings typical of these two approaches with results from two small-scale aviary experiments we conducted to determine preference by frugivorous bird species in northern California. In these case studies, native birds preferred the native fruit species as long as it was dissimilar from non-native fruits, while non-native European starlings preferred non-native fruit. However, native birds showed slight, non-significant preference for non-native fruit

  19. Comparison of ELISA and RT-PCR for the detection of Prunus necrotic ring spot virus and prune dwarf virus in almond (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuria, Genet; Ramesh, Sunita A; Alberts, Evita; Bertozzi, Terry; Wirthensohn, Michelle; Collins, Graham; Sedgley, Margaret

    2003-12-01

    A technique based on the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been developed to detect the presence of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and prune dwarf virus (PDV) simultaneously in almond. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study comparing both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and RT-PCR for the detection of PNRSV and PDV using 175 almond leaf samples. Multiplex RT-PCR was found to be more sensitive than ELISA, especially when followed by nested PCR for the detection of PDV. The RT-PCR technique has the added advantage that plant material can be tested at any time throughout the growing season.

  20. Formulation and quality control of Prunus domestica syrup, prepared according to Iranian Traditional Medicine

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    M. Hamzeloo-Moghadam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Prunus domestica (plum has been considered as a useful remedy for several disorders in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. It has cold and wet temperament and is used as syrup for hot temperament diseases such as hot headache and stomach disorders. In the present study, plum syrup has been formulated according to ITM manuscripts and quality control evaluations have been accomplished to present a suitable formulation. Methods: The fruits of Prunus domestica L. were macerated in water, then decocted. The mixture was filtered. The filtrate was concentrated to have a suitable viscosity. The extract was sweetened by adding sugar (1:2 and heated till sugar was completely dissolved. The final product was evaluated physicochemically and microbiologically according to standard protocols and total phenolics content of the syrup stability was determined. The syrup was assessed in accelerated condition (40 ºC during 6 months. Results: The prepared formulation was a viscose and brown syrup with plum flavor and fragrance. No precipitation and cap locking were observed in the syrup. Dry residue, pH, density, viscosity and total phenolics of the syrup were found 43.1%, 3.49, 1.27 g/ml, 6.5 cP and 152.3 mg/100ml, respectively. No microbial growth was observed in the formulation. In the accelerated stability tests, no remarkable changes were seen in the product. Total phenolics content was decreased 2.2% during 6 months in 40 ºC. Conclusion: The formulated Prunus domestica syrup could be introduced for further mass production after completing the final required evaluations.

  1. Genetic and molecular characterization of three novel S-haplotypes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Potter, Daniel; Tao, Ryutaro; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2008-01-01

    Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) exhibits gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) whereby the specificity of self-pollen rejection is controlled by alleles of the stylar and pollen specificity genes, S-RNase and SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene), respectively. As sour cherry selections can be either self-compatible (SC) or self-incompatible (SI), polyploidy per se does not result in SC. Instead the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes. The presence of two or more non-functional S-haplotypes within sour cherry 2x pollen renders that pollen SC. Two new S-haplotypes from sour cherry, S(33) and S(34), that are presumed to be contributed by the P. fruticosa species parent, the complete S-RNase and SFB sequences of a third S-haplotype, S(35), plus the presence of two previously identified sweet cherry S-haplotypes, S(14) and S(16) are described here. Genetic segregation data demonstrated that the S(16)-, S(33)-, S(34)-, and S(35)-haplotypes present in sour cherry are fully functional. This result is consistent with our previous finding that 'hetero-allelic' pollen is incompatible in sour cherry. Phylogenetic analyses of the SFB and S-RNase sequences from available Prunus species reveal that the relationships among S-haplotypes show no correspondence to known organismal relationships at any taxonomic level within Prunus, indicating that polymorphisms at the S-locus have been maintained throughout the evolution of the genus. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationships among SFB sequences are generally incongruent with those among S-RNase sequences for the same S-haplotypes. Hypotheses compatible with these results are discussed.

  2. Native American medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K

    1998-11-01

    This article summarizes common principles, practices, and ethics of Native American healing, the traditional medicine of North America. Native American healing, spirituality, culture, and, in modern times, political, social, and economic concerns are closely intertwined. Intuition and spiritual awareness are a healer's most essential diagnostic tools. Therapeutic methods include prayer, music, ritual purification, herbalism, massage, ceremony, and personal innovations of individual healers. A community of friends, family, and helpers often participate in the healing intervention and help to alleviate the alienation caused by disease. A healthy patient has a healthy relationship with his or her community and, ultimately, with the greater community of nature known as "All Relations." The goal of Native American healing is to find wholeness, balance, harmony, beauty, and meaning. "Healing," making whole, is as important as curing disease; at times they are identical.

  3. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...

  4. Variability and molecular typing of the woody-tree infecting prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasková, D; Petrzik, K; Karesová, R

    2000-01-01

    The 3'-part of the movement protein gene, the intergenic region and the complete coat protein gene of sixteen isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) from five different host species from the Czech Republic were sequenced in order to search for the bases of extensive variability of viroses caused by this pathogen. According to phylogenetic analyses all the 46 isolates sequenced to date split into three main groups, which correlated to a certain extend with their geographic origin. Modelled serological properties showed that all the new isolates belong to one serotype.

  5. Differentiation among isolates of prunus necrotic ringspot virus by transcript conformation polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, A; Maslenin, L; Spiegel, S

    1998-09-01

    A method based on differences in electrophoretic mobility of RNA transcripts made from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products was used for differentiation among virus isolates. A T7 RNA polymerase promoter was attached to amplified prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) sequences by PCR. The PCR products then served as a template for transcription. Single-stranded transcripts originated from different PNRSV isolates varied in electrophoretic mobility in polyacrylamide gels, presumably because of transcript conformation polymorphism (TCP). This procedure was applied for the differentiation of PNRSV isolates.

  6. Studies on induced mutation in maitres (Prunus mume Sieb et. Zucc) through irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Chuantang; He Daoyi; Li Yazhi

    1995-01-01

    Five varieties of maitre were treated with different doses of 60 Co γ-ray, then grafted to stock (Prunus armeniaca L.). Survival rate of grafting reduced with the increase of the doses. Optimum level of dose is 20∼30 Gy. At base of grafted seedling from scion woods irradiated by 30 Gy, a mutant shoot was found. the mutant has shorter inter-node than mother plant and lance-shaped leaves. All morphological characters and colour of flower of the mutant are not significantly different from mother plant. It is shown that the mutant differs from it's mother plant in leaf microstructure and on biochemistry level

  7. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of capulin (Prunus serotina subsp capuli) extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez, M.; Castillo, I.; Azuara, E.; Beristain, C.I.

    2011-01-01

    Capulin (Prunus serotina subsp. capuli) is an annual fruit widely used in Mexico for the elaboration of several traditional products, such as medicinal tea, which is considered to present antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of aqueous, acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts. The ethanol extract presented a high anthocyanin (102±7.70 mg Cyd-3-glu/100 g extract) and polyphenol (1732±43.40 mg GAE /100 g extra...

  8. Propagation of the endangered Azorean cherry Prunus azorica using stem cuttings and air layering

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Orlanda; Martins, José; Silva, Luís; Moura, Mónica

    2009-01-01

    Prunus azorica (Hort. ex Mouillef.) Rivas Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Dias, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar is an endangered tree endemic to the Azores, with an ecological and ornamental interest. The objective of this study was to determine the conditions necessary for the successful propagation of P. azorica by stem cuttings and air-layering. Stem cuttings collected in March with two apical leaf pairs pruned to 1/3 of their leaf area were submitted to different treatments, including a basal split...

  9. Novel Rosaceae plant elicitor peptides as sustainable tools to control Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in Prunus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Cristina; Nadal, Anna; Montesinos, Emilio; Pla, Maria

    2018-02-01

    Fruit crops are regarded as important health promoters and constitute a major part of global agricultural production, and Rosaceae species are of high economic impact. Their culture is threatened by bacterial diseases, whose control is based on preventative treatments using compounds of limited efficacy and negative environmental impact. One of the most economically relevant examples is the pathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xap) affecting Prunus spp. The plant immune response against pathogens can be triggered and amplified by plant elicitor peptides (Peps), perceived by specific receptors (PEPRs). Although they have been described in various angiosperms, scarce information is available on Rosaceae species. Here, we identified the Pep precursor (PROPEP), Pep and PEPR orthologues of 10 Rosaceae species and confirmed the presence of the Pep/PEPR system in this family. We showed the perception and elicitor activity of Rosaceae Peps using the Prunus-Xap pathosystem as proof-of-concept. Treatment with nanomolar doses of Peps induced the corresponding PROPEP and a set of defence-related genes in Prunus leaves, and enhanced resistance against Xap. Peps from the same species had the highest efficiencies. Rosaceae Peps could potentially be used to develop natural, targeted and environmentally friendly strategies to enhance the resistance of Prunus species against biotic attackers. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  10. Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z.; Keshavarz Afshar, R.; Hashemi, M.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing,

  11. A fissitunicate ascus mechanism in the Calosphaeriaceae, and novel species of Jattaea and Calosphaeria on Prunus wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    During a survey of Prunus wood from South Africa, isolations were made of three presumably Calosphaerialean fungi that formed hyphomycetous, phialidic anamorphs in culture. In order to reveal the phylogenetic relationship of these fungi, they were characterised on a morphological and molecular (LSU

  12. Leaf age affects the responses of foliar injury and gas exchange to tropospheric ozone in Prunus serotina seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianwei Zhang; Marcus Schaub; Jonathan A. Ferdinand; John M. Skelly; Kim C. Steiner; James E. Savage

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of leaf age on the response of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gwv), foliar injury, and leaf nitrogen concentration (NL) to tropospheric ozone (O3) on Prunus serotina seedlings grown in open-plots (AA) and open-top...

  13. The Native American Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Russell

    1989-01-01

    Describes the American Indian "Holocaust," decimation of Indian populations following European discovery of the Americas. European and African diseases, warfare with Europeans, and genocide reduced native populations from 75 million to only a few million. Discusses population statistics and demographic effects of epidemics, continuing infection,…

  14. Empoderamiento en mujeres mexicanas: Experiencias de mujeres líderes de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julita Elemí Hernández Sánchez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En artículo analiza el término de empoderamiento, y las experiencias en la vida de mujeres líderes políticas mexicanas, con el fin de determinar cuáles de estas experiencias influyeron  en el  proceso de empoderamiento. Se analiza como las mujeres mismas vivieron ese proceso y que sucesos fueron comunes a ellas, en especial desde los ejes de análisis de educación, crianza, ambiente familiar, religión, entre otras. De acuerdo a lo esperado, se encontró que las mujeres entrevistadas, a pesar de ser de diversos orígenes comparten experiencias que las ayudaron o bien dificultaron su proceso de empoderamiento.

  15. La imagen de la mujer caída en algunas obras de la literatura mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elena Munguía Zatarain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo se hace una revisión de las formas en las que se fue conformando en la literatura mexicana del siglo xix la imagen de la mujer caída, con claras reminiscencias religiosas. Textos de Payno, Vicente Riva Palacio, Rafael Delgado, Tablada, entre otros, integran el corpus del que se parte para este trabajo. Se analiza cómo se filtran en las obras preocupaciones de índole social y cómo, con frecuencia, se daba una deriva hacia perspectivas morales y condenatorias de la mujer prostituida. Se busca, en todo momento, reconstruir el diálogo polémico que sostuvo el arte verbal con la profusión discursiva de índole científica y moral de la época y se rastrean las reminiscencias de esta imagen en algunas obras del siglo xx.

  16. Tourism values for Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Widerholdt, Ruscena

    2013-01-01

    Migratory species provide diverse ecosystem services to people, but these values have seldom been estimated rangewide for a single species. In this article, we summarize visitation and consumer surplus for recreational visitors to viewing sites for the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) throughout the Southwestern United States. Public bat viewing opportunities are available at 17 of 25 major roosts across six states; on an annual basis, we estimate that over 242,000 visitors view bats, gaining over $6.5 million in consumer surplus. A better understanding of spatial mismatches between the areas where bats provide value to people and areas most critical for maintaining migratory populations can better inform conservation planning, including economic incentive systems for conservation.

  17. Palladium polypyridyl complexes: synthesis, characterization, DNA interaction and biological activity on Leishmania (L.) mexicana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Maribel [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela). Centro de Quimica; Betancourt, Adelmo [Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia (Venezuela). Facultad Experimental de Ciencia y Tecnologia. Dept. de Quimica; Hernandez, Clara [Universidad de Carabobo Sede Aragua, Maracay (Venezuela). Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud. Dept. de Ciencias Basicas; Marchan, Edgar [Universidad de Oriente, Cumana (Venezuela). Inst. de Investigaciones en Biomedicina y Ciencias Aplicadas. Nucleo de Sucre

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the search for new potential chemotherapeutic agents based on transition metal complexes with planar ligands. In this study, palladium polypyridyl complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, NMR, UV-VIS and IR spectroscopies. The interaction of the complexes with DNA was also investigated by spectroscopic methods. All metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) bands of the palladium polypyridyl complexes exhibited hypochromism and red shift in the presence of DNA. The binding constant and viscosity data suggested that the complexes [PdCl{sub 2}(phen)] and [PdCl{sub 2}(phendiamine)] interact with DNA by electrostatic forces. Additionally, these complexes induced an important leishmanistatic effect on L. (L.) mexicana promastigotes at the final concentration of 10 {mu}mol L{sup -1} in 48 h. (author)

  18. La reciente inserción internacional de la industria mexicana y su impacto regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Ranfla González

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo apunta a la transnacionalización de la economía mundial como fuente de procesos nuevos que alteran las formas convencionales de operación de las economías nacionales. Los puntos de vista aquí sostenidos destacan que el país pasa por un proceso de "fronterización", es decir, un cambio en el eje de gravitación de la industria mexicana a partir de 1982. La generalización de esta tendencia obliga a identificar el enraizamiento de estas inversiones que han mostrado un reciente y notable incremento. La generalización del proceso de producción lleva a destacar diferencias regionales, patentizando la complejidad actual que adquiere el diseño de políticas en la mayoría de los países.

  19. Palladium polypyridyl complexes: synthesis, characterization, DNA interaction and biological activity on Leishmania (L.) mexicana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Maribel; Betancourt, Adelmo; Hernandez, Clara; Marchan, Edgar

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the search for new potential chemotherapeutic agents based on transition metal complexes with planar ligands. In this study, palladium polypyridyl complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, NMR, UV-VIS and IR spectroscopies. The interaction of the complexes with DNA was also investigated by spectroscopic methods. All metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) bands of the palladium polypyridyl complexes exhibited hypochromism and red shift in the presence of DNA. The binding constant and viscosity data suggested that the complexes [PdCl 2 (phen)] and [PdCl 2 (phendiamine)] interact with DNA by electrostatic forces. Additionally, these complexes induced an important leishmanistatic effect on L. (L.) mexicana promastigotes at the final concentration of 10 μmol L -1 in 48 h. (author)

  20. El “consentimiento” negociado entre dos comunidades mineras mexicanas y las trasnacionales Goldcorp y Ternium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Ruth Santos Cordero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se busca reconstruir la dinámica de la relación entre empresas trasnacionales y comunidades rurales mexicanas, a partir de dos estudios de caso: la minera canadiense Goldcorp, en Mazapil, Zacatecas, y la italo-argentina Ternium, en San Miguel Arcángel, en Aquila, Michoacán. La hipótesis sostiene que la racionalidad de la máxima ganancia y el cálculo del riesgo están presentes en las negociaciones entabladas entre las comunidades campesinas y las corporaciones. Y, si bien en ellas se ha establecido una hegemonía de la racionalidad económica capitalista, el consentimiento ha sido activo y negociado.

  1. Amigas y enemigas: las madres mexicanas frente a la televisión

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco, Guillermo; Universidad de Guadalajara (México)

    1996-01-01

    En el texto se analizan algunas opiniones de madres mexicanas sobre la televisión en la educación de sus hijos, fruto de tres investigaciones realizadas por el autor entre 1987 y 1995. Información concerniente a sus opiniones la televisión y su relación con lo que conforman la “filosofía educativa” materna, sus modos de intervención pedagógica en la tele videncia de los niños, y sus opiniones y usos de un género televisivo en particular: el noticioso, como fuente de información y eventual act...

  2. Coherencia interna y sincretismo teórico en la fundamentación constitucional mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eusebio Alberto Avendaño González

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available En la teoría jurídica actual el ámbito constitucional es la plataforma para la garantía de los derechos y las libertades; sin embargo, la Constitución mexicana prevé supuestos que son excluyentes entre sí. Esta circunstancia implica prescribir en el nivel constitucional un derecho y, a su vez, un no derecho, lo que por consecuencia crea un sincretismo metodológico. Este texto, además de denunciar tal contradicción, defiende la premisa de que la Constitución requiere de coherencia interna. Dicha idea toma como base el principio de igualdad y la interpretación judicial, para adecuar la coherencia teórica y normativa de la carta constitucional.

  3. Miradas de mujeres mexicanas en las artes visuales y en el cine

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala Rojas, Laura Lucinda

    2012-01-01

    Miradas de mujeres mexicanas, es el concepto mediante el cual se busca definir las formas de concebir el mundo, mismas que son materializadas en la creación de las artes visuales y en el cine. Las Teorías de la Cultura y de los Estudios Visuales de Género son de primordial interés para dilucidar los detonantes y las consecuencias de los fenómenos que han desembocado en una nueva forma de ver. La década de los setenta es la señalada como paradigmática en el abordaje de una nueva visión de gén...

  4. La Educación de la Mujer Mexicana en la prensa femenina durante el Porfiriato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morelos Torres Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo es producto de una investigación sobre las publicaciones mexicanas dirigidas al público femenino durante el porfiriato, las cuales desempeñaron una importante función educativa. El principal objetivo de la investigación es analizar, comprender, comparar e interpretar las principales propuestas que aparecían en estas respecto a la educación de la mujer, a partir de los artículos editoriales o de las columnas destacadas en cada uno de los medios. La investigación ofrece un panorama que permite conocer las posturas más relevantes en el debate planteado en las revistas sobre la educación femenina. El método utilizado consistió en la revisión y análisis de la hemerografía de época, para lo cual fueron estudiadas diversas publicaciones, de las cuales se seleccionaron diez como las más representativas. Posteriormente se utilizó un marco teórico hermenéutico, el cual permitió analizar, comprender y posteriormente interpretar el proceso histórico, el discurso educativo y el contenido ideológico de los medios referidos. La investigación concluye que los contenidos educativos de las publicaciones corresponden al concepto de "educación informal"; asimismo, que existieron principalmente dos posturas antagónicas en torno a la educación de las mujeres: una conservadora, que recomendaba educarlas, y otra liberal o modernizadora, que proponía instruirlas. En este sentido, la principal hipótesis de la que se parte propone que ambas posturas trataban de determinar, por medio de la educación, el perfil que debía tener la mujer mexicana durante esa época.

  5. La red de co-autores en la Bibliometría mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Restrepo-Arango

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la red de coautorías existentes en las publicaciones sobre las metrías (bibliometría, informetría, cienciometría, patentometría, etc. en México, desde la década de los 70s hasta diciembre de 2012. Se utilizó el análisis de redes sociales a través del software Ucinet 6.0 y Netdraw. Los análisis muestran una red altamente centralizada. La densidad global de la red indica una red de baja densidad comunicacional que hace una utilización efectiva de una quinta parte de los vínculos reales sobre el total de vínculos posibles entre todos los autores de la red. El grado de centralidad identifica once autores como los componentes estructurales de la red de bibliometría mexicana. Los coeficientes del grado de cercanía indican que tanto la lejanía como la cercanía son homogéneas. En relación con el grado de intermediación se encontró que no existe una red ampliamente extendida sino la dominancia de un pequeño grupo de tres autores. La distancia geodésica identificó un único autor bien conectado a otros autores también muy bien posicionados en la red. No se identificaron cliques ni n-cliques en la red de coautoría de la bibliometría mexicana.

  6. Honeybees Increase Fruit Set in Native Plant Species Important for Wildlife Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, Luis; Ruiz-Arriaga, Sarah; Ozers, Christian P.

    2011-11-01

    Honeybee colonies are declining in some parts of the world. This may have important consequences for the pollination of crops and native plant species. In Spain, as in other parts of Europe, land abandonment has led to a decrease in the number of non professional beekeepers, which aggravates the problem of honeybee decline as a result of bee diseases In this study, we investigated the effects of honeybees on the pollination of three native plant species in northern Spain, namely wildcherry Prunus avium L., hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq., and bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. We quantified fruit set of individuals from the target species along transects established from an apiary outwards. Half the samples were bagged in a nylon mesh to avoid insect pollination. Mixed-effects models were used to test the effect of distance to the apiary on fruit set in non-bagged samples. The results showed a negative significant effect of distance from the apiary on fruit set for hawthorn and bilberry, but no significant effects were detected for wildcherry. This suggests that the use of honeybees under traditional farming practices might be a good instrument to increase fruit production of some native plants. This may have important consequences for wildlife conservation, since fruits, and bilberries in particular, constitute an important feeding resource for endangered species, such as the brown bear Ursus arctos L. or the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus cantabricus L.

  7. Radiation induced cerebellum impairments in Swiss albino mice and its modulation by dietary Prunus domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Garima; Sisodia, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    To study the biochemical, quantitative histopathological and behavioural changes after 5 Gy whole body irradiation and its modulation by supplementation of Prunus domestica extract (PDE) for 15 consecutive days on male Swiss albino. For this study healthy mice from an inbred colony were divided into five groups: (i) Control; (ii) PDE treated - mice in this group were orally supplemented with PDE (400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) once daily for 15 consecutive days; (iii) Irradiated-mice were whole body exposed to 5 Gy irradiated; (iv) PDE + irradiated-mice in this group were orally supplemented PDE for 15 days (once a day) prior to irradiation; and (v) irradiated+PDE -mice in this group were administered PDE orally for 15 days (once a day) consequently after irradiation. Marked radiation induced changes in the amount of cerebellar lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH), protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and histopathological changes (molecular layer, granular layer and purkinje cell numbers) could be significantly ameliorated supplementation of PDE prior/post irradiation. Radiation induced deficits in learning and memory were also significantly ameliorated. PDE was found to have strong radical scavenging activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and also showed in vitro radioprotective activity. The result of present study showed that prior/post-supplementation of Prunus domestica has radioprotective potential as well as neuroprotective properties against the radiation. (author)

  8. Engineering cherry rootstocks with resistance to Prunus necrotic ring spot virus through RNAi-mediated silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-qing; Sink, Kenneth C; Walworth, Aaron E; Cook, Meridith A; Allison, Richard F; Lang, Gregory A

    2013-08-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is a major pollen-disseminated ilarvirus that adversely affects many Prunus species. In this study, an RNA interference (RNAi) vector pART27-PNRSV containing an inverted repeat (IR) region of PNRSV was transformed into two hybrid (triploid) cherry rootstocks, 'Gisela 6' (GI 148-1) and 'Gisela 7'(GI 148-8)', which are tolerant and sensitive, respectively, to PNRSV infection. One year after inoculation with PNRSV plus Prune Dwarf Virus, nontransgenic 'Gisela 6' exhibited no symptoms but a significant PNRSV titre, while the transgenic 'Gisela 6' had no symptoms and minimal PNRSV titre. The nontransgenic 'Gisela 7' trees died, while the transgenic 'Gisela 7' trees survived. These results demonstrate the RNAi strategy is useful for developing viral resistance in fruit rootstocks, and such transgenic rootstocks may have potential to enhance production of standard, nongenetically modified fruit varieties while avoiding concerns about transgene flow and exogenous protein production that are inherent for transformed fruiting genotypes. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Tests for Transmission of Prunus Necrotic Ringspot and Two Nepoviruses by Criconemella xenoplax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W Q; Barnett, O W; Westcott, S W; Scott, S W

    1990-10-01

    In two of three trials, detectable color reactions in ELISA for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were observed for Criconemella xenoplax handpicked from the root zone of infected peach trees. Criconemella xenoplax (500/pot) handpicked from root zones of peach trees infected with PNRSV failed to transmit the virus to cucumber or peach seedlings. The nematode also failed to transmit tomato ringspot (TomRSV) or tobacco ringspot viruses between cucumbers, although Xiphinema americanum transmitted TomRSV under the same conditions. Plants of peach, cucumber, Chenopodium quinoa, and Catharanthus roseus were not infected by PNRSV when grown in soil containing C. xenoplax collected from root zones of PNRSV-infected trees. Shirofugen cherry scions budded on Mazzard cherry seedling rootstocks remained symptomless when transplanted into root zones of PNRSV-infected trees. Virus transmission was not detected by ELISA when C. xenoplax individuals were observed to feed on cucumber root explants that were infected with PNRSV and subsequently fed on roots of Prunus besseyi in agar cultures. Even if virus transmission by C. xenoplax occurs via contamination rather than by a specific mechanism, it must be rare.

  10. Brown Rot Strikes Prunus Fruit: An Ancient Fight Almost Always Lost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Lino, Leandro; Pacheco, Igor; Mercier, Vincent; Faoro, Franco; Bassi, Daniele; Bornard, Isabelle; Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte

    2016-05-25

    Brown rot (BR) caused by Monilinia spp., has been an economic problem for the stone fruit market due to dramatic losses, mainly during the postharvest period. There is much literature about basic aspects of Monilinia spp. infection, which indicates that environment significantly influences its occurrence in the orchard. However, progress is needed to sustainably limit this disease: the pathogen is able to develop resistance to pesticides, and most of BR resistance research programs in plant models perish. Solving this problem becomes important due to the need to decrease chemical treatments and reduce residues on fruit. Thus, research has recently increased, exploring a wide range of disease control strategies (e.g., genetic, chemical, physical). Summarizing this information is difficult, as studies evaluate different Monilinia and Prunus model species, with diverse strategies and protocols. Thus, the purpose of this review is to present the diversity and distribution of agents causing BR, focusing on the biochemical mechanisms of Monilinia spp. infection both of the fungi and of the fruit, and report on the resistance sources in Prunus germplasm. This review comprehensively compiles the information currently available to better understand mechanisms related to BR resistance.

  11. Development and cross-species/genera transferability of microsatellite markers discovered using 454 genome sequencing in chokecherry (Prunus virginiana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxia; Walla, James A; Zhong, Shaobin; Huang, Danqiong; Dai, Wenhao

    2012-11-01

    Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana L.) (2n = 4x = 32) is a unique Prunus species for both genetics and disease-resistance research due to its tetraploid nature and X-disease resistance. However, no genetic and genomic information on chokecherry is available. A partial chokecherry genome was sequenced using Roche 454 sequencing technology. A total of 145,094 reads covering 4.8 Mbp of the chokecherry genome were generated and 15,113 contigs were assembled, of which 11,675 contigs were larger than 100 bp in size. A total of 481 SSR loci were identified from 234 (out of 11,675) contigs and 246 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer pairs were designed. Of 246 primers, 212 (86.2 %) effectively produced amplification from the genomic DNA of chokecherry. All 212 amplifiable chokecherry primers were used to amplify genomic DNA from 11 other rosaceous species (sour cherry, sweet cherry, black cherry, peach, apricot, plum, apple, crabapple, pear, juneberry, and raspberry). Thus, chokecherry SSR primers can be transferable across Prunus species and other rosaceous species. An average of 63.2 and 58.7 % of amplifiable chokecherry primers amplified DNA from cherry and other Prunus species, respectively, while 47.2 % of amplifiable chokecherry primers amplified DNA from other rosaceous species. Using random genome sequence data generated from next-generation sequencing technology to identify microsatellite loci appears to be rapid and cost-efficient, particularly for species with no sequence information available. Sequence information and confirmed transferability of the identified chokecherry SSRs among species will be valuable for genetic research in Prunus and other rosaceous species. Key message A total of 246 SSR primers were identified from chokecherry genome sequences. Of which, 212 were confirmed amplifiable both in chokecherry and other 11 other rosaceous species.

  12. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  13. Paganismo y religiosidad en la arquitectura popular mexicana: De Aztlán al norte de California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Mahiques

    2012-12-01

    De las obras de arquitectura popular en América, las mexicanas requieren especial consideración, ya que a pesar de la ubicación geográfica de México en América del Norte, su cultura permanece fuertemente arraigada. Esta suerte de independencia en hábitos y ritos se refleja en la arquitectura mexicana vernácula, lo que nos da la oportunidad de analizarla como un fenómeno cultural extendido desde México al Norte de California. Veremos aquí que las raíces del imaginario mexicano se hunden en la Conquista española y surgen en la actualidad dando como resultado una "nueva" estética arquitectónica.

  14. Leishmania mexicana amazonensis: heterogeneity in 5-nucleotidase and peroxidase activities of mononuclear phagocytes during in vivo and in vitro infection

    OpenAIRE

    Côrte-Real, Suzana; Grimaldi Junior, Gabriel; Meirelles, Maria de Nazareth Leal de

    1988-01-01

    The degree of maturation of cells of the Mononuclear Phagocyte System (MPS), during in vivo and in vitro infection by Leishmania mexicana amazonenesis, was evaluated in this study. The macrophages' differentiation was assayed by cytochemical characterization at the ultrastrctural level, using two well-established markers: 5'-nucleotidase enzyme activity, for revealing the mature cells, and the peroxidase activity present in the cell granules to demonstrate immature mononuclear phagocytes. onl...

  15. Effect of a second bloodmeal on the oesophagus colonization by Leishmania mexicana complex in Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Vivenes

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Migration and colonization of the oesophagus by Leishmania mexicana parasites were enhanced after digestion of a second bloodmeal intake in Lutzomyia evansi. This event has epidemiological significance since it affects the infection susceptibility of this sand fly species, which is a proven vector of L. chagasi in Colombian and Venezuelan visceral leishmaniasis foci. Also, it may explain the host seeking behaviour displayed by some partially bloodfed flies found inside houses.

  16. Frecuencia de genes de virulencia en infecciones mixtas con cepas de Helicobacter pylori de una población mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. González-Vázquez

    2016-01-01

    Conclusiones: La prueba de Fisher no mostró una asociación significativa entre el resultado clínico y el genotipo en la población estudiada. Los genotipos circulantes en la población mexicana fueron cagA+, vacAs1, vacAm1. La PCR multiplex puede usarse para genotipificar rápidamente las cepas de H. pylori. cagE es un buen marcador para identificar cepas cag-PAI+.

  17. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2015, 240, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 60% more ...

  18. Generic Amplicon Deep Sequencing to Determine Ilarvirus Species Diversity in Australian Prunus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoti, Wycliff M; Constable, Fiona E; Nancarrow, Narelle; Plummer, Kim M; Rodoni, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of Ilarvirus species populations amongst 61 Australian Prunus trees was determined by next generation sequencing (NGS) of amplicons generated using a genus-based generic RT-PCR targeting a conserved region of the Ilarvirus RNA2 component that encodes the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene. Presence of Ilarvirus sequences in each positive sample was further validated by Sanger sequencing of cloned amplicons of regions of each of RNA1, RNA2 and/or RNA3 that were generated by species specific PCRs and by metagenomic NGS. Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) was the most frequently detected Ilarvirus , occurring in 48 of the 61 Ilarvirus -positive trees and Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) were detected in three trees and one tree, respectively. American plum line pattern virus (APLPV) was detected in three trees and represents the first report of APLPV detection in Australia. Two novel and distinct groups of Ilarvirus -like RNA2 amplicon sequences were also identified in several trees by the generic amplicon NGS approach. The high read depth from the amplicon NGS of the generic PCR products allowed the detection of distinct RNA2 RdRp sequence variant populations of PNRSV, PDV, ApMV, APLPV and the two novel Ilarvirus -like sequences. Mixed infections of ilarviruses were also detected in seven Prunus trees. Sanger sequencing of specific RNA1, RNA2, and/or RNA3 genome segments of each virus and total nucleic acid metagenomics NGS confirmed the presence of PNRSV, PDV, ApMV and APLPV detected by RNA2 generic amplicon NGS. However, the two novel groups of Ilarvirus -like RNA2 amplicon sequences detected by the generic amplicon NGS could not be associated to the presence of sequence from RNA1 or RNA3 genome segments or full Ilarvirus genomes, and their origin is unclear. This work highlights the sensitivity of genus-specific amplicon NGS in detection of virus sequences and their distinct populations in multiple samples, and the

  19. Generic Amplicon Deep Sequencing to Determine Ilarvirus Species Diversity in Australian Prunus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wycliff M. Kinoti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of Ilarvirus species populations amongst 61 Australian Prunus trees was determined by next generation sequencing (NGS of amplicons generated using a genus-based generic RT-PCR targeting a conserved region of the Ilarvirus RNA2 component that encodes the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp gene. Presence of Ilarvirus sequences in each positive sample was further validated by Sanger sequencing of cloned amplicons of regions of each of RNA1, RNA2 and/or RNA3 that were generated by species specific PCRs and by metagenomic NGS. Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV was the most frequently detected Ilarvirus, occurring in 48 of the 61 Ilarvirus-positive trees and Prune dwarf virus (PDV and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV were detected in three trees and one tree, respectively. American plum line pattern virus (APLPV was detected in three trees and represents the first report of APLPV detection in Australia. Two novel and distinct groups of Ilarvirus-like RNA2 amplicon sequences were also identified in several trees by the generic amplicon NGS approach. The high read depth from the amplicon NGS of the generic PCR products allowed the detection of distinct RNA2 RdRp sequence variant populations of PNRSV, PDV, ApMV, APLPV and the two novel Ilarvirus-like sequences. Mixed infections of ilarviruses were also detected in seven Prunus trees. Sanger sequencing of specific RNA1, RNA2, and/or RNA3 genome segments of each virus and total nucleic acid metagenomics NGS confirmed the presence of PNRSV, PDV, ApMV and APLPV detected by RNA2 generic amplicon NGS. However, the two novel groups of Ilarvirus-like RNA2 amplicon sequences detected by the generic amplicon NGS could not be associated to the presence of sequence from RNA1 or RNA3 genome segments or full Ilarvirus genomes, and their origin is unclear. This work highlights the sensitivity of genus-specific amplicon NGS in detection of virus sequences and their distinct populations in multiple samples

  20. Introgression of genetic material from Zea mays ssp. Mexicana into cultivated maize was facilitated by tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Gu, X.; Qu, M.; Luan, J.; Zhang, J.

    2012-01-01

    Zea mays ssp. mexicana, a wild relative of cultivated maize (Z. mays ssp. mays), is a useful gene resource for maize breeding. In this study, two populations were generated by conventional breeding scheme (population I) or tissue culture regime (population II), respectively, to introgress genetic material of Z. mays ssp. mexicana into maize. Karyotype analysis showed that the arm ratios of 10 pairs of chromosomes in parent maize Ye515 and derivative lines from 2 different populations with 26% and 38% chromosome variation frequencies, respectively. Alien chromatin was detected in the root tip cells of progeny plants through genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). There were 3.3 chromosomes carrying alien chromatin on average in population I and 6.5 in population II. The hybridization signals were located mainly at the terminal or sub terminal regions of the chromosomes and the sizes were notably variant among lines. Based on those results, it is concluded that the introgression of genetic material from Z. mays ssp. mexicana into cultivated maize was facilitated by tissue culture, and subsequently some excellent materials for maize breeding were created. (author)

  1. Gobernanza y seguridad: Hacia una redefinición de la política migratoria mexicana, 2012-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la importancia del enfoque de la gobernanza para impulsar una política migratoria mexicana más eficaz en el contexto de la violación a derechos humanos de migrantes indocumentados y con participación de diferentes actores guberna - mentales y no gubernamentales. La aportación principal del artículo es destacar un modelo de Gobernanza para Resultados ( gpr que pueda orientar hacia una implementación eficaz de la actual política migratoria mexicana, en especial, res - pecto del Programa Especial de Migración ( pem , 2014-2018 en el contexto de la inseguridad. Se parte de la premisa de que existe un enfoque limitado de gpr en la política migratoria mexicana, por lo cual, no se han reducido los factores que provocan la inseguridad y la violencia que afectan los derechos humanos de los migrantes indocumentados –nacionales y extranjeros– en territorio mexicano, de manera particular en la frontera norte.

  2. Las determinantes de los flujos de Inversion Extranjera Directa de las empresas Mexicanas en los Estados Unidos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Alarcon M. Gustavo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, y por vez primera en la historia de la economía mexicana, los flujos de inversión directa hacia el exterior han superado la cifra de los miles de millones de dólares, por mencionar un ejemplo, CEMEX ha comprado la empresa Inglesa Ready Mixed Concret por 5,800 millones de dólares. La manufactura mexicana ha seguido esa pauta y además representa una elevada proporción de todos los flujos mexicanos de inversión directa manufacturera hacia el exterior, en cualquier periodo que comparemos con el pasado. En este documento, se analiza los factores que determinan la inversión directa hacia el exterior de las empresas mexicanas manufactureras, con especial énfasis hacia los Estados Unidos de América. Se aplica el paradigma ecléctico de Dunning, el cual distingue entre ventajas de localización, internalización y localización. En los estudios aplicados, estas ventajas han sido normalmente aproximadas por variables relacionadas con la empresa que invierte y el país de destino.

  3. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M., E-mail: dinakar@nii.res.in [National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2008-01-01

    The purification, identification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergy-related protein, Pru du amandin, from P. dulcis nuts are reported. Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 Å.

  4. Identification of volatile compounds in thinning discards from plum trees (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivar Harry Pickstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Podestá

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. Harry Pickstone, a China indigenous fruit, is widely produced and consumed in countries such as Japan and Brazil. The practice of thinning is common in horticulture and the fruits removed are discarded as waste. Like the great majority of vegetables, these thinning discards also contain essential oils which have not been investigated until the present time. The extraction of the plum thinning discards volatile oil, through the hydrodistillation method, produced a yield of 0.06% (m/m and a total of 21 components were identified, with 11 of them being responsible for 72,9% of the total oil composition. The major compounds determined through GC and GC-MS were Z-α-bisabolene (13.7%, n-hexadecanoic acid (12.7%, phytol (12.7%, and β-caryophyllene (10.4%.

  5. Molecular characterization of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus isolated from rose in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor Vinícius Martins Fajardo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: There is no molecular characterization of Brazilian isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV, except for those infecting peach. In this research, the causal agent of rose mosaic was determined and the movement (MP and coat (CP protein genes of a PNRSV isolate from rose were molecularly characterized for the first time in Brazil. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of MP and CP complete genes were aligned and compared with other isolates. Molecular analysis of the MP and CP nucleotide sequences of a Brazilian PNRSV isolate from rose and others from this same host showed highest identities of 96.7% and 98.6%, respectively, and Rose-Br isolate was classified in PV32 group.

  6. Molecular characterization of two prunus necrotic ringspot virus isolates from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongguang; Hong, Ni; Wang, Guoping; Wang, Aiming

    2012-05-01

    We determined the entire RNA1, 2 and 3 sequences of two prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) isolates, Chr3 from cherry and Pch12 from peach, obtained from an orchard in the Niagara Fruit Belt, Canada. The RNA1, 2 and 3 of the two isolates share nucleotide sequence identities of 98.6%, 98.4% and 94.5%, respectively. Their RNA1- and 2-encoded amino acid sequences are about 98% identical to the corresponding sequences of a cherry isolate, CH57, the only other PNRSV isolate with complete RNA1 and 2 sequences available. Phylogenetic analysis of the coat protein and movement protein encoded by RNA3 of Pch12 and Chr3 and published PNRSV isolates indicated that Chr3 belongs to the PV96 group and Pch12 belongs to the PV32 group.

