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Sample records for prunus dulcis account

  1. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M., E-mail: dinakar@nii.res.in [National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2008-01-01

    The purification, identification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergy-related protein, Pru du amandin, from P. dulcis nuts are reported. Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 Å.

  2. Effect of Temperature and Moisture on the Development of Concealed Damage in Raw Almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Zuskov, David; Chan, Bronte Lee; Lee, Jihyun; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2015-09-23

    Concealed damage (CD) is a brown discoloration of nutmeat that appears only after kernels are treated with moderate heat (e.g., roasting). Identifying factors that promote CD in almonds is of significant interest to the nut industry. Herein, the effect of temperature (35 and 45 °C) and moisture (<5, 8, and 11%) on the composition of volatiles in raw almonds (Prunus dulcis var. Nonpareil) was studied using HS-SPME-GC/MS. A CIE LCh colorimetric method was developed to identify raw almonds with CD. A significant increase in CD was demonstrated in almonds exposed to moisture (8% kernel moisture content) at 45 °C as compared to 35 °C. Elevated levels of volatiles related to lipid peroxidation and amino acid degradation were observed in almonds with CD. These results suggest that postharvest moisture exposure resulting in an internal kernel moisture ≥ 8% is a key factor in the development of CD in raw almonds and that CD is accelerated by temperature.

  3. Compared leaf anatomy and water relations of commercial and traditional Prunus dulcis (Mill.) cultivars under rain-fed conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, I.; Meyer, A.; Afonso, S.

    2018-01-01

    Leaf anatomy and water relations of seven almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) cultivars, traditional (Bonita, Casanova, Parada, Pegarinhos and Verdeal) and commercial (Ferragnès and Glorieta), grown under rain-fed conditions, were studied. The performed measurements included thickness of leaf tissues......, leaf area, leaf mass per unit area, density of leaf tissue, relative water content, succulence, water saturation deficit, water content at saturation and cuticular transpiration rate. Significant differences were observed in most of the studied parameters between cultivars. Overall results indicate...

  4. Dual role of imidazole as activator/inhibitor of sweet almond (Prunus dulcis β-glucosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Caramia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The activity of Prunus dulcis (sweet almond β-glucosidase at the expense of p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside at pH 6 was determined, both under steady-state and pre-steady-state conditions. Using crude enzyme preparations, competitive inhibition by 1–5 mM imidazole was observed under both kinetic conditions tested. However, when imidazole was added to reaction mixtures at 0.125–0.250 mM, we detected a significant enzyme activation. To further inspect this effect exerted by imidazole, β-glucosidase was purified to homogeneity. Two enzyme isoforms were isolated, i.e. a full-length monomer, and a dimer containing a full-length and a truncated subunit. Dimeric β-glucosidase was found to perform much better than the monomeric enzyme, independently of the kinetic conditions used to assay enzyme activity. In addition, the sensitivity towards imidazole was found to differ between the two isoforms. While monomeric enzyme was indeed found to be relatively insensitive to imidazole, dimeric β-glucosidase was observed to be significantly activated by 0.125–0.250 mM imidazole under pre-steady-state conditions. Further, steady-state assays revealed that the addition of 0.125 mM imidazole to reaction mixtures increases the Km of dimeric enzyme from 2.3 to 6.7 mM. The activation of β-glucosidase dimer by imidazole is proposed to be exerted via a conformational transition poising the enzyme towards proficient catalysis.

  5. Endogenous hormones response to cytokinins with regard to organogenesis in explants of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-11-01

    Organogenesis in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and peach rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis) has been achieved and the action of the regeneration medium on 7 phytohormones, zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA), has been studied using High performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Three scion peach cultivars, 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach × almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677' were cultured in two different media, Murashige and Skoog supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) (regeneration medium) and without PGRs (control medium), in order to study the effects of the media and/or genotypes in the endogenous hormones content and their role in organogenesis. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach × almond rootstocks and showed a lower content of Z, IAA, ABA, ACC and JA. Only Z, ZR and IAA were affected by the action of the culture media. This study shows which hormones are external PGRs-dependent and what is the weight of the genotype and hormones in peach organogenesis that provide an avenue to manipulate in vitro organogenesis in peach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Characterization of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

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    Albillos, Silvia M.; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Fu, Tong-Jen (IIT); (US-FDA)

    2008-08-04

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond (Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 {angstrom} and belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1}22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 {angstrom}, c = 165.248 {angstrom}. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of prunin-1, a major component of the almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen amandin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albillos, Silvia M; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2008-07-09

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond ( Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 A and belong to the tetragonal space group P4(1)22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 A, c = 165.248 A. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  8. Differences in proleptic and epicormic shoot structures in relation to water deficit and growth rate in almond trees (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrón, Claudia; Contador, Loreto; Lampinen, Bruce D; Metcalf, Samuel G; Guédon, Yann; Costes, Evelyne; DeJong, Theodore M

    2014-02-01

    Shoot characteristics differ depending on the meristem tissue that they originate from and environmental conditions during their development. This study focused on the effects of plant water status on axillary meristem fate and flowering patterns along proleptic and epicormic shoots, as well as on shoot growth rates on 'Nonpareil' almond trees (Prunus dulcis). The aims were (1) to characterize the structural differences between proleptic and epicormic shoots, (2) to determine whether water deficits modify shoot structures differently depending on shoot type, and (3) to determine whether shoot structures are related to shoot growth rates. A hidden semi-Markov model of the axillary meristem fate and number of flower buds per node was built for two shoot types growing on trees exposed to three plant water status treatments. The models segmented observed shoots into successive homogeneous zones, which were compared between treatments. Shoot growth rates were calculated from shoot extension measurements made during the growing season. Proleptic shoots had seven successive homogeneous zones while epicormic shoots had five zones. Shoot structures were associated with changes in growth rate over the season. Water deficit (1) affected the occurrence and lengths of the first zones of proleptic shoots, but only the occurrence of the third zone was reduced in epicormic shoots; (2) had a minor effect on zone flowering patterns and did not modify shoot or zone composition of axillary meristem fates; and (3) reduced growth rates, although patterns over the season were similar among treatments. Two meristem types, with different latency durations, produced shoots with different growth rates and distinct structures. Differences between shoot type structure responses to water deficit appeared to reflect their ontogenetic characteristics and/or resource availability for their development. Tree water deficit appeared to stimulate a more rapid progression through ontogenetic states.

  9. Response of Nitrogen and Potassium Fertigation to “Waris” Almond (Prunus dulcis under Northwestern Himalayan Region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted on almond (Prunus dulcis to study the effect of N&K fertigation on growth, yields and leaf nutrient status over two seasons (2011 and 2012 in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. There were six treatments, namely, T1—100% recommended dose of fertilizers as soil application, T2—100% RDF through fertigations, T3—75% RDF through fertigation, T4—75% RDF through fertigation (split application, T5—50% RDF through fertigation and T6—50% RDF through fertigation (split application with three replications under randomized block design. The results indicated that the maximum tree height (3.21 m and 3.56 m, nut weight (2.73 g and 1.94 g, nut yield (2.41 kg/tree and 5.98 kg/tree; 2.67 t/ha and 6.64 t/ha, and leaf nutrient content (2.34 and 2.38% N; 0.14 and 0.17% P; 1.37 and 1.41% K were recorded in T4 treatment, whereas the highest TCSA of main trunk, primary, secondary, and tertiary branches (72.67 and 90.28 cm2; 16.75 and 24.26 cm2; 3.83 and 7.49 cm2; 0.47 and 1.23 cm2, canopy volume (7.15 and 8.11 m3, and fruit number (990 and 3083/tree were recorded in T2 in almond variety Waris.

  10. Crystal structure of prunin-1, a major component of the almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen amandin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2009-09-23

    Seed storage proteins are accumulated during seed development and act as a reserve of nutrition for seed germination and young sprout growth. Plant seeds play an important role in human nutrition by providing a relatively inexpensive source of protein. However, many plant foods contain allergenic proteins, and the number of people suffering from food allergies has increased rapidly in recent years. The 11S globulins are the most widespread seed storage proteins, present in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds as well as in gymnosperms (conifers) and other spermatophytes. This family of proteins accounts for a number of known major food allergens. They are of interest to both the public and industry due to food safety concerns. Because of the interests in the structural basis of the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to determine the crystal structure of Pru1, the major component of the 11 S storage protein from almonds. The structure was refined to 2.4 A, and the R/Rfree for the final refined structure is 17.2/22.9. Pru1 is a hexamer made of two trimers. Most of the back-to-back trimer-trimer association was contributed by monomer-monomer interactions. An alpha helix (helix 6) at the C-terminal end of the acidic domain of one of the interacting monomers lies at the cleft of the two protomers. The residues in this helix correspond to a flexible region in the peanut allergen Ara h 3 that encompasses a previously defined linear IgE epitope.

  11. The Small-RNA Profiles of Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) Reproductive Tissues in Response to Cold Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Marzieh; Ghazanfari, Farahnaz; Fadaei, Adeleh; Ahmadi, Laleh; Shiran, Behrouz; Rabei, Mohammad; Fallahi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is an important environmental stress that threatens the production of Prunus trees. However, little information is available regarding molecular response of these plants to the frost stress. Using high throughput sequencing, this study was conducted to identify differentially expressed miRNAs, both the conserved and the non-conserved ones, in the reproductive tissues of almond tolerant H genotype under cold stress. Analysis of 50 to 58 million raw reads led to identification of 174 unique conserved and 59 novel microRNAs (miRNAs). Differential expression pattern analysis showed that 50 miRNA families were expressed differentially in one or both of almond reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Out of these 50 miRNA families, 12 and 15 displayed up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively. The distribution of conserved miRNA families indicated that miR482f harbor the highest number of members. Confirmation of miRNAs expression patterns by quantitative real- time PCR (qPCR) was performed in cold tolerant (H genotype) alongside a sensitive variety (Sh12 genotype). Our analysis revealed differential expression for 9 miRNAs in anther and 3 miRNAs in ovary between these two varieties. Target prediction of miRNAs followed by differential expression analysis resulted in identification of 83 target genes, mostly transcription factors. This study comprehensively catalogued expressed miRNAs under different temperatures in two reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Results of current study and the previous RNA-seq study, which was conducted in the same tissues by our group, provide a unique opportunity to understand the molecular basis of responses of almond to cold stress. The results can also enhance the possibility for gene manipulation to develop cold tolerant plants.

  12. The Small-RNA Profiles of Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. Reproductive Tissues in Response to Cold Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Karimi

    Full Text Available Spring frost is an important environmental stress that threatens the production of Prunus trees. However, little information is available regarding molecular response of these plants to the frost stress. Using high throughput sequencing, this study was conducted to identify differentially expressed miRNAs, both the conserved and the non-conserved ones, in the reproductive tissues of almond tolerant H genotype under cold stress. Analysis of 50 to 58 million raw reads led to identification of 174 unique conserved and 59 novel microRNAs (miRNAs. Differential expression pattern analysis showed that 50 miRNA families were expressed differentially in one or both of almond reproductive tissues (anther and ovary. Out of these 50 miRNA families, 12 and 15 displayed up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively. The distribution of conserved miRNA families indicated that miR482f harbor the highest number of members. Confirmation of miRNAs expression patterns by quantitative real- time PCR (qPCR was performed in cold tolerant (H genotype alongside a sensitive variety (Sh12 genotype. Our analysis revealed differential expression for 9 miRNAs in anther and 3 miRNAs in ovary between these two varieties. Target prediction of miRNAs followed by differential expression analysis resulted in identification of 83 target genes, mostly transcription factors. This study comprehensively catalogued expressed miRNAs under different temperatures in two reproductive tissues (anther and ovary. Results of current study and the previous RNA-seq study, which was conducted in the same tissues by our group, provide a unique opportunity to understand the molecular basis of responses of almond to cold stress. The results can also enhance the possibility for gene manipulation to develop cold tolerant plants.

  13. Effect of Salinity Stress on Concentrations of Nutrition Elements in Almond (Prunus Dulcis 'Shokofeh', 'Sahand' Cultivars and '13-40' Genotype Budded on GF677 Rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Momenpour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Almond (Prunus amygdalus B. is one of the most important crops consumed as a dry fruit and it is mainly adaptable to arid and semi-arid regions mostly suffering from salinity stress (8. Soils with dry humidity regime are dominant in Iran and in the world at large and mostly include regions with more evaporation than precipitation. This in turn leads to increased salinity of the soil (9 and 10. Based on available reports, roughly 12.5% of land areas in Iran are saline, which overwhelmingly contain sodium, while more than 800 million hectares of land area on the earth (6% of overall global land area are affected by salinity (9 and 10. Therefore, compound of rootstock and scion may be used as one of the influence factors in sensitivity or tolerance to salinity of planted fruit trees including almonds (8 and 11. In recent years, for various reasons including the uniformity of trees, instead of sexual rootstock, vegetative rootstock is used. Rootstock GF677 an inter-specific hybrid (Almond Peach is propagated asexually as clone (8. It has been reported that rootstock GF677 is tolerant to salinity while rootstock nemagard (P. persica X P. davidiana is sensitive to salinity (16. It has been reported that rootstock GF677 tolerated salinity (5.5 ds/m, (19 or 5.2 ds/m (17 and 14.However, as plant species and different cultivars within the same plant species vary considerably in their tolerance to salinity (10, properly selecting plants and/or cultivars that can be grown well under adverse conditions, created in the root zone by salinization, is the most efficient and environmentally friendly agricultural practice for a more permanent solution of the problem of salinity (10. Despite the presence of information on the effect of salinity on concentration of nutrition elements of almond cultivars leaves and roots, tolerantscion/rootstock combinationshave not been introduced for this plant. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to

  14. Molecular mechanisms regulating flowering time in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionescu, Irina Alexandra

    as a result of hydrogen cyanamide treatment: the jasmonate pathway, the hydrogen cyanide pathway and the cytokinin pathway. We further analyzed the levels of cyanogenic glucosides and their derivatives during endodormancy and its release in sweet cherry and almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb). Prunasin...

  15. Sensitive and specific detection of potentially allergenic almond (Prunus dulcis) in complex food matrices by Taqman(®) real-time polymerase chain reaction in comparison to commercially available protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Martin; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2011-01-24

    Currently, causative immunotherapies are lacking in food allergy. The only option to prevent allergic reactions in susceptible individuals is to strictly avoid the offending food. Thus, reliable labelling of allergenic constituents is of major importance, but can only be achieved if appropriate specific and sensitive detection techniques for foods with allergenic potential are available. Almond is an allergenic food that requires mandatory labelling on prepackaged foods and belongs to the genus Prunus. Species of this genus are phylogenetically closely related. We observed commercially available almond specific ELISA being highly cross-reactive with other foods of the Prunoideae family, resulting in a false-positive detection of up to 500,000 mg kg(-1) almond. Previously published PCR methods were reported to be cross-reactive with false positive results >1200 mg kg(-1). We describe the development of a novel almond specific real-time PCR, based on mutated mismatch primers and sequence specific Taqman(®) probe detection, in comparison with two quantitative commercially available ELISA. PCR sensitivity was investigated with chocolate, chocolate coating and cookies spiked between 5 and 100,000 mg kg(-1) almond. In all matrices almond was reproducibly detected by real-time PCR at the lowest spike level of 5 mg kg(-1). Further, between 100 and 100,000 mg kg(-1) spiked almond, the method featured good correlation between quantified copy numbers and the amount of spiked almond. Within this range a similar relation between detectable signal and amount of almond was observed for both PCR and ELISA. In contrast to ELISA the Taqman(®) real-time PCR method was highly specific in 59 food items with negligible cross-reactivity for a very limited number of Prunoideae foods. The real-time PCR analysis of 24 retail samples was in concordance with ELISA results: 21% (n=5) contained undeclared almond. This is the first completely disclosed real-time PCR method for a specific and

  16. Sensitive and specific detection of potentially allergenic almond (Prunus dulcis) in complex food matrices by Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction in comparison to commercially available protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, Martin; Vieths, Stefan [Division of Allergology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Paul-Ehrlich-Strasse 51-59, 63225 Langen (Germany); Holzhauser, Thomas, E-mail: holth@pei.de [Division of Allergology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Paul-Ehrlich-Strasse 51-59, 63225 Langen (Germany)

    2011-01-24

    Currently, causative immunotherapies are lacking in food allergy. The only option to prevent allergic reactions in susceptible individuals is to strictly avoid the offending food. Thus, reliable labelling of allergenic constituents is of major importance, but can only be achieved if appropriate specific and sensitive detection techniques for foods with allergenic potential are available. Almond is an allergenic food that requires mandatory labelling on prepackaged foods and belongs to the genus Prunus. Species of this genus are phylogenetically closely related. We observed commercially available almond specific ELISA being highly cross-reactive with other foods of the Prunoideae family, resulting in a false-positive detection of up to 500,000 mg kg{sup -1} almond. Previously published PCR methods were reported to be cross-reactive with false positive results >1200 mg kg{sup -1}. We describe the development of a novel almond specific real-time PCR, based on mutated mismatch primers and sequence specific Taqman probe detection, in comparison with two quantitative commercially available ELISA. PCR sensitivity was investigated with chocolate, chocolate coating and cookies spiked between 5 and 100,000 mg kg{sup -1} almond. In all matrices almond was reproducibly detected by real-time PCR at the lowest spike level of 5 mg kg{sup -1}. Further, between 100 and 100,000 mg kg{sup -1} spiked almond, the method featured good correlation between quantified copy numbers and the amount of spiked almond. Within this range a similar relation between detectable signal and amount of almond was observed for both PCR and ELISA. In contrast to ELISA the Taqman real-time PCR method was highly specific in 59 food items with negligible cross-reactivity for a very limited number of Prunoideae foods. The real-time PCR analysis of 24 retail samples was in concordance with ELISA results: 21% (n = 5) contained undeclared almond. This is the first completely disclosed real-time PCR method for a

  17. Evaluation of salt tolerance in almond [Prunus dulcis (L.) Batsch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-07-12

    Jul 12, 2012 ... stone fruit trees and almond are sensitive to salt stresses and their productivity gradually reduces at salt concen- ... order to improve stone fruit and almond rootstocks through hybridization between peach × almond, apricot × ..... J. Forest Poplar Res. 11(1): p. 202. Ranjbar A, Lemeur R, Damme P (2005).

  18. Evaluation of salt tolerance in almond [ Prunus dulcis (L.) Batsch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of the plant's responses to the high salinity levels (6 and 9 dSm-1) were significant with no deleterious effects observed on plant growth triggered by lower salt concentrations of 1.5 and 3 dSm-1. A significant decrease in total chlorophyll and chlorophyll b content was also found at the high salinity levels but no ...

  19. Evaluation of salt tolerance in almond [Prunus dulcis (L.) Batsch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-07-12

    Jul 12, 2012 ... al., 2006; Jafarzadeh and Aliasgarzad, 2007). Woody plants are usually relatively salt-tolerant during the seed germination stage but much more sensitive during the young seedling stage and progressively more tolerant with increasing age through the reproductive stage (Najafian et al., 2008). Temperate ...

  20. (Prunus dulcis, Batch) genotypes as revealed by PCR analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... The identification of pollen-pistil compatibility relationships among almond cultivars and genotypes is very important for breeders and growers. In the present study, PCR based technique was used to identify S-alleles in 10 late blooming almond genotypes. In total, 19 alleles were amplified by five primer.

  1. Genética de la introgresión de genes del almendro (prunus dulcis Mill.) en el melocotonero [P. persica (l.) Batsch]: desarrollo de una estrategia de selección de líneas casi isogénicas (Nils) con marcadores moleculares

    OpenAIRE

    Donoso Contreras, José M.

    2014-01-01

    El melocotonero es el frutal de hueso más importante a nivel mundial, y el tercer árbol de fruta dulce cultivada después del manzano y el peral. A nivel genético es una de las especies mejor caracterizadas de la familia Rosaceae. El melocotonero presenta un bajo nivel de variabilidad genética pero es sexualmente compatible con otras especies de Prunus, como el almendro, los cuales podrían ser una posible fuente de nuevos genes para enriquecer su pool genético. Estudiamos un conjunto de caract...

  2. Peach (Prunus persica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbadini, Silvia; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Girolomini, Luca; Molesini, Barbara; Navacchi, Oriano

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the application of genetic transformation techniques in peach has been limited by the difficulties in developing efficient regeneration and transformation protocols. Here we describe an efficient regeneration protocol for the commercial micropropagation of GF677 rootstock (Prunus persica × Prunus amygdalus). The method is based on the production, via organogenesis, of meristematic bulk tissues characterized by a high competence for shoot regeneration. This protocol has also been used to obtain GF677 plants genetically engineered with an empty hairpin cassette (hereafter indicated as hp-pBin19), through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. After 7-8 months of selection on media containing kanamycin, we obtained two genetically modified GF677 lines. PCR and Southern blot analyses were performed to confirm the genetic status.

  3. Evaluation of Herb-Drug Interactions of Hovenia dulcis Fruit Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Suk; Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Kim, In Sook; Choi, Min Sun; Na, Chun-Soo; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Hovenia dulcis (Rhamnaceae) fruits are popularly used as herbal medicines or dietary supplements in Asian countries due to functions such as liver protection and detoxification from alcohol poisoning. Accordingly, it is very likely for dietary supplemental products, including H. dulcis fruit extracts, to be taken with prescription drugs. In this study, possible food-drug interactions involving H. dulcis fruit extracts were evaluated based on the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity. The water extract of H. dulcis fruit extracts was incubated in human liver microsomes with CYP-specific substrates. The formation of the CYP-specific metabolites was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. H. dulcis fruit extracts showed negligible effects on seven CYP isozyme activities at all concentrations tested. This result suggests that H. dulcis fruit extracts may have minimal pharmacokinetic interactions with coadministered drugs through the modulation of CYP enzymes. Food-drug interactions involving H. dulcis fruit extracts were evaluated.The inhibition of CYPs by H. dulcis extracts was tested.H. dulcis extracts showed negligible effects on CYP activities.H. dulcis extracts may have minimal pharmacokinetic interactions with co-administered drugs. Abbreviations Used: CYP: cytochrome P450 enzymes, HPLC: High performance liquid chromatography, LC-MS/MS : liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, MRM: multiple-reaction monitoring.

  4. In situ degradation of almond (Prunus dulcis L.) hulls, a potential feed material for ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    JAFARI, SAEID; Alizadeh, Alireza; IMNI, ALI; Meng, Goh Yong; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; EBRAHIMI, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    The nutritive values of almond hulls (Ahs), alfalfa (ALF), and sugar beet pulp (SBP) were determined using the in situ nylon bag technique. The ruminal dry matter (DM) degradation kinetics of 4 varieties of Ahs were compared with ALF and SBP. The almond varieties tested were Rabbi (RAB), Mamaii (MAM), Shahrud 15 (SH15), and Shokufe (SH). Samples were incubated in triplicate at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h in 3 rumen-fistulated steers. The average total degradability fraction (TDF) of...

  5. Disruption of endosperm development: an inbreeding effect in almond (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Encarnación; Martínez-García, Pedro J; Dicenta, Federico; Egea, José

    2010-06-01

    A homozygous self-compatible almond, originated from self-fertilization of a self-compatible genotype and producing a reasonable yield following open pollination, exhibited a very high fruit drop rate when self-pollinated. To investigate whether fruit dropping in this individual is related to an abnormal development of the embryo sac following self-fertilization, histological sections of ovaries from self and cross-pollinated flowers were observed by light microscopy. Additionally, the presence of pollen tubes in the ovary and fruit set were determined for both types of pollination. Despite pollen tubes reached the ovary after both pollinations, differences in embryo sac and endosperm development after fertilization were found. Thus, while for cross-fertilized ovules a pro-embryo and an endosperm with abundant nuclei were generally observed, most self-fertilized ovules remained in a previous developmental stage in which the embryo sac was not elongated and endosperm nuclei were absent. Although 30 days after pollination fruit set was similar for both pollination types, at 60 days it was significantly reduced for self-pollination. These results provide evidence that the high fruit drop in this genotype is the consequence of a disrupted development of the endosperm, what could be an expression of its high level of inbreeding.

  6. Fatty acid composition and anticancer activity in colon carcinoma cell lines of Prunus dulcis seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mericli, Filiz; Becer, Eda; Kabadayı, Hilal; Hanoglu, Azmi; Yigit Hanoglu, Duygu; Ozkum Yavuz, Dudu; Ozek, Temel; Vatansever, Seda

    2017-12-01

    Almond oil is used in traditional and complementary therapies for its numerous health benefits due to high unsaturated fatty acids content. This study investigated the composition and in vitro anticancer activity of almond oil from Northern Cyprus and compared with almond oil from Turkey. Almond oil from Northern Cyprus was obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction and analyzed by GC-MS. Almond oil of Turkey was provided from Turkish pharmacies. Different concentrations of almond oils were incubated for 24 and 48 h with Colo-320 and Colo-741 cells. Cell growth and cytotoxicity were measured by MTT assays. Anticancer and antiprolifetarive activities of almond oils were investigated by immunocytochemistry using antibodies directed against to BMP-2, β-catenin, Ki-67, LGR-5 and Jagged 1. Oleic acid (77.8%; 75.3%), linoleic acid (13.5%; 15.8%), palmitic acid (7.4%; 6.3%), were determined as the major compounds of almond oil from Northern Cyprus and Turkey, respectively. In the MTT assay, both almond oils were found to be active against Colo-320 and Colo-741 cells with 1:1 dilution for both 24 h and 48 h. As a result of immunohistochemical staining, while both almond oils exhibited significant antiproliferative and anticancer activity, these activities were more similar in Colo-320 cells which were treated with Northern Cyprus almond oil. Almond oil from Northern Cyprus and Turkey may have anticancer and antiproliferative effects on colon cancer cells through molecular signalling pathways and, thus, they could be potential novel therapeutic agents.

  7. Antioxidant potential of chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) and almond (Prunus dulcis L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, J C M; Ferreira, I C F R; Oliveira, M B P P; Pereira, J A

    2010-06-01

    The antioxidant properties of almond green husks (Cvs. Duro Italiano, Ferraduel, Ferranhês, Ferrastar and Orelha de Mula), chestnut skins and chestnut leaves (Cvs. Aveleira, Boa Ventura, Judia and Longal) were evaluated through several chemical and biochemical assays in order to provide a novel strategy to stimulate the application of waste products as new suppliers of useful bioactive compounds, namely antioxidants. All the assayed by-products revealed good antioxidant properties, with very low EC(50) values (lower than 380 μg/mL), particularly for lipid peroxidation inhibition (lower than 140 μg/mL). The total phenols and flavonoids contents were also determined. The correlation between these bioactive compounds and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of β-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in pig brain tissue through formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was also obtained. Although, all the assayed by-products proved to have a high potential of application in new antioxidants formulations, chestnut skins and leaves demonstrated better results.

  8. hispidulin and other constituents of scoparia dulcis linn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 35: 3963-3966. Hayashi T., Kawasaki M., Miwa Y., Taga T. and Morita N. (1990). “Antiviral agent of plant origin. III. Scopadulin, a novel tetra- cyclic diterpene from Scoparia dulcis L”. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 38. (4): 945-947. Hayashi T., Kishi M., Kawasaki M., Arisawa.

  9. Scoparia dulcis reduces the severity of Trypanosoma bruceiinduced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effect of oral administration of the herb, Scoparia dulcis, on Trypanosoma bruceiinduced changes in plasma lipid profile in rabbits over a period of twenty eight days. Results obtained show that infection with T. brucei resulted in significant increases in plasma total cholesterol, trriacylglycerol, and low ...

  10. Relationship between endogenous hormonal content and somatic organogenesis in callus of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and Prunus persica×Prunus dulcis rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Le-Disquet, Isabel; Guivarc'h, Anne; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between endogenous hormones content and the induction of somatic peach plant was studied. To induce multiple shoots from callus derived from the base of stem explants of the scion cultivars 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach×almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677', propagated plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog salts augmented with 0.1mgL(-1) of indolebutyric acid, 1mgL(-1) of 6-benzylaminopurine and 3% sucrose. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach×almond rootstocks. Endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) were analyzed in the organogenic callus. Lower levels of several hormones, namely Z, ZR, ABA, and ACC were found in the peach×almond rootstock compared to peach cultivars, while IAA and SA presented inconclusive returns. These results suggest that the difference in somatic organogenesis capacity observed in peach and peach×almond hybrids is markedly affected by the endogenous hormonal content of the studied genotypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of polymorphic SSRs among Prunus chloroplast genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An in silico mining process yielded 80, 75, and 78 microsatellites in the chloroplast genome of Prunus persica, P. kansuensis, and P. mume. A and T repeats were predominant in the three genomes, accounting for 67.8% on average and most of them were successful in primer design. For the 80 P. persica ...

  12. Peroxidase activity in Spondias dulcis = Atividade da peroxidase em Spondias dulcis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Cardozo-Filho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the best conditions to obtain crude extracts showingPeroxidase activity from Spondia dulcis (caja-mango were evaluated. Fresh fruits (25 g were blended in different sodium phosphate buffer (0.05 to 0.2 M with a pH varying from 3.0 to 9.0. The muddy material was centrifuged for 20 minutes. In order to improve POD activity, the crude extract was submitted to precipitation with ammonium sulfate at 90% saturation. This precipitated was re-suspended in sodium phosphate buffer 0.2 M pH 6.5 and then, optimum pH for activity assay (pH varying from 5.0 to 9.0 and thermal stability (exposure to different temperatures varying from 30 to 75ºC for periods between 0 to 15 minutes were determined. The best conditions for activity assay were in phosphate buffer 0.2 M at pH7.0. The results obtained for thermal inactivation study suggest that the heating at 75ºCfor 15 minutes inactivated 95% of initial POD activity.Foram avaliadas, neste trabalho, algumas condições para a obtenção de extratos brutos com atividade peroxidase de Spondias dulcis (cajá-manga. Frutas frescas (25 g foram trituradas com tampão fosfato de sódio (0,05 a 0,2 M em pHs diferentes (3,0 a 9,0. O material obtido foi centrifugado por 20 min. O extrato bruto foi submetido à precipitação com sulfato de amônio até 90% de saturação. Este precipitado foi ressuspenso em tampão fosfato de sódio 0,2 M pH 6,5 e, assim, o pH ótimo para o ensaio de atividade (pH que varia de 5,0 a 9,0 e a estabilidade térmica (exposição a temperaturas de 30, 60, 65, 70 e 75ºC por um período de 0 a 15 min. deste foram determinados. As melhores condições encontradas para o ensaio de atividade foram em tampão fosfato 0,2 M pH 7,0. Os resultados para a inativação térmica sugerem que o aquecimento a 75ºC por 15 mininativa 95% da atividade de POD inicial.

  13. Preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose produced from purun tikus (Eleocharis dulcis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunardi, Febriani, Nina Mutia; Junaidi, Ahmad Budi

    2017-08-01

    Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC) is one of the important modified cellulose, a water-soluble cellulose, which is widely used in many application of food, pharmaceuticals, detergent, paper coating, dispersing agent, and others. The main raw material of modified cellulose is cellulose from wood and cotton. Recently, much attention has been attracted to the use of various agriculture product and by-product, grass, and residual biomass as cellulose and modified cellulose source for addressing an environmental and economic concern. Eleocharis dulcis, commonly known as purun tikus (in Indonesia), is a native aquatic plant of swamp area (wetland) in Kalimantan, which consists of 30-40% cellulose. It is significantly considered as one of the alternative resources for cellulose. The aims of present study were to isolate cellulose from E. dulcis and then to synthesise Na-CMC from isolated cellulose. Preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose from E. dulcis was carried out by an alkalization and etherification process of isolated cellulose, using various concentration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and monochloroacetic acid (MCA). The results indicated that the optimum reaction of alkalization was reached at 20% NaOH and etherification at the mass fraction ratio of MCA to cellulose 1.0. The optimum reaction has the highest solubility and degree of substitution. The carboxymethylation process of cellulose was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In addition, changes in crystallinity of cellulose and Na-CMC were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  14. Flavonoids from Prunus serotina Ehrh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Monika

    2005-01-01

    In the course of chemotaxonomic study of the genus Prunus, seven flavonol glycosides were isolated from the leaves of Prunus serotina Ehrh., characterized by UV and NMR spectroscopy, and identified finally as three quercetin monosides: hyperoside, avicularin, reynoutrin, three quercetin biosides: 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside as well isorhamnetin 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The presence of determined flavonoids in the flowers was confirmed by TLC.

  15. Association between Chloroplast and Mitochondrial DNA sequences in Chinese Prunus genotypes (Prunus persica, Prunus domestica, and Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, Tariq; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Yanyi; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Junhuan; Fang, Jinggui

    2015-01-16

    The nuclear DNA is conventionally used to assess the diversity and relatedness among different species, but variations at the DNA genome level has also been used to study the relationship among different organisms. In most species, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes are inherited maternally; therefore it is anticipated that organelle DNA remains completely associated. Many research studies were conducted simultaneously on organelle genome. The objectives of this study was to analyze the genetic relationship between chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA in three Chinese Prunus genotypes viz., Prunus persica, Prunus domestica, and Prunus avium. We investigated the genetic diversity of Prunus genotypes using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers relevant to the chloroplast and mitochondria. Most of the genotypes were genetically similar as revealed by phylogenetic analysis. The Y2 Wu Xing (Cherry) and L2 Hong Xin Li (Plum) genotypes have a high similarity index (0.89), followed by Zi Ye Li (0.85), whereas; L1 Tai Yang Li (plum) has the lowest genetic similarity (0.35). In case of cpSSR, Hong Tao (Peach) and L1 Tai Yang Li (Plum) genotypes demonstrated similarity index of 0.85 and Huang Tao has the lowest similarity index of 0.50. The mtSSR nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that each genotype has similar amplicon length (509 bp) except M5Y1 i.e., 505 bp with CCB256 primer; while in case of NAD6 primer, all genotypes showed different sizes. The MEHO (Peach), MEY1 (Cherry), MEL2 (Plum) and MEL1 (Plum) have 586 bps; while MEY2 (Cherry), MEZI (Plum) and MEHU (Peach) have 585, 584 and 566 bp, respectively. The CCB256 primer showed highly conserved sequences and minute single polymorphic nucleotides with no deletion or mutation. The cpSSR (ARCP511) microsatellites showed the harmonious amplicon length. The CZI (Plum), CHO (Peach) and CL1 (Plum) showed 182 bp; whileCHU (Peach), CY2 (Cherry), CL2 (Plum) and CY1 (Cherry) showed 181 bp amplicon lengths. These results

  16. Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Michael; Inglis, Fred

    2017-01-01

    This contribution republishes extracts from two important articles published around 2000 concerning the punitive accountability system suffered by English primary and secondary schools. The first concerns the inspection agency Ofsted, and the second managerialism. Though they do not directly address assessment, they are highly relevant to this…

  17. Utilização de vermicomposto no crescimento de mudas de Hovenia dulcis Thunberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Luíz Munari Vogel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of its good adaptation to the south of Brazil, Hovenia dulcis nursery behavior is little known in our environmental conditions. The growth of Hovenia dulcis seedlings under different dosages of vermicompost was evaluated. The experimental design used was entirely randomized with 5 treatments and 4 repetitions. The treatments were: control with 0% vermicompost, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% vermicompost, in a total volume of 185 cm3. Ninety days after seeding, the following parameters were measured: stem diameter, shoot height, dry weight of the above ground, root and total biomasses. The Hovenia dulcis seedlings responded positively, in all parameters measured, to the application of vermicompost. The recommended dosage for the production of seedlings of Hovenia dulcis is 40% vermicompost.

  18. Using Perls Staining to Trace the Iron Uptake Pathway in Leaves of a Prunus Rootstock Treated with Iron Foliar Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Juan J; Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves of Prunus rootstock (GF 677; Prunus dulcis × Prunus persica) plants treated with foliar Fe compounds using the Perls blue method, which detects labile Fe pools. Young expanded leaves of Fe-deficient plants grown in nutrient solution were treated with Fe-compounds using a brush. Iron compounds used were the ferrous salt FeSO4, the ferric salts Fe2(SO4)3 and FeCl3, and the chelate Fe(III)-EDTA, all of them at concentrations of 9 mM Fe. Leaf Fe concentration increases were measured at 30, 60, 90 min, and 24 h, and 70 μm-thick leaf transversal sections were obtained with a vibrating microtome and stained with Perls blue. In vitro results show that the Perls blue method is a good tool to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves when using Fe salts, but is not sensitive enough when using synthetic Fe(III)-chelates such as Fe(III)-EDTA and Fe(III)-IDHA. Foliar Fe fertilization increased leaf Fe concentrations with all Fe compounds used, with inorganic Fe salts causing larger leaf Fe concentration increases than Fe(III)-EDTA. Results show that Perls blue stain appeared within 30 min in the stomatal areas, indicating that Fe applied as inorganic salts was taken up rapidly via stomata. In the case of using FeSO4 a progression of the stain was seen with time toward vascular areas in the leaf blade and the central vein, whereas in the case of Fe(III) salts the stain mainly remained in the stomatal areas. Perls stain was never observed in the mesophyll areas, possibly due to the low concentration of labile Fe pools.

  19. Investigation on the pollen morphology of traditional cultivars of Prunus species in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Geraci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study pollen grains of 13 cultivars and 3 rootstocks belonging to 5 species (P. armeniaca, P. domestica, P. dulcis, P. persica, P. avium of the genus Prunus collected from North-East Sicily were examined for the micromorphological characterization through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The length of polar axis (P and the equatorial diameter (E of grain, P/E ratio, the length of colpi (C, diameter of perforations (DP and the number of perforations in 25 μm2 (PN, the width of muri (WM, the distance between muri (DM and their number in 25 μm2 (MN, the width of grooves (WG were measured and their variation was compared among studied taxa. Moreover multivariate statistical analysis was carried out to distinguish morphometric information from measured parameters. All pollen grains are trizonocolpate, isopolar, medium-large sized and their shape varies from prolate to perprolate. Regarding outline pollen grains are subtriangular in polar view and elliptic in equatorial view. Exine sculpturing is striate with perforations on grain surface. The arrangement of ridges appears roughly parallel but too sloped (sometimes curved compared to polar axis, or branched and oriented in different directions, or perfectly parallel or more irregular with bifurcated ridges often sinuous. The analyses showed a great variability (particularly in P. domestica cultivars related in some cases to the diversity in the morphological features of the leaves and the fruits of the investigated entities.