  7. Seasonal variation of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus concentration in almond, peach, and plum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salem

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Levels of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV infection in almond, peach, and plum cultivars over the course of an entire year were determined by testing different plant parts of naturally infected trees, using the double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. The data showed that spring was the best time of year for PNRSV detection in flowers, active growing buds, and young leaves. PNRSV detection was less reliable during the summer months. Young leaves of all cultivars were the most reliable source for distinguishing between healthy and infected plants, while flowers and buds yielded high values in some cultivars but not in others. Seasonal fluctuations in virus concentration did not follow the same pattern in all cultivars. It is therefore impossible to distinguish between infected and healthy trees on the basis of one single sampling time for all cultivars.

  8. Effects of processing techniques on oxidative stability of Prunus pedunculatus seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effects of Prunus pedunculatus (P. pedunculatus seed pre-treatment, including microwaving (M, roasting (R, steaming (S and roasting plus steaming (RS on crude oil quality in terms of yield, color change, fatty acid composition, and oxidative stability. The results showed an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid content and oxidative stability of the oils obtained from different processing treatments compared to the oil obtained from raw seeds (RW without processing. The oils, obtained from pretreated seeds, had higher conjugated diene (CD and 2-thiobarbituric acid (2-TBA values, compared to that obtained from RW when stored in a Schaal oven at 65 °C for 168 h. However, polyphenol and tocopherol contents decreased in all oil samples, processed or unprocessed. The effect of pre-treating the seeds was more prominent in the oil sample obtained through the RS technique, and showed higher oxidative stability than the other processed oils and the oil from RW.

  9. Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in the ovary of plum culture (Prunus domestica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in different combinations of pollination was observed in the ovary of the plum (Prunus domestica L. cv 'Čačanska Lepotica'. It primarily refers to several issues, i.e. the curling up of pollen tubes within the micropyle, the growth of two pollen tubes into the nucellus of an ovule, the occurrence of a bundle above the nucellar cap and fluorescence of the part of the embryo sac containing the egg apparatus. Upon the growth of pollen tubes into the nucellus of the ovule, subsequently penetrating pollen tubes form a bundle either above the micropyle entrance or above the nucellus. Branching and bending of pollen tubes by 180o upon their growth into the micropyle was also observed.

  10. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K; Salunke, Dinakar M

    2008-01-01

    Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P4(1) (or P4(3)), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 A.

  11. Xylem development in prunus flower buds and the relationship to deep supercooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, E N

    1984-04-01

    Xylem development in eight Prunus species was examined and the relationship to deep supercooling assessed. Dormant buds of six species, P. armeniaca, P. avium, P. cerasus, P. persica, P. salicina, and P. sargentii deep supercooled. Xylem vessel elements were not observed within the dormant floral primordia of these species. Instead, discrete bundles containing procambial cells were observed. Vascular differentiation resumed and xylem continuity was established during the time that the capacity to deep supercool was lost. In P. serotina and P. virginiana, two species which do not supercool, xylem vessels ran the length of the inflorescence and presumably provided a conduit for the spread of ice into the bud. The results support the hypothesis that the lack of xylem continuity is an important feature of buds which deep supercool.

  12. Effect of Temperature and Moisture on the Development of Concealed Damage in Raw Almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Zuskov, David; Chan, Bronte Lee; Lee, Jihyun; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2015-09-23

    Concealed damage (CD) is a brown discoloration of nutmeat that appears only after kernels are treated with moderate heat (e.g., roasting). Identifying factors that promote CD in almonds is of significant interest to the nut industry. Herein, the effect of temperature (35 and 45 °C) and moisture (almonds (Prunus dulcis var. Nonpareil) was studied using HS-SPME-GC/MS. A CIE LCh colorimetric method was developed to identify raw almonds with CD. A significant increase in CD was demonstrated in almonds exposed to moisture (8% kernel moisture content) at 45 °C as compared to 35 °C. Elevated levels of volatiles related to lipid peroxidation and amino acid degradation were observed in almonds with CD. These results suggest that postharvest moisture exposure resulting in an internal kernel moisture ≥ 8% is a key factor in the development of CD in raw almonds and that CD is accelerated by temperature.

  13. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M.

    2007-01-01

    The purification, identification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergy-related protein, Pru du amandin, from P. dulcis nuts are reported. Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P4 1 (or P4 3 ), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 Å

  14. Leishmania mexicana: aspectos taxonómicos y rareza de la infección humana en Três Braços, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Cuba Cuba

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available Del estúdio de 51 stocks de Leishmania aislados de pacientes humanos de leishmaniasis cutaneomucosa en Três Braços, Bahia, Brasil, los autores describen, en detalle, el análisis de los dos únicos stocks de L. mexicana, identificando uno de ellos como L. mexicana amazonensis. El otro aislado permanece en posición taxonómica no definida pues considerándosele como un miembro de L. mexicana, encuéntranse dificultades para su identificación subespecífica. Evaluan también los parâmetros biológicos e isoenzimáticos y discuten el papel de los anticuerpos monoclonales en la tipificación de éstos stocks. Los autores remarcan la rareza de la transmisión de parásitos del complejo L. mexicana en esta región, aun cuando estudien epidemiológicamente por mais de 8 anos la infección humana.In a study of 51 stocks of Leishmania isolated from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Três Braços, Bahia, Brazil 49 were characterized as L. braziliensis braziliensis. Only two L. mexicana stocks were identified. One was subspeciated as L. mexicana amazonensis. The other differed from this species and to date remains unspeciated. The biological parameters, isoenzyme analysis and monoclonal antibody findings relating to these two strains are discussed. Transmission of parasites of the mexicana complex to man have been rare in this region during the 8 years of study of the human infection.

  15. Pomological and technological characteristics of collected selections of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Rade

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A plantation collection containing 32 genotypes selected from spontaneous populations of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr. was set up in the region of the Eastern Serbian town of Svrljig. The fruit trees budded from Prunus cerasifera seedlings and were planted at 5x4 m spacing on a mild slope of south-western aspect. This study shows the most important characteristics of the 19 selections in the collection, and the average results recorded in the 2000-2003 period. The most significant characteristics of the trees, their productivity, and fruit and stone characteristics are presented. The average coarseness of fruits, i.e. their length, width and thickness, measured 25.0x 24.4x25.0 mm, while stone coarseness was 14.4x10.3x3.6 mm. The average fruit weight was 12.1 g (24.3-4.8 g, and stone weight 0.85 g (2.2-0.3 g. Depending on fruit and stone weight, the mesocarp content was 93% (96.3-90.3%. Taking into consideration the possibility of fruit exploitation for the production of biologically high-quality food, the mesocarp chemical composition was thoroughly examined. The fruits were found to have increased contents of total acids, achieving an average of 3.09% (3.44-2.60%, which was the initial objective of this selection. Total solids content was 13.5% (16.2-10.3%, total soluble solids 12.5% (14.5-9.5% and total sugars 6.00% (11.45-3.14%. Considering these characteristics, the selections that were singled out deserve more attention in terms of preserving their biodiversity, forming a gene bank and commercial cultivation.

  16. EVALUATION OF GAS EXCHANGES IN DIFFERENT Prunus SPP. ROOTSTOCKS UNDER DROUGHT AND FLOODING STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELSA KUHN KLUMB

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The state of Rio Grande do Sul is the largest peach productor in Brazil; however, it still possesses poor yield values when compared with other states. One of the problems associated with this is the occurrence of soils with drainage problems, mainly in Pelotas region, which depending on the year period, may undergo water deficit or flooding situations in the great majority of the years, which harm the crop development and yield. Among the harmful effects caused by these stresses stand out, the decrease in the net assimilation rate, closure of stomata, reduction of the cell activities, production of reactive oxygen species, membrane and protein destabilization. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate in what magnitude of the gaseous exchange parameters of Prunus spp. rootstocks are influenced under drought and flood stress. In the experiment, gas exchange parameters net photosynthetic rate (A stomata conductance (gs, intercellular carbon (Ci and transpiration (E] were evaluated in three Prunus spp. rootstocks (peach tree ‘Capdeboscq’ and plum trees ‘Julior’ and ‘Marianna 2624’ under three water conditions (control, water deficit and soil flooding for seven days. The three rootstocks proved more susceptible to flooding than to water deficit, only varying in response time, which is intrinsic to each genotype, and that there is a genetic variability for the tolerance to the studied stresses. The variation on physiological response to the water deficit stress was later in both evaluated genotypes. However, in general, ‘Julior’ presented greater tolerance to both stresses when compared to the other rootstocks evaluated. Such information is useful to help in the choice of rootstocks for plant production, in the orchard management and for plant breeding programs, aiming at the selection of new genotypes with increased tolerance to these water stresses.

  17. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  18. Novel Prunus rootstock somaclonal variants with divergent ability to tolerate waterlogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistelli, Laura; Iacona, Calogero; Miano, Dario; Cirilli, Marco; Colao, Maria Chiara; Mensuali-Sodi, Anna; Muleo, Rosario

    2012-03-01

    Plants require access to free water for nutrient uptake, but excess water surrounding the roots can be injurious or even lethal because it blocks the transfer of free oxygen between the soil and the atmosphere. Genetic improvement efforts in this study were focused on the increased tolerance in roots to waterlogging. Among a pool of clones generated in vitro from leaf explants of rootstock Mr.S.2/5 of Prunus cerasifera L., the S.4 clone was flood tolerant whereas the S.1 clone was sensitive. The S.4 clone formed adventitious roots on exposure to flooding. Moreover, the chlorophyll content and mitochondrial activity in the leaf and root, soluble sugar content, alcohol dehydrogenase activity and ethylene content were different between the clones. The sorbitol transporter gene (SOT1) was up-regulated during hypoxia, the alcohol dehydrogenase genes (ADH1 and ADH3) were up-regulated in the leaves and down-regulated in the roots of the S.4 clone during hypoxia, and the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-oxidase gene (ACO1) was up-regulated in the leaves and roots of the S.4 clone during hypoxia and down-regulated in the wild-type roots. In addition, in the S.4 root, hypoxia induced significant down-regulation of a glycosyltransferase-like gene (GTL), which has a yet-undefined role. Although the relevant variation in the S.4 genome has yet to be determined, genetic alteration clearly conferred a flooding-tolerant phenotype. The isolation of novel somaclonals with the same genomic background but with divergent tolerance to flooding may offer new insights in the elucidation of the genetic machinery of resistance to flooding and aid in the selection of new Prunus rootstocks to be used in various adverse environments.

  19. Aquatic macroinvertebrate responses to native and non-native predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddaway N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native species can profoundly affect native ecosystems through trophic interactions with native species. Native prey may respond differently to non-native versus native predators since they lack prior experience. Here we investigate antipredator responses of two common freshwater macroinvertebrates, Gammarus pulex and Potamopyrgus jenkinsi, to olfactory cues from three predators; sympatric native fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus, sympatric native crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes, and novel invasive crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus. G. pulex responded differently to fish and crayfish; showing enhanced locomotion in response to fish, but a preference for the dark over the light in response to the crayfish. P.jenkinsi showed increased vertical migration in response to all three predator cues relative to controls. These different responses to fish and crayfish are hypothesised to reflect the predators’ differing predation types; benthic for crayfish and pelagic for fish. However, we found no difference in response to native versus invasive crayfish, indicating that prey naiveté is unlikely to drive the impacts of invasive crayfish. The Predator Recognition Continuum Hypothesis proposes that benefits of generalisable predator recognition outweigh costs when predators are diverse. Generalised responses of prey as observed here will be adaptive in the presence of an invader, and may reduce novel predators’ potential impacts.

  20. Genetic diversity of the movement and coat protein genes of South American isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Nicola; Fajardo, Thor V M; Prodan, Simona; Herranz, María Carmen; Aparicio, Frederic; Montealegre, Jaime; Elena, Santiago F; Pallás, Vicente; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is distributed worldwide, but no molecular data have been previously reported from South American isolates. The nucleotide sequences corresponding to the movement (MP) and coat (CP) proteins of 23 isolates of PNRSV from Chile, Brazil, and Uruguay, and from different Prunus species, have been obtained. Phylogenetic analysis performed with full-length MP and CP sequences from all the PNRSV isolates confirmed the clustering of the isolates into the previously reported PV32-I, PV96-II and PE5-III phylogroups. No association was found between specific sequences and host, geographic origin or symptomatology. Comparative analysis showed that both MP and CP have phylogroup-specific amino acids and all of the motifs previously characterized for both proteins. The study of the distribution of synonymous and nonsynonymous changes along both open reading frames revealed that most amino acid sites are under the effect of negative purifying selection.

  1. Investigation of adsorption of Rhodamine B onto a natural adsorbent Argemone mexicana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamparia, Shraddha; Jaspal, Dipika

    2016-12-01

    The present study aims at exploring the potential of the seeds of a tropical weed, Argemone mexicana (AM), for the removal of a toxic xanthene textile dye, Rhodamine B (RHB), from waste water. Impact of pH, adsorbent dosage, particle size, contact time and dye concentration have been assessed during adsorption. The weed has been well characterized by several latest techniques thereby providing an indepth information of the mechanism during adsorption. About 80% removal has been attained with 0.06 g of adsorbent over the studied system. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies, followed by second order kinetic model, directed towards the endothermic nature of adsorption. The results obtained from batch experiments were modelled using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm and were analysed on the basis of R 2 and six error functions for selection of appropriate model. Langmuir isotherm was found to be best fitted to the experimental data with high values of R 2 and lower values of error functions. Adsorption study revealed the affinity of AM seeds for the dye ions present in waste water, introducing a novel adsorbent in field of waste water treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microhabitat use, population densities, and size distributions of sulfur cave-dwelling Poecilia mexicana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, Jonas; Bierbach, David; Riesch, Rüdiger; Schießl, Angela; Wigh, Adriana; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Klaus, Sebastian; Zimmer, Claudia; Plath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Cueva del Azufre in Tabasco, Mexico, is a nutrient-rich cave and its inhabitants need to cope with high levels of dissolved hydrogen sulfide and extreme hypoxia. One of the successful colonizers of this cave is the poeciliid fish Poecilia mexicana, which has received considerable attention as a model organism to examine evolutionary adaptations to extreme environmental conditions. Nonetheless, basic ecological data on the endemic cave molly population are still missing; here we aim to provide data on population densities, size class compositions and use of different microhabitats. We found high overall densities in the cave and highest densities at the middle part of the cave with more than 200 individuals per square meter. These sites have lower H2S concentrations compared to the inner parts where most large sulfide sources are located, but they are annually exposed to a religious harvesting ceremony of local Zoque people called La Pesca. We found a marked shift in size/age compositions towards an overabundance of smaller, juvenile fish at those sites. We discuss these findings in relation to several environmental gradients within the cave (i.e., differences in toxicity and lighting conditions), but we also tentatively argue that the annual fish harvest during a religious ceremony (La Pesca) locally diminishes competition (and possibly, cannibalism by large adults), which is followed by a phase of overcompensation of fish densities.

  3. Regulatory volume decrease in Leishmania mexicana: effect of anti-microtubule drugs

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    Francehuli Dagger

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The trypanosomatid cytoskeleton is responsible for the parasite's shape and it is modulated throughout the different stages of the parasite's life cycle. When parasites are exposed to media with reduced osmolarity, they initially swell, but subsequently undergo compensatory shrinking referred to as regulatory volume decrease (RVD. We studied the effects of anti-microtubule (Mt drugs on the proliferation of Leishmania mexicana promastigotes and their capacity to undergo RVD. All of the drugs tested exerted antiproliferative effects of varying magnitudes [ansamitocin P3 (AP3> trifluoperazine > taxol > rhizoxin > chlorpromazine]. No direct relationship was found between antiproliferative drug treatment and RVD. Similarly, Mt stability was not affected by drug treatment. Ansamitocin P3, which is effective at nanomolar concentrations, blocked amastigote-promastigote differentiation and was the only drug that impeded RVD, as measured by light dispersion. AP3 induced 2 kinetoplasts (Kt 1 nucleus cells that had numerous flagella-associated Kts throughout the cell. These results suggest that the dramatic morphological changes induced by AP3 alter the spatial organisation and directionality of the Mts that are necessary for the parasite's hypotonic stress-induced shape change, as well as its recovery.

  4. El aborto inducido de las mexicanas en el contexto transfronterizo México-Estados Unidos

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    Norma Ojeda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este es un estudio sociodemográfico comparativo del aborto inducido de las mujeres que viven en los dos lados de la frontera México-Estados Unidos. Se analiza el caso especifico de Tijuana y San Diego mediante la utilización de fuentes complementarias de datos: una encuesta posparto realizada en el IMSS de Tijuana en 1993 con información para un total de 2 709 mujeres y los expedientes de la clínica Womancare de Planned Parenthood, con información para 1 109 mujeres. Esta última fuente incluye información sobre las mexicanas que cruzaron la frontera entre la primavera y el verano de 1993 para practicarse un aborto en condiciones legales y seguras en San Diego. Los resultados indican que el aborto ocurre más frecuentemente en las etapas avanzadas del periodo reproductivo de las mujeres. Sin embargo, también utilizan el aborto para posponer el inicio de su trayectoria reproductiva. Existen distintos patrones de aborto entre las mujeres fronterizas definidos por variaciones en la edad al momento del aborto, el número de hijos al momento de abortar, la edad al primer embarazo, las opiniones acerca del aborto, los motivos para abortar y los planes para enfrentar los efectos emocionales en la etapa postaborto.

  5. Desempeño De Las Organizaciones Mexicanas Certificadas En La Norma ISO 9001:2000

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    Víctor Manuel Nava Carballido

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación describe la situación de la certificación en México en la norma ISO 9001:2000. Luego de una revisión del estado del arte, se valida un modelo que relaciona cuatro variables independientes: Evaluación de la estrategia, Motivación, Proceso de implantación y control estratégico y su impacto en la variable dependiente desempeño de la organización. La investigación fue aplicada en 96 organizaciones mexicanas. Como resultado de lo anterior, se demuestra que el desempeño de una organización sí mejora cuando se implanta un programa ISO 9001:2000, siempre y cuando exista una motivación activa. El desempeño organizacional fue medido como una mejora de la calidad (0,81, una disminución de costo (0,83, un aumento de ventas (0,88 y una mejora en la satisfacción del cliente (0,82. Con base en la evidencia empírica hallada se propone un modelo.

  6. Fisiología Mexicana en el siglo XIX: la investigación

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    Rodríguez de Romo, Ana Cecilia

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 19th century, Mexican scientific research in physiology had two well defined periods and followed the same scientific ideas that dominated the rest of the world. In the first period that takes almost the whole century, physicians did experimental research at their own expenses. In the second period at the end of the century, President Pofirio Díaz's dictadure (1880-1910, pushed research on Physiology. This research was very nationalistic. Mexican physiological research at the 19th century was influenced by Celular Theory, Darwinism and Experimental Medicine.

    La investigación científica mexicana en fisiología tuvo dos períodos bien marcados en el siglo XIX y también siguió las corrientes que la modularon en el resto del mundo. En el primer período, médicos de manera individual y costeado por ellos mismos, hicieron trabajo experimental durante la mayor parte del siglo. En un segundo período, durante la dictadura de Porfirio Díaz (1880-1910, se crearon instituciones que con apoyo del gobierno propiciaron la labor científica en fisiología. Esta investigación tuvo un marcado tinte nacionalista y estuvo influenciada por la Teoría Celular, el Darwinismo y la Medicina Experimental.

  7. O Plano Real à luz da experiência mexicana e argentina

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    Paulo Nogueira Batista Jr.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho discute os primeiros dois anos do Plano Real e em especial os seus efeitos sobre as relações externas do Brasil, à luz da experiência de programas de estabilização adotados no México, em 1988-1994, e na Argentina, desde 1991. Embora cada experiência nacional apresente as suas peculiaridades, argumenta-se que a economia brasileira vem revivendo a experiência mexicana e argentina em alguns pontos importantes, combinando sucesso no combate à inflação com acentuada e persistente apreciação cambial, elevados déficits no balanço de pagamentos em conta corrente e dependência de fluxos voláteis de capital internacional.This paper discusses the first two years of Brazil's current stabilization programme - known as the Real Plan - and in particular its effects on the country's external economic relations, in the ligth of similar stabilization programmes adopted in Mexico from 1988 to 1994 and in Argentina since 1991. Although each national experience has its peculiarities, it is shown that the Brazilian economy has been reliving the Mexican and Argentinian experience in some important respects, combining success in terms of inflation reduction, with strong and persistent exchange rate appreciation, high deficits in the balance of payments on current account and dependence on volatile international capital flows.

  8. COMPOSICIÓN ELEMENTAL DE ALGUNAS ESPECIES DE PLANTAS SILVESTRES MEXICANAS

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    J. C. Raya Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El conocer la composición elemental de las plantas puede ser útil desde varios puntos de vista, como el saber sus necesidades nutricionales y tener una idea del tipo de mantillo que se podría formar en un momento dado. En el caso específico del silicio, las plantas que lo acumulan pueden formar fitolitos, muy útiles en paleoecología y arqueología. Se recolectaron especies de plantas de varias partes del centro-occidente de México y se determinó su composición elemental mediante sonda dispersiva de rayos X acoplada a un microscopio electrónico de barrido. Las plantas semiparásitas (plantas que fotosintetizan pero que toman sus nutrientes de la planta que parasitan acumulan cantidades considerables de iones como potasio y cloro para usarlos como osmolitos. Tillandsia recurvata, a pesar de ser epífita, acumula una buena cantidad de silicio, lo mismo que Cyperus sp., registrada como acumuladora de este elemento. Otras especies como Tagetes micrantha, de uso en la cocina mexicana, podrían contribuir en alguna medida al aporte de micronutrientes como potasio y magnesio.

  9. Gluconeogenesis in Leishmania mexicana: contribution of glycerol kinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and pyruvate phosphate dikinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Contreras, Dayana; Hamilton, Nicklas

    2014-11-21

    Gluconeogenesis is an active pathway in Leishmania amastigotes and is essential for their survival within the mammalian cells. However, our knowledge about this pathway in trypanosomatids is very limited. We investigated the role of glycerol kinase (GK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) in gluconeogenesis by generating the respective Leishmania mexicana Δgk, Δpepck, and Δppdk null mutants. Our results demonstrated that indeed GK, PEPCK, and PPDK are key players in the gluconeogenesis pathway in Leishmania, although stage-specific differences in their contribution to this pathway were found. GK participates in the entry of glycerol in promastigotes and amastigotes; PEPCK participates in the entry of aspartate in promastigotes, and PPDK is involved in the entry of alanine in amastigotes. Furthermore, the majority of alanine enters into the pathway via decarboxylation of pyruvate in promastigotes, whereas pathway redundancy is suggested for the entry of aspartate in amastigotes. Interestingly, we also found that l-lactate, an abundant glucogenic precursor in mammals, was used by Leishmania amastigotes to synthesize mannogen, entering the pathway through PPDK. On the basis of these new results, we propose a revision in the current model of gluconeogenesis in Leishmania, emphasizing the differences between amastigotes and promastigotes. This work underlines the importance of studying the trypanosomatid intracellular life cycle stages to gain a better understanding of the pathologies caused in humans. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Validación de un cuestionario de tareas de crianza en mujeres mexicanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Robles Estrada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: este estudio tuvo como objetivo describir la validez y confiabilidad de un instrumento para medir la crianza que practican las madres mexicanas. Método: se realizó un estudio instrumental con análisis factorial para la validación de un instrumento. Se aplicó el Cuestionario de tareas de crianza para padres, de Rink y Knot-Dickscheit, en una muestra de 670 mujeres de la ciudad de Toluca, que tuvieran hijos de 12 años o más. Resultados: se encontraron siete factores del instrumento: comunicación entre padres e hijos, aceptación de la identidad del hijo, recursos materiales suficientes, control sobre las acciones de los hijos, cuidado de la salud física y mental, límites y expectativas y ambiente y vivienda. Tres de las diez tareas de crianza incluidas en la versión original del Cuestionario ya no aparecieron en el instrumento validado: regularidad en las actividades diarias, buena red social y relaciones mutuas adecuadas en el hogar. Conclusión: se concluye que estos aspectos aparentemente son considerados de menor importancia en el proceso de crianza por las madres en el contexto sociocultural mexicano.

  11. Consumo de energía y nutrimentos en mujeres mexicanas en edad reproductiva

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    FLORES MARIO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar el consumo de energía y nutrimentos de mujeres mexicanas de 12 a 49 años de edad. Material y métodos. La información dietética se obtuvo por recordatorio de 24 horas en 9 101 mujeres participantes en la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición de 1988 y se contrastó con características sociodemográficas y estado fisiológico. El consumo de nutrimentos se comparó con las recomendaciones de ingestión dietética (RID. Resultados. La mediana del consumo energético fue de 1 568 kcal/día. La dieta estuvo conformada por 15% de proteína, 60% de hidratos de carbono y 25% de grasa. La proporción de mujeres con una ingestión inferior a la mitad de las RID fue de 70% para vitamina A, 75% para B6, 56% para vitamina C, 33% para B12, 69% para folato, 33% para calcio y 22% para hierro. Conclusiones. Los hallazgos muestran deficiencias importantes en la dieta, las cuales son más acentuadas en mujeres embarazadas o nodrizas, en las de menor nivel socioeconómico, en las que habitan en áreas predominantemente rurales o indígenas y en las de la región sur.

  12. Trotsky e o período tardio da revolução mexicana

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    Everaldo Oliveira Andrade

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Embora o centenário da revolução mexicana seja comemorado neste ano, muitos historiadores estendem seu desfecho até o ano de 1940, chamado de período tardio ou final do longo processo revolucionário. Foi neste período final que viveu seu último exílio no México o revolucionário russo Leon Trotsky. Sua presença no país permitiu um ponto de intersecção de duas tradições revolucionárias que marcaram o início do século XX na América Latina e que se refletiu em sua elaboração e ação política. O México vivia nesse período sobre o governo do revolucionário nacionalista Lázaro Cárdenas. Este artigo pretende examinar este diálogo protagonizado por Trotsky frente à experiência do México revolucionário, pontuando algumas de suas contribuições teóricas.

  13. Importancia agroecológica del coyul (Acrocomia mexicana Karw. ex Mart.

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    Blanca C. Ramírez Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrocomia mexicana Karw. ex Mart. es una especie que se extiende desde el Pacífico mexicano hasta Centro y Sudamérica. El fruto (coyul es apreciado desde la época prehispánica, sin embargo, su consumo ha disminuido frente a otros frutos nativos y así como de los introducidos con mayor aceptación en el mercado. Se realizó un estudio en San Blas, Nayarit, México, en el que se llevó a cabo la caracterización de un agroecosistema típico donde se explotan poblaciones silvestres y cultivadas de coyul de forma tradicional y se resaltó la importancia económica, ecológica y cultural de la especie. Asimismo, se realizó la caracterización fisicoquímica del fruto; la pulpa y la semilla son fuente principalmente de grasas. De esta especie se pueden obtener subproductos tales como aceites comestibles, alimento para ganado, artesanías, entre otros; igualmente se exponen alternativas de uso llevadas a cabo por otras regiones y países que puedan conducir a conservar espacios ecológicos y culturales.

  14. DESEMPEÑO DE LAS ORGANIZACIONES MEXICANAS CERTIFICADAS EN LA NORMA ISO 9001:2000

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    VÍCTOR MANUEL NAVA CARBALLIDO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación describe la situación de la certificación en México en la norma ISO 9001:2000. Luego de una revisión del estado del arte, se valida un modelo que relaciona cuatro variables independientes: Evaluación de la estrategia, Motivación, Proceso de implantación y control estratégico y su impacto en la variable dependiente desempeño de la organización. La investigación fue aplicada en 96 organizaciones mexicanas. Como resultado de lo anterior, se demuestra que el desempeño de una organización sí mejora cuando se implanta un programa ISO 9001:2000, siempre y cuando exista una motivación activa. El desempeño organizacional fue medido como una mejora de la calidad (0,81, una disminución de costo (0,83, un aumento de ventas (0,88 y una mejora en la satisfacción del cliente (0,82. Con base en la evidencia empírica hallada se propone un modelo.

  15. Purification, structural characterization and anticoagulant properties of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate isolated from Holothuria mexicana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Jiaojiao; Wang, Cong; Li, Wenjing; Yang, Jie

    2017-05-01

    A novel fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (HmG) was isolated from sea cucumber Holothuria mexicana, the structure of which was characterized by monosaccharide composition, disaccharide composition, IR, 1 H and 13 C NMR spectrum, additionally with two dimensional NMR spectrum of degraded HmG (DHmG). The backbone of HmG was identified as chondroitin 6-O sulfate, while the major O-4 sulfated fucose branches linked to O-3 position of glucuronic acid in almost every disaccharide unit. The anticoagulant activities of HmG and DHmG were assessed and compared with heparin and low molecular weight heparin. The results indicated that HmG and DHmG both could significantly prolong the activated partial thrombo-plastin time, and the properties were well related to its molecular weight. DHmG showed similar anticoagulant properties to low molecular weight heparin with less bleeding risks, making it a safer anticoagulant drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Determinantes de la presión fiscal en las empresas mexicanas durante 1992 - 2009

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    Elena Fernández-Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza los factores determinantes del Tipo Impositivo Efectivo (TIE soportado por las compañías cotizadas mexicanas por razón del impuesto sobre bene¿cios. Para ello, se utiliza un panel de datos extraídos de la base de datos Compustat correspondiente a 79 empresas durante el período 1992- 2009 y se aplica el estimador del método generalizado de los momentos en primeras diferencias (GMM diseñado por Arellano y Bond (1991. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que el TIE soportado por estas compañías es mani¿estamente inferior al tipo estatutario y que la presión ¿scal de un ejercicio está condicionada por la soportada previamente. Además se constata una relación no lineal entre tamaño y TIE, soportando menor presión ¿scal las empresas más grandes. Asimismo, presentan menores TIEs cuando el coste de la deuda y las amortizaciones son más elevados.

  17. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance

    OpenAIRE

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell i Sarle, Jordi; Lara Ayala, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood.Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ºC were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness wa...

  18. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Prunus mume flower and fruit and development of simple sequence repeat markers

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    Gao Zhihong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tag (EST has been a cost-effective tool in molecular biology and represents an abundant valuable resource for genome annotation, gene expression, and comparative genomics in plants. Results In this study, we constructed a cDNA library of Prunus mume flower and fruit, sequenced 10,123 clones of the library, and obtained 8,656 expressed sequence tag (EST sequences with high quality. The ESTs were assembled into 4,473 unigenes composed of 1,492 contigs and 2,981 singletons and that have been deposited in NCBI (accession IDs: GW868575 - GW873047, among which 1,294 unique ESTs were with known or putative functions. Furthermore, we found 1,233 putative simple sequence repeats (SSRs in the P. mume unigene dataset. We randomly tested 42 pairs of PCR primers flanking potential SSRs, and 14 pairs were identified as true-to-type SSR loci and could amplify polymorphic bands from 20 individual plants of P. mume. We further used the 14 EST-SSR primer pairs to test the transferability on peach and plum. The result showed that nearly 89% of the primer pairs produced target PCR bands in the two species. A high level of marker polymorphism was observed in the plum species (65% and low in the peach (46%, and the clustering analysis of the three species indicated that these SSR markers were useful in the evaluation of genetic relationships and diversity between and within the Prunus species. Conclusions We have constructed the first cDNA library of P. mume flower and fruit, and our data provide sets of molecular biology resources for P. mume and other Prunus species. These resources will be useful for further study such as genome annotation, new gene discovery, gene functional analysis, molecular breeding, evolution and comparative genomics between Prunus species.

  19. De etiske journalister: Native Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Holst, Asger Bach; Jeppesen, Annika; Turunen, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This project investigates the opinions about Native Advertising, among RUC-students who study journalism. In qualitative interviews a number of students point out advantages and disadvantages of Native Advertising as they see them, as well as they reflect upon if they eventually can see themselves work with Native Advertising.A selection of their responds are analysed with the use of a pragmatic argument analysis. The outcome of the analysis is the base of a discussion, which also include the...

  20. Introduced brown trout alter native acanthocephalan infections in native fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Rachel A; Townsend, Colin R; Poulin, Robert; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    1. Native parasite acquisition provides introduced species with the potential to modify native host-parasite dynamics by acting as parasite reservoirs (with the 'spillback' of infection increasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) or sinks (with the 'dilution' of infection decreasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) of infection. 2. In New Zealand, negative correlations between the presence of introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) and native parasite burdens of the native roundhead galaxias (Galaxias anomalus) have been observed, suggesting that parasite dilution is occurring. 3. We used a multiple-scale approach combining field observations, experimental infections and dynamic population modelling to investigate whether native Acanthocephalus galaxii acquisition by brown trout alters host-parasite dynamics in native roundhead galaxias. 4. Field observations demonstrated higher infection intensity in introduced trout than in native galaxias, but only small, immature A. galaxii were present in trout. Experimental infections also demonstrated that A. galaxii does not mature in trout, although parasite establishment and initial growth were similar in the two hosts. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that trout may serve as an infection sink for the native parasite. 5. However, dynamic population modelling predicts that A. galaxii infections in native galaxias should at most only be slightly reduced by dilution in the presence of trout. Rather, model exploration indicates parasite densities in galaxias are highly sensitive to galaxias predation on infected amphipods, and to relative abundances of galaxias and trout. Hence, trout presence may instead reduce parasite burdens in galaxias by either reducing galaxias density or by altering galaxias foraging behaviour. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2011 British Ecological Society.

  1. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, Kristopher; Skelly, John M.; Schaub, Marcus; Kraeuchi, Norbert; Hug, Christian; Landolt, Werner; Bleuler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Visible ozone-induced foliar injury on native forest species of Switzerland was identified and confirmed under ambient OTC-conditions and related to the current European AOT40 standard. - The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber research facility located within the Lattecaldo Cantonal Forest Nursery in Canton Ticino, southern Switzerland (600 m asl). Plants were examined daily and dates of initial foliar injury were recorded in order to determine the cumulative AOT40 ppb h ozone exposure required to cause visible foliar injury. Plant responses to ozone varied significantly among species; 11 species exhibited visible symptoms typical of exposures to ambient ozone. The symptomatic species (from most to least sensitive) were Populus nigra, Viburnum lantana, Salix alba, Crataegus monogyna, Viburnum opulus, Tilia platyphyllos, Cornus alba, Prunus avium, Fraxinus excelsior, Ribes alpinum, and Tilia cordata; Clematis spp. did not show foliar symptoms. Of the 11 symptomatic species, five showed initial injury below the critical level AOT40 10 ppmh O 3 in the 2001 season

  2. Genome-wide association links candidate genes to resistance to Plum Pox Virus in apricot (Prunus armeniaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariette, Stéphanie; Wong Jun Tai, Fabienne; Roch, Guillaume; Barre, Aurélien; Chague, Aurélie; Decroocq, Stéphane; Groppi, Alexis; Laizet, Yec'han; Lambert, Patrick; Tricon, David; Nikolski, Macha; Audergon, Jean-Marc; Abbott, Albert G; Decroocq, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    In fruit tree species, many important traits have been characterized genetically by using single-family descent mapping in progenies segregating for the traits. However, most mapped loci have not been sufficiently resolved to the individual genes due to insufficient progeny sizes for high resolution mapping and the previous lack of whole-genome sequence resources of the study species. To address this problem for Plum Pox Virus (PPV) candidate resistance gene identification in Prunus species, we implemented a genome-wide association (GWA) approach in apricot. This study exploited the broad genetic diversity of the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) germplasm containing resistance to PPV, next-generation sequence-based genotyping, and the high-quality peach (Prunus persica) genome reference sequence for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification. The results of this GWA study validated previously reported PPV resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) intervals, highlighted other potential resistance loci, and resolved each to a limited set of candidate genes for further study. This work substantiates the association genetics approach for resolution of QTL to candidate genes in apricot and suggests that this approach could simplify identification of other candidate genes for other marked trait intervals in this germplasm. © 2015 INRA, UMR 1332 BFP New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Characterization of cytokinin signaling and homeostasis gene families in two hardwood tree species: Populus trichocarpa and Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immanen, Juha; Nieminen, Kaisa; Duchens Silva, Héctor; Rodríguez Rojas, Fernanda; Meisel, Lee A; Silva, Herman; Albert, Victor A; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Helariutta, Ykä

    2013-12-16

    Through the diversity of cytokinin regulated processes, this phytohormone has a profound impact on plant growth and development. Cytokinin signaling is involved in the control of apical and lateral meristem activity, branching pattern of the shoot, and leaf senescence. These processes influence several traits, including the stem diameter, shoot architecture, and perennial life cycle, which define the development of woody plants. To facilitate research about the role of cytokinin in regulation of woody plant development, we have identified genes associated with cytokinin signaling and homeostasis pathways from two hardwood tree species. Taking advantage of the sequenced black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and peach (Prunus persica) genomes, we have compiled a comprehensive list of genes involved in these pathways. We identified genes belonging to the six families of cytokinin oxidases (CKXs), isopentenyl transferases (IPTs), LONELY GUY genes (LOGs), two-component receptors, histidine containing phosphotransmitters (HPts), and response regulators (RRs). All together 85 Populus and 45 Prunus genes were identified, and compared to their Arabidopsis orthologs through phylogenetic analyses. In general, when compared to Arabidopsis, differences in gene family structure were often seen in only one of the two tree species. However, one class of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, the CKI1-like family of two-component histidine kinases, was larger in both Populus and Prunus than in Arabidopsis.

  4. Ovarian structure and oogenesis of the extremophile viviparous teleost Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae) from an active sulfur spring cave in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Martínez, Aarón; Hernández-Franyutti, Arlette; Uribe, Mari Carmen; Contreras-Sánchez, Wilfrido Miguel

    2017-12-01

    The structure of the ovary and oogenesis of Poecilia mexicana from an active sulfur spring cave is documented. Poecilia mexicana is the only poeciliid adapted to a subterranean environment with high hydrogen sulfide levels and extreme hypoxic conditions. Twenty females were captured throughout one year at Cueva del Azufre, located in the State of Tabasco in Southern Mexico. Ovaries were processed with histological techniques. P. mexicana has a single, ovoid ovary with ovigerous lamella that project to the ovarian lumen. The ovarian wall presents abundant loose connective tissue, numerous melanomacrophage centers and large blood vessels, possibly associated with hypoxic conditions. The germinal epithelium bordering the ovarian lumen contains somatic and germ cells forming cell nests projecting into the stroma. P. mexicana stores sperm in ovarian folds associated with follicles at different developmental phases. Oogenesis in P. mexicana consisted of the following stages: (i) oogonial proliferation, (ii) chromatin nucleolus, (iii) primary growth, subdivided into: (a) one nucleolus, (b) multiple nucleoli, (c) droplet oils-cortical alveoli steps; (iv) secondary growth, subdivided in: (a) early secondary growth, (b) late secondary growth, and (c) full grown. Follicular atresia was present in all stages of follicular development; it was characterized by oocyte degeneration, where follicle cells hypertrophy and differentiate in phagocytes. The ovary and oogenesis are similar to these seen in other poeciliids, but we found frequent atretic follicles, melanomacrophage centers, reduced fecundity and increased of offspring size. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cuando el mundo le dio la espalda a una democracia. La diplomacia mexicana ante la desaparición de Checoslovaquia, 1938-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo López Contreras

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El servicio exterior mexicano fue muy activo durante el periodo de entreguerras en Europa, cuando México intentó aumentar el prestigio de los gobiernos emanados de la Revolución Mexicana. La historiografía ha señalado como un logro de estos gobiernos las denuncias hechas sobre las agresiones de diversas potencias a países más débiles. Sin embargo, la postura de lam diplomacia mexicana frente a la agresión nazi a Checoslovaquia no se había estudiado y no se conocía con certeza cuál era la postura mexicana. La actitud de México frente al reclamo alemán de la estratégica región checoslovaca de los Sudetes y frente a la desaparición definitiva de Checoslovaquia a manos del Tercer Reich, son algunos de los temas que aborda este artículo. Para ello, se analizan los reportes y comunicaciones que tuvo la red de representantes mexicanos en Europa con la Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores mexicana, así como declaraciones y escritos de altos funcionarios mexicanos. La cuestión checoslovaca resultó ser una excepción a la política exterior mexicana basada en la seguridad colectiva y la denuncia a las agresiones ilegítimas.

  6. Native Speakers' Perception of Non-Native English Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Maysa; Hussein, Riyad F.

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which…

  7. Exploring Native and Non-Native Intuitions of Word Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert; Dunham, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    Asked native and nonnative speakers to give judgments of frequency for near synonyms in second-language lexical sets and compared those responses to modern corpus word counts. Native speakers were able to discern the core word in lexical sets either 77% or 85%, and nonnative speakers at 71% or 79%. (Author/VWL)

  8. Caracterización de sitios de percha del guajolote silvestre (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana) en Sierra Fría, Aguascalientes, México Roost sites characteristics of wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana) in Sierra Fria, Aguascalientes, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Márquez-Olivas; Edmundo García-Moya; Carlos González-Rebeles Islas; Humberto Vaquera-Huerta

    2007-01-01

    Entre octubre y noviembre del año 2001 y mayo de 2002 se localizaron 16 sitios de percha de guajolote silvestre (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana) en la Sierra Fría de Aguascalientes. El 87.5% de los sitios se encontraron en bosques de pino-encino (en rodales de pinos), en altitudes de 2500 a 2650 m. En la parte alta (2/3) de la cuesta se localizaron 8 de los sitios y 7 sobre laderas de exposición noreste, en una pendiente promedio de 38.9 ± 12.6%. El 62.5% de los sitios se usaron durante todo el...

  9. Dificultades de las exportaciones mexicanas al amparo del tratado de libre comercio México-Unión Europea: el caso de las exportaciones mexicanas de carburo de silicio (2002-2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa Carpenter, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: 21 juliol 2016 La presente investigación analiza la problemática de una empresa exportadora mexicana y sus clientes quienes recibieron oficios de las administraciones tributarias de Bélgica, España y Reino Unido, en los que se les informa el cobro de impuestos y multas, porque las importaciones de carburo de silicio amparadas bajo un certificado de origen EUR.1 (aceptado en el TLC México-Europa), realizadas desde 2002 hasta 2006, son de origen chino. Las autoridades ...

  10. Native Music in College Curricula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Loran

    1986-01-01

    Culminating a 10-year effort to include the study of Native Americans and their music as it reflects cultural realities, life, thought, religion, and history as a choice in requirements for graduation, the elective course, "Native Music of North America," is now recognized at Washington State University as meeting both…

  11. Listening Natively across Perceptual Domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langus, Alan; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Uysal, Ertugrul; Pirmoradian, Sahar; Marino, Caterina; Asaadi, Sina; Eren, Ömer; Toro, Juan M.; Peña, Marcela; Bion, Ricardo A. H.; Nespor, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Our native tongue influences the way we perceive other languages. But does it also determine the way we perceive nonlinguistic sounds? The authors investigated how speakers of Italian, Turkish, and Persian group sequences of syllables, tones, or visual shapes alternating in either frequency or duration. We found strong native listening effects…

  12. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  13. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  14. La Familia: methodological issues in the assessment of perinatal social support for Mexicanas living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, L

    2001-11-01

    Do Mexicanas receive social support from a close network of family and friends during the perinatal period? To answer this question, a longitudinal ethnographic study followed 28 urban Mexican-origin women living in the US from their last trimester of pregnancy through their first month post-partum. A total of 93 interviews with Mexicanas focused on health and social support. All of the women lived in a large western city in the US but varied in their acculturation and income levels. Analyses identified four social support themes from women's experience (the emic analysis) and four social support typologies from the researcher (etic) analyses. The kinds of support women described as emanating from their support networks were inductively identified as Helping with Daily Hassles, Showing Love and Understanding, Being There for Me, and My Family Failing Me. Approximately half of the women reported densely supportive networks. The other women were disconnected from their support networks, or dealt with antagonism or instability in their networks. Women's perceptions of social support differed from the judgements made by the researcher about received support. Specifically, women perceived more network members in the supportive category than did the researcher by a factor of 1.4, and fewer network members in the disconnected category by a factor of 0.7. From an emic perspective, women listed only half as many antagonistic network members compared to the etic analysis (a factor of 0.50). These emic/etic discrepancies complicate clinical assessment of social support, but suggest that data on social support should be collected as part of the clinical processes of perinatal risking. To enhance assessment of social support, a clinically relevant guide is proposed for use by practitioners caring for Mexicanas in the perinatal period.

  15. El mercado de comida étnica en España: el caso de la comida mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dena M. Camarena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, el conocimiento y consumo de las comidas y/o alimentos étnicos se ha difundido internacionalmente. En España, los alimentos étnicos comenzaron a comercializarse en la década de los años noventa, sin embargo, el mayor auge de sus ventas se ha producido a partir del año dos mil y se han constituido una de las gamas de alimentos con más potencial de expansión. La comida mexicana es una de las más demandadas, sus ventas han pasando de 7.2 m. de dólares en 1999 a 40.6 m. de dólares en 2004. Con el fin de conocer con más detalle la situación de las comidas étnicas en el mercado español y en especial la mexicana, en este artículo se realiza un análisis del mercado a partir de información secundaria, y de motivaciones, fuente de conocimiento, hábitos de consumo y compra de los consumidores españoles a partir de información primaria recogida mediante encuestas. Se han hecho análisis descriptivos y de validación estadística de asociaciones entre variables (el test chi-cuadrado y pruebas ANOVA, con los cuales es posible identificar un perfil de consumidores españoles más proclives al consumo de alimentos étnicos y de la cocina mexicana.

  16. Vulnerability of freshwater native biodiversity to non-native ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Non-native species pose one of the greatest threats to native biodiversity. The literature provides plentiful empirical and anecdotal evidence of this phenomenon; however, such evidence is limited to local or regional scales. Employing geospatial analyses, we investigate the potential threat of non-native species to threatened and endangered aquatic animal taxa inhabiting unprotected areas across the continental US. We compiled distribution information from existing publicly available databases at the watershed scale (12-digit hydrologic unit code). We mapped non-native aquatic plant and animal species richness, and an index of cumulative invasion pressure, which weights non-native richness by the time since invasion of each species. These distributions were compared to the distributions of native aquatic taxa (fish, amphibians, mollusks, and decapods) from the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) database. We mapped the proportion of species listed by IUCN as threatened and endangered, and a species rarity index per watershed. An overlay analysis identified watersheds experiencing high pressure from non-native species and also containing high proportions of threatened and endangered species or exhibiting high species rarity. Conservation priorities were identified by generating priority indices from these overlays and mapping them relative to the distribution of protected areas across the US. Results/Conclusion

  17. Is there a relationship between fledge age and nest temperature in Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Emily Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thompson, Brent E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hathcock, Charles Dean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-30

    Extensive research has been done on temperature during bird incubation periods, but little has been done during nestling development, and to our knowledge, no studies have been done on Western Bluebird (Sialia mexicana) nestling development. In this study, dataloggers were used to monitor nest temperatures during the nestling development phase of Western Bluebirds to determine if there was a relationship between fledge age and temperature. The study was conducted in an existing nestbox network at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the surrounding area in north-central New Mexico. Based on the age of the nestlings at fledging, the nestboxes (n=65) were split into three groups: early (16 and 17 days old, n=13), average (fledged at or between 18 and 20 days old, n=32), and late (21 days or older, n=20). The temperatures of the early and average (n=45) groups were not significantly different (p=0.32, W=3831000). There was a significant difference in the temperatures between the early and late groups (p=0.000, W=2965600). The early and average groups were then combined, tested against the late group, and were found to be significantly different (p=0.000, W=11315000). Analysis showed a difference within the first seven days post-hatch of 1.42°C between the early/average and late groupings. The results suggest that warmer nest temperatures during the nestling stage may influence the fledge date and may lead to faster fledging. There may be numerous explanations for this, such as a correlation with nestling development, and higher temperatures may allow for faster development. Brood size was non-significant and was not factored into the analysis. Future work should be directed in this area.

  18. Retinol sérico en mujeres mexicanas urbanas durante el periodo perinatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casanueva Esther

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Establecer la prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina A durante el embarazo y la lactancia en un grupo de mujeres mexicanas urbanas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se invitó a participar a un grupo de gestantes que acudían a control prenatal, que carecían de patología agregada y contaban con menos de 20 semanas de embarazo. Fueron evaluadas tres veces durante el embarazo y hasta la semana 24 del posparto. La determinación de vitamina A en suero se realizó por cromatografía de líquidos de alta presión. Se consideró como punto de corte para riesgo de deficiencia una concentración de retinol < 1.05 µmol/L. RESULTADOS. En las tres evaluaciones durante la gestación las concentraciones de vitamina A fueron de 2.34±0.70, 2.41±1.03 y 1.86±0.66 µmol/L, respectivamente, lo cual muestra una disminución significativa. Sin embargo, sólo 1/30 se ubicó por debajo del punto de corte aceptado para considerar riesgo de deficiencia y ninguno para deficiencia. Durante el posparto las concentraciones se conservaron relativamente constantes, alrededor de 2.10 µmol/L. La práctica de la lactancia no tuvo impacto sobre las concentraciones séricas de retinol, no así la pérdida de peso. CONCLUSIONES. En la población estudiada no se documentaron casos de deficiencia de vitamina A durante el periodo perinatal. La pérdida de peso materna tiene influencia sobre las concentraciones de retinol en el posparto.

  19. Sterol 14α-demethylase mutation leads to amphotericin B resistance in Leishmania mexicana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Mwenechanya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Amphotericin B has emerged as the therapy of choice for use against the leishmaniases. Administration of the drug in its liposomal formulation as a single injection is being promoted in a campaign to bring the leishmaniases under control. Understanding the risks and mechanisms of resistance is therefore of great importance. Here we select amphotericin B-resistant Leishmania mexicana parasites with relative ease. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that ergosterol, the sterol known to bind the drug, is prevalent in wild-type cells, but diminished in the resistant line, where alternative sterols become prevalent. This indicates that the resistance phenotype is related to loss of drug binding. Comparing sequences of the parasites' genomes revealed a plethora of single nucleotide polymorphisms that distinguish wild-type and resistant cells, but only one of these was found to be homozygous and associated with a gene encoding an enzyme in the sterol biosynthetic pathway, sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51. The mutation, N176I, is found outside of the enzyme's active site, consistent with the fact that the resistant line continues to produce the enzyme's product. Expression of wild-type sterol 14α-demethylase in the resistant cells caused reversion to drug sensitivity and a restoration of ergosterol synthesis, showing that the mutation is indeed responsible for resistance. The amphotericin B resistant parasites become hypersensitive to pentamidine and also agents that induce oxidative stress. This work reveals the power of combining polyomics approaches, to discover the mechanism underlying drug resistance as well as offering novel insights into the selection of resistance to amphotericin B itself.

  20. Justicia y relaciones internacionales: las relaciones hispano-mexicanas (1844-1863

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado Larios, Almudena

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the nineteenth century one of the key conditions for recognition of sovereignity of a state by the international community was the ability to maintain order and ensure the lives and properties of nationals abroad. Justice, then, becomes a political element of the first order and the case of Spanish-Mexican relations is particularly significant. For Mexico, it is to preserve national independence, to avoid a military intervention and to integrate into the international system. For Spain, it is asserting its status as a great power with the ability to speak in defense of its citizens and to obtain the necessary repairs. This work is structured so on three issues: debt and financial claims of the Spaniards, the punishment of those guilty of the murders of Spaniards and the negotiation of a treaty on extradition of criminals and deserters.

    En el siglo XIX una de las condiciones esenciales para obtener el reconocimiento de la soberanía de un Estado por parte de la comunidad internacional era la capacidad para mantener el orden interior y garantizar las vidas y propiedades de los súbditos extranjeros. La justicia, entonces, se convierte en un elemento político de primer orden y el caso de las relaciones hispano-mexicanas resulta especialmente significativo. Para México, se trata de preservar la independencia nacional, de evitar una intervención militar y de integrarse en el sistema internacional. Para España, se busca afirmar su estatuto de gran potencia con capacidad para intervenir en defensa de sus ciudadanos y de obtener las debidas reparaciones. Este trabajo se estructura entonces en torno a tres cuestiones: la deuda y las reclamaciones financieras de los españoles, el castigo de los culpables de los asesinatos de españoles y la negociación de un tratado de extradición de delincuentes y desertores.

  1. 76 FR 3120 - Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview Information; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program...

  2. Factores biopsicosociales asociados a la disfunción sexual femenina en una población mexicana

    OpenAIRE

    Vega M, Genaro; Flores C, Patricia Jezabel; Ávila M, Javier; Becerril S, Alma; Vega M, Alfredo Jesús; Camacho C, Nicolás; García S, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar los factores biopsicosociales asociados a la disfunción sexual femenina en una población mexicana. Métodos: Estudio comparativo en mujeres que acudieron como acompañantes a una Unidad de Medicina Familiar de Querétaro, México. Se aplicaron las encuestas de Laumman, Chávez y Velazco, Faces III, y Grajales para valorar sexualidad, funcionalidad conyugal, funcionalidad familiar y estado de la autoestima. Los resultados fueron analizados con Odds Ratios, Chi cuadrado y t de S...

  3. Estudio descriptivo de la influencia del inglés en la prensa mexicana del siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Amador, María

    2015-01-01

    L a prensa es reflejo de la realidad vivida en un determinado periodo de tiempo . Este artículo pretende mostrar la influencia de la lengua inglesa en la mexicana a través del análisis de los anglicismos localizados en diversos periódicos publicado s en México durante el siglo XIX . Asimismo se tratará de comprobar la e volución de estas voces a nivel formal y semántico con el fin de determinar si permanecieron y se ada...

  4. El Inicio de los Anglicismos en la Prensa Mexicana: la Gazeta de México (1774-1809)f

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez-Amador, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Aunque el fenómeno masivo de incorporación de los anglicismos es relativamente reciente, ya las voces inglesas empezaron a aparecer de manera incipiente en la lengua española a partir del siglo XVIII. En este estudio se va a investigar el inicio de la irrupción de los anglicismos en la prensa mexicana de finales del siglo XVIII y principios del XIX con el fin de conocer los orígenes de la influencia de la lengua inglesa en la lengua española hablada en este país. Los anglicismo...

  5. A Guerra Mexicana contra o Narcotráfico e a Iniciativa Mérida: Desafios e Perspectivas

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, Bruno Boti

    2010-01-01

    O texto faz um balanço da estratégia de combate frontal do governo Calderón ao narcotráfico e da cooperação bilateral entre México e Estados Unidos no assunto, salientando os desafios que se colocam diante do enfrentamento às organizações de tráfico de drogas mexicanas.

  6. Modern concepts of thermodynamic optimization in Mexican thermoelectric stations; Conceptos modernos de optimacion termodinamica en centrales termoelectricas mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes-de Gortari, J; Vidal-Santo, A.; Mendez-Lavielle, F.; Bautista-Godinez, O. [Departamento de Termoenergia, from Facultad de Ingenieria UNAM (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, a summary review of the current thermodynamic concepts related to the maximum power generation and minimum entropy production are presented. The results of the analysis are considered in Mexican power stations using conventional cycles and are compared with other power stations around the world. [Spanish] En este trabajo se revisa el analisis de maxima generacion de potencia que implica la minimizacion de la produccion de entropia en centrales generadoras de potencia. De acuerdo con los lineamientos mas recientes publicados en la literatura. Los conceptos y resultados del analisis se aplican a varias centrales mexicanas y se comparan con otras centrales en el mundo.

  7. Modern concepts of thermodynamic optimization in Mexican thermoelectric power stations; Conceptos modernos de optimacion termodinamica en centrales termoelectricas mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes de Gortari, J.; Vidal Santo, A.; Mendez Lavielle, F.; Bautista Godinez, O. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, a summary review of the current thermodynamic concepts to the maximum power generation and minimum entropy production are presented. The results of the analysis are considered in Mexican power stations using conventional cycles and are compared with other power stations around the world. [Spanish] En este trabajo se revisa el analisis de maxima generacion de potencia que implica la minimizacion de la produccion de entropia en centrales generadoras de potencia, de acuerdo con los lineamientos mas recientes publicados en la literatura. Los conceptos y resultados del analisis se aplican a varias centrales mexicanas y se comparan con otras centrales en el mundo.

  8. Factores de éxito de las alianzas estratégicas: el caso de las empresas integradoras mexicanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Camargo Mireles, Ph.D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue explorar los factores de desempeño en las empresas integradoras mexicanas (una forma de alianza estratégica, aplicando un modelo teórico integral derivado de una revisión exhaustiva de la literatura del periodo 1985-2010. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el desempeño de las alianzas está en función de dos actores: el socio y la alianza, y que cada uno de ellos tiene sus propios factores determinantes.

  9. COMO LOS LABIOS DE UNA MISMA BOCA. CUATRO ACERCAMIENTOS A LA POESÍA MEXICANA DE TEMAS HOMOSEXUAL Y GAY

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Eduardo García Castillo

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo propone que la poesía mexicana de temas gay y homosexual puede dividirse cronológicamente en cuatro etapas sucesivas: una descrip - tiva, cuya dominante es referencial; una sublimada, en la que predomina la intención paradójica de ocultar y declararse al mismo tiempo; una que subraya la semejanza corporal como característica preponderante del homoerotismo y, por último, una etapa que se centra en lo corporal, para expresar no sólo con honestidad y libertad, sino con irreverencia,...

  10. La paradoja mexicana de la delincuencia organizada: Policías, violencia y corrupción

    OpenAIRE

    Edgardo Buscaglia

    2014-01-01

    Este texto describe las condiciones contextuales y dimensiones organizativas mediante las cuales las estructuras criminales mexicanas han evolucionado para constituirse en complejas federaciones de base nacional y amplia presencia territorial. También explica cómo se ha producido la expansión de la delincuencia organizada desde México hacia más de 40 países en los cinco continentes.Un aspecto que expone el texto y es de profunda preocupación, es el hecho de que en México solo se ha implementa...

  11. COMO LOS LABIOS DE UNA MISMA BOCA. CUATRO ACERCAMIENTOS A LA POESÍA MEXICANA DE TEMAS HOMOSEXUAL Y GAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Eduardo García Castillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo propone que la poesía mexicana de temas gay y homosexual puede dividirse cronológicamente en cuatro etapas sucesivas: una descrip - tiva, cuya dominante es referencial; una sublimada, en la que predomina la intención paradójica de ocultar y declararse al mismo tiempo; una que subraya la semejanza corporal como característica preponderante del homoerotismo y, por último, una etapa que se centra en lo corporal, para expresar no sólo con honestidad y libertad, sino con irreverencia, la celebración del amor entre hombres.

  12. Tezcatlipoca (post)moderno : reinterpretaciones de la figura del Espejo Humeante en la narrativa mexicana contemporánea

    OpenAIRE

    Andzel-O'Shanahan, Edyta

    2017-01-01

    El propósito del presente trabajo es el de rastrear la presencia de la figura de Tezcatlipoca y de los mitos relacionados con él en la literatura mexicana de los siglos XX y XXI. Uno de los dioses principales en la cosmovisión azteca, el omnipotente y omnipresente dios de la guerra, capaz de entender los secretos de los corazones humanos y de revelar el destino, reaparece en la narrativa contemporánea con todo su rico simbolismo. Las reelaboraciones de su imagen se inscriben, sin embargo, den...

  13. 9. international congress of the Mexican Hydrogen Society (MHS); 9. congreso Internacional de la Sociedad Mexicana del Hidrogeno (SMH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    The Mexican Hydrogen Society (MHS) and Cinvestav, Saltillo Unit, organized the IX International Congress of the MHS, held in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico from September 21 to 25, 2009. Important topics were discussed related to hydrogen technologies, the environment and global climate change during the congress [Spanish] La Sociedad Mexicana del Hidrogeno (SMH) y el Cinvestav, Unidad Saltillo, organizaron el IX Congreso Internacional de la SMH, que se llevo a cabo en la ciudad de Saltillo, Coahuila del 21 al 25 de septiembre de 2009. Durante el desarrollo del Congreso se cubrieron importantes topicos relacionados con las tecnologias del hidrogeno, el medio ambiente y el cambio climatico global.

  14. Factores de la innovación y su influencia en las ventas y el empleo. El caso de las mipymes manufactureras mexicanas

    OpenAIRE

    Herenia Gutiérrez Ponce; Pablo Daniel Palacios Duarte

    2015-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es conocer la relación entre las ventas, el empleo y la innovación en la industria manufacturera mexicana, mediante el seguimiento longitudinal a las mipymes en el periodo 2007-2010, a través de una investigación empírica y la aplicación de una encuesta a una determinada muestra de mipymes manufactureras mexicanas. Nuestro objetivo fundamental es explicar si el crecimiento en las ventas y el empleo de las empresas se explica por factores de la innovación, investig...

  15. Las leyes especiales en la legislación mexicana, desde el respeto a los derechos humanos y sus garantías.

    OpenAIRE

    Valles Ruiz, Orietta

    2013-01-01

    La existencia en la legislación mexicana de dos leyes denominadas: Ley Federal Contra la Delincuencia Organizada y Ley Federal de Extinción de Dominio, constituyen el objetivo general de investigación de tesis, cuyos ordenamientos son violatorios de los derechos humanos y sus garantías. Si bien es cierto, que se establecieron en la Legislación mexicana, por considerarlas necesarias, para el combate a los delitos de delincuencia organizada, también es cierto que violan los derechos humanos, s...

  16. Migración y acceso a servicios de salud: El caso de la población mexicana residente en Minnesota, EEUU

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Melisa Pardo Montaño; Claudio Alberto Dávila Cervantes

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación es presentar un panorama general del acceso a los servicios de salud de inmigrantes mexicanos residentes en Estados Unidos, en particular en Minnesota. Primero se exponen los datos generales acerca de la población mexicana residente en ese país y estado, desagregando el acceso a la seguridad médica y el uso de los servicios de salud por parte de la población en estudio. Enseguida se analiza el caso de la población mexicana en Minnesota. Se finaliza reseñando ...

  17. La Sociedad Mexicana de Neumología y Cirugía de Tórax: de un gran pasado a un mejor futuro

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez-García, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Resumen: La Sociedad Mexicana de Neumología y Cirugía de Tórax fue fundada el 15 de marzo de 1939 con el nombre de Sociedad Mexicana de Estudios sobre la Tuberculosis y Enfermedades del Aparato Respiratorio. Sus objetivos originales eran el estudio de la tuberculosis y las enfermedades pulmonares no tuberculosas, así como la cooperación con organizaciones nacionales y extranjeras de lucha común. Durante sus casi ocho décadas de existencia, ha sido liderada por 39 presidentes y mesas directiva...

  18. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  19. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian tribes, are rich with history, tradition, spirituality, and art. There are 562 Federally recognized tribes across the ...

  20. Rapid Detection of Prunus Necrotic Ringspot Virus by Reverse Transcription-cross-priming Amplification Coupled with Nucleic Acid Test Strip Cassette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Ya-Yun; Li, Gui-Fen; Qiu, Yan-Hong; Li, Wei-Min; Zhang, Yong-Jiang

    2017-11-23

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is one of the most devastating viruses to Prunus spp. In this study, we developed a diagnostic system RT-CPA-NATSC, wherein reverse transcription-cross-priming amplification (RT-CPA) is coupled with nucleic acid test strip cassette (NATSC), a vertical flow (VF) visualization, for PNRSV detection. The RT-CPA-NATSC assay targets the encoding gene of the PNRSV coat protein with a limit of detection of 72 copies per reaction and no cross-reaction with the known Prunus pathogenic viruses and viroids, demonstrating high sensitivity and specificity. The reaction is performed on 60 °C and can be completed less than 90 min with the prepared template RNA. Field sample test confirmed the reliability of RT-CPA-NATSC, indicating the potential application of this simple and rapid detection method in routine test of PNRSV.

  1. Leucismo en la musaraña de orejas cortas Cryptotis mexicana (Mammalia: Soricomorpha, endémica de México Leucism in Mexican small-eared shrew Cryptotis mexicana (Mammalia: Soricomorpha, endemic to Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Guevara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El leucismo es la reducción de la pigmentación parcial o total del pelaje, pero que mantiene la coloración normal de los ojos y la piel. Aquí se presenta el registro de un individuo de la musaraña endémica de México Cryptotis mexicana recolectado en Veracruz, México, que presenta esta condición. Esta coloración, considerada anormal en estado silvestre, puede incrementar la presión de selección sobre esos individuos. Además, es un reflejo indirecto de la baja variabilidad genética en las poblaciones naturales.Leucism is the partial or complete reduction of the fur pigmentation where eyes and skin maintain their normal coloration. In this paper, we report the record of an individual of the endemic Mexican shrew Cryptotis mexicana from Veracruz, México, that displays leucism. This lack of pigmentation, uncommon in the wild, may result in negative selective pressure on these mammals. Moreover, this genetic-based condition reflects on the low levels of genetic variability within natural populations.

  2. Metazoarios parásitos de Tlacuatzin canescens y Marmosa mexicana (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia de México Metazoan parasites of Tlacuatzin canescens and Marmosa mexicana (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Guzmán-Cornejo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de un estudio sobre los metazoarios parásitos de mamíferos de México se recolectaron 4 ejemplares de ratones tlacuache: 2 de Tlacuatzin canescens (Allen, 1893 procedentes de Oaxaca y 2 de Marmosa mexicana Merriam, 1897 de Veracruz. Se presentan 5 registros nuevos de hospedero y localidad para ácaros de las especies Ixodes luciae Sénevet, 1940, Ixodes sinaloa Kohls y Clifford, 1966, las pulgas Plusaetis mathesoni (Traub 1950 y Polygenis martinezbaezi Vargas 1951, así como para el cestodo Hymenolepis sp. y por primera vez en México se registra el nematodo Hoineffia simplicispicula Navone, Suriano y Pujol, 1991.As a part of an ongoing project to inventory the metazoan parasites of Mexican mammals, 4 specimens of 2 species of mouse opossums (2 Tlacuatzin canescens [Allen, 1893] and 2 Marmosa mexicana Merriam, 1897, were collected from Oaxaca and Veracuz states, Mexico, respectively. Five new locality and host records are presented for the acari Ixodes luciae Sénevet, 1940, Ixodes sinaloa Kohls and Clifford, 1966, of fleas Plusaetis mathesoni (Traub 1950, and Polygenis martinezbaezi Vargas 1951, as well as the cestode Hymenolepis sp., while the nematode Hoineffia simplicispicula Navone, Suriano and Pujol, 1991, is recorded for the first time in Mexico.

  3. The Rise of native advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius MANIC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear objective for companies, marketers and publishers. Native advertising stopped being a buzzword and started being a marketing reality.

  4. Allelic diversity of S-RNase at the self-incompatibility locus in natural flowering cherry populations (Prunus lannesiana var. speciosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S; Mukai, Y

    2004-03-01

    In the Rosaceae family, which includes Prunus, gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) is controlled by a single multiallelic locus (S-locus), and the S-locus product expressed in the pistils is a glycoprotein with ribonuclease activity (S-RNase). Two populations of flowering cherry (Prunus lannesiana var. speciosa), located on Hachijo Island in Japan's Izu Islands, were sampled, and S-allele diversity was surveyed based on the sequence polymorphism of S-RNase. A total of seven S-alleles were cloned and sequenced. The S-RNases of flowering cherry showed high homology to those of Prunus cultivars (P. avium and P. dulcis). In the phylogenetic tree, the S-RNases of flowering cherry and other Prunus cultivars formed a distinct group, but they did not form species-specific subgroups. The nucleotide substitution pattern in S-RNases of flowering cherry showed no excess of nonsynonymous substitutions relative to synonymous substitutions. However, the S-RNases of flowering cherry had a higher Ka/Ks ratio than those of other Prunus cultivars, and a subtle heterogeneity in the nucleotide substitution rates was observed among the Prunus species. The S-genotype of each individual was determined by Southern blotting of restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA, using cDNA for S-RNase as a probe. A total of 22 S-alleles were identified. All individuals examined were heterozygous, as expected under GSI. The allele frequencies were, contrary to the expectation under GSI, significantly unequal. The two populations studied showed a high degree of overlap, with 18 shared alleles. However, the allele frequencies differed considerably between the two populations.

  5. Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2003-08-01

    Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications.

  6. Molecular mechanisms regulating flowering time in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionescu, Irina Alexandra

    The timing of flowering is a well-researched but at the same time incredibly complex process in angiosperms. Although we are in possession of detailed knowledge on the genetic level of flowering time regulation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, it is often difficult to transfer this knowle......The timing of flowering is a well-researched but at the same time incredibly complex process in angiosperms. Although we are in possession of detailed knowledge on the genetic level of flowering time regulation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, it is often difficult to transfer...... as a result of hydrogen cyanamide treatment: the jasmonate pathway, the hydrogen cyanide pathway and the cytokinin pathway. We further analyzed the levels of cyanogenic glucosides and their derivatives during endodormancy and its release in sweet cherry and almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb). Prunasin...... and its amide coincided with flowering time in both species. Taken together, these results contribute to elucidating parts of the complex network regulating flowering time in perennial plants....

  7. SEP-class genes in Prunus mume and their likely role in floral organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Yong, Xue; Ahmad, Sagheer; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2017-01-13

    Flower phylogenetics and genetically controlled development have been revolutionised during the last two decades. However, some of these evolutionary aspects are still debatable. MADS-box genes are known to play essential role in specifying the floral organogenesis and differentiation in numerous model plants like Petunia hybrida, Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus. SEPALLATA (SEP) genes, belonging to the MADS-box gene family, are members of the ABCDE and quartet models of floral organ development and play a vital role in flower development. However, few studies of the genes in Prunus mume have yet been conducted. In this study, we cloned four PmSEPs and investigated their phylogenetic relationship with other species. Expression pattern analyses and yeast two-hybrid assays of these four genes indicated their involvement in the floral organogenesis with PmSEP4 specifically related to specification of the prolificated flowers in P. mume. It was observed that the flower meristem was specified by PmSEP1 and PmSEP4, the sepal by PmSEP1 and PmSEP4, petals by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3, stamens by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3 and pistils by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3. With the above in mind, flower development in P. mume might be due to an expression of SEP genes. Our findings can provide a foundation for further investigations of the transcriptional factors governing flower development, their molecular mechanisms and genetic basis.

  8. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  9. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melekber Sulusoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.. Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and IKI (iodine potassium iodide, were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.. Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  10. In vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r(2) = 0.0614 and r(2) = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  11. Vertical transmission of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus: hitch-hiking from gametes to seedling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, Khalid; Burgos, Lorenzo; Pallás, Vicente; Sánchez-Pina, Maria Amelia

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work was to follow Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) infection in apricot reproductive tissues and transmission of the virus to the next generation. For this, an analysis of viral distribution in apricot reproductive organs was carried out at different developmental stages. PNRSV was detected in reproductive tissues during gametogenesis. The virus was always present in the nucellus and, in some cases, in the embryo sac. Studies within infected seeds at the embryo globular stage revealed that PNRSV infects all parts of the seed, including embryo, endosperm and testa. In the torpedo and bent cotyledon developmental stages, high concentrations of the virus were detected in the testa and endosperm. At seed maturity, PNRSV accumulated slightly more in the embryo than in the cotyledons. In situ hybridization showed the presence of PNRSV RNA in embryos obtained following hand-pollination of virus-free pistils with infected pollen. Interestingly, tissue-printing from fruits obtained from these pistils showed viral RNA in the periphery of the fruits, whereas crosses between infected pistils and infected pollen resulted in a total invasion of the fruits. Taken together, these results shed light on the vertical transmission of PNRSV from gametes to seedlings.

  12. Adaptive covariation between the coat and movement proteins of prunus necrotic ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codoñer, Francisco M; Fares, Mario A; Elena, Santiago F

    2006-06-01

    The relative functional and/or structural importance of different amino acid sites in a protein can be assessed by evaluating the selective constraints to which they have been subjected during the course of evolution. Here we explore such constraints at the linear and three-dimensional levels for the movement protein (MP) and coat protein (CP) encoded by RNA 3 of prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV). By a maximum-parsimony approach, the nucleotide sequences from 46 isolates of PNRSV varying in symptomatology, host tree, and geographic origin have been analyzed and sites under different selective pressures have been identified in both proteins. We have also performed covariation analyses to explore whether changes in certain amino acid sites condition subsequent variation in other sites of the same protein or the other protein. These covariation analyses shed light on which particular amino acids should be involved in the physical and functional interaction between MP and CP. Finally, we discuss these findings in the light of what is already known about the implication of certain sites and domains in structure and protein-protein and RNA-protein interactions.

  13. Prunus necrotic ringspot virus Early Invasion and Its Effects on Apricot Pollen Grain Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, Khalid; Burgos, Lorenzo; Pallas, Vicente; Sanchez-Pina, María Amelia

    2007-08-01

    ABSTRACT The route of infection and the pattern of distribution of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) in apricot pollen were studied. PNRSV was detected both within and on the surface of infected pollen grains. The virus invaded pollen during its early developmental stages, being detected in pollen mother cells. It was distributed uniformly within the cytoplasm of uni- and bicellular pollen grains and infected the generative cell. In mature pollen grains, characterized by their triangular shape, the virus was located mainly at the apertures, suggesting that PNRSV distribution follows the same pattern as the cellular components required for pollen tube germination and cell wall tube synthesis. PNRSV also was localized inside pollen tubes, especially in the growth zone. In vitro experiments demonstrated that infection with PNRSV decreases the germination percentage of pollen grains by more than half and delays the growth of pollen tubes by approximately 24 h. However, although PNRSV infection affected apricot pollen grain performance during germination, the presence of the virus did not completely prevent fertilization, because the infected apricot pollen tubes, once germinated, were able to reach the apricot embryo sacs, which, in the climatic conditions of southeastern Spain, mature later than in other climates. Thus, infected pollen still could play an important role in the vertical transmission of PNRSV in apricot.

  14. Future Applications of Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca Kaisa ß Galactosidase in Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Shakeel Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the immobilization of β galactosidase from apricots (Prunus armeniaca kaisa on an inexpensive concanavalin A layered cellulose-alginate hybrid gel. Immobilized β galactosidase retained 78% of the initial activity after crosslinking by glutaraldehyde. It exhibited greater fraction of activity at both acidic and basic pH, and showed broad spectrum temperature optimum as compared to free enzyme. Moreover, immobilized enzyme exhibited higher thermal stability at 60°C and retained 80% of the original enzyme activity in presence of 3% galactose. The crosslinked immobilized enzyme showed improved hydrolysis of lactose from milk and whey in batch processes at 50°C as well as in continuous reactors operated at fl ow rate of 20 mL/h and 30 mL/h even after one month. Moreover, crosslinked adsorbed β galactosidase retained 76% activity even after its sixth repeated use, thereby promoting its use for lactose hydrolysis in various dairy products even for longer durations.

  15. Chlorophyll Catabolites in Senescent Leaves of the Plum Tree (Prunus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Theresia; Mittelberger, Cecilia; Vergeiner, Clemens; Scherzer, Gerhard; Holzner, Barbara; Robatscher, Peter; Oberhuber, Michael; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2016-11-01

    In cold extracts of senescent leaves of the plum tree (Prunus domestica ssp. domestica), six colorless non-fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were characterized, named Pd-NCCs. In addition, several minor NCC fractions were tentatively classified. The structure of the most polar one of the NCCs, named Pd-NCC-32, featured an unprecedented twofold glycosidation pattern. Three of the NCCs are also functionalized at their 3 2 -position by a glucopyranosyl group. In addition, two of these glycosidated NCCs carry a dihydroxyethyl group at their 18-position. In the polar Pd-NCC-32, the latter group is further glycosidated at the terminal 18 2 -position. Four other major Pd-NCCs and one minor Pd-NCC were identified with five NCCs from higher plants known to belong to the 'epi'-series. In addition, tentative structures were derived for two minor fractions, classified as yellow chlorophyll catabolites, which represented (formal) oxidation products of two of the observed Pd-NCCs. The chlorophyll catabolites in leaves of plum feature the same basic structural pattern as those found in leaves of apple and pear trees. © 2016 The Authors. Chemistry & Biodiversity Published by Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  16. [Procedure of seed quality testing and seed grading standard of Prunus humilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hao; Ren, Guang-Xi; Gao, Ya; Luo, Jun; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Li, Wei-Dong

    2014-11-01

    So far there exists no corresponding quality test procedures and grading standards for the seed of Prunus humilis, which is one of the important source of base of semen pruni. Therefor we set up test procedures that are adapt to characteristics of the P. humilis seed through the study of the test of sampling, seed purity, thousand-grain weight, seed moisture, seed viability and germination percentage. 50 cases of seed specimens of P. humilis tested. The related data were analyzed by cluster analysis. Through this research, the seed quality test procedure was developed, and the seed quality grading standard was formulated. The seed quality of each grade should meet the following requirements: for first grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 68%, thousand-grain weight 383 g, purity ≥ 93%, seed moisture ≤ 5%; for second grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 26%, thousand-grain weight ≥ 266 g, purity ≥ 73%, seed moisture ≤9%; for third grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 10%, purity ≥ 50%, thousand-grain weight ≥ 08 g, seed moisture ≤ 13%.

  17. Sobrevivencia del duraznillo (Prunus annularis en plantación forestal y en sistemas agroforestales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Monge

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la sobrevivencia inicial (30 meses del duraznillo (Prunus annularis en plantación forestal y en sistema agroforestal en la zona de vida Bosque muy Húmedo Montano Bajo, en Costa Rica. Se evaluó 5 tratamientos, en 2 lotes con 2 repeticiones en cada lote, en parcelas de 25 árboles (722 ha-1. Los sistemas de producción evaluados fueron: plantación forestal, con manejo de eliminación de malezas cada 4 meses (PF-4 y cada 2 meses (PF-2, y sistemas agroforestales duraznillo-naranjilla (Solanum quitoense, duraznillo-menta (Satureja viminea y duraznillo-maíz (Zea mays. La sobrevivencia a los 30 meses osciló entre 56 y 81% siendo menor en plantación forestal (PF-4. La sobrevivencia mostrada por el duraznillo se consideró intermedia con respecto a otras especies establecidas en sitios con la misma zona de vida.