  20. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and preliminary purification of proanthocyanidins and chlorogenic acid from almond (Prunus dulcis) skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xue; Zhou, Xin-Yu; Qiang, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2014-07-01

    An aqueous solution of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a green solvent was employed for the first time to develop the ultrasound-assisted extraction of proanthocyanidins (PA) and chlorogenic acid (CA) from almond skin. The optimized extraction parameters were determined based on response surface methodology, and corresponded to an ultrasound power of 120 W, a liquid-to-solid ratio of 20:1 (mL/g), and a PEG concentration of 50% (v/v). Under these optimized conditions, the extraction yields of PAs and CA from almond skin were 32.68 ± 0.22 and 16.01 ± 0.19 mg/g, respectively. Compared with organic solvent extraction, PEG solution extraction produced higher yields. Different macroporous resins were compared for their performance in purifying PAs and CA from almond skin extract. Static adsorption/desorption experimental results demonstrated that AB-8 resin exhibits excellent purification performance at pH 4. Under the optimized dynamic adsorption/desorption conditions on the AB-8 column, the total recovery of purification for PAs and CA was 80.67%. The total content of PAs and CA in the preliminarily purified extract was 89.17% (with respective contents of 60.90 and 28.27%). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Quality characteristics and microbiological safety evaluation of oils extracted from gamma irradiated almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid, S. A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical attributes and microbial decontamination of oils extracted from gamma-irradiated almond (Mission and Price varieties seeds, to the absorbed doses of 2-10 kGy, have been evaluated. Gamma irradiation exerted no considerable effect on the proximate seed composition. The physicochemical properties such as density and refractive index of the oils, extracted from gammairradieted seeds, were almost unaffected; the iodine value decreased while saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acids increased. The oxidative status and tocopherol content of almond oils were negatively affected while the fatty acid profile slightly changed due to irradiation stress. Interestingly, these effects on the oil quality attributes were more pronounced at higher irradiation doses (> 6 kGy. Besides, microbial contamination was completely eliminated in the oils irradiated to an absorbed dose of 6.0 kGy. It could be concluded from the present findings that irradiation has a considerably positive or negative effect on some attributes of the almond oil. Therefore, an appropriate magnitude of gamma irradiation should be exercised to treat almond seeds in order to retain maximum nutritive benefits.Se ha evaluado las caracteristicas fisico-químicas y la descontaminación microbiana de aceites extraídos de semillas de almendras (variedades Misión y Price gamma-irradiadas a dosis absorbidas de 2-10 kGy. La radiación gamma no ejerce ningún efecto considerable en la composición próximal de las semillas. Las características fisico-químicas tales como la densidad y el índice de refracción de los aceites, extraídos a partir de semillas gamma-irradiadas, permanecieron casi sin afectar; el índice de yodo disminuye mientras que el valor de saponificación, la materia insaponificable y los ácidos grasos libres aumentan. El estado oxidativo y el contenido de tocoferoles de los aceites de almendra se vieron afectados negativamente, mientras que el perfil de ácidos grasos se modifica ligeramente debido al estrés de la radiación. Curiosamente, los efectos sobre los atributos de calidad del aceite fueron más pronunciados a dosis de radiación más altas (> 6 kGy. Además, la contaminación microbiana se eliminó por completo en los aceites irradiados a una dosis absorbida de 6,0 kGy. Se puede concluir a partir de los presentes hallazgos que la radiación tiene un efecto positivo o negativo considerable en algunos atributos de la aceite de almendras. Por lo tanto, se debe aplicar una magnitud apropiada de radiación gamma para el tratamiento de semillas de almendra con el fin de retener los máximos beneficios nutritivos.

  2. Quality characteristics and microbiological safety evaluation of oils extracted from gamma irradiated almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatti, I. A.; Iqbal, M.; Anwar, F.; Shanid, S. A.; Shahid, M.

    2013-05-01

    The physicochemical attributes and microbial decontamination of oils extracted from gamma-irradiated almond (Mission and Price varieties) seeds, to the absorbed doses of 2-10 kGy, have been evaluated. Gamma irradiation exerted no considerable effect on the proximate seed composition. The physicochemical properties such as density and refractive index of the oils, extracted from gammairradieted seeds, were almost unaffected; the iodine value decreased while saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acids increased. The oxidative status and tocopherol content of almond oils were negatively affected while the fatty acid profile slightly changed due to irradiation stress. Interestingly, these effects on the oil quality attributes were more pronounced at higher irradiation doses (> 6 kGy). Besides, microbial contamination was completely eliminated in the oils irradiated to an absorbed dose of 6.0 kGy. It could be concluded from the present findings that irradiation has a considerably positive or negative effect on some attributes of the almond oil. Therefore, an appropriate magnitude of gamma irradiation should be exercised to treat almond seeds in order to retain maximum nutritive benefits. (Author) 52 refs.

  3. Supervised chemical pattern recognition in almond ( Prunus dulcis ) Portuguese PDO cultivars: PCA- and LDA-based triennial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, João C M; Casal, Susana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Peres, António M; Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2012-09-26

    Almonds harvested in three years in Trás-os-Montes (Portugal) were characterized to find differences among Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) Amêndoa Douro and commercial non-PDO cultivars. Nutritional parameters, fiber (neutral and acid detergent fibers, acid detergent lignin, and cellulose), fatty acids, triacylglycerols (TAG), and tocopherols were evaluated. Fat was the major component, followed by carbohydrates, protein, and moisture. Fatty acids were mostly detected as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated forms, with relevance of oleic and linoleic acids. Accordingly, 1,2,3-trioleoylglycerol and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-linoleoylglycerol were the major TAG. α-Tocopherol was the leading tocopherol. To verify statistical differences among PDO and non-PDO cultivars independent of the harvest year, data were analyzed through an analysis of variance, a principal component analysis, and a linear discriminant analysis (LDA). These differences identified classification parameters, providing an important tool for authenticity purposes. The best results were achieved with TAG analysis coupled with LDA, which proved its effectiveness to discriminate almond cultivars.

  4. Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for the Nondestructive Identification of Concealed Damage in Raw Almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Boulton, Roger; Opastpongkarn, Arunwong; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2016-07-27

    Concealed damage (CD) is defined as a brown discoloration of the kernel interior (nutmeat) that appears only after moderate to high heat treatment (e.g., blanching, drying, roasting, etc.). Raw almonds with CD have no visible defects before heat treatment. Currently, there are no screening methods available for detecting CD in raw almonds. Herein, the feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy between 1125 and 2153 nm for the detection of CD in almonds is demonstrated. Almond kernels with CD have less NIR absorbance in the region related with oil, protein, and carbohydrates. With the use of partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and selection of specific wavelengths, three classification models were developed. The calibration models have false-positive and false-negative error rates ranging between 12.4 and 16.1% and between 10.6 and 17.2%, respectively. The percent error rates ranged between 8.2 and 9.2%. Second-derivative preprocessing of the selected wavelength resulted in the most robust predictive model.

  5. Quantification of amygdalin in nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds (Prunus dulcis) by UHPLC-(ESI)QqQ MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Zhang, Gong; Wood, Elizabeth; Rogel Castillo, Cristian; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2013-08-14

    Amygdalin is a cynaogenic diglucoside responsible for the bitterness of almonds. Almonds display three flavor phenotypes, nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter. Herein, the amygdalin content of 20 varieties of nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds from four primary growing regions of California was determined using solid-phase extraction and ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography electrospray triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-(ESI)QqQ MS/MS). The detection limit for this method is ≤ 0.1 ng/mL (3 times the signal-to-noise ratio) and the LOQ is 0.33 ng/mL (10 times the signal-to-noise ratio), allowing for the reliable quantitation of trace levels of amygdalin in nonbitter almonds (0.13 mg/kg almond). Results indicate that amygdalin concentrations for the three flavor phenotypes were significantly different (p amygdalin in nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds are 63.13 ± 57.54, 992.24 ± 513.04, and 40060.34 ± 7855.26 mg/kg, respectively. Levels of amygdalin ranged from 2.16 to 157.44 mg/kg in nonbitter, from 523.50 to 1772.75 mg/kg in semibitter, and from 33006.60 to 53998.30 mg/kg in bitter almonds. These results suggest that phenotype classification may be achieved on the basis of amygdalin levels. Growing region had a statistically significant effect on the amygdalin concentration in commercial varieties (p < 0.05).

  6. Sugars profiles of different chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and almond (Prunus dulcis) cultivars by HPLC-RI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, João C M; Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-03-01

    Sugar profiles of different almond and chestnut cultivars were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), by means of a refractive index (RI) detector. A solid-liquid extraction procedure was used in defatted and dried samples. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Eurospher 100-5 NH(2) column using an isocratic elution with acetonitrile/water (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. All the compounds were separated in 16 min. The method was optimized and proved to be reproducible and accurate. Generally, more than 95% of sugars were identified for both matrixes. Sugars profiles were quite homogeneous for almond cultivars; sucrose was the main sugar (11.46 +/- 0.14 in Marcona to 22.23 +/- 0.59 in Ferragnes g/100 g of dried weight), followed by raffinose (0.71 +/- 0.05 in Ferraduel to 2.11 +/- 0.29 in Duro Italiano), glucose (0.42 +/- 0.12 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 1.47 +/- 0.19 in Ferragnes) and fructose (0.11 +/- 0.02 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 0.59 +/- 0.05 in Gloriette). Commercial cultivars proved to have higher sucrose contents, except in the case of Marcona. Nevertheless, chestnut cultivars revealed a high heterogeneity. Sucrose was the main sugar in Aveleira (22.05 +/- 1.48), Judia (23.30 +/- 0.83) and Longal (9.56 +/- 0.91), while glucose was slightly prevalent in Boa Ventura (6.63 +/- 0.49). The observed variance could serve for inter-cultivar discrimination.

  7. Rheological and interfacial properties at the equilibrium of almond gum tree exudate (Prunus dulcis) in comparison with gum arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Sessa, Mariarenata; Ferrari, Giovanna; Hamdi, Salem; Donsi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Almond gum contains an arabinogalactan-type polysaccharide, which plays an important role in defining its interfacial and rheological properties. In this study, rheological and interfacial properties of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions were comparatively investigated. The interfacial tension of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions was measured using the pendant drop method in hexadecane. The asymptotic interfacial tension values for almond gum were significantly lower than the corresponding values measured for gum arabic, especially at high concentration. Rheological properties were characterized by steady and oscillatory tests using a coaxial geometry. Almond gum flow curves exhibited a shear thinning non-Newtonian behavior with a tendency to a Newtonian plateau at low shear rate, while gum arabic flow curves exhibited such behavior only at high shear rate. The influence of temperature (5-50  ℃) on the flow curves was studied at 4% (m/m) gum concentration and the Newtonian viscosities at infinite and at zero shear rate, for gum arabic and almond gum, respectively, were accurately fitted by an Arrhenius-type equation. The dynamic properties of the two gum dispersions were also studied. Both gum dispersions exhibited viscoelastic properties, with the viscous component being predominant in a wider range of concentrations for almond gum, while for gum arabic the elastic component being higher than the elastic one especially at higher concentrations.The rheological and interfacial tension properties of almond gum suggest that it may represent a possible substitute of gum arabic in different food applications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. The Diatom Anorthoneis dulcis Hein from Southern Brazil: Morphology and Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Marinês

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new geographic locality for Anorthoneis dulcis is reported. The paper describes the distribution and relative abundance of A. dulcis in Lagoa dos Patos lagoon (a lagoon in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil from samples collected between 2004 and 2005, and shows that this rare species is present all year round. This study extends the species distribution to South America indicating that the species can thrive on sand grains in lentic estuarine, and freshwater areas. It widens the range of tolerance to environmental parameters. The valve fine structure, morphology, and dimensions are in agreement with the original diagnosis.

  9. Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus serotina Erhr.) and wild cherry ( Prunus avium L.) seedlings on low and high elevation sites in the western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  10. Effect of Scoparia dulcis on noise stress induced adaptive immunity and cytokine response in immunized Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loganathan Sundareswaran

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: S. dulcis (SD has normalized and prevented the noise induced changes in cell-mediated and humoral immunity and it could be the presence of anti-stressor and immuno stimulant activity of the plant.

  11. Variabilidad interspecifica de duraznos (Prunus persica L. Batsch.) y ciruelos (Prunus domestica) usando RAMs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado; Yacenia Morillo Coronado; Leonardo Ariel González Mendoza; Iván Adiel Ávila Morales

    2015-01-01

      A sample of 41 Prunus materials from the deciduous collection of the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia was selected to evaluate its genetic diversity using eight primers for Random...

  12. Elaboration and characterization of Japanese Raisin Tree (Hovenia dulcis Thumb. pseudofruits fermented alcoholic beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Tensol PINTO

    Full Text Available Abstract Hovenia dulcis pseudofruits have underexplored properties for food purposes, despite their pleasant sensory characteristics and therapeutic benefits. The aim of this study was the elaboration and chemical characterization of the alcoholic fermented beverage of H. dulcis, using selected strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CCMA 0200. The resulting fermented beverage presented high content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity when compared to other fruits and beverages (DPPH and ABTS assay. The alcohol content was 12.9 oGL and total sugars 3.57g/L. By the GC-MS analysis, 39 compounds were identified including metabolites with therapeutic potential such as eugenol, trans-farnesol salicylates. The flavonoid dihidromyricetin was identified and quantified (75.17 mg/L by HPLC-DAD and UPLC-MS/MS. The results reinforce the interest on nutraceutical and functional properties of this beverage and opens perspectives for new studies that value this underexplored pseudofruit.

  13. Properties of multi-laminated plywood produced with Hovenia dulcis Thunb. and Pinus elliottii wood under different pressing pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezaquel Bednarczuk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of different pressing pressures and the influence of the wood features on the properties of plywood produced with sapwood and heartwood Hovenia dulcis combined with Pinus elliottii. To support the discussion, the anatomical and physical characterizations of the wood were carried out. The panels were produced by applying three different press pressures (0.88, 1.18 and 1.47 MPa and with six combinations of wood veneers. Phenol-formaldehyde resin was employed, 160 g m-2 in a simple line and 35% solid content. The anatomical analysis revealed that the sapwood is more permeable than the H. dulcis heartwood. The H. dulcis wood basic density it was higher than that of the P. elliottii. Increased press pressure raised the values of the apparent density, thickness swelling and thickness swelling plus recovery of the plywood and water absorption reduction. The panels produced with H. dulcis veneers presented higher apparent density, MOR, MOE and bonding line resistance, as well as lower water absorption and moisture content, than those produced with P. elliottii veneers. No difference was noticed regarding the plywood properties when the main effects were evaluated in relation to the use of H. dulcis heartwood and sapwood veneers.

  14. Silvical characteristics of black cherry (Prunus serotina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbel F. Hough

    1960-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) is the largest of the native cherry trees of the United States. It may grow to more than 100 feet in height, and to as much as 5 feet in diameter. It is the only species of its genus that provides lumber for commerce. And this lumber, because of its stability and its superior working qualities, is one of the most...

  15. DIAGNOSTICS OF VIRUS PHYTOPATHOGENS FRUIT TREE PLUM POX VIRUS, PRUNUS NECROTIC RINGSPOT VIRUS AND PRUNUS DWARF VIRUS BY BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS

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    Július Rozák

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of viral phytopathogen Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus in selected localities of Slovakia and diagnose them using a molecular and biological methods. Forty samples of fruit trees of the genus Prunus, twenty samples from intensive plantings and twenty samples from wild subject were analysed. Biological diagnostic by using biological indicators Prunus persica cv. GF 305, Prunus serrulata cv. Schirofugen and molecular diagnostic by mRT-PCR were applied. Five samples with Plum pox virus were infected. The two samples positive for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and one sample for Prunus dwarf virus were confirmed. The two samples were found to be infected with two viruses Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus. This work focuses on two techniques, their application to the diagnosis of stone fruit viruses and their routinely used for sanitary and certification programmes.

  16. Interspecific hybridizations in ornamental flowering cherries (Prunus species)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering cherries belong to the genus Prunus L., consisting primarily of species native to Asia. Despite the popularity of ornamental cherry trees in the landscape, most ornamental Prunus planted in the U.S. are derived from a limited genetic base of Japanese flowering cherry taxa. Controlled cross...

  17. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of Genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the genus Prunus was studied in detail to find out the phylogenetic relationship among the 12 species of Prunus selected from different regions of Pakistan and GenBank using the maximum parsimony analysis of sequence polymorphism in chloroplast TRN-L and TRN-F spacer DNA. The results for the ...

  18. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was used as an oviposition surrogate for the congeneric S. exitiosa (Say) to examine possible preference for Prunus germplasm. We assayed limbs of a peach cultivar (Prunus persica), peach rootstocks, plum-peach hybrid rootstocks, the...

  19. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of Genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... Sorbus L. (mountain ash) and Spiraea L. (bridal wreath). (Potter, 2003). According to Rehder (1940), Prunus has nearly 200 species, mostly in ... DNA was extracted from the fresh and herbarium samples of. Prunus by the method of Doyle and Doyle (1987). For the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis ...

  20. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

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    Bliss Fredrick A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a

  1. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica) progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a valuable tool for dissecting the

  2. Anti-anxiety activity of hydro alcoholic extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn. assessed using different experimental anxiety models In rodents

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    Arasan Elayaraja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Scoparia dulcis belonging to the family Scrophulariaceae is an valuable medicinal herb, had showed antiviral, antimalarial, anticancer and antidiabetic activities. The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-anxiety activity of crude ethanolic extract of S.dulcis L by various behavioural models. Preliminary phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of  phenols and flavonoids. The extract at 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg was evaluated for anti anxiety activity by  Open-field test [OFT], Elevated plus-maze test [EPM], Elevated Zero-maze test [EZM],, Social interaction test [SI] And  Novelty induced suppressed feeling latency test [FL]   and the results of behavioral tests indicated the dose dependent anti-anxiety activity of  Scoparia dulcis which is comparable to standard. It was concluded that crude ethanolic extract showed anti anxiety activity.Further studies are needed to identify the anxiolytic mechanism(s and the phytochemicals responsible for the observed anxiolytic effect  of the hydroalcoholic extract of Scoparia dulcis

  3. PLASTICIDAD FENOTÍPICA EN PLANTAS DE Lippia dulcis (VERBENACEAE) SOMETIDAS A DÉFICIT HÍDRICO

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Javier Mauricio Villamizar Cújar

    2012-01-01

    ... (baja, moderada y alta). Se evaluó la PF en caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa, durante la ontogenia vegetativa de L. dulcis (días 39, 45, 59 y 66). Nuestra hipótesis planteó...

  4. Characterization of two geraniol synthases from Valeriana officinalis and Lippia dulcis: similar activity but difference in subcellular localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, L.; Miettinen, K.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Voster, A.; Jongsma, M.A.; Memelink, J.; Krol, van der S.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Two geraniol synthases (GES), from Valeriana officinalis (VoGES) and Lippia dulcis (LdGES), were isolated and were shown to have geraniol biosynthetic activity with Km values of 32 µM and 51 µM for GPP, respectively, upon expression in Escherichia coli. The in planta enzymatic activity and

  5. Isolation of a library of aromadendranes from Landolphia dulcis and its characterization using the VolSurf approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staerk, Dan; Skole, Brian; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    2004-01-01

    A library of nine aromadendrane-type sesquiterpenes (1-9), including eight new natural products (1-5 and 7-9), was isolated from Landolphia dulcis var. barteri along with a previously described cadinane derivative (10) and a new muurolane derivative (11). The structures of all compounds were esta...

  6. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  7. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Il-Doo; Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Kim, Mi-Ok; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample. The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid ( ˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities. Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively. The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health.

  8. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Il-Doo; Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Kim, Mi-Ok; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample. Methods The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid ( ˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities. Results Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health. PMID:25182279

  9. Dehydrogenase isoenzyme polymorphism in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolić Slavica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrogenase polymorphism was studied in 36 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., sweet cherry (Prunus avuim L., mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L., ground cherry (Prunus fruticosa Pall., duke cherry (Prunus gondounii Redh., Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus serrulata Lindl. and four iterspecific hybrids (standard cherry rootstocks ‘Gisela 5’, ‘Gisela 6’, ‘Max Ma’ and ‘Colt’. Inner bark of one-year-old shoots, in dormant stage, was used for enzyme extraction. Vertical PAGE was used for isoenzyme analysis: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, formate dehydrogenase (FDH, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, isocitrate dehydrogenaze (IDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH. All studied systems were polymorphic at 10 loci: Adh -1 (3 genotypes and Adh-2 (5 genotypes, Fdh-1 (2 genotypes, Gdh-1 (3 genotypes, Idh-1 (4 genotypes i Idh -2 (5 genotypes, Mdh-1 (3 genotypes, Pgd-1 (4 genotypes, Sdh-1 (1 genotype i Sdh-2 (3 genotypes. Cluster analysis was used to construct dendrogram on which four groups of similar genotypes were separated. Obtained results indicate that studied enzyme systems can be used for determination of genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus. Among studied enzyme systems ADH, IDH and SDH were the most polymorphic and most useful to identify genetic variability. Polymorphism of FDH and GDH in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus was described first time in this work. First results for dehydrogenase variability of Oblačinska indicate that polymorphism of loci Idh-2 and Sdh-2 can be useful for discrimination of different clones.

  10. Foliar application of microbial and plant based biostimulants increases growth and potassium uptake in almond (Prunus dulcis [Mill.] D. A. Webb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa, Sebastian; Olivos-Del Rio, Andres; Castro, Sebastian; Brown, Patrick H

    2015-01-01

    The use of biostimulants has become a common practice in agriculture. However, there is little peer-reviewed research on this topic. In this study we tested, under controlled and replicated conditions, the effect of one biostimulant derived from seaweed extraction (Bio-1) and another biostimulant derived from microbial fermentation (Bio-2). This experiment utilized 2-years-old almond plants over two growing seasons in a randomized complete design with a full 2 × 4 factorial structure with two soil potassium treatments (125 μg g(-1) of K vs. 5 μg g(-1)) and four foliar treatments (No spray, Foliar-K, Bio-1, Bio-2). Rubidium was utilized as a surrogate for short-term potassium uptake and plant growth, nutrient concentration, and final plant biomass were evaluated. There was a substantial positive effect of both biostimulant treatments on total shoot leaf area, and significant increases in shoot length and biomass under adequate soil potassium supply with a positive effect of Bio-1 only under low K supply. Rubidium uptake was increased by Bio-1 application an effect that was greater under the low soil K treatment. Though significant beneficial effects of the biostimulants used on plant growth were observed, it is not possible to determine the mode of action of these materials. The results presented here illustrate the promise and complexity of research involving biostimulants.

  11. Effect of irradiation, active and modified atmosphere packaging, container oxygen barrier and storage conditions on the physicochemical and sensory properties of raw unpeeled almond kernels (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexis, Stamatios F; Riganakos, Kyriakos A; Kontominas, Michael G

    2011-03-15

    The present study investigated the effect of irradiation, active and modified atmosphere packaging, and storage conditions on quality retention of raw, whole, unpeeled almonds. Almond kernels were packaged in barrier and high-barrier pouches, under N(2) or with an O(2) absorber and stored either under fluorescent lighting or in the dark at 20 °C for 12 months. Quality parameters monitored were peroxide value, hexanal content, colour, fatty acid composition and volatile compounds. Of the sensory attributes colour, texture, odour and taste were evaluated. Peroxide value and hexanal increased with dose of irradiation and storage time. Irradiation resulted in a decrease of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids during storage with a parallel increase of saturated fatty acids. Volatile compounds were not affected by irradiation but increased with storage time indicating enhanced lipid oxidation. Colour parameters of samples remained unaffected immediately after irradiation. For samples packaged under a N(2) , atmosphere L and b values decreased during storage with a parallel increase of value a resulting to gradual product darkening especially in irradiated samples. Non-irradiated almonds retained acceptable quality for ca. 12 months stored at 20 °C with the O(2) absorber irrespective of lighting conditions and packaging material oxygen barrier. The respective shelf life for samples irradiated at 1.0 kGy was 12 months packaged in PET-SiOx//LDPE irrespective of lighting conditions and 12 months for samples irradiated at 3 kGy packaged in PET-SiOx//LDPE stored in the dark. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Foliar application of microbial and plant based biostimulants increases growth and potassium uptake in almond (Prunus dulcis [Mill.] D. A. Webb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eSaa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of biostimulants has become a common practice in agriculture. However, there is little peer-reviewed research on this topic. In this study we tested, under controlled and replicated conditions, the effect of one biostimulant derived from seaweed extraction (Bio-1 and another biostimulant derived from microbial fermentation (Bio-2. This experiment utilized two-year-old almond plants over two growing seasons in a randomized complete design with a full 2 x 4 factorial structure with two soil potassium treatments (125 µg g-1 of K vs 5 µg g-1 and four foliar treatments (No spray, Foliar-K, Bio-1, Bio-2. Rubidium was utilized as a surrogate for short-term potassium uptake and plant growth, nutrient concentration, and final plant biomass were evaluated. There was a substantial positive effect of both biostimulant treatments on total shoot leaf area, and significant increases in shoot length and biomass under adequate soil potassium supply with a positive effect of Bio-1 only under low K supply. Rubidium uptake was increased by Bio-1 application an effect that was greater under the low soil K treatment. Though significant beneficial effects of the biostimulants used on plant growth were observed, it is not possible to determine the mode of action of these materials. The results presented here illustrate the promise and complexity of research involving biostimulants.

  13. PLASTICIDAD FENOTÍPICA EN PLANTAS DE Lippia dulcis (VERBENACEAE SOMETIDAS A DÉFICIT HÍDRICO Phenotypic Plasticity in Plants of Lippia dulcis (Verbenaceae Subjected to Water Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER MAURICIO VILLAMIZAR CÚJAR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La plasticidad fenotípica (PF es un mecanismo mediante el cual las plantas pueden responder a la heterogeneidad ambiental con ajustes morfológicos y fisiológicos. En este estudio se cuantificó la PF de plantas de Lippia dulcis en respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica en el suelo (baja, moderada y alta, en caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa, durante la ontogenia vegetativa (días 39, 45, 59 y 66. Nuestra hipótesis planteó que como respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica, debería esperarse una mayor PF en caracteres morfológicos en comparación con caracteres de asignación de biomasa. La fracción de masa foliar, la razón del área foliar, la longitud de ramas, el número de hojas, así como la razón biomasa de la raíz/biomasa foliar, presentaron la mayor capacidad de ajuste plástico en las plantas de L. dulcis al déficit hídrico, mientras que el área foliar especifica representó el carácter con menor PF a lo largo de la ontogenia vegetativa. La magnitud y patrón de la PF variaron dependiendo del carácter, agua disponible y desarrollo ontogénico. Contrario a nuestra hipótesis, el grupo de caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa; exhibieron una PF equivalente. Los modelos de asignación óptima y forrajeo óptimo no son mutuamente excluyentes bajo condiciones de déficit hídrico. L. dulcis alteró su patrón de asignación de biomasa, la morfología foliar y la radicular, y como beneficio adaptativo optimizó el balance entre los órganos encargados de la absorción y el uso de agua. L. dulcis exhibió una notable capacidad para evadir el déficit hídrico.Phenotypic plasticity (FP is one of the mechanisms by which plants can respond to environmental heterogeneity by adjusting their morphology and physiology. This study tested and quantified the FP of Lippia dulcis plants in response to water availability in soil (low, medium and high, on morphologic and biomass allocation traits during the

  14. Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

    2015-04-15

    Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 °C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Saccharides and fructooligosaccharides composition of green and ripe Averrhoa carambola, Blighia sapida and Spondias dulcis fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkeblia, Noureddine; Lopez, Mercedes G

    2015-06-01

    The maturation of fruits is characterized by numerous compositional changes during ripening and these changes contribute in their quality attributes. This study aimed to assess the contents of saccharides and potential fructooligosaccharides (FOS) of ackee (Blighia sapida Köenig), carambola (Averrhoa carambola) and June plum (Spondias dulcis), at green and ripe stages. Beside glucose and fructose and lower sucrose content, three short chain fructooligosaccharides were identified in ackee fruit, namely 1-kestose (1(F)-β-d-fructofuranosyl sucrose), nystose (1(F)(1-β-d-fructofuranosyl)2 sucrose) and DP5 (1(F)(1-β-d-fructofuranosyl)3 sucrose), while in carambola and June plum DP5 (1(F)(1-β-d-fructofuranosyl)3 sucrose) was not detected. Ripening stage also affected significantly the contents of these saccharides and sFOS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antiosteoporosis Activity of New Oriental Medicine Preparation (Kyungokgo Mixed with Water Extract of Hovenia dulcis on the Ovariectomized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ho Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protective effect of new oriental medicine (Kyungokgo mixed with water extract of Hovenia dulcis, KOGHD was assessed on the bone loss induced mice by ovariectomy. In the in vivo experiments, antiosteoporosis effect of KOGHD was investigated using ovariectomized osteoporosis mice model. After 6 weeks of treatment, the mice were euthanized, and the effect of Kyungokgo (KOG and KOGHD on body weight, spleen weigh, thymus weight, uterine weight, serum biochemical indicators, bone weight and length, immune cell population, bone morphometric parameters, and histological stains was observed. Our results showed that KOGHD prevented the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture caused by ovariectomy, which were accompanied by the lower levels of bone turnover markers and immune cell population as evidenced by the inhibition of RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation without cytotoxic effect on bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs. Therefore, these results suggest that the Hovenia dulcis (HD supplementation in the KOG may also prevent and treat bone loss.

  17. PLASTICIDAD FENOTÍPICA EN PLANTAS DE Lippia dulcis (VERBENACEAE SOMETIDAS A DÉFICIT HÍDRICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Mauricio Villamizar Cújar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La plasticidad fenotípica (PF es un mecanismo mediante el cual las plantas pueden responder a la heterogeneidad ambiental con ajustes morfológicos y fisiológicos. En este estudio se cuantificó la PF de plantas de Lippia dulcis en respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica en el suelo (baja, moderada y alta. Se evaluó la PF en caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa, durante la ontogenia vegetativa de L. dulcis (días 39, 45, 59 y 66. Nuestra hipótesis planteó que como respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica, debería esperarse una mayor PF en caracteres morfológicos en comparación con caracteres de asignación de biomasa. La fracción de masa foliar, razón del área foliar, longitud de las ramas, número de hojas, así como la razón biomasa de la raíz/biomasa foliar,  presentaron la mayor capacidad de ajuste plástico en las plantas de L dulcis al déficit hídrico, mientras que el área foliar especifica representó el carácter con menor PF a lo largo de la ontogenia vegetativa. La magnitud y patrón de la PF variaron dependiendo del carácter, tratamiento y con el desarrollo ontogénico. Contrario a nuestra hipótesis, el grupo de caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa, exhibieron una PF equivalentes. Los modelos de asignación y forrajeo óptimo bajo condiciones de déficit hídrico no son mutuamente excluyentes. L.dulcis alteró sus patrones de asignación de biomasa, la morfología foliar y radicular, y como beneficio adaptativo optimizó la asimilación de agua y la eficiencia en el uso del agua. L. dulcis exhibió una notable tolerancia al déficit hídrico.

  18. Gene flow in Prunus species in the context of novel trait risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cici, S Zahra H; Van Acker, Rene C

    2010-01-01

    Prunus species are important commercial fruit (plums, apricot, peach and cherries), nut (almond) and ornamental trees cultivated broadly worldwide. This review compiles information from available literature on Prunus species in regard to gene flow and hybridization within this complex of species. The review serves as a resource for environmental risk assessment related to pollen mediated gene flow and the release of transgenic Prunus. It reveals that Prunus species, especially plums and cherries show high potential for transgene flow. A range of characteristics including; genetic diversity, genetic bridging capacity, inter- and intra-specific genetic compatibility, self sterility (in most species), high frequency of open pollination, insect assisted pollination, perennial nature, complex phenotypic architecture (canopy height, heterogeneous crown, number of flowers produced in an individual plant), tendency to escape from cultivation, and the existence of ornamental and road side Prunus species suggest that there is a tremendous and complicated ability for pollen mediated gene movement among Prunus species. Ploidy differences among Prunus species do not necessarily provide genetic segregation. The characteristics of Prunu s species highlight the complexity of maintaining coexistence between GM and non-GM Prunus if there were commercial production of GM Prunus species. The results of this review suggest that the commercialization of one GM Prunus species can create coexistence issues for commercial non-GM Prunus production. Despite advances in molecular markers and genetic analysis in agroecology, there remains limited information on the ecological diversity, metapopulation nature, population dynamics, and direct measures of gene flow among different subgenera represented in the Prunus genus. Robust environmental impact, biosafety and coexistence assessments for GM Prunus species will require better understanding of the mechanisms of gene flow and hybridization

  19. Anatomia e histoquímica das estruturas secretoras do caule de Spondias dulcis Forst. F. (Anacardiaceae Anatomy and histochemistry of stem secretory structures of Spondias dulcis Forst. F. (Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Francisco Sant'Anna-Santos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Spondias dulcis Forst. F. vem recebendo atenção especial por secretar uma goma que possui ação medicinal. Em outras espécies de Anacardiaceae, a maioria dos estudos sobre as estruturas secretoras refere-se à ultra-estrutura e desenvolvimento dos ductos, existindo poucas informações quanto à natureza química do secretado. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar estrutural e histoquimicamente o sistema secretor do caule de S. dulcis. Amostras do caule jovem de plantas com 45 dias de idade foram submetidas às técnicas usuais em anatomia vegetal e a testes histoquímicos. O sistema secretor de S. dulcis apresenta ductos e idioblastos. Os ductos, muito longos, encontram-se associados ao floema e na medula, enquanto os idioblastos ocorrem no córtex e, também, associados ao floema. Os ductos apresentam um epitélio secretor unisseriado, formado por células cuneiformes a tabulares, de paredes delgadas, citoplasma denso e núcleo volumoso com nucléolo proeminente. Nos ductos associados ao floema, observam-se, externamente ao epitélio, duas a três camadas de células parenquimáticas, achatadas e dispostas radialmente, formando uma bainha. Os testes histoquímicos evidenciaram a presença de taninos nos idioblastos corticais. A secreção dos ductos é constituída, em sua maioria, por óleos essenciais, polissacarídeos e compostos fenólicos (provavelmente agliconas flavonóicas, o que permite caracterizá-la como uma gomorresina.Special attention is given to Spondias dulcis Forst. F. for its ability to secrete a gum with medicinal properties. In other species of Anacardiaceae, most of the studies report the ultrastructure and development of the ducts, being scarce data about the chemical composition of secretory products. The aim of this work is to study the anatomy of the secretory system of S. dulcis and characterize by histochemistry the secretion produced. Stems of plants with 45 days old were study by conventional plant

  20. Vasorelaxant effect of Prunus yedoensis bark

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    Lee Kyungjin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus yedoensis Matsum. is used as traditional medicine—‘Yaeng-Pi’ or ‘Hua-Pi’—in Japan and Korea. However, no studies have examined the pharmacological activities of the P. yedoensis bark. Only the antioxidant and antiviral activities of P. yedoensis fruit and the anti-hyperglycaemic effect of P. yedoensis leaf have been investigated. While studying the antihypertensive effects of several medicinal plants, we found that a methanol extract of P. yedoensis bark (MEPY had distinct vasorelaxant effects on rat aortic rings. Methods The aortic rings were removed from Sprague–Dawley rats and suspended in organ chambers containing 10 ml Krebs-Henseleit solution. The aortic rings were placed between 2 tungsten stirrups and connected to an isometric force transducer. Changes in tension were recorded via isometric transducers connected to a data acquisition system. Results MEPY relaxed the contraction induced by phenylephrine (PE both in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings concentration dependently. However, the vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-denuded aortic rings were lower than endothelium-intact aortic rings. The vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-intact aortic rings were reduced by pre-treatment with l-NAME, methylene blue, or ODQ. However, pre-treatment with indomethacin, atropine, glibenclamide, tetraethylammonium, or 4-aminopyridine had no affection. In addition, MEPY inhibited the contraction induced by extracellular Ca2+ in endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted by PE (1 μM or KCl (60 mM in Ca2+-free solution. Conclusions Our results suggest that MEPY exerts its vasorelaxant effects via the activation of NO formation by means of l-Arg and NO-cGMP pathways and via the blockage of extracellular Ca2+ channels.

  1. Enraizamento in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus In vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks

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    Marcelo Rogalski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Na micropropagação de Prunus sp., o enraizamento tem sido considerado uma fase crítica, pois determina a sobrevivência das plantas durante a aclimatização. Dentre os fatores importantes ao enraizamento in vitro, destacam-se o genótipo e as auxinas por serem determinantes na indução e na formação de raízes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de IBA no enraizamento in vitro dos porta-enxertos de espécies do gênero Prunus: cultivares Capdeboscq e GF677, e seleções VP411 e VP417. Para o enraizamento in vitro, brotos com 2-3cm de comprimento foram introduzidos em meio de Lepoivre suplementado com 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg.L-1 IBA. Observou-se que o porta-enxerto 'Capdeboscq' apresentou maior taxa de enraizamento e maior número de raízes in vitro, sendo superior aos demais genótipos quanto a estas características. O nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA esteve associado à maior taxa média de enraizamento (100%, 64% e 64,0%, respectivamente para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq', 'GF677' e VP411. O nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA foi superior para a seleção VP417 com taxa de 64% de enraizamento. Para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq' e 'GF677', o número máximo de raízes foi de 9,6 e 5,2 raízes por broto, respectivamente, em resposta ao nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA, enquanto as seleções VP411 e VP417 apresentaram o maior número de raízes (3,6 e 3,9, respectivamente em resposta ao nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA.In Prunus sp. micropropagation of rooting is considered a critical stage, since it determines the plant survival during the acclimatization. Among important factors associated with rooting, the genotype and the auxins are considered important in the induction and formation of roots. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of different IBA on the in vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks Capdeboscq and GF677, and the selections VP411 and VP417. For the in vitro rooting stage, shoots of

  2. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... For the out groups, Sorbaria sorbifolia and Spiraea canto- niensis, were selected which have been proposed as the sister to Prunus in past studies e.g. Spiraea and Sorbaria which were supported by data from PGIP and Mat-K, separately and combined (Potter et al., 1999). ITS analysis. The aligned ITS ...

  3. Molecular characterization of the plum collection [Prunus domestica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight Random Amplified Microsatellite markers (RAMs) were used to characterize the genetic diversity found in 14 Prunus materials belonging to the deciduous collection of the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia. A total of 121 bands were generated: they range from nine for the GT primer to 26 for the ...

  4. Novel Phaeoacremonium species associated with necrotic wood of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Mostert, L.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The genus Phaeoacremonium is associated with opportunistic human infections, as well as stunted growth and die-back of various woody hosts, especially grapevines. In this study, Phaeoacremonium species were isolated from necrotic woody tissue of Prunus spp. (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) from

  5. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prunus is found in all four provinces of Pakistan, that is, Punjab, NWFP, Sindh and Baluchistan including Azad Kashmir region. Studies on the family Rosaceae is scanty in the Flora of Pakistan and there is a lot of taxonomic work yet to be done, for the proper classification and placement of different genera under different ...

  6. ( Prunus avium L.) as affected by training system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern intensive production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) tends to planting of high quality cultivars on the dwarfing rootstocks in high density orchards. The most productive training system is used, providing an ideal condition for undisturbed growth and yield. The main objective of this study was to determine the best ...

  7. Cryopreservation of in vitro -grown shoot tips of apricot ( Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro grown apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. El-Hamawey shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved using an encapsulation-dehydration procedure. Shoot tips were encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads before preculture on woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with different sucrose concentrations; 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, ...

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Prunus salicina

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation from hypocotyls slices of two Prunus salicina varieties, 'Angeleno' and 'Larry Anne', using a modification of the technique previously described for P. domestica. Regeneration rates on thidiazuron (TDZ) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supp...

  9. Kweker kan zelf toetsen op Xanthomonas in Prunus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Martin, W.S.; Kuik, van A.J.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.; Raaij, van H.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Prime Diagnostics uit Wageningen heeft een methode ontwikkeld waarmee kwekers eenvoudig kunnen bepalen of Prunus is aangetast door de bacterie Xanthomonas arboricola pv pruni. Voor een officiële uitslag is nog steeds wel een test uitgevoerd door de nVWA of Naktuinbouw nodig.

  10. Slaat Xanthomonas dit jaar weer toe in Prunus laurocerasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Dalfsen, van P.; Pham, K.T.K.

    2012-01-01

    Een diagnostische test moet duidelijk maken of er sprake is van Xanthomonas in Prunus laurocerasus. De bacterieziekte is namelijk makkelijk te verwarren met andere ziekten. Onderzoek, gefinancierd door het Productschap Tuinbouw, richt zich op het toetsen van moerplanten voordat hier van gestekt gaat

  11. PRE-TREATMENTS EFFECTS ON Hovenia dulcis Thunb. WOOD DRYING RATE

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    Magnos Alan Vivian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments on drying rate of uva-do-japão wood (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.. For this, samples of wood species concerned with dimensions of 2,0 x 10,0 x 20,0 cm (E x L x C, were subjected to pre-treatment of soaking in hot water and freezing. The pre- treatments of heating and freezing were conducted in a thermal tank at 85ºC and a freezer at -18ºC, respectively, where the samples remained for 12 and 24 hours for both treatments. After the pre-treatments, the wood samples were dried in an electric oven at temperatures of 60 and 90°C until the final moisture content. Thedrying rate was significantly influenced by pre-treatments, drying temperature and their duration of them. This rate presented a different behavior according to the duration of treatment: the warning was higher with 12hours whereas the freezing, with 24 hours, was more evident. The increasing duration and temperature observed showed that the tendency of the drying rate is to increase.

  12. Anatomy, ultrastructure and chemical composition of food bodies of Hovenia dulcis (Rhamnaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Rafael Andrade; de Oliveira, Alaíde Braga; Paiva, Elder Antonio Sousa

    2008-06-01

    Food bodies (FBs) are structures that promote mutualism between plants and ants, which help protect them against herbivores. The present study aims to describe the anatomical organization, ultrastructure and chemical composition of the FBs in Hovenia dulcis, which represent the first structures of this type described in Rhamnaceae. Leaves in various stages of development were collected and fixed for examination under light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Samples of FBs were subjected to chemical analysis using thin-layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance of (1)H and (13)C. The FBs vary from globose to conical and are restricted to the abaxial leaf surface, having a mixed origin, including epidermis and parenchyma. The FB epidermis is uniseriate, slightly pilose and has a thin cuticle. The epidermal cells are vacuolated and pigments or food reserves are absent. The parenchyma cells of immature FBs have dense cytoplasm showing mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and plastids. Mature FB cells store oils, which are free in the cytosol and occupy a large portion of the cell lumen. In these cells the plastids accumulate starch. The lipids present in FBs are glycerin esters characteristic of plant energy reserves. Ants were observed collecting these FBs, which allows us to infer that these structures mediate plant-ant interactions and can help protect the young plants against herbivores, as these structures are prevalent at this developmental stage.

  13. PLASTICIDAD FENOTÍPICA EN PLANTAS DE Lippia dulcis (VERBENACEAE) SOMETIDAS A DÉFICIT HÍDRICO Phenotypic Plasticity in Plants of Lippia dulcis (Verbenaceae) Subjected to Water Deficit

    OpenAIRE

    JAVIER MAURICIO VILLAMIZAR CÚJAR; NELSON FACUNDO RODRÍGUEZ LÓPEZ; WILMER TEZARA FERNÁNDEZ

    2012-01-01

    La plasticidad fenotípica (PF) es un mecanismo mediante el cual las plantas pueden responder a la heterogeneidad ambiental con ajustes morfológicos y fisiológicos. En este estudio se cuantificó la PF de plantas de Lippia dulcis en respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica en el suelo (baja, moderada y alta), en caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa, durante la ontogenia vegetativa (días 39, 45, 59 y 66). Nuestra hipótesis planteó que como respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica, deberí...

  14. Phenotypic diversity among peach and nectarine (Prunus persica L.) fruit in the national prunus collection at the USDA-ARS, National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diversity and relationships of fruit quality traits peach and nectarine (Prunus persica L.) in the National Prunus collection were studied using comprehensive phenotyping methods. The collection was re-propagated in 2013 and planted in 2014 providing a unique opportunity to evaluate an even-aged...

  15. Procyanidins in fruit from Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) differ strongly in chainlength from those in Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus) and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus), and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) fruits are widely used in Turkey, both as food and as traditional medicines. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacities of these three cherry types were compared. Fruit flesh was

  16. PLASTICIDAD FENOTÍPICA EN PLANTAS DE LIPPIA DULCIS (VERBENACEAE) SOMETIDAS A DÉFICIT HÍDRICO

    OpenAIRE

    JAVIER MAURICIO VILLAMIZAR CÚJAR; NELSON FACUNDO RODRÍGUEZ LÓPEZ; WILMER TEZARA FERNÁNDEZ

    2012-01-01

    La plasticidad fenotípica (PF) es un mecanismo mediante el cual las plantas pueden responder a la heterogeneidad ambiental con ajustes morfológicos y fisiológicos. En este estudio se cuantificó la PF de plantas de Lippia dulcis en respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica en el suelo (baja, moderada y alta), en caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa, durante la ontogenia vegetativa (días 39, 45, 59 y 66). Nuestra hipótesis planteó que como respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica, deberí...

  17. PLASTICIDAD FENOTÍPICA EN PLANTAS DE LIPPIA DULCIS (VERBENACEAE SOMETIDAS A DÉFICIT HÍDRICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER MAURICIO VILLAMIZAR CÚJAR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La plasticidad fenotípica (PF es un mecanismo mediante el cual las plantas pueden responder a la heterogeneidad ambiental con ajustes morfológicos y fisiológicos. En este estudio se cuantificó la PF de plantas de Lippia dulcis en respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica en el suelo (baja, moderada y alta, en caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa, durante la ontogenia vegetativa (días 39, 45, 59 y 66. Nuestra hipótesis planteó que como respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica, debería esperarse una mayor PF en caracteres morfológicos en comparación con caracteres de asignación de bio- masa. La fracción de masa foliar, la razón del área foliar, la longitud de ramas, el núme- ro de hojas, así como la razón biomasa de la raíz/biomasa foliar, presentaron la mayor capacidad de ajuste plástico en las plantas de L. dulcis al déficit hídrico, mientras que el área foliar especifica representó el carácter con menor PF a lo largo de la ontogenia vegetativa. La magnitud y patrón de la PF variaron dependiendo del carácter, agua disponible y desarrollo ontogénico. Contrario a nuestra hipótesis, el grupo de caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa; exhibieron una PF equivalente. Los modelos de asignación óptima y forrajeo óptimo no son mutuamente excluyentes bajo condi- ciones de déficit hídrico. L. dulcis alteró su patrón de asignación de biomasa, la morfo- logía foliar y la radicular, y como beneficio adaptativo optimizó el balance entre los órganos encargados de la absorción y el uso de agua. L. dulcis exhibió una notable capacidad para evadir el déficit hídrico

  18. The potential of Prunus davidiana for introgression into peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] assessed by comparative mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulongne, M; Pascal, T; Arús, P; Kervella, J

    2003-07-01

    The potential for introgression of Prunus davidiana, a wild species related to peach, was evaluated with respect to problems of non-Mendelian segregation or suppressed recombination which often hamper breeding processes based on interspecific crosses. Three connected (F1, F2 and BC2) populations, derived from a cross between P. davidiana clone P1908 and the peach cultivar Summergrand were used. The intraspecific map of P. davidiana already established using the F1 progeny was complemented, and two interspecific maps, for the F2 and BC2 progenies, were built with a set of markers selected from the Prunus reference map. With the molecular data collected for the F2 map construction, regions with distorted marker segregation were detected on the genome; one third of all loci deviated significantly from the expected Mendelian ratios. However, some of these distorted segregations were probably not due to the interspecific cross. On linkage group 6, a skewed area under gametic selection was most likely influenced by the self-incompatibility gene of P. davidiana. Using anchor loci, a good colinearity between the three maps built and the Prunus reference map was demonstrated. Comparative mapping also revealed that homologous recombination occurred normally between P. davidiana and the Prunus persica genome. This confirmed the closeness of the two species. Higher recombination rates were generally observed between P. davidiana and P. persica than between Prunus amygdalus and P. persica. The consequences for plant breeding strategy are discussed. The three maps of the F1, F2 and BC2 progenies provide useful tools for QTL detection and marker-assisted selection, as well as for assessing the efficiency of the peach breeding scheme applied to introgress P. davidiana genes into peach cultivated varieties.

  19. Production comparisons of Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch] functional corms grown in hydroponics versus flooded sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch.] corms are used as a canned or raw vegetable worldwide and may have potential use as a functional vegetable for human health uses. The accessions in the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit do not produce very many...

  20. Diagnostic and prognostic characteristics of phytotoxicity caused by fluoride on Spondias dulcis Forst. F. (Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno F. Sant'Anna-Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the symptoms and microscopic damage caused by fluoride on Spondias dulcis, a fluoride-sensitive species. The plants were exposed to simulated fog with fluoride (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L-1 for 20 min daily during four consecutive days. Samples from leaflets without any apparent fluoride injury were collected to microscopic analysis. The percentage of necrosed leaf area was measured, and the level of pollutant in the dry matter from the basal and apical portions of the plant was determined. The necroses began 24 h after the first simulation mainly from the base of the leaflets. A higher level of necrosis was observed at the apical portion of the plants, a region of higher fluoride accumulation. The damage on the surface of the leaflets was characterized as plasmolysis, erosion of the epicuticular waxes and epidermal rupture. Structurally, the noticeable accumulation of granules and droplets green stained by toluidine blue in the spongy parenchima and the boundaries of ending veinlets was observed. The limb thickness reduction occurred due to plasmolysis in the mesophyll, showing an apparent correlation with the damage observed on the surface. The parameters observed in the laboratory are promising for field biomonitoring studies.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os sintomas e danos microscópicos causadas pelo flúor em Spondias dulcis, espécie sensível a essa substância. As plantas foram expostas a nevoeiros simulados com flúor (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 mg L-1 por 20 minutos diários, durante quatro dias consecutivos. Amostras de folíolos sem qualquer lesão aparente ao flúor foram coletadas para análise microscópica. Mensurou-se a percentagem de área foliar necrosada e o teor do poluente na matéria seca das porções basal e apical da planta. As necroses surgiram 24 horas após a primeira simulação e tiveram início, principalmente, a partir da base dos folíolos. As necroses foram mais severas

  1. In vivo immunoprotective role of Indigofera tinctoria and Scoparia dulcis aqueous extracts against chronic noise stress induced immune abnormalities in Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boothapandi Madakkannu

    Full Text Available Indigofera tinctoria and Scoparia dulcis are being widely used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of various disorders. Environmental noise pollution is thought to be an important factor for many health problems and it causes immune abnormalities. In the present study immune-regulating potential of I. tinctoria and S. dulcis aqueous extracts on innate and adaptive immune system of wistar albino rats was evaluated during normal and chronic noise induced stress conditions. The results demonstrated that both I. tinctoria and S. dulcis aqueous extracts (200 mg/kg b.w showed immunostimulant effect on both innate and adaptive immune response of wistar albino rat compared to control group under normal condition. The noise stress (100 dB for 1 h, 20 days induced animals showed suppressive effects on immune response by decreasing macrophage phagocytosis, antibody secretion by spleen cells, humoral immune response, proliferation of lymphocytes, cytotoxicity, TNF α expression, granzyme B and perforin expression in splenic NK cells. Similarly, noise stress also caused DNA damage in tissues. However, the suppressed effects induced by noise stress on rat immune system were significantly prevented by oral administration of both I. tinctoria and S. dulcis aqueous extracts. Considering all these results it is suggested that the selected medicinal plant’s aqueous extracts have the potential to prevent the effects of noise stress induced rat immune system and explore a strong immunostimulant potential applicable to clinical practices. Keywords: Indigofera tinctoria, Scoparia dulcis, Chronic noise stress, Immunomodulatory, Innate immunity, Adaptive immunity

  2. Susceptibility, Oviposition Preference, and Biology of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Prunus Spp. Rootstock Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, D; Lazzari, J C; Andreazza, F; Mayer, N A; Botton, M; Nava, D E

    2017-08-01

    Studying the susceptibility of peach trees to Grapholita molesta (Busck) is one of the major steps in the development of pest-resistant peach varieties. This work evaluated the susceptibility of 55 genotypes of the "Prunus Rootstock Collection" ("Coleção Porta-enxerto de Prunus") of Embrapa Temperate Climate (Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) to the natural infestation of G. molesta, assessed the oviposition preference of G. molesta in choice and no-choice bioassays, and estimated the biological parameters and the fertility life table on different Prunus spp. genotypes in the laboratory. Genotypes Prunus kansuensis (Rehder), I-67-52-9, and I-67-52-4 were the most susceptible to G. molesta infestation in the field (>60% of branches infested), while 'Sharpe' (Prunus angustifolia x Prunus spp.) and Prunus sellowii (Koehne) were the least infested (0% of branches infested). In choice and no-choice bioassays, G. molesta preferred to oviposit on P. kansuensis when compared with Sharpe. The Sharpe genotype also showed an antibiosis effect, resulting in negative effects on the fertility life table parameters when compared with the genotypes P. kansuensis and 'Capdeboscq.' The results found in the present study can provide information to initiate a long-term breeding program moving desired G. molesta resistance traits from the rootstock into the Prunus spp. cultivars. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Genomic analysis reveals candidate genes for PPV resistance in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharka disease, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV), is the most important disease affecting Prunus species. A major PPV resistance locus (PPVres) was previously mapped to the upper part of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) linkage group 1. In this study, a physical map of the PPVres locus in the PPV resistan...

  4. Alteration in Memory and Electroencephalogram Waves with Sub-acute Noise Stress in Albino Rats and Safeguarded by Scoparia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Sundareswaran; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2016-01-01

    Noise stress has different effects on memory and novelty and the link between them with an electroencephalogram (EEG) has not yet been reported. To find the effect of sub-acute noise stress on the memory and novelty along with EEG and neurotransmitter changes. Eight-arm maze (EAM) and Y-maze to analyze the memory and novelty by novel object test. Four groups of rats were used: Control, control treated with Scoparia dulcis extract, noise exposed, and noise exposed which received Scoparia extract. The results showed no marked difference observed between control and control treated with Scoparia extract on EAM, Y-maze, novel object test, and EEG in both prefrontal and occipital region, however, noise stress exposed rats showed significant increase in the reference memory and working memory error in EAM and latency delay, triad errors in Y-maze, and prefrontal and occipital EEG frequency rate with the corresponding increase in plasma corticosterone and epinephrine, and significant reduction in the novelty test, and significant reduction in the novelty test, amplitude of prefrontal, occipital EEG, and acetylcholine. These noise stress induced changes in EAM, Y-maze, novel object test, and neurotransmitters were significantly prevented when treated with Scoparia extract and these changes may be due to the normalizing action of Scoparia extract on the brain, which altered due to noise stress. Noise stress exposure causes EEG, behavior, and neurotransmitter alteration in the frontoparietal and occipital regions mainly involved in planning and recognition memoryOnly the noise stress exposed animals showed the significant alteration in the EEG, behavior, and neurotransmittersHowever, these noise stress induced changes in EEG behavior and neurotransmitters were significantly prevented when treated with Scoparia extractThese changes may be due to the normalizing action of Scoparia dulcis (adoptogen) on the brain which altered by noise stress. Abbreviations used: EEG

  5. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, T E; Beckman, T G; Horton, D L

    2011-12-01

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious pest of peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, across the southeastern United States. We examined oviposition by S. pictipes on field-grown Prunus scion and rootstock cultivars and two endemic Prunus spp. when sawn limbs, not roots, were assayed in the laboratory. A choice test compared oviposition on the peach scion 'Harvester', peach rootstock 'Guardian', plum×peach hybrid rootstock 'MP-29', and the plum hybrid rootstock 'Sharpe'. A significantly lower percentage of eggs occurred on limbs of Sharpe rootstock than other choices. A choice test using two endemic hosts, black cherry (P. serotina Ehrh.) and Chickasaw plum (P. angustifolia Marsh.), along with Sharpe rootstock, found a lower percentage of eggs on limbs of Sharpe than either endemic host. However, when only limbs of Sharpe and a decoy were used, almost all eggs were laid on Sharpe. Interestingly, when Harvester and Sharpe limbs were paired side by side, a higher percentage of eggs were recovered from the Harvester limb than from the Sharpe limb. An analysis of volatiles from Sharpe may identify why fewer eggs were laid on it. Because S. pictipes attacks host trees above ground and Sharpe rootstock on grafted trees grows below ground, this rootstock might be a management option against the congeneric, root-attacking peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say). Our results suggest that high budding a peach scion onto Sharpe rootstock, thus allowing the rootstock to serve as the trunk, warrants further investigation against S. exitiosa under orchard conditions.

  6. Assessment of Prunus persica fruit softening using a proteomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P, Ricardo Nilo; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Orellana, Ariel

    2012-02-16

    Fruit ripening in Prunus persica involves a number of physiological changes, being one of the most significant the mesocarp softening in melting varieties. In order to get a better understanding of the molecular processes involved in this phenomenon, the protein accumulation patterns in firm and soft fruit of three peach and two nectarine melting flesh varieties were assessed using 2D gel analysis. A General Linear Model (GLM) two-way analysis of variance determined that 164 of the 621 protein spots analyzed displayed a differential accumulation associated with the softening process. Among them, only 14 proteins changed their accumulation in all the varieties assessed, including proteins mostly involved in carbohydrates and cell wall metabolism as well as fruit senescence. The analysis among varieties showed that 195 and 189 spots changed within the firm and soft fruit conditions, respectively. Despite the changes in relative abundance in the spot proteins, the proteome is conserved among varieties and during the transition from firm to soft fruit. Only two spots proteins exhibited a qualitative change in all the conditions assessed. These results are in agreement with the notion that Prunus persica commercial varieties have a narrow genetic background. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of Cultivar and Industrial Processing on Polyphenols in Concentrated Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Juice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maja Repajic; Danijela Bursac Kovacevic; Predrag Putnik; Verica Dragovic-Uzelac; Josipa Kust; Zrinka Cosic; Branka Levaj

    2015-01-01

      The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of cultivar and industrial processing on total polyphenols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids and antioxidant activity in concentrated sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., cvs...

  8. Screening of natural organic volatiles from Prunus mahaleb L. honey: coumarin and vomifoliol as nonspecific biomarkers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Staver, Mladenka Malenica

    2011-01-01

    ...) were used for the analysis of Prunus mahaleb L. honey samples. Screening was focused toward chemical composition of natural organic volatiles to determine if it is useful as a method of determining honey-sourcing...

  9. Accelerated solvent extraction of carotenoids from: Tunisian Kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoudi, Khalil; Pontvianne, Steve; Framboisier, Xavier; Achard, Mathilde; Kudaibergenova, Rabiga; Ayadi-Trabelsi, Malika; Kalthoum-Cherif, Jamila; Vanderesse, Régis; Frochot, Céline; Guiavarc'h, Yann

    2015-10-01

    Extraction of carotenoids from biological matrices and quantifications remains a difficult task. Accelerated solvent extraction was used as an efficient extraction process for carotenoids extraction from three fruits cultivated in Tunisia: kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Based on a design of experiment (DoE) approach, and using a binary solvent consisting of methanol and tetrahydrofuran, we could identify the best extraction conditions as being 40°C, 20:80 (v:v) methanol/tetrahydrofuran and 5 min of extraction time. Surprisingly and likely due to the high extraction pressure used (103 bars), these conditions appeared to be the best ones both for extracting xanthophylls such as lutein, zeaxanthin or β-cryptoxanthin and carotenes such as β-carotene, which present quite different polarities. Twelve surface responses were generated for lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in kaki, peach and apricot. Further LC-MS analysis allowed comparisons in carotenoids profiles between the fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genome-Wide Analysis Characterization and Evolution of SBP Genes in Fragaria vesca, Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica and Prunus mume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdullah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein (SBP-box proteins are plant-specific transcriptional factors in plants. SBP TFs are known to play important functions in a diverse development process and also related in the process of evolutionary novelties. SBP gene family has been characterized in several plant species, but little is known about molecular evolution, functional divergence and comprehensive study of SBP gene family in Rosacea. We carried out genome-wide investigations and identified 14, 32, 17, and 17 SBP genes from four Rosacea species (Fragaria vesca, Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica and Prunus mume, respectively. According to phylogenetic analysis arranged the SBP protein sequences in seven groups. Localization of SBP genes presented an uneven distribution on corresponding chromosomes of Rosacea species. Our analyses designated that the SBP genes duplication events (segmental and tandem and divergence. In addition, due to highly conserved structure pattern of SBP genes, recommended that highly conserved region of microsyneteny in the Rosacea species. Type I and II functional divergence was detected among various amino acids in SBP proteins, while there was no positive selection according to substitutional model analysis using PMAL software. These results recommended that the purifying selection might be leading force during the evolution process and dominate conservation of SBP genes in Rosacea species according to environmental selection pressure analysis. Our results will provide basic understanding and foundation for future research insights on the evolution of the SBP genes in Rosacea.

  11. Disomic segregation of microsatellites in the tetraploid Prunus serotina Ehrh. (Rosaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, Marie; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2005-01-01

    Tetraploid black cherry (Prunus serotina) is the only Prunus L. species that has commercial importance as a timber tree in North America and is well known in Europe for its invasive behavior. Inheritance studies have never been performed and it is not known whether the species is allo or autotetraploid. Six microsatellite nuclear markers were used to test the inheritance in progenies of controlled crosses. Inheritance was proven to be disomic at all loci and a typical diploid mendelian inheri...

  12. Two Types of New Natural Materials for Fruit Vinegar in Prunus Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica and P. domestica × P. armeniaca added value; three natural fruit vinegars were designed. The results showed the nutrition of Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca cultivar Fengweimeigui vinegar (T1 had high minerals and microelements, especially the Ca and Mg reached to the 150.00mg/L, 85.40 mg/L, respectively; the vinegar of Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica cultivar Zhongren No.1 (T2 not only have rich Na (2800.00 mg/L, P (123.00 mg/L, but also have plentiful amino acid that content reached to 200.08 mg/L. However, the mixture vinegar (T3 with pulps from Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca and Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica had the middle nutrient contents, but the property was balanced. We therefore conclude that solid fermentation is a suitable method to preserve nutrients and value-added for Prunus plants fruit, and three types vinegars are suitable for different age people, and the difference nutrient contents and typical characteristic indicate that three vinegars are competitive products in market.

  13. Phenolic compounds in cherry ( Prunus avium ) heartwood with a view to their use in cooperage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Fernández De Simón, Brígida; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2010-04-28

    The phenolic and tannic composition of heartwood extracts from Prunus avium , commonly known as cherry tree, before and after toasting in cooperage were studied using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS. Nonflavonoid (16 compounds) and flavonoid (27 compounds) polyphenols were identified, 12 of them in only a tentative way. The nonflavonoids found were lignin constituents, and their pattern is different compared to oak, since they include compounds such as protocatechuic acid and aldehyde, p-coumaric acid, methyl vanillate, methyl syringate, and benzoic acid, but not ellagic acid, and only a small quantity of gallic acid. In seasoned wood we found a great variety of flavonoid compounds which have not been found in oak wood for cooperage, mainly, in addition to the flavan-3-ols (+)-catechin, a B-type procyanidin dimer, and a B-type procyanidin trimer, the flavanones naringenin, isosakuranetin, and eriodictyol and the flavanonols aromadendrin and taxifolin. Seasoned and toasted cherry wood showed different ratios of flavonoid to nonflavonoid compounds, since toasting results in the degradation of flavonoids, and the formation of nonflavonoids from lignin degradation. On the other hand, the absence of hydrolyzable tannins in cherry wood, which are very important in oak wood, is another particular characteristic of this wood that should be taken into account when considering its use in cooperage.

  14. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers in Prunus sibirica (Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bo Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for Prunus sibirica to investigate genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and marker-assisted selection of late-blooming cultivars in the breeding of P. sibirica. Methods and Results: Using a magnetic bead enrichment strategy, 19 primer pairs were developed and characterized across 40 individuals from three P. sibirica wild populations and six individuals of P. armeniaca. The number of alleles per locus varied from three to 11 and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.063 to 0.917 and 0.295 to 0.876, respectively, in the three P. sibirica wild populations. All primer pairs could be successfully amplified in six individuals of P. armeniaca. Conclusions: These microsatellite primer pairs should be useful for population genetics, germplasm identification, and marker-assisted selection in the breeding of P. sibirica and related species.

  15. Dicty_cDB: FC-AR22 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 BU572652 |BU572652.1 PA__Ea0001H21f Almond developing seed Prunus dulcis cDNA clone PA__Ea0001H21f...1 BU573578 |BU573578.1 PA__Ea0004H03f Almond developing seed Prunus dulcis cDNA clone PA__Ea0004H03f

  16. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0858 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 BU572652 |BU572652.1 PA__Ea0001H21f Almond developing seed Prunus dulcis cDNA clone PA__Ea0001H21f...1 BU573578 |BU573578.1 PA__Ea0004H03f Almond developing seed Prunus dulcis cDNA clone PA__Ea0004H03f

  17. Taxa de secagem e qualidade da madeira serrada de Hovenia dulcis submetida a dois métodos de secagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Susin

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a taxa de secagem e a qualidade da madeira, 30 tábuas de Hovenia dulcis com dimensões de 2,5 × 15,0 × 280,0 cm foram submetidas à secagem ao ar e em estufa solar. Para a condução do primeiro método, a madeira foi empilhada sobre uma fundação constituída de toretes de madeira tratada e coberta com telhas de amianto; para o segundo método, a madeira foi colocada em uma estufa com armação de madeira e plástico PVC transparente, dotada de circulação forçada de ar. Os resultados evidenciaram que o tempo de secagem ao ar foi duas vezes maior do que na secagem em estufa solar, para atingir o teor de umidade de 15%. Embora a qualidade da madeira tenha sido semelhante nos dois métodos, a taxa de secagem foi significativamente maior na estufa solar, sendo que a maior diferença em relação à secagem ao ar foi abaixo do ponto de saturação das fibras.

  18. Analysis of Agromorphological Descriptors to Differentiate between Duke Cherry (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & TurpinRehd. and Its Progenitors: Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. and Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Análisis de Descriptores Agromorfológicos para Diferenciar entre Cerezo Duke (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin Rehd. y sus Progenitores: Cerezo (Prunus avium L. y Guindo (Prunus cerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid identification of the hybrids between sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. is not easy. In order to resolve this problem, 18 Spanish sweet, sour and duke cherry cultivars were surveyed and characterized using 43 agromorphological descriptors evaluated in flowers, leaves, dormant 1-yr-old shoots, fruits, and trees during 2005 and 2006. Based on quantitative parameters, ANOVA and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA were carried out. For qualitative descriptors, statistical comparisons were done by means of the chi-square (χ2 test. As result of the study, two quantitative (titratable acidity and number of lenticels and six qualitative descriptors (shape of the central and lateral lobes in the internal bracts of the flower fascicles, leaf shape and margin, pubescence in the veins of the lower side of the leaf, and type of sulci of the seed coat were identified as differential parameters in P. avium, P. cerasus and P. x gondouinii(Poit. & Turpin Rehd. Also, another four qualitative descriptors (petal coloration at the end of blooming, leaf stipule type, and seed shape and viability were found to be useful for easy differentiation between sour and duke cherry. None of these parameters has been employed previously to discriminate among sweet, sour and duke cherry.Los híbridos de cerezo (Prunus avium L. y guindo (Prunus cerasus L. no son fáciles de identificar. Para resolver este problema, 18 cultivares de cerezo, guindo y sus híbridos fueron prospectados y caracterizados agromorfológicamente mediante el estudio de 43 descriptores evaluados en flores, hojas, frutos, ramas de 1 año y árbol durante los años 2005 y 2006. En base a los resultados obtenidos del estudio de los diferentes parámetros cuantitativos se realizaron un ANDEVA y un análisis discriminante escalonado (SDA. Los descriptores cualitativos fueron analizados mediante el test de Chi-cuadrado (χ². Como resultado del estudio se identificaron

  19. Six-year performance of 14 Prunus rootstocks at 11 sites in the 2001 NC-140 peach trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with either ‘Redtop’, ‘Redhaven’ or ‘Cresthaven’ peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] were planted at 11 locations in North America in 2001 in a randomized block design with a tree spacing of 5 by 6 m and 8 replicates. This test planting was a...

  20. Internet accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pras, Aiko; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Sprenkels, Ron; Parhonyi, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Internet accounting and discusses the status of related work within the IETF and IRTF, as well as certain research projects. Internet accounting is different from accounting in POTS. To understand Internet accounting, it is important to answer questions like

  1. Molecular characterization of Prunus mahaleb L. rootstock canditates by ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozyurt Ibrahim Kursat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus mahaleb is widely used as rootstocks particularly on calcareous and dry soils for both sweet and sour cherry cultivars in Turkey. Genetic diversity and relationships among members of Prunus mahaleb including 29 preselected rootstock candidate accessions from Tokat region in Turkey were investigated by using 15 ISSR markers. The study revealed high genetic diversity among accessions, detecting 138 fragments, of which 103 (75% were polymorphic. The number of polymorphic bands per primer was between 3-13, with average of 6.86. The primers 890 and 891 gave the highest polymorphism ratio (100%. The UPGMA dendrogram and the principal coordinate analysis revealed a clear differentiation among accessions. Reference rootstock, SL-64 clustered separately. The study demonstrates that ISSRs provide promising marker tools in revealing genetic diversity and relationships in Prunus mahaleb rootstock candidate accessions and can contribute to efficient identification, conservation, and utilization of germplasm for rootstock improvement through conventional as well as molecular breeding approaches.

  2. Intoxicação experimental pelos frutos de uva-Japão, Hovenia dulcis (Rhamnaceae, em bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita C. Cardoso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hovenia dulcis Thunberg (uva-Japão é uma árvore caducifolia nativa da China e de alguns lugares do Japão. Nos últimos anos essa planta foi utilizada como forma de sombreamento para aviários no Oeste e Meio-Oeste de Santa Catarina e passou a disseminar-se por toda a região. Os bovinos comem avidamente seus frutos maduros quando caem ao chão. Suspeitas de intoxicação ocorreram no outono e início de inverno e coincidiam com a maturação dos frutos. A doença foi reproduzida em 2004 por outros autores através da administração dos frutos a bovinos, em dose única de 24,5g/kg. Nos anos subsequentes não ocorreram reclamações sobre a intoxicação pelos frutos dessa planta, embora, muitos criadores afirmavam que os bovinos, na temporada de maturação, continuavam a ingerir os frutos. Experimentalmente, nove bovinos que receberam frutos da planta em doses únicas entre 30 e 50g/kg, apenas dois bovinos adoeceram gravemente e um morreu. O quadro clínico e as lesões foram semelhantes à intoxicação reproduzida em 2004; porém, a dose necessária para reproduzirmos a doença foi 100% superior à dose tóxica preconizada como letal em 2004.

  3. Pharmacological activity of the hydroalcoholic extract from Hovenia dulcis thunberg fruit and the flavonoid dihydromyricetin during hypercholesterolemia induced in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Tensol Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrovascular accidents and coronary artery disease are the leading causes of cardiovascular mortalities in Brazil and high levels of LDL cholesterol are one of the main risk factors. In this context, several plant extracts and natural substances have shown promise as cholesterol-lowering. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruit of H. dulcisand of dihydromyricetin in cholesterol reduction in hypercholesterolemic rats. Forty-two Wistar male rats were distributed into seven groups of six animals that received diets supplemented with 1% cholesterol and 0.3% cholic acid, with the exception of the control group, which received conventional diets. Animals were treated with oral suspensions containing: atorvastatin 1.0 mg/kg; H. dulcisextract at 50.0 and 100.0 mg/kg and dihydromyricetin at 25.0 and 50.0 mg/kg vehicle (control group. The following biochemical markers were evaluated; total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, AST, ALT, and alkaline phosphatase. The hypercholesterolemic diet was effective in inducing hypercholesterolemia, increasing total cholesterol by 112.7% relative to the control group. The treatments with two doses of the extract proved to be promising hypocholesterolemic agents, as they were able to substantially reduce total cholesterol and LDL-C, without significantly altering triglycerides, hepatic transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase, thereby encouraging the studies with the plant H. dulcis. The groups treated with the flavonoid dihydromyricetin, although they showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol and LDL-C, and found increases in triglycerides and hepatic transaminases, which is unwanted in the context of hypercholesterolaemia.

  4. Isolation and characterization of a TERMINAL FLOWER 1 homolog from Prunus serotina Ehrh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Pijut, Paula M

    2013-08-01

    Flowering control is one of the several strategies for gene containment of transgenic plants. TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) is known to be involved in the transcriptional repression of genes for inflorescence development. Two TFL1 transcripts with different 3' UTR were cloned from black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Corresponding to the two TFL1 transcripts, two PsTFL1 gene sequences, 1248 bp and 1579 bp, were obtained and both contained the same 519 bp coding region which encoded a putative protein of 172 amino acid residues. The phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences showed high identity of PsTFL1 to TFL1 orthologs of other Prunus species, including Yoshino cherry (Prunus × yedoensis Matsum.), peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch), apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.). The real-time quantitative PCR detected a single copy of PsTFL1 gene sequences in the black cherry genome with two alleles. The gene expression of PsTFL1 was examined in several tissues including the stems, leaves, shoot tips, and vegetative and floral buds. The highest mRNA level was detected in shoot tips, and the lowest level in the leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants overexpressing PsTFL1 showed significantly delayed flowering. These plants also showed largely increased vegetative growth, plant height, number of nodes, trichome density, and the conversion of flower to shoot was observed at each node and shoot apex.

  5. Utilization of Amygdalin during Seedling Development of Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, E.; Poulton, J. E.

    1994-10-01

    Cotyledons of mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds contain the cyanogenic diglucoside (R)-amygdalin. The levels of amygdalin, its corresponding monoglucoside (R)-prunasin, and the enzymes that metabolize these cyanoglycosides were measured during the course of seedling development. During the first 3 weeks following imbibition, cotyledonary amygdalin levels declined by more than 80%, but free hydrogen cyanide was not released to the atmosphere. Concomitantly, prunasin, which was not present in mature, ungerminated seeds, accumulated in the seedling epicotyls, hypocotyls, and cotyledons to levels approaching 4 [mu]mol per seedling. Whether this prunasin resulted from amygdalin hydrolysis remains unclear, however, because these organs also possess UDPG:mandelonitrile glucosyltransferase, which catalyzes de novo prunasin biosynthesis. The reduction in amygdalin levels was paralleled by declines in the levels of amygdalin hydrolase (AH), prunasin hydrolase (PH), mandelonitrile lyase (MDL), and [beta]-cyanoalanine synthase. At all stages of seedling development, AH and PH were localized by immunocytochemistry within the vascular tissues. In contrast, MDL occurred mostly in the cotyledonary parenchyma cells but was also present in the vascular tissues. Soon after imbibition, AH, PH, and MDL were found within protein bodies but were later detected in vacuoles derived from these organelles.

  6. Screening of solvent dependent antibacterial activity of Prunus domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqeen, Zahra; Naqvi, Naim-ul-Hasan; Sohail, Tehmina; Rehman, Zakir-ur; Fatima, Nudrat; Imran, Hina; Rehman, Atiqur

    2013-03-01

    Fruit of Prunus domestica was extracted in ethanol. The ethanol extract was further extracted with two solvents ethyl acetate and chloroform. The crude ethanol extract and two fractions (ethyl acetate and chloroform) were screened for their antibacterial activity using the agar well diffusion method .They were tested against nine bacteria; five Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcuc intermedius, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus) and four Gram negative bacteria (Eschrichia coli, Proteus mirabilis Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiela pneumoniae). The susceptibility of microorganisms to all three fractions was compared with each other and with standard antibiotic (Ampicillin) Among all fractions ethyl acetate exhibited highest antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 34.57mm ± 1.3) while ethyl alcohol exhibited least antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 17.42mm ± 3.3). Minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions was found in the range of 78 μ g/ml to 2500 μ gl/ml against gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

  7. [Determination of elements in the leaves of Prunus mongolica by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shu-Fang; Shi, Song-Li; Wang, Deng-Kui; Cheng, Xiang-Hui; Liu, Zong-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    For determination of elements in the leaves of Prunus mongolica, the samples were digested by nitric acid-perchloric. The contents of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Al, Sr, Sn and Pb in the leaves of Prunus mongolica were determined by ICP-AES, at the same time a blank experiment was carried out. The results showed that the recovery rate of the ten elements was between 93% and 110%, and the relative standard deviation was between 0.33% and 2.94%. This method is fast, simple and accurate.

  8. Accounting outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Klečacká, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    This thesis gives a complex view on accounting outsourcing, deals with the outsourcing process from its beginning (condition of collaboration, making of contract), through collaboration to its possible ending. This work defines outsourcing, indicates the main advatages, disadvatages and arguments for its using. The main object of thesis is mainly practical side of accounting outsourcing and providing of first quality accounting services.

  9. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  10. Light conditions affect the performance of Yponomeuta evonymellus on its native host Prunus padus and the alien Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukowski, A; Giertych, M J; Walczak, U; Baraniak, E; Karolewski, P

    2017-04-01

    The bird cherry ermine moth, Yponomeuta evonymellus L., is considered an obligatory monophagous insect pest that feeds only on native European Prunus padus L. In recent years, however, increased larval feeding on alien P. serotina Ehrh. has been observed. In both species, general defoliation is extensive for shade grown trees, whereas it is high in P. padus, but very low in P. serotina, when trees are grown in full light conditions. The aim of the present study was to identify how the plant host species and light conditions affect the performance of Y. evonymellus. The influence of host species and light condition on their growth and development, characterized by the parameters of pupation, adult eclosion, body mass, potential fecundity, and wing size, was measured in a 2 × 2 experimental design (two light treatments, two hosts). In comparison with high light (HL) conditions, a greater percentage of pupation and a longer period and less dynamic adult emerge was observed under low light (LL) conditions. The effect of host species on these parameters was not significant. In contrast, mass, fecundity and all of the studied wing parameters were higher in larvae that grazed on P. padus than on P. serotina. Similarly the same parameters were also higher on shrubs in HL as compared with those grown under LL conditions. In general, light conditions, rather than plant species, were more often and to a greater extent, responsible for differences in the observed parameters of insect development and potential fecundity.

  11. The Issues of Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca L. Micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kudělková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four modified mediums for apricot multiplication was observed in this study. A total number of 1864 single nodes of 20 Prunus armeniaca L.varieties were established. Explants surface was disinfected with 0.2 % mercuric chloride for 5 minutes. MS (1962 medium with 0.5 mg.l−1 BA, 0.01 mg.l−1 NAA and 0.5 mg.l−1 GA3 was used as a medium for primary culture. ‘Velkopavlovická’, ‘Bergeron’, genotype 1128 and genotype LE 2927 Š9 were successfully transferred to aseptic conditions and multiplied. Modified MS medium (1962, DKW/Juglans medium, Quoirin, Lepoivre (1977 medium and Marino et al. (1991 medium were used for multiplication. Modified MS medium and modified DKW/Juglans medium were not suitable for apricot multiplication at all and explants did not grow. The best results were observed in the case of Quoirin, Lepoivre (1977 medium with 0.4 mg.l−1 BA and 0.01 mg.l−1 NAA. Young plants multiplied well, were fresh and vital and no damage was observed. The highest number of new shoots was observed in the case of Marino et al. (1991 medium. The average growth of new shoots after the last passaging was 600 %, rate 7.33 (Velkopavlovická; 566 %, rate 7.0 (Bergeron; 475 %, rate 6.25 (1128 and 483 %, rate 6.33 (LE 2927 Š9. However, new shoots in clusters were too dense and stunted and this medium is not recommended for apricot multiplication.