  18. Antiproliferative terpenoids from almond hulls (Prunus dulcis): identification and structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Vincenzo; Barresi, Vincenza; Condorelli, Daniele; Spatafora, Carmela; Tringali, Corrado

    2006-02-08

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc crude extract from Sicilian almond hulls, a waste material from Prunus dulcis crop, allowed identification of 10 constituents, isolated as pure compounds (1-5, 7, and 10) or unseparable mixtures (5 + 6 and 8 + 9). All compounds were subjected to spectroscopic analysis and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide bioassay on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. In addition to the main components oleanolic (1), ursolic (2), and betulinic (3) acids, the 2-hydroxy analogues alphitolic (4), corosolic (5), and maslinic (6) acids, as well as the related aldehydes, namely, betulinic (7), oleanolic (8), and ursolic (9), were identified. From a more polar fraction, the beta-sitosterol 3-O-glucoside (10) was also identified. A sample of commercially available betulin (11) was also included in bioassays as further support to a structure-activity relationship study. Betulinic acid showed antiproliferative activity toward MCF-7 cells (GI50 = 0.27 microM), higher than the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil.

  19. Enantioselective Synthesis of Various Cyanohydrins Using Covalently Immobilized Preparations of Hydroxynitrile Lyase from Prunus dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagöz, Dilek; Tükel, S Seyhan; Yildirim, Deniz

    2015-11-01

    The carrier-based and carrier-free (cross-linked enzyme aggregate) covalent immobilizations of Prunus dulcis hydroxynitrile lyase were investigated. The immobilized preparations were tested for enantioselective carbon-carbon bond formation activity in the biphasic medium. Of the tested preparations, only cross-linked enzyme aggregate of P. dulcis hydroxynitrile lyase (PdHNL-CLEA) achieved the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile with 93% yield and 99% enantiopurity. PdHNL-CLEA was also used in the synthesis of various (R)-cyanohydrins from corresponding aldehydes/ketones and hydrocyanic acid. When 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, 4-methyl benzaldehyde, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde were used as substrates, the yield-enantiomeric excess of corresponding (R)-cyanohydrins were obtained as 95-95, 85-79, and 2-25%, respectively, after 96 h at pH 4.0 and 5 °C. For acetophenone, 4-fluoroacetophenone, 4-chloroacetophenone, 4-bromoacetophenone, and 4-iodoacetophenone, the yield-enantiomeric excess of corresponding (R)-cyanohydrins were 1-99, 20-84, 11-95, 5-99, and 3-24%, respectively at the same conditions. The results demonstrate PdHNL-CLEA can be effectively used in the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile.

  20. Recent advancements to study flowering time in almond and other Prunus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Del Cueto, Jorge; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Flowering time is an important agronomic trait in almond since it is decisive to avoid the late frosts that affect production in early flowering cultivars. Evaluation of this complex trait is a long process because of the prolonged juvenile period of trees and the influence of environmental conditions affecting gene expression year by year. Consequently, flowering time has to be studied for several years to have statistical significant results. This trait is the result of the interaction between chilling and heat requirements. Flowering time is a polygenic trait with high heritability, although a major gene Late blooming (Lb) was described in "Tardy Nonpareil." Molecular studies at DNA level confirmed this polygenic nature identifying several genome regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL) involved. Studies about regulation of gene expression are scarcer although several transcription factors have been described as responsible for flowering time. From the metabolomic point of view, the integrated analysis of the mechanisms of accumulation of cyanogenic glucosides and flowering regulation through transcription factors open new possibilities in the analysis of this complex trait in almond and in other Prunus species (apricot, cherry, peach, plum). New opportunities are arising from the integration of recent advancements including phenotypic, genetic, genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomics studies from the beginning of dormancy until flowering.

  1. Investigation on the pollen morphology of traditional cultivars of Prunus species in Sicily

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    Anna Geraci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study pollen grains of 13 cultivars and 3 rootstocks belonging to 5 species (P. armeniaca, P. domestica, P. dulcis, P. persica, P. avium of the genus Prunus collected from North-East Sicily were examined for the micromorphological characterization through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The length of polar axis (P and the equatorial diameter (E of grain, P/E ratio, the length of colpi (C, diameter of perforations (DP and the number of perforations in 25 μm2 (PN, the width of muri (WM, the distance between muri (DM and their number in 25 μm2 (MN, the width of grooves (WG were measured and their variation was compared among studied taxa. Moreover multivariate statistical analysis was carried out to distinguish morphometric information from measured parameters. All pollen grains are trizonocolpate, isopolar, medium-large sized and their shape varies from prolate to perprolate. Regarding outline pollen grains are subtriangular in polar view and elliptic in equatorial view. Exine sculpturing is striate with perforations on grain surface. The arrangement of ridges appears roughly parallel but too sloped (sometimes curved compared to polar axis, or branched and oriented in different directions, or perfectly parallel or more irregular with bifurcated ridges often sinuous. The analyses showed a great variability (particularly in P. domestica cultivars related in some cases to the diversity in the morphological features of the leaves and the fruits of the investigated entities.

  2. Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) skins as a potential source of bioactive polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monagas, Maria; Garrido, Ignacio; Lebrón-Aguilar, Rosa; Bartolome, Begoña; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen

    2007-10-17

    An exhaustive study of the phenolic composition of almond ( Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) skins was carried out in order to evaluate their potential application as a functional food ingredient. Using the HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS technique, a total of 33 compounds corresponding to flavanols, flavonols, dihydroflavonols and flavanones, and other nonflavonoid compounds were identified. Peaks corresponding to another 23 structure-related compounds were also detected. MALDI-TOF MS was applied to characterize almond skin proanthocyanidins, revealing the existence of a series of A- and B-type procyanidins and propelargonidins up to heptamers, and A- and B-type prodelphinidins up to hexamers. Flavanols and flavonol glycosides were the most abundant phenolic compounds in almond skins, representing up to 38-57% and 14-35% of the total quantified phenolics, respectively. Due to their antioxidant properties, measured as oxygen-radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) at 0.398-0.500 mmol Trolox/g, almond skins can be considered as a value-added byproduct for elaborating dietary antioxidant ingredients.

  3. Synthesis of disaccharides using β-glucosidases from Aspergillus niger, A. awamori and Prunus dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ayla Sant'Ana; Molina, Javier Freddy; Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; Valdivieso Gelves, Luis G; Bon, Elba P S; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana S

    2017-11-01

    Glucose conversion into disaccharides was performed with β-glucosidases from Prunus dulcis (β-Pd), Aspergillus niger (β-An) and A. awamori (β-Aa), in reactions containing initial glucose of 700 and 900 g l -1 . The reactions' time courses were followed regarding glucose and product concentrations. In all cases, there was a predominant formation of gentiobiose over cellobiose and also of oligosaccharides with a higher molecular mass. For reactions containing 700 g glucose l -1 , the final substrate conversions were 33, 38, and 23.5% for β-An, β-Aa, and β-Pd, respectively. The use of β-An yielded 103 g gentiobiose l -1 (15.5% yield), which is the highest reported for a fungal β-glucosidase. The increase in glucose concentration to 900 g l -1 resulted in a significant increase in disaccharide synthesis by β-Pd, reaching 128 g gentiobiose l -1 (15% yield), while for β-An and β-Aa, there was a shift toward the synthesis of higher oligosaccharides. β-Pd and the fungal β-An and β-Aa β-glucosidases present quite dissimilar kinetics and selective properties regarding the synthesis of disaccharides; while β-Pd showed the highest productivity for gentiobiose synthesis, β-An presented the highest specificity.

  4. Some physico-chemical properties of Prunus armeniaca L. gum exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Morteza; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Koocheki, Arash

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this paper were to investigate some physicochemical properties of Prunus armeniaca L. gum exudates (PAGE). PAGE had, on average, 66.89% carbohydrate, 10.47% uronic acids, 6.9% moisture (w.b.), 2.91% protein, 4% ash and 1.59% fat. PAGE was composed of monosaccharides including l-arabinose, d-galactose, xylose, mannose and rhamnose in molar percentages of 41.52%, 23.72%, 17.82%, 14.40% and 2.54%, respectively. Elemental analysis showed that PAGE had high values of nutrients. FTIR analysis demonstrated the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and methyl groups and glycoside bonds. The weight average molecular weight, number average molecular weight and polydispersity index were found to be approximately 5.69 × 10(5)g/mol, 4.33 g/mol and 1.31, respectively. Rheological measurement of PAGE solutions as a function of concentration (8, 10 and 12% (w/w)) and temperature (10, 20, 30 and 40°C) demonstrated that the gum solutions had a non Newtonian shear thinning behaviour. Intrinsic viscosity for PAGE in deionized water was 3.438 dl/g based on Kramer equation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative effects of prolonged administration of cyanide, thiocyanate and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) to goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Blanco, B; Stegelmeier, B L; Pfister, J A; Gardner, D R; Panter, K E

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the clinical, hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes induced by cyanide, thiocyanate and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) in goats. Sixteen Boer-Spanish cross-bred female goats were divided into four treatment groups: (1) control, (2) potassium cyanide (KCN) at 3.8 mg kg(-1) day(-1), (3) potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) at 4.5 mg kg(-1) day(-1) and (4) ground frozen chokecherry leaves and flowers at a target dose of 2.5 mg HCN kg(-1) day(-1), all for 4 weeks. Clinical signs were observed in two goats treated with chokecherry. Only sporadic changes were found in the hematological and blood chemical panel. Goats treated with chokecherry and thiocyanate had an increased number of vacuoles in the colloid of thyroid glands. Spongiosis and spheroids were found in the mesencephalon from goats treated with KCN and chokecherry. These findings suggest the thyroid lesions can be attributed to thiocyanate, whereas the effects on the nervous system were most likely caused by cyanide.

  6. Propagation of the endangered Azorean cherry Prunus azorica using stem cuttings and air layering

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    MOREIRA, O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus azorica (Hort. ex Mouillef. Rivas Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Dias, J.C. Costa &C. Aguiar is an endangered tree endemic to the Azores, with an ecological and ornamentalinterest. The objective of this study was to determine the conditions necessary for thesuccessful propagation of P. azorica by stem cuttings and air-layering. Stem cuttingscollected in March with two apical leaf pairs pruned to 1/3 of their leaf area were submittedto different treatments, including a basal split wound, two rooting mixtures, namely, perlite and peat (1:1 or perlite and natural soil (1:1, and dipping of the base in indole-3-butyric acid (IBA solution at four concentrations (0, 2500, 5000 or 7000 mg/L. After eight weeks 75% rooting was achieved with 75 to 88% survival, without addition of IBA and with split wound using both substrate mixtures. Air layering was conducted in June in branches of adult trees with the addition of 0, 2500 or 3000 mg/L of IBA. After 12 months 100%rooting and survival was recorded in all treatments. Our study thus indicates that P. azorica is a taxon amenable for vegetative propagation by stem cuttings and air layering withoutrequiring addition of IBA to induce rooting. Both methods should be used in order to recover natural populations, when seeds are not available or are available in reduced amounts.

  7. Tractor-mounted, GPS-based spot fumigation system manages Prunus replant disease

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    V. Udompetaikul

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our research goal was to use recent advances in global positioning system (GPS and computer technology to apply just the right amount of fumigant where it is most needed (i.e., in a small target treatment zone in and around each tree replanting site to control Prunus replant disease (PRD. We developed and confirmed the function of (1 GPS-based software that can be used on cleared orchard land to flexibly plan and map all of an orchard's future tree sites and associated spot fumigation treatment zones and 2 a tractor-based GPS-controlled spot fumigation system to quickly and safely treat the targeted tree site treatment zones. In trials in two almond orchards and one peach orchard, our evaluations of the composite mapping and application system, which examined spatial accuracy of the spot treatments, delivery rate accuracy of the spot treatments, and tree growth responses to the spot treatments, all indicated that GPS spot fumigation has excellent potential to greatly reduce fumigant usage while adequately managing the PRD complex.

  8. Selection of autochthonous sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. genotypes in Feketić region

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    Radičević Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous genotypes of fruit species are very important source of genetic variability and valuable material for breeding work. Fruit Research Institute-Čačak has a long tradition of studying autochthonous genotypes of temperate fruits sporadically spread and preserved in some localities in Serbia. Over 2005-2006, the following properties of nine autochthonous sour cherry genotypes grown in Feketic region were investigated: flowering and ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits and field resistance to causal agents of cherry diseases - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz.. The genotypes were tested for the presence of Prune dwarf virus and Prunus necrotic ring spot virus. In majority of genotypes fruits were large, with exceptional organoleptical properties, whereas ripening time was in the first ten or twenty days of June. The highest fruit weight was observed in F-1 genotype (8.1 g. The highest soluble solids and total sugars content were found in F- 4 genotype (17.60% and 14.25%, respectively. As for field resistance to causal agents of diseases and good pomo-technological properties, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-7 and F-8 genotypes were singled out. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064

  9. Characterisation of stilbenes in California almonds (Prunus dulcis) by UHPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liyang; Bolling, Bradley W

    2014-04-01

    Stilbene polyphenols are present in some fruits and nuts, but their abundance in many foods, such as almonds, is unknown. Therefore, we characterised stilbenes from Nonpareil, Butte and Carmel almond (Prunus dulcis) varieties from California. UHPLC-MS conditions were optimised to resolve cis- and trans-resveratrol, d4-resveratrol, dienestrol, hexestrol, oxyresveratrol, piceatannol, pterostilbene, and resveratrol-3-β-glucoside (polydatin). Stilbenes were isolated from ethanolic almond extracts by solid-phase extraction and identified with UHPLC-MS by comparison of retention times, mass spectra, in-source CID spectra, and enzymatic hydrolysis to authentic standards. Polydatin was identified in almond extracts, with 7.19-8.52 μg/100 g almond. Piceatannol+oxyresveratrol was tentatively identified in almond blanch water, at 0.19-2.55 μg/100 g almond. Polydatin was concentrated in almond skins, which contained 95.6-97.5% of the total almond content. Therefore, almonds contain the stilbene class of polyphenols in addition to the previously identified proanthocyanidin, hydrolysable tannin, flavonoid, and phenolic acid classes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pollination Requirements of Almond (Prunus dulcis): Combining Laboratory and Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henselek, Yuki; Eilers, Elisabeth J; Kremen, Claire; Hendrix, Stephen D; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2018-03-08

    Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb; Rosales: Rosaceae) is a cash crop with an estimated global value of over seven billion U.S. dollars annually and commercial varieties are highly dependent on insect pollination. Therefore, the understanding of basic pollination requirements of the main varieties including pollination efficiency of honey bees (Apis mellifera, Linnaeus, Hymenoptera: Apidae) and wild pollinators is essential for almond production. We first conducted two lab experiments to examine the threshold number of pollen grains needed for successful pollination and to determine if varietal identity or diversity promotes fruit set and weight. Further, we examined stigma and ovules of flowers visited by Apis and non-Apis pollinators in the field to study the proportion of almond to non-almond pollen grains deposited, visitation time per flower visit, and tube set. Results indicate that the threshold for successful fertilization is around 60 pollen grains, but pollen can be from any compatible variety as neither pollen varietal identity nor diversity enhanced fruit set or weight. Andrena cerasifolii Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae) was a more effective pollinator on a per single visit basis than Apis and syrphid flies. Nevertheless, Apis was more efficient than A. cerasifolii and syrphid flies as they spent less time on a flower during a single visit. Hence, planting with two compatible varieties and managing for both Apis and non-Apis pollinators is likely to be an optimal strategy for farmers to secure high and stable pollination success.

  11. Exogenous application of ascorbic acid alleviates chilling injury in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi flowers

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    Hassan Bayat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that ascorbic acid (AA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of AA on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi were sprayed at pink cluster stage with AS at 4 levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg. L-1 and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at –4 °C or without cold stress (+ 25°C. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage (EL of flower buds and percentage of damage of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at - 4°C the lowest and highest percentage of damage and EL of flower buds were observed in application of 200 and 0 mg. L-1 AA, respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of damage of flower organs and EL were obtained in application of 300 and 200 mg. L-1 AA, respectively at + 25 °C. Based on the results of this experiment, AA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on EL and flower organ damages in apricot cv. Shahroudi, depending on the concentrations of AA used.

  12. Antioxidant Defenses in Plants with Attention to Prunus and Citrus spp.

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    Milvia Luisa Racchi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This short review briefly introduces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS as by-products of oxidation/reduction (redox reactions, and the ways in which the antioxidant defense machinery is involved directly or indirectly in ROS scavenging. Major antioxidants, both enzymatic and non enzymatic, that protect higher plant cells from oxidative stress damage are described. Biochemical and molecular features of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX are discussed because they play crucial roles in scavenging ROS in the different cell compartments and in response to stress conditions. Among the non enzymatic defenses, particular attention is paid to ascorbic acid, glutathione, flavonoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols. The operation of ROS scavenging systems during the seasonal cycle and specific developmental events, such as fruit ripening and senescence, are discussed in relation to the intense ROS formation during these processes that impact fruit quality. Particular attention is paid to Prunus and Citrus species because of the nutritional and antioxidant properties contained in these commonly consumed fruits.

  13. Microencapsulation of plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. phenolics by spray drying technology and storage stability

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    Yibin LI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To improve the stability of the phenolic extracts from plum fruit (Prunus salicina Lindl., the microencapsulation conditions of spray drying were optimized by the response surface method. The Box-Behnken experimental results indicated the optimal conditions involved an inlet air temperature of 142.8 °C, a core material content of 23.7% and a feed solids content of 11.7%. The maximum microencapsulating efficiency was 87.7% at optimal conditions. Further, the physicochemical properties of the microcapsule powders were improved overall due to the addition of the coating agents. There were no statistically significant differences in phenolic content of the obtained microcapsules for the first 40 days of storage at 25 °C in dark condition (p > 0.05, and the retention rate of total phenol remained above 85% after 60 days. Microcapsules can be potentially developed as a source of natural pigment or functional food based on the advantages of rich phenolic compounds and red color.

  14. Wound Healing Effects of Prunus yedoensis Matsumura Bark in Scalded Rats

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    Jin-Ho Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pruni Cortex has been used to treat asthma, measles, cough, urticaria, pruritus, and dermatitis in traditional Korean medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Prunus yedoensis Matsumura bark methanol extract (PYE on scald-induced dorsal skin wounds in rats. Scalds were produced in Sprague-Dawley rats with 100°C water and treated with 5% and 20% PYE (using Vaseline as a base, silver sulfadiazine (SSD, and Vaseline once a day for 21 days, beginning 24 hours after scald by treatment group allocation. The PYE-treated groups showed accelerated healing from 12 days after scald, demonstrated by rapid eschar exfoliation compared to the control and SSD groups. PYE-treated groups showed higher wound contraction rates and better tissue regeneration in comparison with the control group. Serum analysis showed that transforming growth factor beta 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels remained high or gradually increased up to day 14 in both PYE groups and then showed a sharp decline by day 21, implying successful completion of the inflammatory phase and initiation of tissue regeneration. These findings suggested that PYE is effective in promoting scald wound healing in the inflammation and tissue proliferation stages.

  15. Aroma peculiarities of apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. and cherry-plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. flowers

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    В. М. Горіна

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the component composition of volatile solutions determining fragrance of the flowers in apricot and cherry-plum varieties and Prunus brigantiaca Vill. x Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. hybrids there are 36 highest hydrocarbons and benzaldehyde that prevail. There are fewer amounts of the solutions which scare bees (benzaldehyde in the fragrance of cherry-plum varieties as compared to the flowers of apricot and hybrids. At the same time, the content of tricosane, pentacosane, docosane, heneycosane, eicosane, nonadecan that probably attract bees is higher in the cherry-plum flowers than in the fragrance of apricot and hybrid flowers. The average three years yield of cherry-plum plants (Nikitska Zhovta 10,7 and Salgirskaya Rumjanaya 28,5 t/ ha is higher than for apricot (Recolte de Schatene 0,3; Rodnik 2,9; Ananasniy Tsurupinsky 7,4 t/ha and hybrids (8110 – 5,2; 8098 – 6,4 t/ha that could be explained with better pollination of flowers and better fruit formation. Prevailing components of flower aroma of these plants    and their possible link with yield of the objects in questions have been analyzed.

  16. Gene disruptions indicate an essential function for the LmmCRK1 cdc2-related kinase of Leishmania mexicana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, J C; McCready, B P; Brown, K G; Grant, K M

    1996-11-01

    The generation of homozygous null mutants for the crk1 Cdc2-Related Kinase of Leishmania mexicana was attempted using targeted gene disruption. Promastigote mutants heterozygous for crk1 were readily isolated with a hyg-targeting fragment, but attempts to create null mutants by second-round transfections with a bie-targeting fragment yielded two classes of mutant, neither of which was null. First, the transfected fragment formed an episome; second, the cloned transfectants were found to contain wild-type crk1 alleles as well as hyg and ble integrations. DNA-content analysis revealed that these mutants were triploid or tetraploid. Plasticity in chromosome number following targeting has been proposed as a means by which Leishmania avoids deletion of essential genes. These data support this theory and implicate crk1 as an essential gene, validating CRK1 as a potential drug target. L mexicana transfected with a Trypanosoma brucel homologue, tbcrk1, was shown to be viable in an immcrk1 null background, thus showing complementation of function between these trypanosomatid genes. The expression of crk1 was further manipulated by engineering a six-histidine tag at the C-terminus of the kinase, allowing purification of the active complex by affinity selection on Nl(2+)-nitriloacetic acid (NTA) agarose.

  17. Effects of extreme habitat conditions on otolith morphology: a case study on extremophile live bearing fishes (Poecilia mexicana, P. sulphuraria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Riesch, Rüdiger; García de León, Francisco J; Plath, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Our study was designed to evaluate if, and to what extent, restrictive environmental conditions affect otolith morphology. As a model, we chose two extremophile livebearing fishes: (i) Poecilia mexicana, a widespread species in various Mexican freshwater habitats, with locally adapted populations thriving in habitats characterized by the presence of one (or both) of the natural stressors hydrogen sulphide and darkness, and (ii) the closely related Poecilia sulphuraria living in a highly sulphidic habitat (Baños del Azufre). All three otolith types (lapilli, sagittae, and asterisci) of P. mexicana showed a decrease in size ranging from the non-sulphidic cave habitat (Cueva Luna Azufre), to non-sulphidic surface habitats, to the sulphidic cave (Cueva del Azufre), to sulphidic surface habitats (El Azufre), to P. sulphuraria. Although we found a distinct differentiation between ecotypes with respect to their otolith morphology, no clear-cut pattern of trait evolution along the two ecological gradients was discernible. Otoliths from extremophiles captured in the wild revealed only slight similarities to aberrant otoliths found in captive-bred fish. We therefore hypothesize that extremophile fishes have developed coping mechanisms enabling them to avoid aberrant otolith growth - an otherwise common phenomenon in fishes reared under stressful conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Las astillas del racionalismo: la crisis del pensamiento moderno en la narrativa mexicana contemporánea

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    Lilia Leticia García Peña

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las grandes herencias de la modernidad es el ejercicio del racion alismo, su cuestion amiento y fragmentación es la cons tante de las formas subvertidas del pensamiento a partir de la segunda mitad del siglo veinte. La narrativa mexicana contemporánea muestra esta realidad a través de la representación de personajes que piensan obsesivamente, así como del cuestion amiento intenso de los límites neuronales y racionales del ser humano. El trabajo analiza el imaginario simbólico de este proceso de la narrativa mexicana en cuatro casos fundantes del siglo veinte, Juan Rulfo, José Revueltas, Rosario Castellanos y Luis Carrión, y en cuatro obras de los albores del siglo veintiuno de Aline Pettersson, Pedro Áng el Palou, Patricia Laurent Kullick y Socorro Venegas. Desde el punto de vista de losos referentes teórico-o-críticos literarios, el trabajo parte de los planteamientos mitocríticos de Gilbert Durand, discursivos de Mijaíl Bajtín y semióticos de Iuri Lotman.

  19. Production of antihypertensive peptides by enzymatic zein hydrolysate from maize-zea mays ssp. mexicana introgression line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Zhang, X.; Qiao, Y.; Qu, M.

    2014-01-01

    Teosintes are essential gene reservoir for maize breeding improvement, among which Zea mays ssp. mexicana has many valuable traits deserved to be transferred into maize genetic background. In this study, one maize-teosinte introgression line SD00100 was selected from the population of Zea mays ssp. mexicana as wild parent. This introgression line manifested the outstanding agricultural traits similar to maize parent Ye 515 and alien genetic material was identified by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). To produce bioactive peptides with potent angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, zein extracted from endosperm meal was then undergone enzymatic hydrolysis with thermolysin and the hydrolysate was then filtered through a 3 kDa cut-off membrane. ACE inhibitory activity of permeate from Ye 515 and SD00100 was evaluated by RP-HPLC. The IC50 values of the peptides obtained from maize parent and the introgression line were 96.9 micro g/ml and 22.9 micro g/ml, respectively, with significant difference between them. Our results showed that an outstanding inbred maize line was obtained for production of antihypertensive peptides as well as for further development of functional food. (author)

  20. Outbreeding and lack of temporal genetic structure in a drone congregation of the neotropical stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Matthias Y; Moritz, Robin Fa; Kraus, F Bernhard

    2012-06-01

    Drone aggregations are a widespread phenomenon in many stingless bee species (Meliponini), but the ultimate and proximate causes for their formation are still not well understood. One adaptive explanation for this phenomenon is the avoidance of inbreeding, which is especially detrimental for stingless bees due to the combined effects of the complementary sex-determining system and the small effective population size caused by eusociality and monandry. We analyzed the temporal genetic dynamics of a drone aggregation of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana with microsatellite markers over a time window of four weeks. We estimated the drones of the aggregation to originate from a total of 55 colonies using sibship re-construction. There was no detectable temporal genetic differentiation or sub-structuring in the aggregation. Most important, we could exclude all colonies in close proximity of the aggregation as origin of the drones in the aggregation, implicating that they originate from more distant colonies. We conclude that the diverse genetic composition and the distant origin of the drones of the S. mexicana drone congregation provides an effective mechanism to avoid mating among close relatives.

  1. High precision during food recruitment of experienced (reactivated) foragers in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana (Apidae, Meliponini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Daniel; Nieh, James C.; Hénaut, Yann; Cruz, Leopoldo; Vandame, Rémy

    Several studies have examined the existence of recruitment communication mechanisms in stingless bees. However, the spatial accuracy of location-specific recruitment has not been examined. Moreover, the location-specific recruitment of reactivated foragers, i.e., foragers that have previously experienced the same food source at a different location and time, has not been explicitly examined. However, such foragers may also play a significant role in colony foraging, particularly in small colonies. Here we report that reactivated Scaptotrigona mexicana foragers can recruit with high precision to a specific food location. The recruitment precision of reactivated foragers was evaluated by placing control feeders to the left and the right of the training feeder (direction-precision tests) and between the nest and the training feeder and beyond it (distance-precision tests). Reactivated foragers arrived at the correct location with high precision: 98.44% arrived at the training feeder in the direction trials (five-feeder fan-shaped array, accuracy of at least +/-6° of azimuth at 50 m from the nest), and 88.62% arrived at the training feeder in the distance trials (five-feeder linear array, accuracy of at least +/-5 m or +/-10% at 50 m from the nest). Thus, S. mexicana reactivated foragers can find the indicated food source at a specific distance and direction with high precision, higher than that shown by honeybees, Apis mellifera, which do not communicate food location at such close distances to the nest.

  2. A Native American Theatre Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kent R.

    1973-01-01

    The ceremonial rituals American Indians have practiced for centuries are uncontestable testimony to how strongly they respond to theatre. These rituals, a pure and functional form of dramatic art, are practiced today by a Native American theater group. (FF)

  3. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinya Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  4. Native Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are...

  5. Caracterização de três genótipos de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. por marcadores RAPD Characterization of three mume genotypes (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Um projeto de pesquisa visando à utilização de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. como porta-enxertos para pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] está sendo conduzido na FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, com promissoras perspectivas de sucesso. Três genótipos de umezeiro foram selecionados de acordo com características agronômicas desejáveis para esta finalidade. A distinção dos três genótipos entre si, baseada exclusivamente em características morfológicas, apresenta limitações. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar marcadores RAPD capazes de diferenciar e caracterizar os Clones 05, 15 e a cv. Rigitano (Clone 10 de umezeiro, utilizando-se das cultivares Aurora-1 e Okinawa de pessegueiro como outgroup. Dos 220 primers testados, foram selecionados 42, que amplificaram todos os cinco genótipos. Verificou-se que os marcadores RAPD permitiram a distinção entre o Clone 05, o Clone 15 e a cv. Rigitano de umezeiro, demonstrando a existência de variabilidade genética entre os mesmos. Dentre os três genótipos de umezeiro estudados, constatou-se que a similaridade genética é maior entre o Clone 05 e o Clone 15.A research project with the objective do develop mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., to be used as rootstocks for peach tree [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] is been carried out at the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. These project showed promising perspectives of success, with three clones that were selected according to their characteristics for peach rootstock. But the distinction of the three clones among them, based only in morphologic characteristics, has presented limitations. The objective of the present research was to identify RAPD markers able to characterize and differentiate the 05 and 15 Clones and Rigitano mume cultivar, using Aurora-1 and Okinawa peach tree as outgroup. Among the 220 tested

  6. Native Geoscience: Pathways to Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.; Seielstad, G.

    2006-12-01

    We are living in a definite time of change. Distinct changes are being experienced in our most sacred and natural environments. This is especially true on Native lands. Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways. The knowledge of balancing the needs of people with the needs of our natural environments is paramount in all tribal societies. This inherent accumulated knowledge has become the foundation on which to build a "blended" contemporary understanding of western science. The Dakota's and Northern California have embraced the critical need of understanding successful tribal strategies to engage educational systems (K-12 and higher education), to bring to prominence the professional development opportunities forged through working with tribal peoples and ensure the continued growth of Native earth and environmental scientists The presentation will highlight: 1) past and present philosophies on building and maintaining Native/Tribal students in earth and environmental sciences; 2) successful educational programs/activities in PreK-Ph.D. systems; 3) current Native leadership development in earth and environmental sciences; and 4) forward thinking for creating proaction collaborations addressing sustainable environmental, educational and social infrastructures for all people. Humboldt State University (HSU) and the University of North Dakota's Northern Great Plains Center for People and the Environment and the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC) have been recognized nationally for their partnerships with Native communities. Unique collaborations are emerging "bridging" Native people across geographic areas in developing educational/research experiences which integrate the distinctive earth/environmental knowledge of tribal people. The presentation will highlight currently funded projects and initiatives as well as success stories of emerging Native earth system students and scientists.

  7. The Rise of native advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Marius MANIC

    2015-01-01

    Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear ob...

  8. Validez interna y utilidad diagnóstica del Eating Disorders Inventory en mujeres mexicanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-García Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la utilidad diagnóstica y la validez interna del Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2 en mujeres mexicanas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: De octubre de 2000 a enero de 2001 se invitó a participar a todas las mujeres que a juicio de los psiquiatras de la consulta de anorexia del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, de la Ciudad de México, padecían anorexia nervosa o bulimia, sin otra patología psiquiátrica. Es un estudio observacional, comparativo, transversal y prolectivo de dos grupos de mujeres: pacientes de la Clínica de Anorexia del Instituto y de una escuela de la Ciudad de México. Se realizó una entrevista clínica estructurada como estándar de oro (SCID/Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales y la aplicación del Eating Disorder Inventory. El análisis estadístico incluyó t de Student para muestras independientes, coeficiente alpha de Cronbach, sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y negativo. RESULTADOS: No hubo diferencias significativas en peso, talla e índice de masa corporal entre los grupos. La edad de las mujeres sin trastorno alimentario fue menor (16.7±2.8 vs. 19.9±4.3, p=0.004. La calificación total del Eating Disorder Inventory fue claramente diferente (53.8±32.4 mujeres sin trastorno alimentario vs. 146.3±45.6 pacientes, p<0.001. Para todas las subescalas los coeficientes alpha de Cronbach fueron superiores a 0.85. Para la calificación total se sugiere un punto de corte sensible de 80 [sensibilidad 90.9 (IC 95% 69.4-98.4, especificidad 80 (IC 95% 58.7-92.4], y uno específico de 105 [sensibilidad 81.8 (IC 95% 59-94, especificidad 89.3 (IC 95% 70.6-97.2]. CONCLUSIONES: El Eating Disorder Inventory es útil para investigar trastorno alimentario, con coeficientes de validez interna altos en la población estudiada.

  9. DIABETES MELLITUS COMO FACTOR DE RIESGO DE DEMENCIA EN LA POBLACIÓN ADULTA MAYOR MEXICANA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, Mejía-Arango; Clemente, y Zúñiga-Gil

    2012-01-01

    Introduccion La diabetes mellitus y las demencias constituyen dos problemas crecientes de salud entre la población adulta mayor del mundo y en particular de los paises en desarrollo. Hacen falta estudios longitudinales sobre el papel de la diabetes como factor de riesgo para demencia. Objetivo Determinar el riesgo de demencia en sujetos Mexicanos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Materiales y Metodos Los sujetos diabéticos libres de demencia pertenecientes al Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México fueron evaluados a los dos años de la línea de base. Se estudió el papel de los factores sociodemográficos, de otras comorbilidades y del tipo de tratamiento en la conversión a demencia. Resultados Durante la línea de base 749 sujetos (13.8%) tuvieron diabetes. El riesgo de desarrollar demencia en estos individuos fue el doble (RR, 2.08 IC 95%, 1.59–2.73). Se encontró un riesgo mayor en individuos de 80 años y más (RR 2.44 IC 95%, 1.46–4.08), en los hombres (RR, 2.25 IC 95%, 1.46–3.49) y en sujetos con nivel educativo menor de 7 años. El estar bajo tratamiento con insulina incrementó el riesgo de demencia (RR, 2.83, IC 95%, 1.58–5.06). Las otras comorbilidades que aumentaron el riesgo de demencia en los pacientes diabéticos fueron la hipertensión (RR, 2.75, IC 95%, 1.86–4.06) y la depresión (RR, 3.78, 95% IC 2.37–6.04). Conclusión Los sujetos con diabetes mellitus tienen un riesgo mayor de desarrollar demencia, La baja escolaridad y otras comorbilidades altamente prevalentes en la población Mexicana contribuyen a la asociación diabetes-demencia. PMID:21948010

  10. Insights into the Prunus-Specific S-RNase-Based Self-Incompatibility System from a Genome-Wide Analysis of the Evolutionary Radiation of S Locus-Related F-box Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Takashi; Henry, Isabelle M; Morimoto, Takuya; Tao, Ryutaro

    2016-06-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is an important plant reproduction mechanism that facilitates the maintenance of genetic diversity within species. Three plant families, the Solanaceae, Rosaceae and Plantaginaceae, share an S-RNase-based gametophytic SI (GSI) system that involves a single S-RNase as the pistil S determinant and several F-box genes as pollen S determinants that act via non-self-recognition. Previous evidence has suggested a specific self-recognition mechanism in Prunus (Rosaceae), raising questions about the generality of the S-RNase-based GSI system. We investigated the evolution of the pollen S determinant by comparing the sequences of the Prunus S haplotype-specific F-box gene (SFB) with those of its orthologs in other angiosperm genomes. Our results indicate that the Prunus SFB does not cluster with the pollen S of other plants and diverged early after the establishment of the Eudicots. Our results further indicate multiple F-box gene duplication events, specifically in the Rosaceae family, and suggest that the Prunus SFB gene originated in a recent Prunus-specific gene duplication event. Transcriptomic and evolutionary analyses of the Prunus S paralogs are consistent with the establishment of a Prunus-specific SI system, and the possibility of subfunctionalization differentiating the newly generated SFB from the original pollen S determinant. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Using Perls Staining to Trace the Iron Uptake Pathway in Leaves of a Prunus Rootstock Treated with Iron Foliar Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Juan J; Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves of Prunus rootstock (GF 677; Prunus dulcis × Prunus persica) plants treated with foliar Fe compounds using the Perls blue method, which detects labile Fe pools. Young expanded leaves of Fe-deficient plants grown in nutrient solution were treated with Fe-compounds using a brush. Iron compounds used were the ferrous salt FeSO4, the ferric salts Fe2(SO4)3 and FeCl3, and the chelate Fe(III)-EDTA, all of them at concentrations of 9 mM Fe. Leaf Fe concentration increases were measured at 30, 60, 90 min, and 24 h, and 70 μm-thick leaf transversal sections were obtained with a vibrating microtome and stained with Perls blue. In vitro results show that the Perls blue method is a good tool to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves when using Fe salts, but is not sensitive enough when using synthetic Fe(III)-chelates such as Fe(III)-EDTA and Fe(III)-IDHA. Foliar Fe fertilization increased leaf Fe concentrations with all Fe compounds used, with inorganic Fe salts causing larger leaf Fe concentration increases than Fe(III)-EDTA. Results show that Perls blue stain appeared within 30 min in the stomatal areas, indicating that Fe applied as inorganic salts was taken up rapidly via stomata. In the case of using FeSO4 a progression of the stain was seen with time toward vascular areas in the leaf blade and the central vein, whereas in the case of Fe(III) salts the stain mainly remained in the stomatal areas. Perls stain was never observed in the mesophyll areas, possibly due to the low concentration of labile Fe pools.

  12. Lutzomyia gasparviannai Martins, Godoy & Silva, 1962, probable vector of Leishmania mexicana ssp. in Viana municipality, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Falqueto,Aloísio; Grimaldi Júnior,Gabriel; Sessa,Paulo Augusto; Varejão,José Benedito Malta; Deane,Leonidas M.

    1985-01-01

    Dos flebótomos atraídos pelo Proechimys iheringi numa área onde esse roedor foi achado naturalmente infectado por Leishmania mexicana ssp., 98,1% foram Lutzomyia gasparviannai, o que sugere que essa espécie não antropofílica seja o transmissor entre os roedores mas não habitualmente ao homem.

  13. «Recetario de cocina mexicana»: edición semidiplomática y modernizada de un manuscrito inédito del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Echeverría Echeverría

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Neste trabalho apresentam-se amostras de edição semidiplomática e modernizada do texto manuscrito inédito intitulado Recetario de cocina mexicana (Mss/23133/15, ca. 1850, que se guarda na Biblioteca Nacional de España, em Madri. Para terminar, acrescenta-se um comentário linguístico sobre alguns aspectos destacáveis do recetuário. Palavras-chave: Crítica textual; edição; manuscrito; cozinha mexicana; século XIX.  Resumen: En este trabajo se presentan muestras de edición semidiplomática y modernizada del texto manuscrito inédito titulado Recetario de cocina mexicana (Mss/23133/15, ca. 1850, que se guarda en la Biblioteca Nacional de España, en Madrid. Para terminar, se incluye un comentario lingüístico sobre algunos aspectos destacables del recetario. Palabras-clave: Crítica textual; edición; manuscrito; cocina mexicana; siglo XIX.  Keywords: Textual criticism; edition; manuscript; Mexican cuisine; XIXth century.

  14. Leishmania mexicana: aspectos taxonómicos y rareza de la infección humana en Três Braços, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Cuba Cuba

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available Del estúdio de 51 stocks de Leishmania aislados de pacientes humanos de leishmaniasis cutaneomucosa en Três Braços, Bahia, Brasil, los autores describen, en detalle, el análisis de los dos únicos stocks de L. mexicana, identificando uno de ellos como L. mexicana amazonensis. El otro aislado permanece en posición taxonómica no definida pues considerándosele como un miembro de L. mexicana, encuéntranse dificultades para su identificación subespecífica. Evaluan también los parâmetros biológicos e isoenzimáticos y discuten el papel de los anticuerpos monoclonales en la tipificación de éstos stocks. Los autores remarcan la rareza de la transmisión de parásitos del complejo L. mexicana en esta región, aun cuando estudien epidemiológicamente por mais de 8 anos la infección humana.