  12. Prunus serotina Amygdalin Hydrolase and Prunasin Hydrolase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun Ping; Swain, Elisabeth; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seed homogenates, amygdalin hydrolase (AH) participates with prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitrile lyase in the sequential degradation of (R)-amygdalin to HCN, benzaldehyde, and glucose. Four isozymes of AH (designated AH I, I′, II, II′) were purified from mature cherry seeds by concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and chromatofocusing. All isozymes were monomeric glycoproteins with native molecular masses of 52 kD. They showed similar kinetic properties (pH optima, Km, Vmax) but differed in their isoelectric points and N-terminal amino acid sequences. Analytical isoelectric focusing revealed the presence of subisozymes of each isozyme. The relative abundance of these isozymes and/or subisozymes varied from seed to seed. Three isozymes of PH (designated PH I, IIa, and IIb) were purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity, ion-exchange, and hydroxyapatite chromatography and by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PH I and PH IIb are 68-kD monomeric glycoproteins, whereas PH IIa is dimeric (140 kD). The N-terminal sequences of all PH and AH isozymes showed considerable similarity. Polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against deglycosylated AH I or a mixture of the three deglycosylated PH isozymes were not monospecific as judged by immunoblotting analysis, but also cross-reacted with the opposing glucosidase. Monospecific antisera deemed suitable for immunocytochemistry and screening of expression libraries were obtained by affinity chromatography. Each antiserum recognized all known isozymes of the specific glucosidase used as antigen. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 PMID:16652959

  13. Dormancy in Peach (Prunus persica L.) Flower Buds 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Virginia; Lorenzo, Eugenia; Reinoso, Herminda; Tordable, Maria C.; Abdala, Guillermina; Pharis, Richard P.; Bottini, Ruben

    1990-01-01

    Flower buds of peach (Prunus persica L.) trees, cv Novedad de Cordoba (Argentina), were collected near the end of the dormant period and immediately before anthesis. After removal of scale leaves, morphological observations of representative buds, made on transverse and longitudinal microtome sections, showed that all verticils making up the flower are present in an undifferentiated form during the dormant period (June). Flower buds collected at the end of dormant period (August) showed additional growth and differentiation, at which time formation of two ovules was beginning in the unicarpelar gynoecium. Dehiscence of anthers had not yet occurred 10 days before full bloom, and the ovules were still developing. Free endogenous gibberellin (GA)-like substances were quantified by bioassay (Tan-ginbozu dwarf rice microdrop) after SiO2 partition column chromatography, reversed phase C18-high performance liquid chromatography, and finally Nucleosil [N(CH3)2]high performance liquid chromatography. Bioactive fractions were then subjected to capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM). Gibberellins A1, A3, and A8 were tentatively identified in peach flower buds using GC-SIM and Kovat's retention indices, and relative amounts approximated by GC-SIM (2:8:6 for GA1, GA3, and GA8, respectively). The highest concentration (330 nanograms per gram dry weight) of free GA1/GA3 was found in dormant buds (June) and diminished thereafter. The concentration free of GA1/GA3 did not increase immediately prior to bud break. However, high GA1/GA3 concentrations occurred during stages where rate of growth and cellular differentiation of (mainly fertile) verticils can be influenced. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667435

  14. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt O. Reinhart; Alejandro Royo; Wim H. Van der Putten; Keith Clay

    2005-01-01

    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments, soil sterilization was used to test the...

  15. Agrobacterium-medicated transformation of mature Prunus serotina (black cherry) and regeneration of trangenic shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was developed for in vitro leaf explants of an elite, mature Prunus serotina tree. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring an RNAi plasmid with the black cherry AGAMOUS (AG) gene was used. Bacteria were induced...

  16. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, K.O.; Royo, A.A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Clay, K.

    2005-01-01

    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments,

  17. Adventitious shoot regeneration and rooting of Prunus serotina in vitro cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana Carolina Espinosa; Paula M. Pijut; Charles H. Michler

    2006-01-01

    A complete regeneration protocol was developed for Prunus serotina Ehrh., an important hardwood species for timber and sawlog production in the central and eastern United States. Nodal sections were cultures on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.44 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.49 µM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA),...

  18. Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) : [luuletused] / R. W. Stedingh ; tlk. ja saatesõna: Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stedingh, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) ; Rubus spectabilis ; Rododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum) ; Lysuchitum americanum ; Tulp (Tulipa gesneriana) ; Kanada hani (Branta canadensis) ; Metsorava pärastlõuna (Sciurus carolinensis) ; Ohakalind (Spinus tristis) ; Shakespeare'i mälestusmärk (kogust "Stanley pargi süit")

  19. Cloning and characterization of prunus serotina AGAMOUS, a putative flower homeotic gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Joseph Anderson; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Members of the AGAMOUS subfamily of MADS-box transcription factors play an important role in regulating the development of reproductive organs in flowering plants. To help understand the mechanism of floral development in black cherry (Prunus serotina), PsAG (a putative flower homeotic identity gene) was isolated...

  20. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Anthocyanins: effects of juice processing on phenolic compounds and bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Capanoglu, E.

    2014-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.), has gained growing interest in recent years due to the envisaged health benefits associated with a regular intake of anthocyanins and related polyphenolic compounds. Turkish sour cherries are widely consumed as processed products and are renowned for their high juice

  1. Changes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) antioxidants during nectar processing and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Kamiloglu, S.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is rich in polyphenols, and like its processed products, is especially rich in anthocyanins. We have applied HPLC, spectrophotometric and on-line antioxidant detection methods to follow the fate of cherry antioxidants during an entire multi-step industrial-scale

  2. Mass of Prunus africana stem barks on Tchabal mbabo and Tchabal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study which aimed to produce a formula for establishing the mass of the bark of Prunus africana specimens was carried out in May 2011 on Tchabal Mbabo and Tchabal Gang Daba mountain forests, in the Adamaoua region of Cameroon. The diameter at breast height (DBH), the height of the tree and the thickness of the ...

  3. A synonymic revision of the Prunus-infesting aphid genus Hyalopterus Koch 1854 (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three species of Hyalopterus Koch cause economic damage to various stone fruit trees of the genus Prunus L., H. pruni (Geoffroy), H. amygdali (Blanchard), and H. persikonus Miller et al. Although the third species was established recently, it has been suggested that one of the twelve older synon...

  4. Quantitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in Prunus serotina Ehrh. using 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Pimenta, Lucia P.; Schilthuizen, Menno; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    Introduction Prunus serotina is native to North America but has been invasively introduced in Europe since the seventeenth century. This plant contains cyanogenic glycosides that are believed to be related to its success as an invasive plant. For these compounds, chromatographic- or

  5. Can Prunus serotina be genetically engineered for reproductive sterility and insect pest resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina) is a valuable hardwood timber species, and its value highly depends on the wood quality which is often threatened by insect pests. Transgenic black cherry plants that are more resistant to cambial-mining insects may reduce the occurrence of gummosis and have great economic benefits to landowners and the forest products...

  6. Pegamento e crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas Tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o pegamento e o crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas. Realizaram-se dois experimentos, adotando-se a enxertia de borbulhia por escudo (março e borbulhia por escudo modificada (julho. Com os resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que é viável a realização da enxertia do 'Aurora-1' nos Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e no 'Okinawa', tanto em março quanto em julho, com as metodologias utilizadas. O 'Okinawa' induz crescimento mais rápido ao enxerto, de forma que o ponto máximo do comprimento é atingido em tempo menor.This study aimed to evaluate the tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings. Two experiments were carried out, being adopted the chip budding (March and chip budding modified (July. The results showed that accomplishment of 'Aurora-1' peach bud on mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 and 'Okinawa' is viable, in both periods, with the methodologies used. The 'Okinawa' induces faster growth to the bud and the maximum length point is reached in a short time.

  7. Plant regeneration from in vitro leaves of mature black cherry (Prunus serotina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Paula M. Pijut

    2008-01-01

    A regeneration system was developed for Prunus serotina from a juvenile (F) and two mature genotypes (#3 and #4). Adventitious shoots regenerated from leaves of in vitro cultures on woody plant medium with thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The best regeneration for genotype F (91.4%) was observed on medium with 9.08 µM TDZ...

  8. Molecular characterization of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is an important medicinal fruit with immense health benefits and antioxidant activity. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as DNA fingerprinting tools for the identification and characterization of peach germplasm in the United States. Eleven microsatel...

  9. Performance of Prunus rootstocks in the 2001 NC-140 peach trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with either ‘Redtop’, ‘Redhaven’ or ‘Cresthaven’ peach were planted at 11 locations in North America in 2001 in a randomized block design with a tree spacing of 5 by 6 m and 8 replicates. These rootstocks included three peach seedling rootst...

  10. The anti-viral effect of Acacia mellifera, Melia azedarach and Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous extracts from the stem barks of Prunus africana(Hook.f.) Kalkm, Acacia mellifera (Vahl.) Benth. and Melia azedarach L. were evaluated for in vivo antiviral activity in Balb/C mice following a cutaneous wild type strain 7401H herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. A significant therapeutic effect was observed ...

  11. Transformation of somatic embryos of Prunus incisa ‘February Pink’ with a visible reporter gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system was developed for the ornamental cherry species Prunus incisa. This system uses both an antibiotic resistance gene (NPTII) and a visible selectable marker, the green fluorescent protein (GFP), to select plants. Cells from leaf and root explants were tr...

  12. Role of Scoparia dulcis linn on noise-induced nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and neurotransmitter assessment on motor function in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankhar, Wankupar; Srinivasan, Sakthivel; Sundareswaran, Loganathan; Wankhar, Dapkupar; Rajan, Ravindran; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy

    2017-02-01

    Noise pollution is one of the most widespread and fast growing environmental and occupational menaces in the modern era. Exposure to noise above 100dB is not adaptable through the brain homeostatic mechanism. Yet, the detrimental effects of noise have often been ignored. Developing reliable animal models to understand the neurobiology of noise stress and advance our research in the field of medicine to impede this growing stressor is needed. In this study experimental animals were divided into four groups, (i) Control and (ii) S. dulcis extract (200mg/kgbw) treated control group. (iii) To mimic the influence of noise, animals in this group were exposed to noise stress (100dB/4h/day) for 15days and finally, (iv) Noise exposed treated with S. dulcis extract (200mg/kgbw) group. Rota-rod and narrow beam performance results showed impaired motor co-ordination in noise exposed group on both 1st and 15th day when compared to controls. This impaired motor function on exposure to noise could be attributed to the altered norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin levels in both the striatum and cerebellum. Moreover, the motor impaired associated changes could also be attributed to upregulated nNOS and iNOS protein expression in the cerebellum resulting in increased nitric oxide radical production. This increased reactive free radicals species can initiate lipid peroxidation mediated changes in the cerebellar Purkinje cells, which is responsible for initiating inhibitory motor response and ultimately leading to impaired motor co-ordination. Treatment with S. dulcis extract (200mg/kgbw) could control motor impairment and regulate neurotransmitter level as that of control groups when compared to noise exposed group. One key aspect of therapeutic efficacy of the plant could have resulted due to attenuated lipid peroxidation mediated damages on the cerebellar Purkinje cells thereby regulating motor impairment. Thus, targeting the antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of

  13. AVALIAÇÃO DA COMPATIBILIDADE DA ENXERTIA EM Prunus sp. EVALUATION OF THE GRAFT COMPATIBILITY IN Prunus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE COUTO RODRIGUES

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de peroxidase e concentração de fenóis foi determinada com o objetivo de se avaliar aspectos de compatibilidade entre porta-enxertos e enxertos. As amostras foram processadas e obtidas a partir da casca e lenho dos porta-enxertos de pessegueiros (GF 677, Okinawa, Capdeboscq e Aldrighi e de ameixeiras (Mirabolano e Marianna, enxertados ou não com as cultivares Diamante, Eldorado e Santa Rosa. Concluiu-se que a atividade de peroxidase e a concentração de fenóis foram relacionadas com união entre enxerto e porta-enxerto, particularmente, em Marianna e Mirabolano, onde a atividade de peroxidase e a concentração de fenóis foram mais elevados. A cultivar Santa Rosa foi compatível tanto com os porta-enxertos de ameixeiras quanto com os de pessegueiros.The work was accomplished aiming to quantify the peroxidase activity and total phenols, in order to verify the physiological and biochemical processes in grafting of Prunus sp. cultivars. The samples were processed and obtained in bark and wood of the peach rootstocks (GF 677, Okinawa, Capdeboscq and Aldrighi and plum rootstocks (Mirabolano and Marianna, after they had or not been grafted with the stock Diamante, Eldorado and Santa Rosa. It could be concluded that the peroxidase and the total phenols activity influenced the union between stock and rootstock; after grafting, the incompatibility degree is related with high peroxidase activity and total phenols in the rootstock Marianna and Mirabolano. The Santa Rosa plum graft is as compatible to plum rootstocks as to the peach ones.

  14. THE EFFECT OF NUTRIENT MEDIA IN MICROPROPAGATION AND IN VITRO CONSERVATION OF WILD POPULATION OF MAHALEB CHERRY (PRUNUS MAHALEB L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valbona Sota; Efigjeni Kongjika

    2014-01-01

      Shoot tips of Prunus mahaleb L. isolated from wild populations of Zejmen (Lezhe), promising as rootstocks for sweet cherry cultivars, were submitted to in vitro culture to test if micropropagation could be used for their rapid production...

  15. Endophytic bacteria in plant tissue culture: differences between easy- and difficult-to-propagate Prunus avium genotypes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quambusch, Mona; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Winkelmann, Traud; Bartsch, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The endophytic bacterial communities of six Prunus avium L. genotypes differing in their growth patterns during in vitro propagation were identified by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods...

  16. Accounting assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafka S.М.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The proper evaluation of accounting objects influences essentially upon the reliability of assessing the financial situation of a company. Thus, the problem in accounting estimate is quite relevant. The works of home and foreign scholars on the issues of assessment of accounting objects, regulatory and legal acts of Ukraine controlling the accounting and compiling financial reporting are a methodological basis for the research. The author uses the theoretical methods of cognition (abstraction and generalization, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction and other methods producing conceptual knowledge for the synthesis of theoretical and methodological principles in the evaluation of assets accounting, liabilities and equity. The tabular presentation and information comparison methods are used for analytical researches. The article considers the modern approaches to the issue of evaluation of accounting objects and financial statements items. The expedience to keep records under historical value is proved and the articles of financial statements are to be presented according to the evaluation on the reporting date. In connection with the evaluation the depreciation of fixed assets is considered as a process of systematic return into circulation of the before advanced funds on the purchase (production, improvement of fixed assets and intangible assets by means of including the amount of wear in production costs. Therefore it is proposed to amortize only the actual costs incurred, i.e. not to depreciate the fixed assets received free of charge and surplus valuation of different kinds.

  17. DENDROECOLOGIA DE Sebastiania commersoniana (Baill. L.B.Sm. & Downs E Hovenia dulcis Thunb. EM UMA ÁREA DEGRADADA NA FLORESTA OMBRÓFILA MISTA ALUVIAL, SUL DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Raquel Kanieski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a forest remnant of the Alluvial Mixed Rain Forest impacted by crude oil spill in the district of Araucaria in Paraná, Brazil, we conducted a dendroecological study of Sebastiania commersoniana (Baill. L.B.Sm. & Downs (Euphorbiaceae and the exotic species Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (Rhamnaceae. The study objectives were to evaluate the effect of the flooding area by dyke construction as way to decontamination petroleum and the meteorological factors in the tree diameter growth of both species. Wood samples were collected using increment borer, from two conditions, both on hydromorphic soils (Haplic Gleisol, but at two sites differing in the depth of the water table: SHT – temporary water saturation ( Sebastiania commersoniana n=12; Hovenia dulcis n= 10 and SHP – Permanent water saturation ( Sebastiania commersoniana n=6; Hovenia dulcis n= 0. Radial time series were developed and correlated with the meteorological data from the region. Results show that individuals of native species at both soil conditions experienced similar inter-annual growth patterns with decreasing trend over the years; differently individuals of exotic species, with increase of increment over the years. Individuals of SHP condition had lower rates of growth after the year of the spill, which shows that the flooding of the area by construction of dykes as attempt to decontaminate, affected the growth of individuals. The construction of dykes as attempt to decontaminate the area affected de individual growth. Precipitation showed a direct link with tree growth, only at sites with temporary water saturation. Moreover, minimum air temperature is a factor limiting the growth of Sebastiania commersoniana , showing that high temperatures stimulate growth, particularly at the early stages of the growth period while warmer months may depress the growth. Hovenia dulcis showed no significant correlation with temperature, but precipitation arises as crucial factor for growth, but

  18. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Prunus yedoensis Bark Extract on Adipose Tissue in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic, low-grade inflammatory responses occur in obese adipose tissue and play a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance. Macrophages exposed to high glucose upregulate the expression of SRA, a macrophage-specific scavenger receptor. The present study investigated whether Prunus yedoensis (PY bark extract affects the inflammatory response and scavenger receptor gene expression observed in a diet-induced obesity model in vivo. Oral administration of PY extract significantly reduced fasting blood glucose levels without a change in body weight in mice fed a high fat diet for 17 weeks. PY extract significantly suppressed expression of inflammatory and macrophage genes such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and F4/80 in epididymal adipose tissue. Among scavenger receptor genes, SRA expression was significantly reduced. The inhibitory responses of PY extract and its fractions were determined through evaluation of scavenger receptor expression in THP-1 cells. PY extract and its ethyl acetate fraction decreased the levels of SRA mRNA and phospho-ERK1/2 during monocyte differentiation. Our data indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of PY extract and its downregulation of SRA seem to account for its hypoglycemic effects.

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to dried plums of „prune‟ cultivars (Prunus domestica L.) and maintenance of normal bowel function (ID 1164, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    ’ cultivars (Prunus domestica L.) and maintenance of normal bowel function. The food that is the subject of the claim, prunes (dried plums of ‘prune’ cultivars (Prunus domestica L.)) is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal bowel function, is a beneficial physiological effect....... The proposed target population is the general population. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that two human intervention studies showed an effect of dried plums on bowel function, that one study with considerable limitations showed an effect of dried plums on stool consistency......, but not on other measures of bowel function, that another study with considerable limitations did not show an effect of dried plums on bowel function when compared to dried apple, and that there is good evidence for plausible mechanisms by which some components of prunes may contribute to the claimed effect...

  20. Is cut-stump and girdling an efficient method of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. eradication?

    OpenAIRE

    Otręba Anna; Marciszewska Katarzyna; Janik Daria

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to prevent the invasion of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. have a long history in Western Europe. However, effective methods of eliminating it that do not bear negative side effects for ecosystems have not yet been developed. Mechanical methods are the first choice in environmentally sensitive areas. In this study, we aimed to find answers to the questions: does the application of cutting at a height of 1 m from the ground limit the sprouting capacities of black cherry? And, is ste...

  1. Detection and characterization of genome-specific microsatellite markers in the allotetraploid Prunus serotina

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, Marie; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; Potter, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The utility of microsatellite markers to characterize the genetic diversity of a polyploid species with disomic inheritance is often hampered by the impossibility of determining allele frequencies and the complexity of inheritance patterns. The objective of this study was to solve these problems in the allotetraploid Prunus serotina Ehrh. by finding genome-specific primers (i.e., primers that are specific to one of the two genomes that initially formed the species). Sixty-seven microsatellite...

  2. Occurrence of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) in the State Forests in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Bijak Szymon; Czajkowski Maciej; Ludwisiak Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    Among the invasive tree species identified in Polish forests, black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) appears to pose the greatest threat. The objective of this study was i), to determine the abundance of this species in the forests managed by the State Forests National Forest Holding (PGLLP) and ii), to characterise the ecological conditions that it is found in. The source data was obtained from the State Forests Information System (SILP) database. In Polish forests, black cherry mostly occurs ...

  3. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez; César Ibarra-Alvarado; Alejandra Rojas-Molina; Juana I. Rojas-Molina; Elhadi M. Yahia; Dulce M. Rivera-Pastrana; Adriana Rojas-Molina; Ángel Miguel Zavala-Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits po...

  4. Quantitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in Prunus serotina Ehrh. using (1) H-NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Pimenta, Lúcia P; Schilthuizen, Menno; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2014-01-01

    Prunus serotina is native to North America but has been invasively introduced in Europe since the seventeenth century. This plant contains cyanogenic glycosides that are believed to be related to its success as an invasive plant. For these compounds, chromatographic- or spectrometric-based (targeting on HCN hydrolysis) methods of analysis have been employed so far. However, the conventional methods require tedious preparation steps and a long measuring time. To develop a fast and simple method to quantify the cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin and prunasin in dried Prunus serotina leaves without any pre-purification steps using (1) H-NMR spectroscopy. Extracts of Prunus serotina leaves using CH3 OH-d4 and KH2 PO4 buffer in D2 O (1:1) were quantitatively analysed for amygdalin and prunasin using (1) H-NMR spectroscopy. Different internal standards were evaluated for accuracy and stability. The purity of quantitated (1) H-NMR signals was evaluated using several two-dimensional NMR experiments. Trimethylsilylpropionic acid sodium salt-d4 proved most suitable as the internal standard for quantitative (1) H-NMR analysis. Two-dimensional J-resolved NMR was shown to be a useful tool to confirm the structures and to check for possible signal overlapping with the target signals for the quantitation. Twenty-two samples of P. serotina were subsequently quantitatively analysed for the cyanogenic glycosides prunasin and amygdalin. The NMR method offers a fast, high-throughput analysis of cyanogenic glycosides in dried leaves permitting simultaneous quantification and identification of prunasin and amygdalin in Prunus serotina. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Convergent evolution at the gametophytic self-incompatibility system in Malus and Prunus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Aguiar

    Full Text Available S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI; tribe Pyreae, P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC; Amygdaleae, P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae, Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae, and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen.

  6. Convergent Evolution at the Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility System in Malus and Prunus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Ana E.; Fonseca, Nuno A.; Iezzoni, Amy; van Nocker, Steve; Vieira, Cristina P.

    2015-01-01

    S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus) revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI); tribe Pyreae), P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC); Amygdaleae), P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae), Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae), and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen. PMID:25993016

  7. Treated Dixiland Prunus persica Fruits: Common and Distinct Response to Heat and Cold

    OpenAIRE

    Lauxmann, Martin Alexander; Brun, Bianca; Borsani, Julia; Bustamante, Claudia Anabel; Budde, Claudio; Lara, Maria Valeria; Drincovich, Maria Fabiana

    2017-01-01

    Cold storage is extensively used to slow the rapid deterioration of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit after harvest. However, peach fruit subjected to long periods of cold storage develop chilling injury (CI) symptoms. Post-harvest heat treatment (HT) of peach fruit prior to cold storage is effective in reducing some CI symptoms, maintaining fruit quality, preventing softening and controlling post-harvest diseases. To identify the molecular changes induced by HT, which may be associated ...

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Rodamilans

    Full Text Available Plum pox virus (PPV infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01. Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; San León, David; Mühlberger, Louisa; Candresse, Thierry; Neumüller, Michael; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01). Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  10. Composición química de los aceites esenciales de las hojas de Helicteres guazumifolia (Sterculiaceae, Piper tuberculatum (Piperaceae, Scoparia dulcis (Arecaceae y Solanum subinerme (Solanaceae, recolectadas en Sucre, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ordaz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los aceites esenciales son biosintetizados por plantas aromáticas y pueden obtenerse de cualquier órgano de la misma, tienen gran aplicación en la industria farmacéutica, sanitaria, cosmética, agrícola y de alimentos. Los aceites esenciales de las hojas de las plantas Helicteres guazumifolia, Piper tuberculatum, Scoparia dulcis y Solanum subinerme fueron obtenidos mediante hidrodestilación con rendimientos de 0.004, 0.032, 0.016 y 0.005%, respectivamente. La CG/EM permitió identificar la mayoría de los constituyentes de estos aceites esenciales (88.00, 89.80, 87.50 y 89.47%, respectivamente, encontrándose en mayor proporción metabolitos no volátiles de estructura no terpenoidal en H. guazumifolia (30.28%, sesquiterpenoides oxigenados en P. tuberculatum (52.19%, sesquiterpenos en S. dulcis (26.09% y derivados oxigenados de diterpenos en S. subinerme (39.67%. Los constituyentes mayoritarios fueron el diisobutilftalato (13.11% en H. guazumifolia, (--espatulenol (11.37% en P. tuberculatum y el trans-fitol (8.29 y 36.00% para S. dulcis y S. subinerme, respectivamente. El diisooctilftalato fue el constituyente común en los aceites esenciales de todas las especies y los compuestos volátiles trans-pinano, L-linalool, β-ionona, isofitol, neofitadieno, trans-fitol, dibutilftalato y hexadecanoato de metilo, fueron detectados en tres de estas esencias. Esto sugiere que dichas plantas pueden requerir metabolitos secundarios similares para su interacción ecológica, posiblemente debido a factores ambientales comunes.Chemical composition of essential oils from leaves of Helicteres guazumifolia (Sterculiaceae, Piper tuberculatum (Piperaceae, Scoparia dulcis (Arecaceae and Solanum subinerme (Solanaceae from Sucre, Venezuela. Essential oils, biosynthesized and accumulated in aromatic plants, have a wide range of applications in the pharmaceutical health, cosmetics, food and agricultural industry. This study aimed to analyze the secondary

  11. AMERICAN ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Onica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The international Accounting Standards already contribute to the generation of better and more easily comparable financial information on an international level, supporting thus a more effective allocationof the investments resources in the world. Under the circumstances, there occurs the necessity of a consistent application of the standards on a global level. The financial statements are part of thefinancial reporting process. A set of complete financial statements usually includes a balance sheet,a profit and loss account, a report of the financial item change (which can be presented in various ways, for example as a status of the treasury flows and of the funds flows and those notes, as well as those explanatory situations and materials which are part of the financial statements.

  12. PLASTICIDAD FENOTÍPICA EN PLANTAS DE Lippia dulcis (VERBENACEAE SOMETIDAS A DÉFICIT HÍDRICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villamizar Cújar Javier Mauricio

    2012-08-01

    ="false" Priority="21" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis" />

    La plasticidad fenotípica (PF es un mecanismo mediante el cual las plantas pueden responder a la heterogeneidad ambiental con ajustes morfológicos y fisiológicos. En este estudio se cuantificó la PF de plantas de Lippia dulcis en respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica en el suelo (baja, moderada y alta. Se evaluó la PF en caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa, durante la ontogenia vegetativa de L. dulcis (días 39, 45, 59 y 66. Nuestra hip

  13. Genome-Wide Analysis Suggests the Relaxed Purifying Selection Affect the Evolution of WOX Genes in Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Meng, Dandan; Li, Guohui; Li, Dahui; Abdullah, Muhammad; Jin, Qing; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2017-01-01

    WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) family is one of the largest group of transcription factors (TFs) specifically found in plant kingdom. WOX TFs play an important role in plant development processes and evolutionary novelties. Although the roles of WOXs in Arabidopsis and rice have been well-studied, however, little are known about the relationships among the main clades in the molecular evolution of these genes in Rosaceae. Here, we carried out a genome-wide analysis and identified 14, 10, 10, and 9 of WOX genes from four Rosaceae species (Fragaria vesca, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Pyrus bretschneideri, respectively). According to evolutionary analysis, as well as amino acid sequences of their homodomains, these genes were divided into three clades with nine subgroups. Furthermore, due to the conserved structural patterns among these WOX genes, it was proposed that there should exist some highly conserved regions of microsynteny in the four Rosaceae species. Moreover, most of WOX gene pairs were presented with the conserved orientation among syntenic genome regions. In addition, according to substitution models analysis using PMAL software, no significant positive selection was detected, but type I functional divergence was identified among certain amino acids in WOX protein. These results revealed that the relaxed purifying selection might be the main driving force during the evolution of WOX genes in the tested Rosaceae species. Our result will be useful for further precise research on evolution of the WOX genes in family Rosaceae.

  14. Genome-Wide Analysis Suggests the Relaxed Purifying Selection Affect the Evolution of WOX Genes in Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Fragaria vesca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Cao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX family is one of the largest group of transcription factors (TFs specifically found in plant kingdom. WOX TFs play an important role in plant development processes and evolutionary novelties. Although the roles of WOXs in Arabidopsis and rice have been well-studied, however, little are known about the relationships among the main clades in the molecular evolution of these genes in Rosaceae. Here, we carried out a genome-wide analysis and identified 14, 10, 10, and 9 of WOX genes from four Rosaceae species (Fragaria vesca, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Pyrus bretschneideri, respectively. According to evolutionary analysis, as well as amino acid sequences of their homodomains, these genes were divided into three clades with nine subgroups. Furthermore, due to the conserved structural patterns among these WOX genes, it was proposed that there should exist some highly conserved regions of microsynteny in the four Rosaceae species. Moreover, most of WOX gene pairs were presented with the conserved orientation among syntenic genome regions. In addition, according to substitution models analysis using PMAL software, no significant positive selection was detected, but type I functional divergence was identified among certain amino acids in WOX protein. These results revealed that the relaxed purifying selection might be the main driving force during the evolution of WOX genes in the tested Rosaceae species. Our result will be useful for further precise research on evolution of the WOX genes in family Rosaceae.

  15. Infrastrukturel Accountability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ubbesen, Morten Bonde

    Hvordan redegør man troværdigt for noget så diffust som en hel nations udledning af drivhusgasser? Det undersøger denne afhandling i et etnografisk studie af hvordan Danmarks drivhusgasregnskab udarbejdes, rapporteres og kontrolleres. Studiet trækker på begreber og forståelser fra 'Science & Tech...... & Technology Studies', og bidrager med begrebet 'infrastrukturel accountability' til nye måder at forstå og tænke om det arbejde, hvormed højt specialiserede praksisser dokumenterer og redegør for kvaliteten af deres arbejde....

  16. Design Accountability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koskinen, Ilpo; Krogh, Peter

    2015-01-01

    When design research builds on design practice, it may contribute to both theory and practice of design in ways richer than research that treats design as a topic. Such research, however, faces several tensions that it has to negotiate successfully in order not to lose its character as research....... This paper looks at constructive design research which takes the entanglement of theory and practice as its hallmark, and uses it as a test case in exploring how design researchers can work with theory, methodology, and practice without losing their identity as design researchers. The crux of practice based...... design research is that where classical research is interested in singling out a particular aspect and exploring it in depth, design practice is characterized by balancing numerous concerns in a heterogenous and occasionally paradoxical product. It is on this basis the notion of design accountability...

  17. The high-quality draft genome of peach (Prunus persica) identifies unique patterns of genetic diversity, domestication and genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Ignazio; Abbott, Albert G; Scalabrin, Simone; Jung, Sook; Shu, Shengqiang; Marroni, Fabio; Zhebentyayeva, Tatyana; Dettori, Maria Teresa; Grimwood, Jane; Cattonaro, Federica; Zuccolo, Andrea; Rossini, Laura; Jenkins, Jerry; Vendramin, Elisa; Meisel, Lee A; Decroocq, Veronique; Sosinski, Bryon; Prochnik, Simon; Mitros, Therese; Policriti, Alberto; Cipriani, Guido; Dondini, Luca; Ficklin, Stephen; Goodstein, David M; Xuan, Pengfei; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Aramini, Valeria; Copetti, Dario; Gonzalez, Susana; Horner, David S; Falchi, Rachele; Lucas, Susan; Mica, Erica; Maldonado, Jonathan; Lazzari, Barbara; Bielenberg, Douglas; Pirona, Raul; Miculan, Mara; Barakat, Abdelali; Testolin, Raffaele; Stella, Alessandra; Tartarini, Stefano; Tonutti, Pietro; Arús, Pere; Orellana, Ariel; Wells, Christina; Main, Dorrie; Vizzotto, Giannina; Silva, Herman; Salamini, Francesco; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2013-05-01

    Rosaceae is the most important fruit-producing clade, and its key commercially relevant genera (Fragaria, Rosa, Rubus and Prunus) show broadly diverse growth habits, fruit types and compact diploid genomes. Peach, a diploid Prunus species, is one of the best genetically characterized deciduous trees. Here we describe the high-quality genome sequence of peach obtained from a completely homozygous genotype. We obtained a complete chromosome-scale assembly using Sanger whole-genome shotgun methods. We predicted 27,852 protein-coding genes, as well as noncoding RNAs. We investigated the path of peach domestication through whole-genome resequencing of 14 Prunus accessions. The analyses suggest major genetic bottlenecks that have substantially shaped peach genome diversity. Furthermore, comparative analyses showed that peach has not undergone recent whole-genome duplication, and even though the ancestral triplicated blocks in peach are fragmentary compared to those in grape, all seven paleosets of paralogs from the putative paleoancestor are detectable.

  18. Identification and expression analysis of the SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein (SBP)-box gene family in Prunus mume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zongda; Sun, Lidan; Zhou, Yuzhen; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2015-10-01

    SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein (SBP)-box family genes encode plant-specific transcription factors that play crucial roles in plant development, especially flower and fruit development. However, little information on this gene family is available for Prunus mume, an ornamental and fruit tree widely cultivated in East Asia. To explore the evolution of SBP-box genes in Prunus and explore their functions in flower and fruit development, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in P. mume. Fifteen SBP-box genes were identified, and 11 of them contained an miR156 target site. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses revealed that different groups of SBP-box genes have undergone different evolutionary processes and varied in their length, structure, and motif composition. Purifying selection has been the main selective constraint on both paralogous and orthologous SBP-box genes. In addition, the sequences of orthologous SBP-box genes did not diverge widely after the split of P. mume and Prunus persica. Expression analysis of P. mume SBP-box genes revealed their diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns. Three duplicated SBP-box genes may have undergone subfunctionalization in Prunus. Most of the SBP-box genes showed high transcript levels in flower buds and young fruit. The four miR156-nontargeted genes were upregulated during fruit ripening. Together, these results provide information about the evolution of SBP-box genes in Prunus. The expression analysis lays the foundation for further research on the functions of SBP-box genes in P. mume and other Prunus species, especially during flower and fruit development.

  19. Evaluation of Total Flavonoids, Myricetin, and Quercetin from Hovenia dulcis Thunb. As Inhibitors of α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yonghong; Su, Anping; Yuan, Shuang; Zhao, Huaguo; Tan, Siyuan; Hu, Chingyuan; Deng, Hong; Guo, Yurong

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the inhibition effect and mechanism of total flavonoids, myricetin and quercetin extracted from Hovenia dulcis Thunb. on α-amylase and α-glucosidase in order to explore the potential use of Hovenia flavonoids in alleviating postprandial hyperglycemia. The results demonstrate that total flavonoids, myricetin, and quercetin were effective inhibitors of α-amylase with IC50 values of 32.8, 662 and 770 μg ml-1, respectively. And all three were effective inhibitors of α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 8, 3 and 32 μg ml-1, respectively. Enzyme kinetics tests and Lineweaver-Burk results showed the inhibition effects of total flavonoids, myricetin and quercrtin on α-amylase were all reversible and competitive, and the effects on α-glucosidase were all reversible but non-competitive. This study revealed that Hovenia flavonoids, especially myricetin, are effective and promising functional foods in alleviating type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Hovenia dulcis Thunb extract and its ingredient methyl vanillate activate Wnt/β-catenin pathway and increase bone mass in growing or ovariectomized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu-Hyeon Cha

    Full Text Available The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a potential target for development of anabolic agents to treat osteoporosis because of its role in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. However, there is no clinically available anti-osteoporosis drug that targets this Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In this study, we screened a library of aqueous extracts of 350 plants and identified Hovenia dulcis Thunb (HDT extract as a Wnt/β-catenin pathway activator. HDT extract induced osteogenic differentiation of calvarial osteoblasts without cytotoxicity. In addition, HDT extract increased femoral bone mass without inducing significant weight changes in normal mice. In addition, thickness and area of femoral cortical bone were also significantly increased by the HDT extract. Methyl vanillate (MV, one of the ingredients in HDT, also activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and induced osteoblast differentiation in vitro. MV rescued trabecular or cortical femoral bone loss in the ovariectomized mice without inducing any significant weight changes or abnormality in liver tissue when administrated orally. Thus, natural HDT extract and its ingredient MV are potential anabolic agents for treating osteoporosis.

  1. Wild pollination services to California almond rely on semi‐natural habitat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Alexandra‐Maria; Brittain, Claire; Hendrix, Stephen D; Thorp, Robbin; Williams, Neal; Kremen, Claire

    2012-01-01

    .... This is exemplified in California where the demand for honeybees Apis mellifera to pollinate almond Prunus dulcis is increasing, but problems with honeybee health suggest it may not be sustainable...

  2. Composición química de los aceites esenciales de las hojas de Helicteres guazumifolia (Sterculiaceae, Piper tuberculatum (Piperaceae, Scoparia dulcis (Arecaceae y Solanum subinerme (Solanaceae, recolectadas en Sucre, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ordaz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los aceites esenciales son biosintetizados por plantas aromáticas y pueden obtenerse de cualquier órgano de la misma, tienen gran aplicación en la industria farmacéutica, sanitaria, cosmética, agrícola y de alimentos. Los aceites esenciales de las hojas de las plantas Helicteres guazumifolia, Piper tuberculatum, Scoparia dulcis y Solanum subinerme fueron obtenidos mediante hidrodestilación con rendimientos de 0.004, 0.032, 0.016 y 0.005%, respectivamente. La CG/EM permitió identificar la mayoría de los constituyentes de estos aceites esenciales (88.00, 89.80, 87.50 y 89.47%, respectivamente, encontrándose en mayor proporción metabolitos no volátiles de estructura no terpenoidal en H. guazumifolia (30.28%, sesquiterpenoides oxigenados en P. tuberculatum (52.19%, sesquiterpenos en S. dulcis (26.09% y derivados oxigenados de diterpenos en S. subinerme (39.67%. Los constituyentes mayoritarios fueron el diisobutilftalato (13.11% en H. guazumifolia, (--espatulenol (11.37% en P. tuberculatum y el trans-fitol (8.29 y 36.00% para S. dulcis y S. subinerme, respectivamente. El diisooctilftalato fue el constituyente común en los aceites esenciales de todas las especies y los compuestos volátiles trans-pinano, L-linalool, β-ionona, isofitol, neofitadieno, trans-fitol, dibutilftalato y hexadecanoato de metilo, fueron detectados en tres de estas esencias. Esto sugiere que dichas plantas pueden requerir metabolitos secundarios similares para su interacción ecológica, posiblemente debido a factores ambientales comunes.

  3. Les espèces envahissantes : le cas du cerisier tardif (Prunus serotina Ehrh).

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, Marie; Vervoort, Arnaud; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2006-01-01

    Introduites pour divers usages, les espèces envahissantes se sont rapidement adaptées et répandues dans leurs nouveaux habitats. Elles ont pour la plupart des impacts environnementaux, économiques et/ou sociaux. Parmi les essences forestières introduites, le cerisier tardif (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), importé d’Amérique du Nord, est une espèce particulièrement en expansion dans nos forêts et est considérée comme espèce envahissante en Belgique, surtout sur les so...

  4. Immunocytochemical Localization of Prunasin Hydrolase and Mandelonitrile Lyase in Stems and Leaves of Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, E.; Poulton, J. E.

    1994-12-01

    In macerates of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) leaves and stems, (R)-prunasin is catabolized to HCN, benzaldehyde, and D-glucose by the sequential action of prunasin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.21) and (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile lyase (EC 4.1.2.10). Immuno-cytochemical techniques have shown that within these organs prunasin hydrolase occurs within the vacuoles of phloem parenchyma cells. In arborescent leaves, mandelonitrile lyase was also located in phloem parenchyma vacuoles, but comparison of serial sections revealed that these two degradative enzymes are usually localized within different cells.

  5. Alternaria cerasidanica sp nov., isolated in Denmark from drupes of Prunus avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, R. G.; Reymond, S. T.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The ex-type strain of Alternaria cerasidanica was isolated in 2001 from an immature, asymptomatic drupe of Prunus avium collected at a commercial cherry orchard near Skaelskor, Denmark. Cultural morphology, sporulation pattern and cluster analyses of combined RAPD, RAMS (microsatellite), and AFLP...... fingerprints of A. cerasidanica and 167 strains of Alternaria spp. support the placement of A. cerasidanica within the A. infectoria species-group sensu Simmons and its segregation from other members of this group. A. cerasidanica is currently monotypic and known only from preharvest sweet cherry fruit...

  6. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of a New Triterpenoid from Prunus cerasoides D. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liaqat Ali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One new metabolite, prunol (1, belonging to the pentacyclic triterpenoid skeleton was purified from the dichloromethane soluble fraction of the crude ethanolic extract of Prunus cerasoides D. Don. The structure elucidation was accomplished on the basis of one dimensional 1H and 13C NMR and two dimensional HMQC, HMBC, and COSY experiments. The molecular mass was determined by HRFAB-MS, while the major fragments were observed in the EI-MS. The comparative analysis of the NMR spectral data with the known analogues and the NOESY experiments were helpful in assigning the stereo centers in the molecule.

  7. PRUNUS SERRULATA VAR. 'KANZAN' MICROSHOOTS BEHAVIOUR DURING IN VITRO ROOTING AND ACCLIMATIZATION PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Duţă

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents aspects regarding in vitro rooting and acclimatization percentages of Prunus serrulata var. Kanzan vitroplants. During in vitro rooting stage, good results were obtained using a nutrient medium with the following composition: halved Murashige - Skoog mineral salts, Linsmaier – Skoog vitamins, gibberellic acid (GA 0.1 mg/l, indolelacetic acid (IAA 1.0 mg/l, activated carbon 0.3 mg/l, iron chelate 38 mg/l, 30 g/l dextrose, 7 g/l agar. The substrate recommended for acclimatization of in vitro plants is composed of black peat + perlite (1:1, at pH = 6.0.

  8. The apoplastic antioxidant system in Prunus: response to long-term plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Vivancos, P; Rubio, M; Mesonero, V; Periago, P M; Barceló, A Ros; Martínez-Gómez, P; Hernández, J A

    2006-01-01

    This work describes, for the first time, the changes taking place in the antioxidative system of the leaf apoplast in response to plum pox virus (PPV) in different Prunus species showing different susceptibilities to PPV. The presence of p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid (pHMB)-sensitive ascorbate peroxidase (APX) (class I APX) and pHMB-insensitive APX (class III APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), NADH-POX, and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was described in the apoplast from both peach and apricot leaves. PPV infection produced different changes in the antioxidant system of the leaf apoplast from the Prunus species, depending on their susceptibility to the virus. In leaves of the very susceptible peach cultivar GF305, PPV brought about an increase in class I APX, POX, NADH-POX, and PPO activities. In the susceptible apricot cultivar Real Fino, PPV infection produced a decrease in apoplastic POX and SOD activities, whereas a strong increase in PPO was observed. However, in the resistant apricot cultivar Stark Early Orange, a rise in class I APX as well as a strong increase in POX and SOD activities was noticed in the apoplastic compartment. Long-term PPV infection produced an oxidative stress in the apoplastic space from apricot and peach plants, as observed by the increase in H2O2 contents in this compartment. However, this increase was much higher in the PPV-susceptible plants than in the resistant apricot cultivar. Only in the PPV-susceptible apricot and peach plants was the increase in apoplastic H2O2 levels accompanied by an increase in electrolyte leakage. No changes in the electrolyte leakage were observed in the PPV-inoculated resistant apricot leaves, although a 42% increase in the apoplastic H2O2 levels was produced. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analyses revealed that the majority of the polypeptides in the apoplastic fluid had isoelectric points in the range of pI 4-6. The identification of proteins using MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser

  9. Reação de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e cultivares de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] ao nematóide anelado Mesocriconema xenoplax (Nemata: Criconematidae Reaction of mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and peach tree cultivars [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] to ring nematode Mesocriconema xenoplax (Nemata: Criconematidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a reação de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e cultivares de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] ao nematóide anelado Mesocriconema xenoplax (Raski Loof & de Grise, realizou-se o presente estudo em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Fitossanidade da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de cerâmica com 6 litros de capacidade, contendo uma mistura de solo e areia (1:1, v/v, previamente autoclavada a 121°C e 1kgf.cm-2 por 2 horas. Cada planta foi inoculada com 10mL de uma suspensão de 200 M. xenoplax por mL. Com os resultados obtidos, após 105 dias da inoculação, pode-se concluir que os Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e as cultivares Okinawa e Aurora-1 de pessegueiro são suscetíveis a M. xenoplax. A cultivar Aurora-1 apresentou maior Fator de Reprodução (93,06.With the objective of evaluating the reaction of mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and peach tree cultivars [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] to ring nematode Mesocriconema xenoplax (Raski Loof & de Grise, was conducted the present study at a greenhouse, belonging to the Phytosanity Department of Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. The plants were maintained in ceramic boxes with 6 liters of capacity, contends a soil-sand mixture (1:1, v/v, previously autoclaved at 121°C and 1kgf.cm-2 for 2 hours. Each plant was inoculated with a 10mL suspension of 200 M. xenoplax/mL. With the results, after 105 days of inoculation, was verified that mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 and 'Okinawa' and 'Aurora-1' peach tree cultivars are susceptible to M. xenoplax. The cultivar 'Aurora-1' presented larger reproduction factor (93,06.

  10. Shade, leaf growth, and crown development of Quercus rubra, Q. velutina, Prunus serotina, and Acer rubrum seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1994-01-01

    The study was conducted in an open field to detennine the optimum irradiance for establishment and growth of two oak species and two major associated woody species. Half-sib seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and black oak (Q. velutina Lam.) were grown for two years under shade-clotht...

  11. Bacterial wetwood detection in Fagus grandifolia and Prunus serotina sapwood using a conducting polymer electronic-nose device

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. Wilson

    2014-01-01

    New electronic gas-detection methods were developed and tested for the diagnosis of bacterial wetwood disease in Fagus grandifolia (American beech) and Prunus serotina (black cherry) using a Conducting Polymer (CP)-type electronic nose (e-nose), the Aromascan A32S, based on detection of headspace...

  12. Prokinetic Activity of Prunus persica (L. Batsch Flowers Extract and Its Possible Mechanism of Action in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The peach tree, Prunus persica (L. Batsch, is widely cultivated in China, and its flowers have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gut motility disorders. But few studies have explored the pharmacological effect of Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers on gastrointestinal motility. In this study, the activities of different extracts from Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated colon model, and the ethyl acetate extract (EAE showed the strongest effects in vitro. EAE (10−8–10−5 g/mL caused a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect in rat colonic tissue. Additionally, ketotifen (100 µM, cimetidine (10 µM, and pyrilamine (1 µM produced a significant inhibition of contractions caused by EAE. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and toluidine blue staining revealed increased numbers of mast cells in the EAE group, and EAE increased histamine release from the colonic tissues. These data indicate that EAE has significant prokinetic activity and acts by a mechanism that mainly involves mast cell degranulation. Our study provides a pharmacological basis for the use of an extract of Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers in the treatment of gut motility disorders.

  13. Cultivar identification, pedigree verification, and diversity analysis among Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) Cultivars based on Simple Sequence Repeat markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic relationships and pedigree inferences among peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) accessions and breeding lines used in genetic improvement were evaluated using 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 80 alleles were detected among the 37 peach accessions with an average of 5.53...

  14. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, Ulrike; Crous, Pedro W; Fourie, Paul H

    2008-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone

  15. Prokinetic activity of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers extract and its possible mechanism of action in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Xu, Jing Dong; Wei, Feng Xian; Zheng, Yong Dong; Ma, Jian Zhong; Xu, Xiao Dong; Wei, Zhen Gang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, You Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The peach tree, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, is widely cultivated in China, and its flowers have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gut motility disorders. But few studies have explored the pharmacological effect of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers on gastrointestinal motility. In this study, the activities of different extracts from Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated colon model, and the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) showed the strongest effects in vitro. EAE (10(-8)-10(-5) g/mL) caused a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect in rat colonic tissue. Additionally, ketotifen (100 µM), cimetidine (10 µM), and pyrilamine (1 µM) produced a significant inhibition of contractions caused by EAE. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and toluidine blue staining revealed increased numbers of mast cells in the EAE group, and EAE increased histamine release from the colonic tissues. These data indicate that EAE has significant prokinetic activity and acts by a mechanism that mainly involves mast cell degranulation. Our study provides a pharmacological basis for the use of an extract of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers in the treatment of gut motility disorders.

  16. Development of sequence-tagged site markers linked to the pillar growth type in peach (Prunus persica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], trees showing columnar [also termed pillar or broomy] growth habit are of interest for high density production systems. While the selection of the columnar homozygote (pillar) phenotype (brbr) can be carried out prior to field planting, the intermediate hetero...

  17. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of Prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone

  18. A fissitunicate ascus mechanism in the Calosphaeriaceae, and novel species of Jattaea and Calosphaeria on Prunus wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    During a survey of Prunus wood from South Africa, isolations were made of three presumably Calosphaerialean fungi that formed hyphomycetous, phialidic anamorphs in culture. In order to reveal the phylogenetic relationship of these fungi, they were characterised on a morphological and molecular (LSU

  19. Ecophysiological and morphological responses to shade and drought in two contrasting ecotypes of Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M D; Kloeppel, B D; Kubiske, M E

    1992-06-01

    Photosynthesis (A), water relations and stomatal reactivity during drought, and leaf morphology were evaluated on 2-year-old, sun- and shade-grown Prunus serotina Ehrh. seedlings of a mesic Pennsylvania seed source and a more xeric Wisconsin source. Wisconsin plants maintained higher A and leaf conductance (g(wv)) than Pennsylvania plants during the entire drought under sun conditions, and during the mid stages of drought under shade conditions. Compared to shade plants, sun plants of both sources exhibited a more rapid decrease in A or % A(max) with decreasing leaf water potential (Psi). Tissue water relations parameters were generally not significantly different between seed sources. However, osmotic potentials were lower in sun than shade plants under well-watered conditions. Following drought, shade plants, but not sun plants, exhibited significant osmotic adjustment. Sun leaves had greater thickness, specific mass, area and stomatal density and lower guard cell length than shade leaves in one or both sources. Wisconsin sun leaves were seemingly more xerophytic with greater thickness, specific mass, and guard cell length than Pennsylvania sun leaves. No source differences in leaf structure were exhibited in shade plants. Stomatal reactivity to sun-shade cycles was similar between ecotypes. However, well-watered and droughted plants differed in stomatal reactivity within and between multiple sun-shade cycles. The observed ecotypic and phenotypic variations in ecophysiology and morphology are consistent with the ability of Prunus serotina to survive in greatly contrasting environments.

  20. Impact of packaging material and storage conditions on polyphenol stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (prunus cerasus var. Marasca)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Ježek, Damir; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of packaging materials and storage conditions on polyphenols stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Marasca...

  1. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the mechanism of oil dynamic accumulation during developing Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) seed kernels for the development of woody biodiesel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niu, Jun; An, Jiyong; Wang, Libing; Fang, Chengliang; Ha, Denglong; Fu, Chengyu; Qiu, Lin; Yu, Haiyan; Zhao, Haiyan; Hou, Xinyu; Xiang, Zheng; Zhou, Sufan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Feng, Xinyi; Lin, Shanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) has emerged as a novel potential source of biodiesel in China, but the molecular regulatory mechanism of oil accumulation in Siberian apricot seed kernels (SASK...

  2. A multi-target therapeutic potential of Prunus domestica gum stabilized nanoparticles exhibited prospective anticancer, antibacterial, urease-inhibition, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazar Ul Islam; Raza Amin; Muhammad Shahid; Muhammad Amin; Sumera Zaib; Jamshed Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    .... In this study, Prunus domestica gum-loaded, stabilized gold and silver nanoparticles (Au/Ag-NPs) were evaluated for their prospective anticancer, antibacterial, urease-inhibition, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties...

  3. ACCOUNTING HARMONIZATION AND HISTORICAL COST ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a huge interest in accounting harmonization and historical costs accounting, in what they offer us. In this article, different valuation models are discussed. Although one notices the movement from historical cost accounting to fair value accounting, each one has its advantages.

  4. Effects of processing techniques on oxidative stability of Prunus pedunculatus seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effects of Prunus pedunculatus (P. pedunculatus seed pre-treatment, including microwaving (M, roasting (R, steaming (S and roasting plus steaming (RS on crude oil quality in terms of yield, color change, fatty acid composition, and oxidative stability. The results showed an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid content and oxidative stability of the oils obtained from different processing treatments compared to the oil obtained from raw seeds (RW without processing. The oils, obtained from pretreated seeds, had higher conjugated diene (CD and 2-thiobarbituric acid (2-TBA values, compared to that obtained from RW when stored in a Schaal oven at 65 °C for 168 h. However, polyphenol and tocopherol contents decreased in all oil samples, processed or unprocessed. The effect of pre-treating the seeds was more prominent in the oil sample obtained through the RS technique, and showed higher oxidative stability than the other processed oils and the oil from RW.

  5. Extraction optimization of polyphenols, antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities from Prunus salicina Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin LI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Optimization of polyphenols extraction from plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. was evaluated using response surface methodology. The Box-Behnken experimental results showed the optimal conditions involved an extraction temperature of 59 °C, a sonication time of 47 min, and an ethanol concentration of 61% respectively. The maximum extraction yield of total polyphenols was 44.74 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dried plum at optimal conditions. Polyphenol extracts exhibited stronger antioxidant activities than Vc by evaluating of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, polyphenol extracts (IC50 = 179 g/mL showed obvious inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase. These findings suggest that polyphenol extracts from P. salicina can be potentially used as natural antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory agents.

  6. Tissue and Subcellular Localization of Enzymes Catabolizing (R)-Amygdalin in Mature Prunus serotina Seeds 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Elisabeth; Li, Chun Ping; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) homogenates, (R)-amygdalin is catabolized to HCN, benzaldehyde, and d-glucose by the sequential action of amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. The tissue and subcellular localizations of these enzymes were determined within intact black cherry seeds by direct enzyme analysis, immunoblotting, and colloidal gold immunocytochemical techniques. Taken together, these procedures showed that the two β-glucosidases are restricted to protein bodies of the procambium, which ramifies throughout the cotyledons. Although amygdalin hydrolase occurred within the majority of procambial cells, prunasin hydrolase was confined to the peripheral layers of this meristematic tissue. Highest levels of mandelonitrile lyase were observed in the protein bodies of the cotyledonary parenchyma cells, with lesser amounts in the procambial cell protein bodies. The residual endosperm tissue had insignificant levels of amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. Images Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:16652960

  7. Tissue and Subcellular Localization of Enzymes Catabolizing (R)-Amygdalin in Mature Prunus serotina Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, E; Li, C P; Poulton, J E

    1992-09-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) homogenates, (R)-amygdalin is catabolized to HCN, benzaldehyde, and d-glucose by the sequential action of amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. The tissue and subcellular localizations of these enzymes were determined within intact black cherry seeds by direct enzyme analysis, immunoblotting, and colloidal gold immunocytochemical techniques. Taken together, these procedures showed that the two beta-glucosidases are restricted to protein bodies of the procambium, which ramifies throughout the cotyledons. Although amygdalin hydrolase occurred within the majority of procambial cells, prunasin hydrolase was confined to the peripheral layers of this meristematic tissue. Highest levels of mandelonitrile lyase were observed in the protein bodies of the cotyledonary parenchyma cells, with lesser amounts in the procambial cell protein bodies. The residual endosperm tissue had insignificant levels of amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase.

  8. Identification of volatile compounds in thinning discards from plum trees (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivar Harry Pickstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Podestá

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. Harry Pickstone, a China indigenous fruit, is widely produced and consumed in countries such as Japan and Brazil. The practice of thinning is common in horticulture and the fruits removed are discarded as waste. Like the great majority of vegetables, these thinning discards also contain essential oils which have not been investigated until the present time. The extraction of the plum thinning discards volatile oil, through the hydrodistillation method, produced a yield of 0.06% (m/m and a total of 21 components were identified, with 11 of them being responsible for 72,9% of the total oil composition. The major compounds determined through GC and GC-MS were Z-α-bisabolene (13.7%, n-hexadecanoic acid (12.7%, phytol (12.7%, and β-caryophyllene (10.4%.

  9. Reaction of Prunus Rootstocks to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marull, J; Pinochet, J; Verdejo-Lucas, S; Soler, A

    1991-10-01

    Prunus rootstocks were evaluated for their reaction to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria. Most rootstocks were peach-almond hybrids of Spanish origin. In one experiment three selections of Garfi x Nemared (G x N) and Hansen-5 were highly resistant to M. incognita, but four other rootstocks were susceptible showing high galling indices and population increases. In two experiments with M. arenaria, the hybrid selections G x N nos. 1 and 9 were immune, GF-305 and Hansen-5 were resistant, but nine other rootstocks expressed various degrees of susceptibility. All Spanish rootstocks were susceptible to both Meloidogyne species except for the three G x N selections. The root-knot nematode resistant peach Nemared used as a male parent with Garfi was found to transmit a high degree of resistance to M. incognita and immunity to M. arenaria. Progenies of P. davidiana (Ga x D no. 3), a known source of resistance to root-knot nematodes, were susceptible.

  10. Anti-allergic inflammatory effects of cyanogenic and phenolic glycosides from the seed of Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geum Jin; Choi, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Ji Hyang; Kim, Sang Hyun; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Seung Ho

    2013-12-01

    A methanol extract of the seed of Prunus persica (Rosaceae) was found to inhibit histamine release in human mast cells. Activity-guided fractionation of the methanol extract yielded three cyanogenic glycosides (1-3) and other phenolic compounds (4-8). To evaluate their anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities, the isolates (1-8) were tested for their inhibitory effects on histamine release and on the gene expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 in human mast cells. Of these, phenolic glycosides 7 and 8 suppressed histamine release and inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6. These results suggest that isolates from P. persica are among the anti-allergic inflammatory principles in this medicinal plant.

  11. Transcriptome analysis of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) during the late stage of fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H F; Sheng, Y; Gao, Z H; Chen, H L; Qi, Y J; Yi, X K; Qin, G H; Zhang, J Y

    2016-12-23

    Fruit ripening is a complex developmental process, the details of which remain largely unknown in fleshy fruits. In this paper, the fruit flesh of two peach varieties, "Zhongyou9" (a nectarine; Prunus persica L. Batsch) and its mutant "Hongyu", was analyzed by RNA-seq technology during two stages of ripening at 20-day intervals. One hundred and eighty significant upregulated and two hundred and thirty-five downregulated genes were identified in the experiment. Many of these genes were related to plant hormones, chlorophyll breakdown, accumulation of aroma and flavor volatiles, and stress. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome analysis of peach ripening, and our data will be useful for further studies of the molecular basis of fruit ripening.

  12. Fluidized bed combustion residue as an alternative liming material and Ca source. [Prunus persica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J.H.; Horton, B.D.; White, A.W. Jr.; Bennett, O.L.

    1985-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion residue (FBCR), a by-product of fossil fuel fired boilers, was evaluated as a liming material and a source of calcium for peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch). Incubation studies involving a medium textured soil indicated that FBCR (calcite (FBCRC) or dolomitic (FBCRD) sources) was as effective a liming amendment as the respective agricultural limestone. Maximum soil pH occurred after 26 days incubation with FBCRC, but soil pH increased continuously throughout 137 days incubation with dolomitic limestone. Ammonium acetate extractable Ca was not affected by calcitic source, but Mg concentration increased with rates with the two dolomitic sources, and was highest in the FBCRD source after 137 days incubation. In greenhouse studies with Elberta peach seedlings, FBCRC was more effective in neutralizing soil acidity and increasing extractable soil Ca than calcitic limestone.

  13. Microsatellite marker development for the coastal dune shrub Prunus maritima (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgley, Emily M; Grubisha, Lisa C; Roland, Anna K; Connolly, Bryan A; Klooster, Matthew R

    2015-02-01

    • Microsatellite primers were developed in the beach plum, Prunus maritima, to investigate the genetic composition of remaining populations in need of conservation and, in future studies, to determine its relation to P. maritima var. gravesii. • Fourteen primer pairs were identified and tested in four populations throughout the species' geographic range. Of these 14 loci, 12 were shown to be polymorphic among a total of 60 P. maritima individuals sampled (15 individuals sampled from four populations). Among the polymorphic loci, the number of alleles ranged from two to 10 and observed heterozygosity of loci ranged from 0.07 to 0.93 among specimens tested. • These microsatellites will be useful in evaluating the population genetic composition of P. maritima and in developing approaches for further conservation and management of this species within the endangered coastal dune ecosystem of the northeastern United States.

  14. Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in the ovary of plum culture (Prunus domestica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in different combinations of pollination was observed in the ovary of the plum (Prunus domestica L. cv 'Čačanska Lepotica'. It primarily refers to several issues, i.e. the curling up of pollen tubes within the micropyle, the growth of two pollen tubes into the nucellus of an ovule, the occurrence of a bundle above the nucellar cap and fluorescence of the part of the embryo sac containing the egg apparatus. Upon the growth of pollen tubes into the nucellus of the ovule, subsequently penetrating pollen tubes form a bundle either above the micropyle entrance or above the nucellus. Branching and bending of pollen tubes by 180o upon their growth into the micropyle was also observed.

  15. Seasonal variation of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus concentration in almond, peach, and plum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salem

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Levels of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV infection in almond, peach, and plum cultivars over the course of an entire year were determined by testing different plant parts of naturally infected trees, using the double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. The data showed that spring was the best time of year for PNRSV detection in flowers, active growing buds, and young leaves. PNRSV detection was less reliable during the summer months. Young leaves of all cultivars were the most reliable source for distinguishing between healthy and infected plants, while flowers and buds yielded high values in some cultivars but not in others. Seasonal fluctuations in virus concentration did not follow the same pattern in all cultivars. It is therefore impossible to distinguish between infected and healthy trees on the basis of one single sampling time for all cultivars.

  16. Light as a regulator of structural and chemical leaf defenses against insects in two Prunus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mąderek, Ewa; Zadworny, Marcin; Mucha, Joanna; Karolewski, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    Light is a key factor influencing competition between species, and the mechanisms by which trees overcome insect outbreaks can be associated with alternation of the leaves structure, which then prevent or promotes their susceptibility to herbivores. It was predicted that leaf tissue anatomy would likely be different in sun and shade leaves, with a gradual decline of leaves resistance coupled with reduction of accessible light. We quantified anatomical patterns and the distribution of defence compounds (phenols, total tannins, catechol tannins) within heavily grazed leaves of Prunus padus, native in Europe and Prunus serotina, an invasive to Central Europe. Both species were strongly attacked by folivorous insects when shrubs grew in the shade. In the sun, however only P. padus leaves were grazed, but P. serotina leaves were almost unaffected. We identified that anatomical characteristics are not linked to different P. padus and P. serotina leaf vulnerability to insects. Furthermore, the staining of defence compounds of P. serotina leaves grown in full sun revealed that the palisade mesophyll cells had a higher content of phenolic compounds and catechol tannins. Thus, our results indicate that a specific distribution of defence compounds, but not the anatomical relationships between palisade and spongy mesophyll, may be beneficial for P. serotina growth outside its natural range. The identified pattern of defence compounds distribution is linked to a lower susceptibility of P. serotina leaves to herbivores, and is associated with its invasiveness. This likely reflects that P. serotina is a stronger competitor than P. padus, especially at high sunlit sites i.e. gaps in the forest.

  17. Variation in resistance mechanisms to the green peach aphid among different Prunus persica commercial cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, J A; Méndez, T; Ortiz-Martínez, S A; Cumsille, R; Ramírez, C C

    2012-10-01

    ABSTRACT Peaches and nectarines are frequently attacked by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer), with significant negative impacts on fruit production. The genetic variability of resistance to this aphid among commercial cultivars of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch and Prunus persica variety nectarina was evaluated in this study. In total, 16 cultivars of P. persica were selected to evaluate the occurrence and population growth rate of M. persicae in commercial orchards, as well as in no-choice and probing behavior laboratory assays. The results showed variability between cultivars in resistance and susceptibility to M. persicae, with three cultivars exhibiting different signatures of resistance. The peach cultivar 'Elegant Lady' exhibited a low occurrence of aphids in the orchard, a low rate of growth, moderate leaf-rejection in a no-choice test and a higher number and longer period of salivation into sieve elements, suggesting resistance at the phloematic level. The nectarine cultivar 'August Red' also exhibited low aphid occurrence in the orchard, a low rate of growth, and resistance at the prephloem and phloem levels. Finally, the nectarine 'July Red-NS92' exhibited a low occurrence of aphids in the orchard, a higher number of rejections in no-choice assays and no ingestion of phloem during the probing behavior experiments, suggesting prephloematic resistance. The rest of the cultivars studied exhibited clear susceptibility. Hence, different resistance mechanisms are apparent among the studied cultivars. The information gathered in this study regarding the resistance to M. persicae may assist breeding programs aimed at increasing aphid resistance to peaches and nectarines.

  18. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  19. Accounting Fundamentals for Non-Accountants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this module is to provide an introduction and overview of accounting fundamentals for non-accountants. The module also covers important topics such as communication, internal controls, documentation and recordkeeping.

  20. Bioactive compounds contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities during ripening of Prunus persica L. varieties from the North West of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj, Feten; Somrani, Imen; Aissaoui, Neyssene; Messaoud, Chokri; Boussaid, Mohamed; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2016-08-01

    Bioactive molecules from fruits of four varieties of Prunus persica at different stages of ripening (green, small orange, red) were studied. For example, contents on polyphenols (20.36mg GAE/g FW) and flavonoids (0.764mg RE/g FW) were high and varied according variety. The antioxidant activity, using four different tests (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, β carotene bleaching system and TBARS assay) showed that the variety Chatos exhibited the highest antioxidant activity comparing with others varieties. The antibacterial activity of Prunus persica varieties studied seems to be more sensitive against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The capacity of peach DMSO extracts to inhibit Candida albicans growth was more pronounced, especially, in the presence of Chatos DMSO extract. Enzymes inhibition gives results which correlate with polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins contents, and so, confirm the fascinating bioactivity of this fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed

    OpenAIRE

    Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z; R. Keshavarz Afshar; Hashemi, M; Struik, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing, the application of exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3), or cold stratification were evaluated for their ability to enhance the percentage and rate of seed germination. The results indicated that seed ...

  2. New insights into the properties of pubescent surfaces: the peach fruit (prunus persica batsch) as a model

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Victoria; Khayet, Mohamed; Montero Prado, Pablo; Heredia Guerrero, Alejandrio; Liakopulos, Georgios; Karabourniotis, George; del Río, Víctor; Domínguez, Eva; Tacchini, Ignacio; Nerín, Csritian¡a; Heredia, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The surface of peach (Prunus persica ‘Calrico’) is covered by a dense indumentum, which may serve various protective purposes. With the aim of relating structure to function, the chemical composition, morphology, and hydrophobicity of the peach skin was assessed as a model for a pubescent plant surface. Distinct physicochemical features were observed for trichomes versus isolated cuticles. Peach cuticles were composed of 53% cutan, 27% waxes, 23% cutin, and 1% hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives...

  3. Application of GFP-tagged Plum pox virus to study Prunus-PPV interactions at the whole plant and cellular levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansac, M; Eyquard, J P; Salvador, B; Garcia, J A; Le Gall, O; Decroocq, V; Schurdi-Levraud Escalettes, V

    2005-11-01

    The Sharka disease caused by the potyvirus Plum pox virus (PPV) is one of the most serious viral diseases affecting stone fruit trees. The study of PPV/Prunus interaction under greenhouse controlled conditions is space, time, labor consuming. While the PPV/Prunus interactions are now quite well known at the whole plant level, few data however are available on the interactions between the virus and the Prunus host plants at the cellular level. Using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged M type PPV strain, combined to an in vitro inoculation procedure, we developed a novel tool to track PPV invasion in Prunus persica (peach) cv. GF305 and Prunus armeniaca (apricot) cv. Screara susceptible hosts. Different graft combinations were performed using in vitro-maintained healthy or GFP-tagged PPV infected 'GF305' and 'Screara'. Contact for 30 days in grafts between the inoculum and the genotype to be tested were found sufficient to allow the systemic spread of the recombinant virus: fluorescence from GFP-tagged PPV could easily be detected in the entire plant under a binocular microscope allowing quick and reliable sorting of infected plants. Using a fluorescence stereomicroscopy or confocal microscopy, GFP could also be observed in stem cross-sections especially in epidermis and pith cells. In vitro grafting inoculation with GFP-tagged PPV provides a new and powerful tool to facilitate mid-term virus maintenance. Moreover, this tool will be of special importance in the study of PPV infection dynamics in Prunus, allowing as well precise observations of cellular events related to PPV/Prunus interactions.

  4. Genome-wide association links candidate genes to resistance to Plum Pox Virus in apricot (Prunus armeniaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariette, Stéphanie; Wong Jun Tai, Fabienne; Roch, Guillaume; Barre, Aurélien; Chague, Aurélie; Decroocq, Stéphane; Groppi, Alexis; Laizet, Yec'han; Lambert, Patrick; Tricon, David; Nikolski, Macha; Audergon, Jean-Marc; Abbott, Albert G; Decroocq, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    In fruit tree species, many important traits have been characterized genetically by using single-family descent mapping in progenies segregating for the traits. However, most mapped loci have not been sufficiently resolved to the individual genes due to insufficient progeny sizes for high resolution mapping and the previous lack of whole-genome sequence resources of the study species. To address this problem for Plum Pox Virus (PPV) candidate resistance gene identification in Prunus species, we implemented a genome-wide association (GWA) approach in apricot. This study exploited the broad genetic diversity of the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) germplasm containing resistance to PPV, next-generation sequence-based genotyping, and the high-quality peach (Prunus persica) genome reference sequence for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification. The results of this GWA study validated previously reported PPV resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) intervals, highlighted other potential resistance loci, and resolved each to a limited set of candidate genes for further study. This work substantiates the association genetics approach for resolution of QTL to candidate genes in apricot and suggests that this approach could simplify identification of other candidate genes for other marked trait intervals in this germplasm. © 2015 INRA, UMR 1332 BFP New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Characterization of cytokinin signaling and homeostasis gene families in two hardwood tree species: Populus trichocarpa and Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immanen, Juha; Nieminen, Kaisa; Duchens Silva, Héctor; Rodríguez Rojas, Fernanda; Meisel, Lee A; Silva, Herman; Albert, Victor A; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Helariutta, Ykä

    2013-12-16

    Through the diversity of cytokinin regulated processes, this phytohormone has a profound impact on plant growth and development. Cytokinin signaling is involved in the control of apical and lateral meristem activity, branching pattern of the shoot, and leaf senescence. These processes influence several traits, including the stem diameter, shoot architecture, and perennial life cycle, which define the development of woody plants. To facilitate research about the role of cytokinin in regulation of woody plant development, we have identified genes associated with cytokinin signaling and homeostasis pathways from two hardwood tree species. Taking advantage of the sequenced black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and peach (Prunus persica) genomes, we have compiled a comprehensive list of genes involved in these pathways. We identified genes belonging to the six families of cytokinin oxidases (CKXs), isopentenyl transferases (IPTs), LONELY GUY genes (LOGs), two-component receptors, histidine containing phosphotransmitters (HPts), and response regulators (RRs). All together 85 Populus and 45 Prunus genes were identified, and compared to their Arabidopsis orthologs through phylogenetic analyses. In general, when compared to Arabidopsis, differences in gene family structure were often seen in only one of the two tree species. However, one class of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, the CKI1-like family of two-component histidine kinases, was larger in both Populus and Prunus than in Arabidopsis.

  6. Characterization of cytokinin signaling and homeostasis gene families in two hardwood tree species: Populus trichocarpa and Prunus persica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Through the diversity of cytokinin regulated processes, this phytohormone has a profound impact on plant growth and development. Cytokinin signaling is involved in the control of apical and lateral meristem activity, branching pattern of the shoot, and leaf senescence. These processes influence several traits, including the stem diameter, shoot architecture, and perennial life cycle, which define the development of woody plants. To facilitate research about the role of cytokinin in regulation of woody plant development, we have identified genes associated with cytokinin signaling and homeostasis pathways from two hardwood tree species. Results Taking advantage of the sequenced black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and peach (Prunus persica) genomes, we have compiled a comprehensive list of genes involved in these pathways. We identified genes belonging to the six families of cytokinin oxidases (CKXs), isopentenyl transferases (IPTs), LONELY GUY genes (LOGs), two-component receptors, histidine containing phosphotransmitters (HPts), and response regulators (RRs). All together 85 Populus and 45 Prunus genes were identified, and compared to their Arabidopsis orthologs through phylogenetic analyses. Conclusions In general, when compared to Arabidopsis, differences in gene family structure were often seen in only one of the two tree species. However, one class of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, the CKI1-like family of two-component histidine kinases, was larger in both Populus and Prunus than in Arabidopsis. PMID:24341635

  7. In vitro micropropagation of almond (Amygdalus communis L. cv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... This method here in described will be useful for the rapid multiplication of almond (A. communis L. cv. Nonpareil) in commercial exploitation. Key words: Amygdalus communis L.cv. Nonpareil, micropropagation, zygotic embryos, in vitro. INTRODUCTION. The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus ...

  8. Susceptibility to Xylella fastidiosa in a first generation hybrid from a non-traditional peach-almond cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    To facilitate development of Prunus rootstocks with desirable agronomic traits, domesticated peach (Prunus persica) and almond (P. dulcis) were crossed with wild almond relatives. This work reports that a hybrid from a P. webbii x P. persica cv Harrow Blood cross is susceptible to almond leaf scorch...

  9. KEMAMPUAN TANAMAN EKOR KUCING (Typha latifolia DAN PURUN TIKUS (Eleocharis dulcis DALAM PENURUNAN KONSENTRASI Fe DAN Mn DARI AIR LIMBAH PIT BARAT PT PAMAPERSADA NUSANTARA DISTRIK KCMB KABUPATEN BANJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sulthoni A. D. N.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on the Ability Test Ekor kucing Plants (Typha latifolia and Purun tikus (Eleocharis dulcis in Fe and Mn concentrations decrease from the West Pit Wastewater PT Pamapersada District KCMB Kabupaten Banjar. This research held in April 2013 to August 2013. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of plants Ekor kucing and plants Purun tikus in lowering the concentration of  Fe and Mn from waste coal mine and phytoremediation mechanisms that occur. This research uses experimental and survey methods. Results showed that plants Ekor kucing  and Purun tikus are hiperakumulator plants to Fe and Mn in which the plant is able to absorb Fe respectively by 284% and 92%. For Mn, respectively 207% and 1277%. Phytoremediation mechanisms with Ekor kucing for Fe is fitostabilization  and Purun tikus is fitoextraction, while the Mn is fitoextraction.

  10. ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS USED FOR ACCOUNTING SERVICES PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŢOGOE GRETI DANIELA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The theme of our research is the ways of keeping accounting entities that are the object of the provision of services in the accounting profession. This paper aims to achieve a parallel between the ways of organizing financial records - accounting provided by freelancers and companies with activity in the financial - accounting. The first step in our scientific research is to establish objectives chosen area of scientific knowledge. Our scientific approach seeks to explain through a thorough and detailed approach as different sides (conceptual and practical looking projections of accounting issues related to regulatory developments and practices in the field. This paper addresses various concepts, accounting treatments, and books and accounting documents used both freelancers in providing accounting services and legal persons authorized accounting profession. In terms of methodology and research perspective, the whole scientific approach combined with quantitative and qualitative research theoretical perspective (descriptive-conceptual with practice perspective (empirical analyzing the main contributions of various authors (Romanian and foreign to knowledge in the field. Following the survey believe that the amendments to the national legislation will support entities providing accounting services, by cutting red tape on Administrative Burdens, and consequently will increase profitability and increase service quality.

  11. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  12. The image of accountants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldvinsdottir, Gudrun; Burns, John; Nørreklit, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    the accountant appeared as a more hedonistic person. Overall, the changes observed reflect changes in wider social practice from modernity, through high modernity, to hyper-modernity. Research limitations/implications - The image of the accountants has implications for the development of the accounting......, and whether the image produced reflects a wide social change in society. Findings - It was found that in the 1970s and the 1980s the accountant was constructed as a responsible and rational person. In the 1990s, the accountant was presented as an instructed action man. However, in a recent advert...... of accountants, particularly in the media and popular movies, extant works have mostly investigated how others perceive accountants and how accountants are generally portrayed. The paper however, places more stress on the construction of the image of the accountants when appealing to the accountants....

  13. Sobrevivencia del duraznillo (Prunus annularis en plantación forestal y en sistemas agroforestales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Monge

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la sobrevivencia inicial (30 meses del duraznillo (Prunus annularis en plantación forestal y en sistema agroforestal en la zona de vida Bosque muy Húmedo Montano Bajo, en Costa Rica. Se evaluó 5 tratamientos, en 2 lotes con 2 repeticiones en cada lote, en parcelas de 25 árboles (722 ha-1. Los sistemas de producción evaluados fueron: plantación forestal, con manejo de eliminación de malezas cada 4 meses (PF-4 y cada 2 meses (PF-2, y sistemas agroforestales duraznillo-naranjilla (Solanum quitoense, duraznillo-menta (Satureja viminea y duraznillo-maíz (Zea mays. La sobrevivencia a los 30 meses osciló entre 56 y 81% siendo menor en plantación forestal (PF-4. La sobrevivencia mostrada por el duraznillo se consideró intermedia con respecto a otras especies establecidas en sitios con la misma zona de vida.

  14. Influence of Cultivar and Industrial Processing on Polyphenols in Concentrated Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Repajić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the infl uence of cultivar and industrial processing on total polyphenols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids and antioxidant activity in concentrated sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., cvs. Marasca and Oblačinska juices. Samples were collected during four processing steps: from fresh fruit prior to processing, then from pressed, fi ltered and concentrated juices. The content of total phenols was the same in both cultivars, but antioxidant activity (Oblačinska>Marasca and total monomeric anthocyanins (Marasca>Oblačinska diff ered. All processing steps significantly influenced the content of total phenols, total monomeric anthocyanins and antioxidant activity. In all samples four major anthocyanins were identifi ed by HPLC with UV/VIS PDA detector, listed in the descending order based on their abundance: cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Marasca cv. contained more total anthocyanins, and contents of cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside. The content of total hydroxycinnamic acids was also higher in Marasca than Oblačinska cv. Aft er processing, the concentration of all identifi ed anthocyanins increased in both cultivars. Majority of the highest values of polyphenols were detected in the juice aft er pressing. The content of polyphenols and their antioxidant activity were considerably stable during industrial processing to concentrated juice. Although Marasca had higher polyphenolic content than Oblačinska, both cultivars showed promising industrial potential for processing to concentrated juice.