  15. Vegetative and seedling regeneration of pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica): Efficacy of herbicide treatment. NODA note No. 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, A U; Bell, F W; Peterson, G W

    1996-11-01

    Pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica L.) is a major competing plant commonly found in young conifer plantations in both boreal and northern hardwood forests. This note describes and presents results of a study conducted to determine, for pin cherry, the ratio of the current year`s seedling recruitment versus the previous year`s stem density; seed production; the soil seed bank; and the efficacy of a glyphosate herbicide treatment to control this competitor. The study was carried out in a seven-year-old jack pine plantation north of Atikokan, Ontario.

  16. Phylogeny of isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus from the Ilarvirus Ringtest and identification of group-specific features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R W

    2003-06-01

    Isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were examined to establish the level of naturally occurring sequence variation in the coat protein (CP) gene and to identify group-specific genome features that may prove valuable for the generation of diagnostic reagents. Phylogenetic analysis of a 452 bp sequence of 68 virus isolates, 20 obtained from the European Union Ilarvirus Ringtest held in October 1998, confirmed the clustering of the isolates into three distinct groups. Although no correlation was found between the sequence and host or geographic origin, there was a general trend for severe isolates to cluster into one group. Group-specific features have been identified for discrimination between virus strains.

  17. Compared leaf anatomy and water relations of commercial and traditional Prunus dulcis (Mill.) cultivars under rain-fed conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, I.; Meyer, A.; Afonso, S.

    2018-01-01

    Leaf anatomy and water relations of seven almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) cultivars, traditional (Bonita, Casanova, Parada, Pegarinhos and Verdeal) and commercial (Ferragnès and Glorieta), grown under rain-fed conditions, were studied. The performed measurements included thickness of leaf tissues...... cuticle thickness, while Pegarinhos adds a thicker epidermis and palisade parenchyma to increase protection to water loss. These data is one of the first comparative approaches to the leaf characterization of these cultivars, and should now be combined with physiological and biochemical studies...

  18. Identidad mexicana e interés político: Predictores de bienestar social y anomia Identidad mexicana e interés político: Predictores de bienestar social y anomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Yañez Velasco

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the hypothesis that perceived differences in Mexican identity and political interest condition social well-being and the perception of anomie. The three dimensions of Tajfel’s social identity theory was adopted to measure Mexican identity, as well as the five dimensions of Keyes’s model for social well-being. A sample of 211 subjects of voting age from the State of Colima, Mexico, filled out a battery of three questionnaires and sociodemographic data. Results show that individuals with a high level of Mexican identity and political interest perceive high levels of social well-being and low level of anomie compared with those who scored low. Correlations were positive for social well-being and negative for anomie, with respect to identity and political interest. The factor of identity affirmation and identification predicted better social integration and actualization, components of social well-being.  Este estudio pone a prueba el supuesto de que las diferencias percibidas en la identidad mexicana y en el interés en la política condicionan la percepción del bienestar social y de la anomia social. Se adoptó la teoría de la identidad social de Tajfel de tres dimensiones para medir la identidad mexicana y el modelo de cinco dimensiones de Keyes para el bienestar social. Una muestra de 211 participantes en edad de votar del estado de Colima, México, contestó una batería de tres cuestionarios y datos sociodemográficos. Los resultados muestran que los individuos con un alto nivel de identidad mexicana y de interés por la política, comparados con los que tienen bajo nivel, perciben mayores niveles de bienestar social y menor nivel de anomia. Las correlaciones de la identidad y el interés por la política fueron positivas para el bienestar social y negativas para la anomia, respectivamente. El factor afirmación e identificación con la identidad predijo mejor la integración y actualización social, componentes del

  19. Nativization Processes in L1 Esperanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Benjamin K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes characteristics of the Native Esperanto of eight speakers, ranging from age 6 to 14 years. Found bilingualism and nativization effects, differentiating native from non-native Esperanto speech. Among these effects are loss or modification of the accusative case, phonological reduction, attrition of tense/aspect system, and pronominal…

  20. La Cultura, Retos y Responsabilidad de las Pymes Mexicanas Respecto de las Relaciones Comerciales con Empresas Estadounidenses Frente a la Globalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    osé Luis Chávez Chávez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El entorno actual de los negocios internacionales caracterizado principalmente por el fenómeno de la globalización, el cual ha traído consigo muchos cambios en todos los campos del quehacer humano, una gran interdependencia de los mercados y las naciones, revoluciones tecnológicas y de información, creando así un entorno muy competitivo e incierto para las PYMES mexicanas en el ámbito de los negocios con los Estados Unidos por lo que se deben identificar los retos y oportunidades para éstas en la actualidad. Existen varios retos a los que deberán enfrentarse las PYMES mexicanas pero sin embargo, se plantea como principal reto el factor cultural, pues al superarse y mejorarse este aspecto se podría implantar de una manera más fácil la nueva cultura de negocios con los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica, ya que las empresas mexicanas nunca se han caracterizado por tener una cultura empresarial fuerte, y peor aún, en algunas organizaciones mexicanas pareciera que no cuentan con una cultura dentro de ellas, situación que limita su participación en los negocios con los Estados Unidos, debido a que en la actualidad el aspecto humano, así como el cultural dentro de la organización son los principales factores para mejorar la competitividad con los americanos y de las empresas mexicanas.

  1. Efeito do ácido indolbutírico no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de plantas de ameixeira (Prunus salicina, Lindl. Effect of indolbutyric acid on the rooting of plum branch cuttings (Prunus sofrena, Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kersten

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de quatro concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (IBA, no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de ameixeira (Prunus salicina, Lindl., coletadas de plantas tratadas com bórax e sulfato de zinco e controle, executado em quatro épocas. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em viveiros, sob condição de nebulização artificial intermitente. Os resultados obtidos mostram a influência de cultivar, época e concentração de IBA, não sendo verificado efeito de bórax ou sulfato de zinco na percentagem de estacas enraizadas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of four concentrations of indolbutyric acid on the rooting of plum branch cuttings (Prunus salicina, Lindl. collected from plants treated with borax and zinc sulfate, in four periods. The experiments were conducted in a nursery with intermitent artificial mist conditions. The results showed a positive effect of cultivars, periods and IBA concentrations, and there was no effect of either borax or zinc sulfate on rooting of branch cuttings.

  2. Genome wide identification of chilling responsive microRNAs in Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barakat Abdelali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNAs (sRNAs approximately 21 nucleotides in length that negatively control gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. Within this context, miRNAs and siRNAs are coming to the forefront as molecular mediators of gene regulation in plant responses to annual temperature cycling and cold stress. For this reason, we chose to identify and characterize the conserved and non-conserved miRNA component of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch focusing our efforts on both the recently released whole genome sequence of peach and sRNA transcriptome sequences from two tissues representing non-dormant leaves and dormant leaf buds. Conserved and non-conserved miRNAs, and their targets were identified. These sRNA resources were used to identify cold-responsive miRNAs whose gene targets co-localize with previously described QTLs for chilling requirement (CR. Results Analysis of 21 million peach sRNA reads allowed us to identify 157 and 230 conserved and non-conserved miRNA sequences. Among the non-conserved miRNAs, we identified 205 that seem to be specific to peach. Comparative genome analysis between peach and Arabidopsis showed that conserved miRNA families, with the exception of miR5021, are similar in size. Sixteen of these conserved miRNA families are deeply rooted in land plant phylogeny as they are present in mosses and/or lycophytes. Within the other conserved miRNA families, five families (miR1446, miR473, miR479, miR3629, and miR3627 were reported only in tree species (Populustrichocarpa, Citrus trifolia, and Prunus persica. Expression analysis identified several up-regulated or down-regulated miRNAs in winter buds versus young leaves. A search of the peach proteome allowed the prediction of target genes for most of the conserved miRNAs and a large fraction of non-conserved miRNAs. A fraction of predicted targets in peach have not been previously reported in other

  3. Genotyping by sequencing for SNP-based linkage analysis and identification of QTLs linked to fruit quality traits in Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) in stone fruit (Prunus species) breeding is currently difficult to achieve due to the polygenic nature of themost relevant agronomic traits linked to fruit quality. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS), however, provides a large quantity of useful data suitable for finemapp...

  4. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FOLIAR INJURY RESPONSES OF PRUNUS SEROTINA, FRAXINUS AMERICANA, AND ACER RUBRUM SEEDLINGS TO VARYING SOIL MOISTURE AND OZONE. (R825244)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings wer...

  5. Wintercuring of Prunus dulcis cv ‘Butte,’ P. webbii and their interspecific hybrid in response to Xylella fastidiosa infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonal replicates of Prunus dulcis cv ‘Butte,’ P. webbii and their interspecific hybrid P 63-61 were inoculated with Xylella fastidiosa strain M23 and evaluated for Almond Leaf Scorch Disease and subsequent wintercuring of infections during three growing seasons. Initial inoculations established gr...

  6. Mining microsatellites in the peach genome: development of new long-core SSR markers for genetic analyses in five Prunus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettori, Maria Teresa; Micali, Sabrina; Giovinazzi, Jessica; Scalabrin, Simone; Verde, Ignazio; Cipriani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    A wide inventory of molecular markers is nowadays available for individual fingerprinting. Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), play a relevant role due to their relatively ease of use, their abundance in the plant genomes, and their co-dominant nature, together with the availability of primer sequences in many important agricultural crops. Microsatellites with long-core motifs are more easily scored and were adopted long ago in human genetics but they were developed only in few crops, and Prunus species are not among them. In the present work the peach whole-genome sequence was used to select 216 SSRs containing long-core motifs with tri-, tetra- and penta-nucleotide repeats. Microsatellite primer pairs were designed and tested for polymorphism in the five diploid Prunus species of economic relevance (almond, apricot, Japanese plum, peach and sweet cherry). A set of 26 microsatellite markers covering all the eight chromosomes, was also selected and used in the molecular characterization, population genetics and structure analyses of a representative sample of the five diploid Prunus species, assessing their transportability and effectiveness. The combined probability of identity between two random individuals for the whole set of 26 SSRs was quite low, ranging from 2.30 × 10(-7) in peach to 9.48 × 10(-10) in almond, confirming the usefulness of the proposed set for fingerprinting analyses in Prunus species.

  7. An in situ, seasonal study of volatiles from a single cultivar of Prunus dulcis, and their relationship to navel orangeworm moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonpareil almonds, Prunus dulcis, account for the largest percentage of almond varieties grown in the Central and San Joaquin valleys of California. Several studies have investigated the various non-volatile and volatile components of various plant parts; however, the volatile organic compound (VOC)...

  8. Investigation of the aroma of commercial peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) types by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and sensory analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso Ferreira Pinhancos de Bianchi, Tiago; Weesepoel, Yannick; Koot, Alex; Iglesias, Ignasi; Eduardo, Iban; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Guerrero, Luis; Hortós, Maria; Ruth, van Saskia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the aroma and sensory profiles of various types of peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch.). Forty-three commercial cultivars comprising peaches, flat peaches, nectarines, and canning peaches (pavías) were grown over two consecutive harvest years. Fruits were

  9. Sucrose and light effects on in vitro cultures of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana L.) and Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) during low temperature storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruski, K.; Kozai, T.; Lewis, T.; Astatkie, T.; Nowak, J.

    2000-01-01

    Cultures of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. Atlantic, chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana L.) cv. Garrington and saskatoon berry (Amelancher alnifolia Nutt.) cv. Northline grown in vitro for 3 weeks at 24/22 °C, 16-h photoperiod, 150 μmol m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) mixed

  10. Ectopic expression of class 1 KNOX genes induce and adventitious shoot regeneration and alter growth and development of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and plum (Prunus domestica L) were produced by transforming with apple class 1 KNOX genes (MdKN1 and MdKN2) or corn KN1 gene. Transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated in vitro from transformed leaf discs cultured in a tissue medium lacking cytoki...

  11. Physiological and foliar symptom response of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ozone under differing site conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Schaub; J.M. Skelly; J.W. Zhang; J.A. Ferdinand; J.E. Savage; R.E. Stevenson; D.D. Davis; K.C. Steiner

    2005-01-01

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry ( Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash ( Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple ( Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania....

  12. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rubio

    Full Text Available RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925, which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  13. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka) Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Manuel; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Olivares, Pedro Manuel; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  14. Whole genome comparisons of Fragaria, Prunus and Malus reveal different modes of evolution between Rosaceous subfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sook; Cestaro, Alessandro; Troggio, Michela; Main, Dorrie; Zheng, Ping; Cho, Ilhyung; Folta, Kevin M; Sosinski, Bryon; Abbott, Albert; Celton, Jean-Marc; Arús, Pere; Shulaev, Vladimir; Verde, Ignazio; Morgante, Michele; Rokhsar, Daniel; Velasco, Riccardo; Sargent, Daniel James

    2012-04-04

    Rosaceae include numerous economically important and morphologically diverse species. Comparative mapping between the member species in Rosaceae have indicated some level of synteny. Recently the whole genome of three crop species, peach, apple and strawberry, which belong to different genera of the Rosaceae family, have been sequenced, allowing in-depth comparison of these genomes. Our analysis using the whole genome sequences of peach, apple and strawberry identified 1399 orthologous regions between the three genomes, with a mean length of around 100 kb. Each peach chromosome showed major orthology mostly to one strawberry chromosome, but to more than two apple chromosomes, suggesting that the apple genome went through more chromosomal fissions in addition to the whole genome duplication after the divergence of the three genera. However, the distribution of contiguous ancestral regions, identified using the multiple genome rearrangements and ancestors (MGRA) algorithm, suggested that the Fragaria genome went through a greater number of small scale rearrangements compared to the other genomes since they diverged from a common ancestor. Using the contiguous ancestral regions, we reconstructed a hypothetical ancestral genome for the Rosaceae 7 composed of nine chromosomes and propose the evolutionary steps from the ancestral genome to the extant Fragaria, Prunus and Malus genomes. Our analysis shows that different modes of evolution may have played major roles in different subfamilies of Rosaceae. The hypothetical ancestral genome of Rosaceae and the evolutionary steps that lead to three different lineages of Rosaceae will facilitate our understanding of plant genome evolution as well as have a practical impact on knowledge transfer among member species of Rosaceae.

  15. Genome-wide analysis of the GRAS gene family in Prunus mume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiuxing; Wang, Tao; Xu, Zongda; Sun, Lidan; Zhang, Qixiang

    2015-02-01

    Prunus mume is an ornamental flower and fruit tree in Rosaceae. We investigated the GRAS gene family to improve the breeding and cultivation of P. mume and other Rosaceae fruit trees. The GRAS gene family encodes transcriptional regulators that have diverse functions in plant growth and development, such as gibberellin and phytochrome A signal transduction, root radial patterning, and axillary meristem formation and gametogenesis in the P. mume genome. Despite the important roles of these genes in plant growth regulation, no findings on the GRAS genes of P. mume have been reported. In this study, we discerned phylogenetic relationships of P. mume GRAS genes, and their locations, structures in the genome and expression levels of different tissues. Out of 46 identified GRAS genes, 45 were located on the 8 P. mume chromosomes. Phylogenetic results showed that these genes could be classified into 11 groups. We found that Group X was P. mume-specific, and three genes of Group IX clustered with the rice-specific gene Os4. We speculated that these genes existed before the divergence of dicotyledons and monocotyledons and were lost in Arabidopsis. Tissue expression analysis indicated that 13 genes showed high expression levels in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, and were related to plant growth and development. Functional analysis of 24 GRAS genes and an orthologous relationship analysis indicated that many functioned during plant growth and flower and fruit development. Our bioinformatics analysis provides valuable information to improve the economic, agronomic and ecological benefits of P. mume and other Rosaceae fruit trees.

  16. Epicuticular wax on cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) leaves does not constitute the cuticular transpiration barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Epicuticular wax of cherry laurel does not contribute to the formation of the cuticular transpiration barrier, which must be established by intracuticular wax. Barrier properties of cuticles are established by cuticular wax deposited on the outer surface of the cuticle (epicuticular wax) and in the cutin polymer (intracuticular wax). It is still an open question to what extent epi- and/or intracuticular waxes contribute to the formation of the transpiration barrier. Epicuticular wax was mechanically removed from the surfaces of isolated cuticles and intact leaf disks of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.) by stripping with different polymers (collodion, cellulose acetate and gum arabic). Scanning electron microscopy showed that two consecutive treatments with all three polymers were sufficient to completely remove epicuticular wax since wax platelets disappeared and cuticle surfaces appeared smooth. Waxes in consecutive polymer strips and wax remaining in the cuticle after treatment with the polymers were determined by gas chromatography. This confirmed that two treatments of the polymers were sufficient for selectively removing epicuticular wax. Water permeability of isolated cuticles and cuticles covering intact leaf disks was measured using (3)H-labelled water before and after selectively removing epicuticular wax. Cellulose acetate and its solvent acetone led to a significant increase of cuticular permeability, indicating that the organic solvent acetone affected the cuticular transpiration barrier. However, permeability did not change after two subsequent treatments with collodion and gum arabic or after treatment with the corresponding solvents (diethyl ether:ethanol or water). Thus, in the case of P. laurocerasus the epicuticular wax does not significantly contribute to the formation of the cuticular transpiration barrier, which evidently must be established by the intracuticular wax.

  17. Evolutionary relationships in the ilarviruses: nucleotide sequence of prunus necrotic ringspot virus RNA 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Navarro, J A; Pallás, V

    1997-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an isolate of prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) RNA 3 has been determined. Elucidation of the amino acid sequence of the proteins encoded by the two large open reading frames (ORFs) allowed us to carry out comparative and phylogenetic studies on the movement (MP) and coat (CP) proteins in the ilarvirus group. Amino acid sequence comparison of the MP revealed a highly conserved basic sequence motif with an amphipathic alpha-helical structure preceding the conserved motif of the '30K superfamily' proposed by Mushegian and Koonin [26] for MP's. Within this '30K' motif a strictly conserved transmembrane domain is present in all ilarviruses sequenced so far. At the amino-terminal end, prune dwarf virus (PDV) has an extension not present in other ilarviruses but which is observed in all bromo- and cucumoviruses, suggesting a common ancestor or a recombinational event in the Bromoviridae family. Examination of the N-terminus of the CP's of all ilarviruses revealed a highly basic region, part of which resembles the Arg-rich motif that has been characterized in the RNA-binding protein family. This motif has also been found in the other members of the Bromoviridae family, suggesting its involvement in a structural function. Furthermore this region is required for infectivity in ilarviruses. The similarities found in this Arg-rich motif are discussed in terms of this process known as genome activation. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of both the MP and CP proteins revealed a higher relationship of A1MV to PNRSV, apple mosaic virus (ApMV) and PDV than any other member of the ilarvirus group. In that sense, A1MV should be considered as a true ilarvirus instead of forming a distinct group of viruses.

  18. The complete nucleotide sequence of RNA 3 of a peach isolate of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R W; Crosslin, J M

    1995-04-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of RNA 3 of the PE-5 peach isolate of Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV) was obtained from cloned cDNA. The RNA sequence is 1941 nucleotides and contains two open reading frames (ORFs). ORF 1 consisted of 284 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 31,729 Da and ORF 2 contained 224 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 25,018 Da. ORF 2 corresponds to the coat protein gene. Expression of ORF 2 engineered into a pTrcHis vector in Escherichia coli results in a fusion polypeptide of approximately 28 kDa which cross-reacts with PNRSV polyclonal antiserum. Analysis of the coat protein amino acid sequence reveals a putative "zinc-finger" domain at the amino-terminal portion of the protein. Two tetranucleotide AUGC motifs occur in the 3'-UTR of the RNA and may function in coat protein binding and genome activation. ORF 1 homologies to other ilarviruses and alfalfa mosaic virus are confined to limited regions of conserved amino acids. The translated amino acid sequence of the coat protein gene shows 92% similarity to one isolate of apple mosaic virus, a closely related member of the ilarvirus group of plant viruses, but only 66% similarity to the amino acid sequence of the coat protein gene of a second isolate. These relationships are also reflected at the nucleotide sequence level. These results in one instance confirm the close similarities observed at the biophysical and serological levels between these two viruses, but on the other hand call into question the nomenclature used to describe these viruses.

  19. Management of genetic resources in the nursery system of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

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    Proietti R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of genetic and adaptive traits of reproductive materials used in the nursery system of wild cherry, could be an useful instrument to improve ecological and economic sustainability of plantation ecosystems. This work reports results from a research which the objectives were: 1 to study the genetic variation of a Prunus avium L. Population, used for seed harvesting, through its multi-locus genotypes detected by starch gel electrophoresis; 2 to analyze the level of genetic variation within and among different steps in a commercial nursery system (basic population and sub-populations, seedlings aged S1T1 and S1T2, plantation. Results showed low genetic variation levels of the basic population, similar to a reference system of other 12 wild cherry Italian populations and to other French and Caucasian materials. The genetic distances among Monte Baldo and some closer Lombardy provenances (Area Garda, Bosco Fontana, Valtellina were smaller than the Venice Region populations (Monti Lessini and Asiago. Number of alleles and percentage of polymorphic loci within the complex of Monte Baldo provenance and multiplication materials were similar, whilst a variable value of Fis was noted. Indeed, along with the nursery system until the plantation, heterozygosis initially (S1T1 increased, then decreased proceeding to the plantation. This fluctuation of FIS values could be determined by seed lots characterized initially by higher levels of variation, due to self-incompatibility. In the following steps, a possible selection pressure can affect randomly the genotypic structure of wild cherry by increasing the homozygosity. There is not among population a well defined geographic characterization, as suggested by genetic distances, therefore homogeneous seed harvest could be established an area larger than geographic and administrative borders. On this way we could have reproductive material with a wide genetic base and environmental adaptability. To

  20. Molecular cloning, identification, and chromosomal localization of two MADS box genes in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Xu, Yong; Ma, Rongcai

    2008-06-01

    MADS box proteins play an important role in floral development. To find genes involved in the floral transition of Prunus species, cDNAs for two MADS box genes, PpMADS1 and PpMADS10, were cloned using degenerate primers and 5'- and 3'-RACE based on the sequence database of P. persica and P. dulcis. The full length of PpMADS1 cDNA is 1,071 bp containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 717 bp and coding for a polypeptide of 238 amino acid residues. The full length of PpMADS10 cDNA is 937 bp containing an ORF of 633 bp and coding for a polypeptide of 210 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PpMADS1 and PpMADS10 were highly homologous to genes AP1 and PI in Arabidopsis, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PpMADS1 belongs to the euAP1 clade of class A, and PpMADS10 is a member of GLO/PI clade of class B. RT-PCR analysis showed that PpMADS1 was expressed in sepal, petal, carpel, and fruit, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1; PpMADS10 was expressed in petal and stamen, which shared the same expression pattern as PI. Using selective mapping strategy, PpMADS1 was assigned onto the Bin1:50 on the G1 linkage group between the markers MCO44 and TSA2, and PpMADS10 onto the Bin1:73 on the same linkage group between the markers Lap-1 and FGA8. Our results provided the basis for further dissection of the two MADS box gene function.

  1. Dual role of imidazole as activator/inhibitor of sweet almond (Prunus dulcis β-glucosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Caramia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The activity of Prunus dulcis (sweet almond β-glucosidase at the expense of p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside at pH 6 was determined, both under steady-state and pre-steady-state conditions. Using crude enzyme preparations, competitive inhibition by 1–5 mM imidazole was observed under both kinetic conditions tested. However, when imidazole was added to reaction mixtures at 0.125–0.250 mM, we detected a significant enzyme activation. To further inspect this effect exerted by imidazole, β-glucosidase was purified to homogeneity. Two enzyme isoforms were isolated, i.e. a full-length monomer, and a dimer containing a full-length and a truncated subunit. Dimeric β-glucosidase was found to perform much better than the monomeric enzyme, independently of the kinetic conditions used to assay enzyme activity. In addition, the sensitivity towards imidazole was found to differ between the two isoforms. While monomeric enzyme was indeed found to be relatively insensitive to imidazole, dimeric β-glucosidase was observed to be significantly activated by 0.125–0.250 mM imidazole under pre-steady-state conditions. Further, steady-state assays revealed that the addition of 0.125 mM imidazole to reaction mixtures increases the Km of dimeric enzyme from 2.3 to 6.7 mM. The activation of β-glucosidase dimer by imidazole is proposed to be exerted via a conformational transition poising the enzyme towards proficient catalysis.

  2. Caracterización de cultivares de duraznero (Prunus persica (L. Batsch. por resistencia a heladas

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    Javier Emilio Chaar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Las heladas primaverales son una de las principales limitantes de la producción de frutales de clima templado. Dentro de una misma especie existe variabilidad en resistencia frente al daño en órganos florales ocasionado por temperaturas bajo cero durante la salida del reposo invernal. En cinco cultivares de duraznero (Prunus persica (L. Batsch. y uno de nectarino se evaluó el daño ocasionado por heladas y se determinaron la fecha de plena floración y la densidad de floración. Adicionalmente se determinó la temperatura letal media (TL50 de las yemas florales en el estado de flor abierta, mediante descensos térmicos controlados en laboratorio. Los cultivares (cv de duraznero Maria Bianca y Summer Pearl presentaron las mayores densidades de flores sanas por cm de ramo, luego de la ocurrencia de temperaturas bajo cero en campo. La resistencia a heladas en campo se relacionó principalmente con la elevada densidad de floración, en combinación, en algunos casos, con floración tardía. La floración tardía por sí sola no resultó una característica de resistencia; por tanto, para la elección de cultivares de duraznero con menor riesgo de daño por temperaturas bajo cero es importante tener en cuenta más de una variable relacionada con los órganos reproductivos

  3. Dual role of imidazole as activator/inhibitor of sweet almond (Prunus dulcis) β-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramia, Sara; Gatius, Angela Gala Morena; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Gaja, Denis; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro

    2017-07-01

    The activity of Prunus dulcis (sweet almond) β-glucosidase at the expense of p -nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside at pH 6 was determined, both under steady-state and pre-steady-state conditions. Using crude enzyme preparations, competitive inhibition by 1-5 mM imidazole was observed under both kinetic conditions tested. However, when imidazole was added to reaction mixtures at 0.125-0.250 mM, we detected a significant enzyme activation. To further inspect this effect exerted by imidazole, β-glucosidase was purified to homogeneity. Two enzyme isoforms were isolated, i.e. a full-length monomer, and a dimer containing a full-length and a truncated subunit. Dimeric β-glucosidase was found to perform much better than the monomeric enzyme, independently of the kinetic conditions used to assay enzyme activity. In addition, the sensitivity towards imidazole was found to differ between the two isoforms. While monomeric enzyme was indeed found to be relatively insensitive to imidazole, dimeric β-glucosidase was observed to be significantly activated by 0.125-0.250 mM imidazole under pre-steady-state conditions. Further, steady-state assays revealed that the addition of 0.125 mM imidazole to reaction mixtures increases the K m of dimeric enzyme from 2.3 to 6.7 mM. The activation of β-glucosidase dimer by imidazole is proposed to be exerted via a conformational transition poising the enzyme towards proficient catalysis.

  4. Whole genome comparisons of Fragaria, Prunus and Malus reveal different modes of evolution between Rosaceous subfamilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sook

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rosaceae include numerous economically important and morphologically diverse species. Comparative mapping between the member species in Rosaceae have indicated some level of synteny. Recently the whole genome of three crop species, peach, apple and strawberry, which belong to different genera of the Rosaceae family, have been sequenced, allowing in-depth comparison of these genomes. Results Our analysis using the whole genome sequences of peach, apple and strawberry identified 1399 orthologous regions between the three genomes, with a mean length of around 100 kb. Each peach chromosome showed major orthology mostly to one strawberry chromosome, but to more than two apple chromosomes, suggesting that the apple genome went through more chromosomal fissions in addition to the whole genome duplication after the divergence of the three genera. However, the distribution of contiguous ancestral regions, identified using the multiple genome rearrangements and ancestors (MGRA algorithm, suggested that the Fragaria genome went through a greater number of small scale rearrangements compared to the other genomes since they diverged from a common ancestor. Using the contiguous ancestral regions, we reconstructed a hypothetical ancestral genome for the Rosaceae 7 composed of nine chromosomes and propose the evolutionary steps from the ancestral genome to the extant Fragaria, Prunus and Malus genomes. Conclusion Our analysis shows that different modes of evolution may have played major roles in different subfamilies of Rosaceae. The hypothetical ancestral genome of Rosaceae and the evolutionary steps that lead to three different lineages of Rosaceae will facilitate our understanding of plant genome evolution as well as have a practical impact on knowledge transfer among member species of Rosaceae.

  5. Multiple Events of Allopolyploidy in the Evolution of the Racemose Lineages in Prunus (Rosaceae Based on Integrated Evidence from Nuclear and Plastid Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhao

    Full Text Available Prunus is an economically important genus well-known for cherries, plums, almonds, and peaches. The genus can be divided into three major groups based on inflorescence structure and ploidy levels: (1 the diploid solitary-flower group (subg. Prunus, Amygdalus and Emplectocladus; (2 the diploid corymbose group (subg. Cerasus; and (3 the polyploid racemose group (subg. Padus, subg. Laurocerasus, and the Maddenia group. The plastid phylogeny suggests three major clades within Prunus: Prunus-Amygdalus-Emplectocladus, Cerasus, and Laurocerasus-Padus-Maddenia, while nuclear ITS trees resolve Laurocerasus-Padus-Maddenia as a paraphyletic group. In this study, we employed sequences of the nuclear loci At103, ITS and s6pdh to explore the origins and evolution of the racemose group. Two copies of the At103 gene were identified in Prunus. One copy is found in Prunus species with solitary and corymbose inflorescences as well as those with racemose inflorescences, while the second copy (II is present only in taxa with racemose inflorescences. The copy I sequences suggest that all racemose species form a paraphyletic group composed of four clades, each of which is definable by morphology and geography. The tree from the combined At103 and ITS sequences and the tree based on the single gene s6pdh had similar general topologies to the tree based on the copy I sequences of At103, with the combined At103-ITS tree showing stronger support in most clades. The nuclear At103, ITS and s6pdh data in conjunction with the plastid data are consistent with the hypothesis that multiple independent allopolyploidy events contributed to the origins of the racemose group. A widespread species or lineage may have served as the maternal parent for multiple hybridizations involving several paternal lineages. This hypothesis of the complex evolutionary history of the racemose group in Prunus reflects a major step forward in our understanding of diversification of the genus and has

  6. Multiyear evaluation of the durability of the resistance conferred by Ma and RMia genes to Meloidogyne incognita in Prunus under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallouk, Samira; Voisin, Roger; Portier, Ulysse; Polidori, Joël; Van Ghelder, Cyril; Esmenjaud, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) (Meloidogyne spp.) are highly polyphagous pests that parasitize Prunus crops in Mediterranean climates. Breeding for RKN-resistant Prunus cultivars, as an alternative to the now-banned use of nematicides, is a real challenge, because the perennial nature of these trees increases the risk of resistance breakdown. The Ma plum resistance (R) gene, with a complete spectrum, and the RMia peach R gene, with a more restricted spectrum, both provide total control of Meloidogyne incognita, the model parthenogenetic species of the genus and the most important RKN in terms of economic losses. We investigated the durability of the resistance to this nematode conferred by these genes, comparing the results obtained with those for the tomato Mi-1 reference gene. In multiyear experiments, we applied a high and continuous nematode inoculum pressure by cultivating nematode-infested susceptible tomato plants with either Prunus accessions carrying Ma or RMia R genes, or with resistant tomato plants carrying the Mi-1 gene. Suitable conditions for Prunus development were achieved by carrying out the studies in a glasshouse, in controlled conditions allowing a short winter leaf fall and dormancy. We first assessed the plum accession 'P.2175', which is heterozygous for the Ma gene, in two successive 2-year evaluations, for resistance to two M. incognita isolates. Whatever the isolate used, no nematodes reproducing on P.2175 were detected, whereas galls and nematodes reproducing on tomato plants carrying Mi-1 were observed. In a second experiment with the most aggressive isolate, interspecific full-sib material (P.2175 × ['Garfi' almond × 'Nemared' peach]), carrying either Ma or RMia (from Nemared) or both (in the heterozygous state) or neither of these genes, was evaluated for 4 years. No virulent nematodes developed on Prunus spp. carrying R genes, whereas galling and virulent individuals were observed on Mi-1-resistant tomato plants. Thus, the resistance to

  7. Phytochemical Composition and Metabolic Performance Enhancing Activity of Dietary Berries Traditionally Used by Native North Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns Kraft, Tristan F.; Dey, Moul; Rogers, Randy B.; Ribnicky, David M.; Gipp, David M.; Cefalu, William T.; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Four wild berry species, Amelanchier alnifolia, Viburnum trilobum, Prunus virginiana, and Shepherdia argentea, all integral to the traditional subsistence diet of Native American tribal communities, were evaluated to elucidate phytochemical composition and bioactive properties related to performance and human health. Biological activity was screened using a range of bioassays that assessed the potential for these little-known dietary berries to affect diabetic microvascular complications, hyperglycemia, pro-inflammatory gene expression, and metabolic syndrome symptoms. Non-polar constituents from berries, including carotenoids, were potent inhibitors of aldose reductase (an enzyme involved in the etiology of diabetic microvascular complications) whereas the polar constituents, mainly phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, were hypoglycemic agents and strong inhibitors of IL-1β and COX-2 gene expression. Berry samples also showed the ability to modulate lipid metabolism and energy expenditure in a manner consistent with improving metabolic syndrome. The results demonstrate that these berries traditionally consumed by tribal cultures contain a rich array of phytochemicals that have the capacity to promote health and protect against chronic diseases, such as diabetes. PMID:18211018

  8. Evaluation of antihyperglycemia and antihypertension potential of native Peruvian fruits using in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Marcia Da Silva; Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Genovese, Maria Inés; Shetty, Kalidas

    2009-04-01

    Local food diversity and traditional crops are essential for cost-effective management of the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes and associated complications of hypertension. Water and 12% ethanol extracts of native Peruvian fruits such as Lucuma (Pouteria lucuma), Pacae (Inga feuille), Papayita arequipeña (Carica pubescens), Capuli (Prunus capuli), Aguaymanto (Physalis peruviana), and Algarrobo (Prosopis pallida) were evaluated for total phenolics, antioxidant activity based on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, and functionality such as in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) relevant for potential management of hyperglycemia and hypertension linked to type 2 diabetes. The total phenolic content ranged from 3.2 (Aguaymanto) to 11.4 (Lucuma fruit) mg/g of sample dry weight. A significant positive correlation was found between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity for the ethanolic extracts. No phenolic compound was detected in Lucuma (fruit and powder) and Pacae. Aqueous extracts from Lucuma and Algarrobo had the highest alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Papayita arequipeña and Algarrobo had significant ACE inhibitory activities reflecting antihypertensive potential. These in vitro results point to the excellent potential of Peruvian fruits for food-based strategies for complementing effective antidiabetes and antihypertension solutions based on further animal and clinical studies.

  9. Evaluation of multiple approaches to identify genome-wide polymorphisms in closely related genotypes of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seanna Hewitt

    Full Text Available Identification of genetic polymorphisms and subsequent development of molecular markers is important for marker assisted breeding of superior cultivars of economically important species. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. is an economically important non-climacteric tree fruit crop in the Rosaceae family and has undergone a genetic bottleneck due to breeding, resulting in limited genetic diversity in the germplasm that is utilized for breeding new cultivars. Therefore, it is critical to recognize the best platforms for identifying genome-wide polymorphisms that can help identify, and consequently preserve, the diversity in a genetically constrained species. For the identification of polymorphisms in five closely related genotypes of sweet cherry, a gel-based approach (TRAP, reduced representation sequencing (TRAPseq, a 6k cherry SNParray, and whole genome sequencing (WGS approaches were evaluated in the identification of genome-wide polymorphisms in sweet cherry cultivars. All platforms facilitated detection of polymorphisms among the genotypes with variable efficiency. In assessing multiple SNP detection platforms, this study has demonstrated that a combination of appropriate approaches is necessary for efficient polymorphism identification, especially between closely related cultivars of a species. The information generated in this study provides a valuable resource for future genetic and genomic studies in sweet cherry, and the insights gained from the evaluation of multiple approaches can be utilized for other closely related species with limited genetic diversity in the breeding germplasm. Keywords: Polymorphisms, Prunus avium, Next-generation sequencing, Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP, Genetic diversity, SNParray, Reduced representation sequencing, Whole genome sequencing (WGS

  10. Genotyping-by-sequencing in an orphan plant species Physocarpus opulifolius helps identify the evolutionary origins of the genus Prunus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buti, Matteo; Sargent, Daniel J; Mhelembe, Khethani G; Delfino, Pietro; Tobutt, Kenneth R; Velasco, Riccardo

    2016-05-11

    The Rosaceae family encompasses numerous genera exhibiting morphological diversification in fruit types and plant habit as well as a wide variety of chromosome numbers. Comparative genomics between various Rosaceous genera has led to the hypothesis that the ancestral genome of the family contained nine chromosomes, however, the synteny studies performed in the Rosaceae to date encompass species with base chromosome numbers x = 7 (Fragaria), x = 8 (Prunus), and x = 17 (Malus), and no study has included species from one of the many Rosaceous genera containing a base chromosome number of x = 9. A genetic linkage map of the species Physocarpus opulifolius (x = 9) was populated with sequence characterised SNP markers using genotyping by sequencing. This allowed for the first time, the extent of the genome diversification of a Rosaceous genus with a base chromosome number of x = 9 to be performed. Orthologous loci distributed throughout the nine chromosomes of Physocarpus and the eight chromosomes of Prunus were identified which permitted a meaningful comparison of the genomes of these two genera to be made. The study revealed a high level of macro-synteny between the two genomes, and relatively few chromosomal rearrangements, as has been observed in studies of other Rosaceous genomes, lending further support for a relatively simple model of genomic evolution in Rosaceae.

  11. Development of novel techniques to extract phenolic compounds from Romanian cultivars of Prunus domestica L. and their biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Andrei; Diuzheva, Alina; Carradori, Simone; Andruch, Vasil; Massafra, Chiara; Moldovan, Cadmiel; Sisea, Cristian; Petzer, Jacobus P; Petzer, Anél; Zara, Susi; Marconi, Guya Diletta; Zengin, Gokhan; Crișan, Gianina; Locatelli, Marcello

    2018-04-21

    In the present work, fourteen cultivars of Prunus domestica were analysed to investigate their phenolic pattern with the purpose of using the leaves as potential resources of bioactive compounds in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and sugaring-out liquid-liquid extraction techniques were optimized in order to obtain an exhaustive multi-component panel of phenolic compounds. The best phenolic-enriched recovery was achieved using MAE in water:methanol (30:70), and this procedure was further applied for quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds in real samples. In order to prove the safeness of these extracts, the biological potential of the Prunus cultivars was tested by several in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory assays. Moreover, their cytotoxicity was evaluated on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), and in most of the cases the treatment with different concentrations of extracts didn't show cytotoxicity up to 500 μg/mL. Only 'Carpatin' and 'Minerva' cultivars, at 250 and 500 μg/mL, reduced partially cell viability of HGFs population. Noteworthy, Centenar cultivar was the most active for the α-glucosidase inhibition (6.77 mmolACAE/g extract), whereas Ialomița cultivar showed the best antityrosinase activity (23.07 mgKAE/g extract). Overall, leaves of P. domestica represent a rich alternative source of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. El mercado de comida étnica en España: el caso de la comida mexicana

    OpenAIRE

    Dena M. Camarena; Ana I. Sanjuán

    2008-01-01

    En los últimos años, el conocimiento y consumo de las comidas y/o alimentos étnicos se ha difundido internacionalmente. En España, los alimentos étnicos comenzaron a comercializarse en la década de los años noventa, sin embargo, el mayor auge de sus ventas se ha producido a partir del año dos mil y se han constituido una de las gamas de alimentos con más potencial de expansión. La comida mexicana es una de las más demandadas, sus ventas han pasando de 7.2 m. de dólares en 1999 a 40.6 m. de dó...