  15. Sexual regeneration traits linked to black cherry ( Prunus serotina Ehrh.) invasiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairon, Marie; Chabrerie, Olivier; Casado, Carolina Mainer; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2006-09-01

    In order to better understand the invasive capacity of black cherry ( Prunus serotina Ehrh.), the regeneration dynamics of the species was studied during two consecutive years in a Belgian Pine plantation. Flower and fruit production, seed rain, dispersal and viability as well as the survival of seedlings of different ages were assessed. Despite the low fruit/flower ratio, fruit production was high (up to 8940 fruits per tree) as trees produced huge quantities of flowers. Both flower and fruit productions were highly variable between years and among individuals. The production variability between individuals was not correlated with plant size variables. Fruits were ripe in early September and a majority fell in the vicinity of the parent tree. A wide range of bird species dispersed 18% of the fruits at the end of October. Sixty-two percent of the fruits were viable and mean densities of 611 fruits m -2 were recorded on the forest floor. High mortality among young seedlings was observed and 95.3% of the fruits failed to give 4-year-old saplings. Nevertheless, the few saplings older than 4 years (1.32 m -2) presented a high survival rate (86%). All these regeneration traits are discussed in order to determine the main factors explaining the black cherry invasive success in Europe.

  16. Immunocytochemical Localization of Mandelonitrile Lyase in Mature Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H C; Poulton, J E

    1991-08-01

    Mandelonitrile lyase (MDL, EC 4.1.2.10), which catalyzes the reversible dissociation of (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile to benzaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide, was purified to apparent homogeneity from mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds by conventional protein purification techniques. This flavoprotein is monomeric with a subunit molecular mass of 57 kilodaltons. Glycoprotein character was shown by its binding to the affinity matrix concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B with subsequent elution by alpha-methyl-d-glucoside. Upon chemical deglycosylation by trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, the molecular mass was reduced to 50.9 kilodaltons. Two-dimensional gel analysis of deglycosylated MDL revealed the presence of several subunit isoforms of similar molecular mass but differing slightly in isoelectric point. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in New Zealand white rabbits against deglycosylated and untreated MDL. Antibody titers were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent and dot immunobinding assays, while their specificities were assessed by Western immunoblot analysis. Antibodies raised against untreated lyase recognized several proteins in addition to MDL. In contrast, antisera raised against deglycosylated MDL were monospecific and were utilized for developmental and immunocytochemical localization studies. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis of seed proteins during fruit maturation showed that MDL first appeared in seeds shortly after cotyledons began development. In cotyledon cells of mature seeds, MDL was localized primarily in the cell wall with lesser amounts in the protein bodies, whereas in endosperm cells, this labeling pattern was reversed. N-terminal sequence data was gathered for future molecular approaches to the question of MDL microheterogeneity.

  17. Leaf area and net photosynthesis during development of Prunus serotina seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, S B; Gottschalk, K W

    1993-01-01

    We used the plastochron index to study the relationship between plant age, leaf age and development, and net photosynthesis of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seedlings. Leaf area and net photosynthesis were measured on all leaves >/= 75 mm of plants ranging in age from 7 to 20 plastochrons. Effects of plant developmental stage on leaf area and net photosynthesis were evaluated for leaves of differing age (horizontal series), leaves on plants of constant age (vertical series), and leaves of constant age (oblique series). Regression techniques were used to estimate leaf area from leaf blade dimensions. The best equations for predicting leaf area had R(2) values of 0.991-0.992 and used linear or logarithmic functions of both leaf length and width. Suitable, but less precise, equations with R(2) values of 0.946-0.962 were developed from either leaf length or leaf width. Leaf area development in black cherry seedlings was similar to that in other indeterminate species. Leaves of young plants reached full expansion at a lower leaf plastochron age than leaves of older plants. Maximum net photosynthesis per unit leaf area occurred 2-3 plastochrons before full leaf expansion. There was strong ontogenetic drift in net photosynthesis with leaf age; net photosynthesis decreased as plant age increased in leaves of the same plastochron age. Plots of the oblique series were particularly useful in providing information about interaction effects.

  18. Development of the Potential for Cyanogenesis in Maturing Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, E; Li, C P; Poulton, J E

    1992-04-01

    Biochemical changes related to cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide production) were monitored during maturation of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits. At weekly intervals from flowering until maturity, fruits (or selected parts thereof) were analyzed for (a) fresh and dry weights, (b) prunasin and amygdalin levels, and (c) levels of the catabolic enzymes amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. During phase I (0-28 days after flowering [DAF]), immature fruits accumulated prunasin (mean: 3 micromoles/fruit) but were acyanogenic because they lacked the above enzymes. Concomitant with cotyledon development during mid-phase II, the seeds began accumulating both amygdalin (mean: 3 micromoles/seed) and the catabolic enzymes and were highly cyanogenic upon tissue disruption. Meanwhile, prunasin levels rapidly declined and were negligible by maturity. During phases II (29-65 DAF) and III (66-81 DAF), the pericarp also accumulated amygdalin, whereas its prunasin content declined toward maturity. Lacking the catabolic enzymes, the pericarp remained acyanogenic throughout all developmental stages.

  19. Development of the Potential for Cyanogenesis in Maturing Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Fruits 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Elisabeth; Li, Chun Ping; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    Biochemical changes related to cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide production) were monitored during maturation of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits. At weekly intervals from flowering until maturity, fruits (or selected parts thereof) were analyzed for (a) fresh and dry weights, (b) prunasin and amygdalin levels, and (c) levels of the catabolic enzymes amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. During phase I (0-28 days after flowering [DAF]), immature fruits accumulated prunasin (mean: 3 micromoles/fruit) but were acyanogenic because they lacked the above enzymes. Concomitant with cotyledon development during mid-phase II, the seeds began accumulating both amygdalin (mean: 3 micromoles/seed) and the catabolic enzymes and were highly cyanogenic upon tissue disruption. Meanwhile, prunasin levels rapidly declined and were negligible by maturity. During phases II (29-65 DAF) and III (66-81 DAF), the pericarp also accumulated amygdalin, whereas its prunasin content declined toward maturity. Lacking the catabolic enzymes, the pericarp remained acyanogenic throughout all developmental stages. ImagesFigure 2Figure 4 PMID:16668810

  20. Aroma peculiarities of apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. and cherry-plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. flowers

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    В. М. Горіна

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the component composition of volatile solutions determining fragrance of the flowers in apricot and cherry-plum varieties and Prunus brigantiaca Vill. x Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. hybrids there are 36 highest hydrocarbons and benzaldehyde that prevail. There are fewer amounts of the solutions which scare bees (benzaldehyde in the fragrance of cherry-plum varieties as compared to the flowers of apricot and hybrids. At the same time, the content of tricosane, pentacosane, docosane, heneycosane, eicosane, nonadecan that probably attract bees is higher in the cherry-plum flowers than in the fragrance of apricot and hybrid flowers. The average three years yield of cherry-plum plants (Nikitska Zhovta 10,7 and Salgirskaya Rumjanaya 28,5 t/ ha is higher than for apricot (Recolte de Schatene 0,3; Rodnik 2,9; Ananasniy Tsurupinsky 7,4 t/ha and hybrids (8110 – 5,2; 8098 – 6,4 t/ha that could be explained with better pollination of flowers and better fruit formation. Prevailing components of flower aroma of these plants    and their possible link with yield of the objects in questions have been analyzed.

  1. Microencapsulation of plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. phenolics by spray drying technology and storage stability

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    Yibin LI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To improve the stability of the phenolic extracts from plum fruit (Prunus salicina Lindl., the microencapsulation conditions of spray drying were optimized by the response surface method. The Box-Behnken experimental results indicated the optimal conditions involved an inlet air temperature of 142.8 °C, a core material content of 23.7% and a feed solids content of 11.7%. The maximum microencapsulating efficiency was 87.7% at optimal conditions. Further, the physicochemical properties of the microcapsule powders were improved overall due to the addition of the coating agents. There were no statistically significant differences in phenolic content of the obtained microcapsules for the first 40 days of storage at 25 °C in dark condition (p > 0.05, and the retention rate of total phenol remained above 85% after 60 days. Microcapsules can be potentially developed as a source of natural pigment or functional food based on the advantages of rich phenolic compounds and red color.

  2. Purification and Characterization of Latent Polyphenol Oxidase from Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derardja, Ala Eddine; Pretzler, Matthias; Kampatsikas, Ioannis; Barkat, Malika; Rompel, Annette

    2017-09-20

    Polyphenol oxidase from apricot (Prunus armeniaca) (PaPPO) was purified in its latent form (L-PaPPO), and the molecular weight was determined to be 63 kDa by SDS-PAGE. L-PaPPO was activated in the presence of substrate at low pH. The activity was enhanced by CuSO4 and low concentrations (≤ 2 mM) of SDS. PaPPO has its pH and temperature optimum at pH 4.5 and 45 °C for catechol as substrate. It showed diphenolase activity and highest affinity toward 4-methylcatechol (KM = 2.0 mM) and chlorogenic acid (KM = 2.7 mM). L-PaPPO was found to be spontaneously activated during storage at 4 °C, creating a new band at 38 kDa representing the activated form (A-PaPPO). The mass of A-PaPPO was determined by mass spectrometry as 37 455.6 Da (Asp102 → Leu429). Both L-PaPPO and A-PaPPO were identified as polyphenol oxidase corresponding to the known PaPPO sequence (UniProt O81103 ) by means of peptide mass fingerprinting.

  3. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods

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    Federica Blando

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L (also called tart cherries contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evaluation and characterization of the in vitro produced pigments are compared to those of the anthocyanins found in vivo in fruits of several sour cherry cultivars. Interestingly, the anthocyanin profiles found in whole fruit extracts were similar in all tested genotypes but were different with respect to the callus extract. The evaluation of antioxidant activity, performed by ORAC and TEAC assays, revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity for the fruit extracts (from 1145 to 2592 μmol TE/100 g FW and a lower one for the callus extract (688 μmol TE/100 g FW.

  4. Wound Healing Effects of Prunus yedoensis Matsumura Bark in Scalded Rats

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    Jin-Ho Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pruni Cortex has been used to treat asthma, measles, cough, urticaria, pruritus, and dermatitis in traditional Korean medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Prunus yedoensis Matsumura bark methanol extract (PYE on scald-induced dorsal skin wounds in rats. Scalds were produced in Sprague-Dawley rats with 100°C water and treated with 5% and 20% PYE (using Vaseline as a base, silver sulfadiazine (SSD, and Vaseline once a day for 21 days, beginning 24 hours after scald by treatment group allocation. The PYE-treated groups showed accelerated healing from 12 days after scald, demonstrated by rapid eschar exfoliation compared to the control and SSD groups. PYE-treated groups showed higher wound contraction rates and better tissue regeneration in comparison with the control group. Serum analysis showed that transforming growth factor beta 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels remained high or gradually increased up to day 14 in both PYE groups and then showed a sharp decline by day 21, implying successful completion of the inflammatory phase and initiation of tissue regeneration. These findings suggested that PYE is effective in promoting scald wound healing in the inflammation and tissue proliferation stages.

  5. Prunus Rootstock Evaluation to Root-knot and Lesion Nematodes in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Aglès, M; Dalmau, E; Fernández, C; Felipe, A

    1996-12-01

    Two screening and one resistance verification trial involving 20 Prunus rootstocks were conducted under greenhouse conditions against Meloidogyne spp. and Pratylenchus vulnus. Most of the rootstocks were experimental genotypes or new commercial peach and plums of Spanish and French origin. Nearly all are interspecific hybrid rootstocks. In the first trial, the rootstocks Bruce, Cadaman, Mirac, G x N No. 15, Cachirulo x (G x N No. 9), and P. myra x peach were immune or resistant to a mixture of seven isolates of M. incognita. In the second screening trial, the hybrid plum P 2588 was a poor host to a mixture of four isolates of P. vulnus. The remaining seven rootstocks were good hosts to the root-lesion nematode. In the resistance verification trial GF-31, G x N No. 15, Torinel, AD- l 01, Monpol, Nemaguard, and Cadaman maintained a high level of resistance when tested against a mixture of 17 isolates comprising M. incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, M. hapla, and M. hispanica. Barrier peach suffered a partial loss of resistance not detected in previous tests.

  6. Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of the under-utilised Prunus mahaleb L. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blando, Federica; Albano, Clara; Liu, Yazheng; Nicoletti, Isabella; Corradini, Danilo; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Kitts, David D

    2016-06-01

    The identification of novel plant-based functional foods or nutraceutical ingredients that possess bioactive properties with antioxidant function has recently become important to the food, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries. This study evaluates the polyphenolic composition, identifies bioactive compounds and assays the total antioxidant capacity of Prunus mahaleb L. fruits collected from different populations and sampling years in the countryside around Bari (Apulia Region, Italy). We identified nine polyphenolic compounds including major anthocyanins, coumaric acid derivatives and flavonols from P. mahaleb fruits. The anthocyanin content (in some populations > 5 g kg(-1) fresh weight; FW) in the fruit was comparable to that reported for so-called superfruits such as bilberries, chokeberries and blackcurrants. Coumaric acid derivatives comprised a large portion of the total polyphenolic content in the P. mahaleb fruits. Antioxidant activities, assessed using ORAC and TEAC assays, measured up to 150 and 45 mmol Trolox equivalents kg(-1) FW, respectively. Therefore antioxidant capacity of P. mahaleb fruits is relatively high and comparable to that of superfruit varieties that are often used in commercial nutraceutical products. Our findings suggest that mahaleb fruit (currently not consumed fresh or used in other ways) could serve as a source of bioactive compounds and therefore find interest from the functional food and nutraceutical industries, as a natural food colorant and antioxidant ingredient in the formulation of functional foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Nutritional Value and Volatile Compounds of Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Seeds

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    Leticia García-Aguilar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prunus serotina (black cherry, commonly known in Mexico as capulín, is used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal diseases. Particularly, P. serotina seeds, consumed in Mexico as snacks, are used for treating cough. In the present study, nutritional and volatile analyses of black cherry seeds were carried out to determine their nutraceutical potential. Proximate analysis indicated that P. serotina raw and toasted seeds contain mostly fat, followed by protein, fiber, carbohydrates, and ash. The potassium content in black cherry raw and toasted seeds is high, and their protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores suggest that they might represent a complementary source of proteins. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry analysis allowed identification of 59 and 99 volatile compounds in the raw and toasted seeds, respectively. The major volatile compounds identified in raw and toasted seeds were 2,3-butanediol and benzaldehyde, which contribute to the flavor and odor of the toasted seeds. Moreover, it has been previously demonstrated that benzaldehyde possesses a significant vasodilator effect, therefore, the presence of this compound along with oleic, linoleic, and α-eleostearic fatty acids indicate that black cherry seeds consumption might have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system.

  8. Improving the Sun Drying of Apricots (Prunus armeniaca) with Photo-Selective Dryer Cabinet Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, Rebecca R; Avena-Mascareno, Roberto; Alonzo, Jérôme; Fichot, Mélissa I

    2016-10-01

    Photo-selective materials have been studied for their effects on the preharvest quality of horticultural crops, but little work has been done on potential postharvest processing effects. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of 5 different photo-selective acrylic materials (used as the lid to a single-layer sun drying cabinet) on the drying rate and quality of apricots (Prunus armeniaca). Photo-selective cabinet materials that transmit light in the visible portion of the solar spectrum accelerate the apricots' drying rate in both the early period of drying and the course of drying as a whole. These materials do not significantly affect the measured quality metrics during the first day of sun drying. However, when drying is taken to completion, some minor but significant quality differences are observed. Infrared-blocking material produces dried apricot with lower red color, compared to clear, opaque black, and ultraviolet-blocking materials. Clear material produced dried apricot with significantly lower antioxidant activity, compared to black and infrared-blocking materials. Using appropriate photo-selective drying cabinet materials can reduce the required sun drying time for apricots by 1 to 2 d, compared with fully shaded drying. Ultraviolet-blocking material is recommended to maximize drying rate and minimize quality degradation. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Screening of Natural Organic Volatiles from Prunus mahaleb L. Honey: Coumarin and Vomifoliol as Nonspecific Biomarkers

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    Mladenka Malenica Staver

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME; PDMS/DVB fibre and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE; solvent A: pentane and diethyl ether (1:2 v/v, solvent B: dichloromethane followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC, GC-MS were used for the analysis of Prunus mahaleb L. honey samples. Screening was focused toward chemical composition of natural organic volatiles to determine if it is useful as a method of determining honey-sourcing. A total of 34 compounds were identified in the headspace and 49 in the extracts that included terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene derivatives, followed by minor percentages of aliphatic compounds and furan derivatives. High vomifoliol percentages (10.7%–24.2% in both extracts (dominant in solvent B and coumarin (0.3%–2.4% from the extracts (more abundant in solvent A and headspace (0.9%–1.8% were considered characteristic for P. mahaleb honey and highlighted as potential nonspecific biomarkers of the honey’s botanical origin. In addition, comparison with P. mahaleb flowers, leaves, bark and wood volatiles from our previous research revealed common compounds among norisoprenoids and benzene derivatives.

  10. Phenolic compounds profile and antioxidant properties of six sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Serena; Conte, Angela; Tagliazucchi, Davide

    2017-07-01

    Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruits are a nutritionally important food rich in dietary phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic profile and chemometric discrimination of fruits from six cherry cultivars using a quantitative metabolomics approach, which combine non-targeted mass spectrometry and chemometric analysis. The assessment of the phenolic fingerprint of cherries allowed the tentative identification of 86 compounds. A total of 40 chlorogenic acids were identified in cherry fruit, which pointed out hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives as the main class of phenolics by number of compounds. Among the compounds detected, 40 have been reported for the first time in sweet cherry fruit. Hydroxycinnamic acids are also the quantitatively most represented class of phenolic compounds in the cherry cultivars with the exception of Lapins and Durone della Marca where the most representative class of phenolic compounds were anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols, respectively. This non-targeted approach allowed the tentative identification of the cultivar-compound relationships of these six cherry cultivars. Both anthocyanins and colorless phenolic compounds profile appeared to be cultivar-dependent. In detail, anthocyanins and flavonols patterns have the potential to be used for the determination of a varietal assignment of cherries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of the Phenolic Compounds of Prunus mume against Enterobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Takahiko; Ota, Kana; Inaba, Nobuya; Kishida, Kunihiro; Koyama, Hajime A

    2018-01-01

    Mume fruit, the Japanese apricot (Prunus mume SIEB. et ZUCC.), is popular in Japan and is mostly consumed in the pickled form called umeboshi. This fruit is known to have anti-microbial properties, but the principal constituents responsible for the antimicrobial properties have not yet been elucidated. We investigated the antimicrobial activities of the phenolic compounds in P. mume against enterobacteria. In this study, growth inhibitory activities were measured as an index of the antibacterial activities. The phenolic compounds were prepared from a byproduct of umeboshi called umesu or umezu (often translated as "mume vinegar"). Umesu or umezu phenolics (UP) contain approximately 20% phenolic compounds with p-coumaric acid as a standard and do not contain citric acid. We observed the inhibitory effects of UP against the growth of some enterobacteria, at a relatively high concentration (1250-5000 µg/mL). Alkali hydrolysates of UP (AHUP) exhibited similar antibacterial activities, but at much lower concentrations of 37.5-300 µg/mL. Since AHUP comprises hydroxycinnamic acids such as caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid, the antibacterial activities of each of these acids were examined. Our study shows that the phenolic compounds in P. mume other than citric acid contribute to its antimicrobial activity against enterobacteria in the digestive tract.

  12. SEP-class genes in Prunus mume and their likely role in floral organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Yong, Xue; Ahmad, Sagheer; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2017-01-13

    Flower phylogenetics and genetically controlled development have been revolutionised during the last two decades. However, some of these evolutionary aspects are still debatable. MADS-box genes are known to play essential role in specifying the floral organogenesis and differentiation in numerous model plants like Petunia hybrida, Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus. SEPALLATA (SEP) genes, belonging to the MADS-box gene family, are members of the ABCDE and quartet models of floral organ development and play a vital role in flower development. However, few studies of the genes in Prunus mume have yet been conducted. In this study, we cloned four PmSEPs and investigated their phylogenetic relationship with other species. Expression pattern analyses and yeast two-hybrid assays of these four genes indicated their involvement in the floral organogenesis with PmSEP4 specifically related to specification of the prolificated flowers in P. mume. It was observed that the flower meristem was specified by PmSEP1 and PmSEP4, the sepal by PmSEP1 and PmSEP4, petals by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3, stamens by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3 and pistils by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3. With the above in mind, flower development in P. mume might be due to an expression of SEP genes. Our findings can provide a foundation for further investigations of the transcriptional factors governing flower development, their molecular mechanisms and genetic basis.

  13. Pattern recognition of peach cultivars (Prunus persica L.) from their volatile components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Prado, Pablo; Bentayeb, Karim; Nerín, Cristina

    2013-05-01

    The volatile compounds of four peach cultivars (Prunus persica L.) were studied: Sudanell, San Lorenzo, Miraflores and Calanda (two clones, Calante and Jesca). 17-23 Samples of each cultivar with the same maturity level were analyzed, measuring color, firmness, and soluble solids content. The pulp was crushed and mixed with water prior to HS-SPME analysis, and GC-MS was used to determine the volatile compounds. Sixty-five compounds were identified using spectral library matching, Kovat's indices and, when available, pure standards. The main components were lactones and C6 compounds. From the distribution of these compounds, Principal Component Analysis led to the clustering of the samples according to their different cultivars. Finally, Canonical Component Analysis was used to create a classification function that identifies the origin of an unknown sample from its volatile composition. The results obtained will help to avoid fraud and protect the European Designation of Origin 'Melocotón de Calanda'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutraceutical value of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits: antioxidant and antihypertensive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vázquez, Francisco J; Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rojas-Molina, Juana I; Yahia, Elhadi M; Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Rojas-Molina, Adriana; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2013-11-25

    In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Activities of Prunus spinosa Trigno Ecotype Extract on Human Cancer Cells

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    Stefania Meschini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to demonstrate that a natural compound, not-toxic to normal cells, has cytotoxic and sensitizing effects on carcinoma cells, with the final goal of combining it with chemotherapeutic drugs to reduce the overall dose. Prunus spinosa Trigno ecotype (PsT drupe extract with a nutraceutical activator complex (NAC made of amino acids, vitamins and mineral salt blends, has shown in vitro anticancer activity. The cytotoxic effect of (PsT + NAC® has been evaluated on human cancer cells, with an initial screening with colorectal, uterine cervical, and bronchoalveolar cells, and a subsequent focus on colon carcinoma cells HCT116 and SW480. The viability reduction of HCT116 and SW480 after treatment with (PsT 10 mg/mL + NAC® was about 40% (p < 0.05, compared to control cells. The cell’s survival reduction was ineffective when the drug vehicle (NAC was replaced with a phosphate buffer saline (PBS or physiological solution (PS. The flow cytometry evaluation of cancer cells’ mitochondrial membrane potential showed an increase of 20% depolarized mitochondria. Cell cycle analysis showed a sub G1 (Gap 1 phase peak appearance (HCT116: 35.1%; SW480: 11.6%, indicating apoptotic cell death induction that was confirmed by Annexin V assay (HCT116: 86%; SW480: 96%. Normal cells were not altered by (PsT + NAC® treatments.

  17. Identification of Proteins from Prunus persica That Interact with Peach Latent Mosaic Viroid▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Audrey; Bisaillon, Martin; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) is a small, single-stranded, circular RNA pathogen that infects Prunus persica trees. As with all other known viroids, the PLMVd genome does not encode any proteins. Consequently, it must interact with host cellular factors in order to ensure its life cycle. With the objective of identifying cellular proteins that interact with PLMVd, Northwestern hybridizations were performed using partially purified peach leaf extracts. Mass spectrometric analysis of the detected RNA-protein complexes led to the identification of six putative RNA-binding proteins. One of these was found to be elongation factor 1-alpha (eEF1A), and because of its known involvement in the replication and translation of various RNA viruses, further characterizations were performed. Initially, the existence of this interaction received support from an experiment that immunoprecipitated the eEF1A from a crude extract of infected peach leaves, coupled with reverse transcription-PCR detection of the PLMVd. Subsequently, eEF1A interaction with PLMVd strands of both polarities was confirmed in vitro by electrophoresis mobility shift assays, fluorescence spectroscopy, and the prediction of an altered PLMVd RNase mapping profile in the presence of the protein. The potential contribution of eEF1A to the molecular biology of PLMVd, including for viroid replication, is discussed. PMID:19759139

  18. Peach (Prunus persica) extract inhibits angiotensin II-induced signal transduction in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Ryohei; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Misa; Inada, Ken-ichi; Tokuda, Akihiko; Yamashita, Miki; Hidaka, Ryu; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi

    2013-08-15

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a vasoactive hormone that has been implicated in cardiovascular diseases. Here, the effect of peach, Prunus persica L. Batsch, pulp extract on Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and signal transduction events in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was investigated. Pretreatment of peach ethyl acetate extract inhibited Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation in VSMCs. Furthermore, Ang II-induced ROS generation, essential for signal transduction events, was diminished by the peach ethyl acetate extract. The peach ethyl acetate extract also attenuated the Ang II-induced phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, both of which are associated with atherosclerosis and hypertension. These results suggest that peach ethyl acetate extract may have clinical potential for preventing cardiovascular diseases by interfering with Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation, the generation of ROS, and then blocking signal transduction events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of different peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Wenna; Yin, Xueren; Su, Mingshen; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-03-12

    China is an important centre of diversity for Prunus persica. In the present study, 17 Chinese peach cultivars were evaluated for phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Neochlorogenic acid (NCHA), chlorogenic acid (CHA), procyanidin B1 (B1), catechin (CAT), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q3GAL), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3GLU), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Q3R), and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (K3R) were identified and quantified. CHA and CAT were the predominant components in both the peel and pulp of this fruit. In general, peel extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than the pulp counterparts, consistent with the observed higher phenolic content. The melting peach cultivar "Xinyu" showed the highest antioxidant potency composite (APC) index. The principal component analysis (PCA) of peel phenolics showed a clear distinction between the melting peach and nectarine. Overall, peach cultivars rich in hydroxycinnamates and flavan-3-ols showed relatively higher antioxidant activities and might be excellent sources of phytochemicals and natural antioxidants.

  20. Identification of genes associated with bud dormancy release in Prunus persica by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leida, Carmen; Terol, Javier; Martí, Gracia; Agustí, Manuel; Llácer, Gerardo; Badenes, María Luisa; Ríos, Gabino

    2010-05-01

    To better understand the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying maintenance and release of seasonal bud dormancy in perennial trees, we identified differentially expressed genes during dormancy progression in reproductive buds from peach (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch) by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and microarray hybridization. Four SSH libraries were constructed, which were respectively enriched in cDNA highly expressed in dormant buds (named DR), in dormancy-released buds (RD) and in the cultivars with different chilling requirement, 'Zincal 5' (ZS) and 'Springlady' (SZ), sampled after dormancy release. About 2500 clones picked from the four libraries were loaded on a glass microarray. Hybridization of microarrays with the final products of SSH procedure was performed in order to validate the selected clones that were effectively enriched in their respective sample. Nearly 400 positive clones were sequenced, which corresponded to 101 different unigenes with diverse functional annotation. We obtained DAM4, 5 and 6 genes coding for MADS-box transcription factors previously related to growth cessation and terminal bud formation in the evergrowing mutant of peach. Several other cDNAs are similar to dormancy factors described in other species, and others have been related to bud dormancy for the first time in this study. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed differential expression of cDNAs coding for a Zn-finger transcription factor, a GRAS-like regulator, a DNA-binding protein and proteins similar to forisome subunits involved in the reversible occlusion of sieve elements in Fabaceae, among others.

  1. Glucitol dehydrogenase from peach (Prunus persica) fruits is regulated by thioredoxin h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Matías D; Figueroa, Carlos M; Piattoni, Claudia V; Iglesias, Alberto A

    2014-06-01

    Glucitol (Gol) is a major photosynthetic product in plants from the Rosaceae family. Herein we report the molecular cloning, heterologous expression and characterization of Gol dehydrogenase (GolDHase, EC 1.1.1.14) from peach (Prunus persica) fruits. The recombinant enzyme showed kinetic parameters similar to those reported for orthologous enzymes purified from apple and pear fruits. The activity of recombinant GolDHase was strongly inhibited by Cu(2+) and Hg(2+), suggesting that it might have cysteine residues critical for functionality. Oxidizing compounds (such as diamide, hydrogen peroxide and oxidized glutathione) inactivated the enzyme, whereas its activity was restored after incubation with reduced glutathione and thioredoxin from Escherichia coli. Recombinant thioredoxin h from peach fruits also recovered the activity of oxidized GolDHase. Our results suggest that peach fruit GolDHase could be redox regulated in vivo and this would be of relevance to determine carbon assimilation and partitioning in plants accumulating sugar alcohols. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Using endocarp-remains of seeds of wild apricot Prunus armeniaca to identify rodent seed predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmao ZHANG, Wei WANG

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Some rodent-dispersed seeds have a hard seed-coat (e.g. woody endocarp. Specific scrapes or dental marks on the hard seed-coat left by rodents when they eat these seeds can be used to identify seed predators. In this study we measured the morphological traits of endocarp-remains of seeds of wild apricot Prunus armeniaca used by Chinese white-bellied rats Niviventor confucianus and Korean field mice Apodemus peninsulae. We established their Fisher′s linear discriminant functions to separate endocarp-remains between the two predators. A total of 90.0 % of the endocarp-remains left by Korean field mice and 88.0 % of those left by Chinese white-bellied rats were correctly classified. The overall percentage of correct classification was 89.0 %. One hundred and sixty endocarp-remains of unknown what species predated them were classified using the functions. The method may allow more reliable quantitative studies of the effects of Chinese white-bellied rats and Korean field mice on seed consumption and dispersal of wild apricot and this study might be used for reference in other studies of seed predators identification on hard seeds [Current Zoology 55 (6: 396 –400, 2009].

  3. Future Applications of Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca Kaisa ß Galactosidase in Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Shakeel Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the immobilization of β galactosidase from apricots (Prunus armeniaca kaisa on an inexpensive concanavalin A layered cellulose-alginate hybrid gel. Immobilized β galactosidase retained 78% of the initial activity after crosslinking by glutaraldehyde. It exhibited greater fraction of activity at both acidic and basic pH, and showed broad spectrum temperature optimum as compared to free enzyme. Moreover, immobilized enzyme exhibited higher thermal stability at 60°C and retained 80% of the original enzyme activity in presence of 3% galactose. The crosslinked immobilized enzyme showed improved hydrolysis of lactose from milk and whey in batch processes at 50°C as well as in continuous reactors operated at fl ow rate of 20 mL/h and 30 mL/h even after one month. Moreover, crosslinked adsorbed β galactosidase retained 76% activity even after its sixth repeated use, thereby promoting its use for lactose hydrolysis in various dairy products even for longer durations.

  4. Evaluation of physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant property of Prunus avium gum exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Hossein; Askari, Gholamreza; Jahanbin, Kambiz; Khodaeian, Faramarz

    2016-12-01

    In this study some physicochemical properties and elemental analysis of Prunus avium gum exudates were investigated. The gum studied had, on average, 75.14% carbohydrate, 11.3% uronic acids, 1.11% protein, 7.53% moisture content (w.b.) and 3.12% ash. Measured values for the angle of repose, Carr's index and Hausner ratio showed the good flow ability for the gum powder. The viscosity of 1% aqueous solution of the gum exhibited a Newtonian type of flow and with pH reduction the swelling index was increased. The average molecular weight of the main polysaccharide fraction was about 1.46×10(5)Da (146kDa). GC analysis showed that the main polysaccharide was composed of four kinds of neutral monosaccharides, namely mannose (Man), arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal) and xylose (Xyl) with a relative molar ratio of 1.0:14.7:7.1:2.4. FTIR analysis showed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups and glycosidic linkage. The antioxidant activity of the gum was evaluated by determining DPPH scavenging and total phenolic contents which showed poor antioxidant property. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Exogenous application of ascorbic acid alleviates chilling injury in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi flowers

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    Hassan Bayat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that ascorbic acid (AA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of AA on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi were sprayed at pink cluster stage with AS at 4 levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg. L-1 and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at –4 °C or without cold stress (+ 25°C. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage (EL of flower buds and percentage of damage of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at - 4°C the lowest and highest percentage of damage and EL of flower buds were observed in application of 200 and 0 mg. L-1 AA, respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of damage of flower organs and EL were obtained in application of 300 and 200 mg. L-1 AA, respectively at + 25 °C. Based on the results of this experiment, AA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on EL and flower organ damages in apricot cv. Shahroudi, depending on the concentrations of AA used.

  6. Selection of autochthonous sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. genotypes in Feketić region

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    Radičević Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous genotypes of fruit species are very important source of genetic variability and valuable material for breeding work. Fruit Research Institute-Čačak has a long tradition of studying autochthonous genotypes of temperate fruits sporadically spread and preserved in some localities in Serbia. Over 2005-2006, the following properties of nine autochthonous sour cherry genotypes grown in Feketic region were investigated: flowering and ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits and field resistance to causal agents of cherry diseases - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz.. The genotypes were tested for the presence of Prune dwarf virus and Prunus necrotic ring spot virus. In majority of genotypes fruits were large, with exceptional organoleptical properties, whereas ripening time was in the first ten or twenty days of June. The highest fruit weight was observed in F-1 genotype (8.1 g. The highest soluble solids and total sugars content were found in F- 4 genotype (17.60% and 14.25%, respectively. As for field resistance to causal agents of diseases and good pomo-technological properties, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-7 and F-8 genotypes were singled out. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064

  7. Changes of quality in the fruits of Prunus mume during deacidification by fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Zhang, Yousheng; Chen, Weidong

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of quality attributes of Prunus mume fruits during deacidification using the fermentation of Lactobacillus fermentium. Results of HPLC analysis showed that the sucrose and glucose were dominant sugars, and citric acid was dominant organic acids in P. mume fruits. The level of citric acid reaches 39.3 g/kg, and yet the sucrose and glucose content in the P. mume fruits was very lower, which were 2.16 and 0.66 g/L, respectively. After 8 d of fermentation, sugar and citric acid in the P. mume fruits was completely consumed, and the total phenolics, antioxidant activity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity value), and sarcocarp firmness retained 64.4%, 70.0%, 62.6%, respectively. Also, the viability counts of L. fermentium in fermentation broth increased slowly, which were near 8.0 lg CFU/mL after 8 d of fermentation at 30 °C. Overall, fermentation with L. fermentium can be applied in deacidification of P. mume fruits, and also the fermented P. mume fruits can meet the standard to be further processed into prune or sauces, and the fermentation broth of P. mume fruits with L. fermentium have a good prospect in the development of probiotic beverage. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. In vitro plant regeneration from leaves and internode sections of sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Andrea; Jehle, Johannes A

    2005-10-01

    Regeneration of adventitious shoots from leaves and, for the first time, from internode sections were compared and optimized for five economically important sweet cherry cultivars, i.e. "Schneiders", "Sweetheart", "Starking Hardy Giant", "Kordia" and "Regina" (Prunus avium L.). The influence of basal media, carbon source, combination and dosage of phytohormones, ethylene inhibitor such as silver thiosulfate and a 16 h:8 h light:dark photoperiod versus complete darkness were evaluated. Both, DKW/WPM (1:1) and Quoirin/Lepoivre (QL) basal media stimulated organogenesis more than QL/WPM (1:1), Chee and Pool (CP), Murashige Skoog (MS), Driver and Kuniyuki (DKW) or woody plant (WPM) media did. An induction phase in darkness resulted in lower or zero regeneration rates. The best regeneration efficiencies were generally obtained with thidiazuron in combination with indole-3-butyric-acid. The addition of silver thiosulfate resulted in a similar or reduced regeneration efficiency. Significant genotypic variability in adventitious bud formation was evident for both explant sources, leaf and internode section. Adventitious shoots were obtained from 11% of leaf explants and 50% of internode sections indicating that shoot regeneration from internodes was significantly more efficient than from leaves.

  9. Changes in total soluble proteins and Ca2+ upon cryopreservation of Prunus mume pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y L; Li, B L; Wang, H; Liu, Y

    2012-01-01

    Mei Flowers (Prunus mume) are traditional Chinese ornamental plants. Fifty-one Mei cultivars have been conserved in a pollen cryobank since 2003. We used two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) of total soluble proteins and flow cytometric detection of Ca2+ fluorescence to probe changes in pollen grains before and after cryopreservation. Results indicated that: (1) electrophoresis maps of total soluble proteins before and after cryostorage of pollen from three cultivars were different, even though 70 percent of the protein spots among these three cultivars were matched after cryopreservation. We found some protein spots that changed in all three cultivars; their molecular weights and pI were between 12.6-72.8 kDa and 5.6-7.3, respectively; (2): the geometric mean of Ca2+ fluorescence intensity (GMFI) value of cryopreserved pollen was significantly higher compared with that of fresh pollen in cultivar 'Beijing Yudie'. GMFI increased during pollen germination in our studied cultivars, especially after 0.5 and 1.0 h of culturing. In addition, no positive correlation was found between pollen germination rate and GMFI in the present study.

  10. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melekber Sulusoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.. Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and IKI (iodine potassium iodide, were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.. Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  11. Effects of fertilization and rootstock on nutrient status and fruit set in sour cherry Prunus cerasus 'Stevnsbaer'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N. L.; Toldam-Andersen, Torben; Dencker, Ivar Blücher

    2007-01-01

    was ashed and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Fruit set percentage was recorded on spurs and extension shoots in 2002. The nutrient analyses showed that control trees on Prunus avium had a higher concentration of leaf potassium compared with control trees on 'Colt'. Leaf....... The nutrient analyses of flower buds, flowers and bracts showed some significant differences in the nutrient concentrations as an effect of both rootstocks and treatments. Fruit set on both spurs and extension shoots was significantly affected by rootstock whereas the fertilization treatment had no effect....... Prunus avium had the highest percentage of fruit set on both spurs and extension shoots....

  12. Caracterização de três genótipos de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. por marcadores RAPD Characterization of three mume genotypes (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Um projeto de pesquisa visando à utilização de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. como porta-enxertos para pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] está sendo conduzido na FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, com promissoras perspectivas de sucesso. Três genótipos de umezeiro foram selecionados de acordo com características agronômicas desejáveis para esta finalidade. A distinção dos três genótipos entre si, baseada exclusivamente em características morfológicas, apresenta limitações. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar marcadores RAPD capazes de diferenciar e caracterizar os Clones 05, 15 e a cv. Rigitano (Clone 10 de umezeiro, utilizando-se das cultivares Aurora-1 e Okinawa de pessegueiro como outgroup. Dos 220 primers testados, foram selecionados 42, que amplificaram todos os cinco genótipos. Verificou-se que os marcadores RAPD permitiram a distinção entre o Clone 05, o Clone 15 e a cv. Rigitano de umezeiro, demonstrando a existência de variabilidade genética entre os mesmos. Dentre os três genótipos de umezeiro estudados, constatou-se que a similaridade genética é maior entre o Clone 05 e o Clone 15.A research project with the objective do develop mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., to be used as rootstocks for peach tree [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] is been carried out at the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. These project showed promising perspectives of success, with three clones that were selected according to their characteristics for peach rootstock. But the distinction of the three clones among them, based only in morphologic characteristics, has presented limitations. The objective of the present research was to identify RAPD markers able to characterize and differentiate the 05 and 15 Clones and Rigitano mume cultivar, using Aurora-1 and Okinawa peach tree as outgroup. Among the 220 tested

  13. Harmonisation of agricultural accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Sedláček

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the accounting of the biological assets. There are described two approaches: Czech and international. The International Accounting Standards are emulative of more authentic presentment of economic processes in agricultural activities than Czech accounting legislation. From the comparison the both approaches accrued some differences, which can influent the financial statements of enterprises. The causation of main difference appears an application of fair value, which is prescribed for biological assets in international accounting standards. In international accounting standards is preferred principle of fair and true view, while in Czech accounting is preferred prudence principle.