  13. Los retos de la economía mexicana más allá de la apertura comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro MURAYAMA RENDÓN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo presenta la evolución reciente de la economía mexicana en el marco del proceso de integración en que está inserta. Especialmente analiza las consecuencias de la crisis de 1995 para las relaciones externas de México y para la evolución del Trabajo de Libre Comercio que lo vincula con Canadá y Estados Unidos. Finalmente se refiere a las repercusiones de este proceso en el empleo.ABSTRACT: This article presents recent evolution of Mexican economy on the frame of its integration process. I focuses on consequences of 1995 crisis for Mexican international relations and for evolution of the TLC. Finally, it refers to its echoes on the employment.

  14. Por qué emigran a Estados Unidos los miembros de la clase obrera mexicana: Recuentos y nuevas evidencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELEOCADIO MARTÍNEZ SILVA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se presentan nuevos hallazgos de la emigración internacional de la clase obrera mexicana y de la conf iguración de nuevas conexiones intermetropolitanas. e l estudio hace referencia a las causas y mecanismos de la migración y las formas de inserción económica de los trabajadores mexicanos en e stados u nidos. l a investigación se desarrolló a través de la experiencia de migración internacional de los trabajadores despedidos de un enclave siderúrgico localizado en m onclova, c oahuila, proceso que dio lugar a la conexión m onclova-Dallas y austin, t exas.

  15. Productividad total de factores y reducción de costos en la industria manufacturera mexicana, 1994–-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Nevárez Sida

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza la productividad total de factores en la industria manufacturera mexicana en el periodo de 1994 a 1999. El cambio experimentado por esta variable es interpretado como reducción o incremento real de costos de acuerdo con la metodología propuesta por Harberger (1998. Se logró la identificación de aquellos subsectores y clases industriales que redujeron o aumentaron costos, así como la magnitud de estos cambios en términos monetarios. Las clases industriales que presentan una reducción de costos significativa al interior de un subsector son generalmente pocas, mientras que el resto presenta pequeñas reducciones de costos o incrementos.

  16. Segregación socioespacial urbana. Debates contemporáneos e implicaciones para las ciudades mexicanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pérez-Campuzano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La segregación socioespacial es un tema recurrente en disciplinas como la sociología y la geografia; sin embargo ha sido poco tratado en la literatura especializada en lWéxico, quizás por su falta de anclaje teó¡ico claro o por la escasez de datos específicos para medirla. En este trabajo se presenta una aproximación a la temática con especial atención en la construcción teórica y empírica en los países desarrollados y en las posibles implicaciones para los estudios sobre ciudades mexicanas.

  17. Central nervous system effects and chemical composition of two subspecies of Agastache mexicana; an ethnomedicine of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Reyes, Rosa; López-Rubalcava, C; Ferreyra-Cruz, Octavio Alberto; Dorantes-Barrón, Ana María; Heinze, G; Moreno Aguilar, Julia; Martínez-Vázquez, Mariano

    2014-04-11

    Agastache mexicana subspecies mexicana (Amm) and xolocotziana (Amx) are used in Mexican traditional medicine to relief cultural affiliation syndromes known as "susto" or "espanto", for "nervous" condition, and as a sleep aid. Despite its intensive use, neuropharmacological studies are scarce, and the chemical composition of the aqueous extracts has not been described. Aims of the study are: (1) To analyze the chemical composition of aqueous extracts from aerial parts of Amm and Amx. (2) To evaluate the anxiolytic-like, sedative, antidepressant-like effects. (3) Analyze the general toxic effects of different doses. Anxiolytic-like and sedative effects were measured in the avoidance exploratory behavior, burying behavior and the hole-board tests. The antidepressant-like actions were studied in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Finally, general activity and motor coordination disturbances were evaluated in the open field, inverted screen and rota-rod tests. The acute toxicity of Amm and Amx was determined by calculating their LD50 (mean lethal dose). The chemical analyses were performed employing chromatographic, photometric and HPLC-ESI-MS techniques. Low doses of Amm and Amx (0.1σ1.0mg/kg) induced anxiolytic-like actions; while higher doses (over 10mg/kg) induced sedation and reduced the locomotor activity, exerting a general inhibition in the central nervous system (CNS). Results support the use of Amm and Amx in traditional medicine as tranquilizers and sleep inducers. Additionally, this paper contributes to the knowledge of the chemical composition of the aqueous extracts of these plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Competitividad de las metrópolis mexicanas en el ámbito nacional, latinoamericano y mundial

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    Gustavo Garza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Existe un creciente interés por cuantificar los niveles de competitividad de las ciudades, pues todas las naciones requieren elevar la eficiencia de sus urbes para estar en posibilidad de articularse ventajosamente dentro del proceso de mundialización de la economía. Con el fin de desarrollar el planteamiento anterior, un primer objetivo de este artículo es sintetizar las principales teorías sobre el crecimiento económico de las ciudades y los factores determinantes de su grado de competitividad. A ello le sigue, como segundo propósito, presentar las características del sistema planetario de ciudades en 2005. En tercer lugar se analiza el grado de competitividad de las ciudades en México, Latinoamérica y el mundo, mediante la consideración de un conjunto de investigaciones que se han realizado al respecto. Se trata de estudiar comparativamente algunas de las principales clasificaciones existentes en México, para posteriormente ubicar los niveles de competitividad de las ciudades del país en el ámbito latinoamericano y mundial. Se considera como conclusión central que el hecho de que 20 ciudades mexicanas figuren entre las 500 más competitivas del mundo no ha promovido un desarrollo económico significativo, ni impidió que la competitividad global del país se haya desplomado del lugar 42° al 60° entre 2002 y 2009. Para invertir esta tendencia se requiere diseñar un nuevo modelo de acumulación de capital en México que permita superar las crisis recurrentes y retomar el sendero hacia un desarrollo económico sostenido, para lo cual es indispensable elevar el nivel de competitividad de las principales ciudades mexicanas a fin de que participen exitosamente dentro de una economía de escala planetaria.

  19. Reproducibilidad y sensibilidad de un cuestionario de actividad física en población mexicana

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    López-Alvarenga Juan Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar si el cuestionario de actividad física (CAF de Laval es reproducible y sensible para detectar diferencias en grupos de mexicanos con peso normal y en obesos. Material y métodos. Estudio efectuado en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, entre enero y mayo de 1999, en México, D.F. El CAF se tradujo al castellano y se adaptó a población mexicana. Se midió la reproducibilidad por prueba-reprueba, con cuatro semanas de diferencia (n=30 sujetos con obesidad. Para determinar la sensibilidad del cuestionario se comparó un grupo de jóvenes cadetes (n=18 con otro de jóvenes civiles (n=32. Se utilizó como concordancia el coeficiente de correlación intraclase y se empleó la prueba t de student pareada o para muestras independientes, según fuera necesario. Resultados. El coeficiente de correlación intraclase fue de 0.86. El CAF fue sensible al demostrar diferencias de más de 400 kcal/día (1 674 kJ/día y más de 4 kcal/kg/día (17 kJ/kg/día entre jóvenes con actividad física importante (t de Student. Conclusiones. El CAF es un instrumento sensible y reproducible que puede ser utilizado en población mexicana. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  20. A putative ATP/GTP binding protein affects Leishmania mexicana growth in insect vectors and vertebrate hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlaváčová, Jana; Zimmer, Sara L.; Butenko, Anzhelika; Podešvová, Lucie; Leštinová, Tereza; Lukeš, Julius; Kostygov, Alexei; Votýpka, Jan; Volf, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Background Leishmania virulence factors responsible for the complicated epidemiology of the various leishmaniases remain mainly unidentified. This study is a characterization of a gene previously identified as upregulated in two of three overlapping datasets containing putative factors important for Leishmania’s ability to establish mammalian intracellular infection and to colonize the gut of an insect vector. Methodology/Principal findings The investigated gene encodes ATP/GTP binding motif-containing protein related to Leishmania development 1 (ALD1), a cytosolic protein that contains a cryptic ATP/GTP binding P-loop. We compared differentiation, growth rates, and infective abilities of wild-type and ALD1 null mutant cell lines of L. mexicana. Loss of ALD1 results in retarded growth kinetics but not defects in differentiation in axenic culture. Similarly, when mice and the sand fly vector were infected with the ALD1 null mutant, the primary difference in infection and colonization phenotype relative to wild type was an inability to achieve maximal host pathogenicity. While ability of the ALD1 null mutant cells to infect macrophages in vitro was not affected, replication within macrophages was clearly curtailed. Conclusions/Significance L. mexicana ALD1, encoding a protein with no assigned functional domains or motifs, was identified utilizing multiple comparative analyses with the related and often experimentally overlooked monoxenous flagellates. We found that it plays a role in Leishmania infection and colonization in vitro and in vivo. Results suggest that ALD1 functions in L. mexicana’s general metabolic network, rather than function in specific aspect of virulence as anticipated from the compared datasets. This result validates our comparative genomics approach for finding relevant factors, yet highlights the importance of quality laboratory-based analysis of genes tagged by these methods. PMID:28742133

  1. Native grass hydroseed development : establishment protocols for three native Hawaiian plants on roadside areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The biggest mistake with using native plants on Hawaiis roadways is to assume that native plants do not require : nutrient enhancement or supplemental water to establish on these sites. The establishment of native plants will : require a detailed ...

  2. Native herbaceous perennials as ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Ørgaard, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P...

  3. Organochlorine Pesticides in Honey and Pollen Samples from Managed Colonies of the Honey Bee Apis mellifera Linnaeus and the Stingless Bee Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin from Southern, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Toledo, Jovani; Vandame, Rémy; Castro-Chan, Ricardo Alberto; Penilla-Navarro, Rosa Patricia; Gómez, Jaime; Sánchez, Daniel

    2018-05-10

    In this paper, we show the results of investigating the presence of organochlorine pesticides in honey and pollen samples from managed colonies of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. and of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin. Three colonies of each species were moved into each of two sites. Three samples of pollen and three samples of honey were collected from each colony: the first collection occurred at the beginning of the study and the following ones at every six months during a year. Thus the total number of samples collected was 36 for honey (18 for A. mellifera and 18 for S. mexicana ) and 36 for pollen (18 for A. mellifera and 18 for S. mexicana ). We found that 88.44% and 93.33% of honey samples, and 22.22% and 100% of pollen samples of S. mexicana and A. mellifera , respectively, resulted positive to at least one organochlorine. The most abundant pesticides were Heptaclor (44% of the samples), γ-HCH (36%), DDT (19%), Endrin (18%) and DDE (11%). Despite the short foraging range of S. mexicana , the number of pesticides quantified in the honey samples was similar to that of A. mellifera . Paradoxically we found a small number of organochlorines in pollen samples of S. mexicana in comparison to A. mellifera , perhaps indicating a low abundance of pollen sources within the foraging range of this species.

  4. Organochlorine Pesticides in Honey and Pollen Samples from Managed Colonies of the Honey Bee Apis mellifera Linnaeus and the Stingless Bee Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin from Southern, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovani Ruiz-Toledo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show the results of investigating the presence of organochlorine pesticides in honey and pollen samples from managed colonies of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. and of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin. Three colonies of each species were moved into each of two sites. Three samples of pollen and three samples of honey were collected from each colony: the first collection occurred at the beginning of the study and the following ones at every six months during a year. Thus the total number of samples collected was 36 for honey (18 for A. mellifera and 18 for S. mexicana and 36 for pollen (18 for A. mellifera and 18 for S. mexicana. We found that 88.44% and 93.33% of honey samples, and 22.22% and 100% of pollen samples of S. mexicana and A. mellifera, respectively, resulted positive to at least one organochlorine. The most abundant pesticides were Heptaclor (44% of the samples, γ-HCH (36%, DDT (19%, Endrin (18% and DDE (11%. Despite the short foraging range of S. mexicana, the number of pesticides quantified in the honey samples was similar to that of A. mellifera. Paradoxically we found a small number of organochlorines in pollen samples of S. mexicana in comparison to A. mellifera, perhaps indicating a low abundance of pollen sources within the foraging range of this species.

  5. Advances in the genetic improvement of Prunus domestica utilizing genetic engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plum producers world-wide are facing multiple challenges including climate change, reductions in available labor, the need for reduced chemical inputs, the spread of native and exotic pests and pathogens, and consumer demands for improved fruit quality and health benefits. Meeting these challenges ...

  6. Cloning and characterization of profilin (Pru du 4), a cross-reactive almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawde, Pallavi; Venkatesh, Yeldur P; Wang, Fang; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2006-10-01

    The identity of allergenic almond proteins is incomplete. Our objective was to characterize patient IgE reactivity to a recombinant and corresponding native almond allergen. An almond cDNA library was screened with sera from patients with allergy for IgE binding proteins. Two reactive clones were sequenced, and 1 was expressed. The expressed recombinant allergen and its native counterpart (purified from unprocessed almond flour) were assayed by 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, dot blot, and ELISA, and screened for cross-reactivity with grass profilin. The 2 selected clones encoded profilin (designated Pru du 4) sequences that differed by 2 silent mutations. By dot-blot analyses, 6 of 18 patient sera (33%) reacted with the recombinant Pru du 4 protein, and 8 of 18 (44%) reacted with the native form. ELISA results were similar. Almond and ryegrass profilins were mutually inhibitable. Two-dimensional immunoblotting revealed the presence of more than 1 native almond profilin isoform. The strength of reactivity of some patients' serum IgE differed markedly between assays and between native and recombinant profilins. Almond nut profilin is an IgE-binding food protein that is cross-reactive with grass pollen profilin and is susceptible to denaturation, resulting in variable reactivity between assay types and between patients. Serum IgE of nearly half of the tested patients with almond allergy reacts with almond nut profilin. Because most patients also had pollinosis, the well-known cross-reactivity between pollen and food profilins could account for this pattern of reactivity.

  7. Mites fluctuation population on peach tree (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and in associated plants

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    Carla Rosana Eichelberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch in Rio Grande do Sul, little is known about mites fluctuation population considered important to this crop. The objective of this study was to know the population diversity and fluctuation of mite species associated with Premier and Eldorado varieties in Roca Sales and Venâncio Aires counties, Rio Grande do Sul. The study was conducted from July 2008 to June 2009 when 15 plants were randomly chosen in each area. The plants were divided in quadrants and from each one a branch was chosen from which three leaves were removed: one collected in the apical region, another in the medium and the other in the basal region, totalizing 180 leaves/area. Five of the most abundant associated plants were collected monthly in enough amounts for the screening under the stereoscopic microscope during an hour. A total of 1,124 mites were found belonging to 14 families and 28 species. Tetranychus ludeni Zacher, 1913, Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836 and Mononychellus planki (McGregor, 1950 were the most abundant phytophagous mites, whereas Typhlodromalus aripo Deleon, 1967 and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 the most common predatory mites. The period of one hour under stereoscopic microscope was enough to get a representative sample. In both places evaluated the ecologic indices were low, but little higherin Premier (H' 0.56; EqJ: 0.43 when compared to Eldorado (H' 0.53; EqJ 0.40. In Premier constant species were not observed and accessory only Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939, T. ludeni and T. aripo. Higher abundance was observed in December and January and bigger amount in April. Already in Eldorado, T. ludeni and P. ulmi were constants. Greater abundance was observed in November and December, whereas grater richness in December and January. In both orchards were not found mites in buds. Tetranychus ludeni is the most abundant phytophagous mites with outbreak population in November, December and

  8. Prunus mume leaf extract lowers blood glucose level in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Woo; Kwon, Jung Eun; Lee, Young-Jong; Jeong, Yong Joon; Kim, Inhye; Cho, Young Mi; Kim, Yong-Min; Kang, Se Chan

    2016-10-01

    Context Diabetes is a common metabolic disease with long-term complications. Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (Rosaceae) fruits have shown to ameliorate glucose intolerance. However, the antidiabetic effects of P. mume leaves have not been investigated. Objective This study evaluated the effects of P. mume leaf 70% ethanol extract (PMLE) on alleviating diabetes in vivo and in vitro. Materials and methods PMLE was fractionated into n-hexane, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (BuOH) and water. Polyphenol and flavonoid contents in PMLE fractions were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. We evaluated α-glucosidase inhibition using a microplate reader at 400 nm. Adipocyte differentiation by lipid accumulation was measured using Nile Red staining. Male imprinting control region (ICR) mice were injected with streptozotocin (STZ, 100 mg/kg, i.p.). High-fat diets were provided for three weeks prior to PMLE treatments to induce type 2 diabetes. PMLE (0, 5, 25 or 50 mg/kg) was administrated for four weeks with high-fat diets. Results The EtOAc fraction of PMLE inhibited α-glucosidase activity (IC50 = 68.2 μg/mL) and contained 883.5 ± 14.9 mg/g of polyphenols and 820.1 ± 7.7 mg/g of flavonoids. The 50 mg/kg PMLE supplement reduced 40% of blood glucose level compared to obese/diabetes mice. Obese/diabetic mice treated with 50 mg/kg PMLE showed a lower level of triacylglycerol (320.7 ± 20.73 mg/dL) compared to obese/diabetes mice (494.9 ± 14.80 mg/dL). Conclusion The data demonstrate that P. mume leaves exert antidiabetic effects that may be attributable to high concentrations of polyphenols and flavonoids.

  9. Genetic Diversity and Structure of the Apiosporina morbosa Populations on Prunus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinxiu; Fernando, W G Dilantha; Remphrey, William R

    2005-08-01

    ABSTRACT Populations of Apiosporina morbosa collected from 15 geographic locations in Canada and the United States and three host species, Prunus virginiana, P. pensylvanica, and P. padus, were evaluated using the sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) technique to determine their genetic diversity and population differentiation. Extensive diversity was detected in the A. morbosa populations, including 134 isolates from Canada and the United States, regardless of the origin of the population. The number of polymorphic loci varied from 6.9 to 82.8% in the geographic populations, and from 41.4 to 79.3% in the populations from four host genotypes based on 58 polymorphic fragments. In all, 44 to 100% of isolates in the geographic populations and 43.6 to 76.2% in populations from four host genotypes represented unique genotypes. Values of heterozygosity (H) varied from 2.8 to 28.3% in the geographic populations and 10.2 to 26.1% in the populations from four host genotypes. In general, the A. morbosa populations sampled from wild chokecherry showed a higher genetic diversity than those populations collected from other host species, whereas the populations isolated from cultivated chokecherry, P. virginiana 'Shubert Select', showed a reduction of genetic diversity compared with populations from wild P. virginiana. Significant population differentiation was found among both the geographic populations (P virginiana were closely clustered, and no population differentiation was detected except for the populations from Morris, Morden, and Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Furthermore, the populations from P. virginiana in the same geographic locations had higher genetic identity and closer genetic distance to each other compared with those from different locations. Four populations from P. virginiana, P. pensylvanica, and P. padus, were significantly differentiated from each other (P P> = 0.334). Indirect estimation of gene flow showed that significant restricted gene flow

  10. [CO2 response process and its simulation of Prunus sibirica photosynthesis under different soil moisture conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Zhang, Guang-Can; Pei, Bin; Xu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, Yu; Fang, Li-Dong

    2013-06-01

    Taking the two-year old potted Prunus sibirica seedlings as test materials, and using CIRAS-2 photosynthetic system, this paper studied the CO2 response process of P. sibirica photosynthesis in semi-arid loess hilly region under eight soil moisture conditions. The CO2 response data of P. sibirica were fitted and analyzed by rectangular hyperbola model, exponential equation, and modified rectangular hyperbola model. Meanwhile, the quantitative relationships between the photosynthesis and the soil moisture were discussed. The results showed that the CO2 response process of P. sibirica photosynthesis had obvious response characteristics to the soil moisture threshold. The relative soil water content (RWC) required to maintain the higher photosynthetic rate (P(n)) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) of P. sibirica was in the range of 46.3%-81.9%. In this RWC range, the photosynthesis did not appear obvious CO2 saturated inhibition phenomenon. When the RWC exceeded this range, the photosynthetic capacity (P(n max)), CE, and CO2 saturation point (CSP) decreased evidently. Under different soil moisture conditions, there existed obvious differences among the three models in simulating the CO2 response data of P. sibirica. When the RWC was in the range of 46.3%-81.9%, the CO2 response process and the characteristic parameters such as CE, CO2 compensation point (see symbol), and photorespiration rate (R(p)) could be well fitted by the three models, and the accuracy was in the order of modified rectangular hyperbola model > exponential equation > rectangular hyperbola model. When the RWC was too high or too low, namely, the RWC was > 81.9% or CO2 response process and the characteristic parameters. It was suggested that when the RWC was from 46.3% to 81.9%, the photosynthetic efficiency of P. sibirica was higher, and, as compared with rectangular hyperbola model and exponential equation, modified rectangular hyperbola model had more applicability to fit the CO2 response data of

  11. Transcriptional Responses in root and leaf of Prunus persica Under Drought Stress Using RNA Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla Ksouri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prunus persica L. Batch, or peach, is one of the most important crops and it is widely established in irrigated arid and semi-arid regions. However, due to variations in the climate and the increased aridity, drought has become a major constraint, causing crop losses worldwide. The use of drought-tolerant rootstocks in modern fruit production appears to be a useful method of alleviating water deficit problems. However, the transcriptomic variation and the major molecular mechanisms that underlie the adaptation of drought-tolerant rootstocks to water shortage remain unclear. Hence, in this study, high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq was performed to assess the transcriptomic changes and the key genes involved in the response to drought in root tissues (GF677 rootstock and leaf tissues (graft, var. Catherina subjected to 16 days of drought stress. In total, 12 RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced. This generated a total of 315M raw reads from both tissues, which allowed the assembly of 22,079 and 17,854 genes associated with the root and leaf tissues, respectively. Subsets of 500 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in roots and 236 in leaves were identified and functionally annotated with 56 gene ontology (GO terms and 99 metabolic pathways, which were mostly associated with aminobenzoate degradation and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The GO analysis highlighted the biological functions that were exclusive to the root tissue, such as locomotion, hormone metabolic process, and detection of stimulus, indicating the stress-buffering role of the GF677 rootstock. Furthermore, the complex regulatory network involved in the drought response was revealed, involving proteins that are associated with signaling transduction, transcription and hormone regulation, redox homeostasis, and frontline barriers. We identified two poorly characterized genes in P. persica: growth-regulating factor 5 (GRF5, which may be involved in cellular expansion, and AtHB12

  12. Polyphenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica and Prunus domestica Cultivars from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Mirtha; Moreira, Ileana; Arnaez, Elizabeth; Quesada, Silvia; Azofeifa, Gabriela; Vargas, Felipe; Alvarado, Diego; Chen, Pei

    2018-01-30

    The phenolic composition of skin and flesh from Malus domestica apples (Anna cultivar) and Prunus domestica plums (satsuma cultivar) commercial cultivars in Costa Rica, was studied using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) on enriched-phenolic extracts, with particular emphasis in proanthocyanidin and flavonoids characterization. A total of 52 compounds were identified, including 21 proanthocyanidins ([(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin]) flavan-3-ols monomers, five procyanidin B-type dimers and two procyanidin A-type dimers, five procyanidin B-type trimers and two procyanidin A-type trimers, as well as one procyanidin B-type tetramer, two procyanidin B-type pentamers, and two flavan-3-ol gallates); 15 flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin and naringenin derivatives); nine phenolic acids (protochatechuic, caffeoylquinic, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives); five hydroxychalcones (phloretin and 3-hydroxyphloretin derivatives); and two isoprenoid glycosides (vomifoliol derivatives). These findings constitute the first report of such a high number and diversity of compounds in skins of one single plum cultivar and of the presence of proanthocyanidin pentamers in apple skins. Also, it is the first time that such a large number of glycosylated flavonoids and proanthocyanidins are reported in skins and flesh of a single plum cultivar. In addition, total phenolic content (TPC) was measured with high values observed for all samples, especially for fruits skins with a TPC of 619.6 and 640.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract respectively for apple and plum. Antioxidant potential using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methods were evaluated, with results showing also high values for all samples, especially again for fruit skins with IC 50 of 4.54 and 5.19 µg/mL (DPPH) and 16.8 and 14.6 mmol TE/g (ORAC) respectively for apple and plum, indicating the potential

  13. Analysis of intra-host genetic diversity of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) using amplicon next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoti, Wycliff M; Constable, Fiona E; Nancarrow, Narelle; Plummer, Kim M; Rodoni, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    PCR amplicon next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis offers a broadly applicable and targeted approach to detect populations of both high- or low-frequency virus variants in one or more plant samples. In this study, amplicon NGS was used to explore the diversity of the tripartite genome virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) from 53 PNRSV-infected trees using amplicons from conserved gene regions of each of PNRSV RNA1, RNA2 and RNA3. Sequencing of the amplicons from 53 PNRSV-infected trees revealed differing levels of polymorphism across the three different components of the PNRSV genome with a total number of 5040, 2083 and 5486 sequence variants observed for RNA1, RNA2 and RNA3 respectively. The RNA2 had the lowest diversity of sequences compared to RNA1 and RNA3, reflecting the lack of flexibility tolerated by the replicase gene that is encoded by this RNA component. Distinct PNRSV phylo-groups, consisting of closely related clusters of sequence variants, were observed in each of PNRSV RNA1, RNA2 and RNA3. Most plant samples had a single phylo-group for each RNA component. Haplotype network analysis showed that smaller clusters of PNRSV sequence variants were genetically connected to the largest sequence variant cluster within a phylo-group of each RNA component. Some plant samples had sequence variants occurring in multiple PNRSV phylo-groups in at least one of each RNA and these phylo-groups formed distinct clades that represent PNRSV genetic strains. Variants within the same phylo-group of each Prunus plant sample had ≥97% similarity and phylo-groups within a Prunus plant sample and between samples had less ≤97% similarity. Based on the analysis of diversity, a definition of a PNRSV genetic strain was proposed. The proposed definition was applied to determine the number of PNRSV genetic strains in each of the plant samples and the complexity in defining genetic strains in multipartite genome viruses was explored.

  14. Analysis of intra-host genetic diversity of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV using amplicon next generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wycliff M Kinoti

    Full Text Available PCR amplicon next generation sequencing (NGS analysis offers a broadly applicable and targeted approach to detect populations of both high- or low-frequency virus variants in one or more plant samples. In this study, amplicon NGS was used to explore the diversity of the tripartite genome virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV from 53 PNRSV-infected trees using amplicons from conserved gene regions of each of PNRSV RNA1, RNA2 and RNA3. Sequencing of the amplicons from 53 PNRSV-infected trees revealed differing levels of polymorphism across the three different components of the PNRSV genome with a total number of 5040, 2083 and 5486 sequence variants observed for RNA1, RNA2 and RNA3 respectively. The RNA2 had the lowest diversity of sequences compared to RNA1 and RNA3, reflecting the lack of flexibility tolerated by the replicase gene that is encoded by this RNA component. Distinct PNRSV phylo-groups, consisting of closely related clusters of sequence variants, were observed in each of PNRSV RNA1, RNA2 and RNA3. Most plant samples had a single phylo-group for each RNA component. Haplotype network analysis showed that smaller clusters of PNRSV sequence variants were genetically connected to the largest sequence variant cluster within a phylo-group of each RNA component. Some plant samples had sequence variants occurring in multiple PNRSV phylo-groups in at least one of each RNA and these phylo-groups formed distinct clades that represent PNRSV genetic strains. Variants within the same phylo-group of each Prunus plant sample had ≥97% similarity and phylo-groups within a Prunus plant sample and between samples had less ≤97% similarity. Based on the analysis of diversity, a definition of a PNRSV genetic strain was proposed. The proposed definition was applied to determine the number of PNRSV genetic strains in each of the plant samples and the complexity in defining genetic strains in multipartite genome viruses was explored.

  15. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders National data for ... very limited. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke ...

  16. «Recetario de cocina mexicana»: edición semidiplomática y modernizada de un manuscrito inédito del siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Echeverría Echeverría

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: Neste trabalho apresentam-se amostras de edição semidiplomática e modernizada do texto manuscrito inédito intitulado Recetario de cocina mexicana (Mss/23133/15), ca. 1850, que se guarda na Biblioteca Nacional de España, em Madri. Para terminar, acrescenta-se um comentário linguístico sobre alguns aspectos destacáveis do recetuário. Palavras-chave: Crítica textual; edição; manuscrito; cozinha mexicana; século XIX.  Resumen: En este trabajo se presentan muestras de edición semidiplomáti...

  17. Yellow colored blooms of Argemone mexicana and Turnera ulmifolia mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and study of their antibacterial and antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, N.; Vinay, S. P.

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, AgNPs were prepared using a simple bio-reduction method. This is ecologically welcoming and cost-effective method. Yellow colored blooms concentrate of Argemone mexicana and Turnera ulmifolia are used as bio reducing agents in the study. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and characterization of the nanoparticles was done by FTIR, SEM, XRD and EDX. The Antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles was tested against Staphylococus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella aerogenes. The phytochemical analysis of the blooms concentrate has shown the existence of saponins, alkaloids, amino acids, phenols, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. In vitro anti-oxidant action of both A. mexicana and T. ulmifolia AgNPs were studied by DPPH assay and reducing power assay.

  18. A new species and a new record of Laccaria (Fungi, Basidiomycota) found in a relict forest of the endangered Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Antero; Bandala, Victor M.; Montoya, Leticia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Two species of Laccaria discovered in relicts of Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana forests in eastern Mexico are described based on the macro- and micromorphological features, and their identity supported by molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) of the ribosomal RNA gene. The phylogeny obtained here showed that one of the Mexican species is nested in an exclusive clade which in combination with its striking morphological features, infers that it represents a new species, while the other species is placed as a member in the Laccaria trichodermophora clade. This is the first report in Mexico of Laccaria with Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana trees, with which the reported species may form ectomycorrhizal association. Descriptions are accompanied with illustrations of macro- and micromorphological characters and a discussion of related taxa are presented. PMID:29559819

  19. Factores de la innovación y su influencia en las ventas y el empleo. El caso de las mipymes manufactureras mexicanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herenia Gutiérrez Ponce

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es conocer la relación entre las ventas, el empleo y la innovación en la industria manufacturera mexicana, mediante el seguimiento longitudinal a las mipymes en el periodo 2007-2010, a través de una investigación empírica y la aplicación de una encuesta a una determinada muestra de mipymes manufactureras mexicanas. Nuestro objetivo fundamental es explicar si el crecimiento en las ventas y el empleo de las empresas se explica por factores de la innovación, investigación y desarrollo (I+D+i.

  20. Inner ear morphology in the Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana--first detailed microanatomical study of the inner ear of a cyprinodontiform species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Hess, Martin; Plath, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Fishes show an amazing diversity in hearing abilities, inner ear structures, and otolith morphology. Inner ear morphology, however, has not yet been investigated in detail in any member of the diverse order Cyprinodontiformes. We, therefore, studied the inner ear of the cyprinodontiform freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana by analyzing the position of otoliths in situ, investigating the 3D structure of sensory epithelia, and examining the orientation patterns of ciliary bundles of the sensory hair cells, while combining μ-CT analyses, scanning electron microscopy, and immunocytochemical methods. P. mexicana occurs in different ecotypes, enabling us to study the intra-specific variability (on a qualitative basis) of fish from regular surface streams, and the Cueva del Azufre, a sulfidic cave in southern Mexico. The inner ear of Poecilia mexicana displays a combination of several remarkable features. The utricle is connected rostrally instead of dorso-rostrally to the saccule, and the macula sacculi, therefore, is very close to the utricle. Moreover, the macula sacculi possesses dorsal and ventral bulges. The two studied ecotypes of P. mexicana showed variation mainly in the shape and curvature of the macula lagenae, in the curvature of the macula sacculi, and in the thickness of the otolithic membrane. Our study for the first time provides detailed insights into the auditory periphery of a cyprinodontiform inner ear and thus serves a basis--especially with regard to the application of 3D techniques--for further research on structure-function relationships of inner ears within the species-rich order Cyprinodontiformes. We suggest that other poeciliid taxa, or even other non-poeciliid cyprinodontiforms, may display similar inner ear morphologies as described here.

  1. Lutzomyia gasparviannai Martins, Godoy & Silva, 1962, probable vector of Leishmania mexicana ssp. in Viana municipality, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Falqueto

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Dos flebótomos atraídos pelo Proechimys iheringi numa área onde esse roedor foi achado naturalmente infectado por Leishmania mexicana ssp., 98,1% foram Lutzomyia gasparviannai, o que sugere que essa espécie não antropofílica seja o transmissor entre os roedores mas não habitualmente ao homem.

  2. Native American Women: Living with Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of Native American women in the spiritual and cultural life of American Indians. Native American spirituality is deeply connected to the land through daily use, ritual, and respect for sacred space. Often Native American women act as conduits and keepers of this knowledge. (MJP)

  3. Encountering Complexity: Native Musics in the Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyea, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    Describes Native American musics, focusing on issues such as music and the experience of time, metaphor and metaphorical aspects, and spirituality and sounds from nature. Discusses Native American metaphysics and its reflection in the musics. States that an effective curriculum would provide a new receptivity to Native American musics. (CMK)

  4. North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the spring of 2015, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction brought together tribal Elders from across North Dakota to share stories, memories, songs, and wisdom in order to develop the North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings (NDNAEU) to guide the learning of both Native and non-Native students across the state. They…

  5. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual who is limited English proficient, means the following: (1) The language...

  6. Recruiting Native Journalists: The New Storytellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Candy

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to increase the number of Native American journalists, summer programs at the University of North Dakota and the University of Wisconsin give Native American high school students hands-on, culturally relevant journalism experience. The Native American Journalists Association offers college scholarships in journalism for American…

  7. South Texas Native Plant Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The South Texas Native Plant Restoration Project was a resounding success in that the primary goal of : developing commercial sources of native seed has been substantially met. By the conclusion of the project : on August 31, 2011, 20 native seed sou...

  8. Surrounded by Beauty: Arts of Native America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Native American languages have no equivalent for the word "art." Yet the objects Native Americans have used and still use suggest that they are a highly spiritual people who create objects of extraordinary beauty. In Native American thought, there is no distinction between what is beautiful or functional, and what is sacred or secular.…

  9. Tamarisk coalition - native riparian plant materials program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy Kolegas

    2012-01-01

    The Tamarisk Coalition (TC), a nonprofit organization dedicated to riparian restoration in the western United States, has created a Native Plant Materials Program to address the identified need for native riparian plant species for use in revegetation efforts on the Colorado Plateau. The specific components of the Native Plant Materials Program include: 1) provide seed...

  10. Credibility of native and non-native speakers of English revisited: Do non-native listeners feel the same?

    OpenAIRE

    Hanzlíková, Dagmar; Skarnitzl, Radek

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on research stimulated by Lev-Ari and Keysar (2010) who showed that native listeners find statements delivered by foreign-accented speakers to be less true than those read by native speakers. Our objective was to replicate the study with non-native listeners to see whether this effect is also relevant in international communication contexts. The same set of statements from the original study was recorded by 6 native and 6 nonnative speakers of English. 121 non-native listen...

  11. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English le...... the economic and geopolitical agenda behind this English teaching business, there is clear evidence of linguistic imperialism in the functions of this global professional service. These activities serve to strengthen Western interests.......An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English...... learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence...

  12. Ecological impacts of non-native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species are considered one of the greatest threats to freshwater biodiversity worldwide (Drake et al. 1989; Allen and Flecker 1993; Dudgeon et al. 2005). Some of the first hypotheses proposed to explain global patterns of amphibian declines included the effects of non-native species (Barinaga 1990; Blaustein and Wake 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991). Evidence for the impact of non-native species on amphibians stems (1) from correlative research that relates the distribution or abundance of a species to that of a putative non-native species, and (2) from experimental tests of the effects of a non-native species on survival, growth, development or behaviour of a target species (Kats and Ferrer 2003). Over the past two decades, research on the effects of non-native species on amphibians has mostly focused on introduced aquatic predators, particularly fish. Recent research has shifted to more complex ecological relationships such as influences of sub-lethal stressors (e.g. contaminants) on the effects of non-native species (Linder et al. 2003; Sih et al. 2004), non-native species as vectors of disease (Daszak et al. 2004; Garner et al. 2006), hybridization between non-natives and native congeners (Riley et al. 2003; Storfer et al. 2004), and the alteration of food-webs by non-native species (Nystrom et al. 2001). Other research has examined the interaction of non-native species in terms of facilitation (i.e. one non-native enabling another to become established or spread) or the synergistic effects of multiple non-native species on native amphibians, the so-called invasional meltdown hypothesis (Simerloff and Von Holle 1999). Although there is evidence that some non-native species may interact (Ricciardi 2001), there has yet to be convincing evidence that such interactions have led to an accelerated increase in the number of non-native species and cumulative impacts are still uncertain (Simberloff 2006). Applied research on the control, eradication, and

  13. digital natives and digital immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Cardina, Bruno; Francisco, Jerónimo; Reis, Pedro; trad. Silva, Fátima

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the generational gaps in school learning. Initially, we have tried to provide the framework in relation to the term digital native in order to understand the key aspects of the generation born after the advent and the global use of the Internet. They were found to be “multitasking” people, linked to technology and connectivity, as opposed to digital immigrants, born in an earlier period and seeking to adapt to the technological world. We also present some r...

  14. Sand flies naturally infected by Leishmania (L.) mexicana in the peri-urban area of Chetumal city, Quintana Roo, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Laura; Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Becker-Fauser, Ingeborg; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A

    2010-06-01

    The surveillance of prevalent Leishmania sand fly vectors is an important issue for epidemiological studies in populated areas where leishmaniasis is endemic. In this study, we collected sand flies from a peri-urban area in the southeast of Mexico. Natural infection with Leishmania (L.) mexicana was studied by PCR using a Leishmania internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal RNA gene for amplification. Infected Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca, Lu. shannoni and Lu. cruciata sand flies were collected mainly during the high transmission season (November to March), coinciding with the highest sand fly densities. Additionally, positive specimens of Lu. olmeca olmeca were also captured during July and August. The infected sand flies were from primary forest (subperennial forest) and secondary forest (18-25 years old and 10-15 years old respectively). Sand flies collected with Disney and Shannon traps were the ones found to be infected with L. (L.) mexicana. We conclude that the high-risk period in which L. (L.) mexicana is transmitted in the peri-urban area of Chetumal City is from July to March and that transmission is associated with both the subperennial forest and the secondary forest. 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. El estado de las lesiones causadas por el tránsito en México: evidencias para fortalecer la estrategia mexicana de seguridad vial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pérez-Núñez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la revisión de información secundaria oficial, publicaciones científicas y el análisis de la ENSANut-2012, este trabajo busca proveer una visión integral de la magnitud actual de las lesiones causadas por el tránsito (LCT en México y analizar críticamente la respuesta social organizada. Las altas tasas de choques, lesiones, muertes y discapacidad atribuidas a este problema de salud pública, representan un elevado costo para la sociedad mexicana, en especial para los hogares. Se discute cómo la respuesta mexicana se ha enfocado a los automovilistas, dejando fuera a usuarios vulnerables de la vía pública y se ha privilegiado la implementación de estrategias poco efectivas. A pesar de que se dispone de legislación para los principales factores de riesgo, se ha descuidado su correcta aplicación. La estrategia mexicana podría fortalecerse implementando estrategias de movilidad seguras, equitativas, saludables y sostenibles para los diferentes actores de la vía pública. A pesar de los avances que se han dado en términos de prevención de LCT, existen aún retos y oportunidades para el país.