  14. Rentabilidad y Competitividad del cultivo del Durazno (Prunus Pérsica) en el Suroeste del Estado de México

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Rebollar-Rebollar; Juvencio Hernández Martínez; Felipe de Jesús González Razo

    2009-01-01

    Con el objetivo de analizar la rentabilidad, competitividad y ventajas comparativas del cultivo de durazno (Prunus Pérsica) en la región suroeste del Estado de México, fue calculada una Matriz de Análisis de Política para este cultivo en 2003. Los resultados obtenidos indican una rentabilidad global positiva tanto en términos privados como económicos. La política agrícola aplicada en 2003 constituyó un desincentivo para el sistema de producción al carecer de apoyos (incentivos) a la remunerac...

  15. Culture and Accounting Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carataș Maria Alina

    2017-01-01

    Besides the financial statements, rules, and calculations, the accounting also impliesprofessional reasoning, and the organizational culture promoted within the firm influences theaccounting decisions. We analyzed and identified several of accounting policies determined by thecorporate governance and organizational culture influence.

  16. ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romic, Lidija

    2010-01-01

    Standard accounting practices require publicly-traded companies to follow certain accounting rules when presenting financial statements so that the readers of the statements can easily compare different companies...

  17. TIME MANAGEMENT FOR ACCOUNTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena BIGIOI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Time is money. Every accountant knows that. In our country, the taxes are changing frequently. The accountants have to update their fiscal knowledge. The purpose of the article is to find how the accountants manage their time, taking into consideration the number of fiscal declarations and the fiscal changes. In this article we present some ways to improve time management for accountants.

  18. Making Collaborative Innovation Accountable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    The public sector is increasingly expected to be innovative, but the prize for a more innovative public sector might be that it becomes difficult to hold public authorities to account for their actions. The article explores the tensions between innovative and accountable governance, describes the...... the foundation for these tensions in different accountability models, and suggest directions to take in analyzing the accountability of collaborative innovation processes....

  19. The Accounting Capstone Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, Henry; Norris, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Capstone courses in accounting programs bring students experiences integrating across the curriculum (University of Washington, 2005) and offer unique (Sanyal, 2003) and transformative experiences (Sill, Harward, & Cooper, 2009). Students take many accounting courses without preparing complete sets of financial statements. Accountants not only…

  20. Accounting Education in Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Karen F.; Reed, Ronald O.; Greiman, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Almost on a daily basis new accounting rules and laws are put into use, creating information that must be known and learned by the accounting faculty and then introduced to and understood by the accounting student. Even with the 150 hours of education now required for CPA licensure, it is impossible to teach and learn all there is to learn. Over…

  1. Accountability in Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrangbæk, Karsten; Byrkjeflot, Haldor

    2016-01-01

    adjustment of such frameworks. In this article we present a framework for analyzing accountability within health care. The paper makes use of the concept of "accountability regime" to signify the combination of different accountability forms, directions and functions at any given point in time. We show...

  2. Intelligent Accountability in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Onora

    2013-01-01

    Systems of accountability are "second order" ways of using evidence of the standard to which "first order" tasks are carried out for a great variety of purposes. However, more accountability is not always better, and processes of holding to account can impose high costs without securing substantial benefits. At their worst,…

  3. Automated Accounting. Instructor Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Duane R.

    This curriculum guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting College Edition Version 2.0 software in their accounting programs. The module consists of four units containing assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting. The first…

  4. Genome wide identification of chilling responsive microRNAs in Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Abdelali; Sriram, Aditya; Park, Joseph; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Main, Dorrie; Abbott, Albert

    2012-09-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs (sRNAs) approximately 21 nucleotides in length that negatively control gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. Within this context, miRNAs and siRNAs are coming to the forefront as molecular mediators of gene regulation in plant responses to annual temperature cycling and cold stress. For this reason, we chose to identify and characterize the conserved and non-conserved miRNA component of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) focusing our efforts on both the recently released whole genome sequence of peach and sRNA transcriptome sequences from two tissues representing non-dormant leaves and dormant leaf buds. Conserved and non-conserved miRNAs, and their targets were identified. These sRNA resources were used to identify cold-responsive miRNAs whose gene targets co-localize with previously described QTLs for chilling requirement (CR). Analysis of 21 million peach sRNA reads allowed us to identify 157 and 230 conserved and non-conserved miRNA sequences. Among the non-conserved miRNAs, we identified 205 that seem to be specific to peach. Comparative genome analysis between peach and Arabidopsis showed that conserved miRNA families, with the exception of miR5021, are similar in size. Sixteen of these conserved miRNA families are deeply rooted in land plant phylogeny as they are present in mosses and/or lycophytes. Within the other conserved miRNA families, five families (miR1446, miR473, miR479, miR3629, and miR3627) were reported only in tree species (Populustrichocarpa, Citrus trifolia, and Prunus persica). Expression analysis identified several up-regulated or down-regulated miRNAs in winter buds versus young leaves. A search of the peach proteome allowed the prediction of target genes for most of the conserved miRNAs and a large fraction of non-conserved miRNAs. A fraction of predicted targets in peach have not been previously reported in other species. Several conserved and non

  5. Genome wide identification of chilling responsive microRNAs in Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barakat Abdelali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNAs (sRNAs approximately 21 nucleotides in length that negatively control gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. Within this context, miRNAs and siRNAs are coming to the forefront as molecular mediators of gene regulation in plant responses to annual temperature cycling and cold stress. For this reason, we chose to identify and characterize the conserved and non-conserved miRNA component of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch focusing our efforts on both the recently released whole genome sequence of peach and sRNA transcriptome sequences from two tissues representing non-dormant leaves and dormant leaf buds. Conserved and non-conserved miRNAs, and their targets were identified. These sRNA resources were used to identify cold-responsive miRNAs whose gene targets co-localize with previously described QTLs for chilling requirement (CR. Results Analysis of 21 million peach sRNA reads allowed us to identify 157 and 230 conserved and non-conserved miRNA sequences. Among the non-conserved miRNAs, we identified 205 that seem to be specific to peach. Comparative genome analysis between peach and Arabidopsis showed that conserved miRNA families, with the exception of miR5021, are similar in size. Sixteen of these conserved miRNA families are deeply rooted in land plant phylogeny as they are present in mosses and/or lycophytes. Within the other conserved miRNA families, five families (miR1446, miR473, miR479, miR3629, and miR3627 were reported only in tree species (Populustrichocarpa, Citrus trifolia, and Prunus persica. Expression analysis identified several up-regulated or down-regulated miRNAs in winter buds versus young leaves. A search of the peach proteome allowed the prediction of target genes for most of the conserved miRNAs and a large fraction of non-conserved miRNAs. A fraction of predicted targets in peach have not been previously reported in other

  6. Metabolism of gibberellins A1 and A3 in fruits and shoots of Prunus avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanpu, M; Blake, P S; Browning, G; Taylor, J M

    2001-01-01

    Isotope-labelled GA metabolites were identified by GC--MS, following HPLC fractionation of extracts derived from fruits or shoots, that had been incubated with [2H]- and [3H]- GA1 or [2H]- and [3H]- GA3. GA1 (1) was converted into GA8 (10) by developing fruits and vegetative shoots of sweet cherry (Prunus avium cv. 'Stella'), while GA3 (4) was converted into GA3-isolactone (17). Other metabolites of each GA were detected but were not identified unequivocally. These included a metabolite of GA1 (1) in fruitlets that was more polar (by reverse phase HPLC) than GA8 (10) and a metabolite of similar polarity to GA87 (6), was obtained after incubating fruitlets with GA3 (4). However, no evidence was obtained to suggest that GA87 (6) was a metabolite of GA3 (4) or that GA85 (2) was a metabolite of GA1 (1) in these tissues, under the conditions used. The pattern of metabolites obtained from vegetative tissues was similar to that from fruitlets. However, the results suggested that GA1 (1) and GA3 (4) were metabolised at a greater rate in shoots from mature trees than in shoots from seedlings, and that GA1 (1) was metabolised more rapidly than GA3 (4) in juvenile and mature shoots. We conclude from these observations that GA3 (4) is not a precursor of GA87 (6) and GA32 (5), also, that GA1 (1) is not a precursor of GA85 (2) and GA86 (3) in developing fruits or in vegetative shoots of sweet cherry.

  7. Isolation and characterization of multiple forms of prunasin hydrolase from black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, G W; Poulton, J E

    1987-05-15

    Three forms of prunasin hydrolase (PH I, PH IIa, and PH IIb), which catalyze the hydrolysis of (R)-prunasin to mandelonitrile and D-glucose, have been purified from homogenates of mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds. Hydroxyapatite chromatography completely resolved PH I from PH IIa and PH IIb. PH IIa and IIb, which coeluted on hydroxyapatite, were resolved by gel filtration. PH IIa was a dimer with a native molecular weight of 140,000. Both PH I and PH IIb were monomeric with molecular weights of 68,000. The isozymes appeared to be glycoproteins based on their binding to concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B with subsequent elution by alpha-methyl-D-glucoside. When presented several potential glycosidic substrates, these enzymes exhibited a narrow specificity towards (R)-prunasin. Km values for (R)-prunasin for PH I, PH IIa, and PH IIb were 1.73, 2.3, and 1.35 mM, respectively. PH I and PH IIb possessed fivefold greater Vmax/Km values than PH IIa. Ortho- and para-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucosides were hydrolyzed at the same active site. All forms had a pH optimum of 5.0 in citrate-phosphate buffer. PH I and PH IIb were competitively inhibited by castanospermine with Ki values of 0.19 and 0.09 mM, respectively. PH activity was not stimulated by any metal ion tested and was unaffected by diethyldithiocarbamate, o-phenanthroline, 2,2'-dipyridyl, and EDTA.

  8. Prunus serotina Amygdalin Hydrolase and Prunasin Hydrolase : Purification, N-Terminal Sequencing, and Antibody Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C P; Swain, E; Poulton, J E

    1992-09-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seed homogenates, amygdalin hydrolase (AH) participates with prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitrile lyase in the sequential degradation of (R)-amygdalin to HCN, benzaldehyde, and glucose. Four isozymes of AH (designated AH I, I', II, II') were purified from mature cherry seeds by concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and chromatofocusing. All isozymes were monomeric glycoproteins with native molecular masses of 52 kD. They showed similar kinetic properties (pH optima, K(m), V(max)) but differed in their isoelectric points and N-terminal amino acid sequences. Analytical isoelectric focusing revealed the presence of subisozymes of each isozyme. The relative abundance of these isozymes and/or subisozymes varied from seed to seed. Three isozymes of PH (designated PH I, IIa, and IIb) were purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity, ion-exchange, and hydroxyapatite chromatography and by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PH I and PH IIb are 68-kD monomeric glycoproteins, whereas PH IIa is dimeric (140 kD). The N-terminal sequences of all PH and AH isozymes showed considerable similarity. Polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against deglycosylated AH I or a mixture of the three deglycosylated PH isozymes were not monospecific as judged by immunoblotting analysis, but also cross-reacted with the opposing glucosidase. Monospecific antisera deemed suitable for immunocytochemistry and screening of expression libraries were obtained by affinity chromatography. Each antiserum recognized all known isozymes of the specific glucosidase used as antigen.

  9. Is cut-stump and girdling an efficient method of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. eradication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otręba Anna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to prevent the invasion of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. have a long history in Western Europe. However, effective methods of eliminating it that do not bear negative side effects for ecosystems have not yet been developed. Mechanical methods are the first choice in environmentally sensitive areas. In this study, we aimed to find answers to the questions: does the application of cutting at a height of 1 m from the ground limit the sprouting capacities of black cherry? And, is stem girdling an effective method of eliminating black cherry? The study was carried out in the Kampinos National Park, on two mixed pine forest plots with undergrowth of black cherry. Three mechanical methods of elimination were applied: cut-stump at the base, cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground and girdling of the stem at a height of ca 1 m above the ground. In both locations, 225 trees were treated, at three different dates corresponding with three different phenological phases of black cherry development. The evaluation of effectiveness of treatments was based on the sprouting capacity of the tree afterwards, which included: the number of generated sprouts, the length of three longest sprouts, dry mass of sprouts, and the assessment of tree survival rate. It was discovered that girdling is a significantly more effective method of control than ground-level cut-stump or cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground in the conditions of central Poland. However, in the season of treatment, even though recurring sprouts were removed, only a part of the girdled trees died (24% to 54%. There is a slight difference between the sprouting response of cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground (4% to 24% of dead trees and the basal cut-stump method (0% of dead trees.

  10. Immunocytochemical Localization of Mandelonitrile Lyase in Mature Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Seeds 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua-Cheng; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1991-01-01

    Mandelonitrile lyase (MDL, EC 4.1.2.10), which catalyzes the reversible dissociation of (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile to benzaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide, was purified to apparent homogeneity from mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds by conventional protein purification techniques. This flavoprotein is monomeric with a subunit molecular mass of 57 kilodaltons. Glycoprotein character was shown by its binding to the affinity matrix concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B with subsequent elution by α-methyl-d-glucoside. Upon chemical deglycosylation by trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, the molecular mass was reduced to 50.9 kilodaltons. Two-dimensional gel analysis of deglycosylated MDL revealed the presence of several subunit isoforms of similar molecular mass but differing slightly in isoelectric point. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in New Zealand white rabbits against deglycosylated and untreated MDL. Antibody titers were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent and dot immunobinding assays, while their specificities were assessed by Western immunoblot analysis. Antibodies raised against untreated lyase recognized several proteins in addition to MDL. In contrast, antisera raised against deglycosylated MDL were monospecific and were utilized for developmental and immunocytochemical localization studies. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis of seed proteins during fruit maturation showed that MDL first appeared in seeds shortly after cotyledons began development. In cotyledon cells of mature seeds, MDL was localized primarily in the cell wall with lesser amounts in the protein bodies, whereas in endosperm cells, this labeling pattern was reversed. N-terminal sequence data was gathered for future molecular approaches to the question of MDL microheterogeneity. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:16668338

  11. Micromorphology of pollen grains of three cultivars of Prunus armeniaca L.

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    Mirosława Chwil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grains of various cultivars of Prunus armeniaca L. produce striated sculpture of the exine. These grains are included in the trizonocolporate class. In polar view, pollen grains have a triangular outline, while in equatorial view an elliptical outline. The exine of grains forms a pattern of striae characteristic for a given taxon. Flowers of various P. armeniaca cultivars produce pollen grains with the polar (P and equatorial (E length ranging 31-60 μm and 24-36 μm, respectively. The aim of this study was to determine the micromorphology of pollen grains of three P. armeniaca cultivars – ‘Harcot’, ‘Early Orange’ and ‘Wczesna z Morden’, using light and scanning electron microscopy. A comparative study of the morphological characteristics of pollen grains was carried out to determine their size, shape and exine ornamentation. Observations of pollen grains were performed under a light microscope (Nikon Eclipse 400 and a scanning electron microscope (SEM (Tescan Vega II LMU. In terms of their size, pollen grains of the studied P. armeniaca cultivars were classified as large. Their shape was determined to be prolatum. In equatorial view of pollen grains, the striae run along the polar axis. These structures in the exine are arranged parallel to each other, can be branched or arched. The width of striae ranges from 0.27 μm (‘Early Orange’ to 0.62 μm (‘Harcot’. The largest distances between the striae were found in pollen grains of ‘Harcot’ (0.33 μm, whereas much smaller distances were observed in ‘Early Orange’ and ‘Wczesna z Morden’ (0.13-0.14 μm. In pollen grains of P. armeniaca the tectum is perforated. In an area of 10 μm2, the tectum forms 4-9 perforations with a pore diameter of 0.1-0.6 μm.

  12. Initial and final fruit set in some plum (Prunus domestica L. hybrids under different pollination types

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    Glišić Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of two-year study (2009-2010 of initial and final fruit set in promising plum (Prunus domestica L. hybrids developed at Fruit Research Institute - Čačak, under different pollination conditions. The following hybrids were studied: 38/62/70 (‘Hall’ x ‘California Blue’, 32/21/87 (‘Stanley’ x ‘Scoldus’, IV/63/81 (‘Large Sugar Prune’ x ‘Scoldus’, 22/17/87 (‘Čačanska Najbolja’ x ‘Zh'lta Butilcovidna’, 29/29/87 (‘Stanley’ x ‘Scoldus’ and 34/41/87 (‘Valjevka’ x ‘Čačanska Lepotica’. Each of the hybrids was studied both under self- pollination and open pollination. In vitro pollen germination was also performed as well as characteristics of flowering phenophase and flowering abundance. Generally, the results suggest lower flowering abundance in the second year of the study. Pollen germination ranged from averagely 25.31% (29/29/87 to 40.01% (38/62/70. With averagely 31.59% final fruit set under self-pollination and 29.38% under open pollination variants, respectively, hybrid 34/41/87 gave the best results. The lowest performance was observed in hybrid 32/21/87 with 1.61% and 7.69% final fruit set under self- and open pollination variants, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31064

  13. Differential response to root-knot nematodes in prunus species and correlative genetic implications.

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    Esmenjaud, D; Minot, J C; Voisin, R; Pinochet, J; Simard, M H; Salesses, G

    1997-09-01

    Responses of 17 Prunus rootstocks or accessions (11 from the subgenus Amygdalus and 6 from the subgenus Prunophora) were evaluated against 11 isolates of Meloidogyne spp. including one M. arenaria, four M. incognita, four M. javanica, one M. hispanica, and an unclassified population from Florida. Characterization of plant response to root-knot nematodes was based on a gall index rating. Numbers of females and juveniles plus eggs in the roots were determined for 10 of the rootstocks evaluated against one M. arenaria, one M. incognita, one M. javanica, and the Florida isolate. These 10 rootstocks plus Nemaguard and Nemared were retested by growing three different rootstock genotypes together in containers of soil infested individually with each of the above four isolates. Garfi and Garrigues almonds, GF.305 and Rutgers Red Leaf peaches, and the peach-almond GF.677 were susceptible to all isolates. Differences in resistance were detected among the other rootstocks of the subgenus Amygdalus. The peach-almond GF.557 and Summergrand peach were resistant to M. arenaria and M. incognita but susceptible to M. javanica and the Florida isolate. Nemaguard, Nemared, and its two hybrids G x N no. 15 and G x N no. 22 were resistant to all but the Florida isolate. In the subgenus Prunophora, Myrobalan plums P.1079, P.2175, P.2980, and P.2984; Marianna plum 29C; and P. insititia plum AD.101 were resistant to all isolates. Thus, two different genetic systems of RKN resistance were found in the subgenus Amygdalus: one system acting against M. arenaria and M. incognita, and another system also acting against M. javanica. Prunophora rootstocks bear a complete genetic system for resistance also acting against the Florida isolate. The hypotheses on the relationships between these systems and the corresponding putative genes of resistance are presented.

  14. Phenolic composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the extracts from Prunus spinosa L. fruit

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    Veličković Jasmina M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L. is commonly used in food industry and phytotherapy. The contents of phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidative activity in extracts of blackthorn fruit were determined using spectrophotometric methods. The content of total phenol compounds varies from 15.33 to 20.94 mg GAE g-1 of fresh fruit. The content of total flavonoids is very low, and ranges from 0.419 to 1.31 mg QE g-1 of fresh fruits. Anthocyanins content lies between 0.112 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside/g of fresh sample in ethanol extract and 0.265 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside g-1 of fresh blackthorn fruit in methanol-water 50/50 (v/v extract. The differences in total phenol compounds content depend on used extraction medium as a consequence of different polarity of used organic solvents and their mixtures, which selectively extract individual compounds. All explored extracts exhibited strong scavenging activity against DPPH radicals, which ranges from 32.05 to 89.10%. Phenolic acids (neochlorogenic and caffeic acids, flavonoids (quercetin and myricetin and anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside were identified in investigated ethanol extracts by HPLC analysis. Ethanol extract shows significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Salmonella abony NCTC 6017 and antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Blackthorn fruit extract exhibits a high phenolic content and a high antioxidant activity, and can be used as an antioxidant in food and pharmaceutical industries.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172047

  15. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L..

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    Manuel Rubio

    Full Text Available RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925, which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  16. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka) Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Manuel; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Olivares, Pedro Manuel; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  17. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of an arginine decarboxylase gene from peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji Hong; Ban, Yusuke; Wen, Xiao-Peng; Nakajima, Ikuko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2009-01-15

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC), one of the enzymes responsible for putrescine (Put) biosynthesis, has been shown to be implicated in stress response. In the current paper attempts were made to clone and characterize a gene encoding ADC from peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, 'Akatsuki'). Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) gave rise to a full-length ADC cDNA (PpADC) with a complete open reading frame of 2178 bp, encoding a 725 amino acid polypeptide. Homology search and sequence multi-alignment demonstrated that the deduced PpADC protein sequence shared a high identity with ADCs from other plants, including several highly conservative motifs and amino acids. Southern blotting indicated that PpADC existed in peach genome as a single gene. Expression levels of PpADC in different tissues of peach (P. persica 'Akatsuki') were spatially and developmentally regulated. Treatment of peach shoots from 'Mochizuki' with exogenous 5 mM Put, an indirect product of ADC, remarkably induced accumulation of PpADC mRNA. Transcripts of PpADC in peach leaves from 'Mochizuki' were quickly induced, either transiently or continuously, in response to dehydration, high salinity (200 mM NaCl), low temperature (4 degrees C) and heavy metal (150 microM CdCl(2)), but repressed by high temperature 37 degrees C) during a 2-day treatment, which changed in an opposite direction when the stresses were otherwise removed with the exception of CdCl(2) treatment. In addition, steady-state of PpADC mRNA could be also transiently up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) in 'Mochizuki' leaves. All of these, taken together, suggest that PpADC is a stress-responsive gene and can be considered as a potential target that is genetically manipulated so as to create novel germplasms with enhanced stress tolerance in the future.

  18. Archaeological evidence for peach (Prunus persica) cultivation and domestication in China.

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    Zheng, Yunfei; Crawford, Gary W; Chen, Xugao

    2014-01-01

    The cultivated/domesticated peach (Prunus persica var. persica; Rosaceae, subgenus Amygdalus; synonym: Amygdalus persica) originated in China, but its wild ancestor, as well as where, when, and under what circumstances the peach was domesticated, is poorly known. Five populations of archaeological peach stones recovered from Zhejiang Province, China, document peach use and evolution beginning ca. 8000 BP. The majority of the archaeological sites from which the earliest peach stones have been recovered are from the Yangzi River valley, indicating that this is where early selection for favorable peach varieties likely took place. Furthermore, peach stone morphology through time is consistent with the hypothesis that an unknown wild P. persica was the ancestor of the cultivated peach. The oldest archaeological peach stones are from the Kuahuqiao (8000-7000 BP) and Tianluoshan (7000-6500 BP) sites and both stone samples segregate into two size groups, suggesting early selection of preferred types. The first peach stones in China most similar to modern cultivated forms are from the Liangzhu culture (ca. 5300 to 4300 BP), where the peach stones are significantly larger and more compressed than earlier stones. Similar peach stones are reported from Japan much earlier (6700-6400 BP). This large, compressed-stone peach was introduced to Japan and indicates a yet unidentified source population in China that was similar to the Liangzhu culture peach. This study proposes that the lower Yangzi River valley is a region, if not the region, of early peach selection and domestication and that the process began at least 7500 years ago.

  19. Prunus persica crop management differentially promotes arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity in a tropical agro-ecosystem.

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    Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Lozano, Zenaida; Torres, Maria Pilar; Roldán, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Due to the important role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in ecosystem functioning, determination of the effect of management practices on the AMF diversity in agricultural soils is essential for the sustainability of these agro-ecosystems. The objective of this study was to compare the AMF diversity in Prunus persica roots under two types of fertilisation (inorganic, with or without manure) combined with integrated or chemical pest management in a Venezuelan agro-ecosystem. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty-one different phylotypes were identified: 15 belonged to the genus Glomus, one to Claroideoglomus, two to Paraglomus, one to Acaulospora, one to Scutellospora and one to Archaeospora. The distribution of the AMF community composition differed as a consequence of the treatment effects. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control had the highest AMF richness and the treatment combining inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest had the lowest. The real causes and effects of these differences in the AMF community are very difficult to establish, since the crop management regimes tested were composed of several interacting factors. In conclusion, the crop management practices can exert a significant influence on the populations of AMF. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control appears to be the most suitable agricultural management strategy with respect to improving the AMF diversity in this crop under tropical conditions, and thus for maintaining the agricultural and environmental sustainability of this agro-ecosystem.

  20. Extrafloral nectaries alter arthropod community structure and mediate peach (Prunus persica) plant defense.

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    Mathews, Clarissa R; Bottrell, Dale G; Brown, Mark W

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the role of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) in mediating plant defense for newly established peach (Prunus persica) trees. We used peaches of a single cultivar ("Lovell") that varied with respect to EFN leaf phenotype (with or without EFNs) to determine if the EFNs affected the structure of the arthropod community colonizing newly planted seedlings. We also tested if the plants producing EFNs benefited from reduced herbivory or enhanced productivity. In the first year following planting, the young peach trees with EFNs were dominated by ants, and arthropod community diversity was lower than for trees without EFNs. The young trees with EFNs harbored fewer herbivores and experienced a twofold reduction in folivory compared to trees without EFNs. Productivity was also enhanced for the trees with EFNs, which attained significantly higher rates of trunk growth, greater terminal carbon composition, and a threefold increase in buds produced in subsequent years. In the second year of the field study, ants remained numerically dominant on trees with EFNs, but arthropod community diversity was higher than for trees without EFNs. An additional study revealed that folivory rates in May increased dramatically for trees with EFNs if ants were excluded from their canopies, indicating that ants have a protective function when the perennial trees produce new leaves. However, in later months, regardless of ants' presence, the trees with EFNs suffered less folivory than trees lacking EFNs. The diversity and richness of the predator trophic group increased when ants were excluded from trees with EFNs, but overall community diversity (i.e., herbivores and predators combined) was not affected by the ants' presence. Our research indicates that the EFNs play an important role in attracting predators that protect the trees from herbivores, and the EFN host-plant characteristic should be retained in future peach cultivar selections. Furthermore, peach production programs aimed

  1. Peach (Prunus persica) fruit response to anoxia: reversible ripening delay and biochemical changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, María V; Budde, Claudio O; Porrini, Lucía; Borsani, Julia; Murray, Ricardo; Andreo, Carlos S; Drincovich, María F

    2011-02-01

    The use of modified atmospheres has been successfully applied in different fruits to delay the ripening process and to prevent physiological disorders. In addition, during normal ripening, hypoxic areas are generated inside the fruit; moreover, anaerobic conditions may also arise during fruit post-harvest storage and handling. In consequence, the fruit is an interesting model to analyze the metabolic modifications due to changes in oxygen levels. In this work, a 72 h anoxic treatment by using an N(2) storage atmosphere was applied to peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch) after harvest. Ripening was effectively delayed in treated fruits, preventing fruit softening, color changes and ethylene production. Metabolic changes induced by anoxia included induction of fermentative pathways, glycolysis and enzymes involved in both sucrose synthesis and degradation. Sucrose, fructose and glucose contents remained unchanged in treated fruit, probably due to sucrose cycling. Sorbitol was not consumed and citrate was increased, correlating with citric acid cycle impairment due to O(2) deprivation. Malate content was not affected, indicating compensation in the reactions producing and consuming malate. Changes in malic enzymes and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase may provide pyruvate for fermentation or even act to regenerate NADP. After fruit transfer to aerobic conditions, no signs of post-anoxia injury were observed and metabolic changes were reversed, with the exception of acetaldehyde levels. The results obtained indicate that peach fruit is an organ with a high capacity for anoxic tolerance, which is in accord with the presence of hypoxic areas inside fruits and the fact that hypoxic pre-treatment improves tolerance to subsequent anoxia.

  2. Unique expression, processing regulation, and regulatory network of peach (Prunus persica) miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Xia, Rui; Zhao, Bingyu; An, Yong-qiang; Dardick, Chris D; Callahan, Ann M; Liu, Zongrang

    2012-08-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as important gene regulators in plants. MiRNAs and their targets have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis and rice. However, relatively little is known about the characterization of miRNAs and their target genes in peach (Prunus persica), which is a complex crop with unique developmental programs. We performed small RNA deep sequencing and identified 47 peach-specific and 47 known miRNAs or families with distinct expression patterns. Together, the identified miRNAs targeted 80 genes, many of which have not been reported previously. Like the model plant systems, peach has two of the three conserved trans-acting siRNA biogenesis pathways with similar mechanistic features and target specificity. Unique to peach, three of the miRNAs collectively target 49 MYBs, 19 of which are known to regulate phenylpropanoid metabolism, a key pathway associated with stone hardening and fruit color development, highlighting a critical role of miRNAs in the regulation of peach fruit development and ripening. We also found that the majority of the miRNAs were differentially regulated in different tissues, in part due to differential processing of miRNA precursors. Up to 16% of the peach-specific miRNAs were differentially processed from their precursors in a tissue specific fashion, which has been rarely observed in plant cells. The miRNA precursor processing activity appeared not to be coupled with its transcriptional activity but rather acted independently in peach. Collectively, the data characterizes the unique expression pattern and processing regulation of peach miRNAs and demonstrates the presence of a complex, multi-level miRNA regulatory network capable of targeting a wide variety of biological functions, including phenylpropanoid pathways which play a multifaceted spatial-temporal role in peach fruit development.

  3. Unique expression, processing regulation, and regulatory network of peach (Prunus persica miRNAs

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    Zhu Hong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs have recently emerged as important gene regulators in plants. MiRNAs and their targets have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis and rice. However, relatively little is known about the characterization of miRNAs and their target genes in peach (Prunus persica, which is a complex crop with unique developmental programs. Results We performed small RNA deep sequencing and identified 47 peach-specific and 47 known miRNAs or families with distinct expression patterns. Together, the identified miRNAs targeted 80 genes, many of which have not been reported previously. Like the model plant systems, peach has two of the three conserved trans-acting siRNA biogenesis pathways with similar mechanistic features and target specificity. Unique to peach, three of the miRNAs collectively target 49 MYBs, 19 of which are known to regulate phenylpropanoid metabolism, a key pathway associated with stone hardening and fruit color development, highlighting a critical role of miRNAs in the regulation of peach fruit development and ripening. We also found that the majority of the miRNAs were differentially regulated in different tissues, in part due to differential processing of miRNA precursors. Up to 16% of the peach-specific miRNAs were differentially processed from their precursors in a tissue specific fashion, which has been rarely observed in plant cells. The miRNA precursor processing activity appeared not to be coupled with its transcriptional activity but rather acted independently in peach. Conclusions Collectively, the data characterizes the unique expression pattern and processing regulation of peach miRNAs and demonstrates the presence of a complex, multi-level miRNA regulatory network capable of targeting a wide variety of biological functions, including phenylpropanoid pathways which play a multifaceted spatial-temporal role in peach fruit development.

  4. Mechanical stimuli regulate the allocation of biomass in trees: demonstration with young Prunus avium trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutand, Catherine; Dupraz, Christian; Jaouen, Gaëlle; Ploquin, Stéphane; Adam, Boris

    2008-06-01

    Plastic tree-shelters are increasingly used to protect tree seedlings against browsing animals and herbicide drifts. The biomass allocation in young seedlings of deciduous trees is highly disturbed by common plastic tree-shelters, resulting in poor root systems and reduced diameter growth of the trunk. The shelters have been improved by creating chimney-effect ventilation with holes drilled at the bottom, resulting in stimulated trunk diameter growth, but the root deficit has remained unchanged. An experiment was set up to elucidate the mechanisms behind the poor root growth of sheltered Prunus avium trees. Tree seedlings were grown either in natural windy conditions or in tree-shelters. Mechanical wind stimuli were suppressed in ten unsheltered trees by staking. Mechanical stimuli (bending) of the stem were applied in ten sheltered trees using an original mechanical device. Sheltered trees suffered from poor root growth, but sheltered bent trees largely recovered, showing that mechano-sensing is an important mechanism governing C allocation and the shoot-root balance. The use of a few artificial mechanical stimuli increased the biomass allocation towards the roots, as did natural wind sway. It was demonstrated that there was an acclimation of plants to the imposed strain. This study suggests that if mechanical stimuli are used to control plant growth, they should be applied at low frequency in order to be most effective. The impact on the functional equilibrium hypothesis that is used in many tree growth models is discussed. The consequence of the lack of mechanical stimuli should be incorporated in tree growth models when applied to environments protected from the wind (e.g. greenhouses, dense forests).

  5. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of bitter and sweet apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. kernels

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    D. Yiğit

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study describes the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of methanol and water extracts of sweet and bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. kernels. The antioxidant properties of apricot kernels were evaluated by determining radical scavenging power, lipid peroxidation inhibition activity and total phenol content measured with a DPPH test, the thiocyanate method and the Folin method, respectively. In contrast to extracts of the bitter kernels, both the water and methanol extracts of sweet kernels have antioxidant potential. The highest percent inhibition of lipid peroxidation (69% and total phenolic content (7.9 ± 0.2 µg/mL were detected in the methanol extract of sweet kernels (Hasanbey and in the water extract of the same cultivar, respectively. The antimicrobial activities of the above extracts were also tested against human pathogenic microorganisms using a disc-diffusion method, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values of each active extract were determined. The most effective antibacterial activity was observed in the methanol and water extracts of bitter kernels and in the methanol extract of sweet kernels against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. Additionally, the methanol extracts of the bitter kernels were very potent against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (0.312 mg/mL MIC value. Significant anti-candida activity was also observed with the methanol extract of bitter apricot kernels against Candida albicans, consisting of a 14 mm in diameter of inhibition zone and a 0.625 mg/mL MIC value.

  6. Polinização entomófila em pessegueiro (Prunus persica L.

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    Manoel Octávio Silveira da Mota

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento, realizado na região de Jaboticabal (SP, utilizou uma cultura de pêssego (Prunus persica L., durante a sua florada com a finalidade de verificar a atuação dos insetos visitantes nas flores na produção de frutos. A concentração média de açucares no néctar e a quantidade média produzida por dia de néctar é de 27,9% e de 3,2 mg, respectivamente. O peso médio das anteras por flor foi de 1,59 mg. A abelha Apis mellifera (73% foi o principal inseto visitante seguida da Trigona spinipes (17% e Xylocopa sp (4%. Observou-se a presença de beija-flores (6%, coletando néctar. A freqüência máxima das abelhas A. mellifera, para coleta de néctar e pólen, ocorreu as 12 horas. O número de frutos resultantes do tratamento em que as flores recebiam as visitas foi 14% maior que no tratamento em as flores não eram visitadas. Do total de frutos colhidos no tratamento coberto (sem visitas, 82% apresentaram-se perfeitos, com boa formação e simetria. No tratamento descoberto, 90,2% apresentaram-se com boa formação, havendo diferença estatística entre os dois tratamentos.

  7. PARADIGM OF ACCOUNTING CHANGE

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    Constanta Iacob

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The words and phrases swop with each other and the apparent stability of a word’s meaning sometimes change in time. This explains why the generic term of accounting is used when referring to the qualities attributed to accounting,but also when it comes to organizing financial accounting function within the entity, and when referring concretely to keeping a double record with its specific means, methods and tools specific, respectively seen as a technical accounting.Speaking about the qualities of accounting, but also about the organizational form it takes, we note that there is a manifold meaning of the word accounting, which is why the purpose of this article is to demonstrate that the paradigm shift aimed at a new set of rules and if the rules changes, then we can change the very purpose of accounting.

  8. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FOLIAR INJURY RESPONSES OF PRUNUS SEROTINA, FRAXINUS AMERICANA, AND ACER RUBRUM SEEDLINGS TO VARYING SOIL MOISTURE AND OZONE. (R825244)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings wer...

  9. Physiological and foliar symptom response of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ozone under differing site conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Schaub; J.M. Skelly; J.W. Zhang; J.A. Ferdinand; J.E. Savage; R.E. Stevenson; D.D. Davis; K.C. Steiner

    2005-01-01

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry ( Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash ( Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple ( Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania....

  10. An assessment of Osmia rufa (syn. bicornis) as a pollinator of the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) cv. Stevnsbaer in eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansted, Lise; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2014-01-01

    The sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) cv. Stevnsbaer is self-fertile but it is recommended that bees are placed in the orchards during flowering. The solitary bee Osmia rufa can be managed, and has previously been suggested as an alternative pollinator to Apis mellifera, so consequently, this study...

  11. Investigation of the aroma of commercial peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) types by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and sensory analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso Ferreira Pinhancos de Bianchi, Tiago; Weesepoel, Yannick; Koot, Alex; Iglesias, Ignasi; Eduardo, Iban; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Guerrero, Luis; Hortós, Maria; Ruth, van Saskia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the aroma and sensory profiles of various types of peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch.). Forty-three commercial cultivars comprising peaches, flat peaches, nectarines, and canning peaches (pavías) were grown over two consecutive harvest years. Fruits were

  12. Sucrose and light effects on in vitro cultures of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana L.) and Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) during low temperature storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruski, K.; Kozai, T.; Lewis, T.; Astatkie, T.; Nowak, J.

    2000-01-01

    Cultures of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. Atlantic, chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana L.) cv. Garrington and saskatoon berry (Amelancher alnifolia Nutt.) cv. Northline grown in vitro for 3 weeks at 24/22 °C, 16-h photoperiod, 150 μmol m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) mixed

  13. Degradation of cyanogenic glycosides of bitter apricot seeds (Prunus armeniaca) by endogenous and added enzymes as affected by heat treatments and particle size.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuncel, G.; Nout, M.J.R.; Brimer, L.

    1998-01-01

    Bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca) seeds (kernels) are by-products of the apricot processing industry. They contain approximately 50-150 μMol/g (dry weight basis) of potentially toxic cyanogenic glycosides, mainly amygdalin and prunasin. The present paper deals with the degradation of these

  14. Endophytic bacteria in plant tissue culture: differences between easy- and difficult-to-propagate Prunus avium genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quambusch, Mona; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Winkelmann, Traud; Bartsch, Melanie

    2014-05-01

    The endophytic bacterial communities of six Prunus avium L. genotypes differing in their growth patterns during in vitro propagation were identified by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Five morphologically distinct isolates from tissue culture material were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. To detect and analyze the uncultivable fraction of endophytic bacteria, a clone library was established from the amplified 16S rDNA of total plant extract. Bacterial diversity within the clone libraries was analyzed by amplified ribosomal rDNA restriction analysis and by sequencing a clone for each identified operational taxonomic unit. The most abundant bacterial group was Mycobacterium sp., which was identified in the clone libraries of all analyzed Prunus genotypes. Other dominant bacterial genera identified in the easy-to-propagate genotypes were Rhodopseudomonas sp. and Microbacterium sp. Thus, the community structures in the easy- and difficult-to-propagate cherry genotypes differed significantly. The bacterial genera, which were previously reported to have plant growth-promoting effects, were detected only in genotypes with high propagation success, indicating a possible positive impact of these bacteria on in vitro propagation of P. avium, which was proven in an inoculation experiment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  15. Prunus spp. intoxication in ruminants: a case in a goat and diagnosis by identification of leaf fragments in rumen contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Zaher A; Styer, Eloise L; Thompson, Larry J

    2004-11-01

    Prunus serotina Ehrh. (black cherry) intoxication was diagnosed on postmortem examination of a goat. The clinical signs were weakness, depression, seizure-like activity, and lateral recumbency. Natural cases of black cherry intoxication have not been reported in goats in the United States. In the absence of a history of access to black cherry or the ability to detect cyanide or cyanogenic glycosides in blood or tissues, black cherry intoxication may be diagnosed in ruminants by the identification of black cherry leaves in rumen contents. Three distinctive features facilitate identification of black cherry leaves or leaf fragments: 1) a pair of small glands that protrude from the sides of the petiole just below the base of the blade, 2) incurved, gland-tipped (callous) teeth along the margins of the leaf, and 3) a band of hairs to each side of the lower half of the midvein on the surface of the leaf. Shape of the marginal teeth, presence or absence of glands at the tips of these teeth, the morphology of these glands, and presence or absence of petiolar glands and their morphology may allow identification and differentiation of small fragments of leaves from the 6 most important cyanogenic Prunus spp. in eastern North America: black cherry, Carolina laurel cherry, peach, English laurel cherry, choke cherry, and fire cherry.