  16. Comparison of small mammal prevalence of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in five foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Campeche, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberghe, N R; Canto-Lara, S B; Sosa-Bibiano, E I; Rivero-Cárdenas, N A; Andrade-Narváez, F J

    2009-01-01

    In the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, 95% of the human cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana with an incidence rate of 5.08 per 100,000 inhabitants. Transmission is limited to the winter months (November to March). One study on wild rodents has incriminated Ototylomys phyllotis and Peromyscus yucatanicus as primary reservoirs of L. (L.) mexicana in the focus of La Libertad, Campeche. In the present study, the prevalence of both infection and disease caused by L. (L.) mexicana in small terrestrial mammals were documented during five transmission seasons (1994-2004) in five foci of Leishmaniasis in the state of Campeche. Foci separated by only 100 km, with similar relative abundances of small mammals, were found to differ significantly in their prevalence of both symptoms and infection. Transmission rates and reservoir species seemed to change in space as well as in time which limited the implementation of effective control measures of the disease even in a small endemic area such as the south of the Yucatan Peninsula.

  17. HPLC-DAD DETERMINATION OF BERBERINE, CHELERYTHRINE AND SANGUINARINE IN THE MEXICAN PRICKLY POPPY (Argemone mexicana L. PAPAVERACEAE, A MEDICINAL PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F. Xool-Tamayo

    Full Text Available A sensitive, simple, rapid and reliable HPLC-DAD method for the analysis of the benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIA's content in Argemone mexicana (Papaveraceae is presented. This method allows the simultaneous separation and quantitation of berberine (Bn, chelerythrine (C and sanguinarine (S in extracts from A. mexicana tissues, reducing time of analysis in comparison to previous reports. Alkaloids were separated on a C18 Hypersil Gold column using an acetonitrile gradient (20 to 70% in 1% acetic acid in water. Alkaloids were identified based on retention times and UV spectra and quantified at 254 nm. Linearity between 0.5-20 µg mL-1 was observed for Bn, C and S, with limits of detection (LOD and quantitation (LOQ of 0.11 and 0.33 for Bn, 0.10 and 0.30 for C and 0.05 and 0.15 for S, respectively. Maximal intra- and inter-day variation values were < 0.49% in all cases, with alkaloids' recoveries higher than 95%. System suitability tests (SST, including resolution (Rs, retention factor (K', selectivity (α, tailing factor and number of theoretical plates were performed according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP, fulfilling recommended values. The method proved to be efficient and reproducible when analyzing different tissues of field-collected A. mexicana plants.

  18. Gas turbine application in power plants of Mexican refineries; Aplicacion de turbinas de gas en plantas de fuerza de refinerias mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz Calderon, A. M.; Rodriguez Martinez, H.; Garcia Paredes, Job; Morales Guillen, Magdalena; Manzanares Papayanapolous, Emilio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: malcaraz@iie.org.mx; jhrm@iie.org.mx; jgarcia@iie.org.mx; mmmg@iie.org.mx; emp@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    This article presents an overview of the application to have the gas turbine power generation systems, electric and steam for Mexican refineries. First there is a general description of the gas turbines and heat recovery (system components CHP) and CHP schemes are based on gas turbines capable of use in Mexican refineries. Subsequently referred to the characteristics of energy consumption (steam and electricity) from Mexican refineries and performs a technical analysis of CHP schemes based on gas turbines from the point of view of rates Q/W, power efficiencies and combined concluded that by their nature are very useful for refinery and gives some recommendations for improved implementation. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta una vision general de la aplicacion que tienen las turbinas de gas en sistemas de generacion de energia electrica y vapor para refinerias mexicanas. Primeramente se da una descripcion general de las turbinas de gas y recuperadores de calor (componentes principales del sistema de cogeneracion) y se muestran los esquemas de cogeneracion basados en turbinas de gas susceptibles de utilizar en refinerias mexicanas. Posteriormente se mencionan las caracteristicas de consumos energeticos (vapor y energia electrica) de las refinerias mexicanas y se realiza un analisis tecnico de los esquemas de cogeneracion basado en turbinas de gas desde el punto de vista de tasas Q/W, eficiencias electricas y combinadas, concluyendose que por sus caracteristicas son muy utiles para refinerias y se dan algunas recomendaciones para su mejor aplicacion.

  19. Determinants of Success in Native and Non-Native Listening Comprehension: An Individual Differences Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, Sible; Olsthoorn, Nomi; van Beuningen, Catherine; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation modeling was used to identify the predictors of…

  20. Determinants of success in native and non-native listening comprehension: an individual differences approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, S.; Olsthoorn, N.; van Beuningen, C.; Schoonen, R.; Hulstijn, J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation

  1. Growth strategy, phylogeny and stoichiometry determine the allelopathic potential of native and non-native plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, Bart M.C.; Saccomanno, Benedetta; Gross, Elisabeth M.; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; van Donk, Ellen; Bakker, Elisabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary compounds can contribute to the success of non-native plant species if they reduce damage by native herbivores or inhibit the growth of native plant competitors. However, there is opposing evidence on whether the secondary com- pounds of non-native plant species are stronger than those of

  2. Chinese College Students' Views on Native English and Non-Native English in EFL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yang; Jingxia, Liu

    2016-01-01

    With the development of globalization, English is clearly spoken by many more non-native than native speakers, which raises the discussion of English varieties and the debate regarding the conformity to Standard English. Although a large number of studies have shown scholars' attitudes towards native English and non-native English, little research…

  3. Optimal control of native predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julien; O'Connell, Allan F.; Kendall, William L.; Runge, Michael C.; Simons, Theodore R.; Waldstein, Arielle H.; Schulte, Shiloh A.; Converse, Sarah J.; Smith, Graham W.; Pinion, Timothy; Rikard, Michael; Zipkin, Elise F.

    2010-01-01

    We apply decision theory in a structured decision-making framework to evaluate how control of raccoons (Procyon lotor), a native predator, can promote the conservation of a declining population of American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Our management objective was to maintain Oystercatcher productivity above a level deemed necessary for population recovery while minimizing raccoon removal. We evaluated several scenarios including no raccoon removal, and applied an adaptive optimization algorithm to account for parameter uncertainty. We show how adaptive optimization can be used to account for uncertainties about how raccoon control may affect Oystercatcher productivity. Adaptive management can reduce this type of uncertainty and is particularly well suited for addressing controversial management issues such as native predator control. The case study also offers several insights that may be relevant to the optimal control of other native predators. First, we found that stage-specific removal policies (e.g., yearling versus adult raccoon removals) were most efficient if the reproductive values among stage classes were very different. Second, we found that the optimal control of raccoons would result in higher Oystercatcher productivity than the minimum levels recommended for this species. Third, we found that removing more raccoons initially minimized the total number of removals necessary to meet long term management objectives. Finally, if for logistical reasons managers cannot sustain a removal program by removing a minimum number of raccoons annually, managers may run the risk of creating an ecological trap for Oystercatchers.

  4. Adsorption Properties of Low-Cost Biomaterial Derived from Prunus amygdalus L. for Dye Removal from Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    The capability of Prunus amygdalus L. (almond) shell for dye removal from aqueous solutions was investigated and methyl orange was used as a model compound. The effects of operational parameters including pH, ionic strength, adsorbent concentration and mesh size, dye concentration, contact time, and temperature on the removal of dye were evaluated. The adsorption kinetics conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data pointed out excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 41.34 mg g−1 at 293 K. Thermodynamic analysis proved a spontaneous, favorable, and exothermic process. It can be concluded that almond shell might be a potential low-cost adsorbent for methyl orange removal from aqueous media. PMID:23935442

  5. Diversità funzionale in cloni di ciliegio da legno (Prunus avium L. di provenienza Appennino toscano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cutini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Functionality in wild cherry (Prunus avium L. clones of Tuscany Appenines provenances. Results of a research regarding the functionality of already selected wild cherry (Prunus avium L. clones are reported. The main target was to select the genotypes with the best ecological efficiency and less sensible to environmental stress, in order to give concrete indications for arboriculture for wood productions. Starting from 2002, measurements were carried out in the experimental plot of Papiano (Stia, AR, where the following clones with provenance from the Tuscan Apennines were compared: Casina Alpe 1 (A, Casina Alpe 2 (D, Puzzòlo (C, Paradisino (E, Piantata Catenaia (F. Dendrometrical data were collected at the beginning and at the end of each season, in order to evaluate the growth and the individual current increment of the clones. To better characterize the canopies of each clone, measurements of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR and of the leaf area index (LAI where carried out with ceptometers and PCA LAI 2000. In order to evaluate differences between the clones regarding functionality and response to environmental stress, growth and productivity were related to the most important canopy characteristics. Ecological efficiency was calculated for the different clones using the net assimilation rate (NAR. The results show that the clone E has the most developed canopies and the best results in terms of growth. But at the same time it also presents densely branched round canopies and results more sensible to the effects of summer drought. These elements contribute to advise against the use of this clone in future genetic improvement programs and in high quality wood productions. On the contrary, the clones C and A have both good growth characteristics and a better general architecture and are therefore advised for high quality wood productions especially in the same geographic region.

  6. Evolutionary patterns at the RNase based gametophytic self - incompatibility system in two divergent Rosaceae groups (Maloideae and Prunus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Jorge; Ferreira, Pedro G; Aguiar, Bruno; Fonseca, Nuno A; Vieira, Cristina P

    2010-06-28

    Within Rosaceae, the RNase based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system has been studied at the molecular level in Maloideae and Prunus species that have been diverging for, at least, 32 million years. In order to understand RNase based GSI evolution within this family, comparative studies must be performed, using similar methodologies. It is here shown that many features are shared between the two species groups such as levels of recombination at the S-RNase (the S-pistil component) gene, and the rate at which new specificities arise. Nevertheless, important differences are found regarding the number of ancestral lineages and the degree of specificity sharing between closely related species. In Maloideae, about 17% of the amino acid positions at the S-RNase protein are found to be positively selected, and they occupy about 30% of the exposed protein surface. Positively selected amino acid sites are shown to be located on either side of the active site cleft, an observation that is compatible with current models of specificity determination. At positively selected amino acid sites, non-conservative changes are almost as frequent as conservative changes. There is no evidence that at these sites the most drastic amino acid changes may be more strongly selected. Many similarities are found between the GSI system of Prunus and Maloideae that are compatible with the single origin hypothesis for RNase based GSI. The presence of common features such as the location of positively selected amino acid sites and lysine residues that may be important for ubiquitylation, raise a number of issues that, in principle, can be experimentally addressed in Maloideae. Nevertheless, there are also many important differences between the two Rosaceae GSI systems. How such features changed during evolution remains a puzzling issue.

  7. Evolutionary patterns at the RNase based gametophytic self - incompatibility system in two divergent Rosaceae groups (Maloideae and Prunus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Nuno A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within Rosaceae, the RNase based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI system has been studied at the molecular level in Maloideae and Prunus species that have been diverging for, at least, 32 million years. In order to understand RNase based GSI evolution within this family, comparative studies must be performed, using similar methodologies. Result It is here shown that many features are shared between the two species groups such as levels of recombination at the S-RNase (the S-pistil component gene, and the rate at which new specificities arise. Nevertheless, important differences are found regarding the number of ancestral lineages and the degree of specificity sharing between closely related species. In Maloideae, about 17% of the amino acid positions at the S-RNase protein are found to be positively selected, and they occupy about 30% of the exposed protein surface. Positively selected amino acid sites are shown to be located on either side of the active site cleft, an observation that is compatible with current models of specificity determination. At positively selected amino acid sites, non-conservative changes are almost as frequent as conservative changes. There is no evidence that at these sites the most drastic amino acid changes may be more strongly selected. Conclusions Many similarities are found between the GSI system of Prunus and Maloideae that are compatible with the single origin hypothesis for RNase based GSI. The presence of common features such as the location of positively selected amino acid sites and lysine residues that may be important for ubiquitylation, raise a number of issues that, in principle, can be experimentally addressed in Maloideae. Nevertheless, there are also many important differences between the two Rosaceae GSI systems. How such features changed during evolution remains a puzzling issue.

  8. Efficient removal of Acid Green 25 dye from wastewater using activated Prunus Dulcis as biosorbent: Batch and column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Suyog N; Gogate, Parag R

    2018-03-15

    Biosorbent synthesized from dead leaves of Prunus Dulcis with chemical activation during the synthesis was applied for the removal of Acid Green 25 dye from wastewater. The obtained biosorbent was characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements. It was demonstrated that alkali treatment during the synthesis significantly increased surface area of biosorbent from 67.205 to 426.346 m 2 /g. The effect of various operating parameters on dye removal was investigated in batch operation and optimum values of parameters were established as pH of 2, 14 g/L as the dose of natural biosorbent and 6 g/L as the dose of alkali treated biosorbent. Relative error values were determined to check fitting of obtained data to the different kinetic and isotherm models. It was established that pseudo-second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm fitted suitably to the obtained batch experimental data. Maximum biosorption capacity values were estimated as 22.68 and 50.79 mg/g for natural biosorbent and for alkali activated Prunus Dulcis, respectively. Adsorption was observed as endothermic and activation energy of 6.22 kJ/mol confirmed physical type of adsorption. Column experiments were also conducted to probe the effectiveness of biosorbent for practical applications in continuous operation. Breakthrough parameters were established by studying the effect of biosorbent height, flow rate of dye solution and initial dye concentration on the extent of dye removal. The maximum biosorption capacity under optimized conditions in the column operation was estimated as 28.57 mg/g. Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models were found to be suitably fitted to obtained column data. Reusability study carried out in batch and continuous column operations confirmed that synthesized biosorbent can be used repeatedly for dye removal from wastewater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. De novo transcriptome assembly and comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in Prunus dulcis Mill. in response to freezing stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Mousavi

    Full Text Available Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill., one of the most important nut crops, requires chilling during winter to develop fruiting buds. However, early spring chilling and late spring frost may damage the reproductive tissues leading to reduction in the rate of productivity. Despite the importance of transcriptional changes and regulation, little is known about the almond's transcriptome under the cold stress conditions. In the current research, we used RNA-seq technique to study the response of the reproductive tissues of almond (anther and ovary to frost stress. RNA sequencing resulted in more than 20 million reads from anther and ovary tissues of almond, individually. About 40,000 contigs were assembled and annotated de novo in each tissue. Profile of gene expression in ovary showed significant alterations in 5,112 genes, whereas in anther 6,926 genes were affected by freezing stress. Around two thousands of these genes were common altered genes in both ovary and anther libraries. Gene ontology indicated the involvement of differentially expressed (DE genes, responding to freezing stress, in metabolic and cellular processes. qRT-PCR analysis verified the expression pattern of eight genes randomly selected from the DE genes. In conclusion, the almond gene index assembled in this study and the reported DE genes can provide great insights on responses of almond and other Prunus species to abiotic stresses. The obtained results from current research would add to the limited available information on almond and Rosaceae. Besides, the findings would be very useful for comparative studies as the number of DE genes reported here is much higher than that of any previous reports in this plant.

  10. De novo transcriptome assembly and comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in Prunus dulcis Mill. in response to freezing stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Sadegh; Alisoltani, Arghavan; Shiran, Behrouz; Fallahi, Hossein; Ebrahimie, Esameil; Imani, Ali; Houshmand, Saadollah

    2014-01-01

    Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), one of the most important nut crops, requires chilling during winter to develop fruiting buds. However, early spring chilling and late spring frost may damage the reproductive tissues leading to reduction in the rate of productivity. Despite the importance of transcriptional changes and regulation, little is known about the almond's transcriptome under the cold stress conditions. In the current research, we used RNA-seq technique to study the response of the reproductive tissues of almond (anther and ovary) to frost stress. RNA sequencing resulted in more than 20 million reads from anther and ovary tissues of almond, individually. About 40,000 contigs were assembled and annotated de novo in each tissue. Profile of gene expression in ovary showed significant alterations in 5,112 genes, whereas in anther 6,926 genes were affected by freezing stress. Around two thousands of these genes were common altered genes in both ovary and anther libraries. Gene ontology indicated the involvement of differentially expressed (DE) genes, responding to freezing stress, in metabolic and cellular processes. qRT-PCR analysis verified the expression pattern of eight genes randomly selected from the DE genes. In conclusion, the almond gene index assembled in this study and the reported DE genes can provide great insights on responses of almond and other Prunus species to abiotic stresses. The obtained results from current research would add to the limited available information on almond and Rosaceae. Besides, the findings would be very useful for comparative studies as the number of DE genes reported here is much higher than that of any previous reports in this plant.

  11. Green synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets with use of Prunus persica for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atchudan, Raji, E-mail: atchudanr@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Perumal, Suguna [Department of Applied Chemistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • N-GCSs was synthesized from the unripe Prunus persica by direct hydrothermal method. • The resulting N-GCSs-2 exhibit an excellent graphitization with 9.33% of nitrogen. • N-GCSs-2 provide high C{sub s} of 176 F g{sup −1} at current density of 0.1 A g{sup −1} in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. • N-GCSs-2 have high capacitance retention and 20% capacity growth after 2000 cycles. • First time, N-GCSs resulted from peach via green route for flexible supercapacitors. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets (N-GCSs) were prepared from the extract of unripe Prunus persica fruit by a direct hydrothermal method. The synthesized N-GCSs were examined by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HRTEM showed that the synthesized carbon sheets were graphitic with lattice fringes and an inter-layer distance of 0.36 nm. Doping with the nitrogen moiety present over the synthesized GCSs was confirmed by XPS, FT-IR spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping. The fruit extract associated with hydrothermal-carbonization method is economical and eco-friendly with a single step process. The resulting carbon sheets could be modified and are promising candidates for nano-electronic applications, including supercapacitors. The synthesized N-GCSs-2 provided a high specific capacitance of 176 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.1 A g{sup −1}. This electrode material has excellent cyclic stability, even after 2000 cycles of charge-discharge at a current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1}.

  12. La paradoja mexicana de la delincuencia organizada: Policías, violencia y corrupción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Buscaglia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este texto describe las condiciones contextuales y dimensiones organizativas mediante las cuales las estructuras criminales mexicanas han evolucionado para constituirse en complejas federaciones de base nacional y amplia presencia territorial. También explica cómo se ha producido la expansión de la delincuencia organizada desde México hacia más de 40 países en los cinco continentes.Un aspecto que expone el texto y es de profunda preocupación, es el hecho de que en México solo se ha implementado el 46% de las medidas contenidas en la Convención de Palermo, y el 23% de las referidas a la Convención de Mérida. Por ello, se destaca el grado de ausencia en las políticas públicas mexicanas de los cuatro tipos de medidas operativas recogidas en ambos instrumentos jurídicos y que conciernen a: La coordinación interinstitucional, el combate y prevención de la corrupción, la cooperación legal internacional y la prevención social del delito, recursos y mecanismos que han sido exitosos en otros países como Colombia e Italia, donde se han implementado en más de un 97%. Se presenta la tesis de la paradoja de la sanción penal: a mayor despliegue de fuerza pública y represión estatal, los grupos criminales han respondido con mayor corrupción y violencia. La fuerza que estos últimos han tenido ha sido posible debido a sus patrimonios intactos y escondidos en la economía legal. México ha sido el destinatario de nuevas inversiones criminales debido a sus condiciones de paraíso patrimonial, situación que ha coincidido con el fenómeno de la proliferación de agencias de protección de índole privada (paramilitarismo, recurso al que, ante la indefensión social, las y los ciudadanos han recurrido en forma creciente para suplir la ausencia estatal.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i2.1365

  13. Mutational analysis of the RNA-binding domain of the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) movement protein reveals its requirement for cell-to-cell movement

    OpenAIRE

    Herranz, M. Carmen; Sánchez Navarro, Jesús A.; Saurí Peris, Ana; Mingarro Muñoz, Ismael; Pallás Benet, Vicente

    2005-01-01

    The movement protein (MP) of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is required for cell-to-cell movement. MP subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein revealed highly punctate structures between neighboring cells, believed to represent plasmodesmata. Deletion of the RNA-binding domain (RBD) of PNRSV MP abolishes the cell-to-cell movement. A mutational analysis on this RBD was performed in order to identify in vivo the features that govern viral transport. Loss of positive c...

  14. Power, policy and the Prunus africana bark trade, 1972-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A; Anoncho, V F; Sunderland, T

    2016-02-03

    After almost 50 years of international trade in wild harvested medicinal bark from Africa and Madagascar, the example of Prunus africana holds several lessons for both policy and practice in the fields of forestry, conservation and rural development. Due to recent CITES restrictions on P. africana exports from Burundi, Kenya and Madagascar, coupled with the lifting of the 2007 European Union (EU) ban in 2011, Cameroon's share of the global P. africana bark trade has risen from an average of 38% between 1995 and 2004, to 72.6% (658.6 metric tons) in 2012. Cameroon is therefore at the center of this international policy arena. This paper draws upon several approaches, combining knowledge in working with P. africana over a 30-year period with a thorough literature review and updated trade data with "ground-truthing" in the field in 2013 and 2014. This enabled the construction of a good perspective on trade volumes (1991-2012), bark prices (and value-chain data) and the gaps between research reports and practice. Two approaches provided excellent lenses for a deeper understanding of policy failure and the "knowing-doing gap" in the P. africana case. A similar approach to Médard's (1992) analyses of power, politics and African development was taken and secondly, studies of commodity chains that assess the power relations that coalesce around different commodities (Ribot, 1998; Ribot and Peluso, 2003). Despite the need to conserve genetically and chemically diverse P. africana, wild populations are vulnerable, even in several "protected areas" in Burundi, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and in the forest reserves of Madagascar. Secondly, hopes of decentralized governance of this forest product are misplaced due to elite capture, market monopolies and subsidized management regimes. At the current European price, for P. africana bark (US$6 per kg) for example, the 2012 bark quota (658.675t) from Cameroon alone was worth over US$3.9 million, with the majority of

  15. Polyphyly of the Padus group of Prunus (Rosaceae) and the evolution of biogeographic disjunctions between eastern Asia and eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Lin; Wen, Jun; Nie, Ze-Long; Johnson, Gabriel; Liang, Zong-Suo; Chang, Zhao-Yang

    2013-05-01

    Prunus subgenus Padus is a group with a wide distribution in temperate eastern Asia and eastern North America with one species extending to Europe and one to Central America. Phylogenetic relationships of subgenus Padus were reconstructed using sequences of nuclear ribosomal ITS, and plastid ndhF gene, and rps16 intron and rpl16 intron. Prunus subgenus Padus is shown to be polyphyletic. Taxa of subgenus Padus and subgenus Laurocerasus are highly intermixed in both the ITS and the plastid trees. The results support two disjunctions between eastern North America and Eurasia within the Padus group. One disjunction is between Prunus virginiana of eastern North America and P. padus of Eurasia, estimated to have diverged at 2.99 (95 % HPD 0.59-6.15)-4.1 (95 % HPD 0.63-8.59) mya. The other disjunction is between P. serotina and its Asian relatives. The second disjunction may have occurred earlier than the former one, but the age estimate is difficult due to the unresolved phylogenetic position of the P. serotina complex.

  16. Toxic hydrogen sulfide and dark caves: phenotypic and genetic divergence across two abiotic environmental gradients in Poecilia mexicana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Michael; Dewitt, Thomas J; Schlupp, Ingo; García de León, Francisco J; Herrmann, Roger; Feulner, Philine G D; Tiedemann, Ralph; Plath, Martin

    2008-10-01

    Divergent natural selection drives evolutionary diversification. It creates phenotypic diversity by favoring developmental plasticity within populations or genetic differentiation and local adaptation among populations. We investigated phenotypic and genetic divergence in the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana along two abiotic environmental gradients. These fish typically inhabit nonsulfidic surface rivers, but also colonized sulfidic and cave habitats. We assessed phenotypic variation among a factorial combination of habitat types using geometric and traditional morphometrics, and genetic divergence using quantitative and molecular genetic analyses. Fish in caves (sulfidic or not) exhibited reduced eyes and slender bodies. Fish from sulfidic habitats (surface or cave) exhibited larger heads and longer gill filaments. Common-garden rearing suggested that these morphological differences are partly heritable. Population genetic analyses using microsatellites as well as cytochrome b gene sequences indicate high population differentiation over small spatial scale and very low rates of gene flow, especially among different habitat types. This suggests that divergent environmental conditions constitute barriers to gene flow. Strong molecular divergence over short distances as well as phenotypic and quantitative genetic divergence across habitats in directions classic to fish ecomorphology suggest that divergent selection is structuring phenotypic variation in this system.

  17. Influencia del impuesto hotelero en la red de promoción turística en la capital mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Cuevas Contreras

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente documento examina la aplicación del impuesto hotelero en la pro-moción del turismo en la capital mexicana, considerando su gestión a través del Fondo Mixto de Promoción Turística de la Ciudad de México mediante la exploración relacional de los actores involucrados. La metodología considera trabajo de gabinete, así como la aproximación cualicuantitativa al fenómeno de estudio. Para ello se exploran diversos enfoques de gestión del gravamen, sus beneficios en la promoción y el soporte al branding del destino. El análisis es mediante visualización de las redes que muestran la interrelación de factores de influencia entre los actores e interesados en la dinámica turística, represen-tando la perspectiva de reticularidad con respecto a la tributación extraordi-naria e influencia en el fomento de la imagen.

  18. Otolith morphology and hearing abilities in cave- and surface-dwelling ecotypes of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Ladich, Friedrich; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Cave fish have rarely been investigated with regard to their inner ear morphology, hearing abilities, and acoustic communication. Based on a previous study that revealed morphological differences in the saccular otolith between a cave and two surface populations of Poecilia mexicana, we checked for additional differences in utricular and lagenar otoliths and tested whether different populations have similar hearing sensitivities. We found pronounced differences in the shape of all three otoliths. Otoliths of the saccule and lagena from cave fish differed from those of surface fish in the features of the face oriented towards the sensory epithelium. In addition, otoliths of the utricle and lagena were significantly heavier in cave fish. Auditory sensitivities were measured between 100 and 1500 Hz, utilizing the auditory evoked potential recording technique. We found similar hearing abilities in cave and surface fish, with greatest sensitivity between 200 and 300 Hz. An acoustic survey revealed that neither ecotype produced species-specific sounds. Our data indicate that cave dwelling altered the otolith morphology in Atlantic mollies, probably due to metabolic differences. Different otolith morphology, however, did not affect general auditory sensitivity or acoustic behavior. PMID:20430090

  19. X-ray Crystallographic Study of the Drug Target Phosphoglycerate Mutase from Leishmania mexicana, A Cobalt-dependent Enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poolpem, Buabal; Fortergill-gillmor, Linda; Michel, Poul; Wallkinchow, Malcolm

    2005-10-01

    Crystal structures of Leishmania mexicana iPGAM show a mixture of substrate (3PGA) and product (2PGA) in the active sites which occupy essentially the same position. Lm iPGAM requires Co 2 + ions as cofactors, but not Mn 2 + or Zn 2 +. Comparison of Lm iPGAM and the well-defined structure of Bacillus stearothermophilus iPGAM that requires Mn 2 + shows that the metal requirement of iPGAMs can be discriminated by the existence of an extra residue at Tyr210 (Lm) that causes His360 to adopt a position where it can form a H-bond with the phospho group of the substrate/product. These changes in active site structure cause differences in the active site preferences of each of the iPGAMs from both organisms for particular metals. Metal reactivation experiments show that manganese inhibits Lm iPGAM, whereas the zinc inhibitory effect is unclear. Manganese or zinc substitutions in both metal sites cause changes in metal geometry leading to loss of enzyme activity

  20. Acarine infracommunities associated with the Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in arid regions of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Cornejo, C; García-Prieto, L; Morales-Malacara, J B; Pérez-Ponce De León, G

    2003-11-01

    The Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana, is one of the most widely distributed bats, and its range includes the whole Mexican territory. Ectoparasites of this bat have been the subject of isolated reports, but no studies of its community ecology have been conducted. The acarine infracommunities associated with this bat were analyzed, comparing bat populations from three arid regions of Mexico: an abandoned factory in Nombre de Dios, Durango; a cave in Santiago, Nuevo León; and a church in Concepción del Oro, Zacatecas. The acarine infracommunity in Nuevo Le6n's bats exhibited the highest levels of diversity as reflected by a higher richness, a lower dominance, and a moderate and relatively homogeneous abundance in this locality in relation to the other two. This pattern is influenced by stable cave conditions relative to artificial habitats. Notwithstanding, further studies are required to determine whether or not different habitat conditions are a primary factor in the process of structuring the acari infracommunities.

  1. Seducción de nación. Conmemoraciones y publicidad en la prensa mexicana (1910, 1921, 1935, 1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Campos Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La autora analiza algunas de las diferentes imágenes que se construyeron sobre la idea denación en México en cuatro momentos de suhistoria en el siglo XX(1910, 1921, 1935 y1960 y cómo esas imágenes fueron empleadaspor algunas empresas para publicitar sus productos mediante anuncios aparecidos en losperiódicos de la época. Las cuatro fechas elegidas coinciden con aniversarios más o menosredondos de conmemoraciones nacionales. Elobjetivo del texto es reflexionar sobre los distintos usos de los discursos nacionalistas, asícomo explorar los lenguajes simbólico-visualesde dichos discursos dentro de un contexto nopolítico, pero sí con un fin altamente persuasivo por otros motivos. Igualmente, en los 50años que se recorren, se podrán apreciar algunosde los cambios y continuidades que se produjeron en torno a la idea de nación, así como laevolución en los hábitos de consumo de la sociedad capitalina mexicana.

  2. Female Choice Undermines the Emergence of Strong Sexual Isolation between Locally Adapted Populations of Atlantic Mollies (Poecilia mexicana

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    Claudia Zimmer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Divergent selection between ecologically dissimilar habitats promotes local adaptation, which can lead to reproductive isolation (RI. Populations in the Poecilia mexicana species complex have independently adapted to toxic hydrogen sulfide and show varying degrees of RI. Here, we examined the variation in the mate choice component of prezygotic RI. Mate choice tests across drainages (with stimulus males from another drainage suggest that specific features of the males coupled with a general female preference for yellow color patterns explain the observed variation. Analyses of male body coloration identified the intensity of yellow fin coloration as a strong candidate to explain this pattern, and common-garden rearing suggested heritable population differences. Male sexual ornamentation apparently evolved differently across sulfide-adapted populations, for example because of differences in natural counterselection via predation. The ubiquitous preference for yellow color ornaments in poeciliid females likely undermines the emergence of strong RI, as female discrimination in favor of own males becomes weaker when yellow fin coloration in the respective sulfide ecotype increases. Our study illustrates the complexity of the (partly non-parallel pathways to divergence among replicated ecological gradients. We suggest that future work should identify the genomic loci involved in the pattern reported here, making use of the increasing genomic and transcriptomic datasets available for our study system.

  3. Economía y mercado en la minería tradicional mexicana, 1873-1929

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Salas, José Alfredo

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the behaviour of the Mexican traditional mining industry, with deep historical roots, in a world scenery determined by the two great depressions of 1873-1874 and 1929-1932. The modernization of the productive system is analyzed, together with the enterprise strategies to get round the pitfalls imposed by the international market of metals (cost/benefit and the low propensity of the great silver and gold producting firms to widen the internal market.

    En este artículo de estudia el comportamiento de la industria minera tradicional mexicana, de hondas raíces históricas, en un escenario internacional marcado por dos grandes depresiones: la de 1873-1874 y la de 1929-1932. Se destaca la modernización del aparato productivo, y se analizan las estrategias empresariales para sortear los escollos impuestos por el mercado internacional de metales (costos/beneficios y la baja propensión de las grandes empresas productoras de plata y oro a la ampliación del mercado interno.

  4. Dynamic extrafloral nectar production: the timing of leaf damage affects the defensive response in Senna mexicana var. chapmanii (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ian M; Koptur, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    • Extrafloral nectar (EFN) mediates food for protection mutualisms between plants and defensive insects. Understanding sources of variation in EFN production is important because such variations may affect the number and identity of visitors and the effectiveness of plant defense. We investigated the influence of plant developmental stage, time of day, leaf age, and leaf damage on EFN production in Senna mexicana var. chapmanii. The observed patterns of variation in EFN production were compared with those predicted by optimal defense theory.• Greenhouse experiments with potted plants were conducted to determine how plant age, time of day, and leaf damage affected EFN production. A subsequent field study was conducted to determine how leaf damage, and the resulting increase in EFN production, affected ant visitation in S. chapmanii.• More nectar was produced at night and by older plants. Leaf damage resulted in increased EFN production, and the magnitude of the response was greater in plants damaged in the morning than those damaged at night. Damage to young leaves elicited a stronger defensive response than damage to older leaves, in line with optimal defense theory. Damage to the leaves of S. chapmanii also resulted in significantly higher ant visitation in the field.• Extrafloral nectar is an inducible defense in S. chapmanii. Developmental variations in its production support the growth differentiation balance hypothesis, while within-plant variations and damage responses support optimal defense theory. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  5. Kharon1 null mutants of Leishmania mexicana are avirulent in mice and exhibit a cytokinesis defect within macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoa D Tran

    Full Text Available In a variety of eukaryotes, flagella play important roles both in motility and as sensory organelles that monitor the extracellular environment. In the parasitic protozoan Leishmania mexicana, one glucose transporter isoform, LmxGT1, is targeted selectively to the flagellar membrane where it appears to play a role in glucose sensing. Trafficking of LmxGT1 to the flagellar membrane is dependent upon interaction with the KHARON1 protein that is located at the base of the flagellar axoneme. Remarkably, while Δkharon1 null mutants are viable as insect stage promastigotes, they are unable to survive as amastigotes inside host macrophages. Although Δkharon1 promastigotes enter macrophages and transform into amastigotes, these intracellular parasites are unable to execute cytokinesis and form multinucleate cells before dying. Notably, extracellular axenic amastigotes of Δkharon1 mutants replicate and divide normally, indicating a defect in the mutants that is only exhibited in the intra-macrophage environment. Although the flagella of Δkharon1 amastigotes adhere to the phagolysomal membrane of host macrophages, the morphology of the mutant flagella is often distorted. Additionally, these null mutants are completely avirulent following injection into BALB/c mice, underscoring the critical role of the KHARON1 protein for viability of intracellular amastigotes and disease in the animal model of leishmaniasis.

  6. A nova face da política social mexicana The new look of mexican social policies

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    Asa Cristina Laurell

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A política social mexicana recente já foi apontada por organismos multilaterias como o Banco Mundial como um programa bem sucedido de combate à pobreza. O artigo mostra que essa avaliação é inteiramente equivocada e mostra como e porque a pobreza aumentou substancialmente no país no período 1983-1994. Quanto aos recursos destinados ao programa de combate à pobreza extrema, o PRONASOL, se foram ínfimos em face das carências sociais, foram no entanto suficientes para fazer do programa um instrumento bastante útil aos propósitos , clientelístas e de controle político do Partido Revolucionário Institucional (PRI.Mexico's recent social policies have benn pointed out by multilateral organs like the World Bank as a successfull program against poverty. This papers claims that this evaluation is utterly mistaken and shows how and why poverty has grown substancially in the country during the period 1983-1994. As to the resourses alloted to the program against extreme poverty, PRONASOL, it is shown that they, although insignificant as compared to the social needs, were large enough to make the program an useful instrumental for the clientelistic and political controling interests of the PRI

  7. Assessing the importance of four sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) as vectors of Leishmania mexicana in Campeche, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech-May, A; Peraza-Herrera, G; Moo-Llanes, D A; Escobedo-Ortegón, J; Berzunza-Cruz, M; Becker-Fauser, I; Montes DE Oca-Aguilar, A C; Rebollar-Téllez, E A

    2016-09-01

    Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis represents a public health problem in many areas of Mexico, especially in the Yucatan Peninsula. An understanding of vector ecology and bionomics is of great importance in evaluations of the transmission dynamics of Leishmania parasites. A field study was conducted in the county of Calakmul, state of Campeche, during the period from November 2006 to March 2007. Phlebotomine sandfly vectors were sampled using Centers for Disease Control light traps, baited Disney traps and Shannon traps. A total of 3374 specimens were captured in the two villages of Once de Mayo (93.8%) and Arroyo Negro (6.1%). In Once de Mayo, the most abundant species were Psathyromyia shannoni, Lutzomyia cruciata, Bichromomyia olmeca olmeca and Psychodopygus panamensis (all: Diptera: Psychodidae). The Shannon trap was by far the most efficient method of collection. The infection rate, as determined by Leishmania mexicana-specific polymerase chain reaction, was 0.3% in Once de Mayo and infected sandflies included Psy. panamensis, B. o. olmeca and Psa. shannoni. There were significant differences in human biting rates across sandfly species and month of sampling. Ecological niche modelling analyses showed an overall overlap of 39.1% for the four species in the whole state of Campeche. In addition, the finding of nine vector-reservoir pairs indicates a potential interaction. The roles of the various sandfly vectors in Calakmul are discussed. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  8. Factores sociodemográficos asociados a la victimizacióndelictiva en estudiantes universitarios de tres ciudades mexicanas

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    Elsy Claudia Chan-Gamboa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. ,]HS\\HY SH WYL]HSLUJPH KL SHZ L_WLYPLUJPHZ KL ]PJ[PTPaHJP}U J YPTPUHS ` SVZ MHJ[VYLZ ZVJPVKLTVNYm JVZ asociados en estudiantes universitarios de tres ciudades mexicanas: Chihuahua, Guadalajara y Puebla. M todo. En una muestra no aleatoria participaron 2532 estudiantes de diferentes carreras a trav s de un estudio descriptivo y correlacional. Se aplic la bater a Encuesta sobre Democracia, Tejido Social y Seguridad Humana, v a electr nica, que contempla 16 formas de victimizaci n, ocurridas en los ltimos seis meses. Resultados. Se encontraron diferencias de victimizaci n entre ciudades y por sexo. De destacar, en mujeres, un menor nivel socioecon mico se asoci con m s victimizaci n sexual, acoso y persecuci n. En hombres, a mayor nivel socioecon mico, menos experiencias familiares de suicidio o desapariciones, de lesiones en accidentes viales y de pago por tr mites p blicos. M s experiencias de victimizaci n se asociaron con mayor disposici n a cambiar de lugar de residencia o trabajo, sobre todo para las mujeres. Discusi n. Una mayor victimizaci n criminal se asocia con menor disposici n a permanecer en la ciudad actual de residencia. El nivel socioecon mico aparece como un factor de protecci n (alto nivel o de riesgo (bajo nivel en relaci n con la victimizaci n.

  9. Sex-specific local life-history adaptation in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, Rüdiger; Reznick, David N; Plath, Martin; Schlupp, Ingo

    2016-03-10

    Cavefishes have long been used as model organisms showcasing adaptive diversification, but does adaptation to caves also facilitate the evolution of reproductive isolation from surface ancestors? We raised offspring of wild-caught surface- and cave-dwelling ecotypes of the neotropical fish Poecilia mexicana to sexual maturity in a 12-month common garden experiment. Fish were raised under one of two food regimes (high vs. low), and this was crossed with differences in lighting conditions (permanent darkness vs. 12:12 h light:dark cycle) in a 2 × 2 factorial design, allowing us to elucidate potential patterns of local adaptation in life histories. Our results reveal a pattern of sex-specific local life-history adaptation: Surface molly females had the highest fitness in the treatment best resembling their habitat of origin (high food and a light:dark cycle), and suffered from almost complete reproductive failure in darkness, while cave molly females were not similarly affected in any treatment. Males of both ecotypes, on the other hand, showed only weak evidence for local adaptation. Nonetheless, local life-history adaptation in females likely contributes to ecological diversification in this system and other cave animals, further supporting the role of local adaptation due to strong divergent selection as a major force in ecological speciation.

  10. Empoderamiento de las jóvenes mexicanas y prevención de la violencia en el noviazgo

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    Irene CASIQUE-RODRÍGUEZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de datos de la Encuesta Nacional de la Dinámica de las Relaciones en los Hogares 2011, se indagan, en primer término, algunos indicadores de empoderamiento de las mujeres jóvenes mexicanas (autonomía e ideología de roles y se explora cómo varían éstos según algunas condiciones sociodemográficas de las jóvenes (grupos de edad, nivel de escolaridad, situación conyugal, maternidad y condición de actividad. En segundo término se analizan las asociaciones que se establecen entre dichos indicadores y el riesgo de sufrir violencia en el noviazgo. Los resultados sugieren que la autonomía de las jóvenes juega un papel muy importante como factor de protección frente al riesgo de violencia emocional y de violencia sexual, lo que confirma la relevancia de promover acciones y programas que contribuyan de manera decidida a incrementar entre las mujeres solteras esta dimensión de empoderamiento.

  11. The Mexican electric industry under an opening triangle; La industria electrica mexicana bajo un triangulo de apertura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Guevara, Sergio [Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document analyzes the electric industry in Mexico in its opening phase, which must be qualified as a strategic activity within the present and future becoming of the Mexican economy. The Mexican electric sector was framed within the National Project born out in the country`s Politic Constitution; where the State economic intervention is driven and induced, with its exclusive duty in strategic activities through public enterprises created for that purpose and as a support of Mexico`s economic and social welfare. Within the opening it should be pointed out the participation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Energy Program, the Development Program and Restructure of the Energy Sector 1995-2000 [Espanol] En el presente documento se analiza la industria electrica en Mexico en su fase de apertura, la cual debe calificarse como una actividad estrategica dentro del devenir presente y futuro de la economia mexicana. El sector electrico mexicano se enmarco dentro del Proyecto Nacional que nace en la Constitucion Politica del pais; donde se impulsa e induce la intervencion economica del Estado, con su quehacer exclusivo en actividades estrategicas, por medio de empresas publicas creadas para tal fin y en apoyo del bienestar economico y social de Mexico. Dentro de la apertura hay que senalar la participacion que tiene el Tratado de Libre Comercio, el Programa de Energia y el Programa de Desarrollo y Reestructuracion del Sector Energia 1995-2000

  12. ESTRATEGIAS DE AJUSTE ANTE CHOQUES HIPOTÉTICOS DE OFERTA Y DEMANDA. Resultados de una encuesta a empresas mexicanas

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    Paula Sánchez-Romeu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan estrategias de ajuste para hacer frente a choques hipotéticos de oferta y demanda utilizadas por 1 138 empresas mexicanas encuestadas por el Banco de México en 2012. Los resultados del análisis muestran que la respuesta de las empresas ante los dos tipos de choque en general no es simétrica y que éstas reaccionan combinando estrategias (principalmente eligen reducir costos, con lo cual moderan los ajustes a precios y producción. Más competencia hace que las empresas utilicen con más intensidad las estrategias de ajuste y favorece la flexibilidad de los precios. Ante cualquier choque, los costos que más se reducen son los no laborales y los que genera el empleo temporal. Una alta competencia y un mayor porcentaje de costos laborales intensifican el traspaso de los choques al empleo; por el contrario, los acuerdos colectivos de trabajo mitigan dicho traspaso. No se observa un traspaso de los choques a las percepciones salariales, lo cual, aunado a la baja incidencia de la reducción del salario base, evidencia rigidez en los salarios nominales de las empresas entrevistadas.

  13. El papel de la cultura popular en la construcción de la identidad nacional mexicana: los fandangos jarochos

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    Melba Sonderegger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available La convergencia global causada por el uso masivo de los medios y tecnologías de comunicación, así como la replicación del sistema capitalista en las economías mundiales, amenazó con homogenizar culturalmente las prácticas humanas. Sin embargo, la globalización se concretó con antítesis locales: la reafirmación de las identidades nacionales, así como el intento de reivindicar particularismos culturales a través de iniciativas y políticas de reconocimiento a la diversidad cultural. En estas páginas se analiza el papel de la revitalización de la cultura popular en la construcción de la identidad nacional mexicana; en específico, el caso de los fandangos jarochos en su transición de lo rural a lo urbano y los fandangos fronterizos en el marco de la globalización.

  14. Native Small Airways Secrete Bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsuddin, A. K. M.; Quinton, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Cl− impermeability in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the cloning of the responsible channel, CF pathology has been widely attributed to a defect in epithelial Cl− transport. However, loss of bicarbonate (HCO3−) transport also plays a major, possibly more critical role in CF pathogenesis. Even though HCO3− transport is severely affected in the native pancreas, liver, and intestines in CF, we know very little about HCO3− secretion in small airways, the principle site of morbidi...

  15. Comparison of small mammal prevalence of Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana in five foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Campeche, Mexico Comparación de las prevalencias de Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana en mamíferos pequeños en cinco focos de leishmaniosis cutánea en el estado de Campeche, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Van Wynsberghe

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, 95% of the human cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana with an incidence rate of 5.08 per 100,000 inhabitants. Transmission is limited to the winter months (November to March. One study on wild rodents has incriminated Ototylomys phyllotis and Peromyscus yucatanicus as primary reservoirs of L. (L. mexicana in the focus of La Libertad, Campeche. In the present study, the prevalence of both infection and disease caused by L. (L. mexicana in small terrestrial mammals were documented during five transmission seasons (1994-2004 in five foci of Leishmaniasis in the state of Campeche. Foci separated by only 100 km, with similar relative abundances of small mammals, were found to differ significantly in their prevalence of both symptoms and infection. Transmission rates and reservoir species seemed to change in space as well as in time which limited the implementation of effective control measures of the disease even in a small endemic area such as the south of the Yucatan Peninsula.En la Península de Yucatán, México, la Leishmaniosis Cutánea es causada por Leishmania (L. mexicana en 95% de los casos humanos, con una incidencia de 5.08% por cada 100,000 habitantes. El ciclo de transmisión se limita a la estación de invierno (noviembre- marzo. Un estudio de mamíferos silvestres incrimina a Ototylomys phyllotis y Peromyscus yucatanicus como reservorios primarios de L. (L. mexicana en el foco de infección de La Libertad, Campeche. En el presente estudio, se documenta la prevalencia de infección/enfermedad causada por L. (L. mexicana en pequeños mamíferos, durante cinco estaciones de transmisión (1994-2004 en cinco focos de CL del estado de Campeche. Los focos separados por solamente 100 km. de distancia, aún cuando tienen abundancias relativas de pequeños roedores similares, fueron significativamente diferentes en relación a la prevalencia de síntomas así como de

  16. Whole Protein Native Fitness Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraggi, Eshel; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Protein structure prediction can be separated into two tasks: sample the configuration space of the protein chain, and assign a fitness between these hypothetical models and the native structure of the protein. One of the more promising developments in this area is that of knowledge based energy functions. However, standard approaches using pair-wise interactions have shown shortcomings demonstrated by the superiority of multi-body-potentials. These shortcomings are due to residue pair-wise interaction being dependent on other residues along the chain. We developed a method that uses whole protein information filtered through machine learners to score protein models based on their likeness to native structures. For all models we calculated parameters associated with the distance to the solvent and with distances between residues. These parameters, in addition to energy estimates obtained by using a four-body-potential, DFIRE, and RWPlus were used as training for machine learners to predict the fitness of the models. Testing on CASP 9 targets showed that our method is superior to DFIRE, RWPlus, and the four-body potential, which are considered standards in the field.

  17. NativeView: A Geospatial Curriculum for Native Nation Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattling Leaf, J.

    2007-12-01

    In the spirit of collaboration and reciprocity, James Rattling Leaf of Sinte Gleska University on the Rosebud Reservation of South Dakota will present recent developments, experiences, insights and a vision for education in Indian Country. As a thirty-year young institution, Sinte Gleska University is founded by a strong vision of ancestral leadership and the values of the Lakota Way of Life. Sinte Gleska University (SGU) has initiated the development of a Geospatial Education Curriculum project. NativeView: A Geospatial Curriculum for Native Nation Building is a two-year project that entails a disciplined approach towards the development of a relevant Geospatial academic curriculum. This project is designed to meet the educational and land management needs of the Rosebud Lakota Tribe through the utilization of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS). In conjunction with the strategy and progress of this academic project, a formal presentation and demonstration of the SGU based Geospatial software RezMapper software will exemplify an innovative example of state of the art information technology. RezMapper is an interactive CD software package focused toward the 21 Lakota communities on the Rosebud Reservation that utilizes an ingenious concept of multimedia mapping and state of the art data compression and presentation. This ongoing development utilizes geographic data, imagery from space, historical aerial photography and cultural features such as historic Lakota documents, language, song, video and historical photographs in a multimedia fashion. As a tangible product, RezMapper will be a project deliverable tool for use in the classroom and to a broad range of learners.

  18. Estabelecimento e multiplicação in vitro de Prunus sp. em diferentes meios de cultivo Establishment and multiplication in vitro of Prunus sp. in different culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Couto Rodrigues

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes meios de cultivo no estabelecimento e multiplicação in vitro de espécies do gênero Prunus. Os segmentos nodais de 1,0 cm foram mantidos sob luz fluorescente com radiação de 20 mE.m-2.s-1, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e temperatura de 25±2ºC. No estabelecimento, testaram os meios MS, MS ¾, SH e Villegas, e na multiplicação: SH e MS ¾. O meio MS ¾ foi testado em diferentes concentrações de ágar (4,5; 5,5; 6,5 g.L-1. Avaliaram-se as percentagens de estabelecimento dos explantes, contaminação, oxidação e segmentos não brotados. O meio Villegas apresentou menor oxidação durante o período de estabelecimento in vitro. Com o meio MS ¾, verificou-se maior percentagem de estabelecimento dos explantes. Na fase de multiplicação, avaliaram-se a percentagem de crescimento, a taxa de multiplicação e o número de brotações. O meio MS ¾, com 5,5 g.L-1 de ágar, apresentou os melhores resultados.The work was performed aiming to evaluate different media for the establishment and in vitro multiplication of some rootstocks species of Prunus. Microcutings of 1,0cm long were incubated under 20 mE.m-2.s-1 radiation provided by white fluorescent lamps, 16-hour photoperiod and temperature of 25±2ºC. The establishment media used were as follow: MS, ¾ MS, SH and Villegas, and the multiplication media used were: SH and ¾ MS. The ¾ MS medium was also tested with different agar concentrations (4.5; 5.5; 6.5 g.L-1. The percentage of establishment, contamination, oxidation and growing of the explants were evaluated. The Villegas medium provided low oxidation during the period of in vitro establishment. The ¾ MS medium provided higher percentage of establishment of explants. In the multiplication phase, the highest growth percentage, multiplication rate and bud number, were found in ¾ MS medium with 5.5 g.L-1 agar.

  19. UTILIZACION DE ISOENZIMAS DE EXTRACTOS DE HOJAS EN LA CARACTERIZACION DE CULTIVARES DE DURAZNERO (Prunus persica (L Batsch THE USE OF ISOZYME LEAF EXTRACTS IN THE CHARACTERIZATION OF PEACH CULTIVARS (Prunus persica L Batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HECTOR ABEL ALTUBE

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available La caracterización de cultivares de duraznero (Prunus persica (L Batsch se hace por medio de la descripción de caracteres agronómicos y morfológicos codificados por organizaciones internacionales, los cuales están fuertemente influenciados por el ambiente. Se han buscado métodos alternativos de caracterización y las isoenzimas han sido utilizadas por su independencia de las condiciones del ambiente, además de identificar individuos en etapas tempranas de su desarrollo. El objetivo del presente estudio es caracterizar cultivares de duraznero mediante el análisis isoenzimático de catecol oxidasas, fosfatasas ácidas, esterazas y peroxidazos en extractos de hojas. Los cultivares de duraznero analizados presentaron bajo polimorfismo isoenzimático, las esterazas caracterizaron diez cultivares, las catecol oxidasas un cultivar agrupándose el resto en cinco modelos, las fosfatasas ácidas caracterizaron dos cultivares agrupándose los otros en siete modelos y las peroxidazos formaron tres grupos. Ello puede explicarse ya que el duraznero es una especie autofértil y presenta una base genética muy reducida. Los evidentes límites discriminatorios de este tipo de análisis hacen que su aporte sea sólo complementario a los métodos de los caracteres agronómicos y morfológicos.Characterization of peach cultivars (Prunus persica (L Batsh was made by description of agronomical and morphological characters codified from international organizations, which are strongly affected by environmental conditions. Alternative methods of characterization have been searched, and isoenzymes have been used as independent of environmental conditions in addition to identify some individuals in early stages of development. The goal of this study is the peach cultivars characterization by isoenzymatic analysis of catecol oxidases, acid phosphatases, esterases and peroxidases within the leaf extracts. The peach cultivars analyzed have showed low isoenzymatic

  20. Effects of processing techniques on oxidative stability of Prunus pedunculatus seed oil; Efectos de las técnicas de procesamiento sobre la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de semilla de Prunus pedunculatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, J.; Guo, M.M.; Shen, Y. H.; Wang, Y.Y.; Luan, X.; Li, C.

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigated the effects of Prunus pedunculatus (P. pedunculatus) seed pre-treatment, including microwaving (M), roasting (R), steaming (S) and roasting plus steaming (RS) on crude oil quality in terms of yield, color change, fatty acid composition, and oxidative stability. The results showed an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid content and oxidative stability of the oils obtained from different processing treatments compared to the oil obtained from raw seeds (RW) without processing. The oils, obtained from pretreated seeds, had higher conjugated diene (CD) and 2-thiobarbituric acid (2-TBA) values, compared to that obtained from RW when stored in a Schaal oven at 65 °C for 168 h. However, polyphenol and tocopherol contents decreased in all oil samples, processed or unprocessed. The effect of pre-treating the seeds was more prominent in the oil sample obtained through the RS technique, and showed higher oxidative stability than the other processed oils and the oil from RW. [Spanish] Se investigó los efectos del pretratamiento de las semillas de Prunus pedunculatus, incluyendo microondas (M), tostado (R), cocción al vapor (S) y torrefacción más vapor (RS), sobre la calidad del aceite crudo, el rendimiento, cambio de color, composición en ácidos grasos y estabilidad oxidativa. Los resultados mostraron un aumento en el contenido de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados y en la estabilidad oxidativa de los aceites obtenidos con diferentes tratamientos de procesamiento en comparación con el aceite obtenido a partir de semillas crudas (RW) sin procesamiento. Los aceites obtenidos a partir de semillas pretratadas presentaron mayores valores de dienos conjugados (CD) y de ácido 2-tiobarbitúrico (2-TBA), comparado con el obtenido de RW cuando se almacenaron en horno a 65 °C durante 168 h. Sin embargo, el contenido de polifenoles y tocoferoles disminuyó en todas las muestras de aceites, procesadas o no procesadas. El efecto del pretratamiento de las

  1. Lluvia de semillas y emergencia de plántulas de Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana en La Mojonera, Hidalgo, México Seed rain and seedling emergence of Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana at La Mojonera, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva Godínez-Ibarra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana es una especie restringida a pequeñas poblaciones y sujeta a fuerte presión antropogénica. Con el objetivo de obtener información relevante que permita proponer alternativas de conservación, se analizó la producción de semillas y la demografía de plántulas de primer año en la Mojonera, Hidalgo. Se estableció una parcela de observación de 4 800 m² dividida en cuadrantes de 10 X 10 m. Se utilizaron trampas de 0.5 m² para estimar la producción de semillas, así como subparcelas de 1 m² para registrar la emergencia y supervivencia de plántulas. La producción fue de 521 667 semillas ha-1, de las que sólo el 24.44% estaban llenas; el 46.01% vanas, y el 29.55% dañadas. La densidad de plántulas emergidas varió de 1 a 33 plántulas por m². El porcentaje de supervivencia de plántulas de primer año fue de 2.8% después de 10 meses de observación, siendo las de mayor supervivencia las que emergieron durante las primeras fechas. El 34.44% de las plántulas murieron por herbivoría, el 24.07% por damping-off y 23.65% por causa desconocida. La especie presenta el patrón general de supervivencia de especies arbóreas con alta mortalidad durante el primer año de vida.Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana is a species restricted to small populations under high anthropogenic pressure. With the aim to attain information to propose conservation strategies of this species, the seed rain and demography of current-year seedlings were analyzed at La Mojonera, Hidalgo, Mexico. A 4 800 m² plot divided into 10 X 10 m quadrants was established. The seed rain, seedling emergence, and survival were analyzed using seed traps of 0.5 m² and adjacent 1 m² sub-plots. The total seed rain was 521 667 seeds ha-1. A high proportion of seeds were unsound (46.01%, followed by damaged seeds (29.5% and only 24.44% were sound. Emerged seedlings fluctuated from 1 to 33 seedlings m². Alter 10 months, 2.8% of emerged seedlings were

  2. Caracterización de sitios de percha del guajolote silvestre (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana en Sierra Fría, Aguascalientes, México Roost sites characteristics of wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana in Sierra Fria, Aguascalientes, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Márquez-Olivas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre octubre y noviembre del año 2001 y mayo de 2002 se localizaron 16 sitios de percha de guajolote silvestre (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana en la Sierra Fría de Aguascalientes. El 87.5% de los sitios se encontraron en bosques de pino-encino (en rodales de pinos, en altitudes de 2500 a 2650 m. En la parte alta (2/3 de la cuesta se localizaron 8 de los sitios y 7 sobre laderas de exposición noreste, en una pendiente promedio de 38.9 ± 12.6%. El 62.5% de los sitios se usaron durante todo el periodo de estudio y el resto, de manera ocasional. La mayoría de los dormideros se encontraron cerca de comederos o cebaderos y de parcelas agrícolas. Se contabilizaron de 1 a 23 árboles de percha utilizados por sitio, distribuidos a una distancia promedio de 24.4 ± 17.8 metros. El 81.2% de los árboles (n=170 fueron pinos (Pinus teocote, P. durangensis, P. leiophylla y P. michoacana, 17.6% encinos (Quercus laurina, Q. grisea y Q. eduardii y 1.2% madroños (Arbutus arizonica. La altura promedio de los árboles fue de 16.6 ± 4.4 m y el diámetro 43.2 ± 11.5 cm. La preferencia del guajolote silvestre por utilizar pinos como dormideros en lugar de otras especies arbóreas, se debe posiblemente a que son árboles de mayor porte o a la conformación de su dosel; sin embargo, se ha observado que en lugares donde hay pocos pinos, los guajolotes utilizan para dormir otros árboles de características semejantes, como encinos, madroños o sicomoros.Sixteen roosting sites of Gould's wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana were found between October and November of 2001 and May of 2002 in Sierra Fría, Aguascalientes. A large percentage (87.5% of the roost sites was located in oak-pine forest (in pine stands, at an elevation range of 2500 to 2650 meters. Eight roost sites were on the upper portion (2/3 of the ridge, and 7 at northeast exposures with an average slope of 38.9 ± 12.6%. Most (81.2% of the roost trees (n =170 were pines (Pinus teocote, P

  3. Use of phytoproductivity data in the choice of native plant species to restore a degraded coal mining site amended with a stabilized industrial organic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiochetta, Claudete G; Toumi, Hela; Böhm, Renata F S; Engel, Fernanda; Poyer-Radetski, Gabriel; Rörig, Leonardo R; Adani, Fabrizio; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-11-01

    Coal mining-related activities result in a degraded landscape and sites associated with large amounts of dumped waste material. The arid soil resulting from acid mine drainage affects terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and thus, site remediation programs must be implemented to mitigate this sequential deleterious processes. A low-cost alternative material to counterbalance the affected physico-chemical-microbiological aspects of the degraded soil is the amendment with low contaminated and stabilized industrial organic sludge. The content of nutrients P and N, together with stabilized organic matter, makes this material an excellent fertilizer and soil conditioner, fostering biota colonization and succession in the degraded site. However, choice of native plant species to restore a degraded site must be guided by some minimal criteria, such as plant survival/adaptation and plant biomass productivity. Thus, in this 3-month study under environmental conditions, phytoproductivity tests with five native plant species (Surinam cherry Eugenia uniflora L., C. myrianthum-Citharexylum myrianthum, Inga-Inga spp., Brazilian peppertree Schinus terebinthifolius, and Sour cherry Prunus cerasus) were performed to assess these criteria, and additional biochemical parameters were measured in plant tissues (i.e., protein content and peroxidase activity) exposed to different soil/sludge mixture proportions. The results show that three native plants were more adequate to restore vegetation on degraded sites: Surinam cherry, C. myrianthum, and Brazilian peppertree. Thus, this study demonstrates that phytoproductivity tests associated with biochemical endpoint measurements can help in the choice of native plant species, as well as aiding in the choice of the most appropriate soil/stabilized sludge proportion in order to optimize biomass production.

  4. Phytochemical composition and metabolic performance-enhancing activity of dietary berries traditionally used by Native North Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns Kraft, Tristan F; Dey, Moul; Rogers, Randy B; Ribnicky, David M; Gipp, David M; Cefalu, William T; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2008-02-13

    Four wild berry species, Amelanchier alnifolia, Viburnum trilobum, Prunus virginiana, and Shepherdia argentea, all integral to the traditional subsistence diet of Native American tribal communities, were evaluated to elucidate phytochemical composition and bioactive properties related to performance and human health. Biological activity was screened using a range of bioassays that assessed the potential for these little-known dietary berries to affect diabetic microvascular complications, hyperglycemia, pro-inflammatory gene expression, and metabolic syndrome symptoms. Nonpolar constituents from berries, including carotenoids, were potent inhibitors of aldose reductase (an enzyme involved in the etiology of diabetic microvascular complications), whereas the polar constituents, mainly phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, were hypoglycemic agents and strong inhibitors of IL-1beta and COX-2 gene expression. Berry samples also showed the ability to modulate lipid metabolism and energy expenditure in a manner consistent with improving metabolic syndrome. The results demonstrate that these berries traditionally consumed by tribal cultures contain a rich array of phytochemicals that have the capacity to promote health and protect against chronic diseases, such as diabetes.

  5. Word Durations in Non-Native English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172

  6. Contrasting xylem vessel constraints on hydraulic conductivity between native and non-native woody understory species

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    Maria S Smith

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined the hydraulic properties of 82 native and non-native woody species common to forests of Eastern North America, including several congeneric groups, representing a range of anatomical wood types. We observed smaller conduit diameters with greater frequency in non-native species, corresponding to lower calculated potential vulnerability to cavitation index. Non-native species exhibited higher vessel-grouping in metaxylem compared with native species, however, solitary vessels were more prevalent in secondary xylem. Higher frequency of solitary vessels in secondary xylem was related to a lower potential vulnerability index. We found no relationship between anatomical characteristics of xylem, origin of species and hydraulic conductivity, indicating that non-native species did not exhibit advantageous hydraulic efficiency over native species. Our results confer anatomical advantages for non-native species under the potential for cavitation due to freezing, perhaps permitting extended growing seasons.

  7. Leishmania mexicana amazonensis: heterogeneity in 5-nucleotidase and peroxidase activities of mononuclear phagocytes during in vivo and in vitro infection Leishmania mexicana amazonensis: heterogeneidade da 5’-Nucleotidase e da peroxidase em fagócitos mononucleares durante infecção in vivo e in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Côrte-Real; Gabriel Grimaldi Junior; Maria de Nazareth Leal de Meirelles

    1988-01-01

    The degree of maturation of cells of the Mononuclear Phagocyte System (MPS), during in vivo and in vitro infection by Leishmania mexicana amazonenesis, was evaluated in this study. The macrophages' differentiation was assayed by cytochemical characterization at the ultrastrctural level, using two well-established markers: 5'-nucleotidase enzyme activity, for revealing the mature cells, and the peroxidase activity present in the cell granules to demonstrate immature mononuclear phagocytes. onl...

  8. Effect of Argemone mexicana active principles on inhibiting viral multiplication and stimulating immune system in Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei against white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanikumar, Pandi; Daffni Benitta, Dani Joel; Lelin, Chinnadurai; Thirumalaikumar, Eswaramoorthy; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2018-04-01

    Argemone mexicana called as Mexican prickly poppy is a species of poppy found in Mexico and now widely naturalized in many parts of the world with broad range of bioactivities including anthelmintic, cures lepsory, skin-diseases, inflammations and bilious fevers. Plant parts of A. mexicana were serially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and performed antiviral and immunostimulant screening against WSSV and Vibrio harveyi respectively. The control groups succumbed to death 100% within three days, whereas the mortality was significantly (P shrimp group respectively. The same trend was reflected in the immunostimulant screening also. Different diets were prepared by the concentrations of 100 (AD-1), 200 (AD-2), 300 (AD-3) and 400 (AD-4) mg kg -1 using A. mexicana stem and root ethyl acetate extracts and fed to Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei weighed about 9.0 ± 0.5 g for 30 days. The control groups fed with the normal diets devoid of A. mexicana extracts. The antiviral screening results revealed that, the ethyl acetate extract of the stem and root were effectively suppressed the WSSV and it reflected in the lowest cumulative mortality of treated shrimps. After termination of feeding trials, group of shrimps from control and each experimental group were challenged with virulent WSSV by intramuscular (IM) injection and studied cumulative mortality, molecular diagnosis by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters. Control group succumbed to 100% death within four days, whereas the survival was significantly (P shrimp groups respectively. qRT PCR results with positive correlation analysis revealed that, the WSSV copies were gradually decreased when increasing the A. mexicana extracts in the diets. The highest concentrations (300 and 400 mg g -1 ) of A. mexicana extracts in the diets helped to reduce the protein level significantly (P < 0.05) after WSSV challenge. The diets

  9. Aerococcus viridans Native Valve Endocarditis

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    Wenwan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerococcus viridans is an infrequent human pathogen and few cases of infective endocarditis have been reported. A case involving a 69-year-old man with colon cancer and hemicolectomy 14 years previously, without recurrence, is reported. A diagnosis of native mitral valve endocarditis was established on the basis of clinical presentation, characteristic echocardiographic findings and pathological specimen examination after urgent valve replacement. A viridans endocarditis appears to be particularly virulent, requiring a surgical approach in four of 10 cases reported and death in one of nine. Given the aggressive nature of A viridans endocarditis and the variable time to diagnosis (a few days to seven months, prompt recognition of symptoms and echocardiography, in addition to blood cultures, should be performed when symptoms persist.

  10. Invasive non-native species' provision of refugia for endangered native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Satoshi

    2010-08-01

    The influence of non-native species on native ecosystems is not predicted easily when interspecific interactions are complex. Species removal can result in unexpected and undesired changes to other ecosystem components. I examined whether invasive non-native species may both harm and provide refugia for endangered native species. The invasive non-native plant Casuarina stricta has damaged the native flora and caused decline of the snail fauna on the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. On Anijima in 2006 and 2009, I examined endemic land snails in the genus Ogasawarana. I compared the density of live specimens and frequency of predation scars (from black rats [Rattus rattus]) on empty shells in native vegetation and Casuarina forests. The density of land snails was greater in native vegetation than in Casuarina forests in 2006. Nevertheless, radical declines in the density of land snails occurred in native vegetation since 2006 in association with increasing predation by black rats. In contrast, abundance of Ogasawarana did not decline in the Casuarina forest, where shells with predation scars from rats were rare. As a result, the density of snails was greater in the Casuarina forest than in native vegetation. Removal of Casuarina was associated with an increased proportion of shells with predation scars from rats and a decrease in the density of Ogasawarana. The thick and dense litter of Casuarina appears to provide refugia for native land snails by protecting them from predation by rats; thus, eradication of rats should precede eradication of Casuarina. Adaptive strategies, particularly those that consider the removal order of non-native species, are crucial to minimizing the unintended effects of eradication on native species. In addition, my results suggested that in some cases a given non-native species can be used to mitigate the impacts of other non-native species on native species.

  11. Risk factors connected to gastrointestinal parasites in mantled Alouatta palliata mexicana and black howler monkeys Alouatta pigra living in continuous and in fragmented rainforests in Mexico

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    Genoveva TREJO-MACÍAS, Alejandro ESTRADA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we document the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites (helminths and protozoans found in fecal samples of populations of Alouatta palliata mexicana and of A. pigra in Los Tuxtlas and in Palenque, southeast Mexico, and its relation to habitat condition, sex/age and season. Nineteen parasite morphotypes were detected in the fecal samples from populations of the two howler monkeys, of which 58% were shared by both species. When considering all parasite species, populations of the two howler species were more likely to be parasitized in fragmented habitat compared to continuous habitat. Individuals of both howler monkey species that lived in fragmented habitat had a higher prevalence of Controrchis biliophilus. A. p. mexicana individuals had a higher prevalence of Trypanoxyuris minutus than A. pigra, probably the result of the larger group sizes found in the former species, and T. minutus was more likely to be found in A. palliata individuals that lived in fragmented habitat. Adult A. p. mexicana males had a higher risk of being parasitized compared to adult females, but these differences were not detected in A. pigra. Parasite species such as Entamoeba sp., Nematoda sp. 28, Nematoda sp. B and Parabronema sp. where only found during the wet season in both howler monkey species. Populations of both howler monkey species had a higher prevalence of Nematoda sp. A in the wet season and Ascaridae eggs were only detected during the wet season in A. pigra. Other parasites detected displayed no clear seasonal pattern [Current Zoology 58 (3: 375-383, 2012].

  12. Análisis de portafolio por sectores mediante el uso de algoritmos genéticos: caso aplicado a la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha del Pilar Rodríguez García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El tipo de sector, el tamaño de la empresa, el número de trabajadores, etc. son variables que se consideran de control en una gran cantidad de publicaciones. En este trabajo consideramos estudiar la variable sector —más que como una variable de control— como una variable determinante del desempeño financiero (Baird et al. 2012 y del riesgo (Artikis y Nifora, 2011. Así, se analiza seis sectores de la economía mexicana divididos de acuerdo con la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores en Industrial, Productos de consumo básico, Materiales, Productos de consumo no básico, Telecomunicaciones y Servicios financieros. La muestra se compone de 30 empresas mexicanas dentro del periodo de 2007-2012. Para medir el desempeño del portafolio se utilizan dos indicadores clásicos: (1 Alfa de Jensen y (2 Ratio de Sharpe; se utiliza una métrica condicional que mide el número de veces que el rendimiento del portafolio supera el rendimiento promedio del mercado. El objetivo es encontrar un portafolio que maximice estos parámetros y comparar los resultados entre los diferentes sectores bajo estudio. Debido a un problema de programación no lineal, se utilizan algoritmos genéticos para obtener el portafolio óptimo que maximice estas métricas. Los resultados muestran un mejor desempeño financiero ajustado a riesgo en el sector de Materiales y Servicios financieros y un desempeño más bajo en sectores como el Industrial y el de Telecomunicaciones.

  13. La empresa de base tecnológica y su contribución a la economía mexicana en el periodo 2004-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Alejandro Alarcón Osuna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es analizar la contribución de las empresas de base tecnológica (EBT a la economía mexicana. El estudio incluye la revisión de los sectores donde participa la EBT, así como la participación que tienen los 4 estratos de empresas por su tama ̃ no. La comparación enfatiza la aportación de las pymes y de la empresa grande en la generación de valor agregado en los sectores en donde se localizan, enfatizando su desempe ̃ no general. Los hallazgos principales indican que las EBT mexicanas contribuyen al PIB manufacturero nacional con un poco más del 20%, a pesar de que constituyen solo el 2% de las empresas mexicanas. Asimismo, se identificó que son las microempresas las que tienen el más alto valor agregado, pero son las grandes empresas las que tienen una contribución mayor a la economía. Adicionalmente se encontró que los rendimientos crecientes de escala no son una condición que afecte al desempe ̃ no de la EBT. Derechos Reservados © 2015 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Contaduría y Admi- nistración. Este es un artículo de acceso abierto distribuido bajo los términos de la Licencia Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

  14. Infección de fibroblastos de piel de animales con distinto grado de susceptibilidad a Leishmania infantum y Leishmania mexicana (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Minero

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se presenta un modelo in vitro de cultivo de fibroblastos de piel de hámster, ratón y rata hecho con el propósito de determinar diferencias en cuanto a la susceptibilidad a la infección por dos especies del género Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae. Se realizó además un estudio ultraestructural por microscopía electrónica de transmisión con el fin de establecer si las formas intracelulares observadas correspondían a multiplicación interna o a fagocitosis múltiple. Se estudió la multiplicación de los parásitos en los fibroblastos de las tres especies de roedores infectados tanto por Leishmania infantum como por L. mexicana (cepa OCR y las diferencias entre las tres fueron estadísticamente significativas (pInfection and multiplication of Leishmania infantum and L. mexicana inside of skin fibroblasts from hamsters, mice and rats was achieved. This process was demonstrated either by counting parasites inside the stained cells or by electronic microscopy studies. In addition multiplication rate differences in the cells from these rodent species were determined, for L. infantum as well as for L. mexicana. Parasite development in hamsters and mice fibroblasts was evident but there was not multiplication in rat cells showing that apparently they are refractory to Leishmania infection. These results suggest that the parasite affinity for each animal, as well as any intracellular environment resistance, could involve genetic factors in the parasite multiplication. On the other hand, presence of amastigote multiplication inside of parasitophorus vacuole, showed by electronic microscopy images, probes a true parasite transformation. Therefore it is suggested that fibroblasts could work as host cells for parasite survival and permanency in the infected animals

  15. Periphyton density is similar on native and non-native plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, B.M.C.; Gross, Elisabeth M.; van Donk, E.; Bakker, E.S.

    2017-01-01

    Non-native plants increasingly dominate the vegetation in aquatic ecosystems and thrive in eutrophic conditions. In eutrophic conditions, submerged plants risk being overgrown by epiphytic algae; however, if non-native plants are less susceptible to periphyton than natives, this would contribute to

  16. Within-category variance and lexical tone discrimination in native and non-native speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, C.W.G.; Sadakata, M.; Chen, A.; Desain, P.W.M.; McQueen, J.M.; Gussenhove, C.; Chen, Y.; Dediu, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we show how acoustic variance within lexical tones in disyllabic Mandarin Chinese pseudowords affects discrimination abilities in both native and non-native speakers of Mandarin Chinese. Within-category acoustic variance did not hinder native speakers in discriminating between lexical

  17. Germination responses of an invasive species in native and non-native ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose L. Hierro; Ozkan Eren; Liana Khetsuriani; Alecu Diaconu; Katalin Torok; Daniel Montesinos; Krikor Andonian; David Kikodze; Levan Janoian; Diego Villarreal; Maria Estanga-Mollica; Ragan M. Callaway

    2009-01-01

    Studying germination in the native and non-native range of a species can provide unique insights into processes of range expansion and adaptation; however, traits related to germination have rarely been compared between native and nonnative populations. In a series of common garden experiments, we explored whether differences in the seasonality of precipitation,...

  18. Differences in the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies among Native and Non-Native Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheorey, R.; Mokhtari, K.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the differences in the reported use of reading strategies of native and non-native English speakers when reading academic materials. Participants were native English speaking and English-as-a-Second-Language college students who completed a survey of reading strategies aimed at discerning the strategies readers report using when coping…

  19. Local adaptation and pronounced genetic differentiation in an extremophile fish, Poecilia mexicana, inhabiting a Mexican cave with toxic hydrogen sulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, M; Hauswaldt, J S; Moll, K; Tobler, M; García De León, F J; Schlupp, I; Tiedemann, R

    2007-03-01

    We investigated genetic differentiation and migration patterns in a small livebearing fish, Poecilia mexicana, inhabiting a sulfidic Mexican limestone cave (Cueva del Azufre). We examined fish from three different cave chambers, the sulfidic surface creek draining the cave (El Azufre) and a nearby surface creek without the toxic hydrogen sulphide (Arroyo Cristal). Using microsatellite analysis of 10 unlinked loci, we found pronounced genetic differentiation among the three major habitats: Arroyo Cristal, El Azufre and the cave. Genetic differentiation was also found within the cave between different pools. An estimation of first-generation migrants suggests that (i) migration is unidirectional, out of the cave, and (ii) migration among different cave chambers occurs to some extent. We investigated if the pattern of genetic differentiation is also reflected in a morphological trait, eye size. Relatively large eyes were found in surface habitats, small eyes in the anterior cave chambers, and the smallest eyes were detected in the innermost cave chamber (XIII). This pattern shows some congruence with a previously proposed morphocline in eye size. However, our data do not support the proposed mechanism for this morphocline, namely that it would be maintained by migration from both directions into the middle cave chambers. This would have led to an increased variance in eye size in the middle cave chambers, which we did not find. Restricted gene flow between the cave and the surface can be explained by local adaptations to extreme environmental conditions, namely H2S and absence of light. Within the cave system, habitat properties are patchy, and genetic differentiation between cave chambers despite migration could indicate local adaptation at an even smaller scale.

  20. Benito Fernández de Elena Garro: una mirada crítica sobre la historia mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Bustamante Bermúdez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available En 1957, Elena Garro escribió la obra teatral Benito Fernández, texto en el que hace una revisión crítica a la historia nacional, el poder, la simulación y la búsqueda de la identidad personal en medio de la sociedad creada a partir de la posrevolución mexicana. La obra de la escritora es un contradiscurso a la oficialidad, a la mitificación de los hechos y héroes nacionales; lo que le interesa es resaltar el carácter racista y clasista de una nueva sociedad de dirigentes políticos en busca del bienestar personal y de grupo por encima del bien colectivo, para ello, opta porque en su obra los personajes se preocupen por comprar una cabeza, es decir, una ideología que les haga saber que existen. In 1957, Elena Garro wrote the play Benito Fernández, a text in which she critically reviews Mexico's national history, issues of power, simulation and the quest for personal identity in the midst of a society emerged in the after effects of the Mexican Revolution. This work is a counter-discourse to Mexico's official narrative and the idealization of facts and national heroes. She is interested in the racist and classist aspects of the new dominating society, which is interested in their own personal welfare over those of the collective. To do so, she makes her characters concerned about buying a head, that is, an ideology to fundament their own existence.