  16. Genotypic differences in cyanogenic glycosides levels of compatible Prunus persica P. persica and incompatible P. persica P. mume combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan dos Santos Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Graft incompatibility is a phenomenon associated with complex physiological, biochemical, and genetic interactions between scion and rootstock. The main objective of this work was to assess the role of cyanogenic glycosides (CGs, amygdalin and prunasin, in the graft incompatibility of Prunus and possible biochemical effects in compounds of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Graft compatibility, amygdalin and prunasin content, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity, total phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity, were studied in different graft combinations (Chimarrita/Capdeboscq; Chimarrita/Tsukuba 1; Chimarrita/Umezeiro; Maciel/Capdeboscq; Maciel/’Tsukuba 1; Maciel/Umezeiro and ungrafted genotypes. The results indicate that there was graft incompatibility of Chimarrita and Maciel cultivars grafted into Umezeiro rootstock. Combinations identified as incompatible showed higher prunasin concentration and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL activity in rootstock and greater concentration of total phenolics compounds and antioxidant activity in scion and rootstock. The results indicate that large differences in CGs concentration, especially prunasin, can be the graft incompatibility cause between Prunus persic. and P. mume. The prunasin concentration may be considered a promising marker to predict graft compatibility between P. persica and P. mume.

  17. Isolation and quantitation of amygdalin in Apricot-kernel and Prunus Tomentosa Thunb. by HPLC with solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei-Feng; Ding, Ming-Yu; Zheng, Rui

    2005-08-01

    Apricot-kernel and Prunus Tomentosa Thunb. are traditional Chinese herb medicines that contain amygdalin as their major effective ingredient. In this report, three methods for the extraction of amygdalin from the medicinal materials are compared: ultrasonic extraction by methanol, Soxhlet extraction by methanol, and reflux extraction by water. The results show that reflux extraction water containing 0.1% citric acid is the best option. The optimal reflux is 2.5 h and water bath temperature is 60 degrees C. The solid-phase extraction method using C18 and multiwalled carbon nanotube as adsorbents is established the pretreatment of reflux extract, and the result shows that the two adsorbents have greater adsorptive capacity for amygdalin and good separation effect. In order to quantitate amygdalin in Apricot-kernel and Prunus Tomentosa Thunb., a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method using methanol-water (15:85, for 30 min and pure methanol after 30 min) as mobile phase is developed and a good result is obtained.

  18. Stability of gene silencing-based resistance to Plum pox virus in transgenic plum (Prunus domestica L.) under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hily, Jean-Michel; Scorza, Ralph; Malinowski, Tadeusz; Zawadzka, Barbara; Ravelonandro, Michel

    2004-10-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is one of the most devastating diseases of Prunus species. Since few sources of resistance to PPV have been identified, transgene-based resistance offers a complementary approach to developing PPV-resistant stone fruit cultivars. C5, a transgenic clone of Prunus domestica L., containing the PPV coat protein (CP) gene, has been described as highly resistant to PPV in greenhouse tests, displaying characteristics typical of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). We show in this report that C5 trees exposed to natural aphid vectors in the field remained uninfected after 4 years while susceptible transgenic and untransformed trees developed severe symptoms within the first year. C5 trees inoculated by chip budding showed only very mild symptoms and PPV could be detected in these trees by IC-RT-PCR. The PPV-CP transgene in C5 was specifically hyper-methylated with no detectable expression. These results indicate both stability and efficiency of PTGS-based PPV resistance in plum under field conditions.

  19. Comparative population genomics reveals the domestication history of the peach, Prunus persica, and human influences on perennial fruit crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ke; Zheng, Zhijun; Wang, Lirong; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Gengrui; Fang, Weichao; Cheng, Shifeng; Zeng, Peng; Chen, Changwen; Wang, Xinwei; Xie, Min; Zhong, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhao, Pei; Bian, Chao; Zhu, Yinling; Zhang, Jiahui; Ma, Guosheng; Chen, Chengxuan; Li, Yanjun; Hao, Fengge; Li, Yong; Huang, Guodong; Li, Yuxiang; Li, Haiyan; Guo, Jian; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun

    2014-07-31

    Recently, many studies utilizing next generation sequencing have investigated plant evolution and domestication in annual crops. Peach, Prunus persica, is a typical perennial fruit crop that has ornamental and edible varieties. Unlike other fruit crops, cultivated peach includes a large number of phenotypes but few polymorphisms. In this study, we explore the genetic basis of domestication in peach and the influence of humans on its evolution. We perform large-scale resequencing of 10 wild and 74 cultivated peach varieties, including 9 ornamental, 23 breeding, and 42 landrace lines. We identify 4.6 million SNPs, a large number of which could explain the phenotypic variation in cultivated peach. Population analysis shows a single domestication event, the speciation of P. persica from wild peach. Ornamental and edible peach both belong to P. persica, along with another geographically separated subgroup, Prunus ferganensis. Our analyses enhance our knowledge of the domestication history of perennial fruit crops, and the dataset we generated could be useful for future research on comparative population genomics.

  20. Emerging accounting trends accounting for leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valletta, Robert; Huggins, Brian

    2010-12-01

    A new model for lease accounting can have a significant impact on hospitals and healthcare organizations. The new approach proposes a "right-of-use" model that involves complex estimates and significant administrative burden. Hospitals and health systems that draw heavily on lease arrangements should start preparing for the new approach now even though guidance and a final rule are not expected until mid-2011. This article highlights a number of considerations from the lessee point of view.

  1. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...

  2. Millennium Challenge Account

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tarnoff, Curt

    2008-01-01

    .... foreign aid initiative. The Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) provides assistance through a competitive selection process to developing nations that are pursing political and economic reforms in three areas...

  3. Internet accounting dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Mourier, Lise

    2005-01-01

    An examination of existing accounting dictionaries on the Internet reveals a general need for a new type of dictionary. In contrast to the dictionaries now accessible, the future accounting dictionaries should be designed as proper Internet dictionaries based on a functional approach so they can...

  4. Accounting as an Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revellino, Silvana; Mouritsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between calculative practices and innovative activities. It investigates how calculative practices such as accounting develop knowledge that functions as an engine (MacKenzie, 2006) for innovation. This is an attempt at exploring the role of accounting through...

  5. Accounting Faculty Internships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Christopher

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Accounting professionals, business college accrediting bodies, and even accounting academics themselves acknowledge that there is a disconnect between academe and the rigors and requirements of the accounting profession. Among the suggestions proposed in the literature to reduce this gap is the faculty internship, where accounting faculty members work within the field as accountants. Heretofore, individual case studies report benefits of such internships that accrue to a variety of stakeholder groups beyond just the faculty intern and include the academic institution, students, and accounting profession through faculty internships. This research seeks wider support for these benefits. This descriptive study involved surveying a sample of accounting faculty members to get their opinions about the benefits and drawbacks of faculty internships, and to determine the level of use of faculty internships in accounting. In all, 128 usable responses were obtained, representing a 14.6% response rate. The results of this study reveal that although most faculty members acknowledge the benefits cited in the literature, too few take advantage of faculty internships.

  6. Towards ecosystem accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duku, C.; Rathjens, H.; Zwart, S.J.; Hein, L.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting is an emerging field that aims to provide a consistent approach to analysing environment-economy interactions. One of the specific features of ecosystem accounting is the distinction between the capacity and the flow of ecosystem services. Ecohydrological modelling to support

  7. Peru : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing practices within the corporate sector in Peru, using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks, drawing on international experience and best practices in that field. This Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) Accounting & ...

  8. Particularities of farm accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapteș, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, agriculture has become one of the most important fields of activity, significant funds being allotted within the EU budget to finance the European agriculture. In this context, organising the accounting of economic entities which carry out their activity in the agricultural sector has acquired new meanings. The goal of the present study is to bring into the light the particularities of the farm accounting on two levels: on the one hand, from the perspective of the international accounting referential and, on the other hand, in compliance with the national accounting regulations. The most important conclusion of this work is that, in post-1990 Romania, no interest was further manifested for the refinement of aspects specific to farm accounting.

  9. Islamisasi Prinsip Counter Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayno Utama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the idea of Islamization of counter accounting principles. Such an Islamization is necessary because counter accounting princip-les are formulated by using the philosophy of punk from the western society which has different beliefs. In addition, the idea of Islamization in this study shows that Islamic knowledge can indeed be developed continuously. Therefore, the claim that there is no development inside this knowledge, and that it cannot be categorized as science, willl no longer exist. This study reveals the findings that the wisdom from argumentation which constructs the principles of counter accounting is parallel with the wisdom from Islamic values as interpreted by experts of Islamic accounting. The Islamiza-tion of counter accounting principles confirms the truth of belief in the existence of Allah and His revelation.

  10. Accounting for Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pflueger, Dane

    2015-01-01

    Background Accounting-that is, standardized measurement, public reporting, performance evaluation and managerial control-is commonly seen to provide the core infrastructure for quality improvement in healthcare. Yet, accounting successfully for quality has been a problematic endeavor, often...... producing dysfunctional effects. This has raised questions about the appropriate role for accounting in achieving quality improvement. This paper contributes to this debate by contrasting the specific way in which accounting is understood and operationalized for quality improvement in the UK National Health...... Service (NHS) with findings from the broadly defined ‘social studies of accounting’ literature and illustrative examples. Discussion This paper highlights three significant differences between the way that accounting is understood to operate in the dominant health policy discourse and recent healthcare...

  11. Accounting and strategising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Brian; Messner, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between accounting and strategy in a context that is characterised by pluralistic demands and high uncertainty about outcomes. By way of an ethnographic field study in an R&D intensive company, we analyse new product development (NPD) projects and the way...... in which decisions and practices concerning these projects are accounted for. Building upon a practice theory perspective, we find that actors account for the appropriateness of NPD practices not only or primarily on the basis of accounting information, but also by "strategising", i.e. by mobilising...... different strategic objectives to which these practices are supposed to contribute. We argue that this has to do with the ambiguous demands on NPD and the limits of calculability inherent in NPD design decisions. At the same time, accounting information is not necessarily irrelevant in such a case; it can...

  12. Estabelecimento e multiplicação in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Aparecido Lima da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade genética e sanitária das mudas é de fundamental importância para o sucesso da fruticultura moderna. Para o pessegueiro, a micropropagação vem permitindo a produção clonal massal de plantas, com matrizes e mudas de qualidade genética-sanitária comprovada. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a taxa de sobrevivência de explantes no estabelecimento in vitro, bem como avaliar o potencial de multiplicação in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus. Explantes constituídos por ápices caulinares e gemas laterais dos porta-enxertos Capdeboscq e GF677 e da seleção VP411 foram estabelecidos e multiplicados in vitro em meio de cultura de Lepoivre suplementado com BAP (0,5 mg.L-1. A taxa média de sobrevivência para os porta-enxertos foi 62,9% para ápices caulinares e 58,8% para gemas laterais. Ápices caulinares e gemas laterais apresentaram 14,8% e 29,8% de contaminação, respectivamente. O genótipo afetou significativamente as taxas de multiplicação in vitro. Quanto ao número de brotos por explantes, o porta-enxerto Capdeboscq e a seleção VP411 foram superiores ao porta-enxerto GF677, resultando em 14,7; 16,0 e 10,5 brotos, respectivamente. Para a altura média dos brotos, os porta-enxertos Capdeboscq e GF677 foram superiores à seleção VP411 com 9,3; 8,9 e 7,8 mm, respectivamente. O porta-enxerto Capdeboscq foi superior ao porta-enxerto GF677 e à seleção VP411 na variável número de brotos >20 mm com 2,0; 1,3 e 1,0 brotos, respectivamente.

  13. Invasion by the Alien Tree Prunus serotina Alters Ecosystem Functions in a Temperate Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Raf; Ewald, Michael; Nicolas, Manuel; Piat, Jérôme; Skowronek, Sandra; Lenoir, Jonathan; Hattab, Tarek; Garzón-López, Carol X; Feilhauer, Hannes; Schmidtlein, Sebastian; Rocchini, Duccio; Decocq, Guillaume; Somers, Ben; Van De Kerchove, Ruben; Denef, Karolien; Honnay, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Alien invasive species can affect large areas, often with wide-ranging impacts on ecosystem structure, function, and services. Prunus serotina is a widespread invader of European temperate forests, where it tends to form homogeneous stands and limits recruitment of indigenous trees. We hypotesized that invasion by P. serotina would be reflected in the nutrient contents of the native species' leaves and in the respiration of invaded plots as efficient resource uptake and changes in nutrient cycling by P. serotina probably underly its aggressive invasiveness. We combined data from 48 field plots in the forest of Compiègne, France, and data from an experiment using 96 microcosms derived from those field plots. We used general linear models to separate effects of invasion by P. serotina on heterotrophic soil and litter respiration rates and on canopy foliar nutrient content from effects of soil chemical properties, litter quantity, litter species composition, and tree species composition. In invaded stands, average respiration rates were 5.6% higher for soil (without litter) and 32% higher for soil and litter combined. Compared to indigenous tree species, P. serotina exhibited higher foliar N (+24.0%), foliar P (+50.7%), and lower foliar C:N (-22.4%) and N:P (-10.1%) ratios. P. serotina affected foliar nutrient contents of co-occuring indigenous tree species leading to decreased foliar N (-8.7 %) and increased C:N ratio (+9.5%) in Fagus sylvatica, decreased foliar N:P ratio in Carpinus betulus (-13.5%) and F. sylvatica (-11.8%), and increased foliar P in Pinus sylvestris (+12.3%) in invaded vs. uninvaded stands. Our results suggest that P. serotina is changing nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon cycles to its own advantage, hereby increasing carbon turnover via labile litter, affecting the relative nutrient contents in the overstory leaves, and potentially altering the photosynthetic capacity of the long-lived indigenous broadleaved species. Uncontrolled invasion of

  14. Transcriptional Responses in root and leaf of Prunus persica Under Drought Stress Using RNA Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla Ksouri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prunus persica L. Batch, or peach, is one of the most important crops and it is widely established in irrigated arid and semi-arid regions. However, due to variations in the climate and the increased aridity, drought has become a major constraint, causing crop losses worldwide. The use of drought-tolerant rootstocks in modern fruit production appears to be a useful method of alleviating water deficit problems. However, the transcriptomic variation and the major molecular mechanisms that underlie the adaptation of drought-tolerant rootstocks to water shortage remain unclear. Hence, in this study, high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq was performed to assess the transcriptomic changes and the key genes involved in the response to drought in root tissues (GF677 rootstock and leaf tissues (graft, var. Catherina subjected to 16 days of drought stress. In total, 12 RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced. This generated a total of 315M raw reads from both tissues, which allowed the assembly of 22,079 and 17,854 genes associated with the root and leaf tissues, respectively. Subsets of 500 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in roots and 236 in leaves were identified and functionally annotated with 56 gene ontology (GO terms and 99 metabolic pathways, which were mostly associated with aminobenzoate degradation and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The GO analysis highlighted the biological functions that were exclusive to the root tissue, such as locomotion, hormone metabolic process, and detection of stimulus, indicating the stress-buffering role of the GF677 rootstock. Furthermore, the complex regulatory network involved in the drought response was revealed, involving proteins that are associated with signaling transduction, transcription and hormone regulation, redox homeostasis, and frontline barriers. We identified two poorly characterized genes in P. persica: growth-regulating factor 5 (GRF5, which may be involved in cellular expansion, and AtHB12

  15. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of Prunus padus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Cha, Dong Seok; Jeon, Hoon

    2012-11-21

    Prunus padus Linne has been widely used as a traditional medicine, with beneficial effects in numerous diseases, including stroke, neuralgia and hepatitis. In this study, we demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of the methylene chloride fraction of P. padus (MPP). In vitro studies, the anti-inflammatory effects of MPP were examined using IFN-γ/LPS-activated murine peritoneal macrophage model. To confirm the anti-inflammatory effects of MPP in vivo, trypsin-induced paw edema test was also conducted. The anti-nociceptive activities of MPP were measured using various experimental pain models including thermal nociception methods such as the tail immersion test and the hot plate test as well as chemical nociception methods like acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin test. To determine whether analgesic activity of MPP is connected with the opioid receptor, we carried out combination test with naloxone, a nonselective opioid receptor antagonist. In the current study, MPP showed potent inhibitory effect on IFN-γ/LPS-induced NO production. MPP also suppressed not only iNOS enzyme activity but also iNOS expression. Moreover, MPP inhibited COX-2 expression dose dependently. IFN-γ/LPS stimulation induced the translocation of NF-κB to nucleus but it was attenuated in the presence of MPP. In vivo study revealed that MPP could reduce paw volume after subplantar injection of trypsin. In addition, MPP showed potent analgesic activities both thermal and chemical nociception compared to tramadol and indomethacin. Furthermore, pre-treatment of naloxone slightly suppress the analgesic activity of MPP indicating that MPP acts as a partial opioid receptor agonist. In the present study, MPP showed potent anti-inflammatory properties through not only by suppressing various inflammatory mediators in vitro, but reducing the inflammatory edema in vivo. MPP also exhibited strong anti-nociceptive activities via both central and peripheral mechanism by

  16. [CO2 response process and its simulation of Prunus sibirica photosynthesis under different soil moisture conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Zhang, Guang-Can; Pei, Bin; Xu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, Yu; Fang, Li-Dong

    2013-06-01

    Taking the two-year old potted Prunus sibirica seedlings as test materials, and using CIRAS-2 photosynthetic system, this paper studied the CO2 response process of P. sibirica photosynthesis in semi-arid loess hilly region under eight soil moisture conditions. The CO2 response data of P. sibirica were fitted and analyzed by rectangular hyperbola model, exponential equation, and modified rectangular hyperbola model. Meanwhile, the quantitative relationships between the photosynthesis and the soil moisture were discussed. The results showed that the CO2 response process of P. sibirica photosynthesis had obvious response characteristics to the soil moisture threshold. The relative soil water content (RWC) required to maintain the higher photosynthetic rate (P(n)) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) of P. sibirica was in the range of 46.3%-81.9%. In this RWC range, the photosynthesis did not appear obvious CO2 saturated inhibition phenomenon. When the RWC exceeded this range, the photosynthetic capacity (P(n max)), CE, and CO2 saturation point (CSP) decreased evidently. Under different soil moisture conditions, there existed obvious differences among the three models in simulating the CO2 response data of P. sibirica. When the RWC was in the range of 46.3%-81.9%, the CO2 response process and the characteristic parameters such as CE, CO2 compensation point (see symbol), and photorespiration rate (R(p)) could be well fitted by the three models, and the accuracy was in the order of modified rectangular hyperbola model > exponential equation > rectangular hyperbola model. When the RWC was too high or too low, namely, the RWC was > 81.9% or process and the characteristic parameters. It was suggested that when the RWC was from 46.3% to 81.9%, the photosynthetic efficiency of P. sibirica was higher, and, as compared with rectangular hyperbola model and exponential equation, modified rectangular hyperbola model had more applicability to fit the CO2 response data of P. sibirica

  17. Nestedness in bipartite networks of Thuja plicata, Prunus laurocerasus and Buxus sempervirens and their pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The trade with cultivated plants is one of the major pathways for the introduction of invasive species, pathogens included. Based on network analysis, the present study aimed the interaction between several species of cultivated woody perennials found in gardening outlets and nurseries trading with ornamental species and their documented pathogens. Focal species of the host list were Thuja plicata, Buxus sempervirens and Prunus laurocerasus, the selection being based on reported bestselling figures. Bipartite, qualitative, undirected networks were constructed to incorporate woody perennials as hosts and their documented pathogens. The tested network properties were: connectance, node degree distribution, web asymmetry and nestedness. Cluster analysis using Euclidian distance and niche overlap index of Pianka were employed as additional pattern description metrics. The main network containing 33 host species and 112 pathogens was characterized by truncated power law distribution fitting the observed degree distribution of hosts and power law distribution fitting the observed degree distribution of pathogens, low connectance (C = 0.12, intermediate web asymmetry (W = 0.54 and high significant nestedness (N = 0.94. The network containing three focal hosts showed significant lower nestedness (N = 0.54, higher asymmetry (W = 0.94 and higher connectance (C = 0.38. Cluster analysis revealed the separation of focal species distinctly, the majority of other hosts merging in one cluster. Due to the prevalence of specialized pathogens the niche breadth was narrow, with small overlap in resources’ partition (Pianka index = 0.31. Our results showed that a random assembly of hosts (woody ornamentals displayed for sale in retail centers and nurseries could harbor pathogens which attached in a non-random manner, generating a characteristic pathosystem, with distinctive topology. The possible implications of the study consisted in a

  18. Mites fluctuation population on peach tree (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and in associated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosana Eichelberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch in Rio Grande do Sul, little is known about mites fluctuation population considered important to this crop. The objective of this study was to know the population diversity and fluctuation of mite species associated with Premier and Eldorado varieties in Roca Sales and Venâncio Aires counties, Rio Grande do Sul. The study was conducted from July 2008 to June 2009 when 15 plants were randomly chosen in each area. The plants were divided in quadrants and from each one a branch was chosen from which three leaves were removed: one collected in the apical region, another in the medium and the other in the basal region, totalizing 180 leaves/area. Five of the most abundant associated plants were collected monthly in enough amounts for the screening under the stereoscopic microscope during an hour. A total of 1,124 mites were found belonging to 14 families and 28 species. Tetranychus ludeni Zacher, 1913, Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836 and Mononychellus planki (McGregor, 1950 were the most abundant phytophagous mites, whereas Typhlodromalus aripo Deleon, 1967 and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 the most common predatory mites. The period of one hour under stereoscopic microscope was enough to get a representative sample. In both places evaluated the ecologic indices were low, but little higherin Premier (H' 0.56; EqJ: 0.43 when compared to Eldorado (H' 0.53; EqJ 0.40. In Premier constant species were not observed and accessory only Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939, T. ludeni and T. aripo. Higher abundance was observed in December and January and bigger amount in April. Already in Eldorado, T. ludeni and P. ulmi were constants. Greater abundance was observed in November and December, whereas grater richness in December and January. In both orchards were not found mites in buds. Tetranychus ludeni is the most abundant phytophagous mites with outbreak population in November, December and

  19. Prunus persica crop management as step toward AMF diversity conservation for the sustainable soil management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Lozano, Z.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Roldan, A.

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in roots of Prunus persica under two fertilization treatments (CF: consisted of application of chicken manure (1400 kg.ha-1), urea (140 kg.ha-1), complex fertilizer 12-12-17/2 (280 kg.ha-1), and potassium sulfate (40 kg.ha-1) and IF: consisted of application of urea (140 kg.ha-1), complex fertilizer 12-12-17/2 (400 kg.ha-1) and potassium sulfate (70 kg.ha-1)) combined with integrated pest management (IM) or chemical pest management (CM), in a tropical agroecosystem in the north of Venezuela. Our goal was to ascertain how different fertilizers/pest management can modify the AMF diversity colonizing P. persica roots as an important step towards sustainable soil use and therefore protection of biodiversity. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty-one different phylotypes were identified, which were grouped in five families: Glomeraceae, Paraglomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, Gigasporaceae and Archaeosporaceae. Sixteen of these sequence groups belonged to the genus Glomus, two to Paraglomus, one to Acaulospora, one to Scutellospora and one to Archaeospora. A different distribution of the AMF phylotypes as consequence of the difference between treatments was observed. Thus, the AMF communities of tree roots in the (IF+CM) treatment had the lowest diversity (H'=1.78) with the lowest total number of AMF sequence types (9). The trees from both (CF+IM) and (IF+IM) treatments had similar AMF diversity (H'?2.00); while the treatment (CF+CM) yielded the highest number of different AMF sequence types (17) and showed the highest diversity index (H'=2.69). In conclusion, the crop management including combination of organic and inorganic fertilization and chemical pest control appears to be the most suitable strategy with respect to reactivate the AMF diversity in the roots of this crop and thus, the agricultural and environmental

  20. Transcriptome analysis of seed dormancy after rinsing and chilling in ornamental peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjana, Worarad; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Ishii, Kazuo; Kozaki, Toshinori; Iigo, Masayuki; Yamane, Kenji

    2016-08-08

    Ornamental peaches cv. 'Yaguchi' (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) can be propagated via seeds. The establishment of efficient seed treatments for early germination and seedling growth is required to shorten nursery and breeding periods. It is important, therefore, to identify potential candidate genes responsible for the effects of rinsing and chilling on seed germination. We hypothesized that longer rinsing combined with chilling of seeds can alter the genes expression in related to dormancy and then raise the germination rate in the peach. To date, most molecular studies in peaches have involved structural genomics, and few transcriptome studies of seed germination have been conducted. In this study, we investigated the function of key seed dormancy-related genes using next-generation sequencing to profile the transcriptomes involved in seed dormancy in peaches. De novo assembly and analysis of the transcriptome identified differentially expressed and unique genes present in this fruit. De novo RNA-sequencing of peach was performed using the Illumina Miseq 2000 system. Paired-end sequence from mRNAs generated high quality sequence reads (9,049,964, 10,026,362 and 10,101,918 reads) from 'Yaguchi' peach seeds before rinsed (BR) and after rinsed for 2 or 7 days with a chilling period of 4 weeks (termed 2D4W and 7D4W), respectively. The germination rate of 7D4W was significantly higher than that of 2D4W. In total, we obtained 51,366 unique sequences. Differential expression analysis identified 7752, 8469 and 506 differentially expressed genes from BR vs 2D4W, BR vs 7D4W and 2D4W vs 7D4W libraries respectively, filtered based on p-value and an adjusted false discovery rate of less than 0.05. This study identified genes associated with the rinsing and chilling process that included those associated with phytohormones, the stress response and transcription factors. 7D4W treatment downregulated genes involved in ABA synthesis, catabolism and signaling pathways, which

  1. Transcriptional Responses in Root and Leaf of Prunus persica under Drought Stress Using RNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksouri, Najla; Jiménez, Sergio; Wells, Christina E; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Gogorcena, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Prunus persica L. Batsch, or peach, is one of the most important crops and it is widely established in irrigated arid and semi-arid regions. However, due to variations in the climate and the increased aridity, drought has become a major constraint, causing crop losses worldwide. The use of drought-tolerant rootstocks in modern fruit production appears to be a useful method of alleviating water deficit problems. However, the transcriptomic variation and the major molecular mechanisms that underlie the adaptation of drought-tolerant rootstocks to water shortage remain unclear. Hence, in this study, high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to assess the transcriptomic changes and the key genes involved in the response to drought in root tissues (GF677 rootstock) and leaf tissues (graft, var. Catherina) subjected to 16 days of drought stress. In total, 12 RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced. This generated a total of 315 M raw reads from both tissues, which allowed the assembly of 22,079 and 17,854 genes associated with the root and leaf tissues, respectively. Subsets of 500 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in roots and 236 in leaves were identified and functionally annotated with 56 gene ontology (GO) terms and 99 metabolic pathways, which were mostly associated with aminobenzoate degradation and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The GO analysis highlighted the biological functions that were exclusive to the root tissue, such as "locomotion," "hormone metabolic process," and "detection of stimulus," indicating the stress-buffering role of the GF677 rootstock. Furthermore, the complex regulatory network involved in the drought response was revealed, involving proteins that are associated with signaling transduction, transcription and hormone regulation, redox homeostasis, and frontline barriers. We identified two poorly characterized genes in P. persica: growth-regulating factor 5 (GRF5), which may be involved in cellular expansion, and AtHB12

  2. The contribution of stored malate and citrate to the substrate requirements of metabolism of ripening peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) flesh is negligible. Implications for the occurrence of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiani, Franco; Farinelli, Daniela; Moscatello, Stefano; Battistelli, Alberto; Leegood, Richard C; Walker, Robert P

    2016-04-01

    The first aim of this study was to determine the contribution of stored malate and citrate to the substrate requirements of metabolism in the ripening flesh of the peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivar Adriatica. In the flesh, stored malate accumulated before ripening could contribute little or nothing to the net substrate requirements of metabolism. This was because there was synthesis and not dissimilation of malate throughout ripening. Stored citrate could potentially contribute a very small amount (about 5.8%) of the substrate required by metabolism when the whole ripening period was considered, and a maximum of about 7.5% over the latter part of ripening. The second aim of this study was to investigate why phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) an enzyme utilised in gluconeogenesis from malate and citrate is present in peach flesh. The occurrence and localisation of enzymes utilised in the metabolism of malate, citrate and amino acids were determined in peach flesh throughout its development. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (essential for the synthesis of malate and citrate) was present in the same cells and at the same time as PEPCK and NADP-malic enzyme (both utilised in the dissimilation of malate and citrate). A hypothesis is presented to explain the presence of these enzymes and to account for the likely occurrence of gluconeogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Caracterização molecular dos alelos-S de incompatibilidade gametofítica em Prunus salicina Lindl. Molecular identification of S-alleles of gametophytic incompatibility in Prunus salicina Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalize Salete Mota

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pomares comerciais de ameixeira-japonesa devem conter pelo menos duas cultivares para obter boa fertilização, devido à presença do sistema de incompatibilidade gametofítica, que inibe a autofecundação da grande maioria das cultivares. No presente trabalho, buscou-se identificar e caracterizar molecularmente os alelos-S de 11 cultivares de ameixeira-japonesa (Prunus salicina Lindl. e verificar a compatibilidade entre os genótipos avaliados. As cultivares Santa Rosa, Santa Rita, Reubennel, Pluma 7, América, Rosa Mineira, Amarelinha, The First, Gulfblaze (Clone São Paulo, Gulfblaze (Clone Guaiba e Harry Pickstone foram analisadas por meio de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR com três pares de iniciadores específicos para alelos-S. As condições da PCR utilizadas, bem como as combinações de iniciadores, permitiram a identificação de alelos-S nas cultivares de P. salicina estudadas, bem como a indicação dos polinizadores mais compatíveis com algumas das principais cultivares utilizadas na produção de frutas. O sequenciamento de alguns dos alelos-S amplificados revelou elevada similaridade com sequências de nucleotídeos já identificados em outros trabalhos com Prunus spp.. Entretanto, a obtenção de sequências completas de maior número de alelos-S faz-se necessária para o estabelecimento de uma relação de identidade precisa entre os mesmos.Commercial plum orchards must contain at least two cultivars, in order to ensure good fruit set and thus high economic yields, because its carries the gametophytic incompatibility system, that inhibits the selfing in a great number of cultivares. The aim of this work was to identify by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction the S-alleles related to gametophytic incompatibility in eleven Prunus salicina (Lindl. cultivars. The Santa Rosa, Santa Rita, Reubennel, Pluma 7, América, Rosa Mineira, Amarelinha, The First, Gulfblaze (Clone São Paulo, Gulfblaze (Clone Guaíba e Harry Pickstone

  4. Management and cost accounting

    CERN Document Server

    Drury, Colin

    1992-01-01

    This third edition of a textbook on management and cost accounting features coverage of activity-based costing (ABC), advance manufacturing technologies (AMTs), JIT, MRP, target costing, life-cycle costing, strategic management accounting, total quality management and customer profitability analysis. Also included are revised and new end-of-chapter problems taken from past examination papers of CIMA, ACCA and ICAEW. There is increased reference to management accounting in practice, including many of the results of the author's CIMA sponsored survey, and greater emphasis on operational control and performance measurement.

  5. Beyond safety accountability

    CERN Document Server

    Geller, E Scott

    2001-01-01

    Written in an easy-to-read conversational tone, Beyond Safety Accountability explains how to develop an organizational culture that encourages people to be accountable for their work practices and to embrace a higher sense of personal responsibility. The author begins by thoroughly explaining the difference between safety accountability and safety responsibility. He then examines the need of organizations to improve safety performance, discusses why such performance improvement can be achieved through a continuous safety process, as distinguished from a safety program, and provides the practic

  6. Accounting for productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiyar, Shekhar; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2009-01-01

    The development accounting literature almost always assumes a Cobb-Douglas (CD) production function. However, if in reality the elasticity of substitution between capital and labor deviates substantially from 1, the assumption is invalid, potentially casting doubt on the commonly held view...... that factors of production are relatively unimportant in accounting for differences in labor productivity. We use international data on relative factor shares and capital-output ratios to formulate a number of tests for the validity of the CD assumption. We find that the CD specification performs reasonably...... well for the purposes of cross-country productivity accounting....

  7. IRBA SERIES : Accounting In Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Kiyomitsu

    1994-01-01

    Preface / Legal and Conceptual Framework of Accounting in Japan / Setting Accounting Standards in Japan - The American Influence and The Present Status / Accounting Education and Profession in Japan / The International Harmonization of Accounting Standards / The Accounting Standard Setting in Japan and Its Responses to International Accounting Standards / Selected Bibliography for Accounting in Japan

  8. Human Resource Accounting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, Michael J.

    1974-01-01

    Main objectives of human resource accounting systems are to satisfy the informational demands made by investors and by operating managers. The paper's main concern is with the internal uses of a human asset system. (Author)

  9. Valuation and creative accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Madalina VOINEA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the economic and financial valuation, that is the only type of valuation, based on a diagnosis and expertise, which has as objective to establish the market value of elements, whether goods or businesses, being a "orientation tool" for the economic operators on the market. There are specific means to measure value but there are also some mechanisms that can influence the value obtained, from the category of creative accounting. Creative accounting occurs due to human intervention and even the most advanced accounting systems are not able to do this due to the lack of reasoning. There must be also assumed that it is possible that these creative accounting techniques may be caused by a simple mistake and not necessarily with the intention of manipulating the financial results and reports. The aim of the paper is to see how specific element valuation can influence the general one, namely the value of a company.

  10. PLACING ACCOUNTING AMONG SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Deju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Framing accounting as a science has been carried out in close connection with the development of knowledge in this field and with the meaning given to this concept of “science”. Recognizing accounting as scientific field by specialists is due to the fact that it features a combination of accounting theory and methods for the development and application of these theories. Accounting is a scientific discipline in the social sciences because: it is a creation of the human being in response to practical needs; it reflects phenomena, activities and social facts; it addresses various groups of users (managers, bankers, shareholders, employees, tax bodies, etc. which are an integral part of society; it offers information necessary to decision-making, most of the times with impact on the behaviour of individuals; it is influenced by the economic, social, legal and political environment, that is by social phenomena.

  11. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  12. History of Accounting Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rinaz Z. Mukhametzyanov; Fatih Sh. Nugaev; Lyaisan Z. Muhametzyanova

    2017-01-01

    Everyone is well aware that accounting is one of the most important areas of economy, which has become so widespread in our lives today that it is impossible to imagine modern business and economy without this component...

  13. Whole of Government Accounts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Chow, Danny; Day, Ronald

    for influence. We highlight three arenas where such contests are being played out: 1. Statistical versus GAAP notions of accounting value, which features in all accounting debates over the merits and costs of ex-ante versus ex-post notions of value (i.e., the relevance versus reliability debate); 2. Private......In our comparative study, we surveyed an emerging literature on the use of consolidation in government accounting and develop a research agenda. We find heterogeneous approaches to the development of consolidation models across the five countries (Australia, New Zealand, UK, Canada and Sweden...... of financial reporting (GAAP)-based reforms when compared with budget-centric systems of accounting, which dominate government decision-making. At a trans-national level, there is a need to examine the embedded or implicit contests or ‘trials of strength’ between nations and/or institutions jockeying...

  14. Verification Account Management System (VAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Verification Account Management System (VAMS) is the centralized location for maintaining SSA's verification and data exchange accounts. VAMS account management...

  15. Managing Public Accountability : How Public Managers Manage Public Accountability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schillemans, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Accountability is of growing importance in contemporary governance. The academic literature on public accountability is fraught with concerned analyses, suggesting that accountability is a problematic issue for public managers. This article investigates how public managers experience accountability

  16. The marketization of accountancy

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, Claire-France

    2015-01-01

    The 1980s were marked by the introduction of marketing expertise into the accounting field as an influential area of knowledge. Previously disregarded and even formally forbidden by the profession, marketing initiatives became essential for the advancement of an increasingly profit-centered practice. Within just a few years, marketing became an obligatory passage point within accountancy in order to attract and maintain clientele, recruit qualified staff, and retain competent employees. Based...

  17. Nanotechnology and accounting issues

    OpenAIRE

    Abedalqader Rababah

    2017-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a new advanced technology used in the industry. This study conducted an investigation on the literature and highlighted the accounting issues which related to the implement of nanotechnology, especially the change of cost structure and expected solutions for the increasing of indirect costs which need more accurate allocation to the unit of products. Also, this study investigated on the future expected accounting risks for using nanotechnology. Finally, this study will open ...

  18. Lead residues in eastern tent caterpillars (Malacosoma americanum) and their host plant (Prunus serotina) close to a major highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Moore, J.

    1980-01-01

    Eastern tent caterpillars, Malacosoma americanum (F.) (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae and leaves of their host plant, black cherry, Prunus serotina Ehrh., were collected in May, 1978, at various distances from the Baltimore-Washington Parkway, Prince George's Co., MD, and were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Caterpillars collected within 10 m of the parkway contained 7.1-7.4 ppm lead (dry weight). Caterpillars collected at greater distances from the parkway and from a control area had lead concentrations ca. half as high (2.6-5.3 ppm). Lead concentrations in caterpillars averaged 76% as high as those in leaves and were much lower than concentrations that have been reported in some roadside soil and litter invertebrates

  19. Ozone uptake (flux) as it relates to ozone-induced foliar symptoms of Prunus serotina and Populus maximowiziixtrichocarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orendovici-Best, T; Skelly, J M; Davis, D D; Ferdinand, J A; Savage, J E; Stevenson, R E

    2008-01-01

    Field studies were conducted during 2003 and 2004 from early June to the end of August, at 20 sites of lower or higher elevation within north-central Pennsylvania, using seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.) and ramets of hybrid poplar (Populus maximowiziixtrichocarpa). A linear model was developed to estimate the influence of local environmental conditions on stomatal conductance. The most significant factors explaining stomatal variance were tree species, air temperature, leaf vapor pressure deficit, elevation, and time of day. Overall, environmental factors explained less than 35% of the variation in stomatal conductance. Ozone did not affect gas exchange rates in either poplar or cherry. Ozone-induced foliar injury was positively correlated with cumulative ozone exposures, expressed as SUM40. Overall, the amount of foliar injury was better correlated to a flux-based approach rather than to an exposure-based approach. More severe foliar injuries were observed on plants growing at higher elevations.

  20. Molecular characterization of cDNAs corresponding to genes expressed during almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mas, J; Messeguer, R; Arús, P; Puigdomènech, P

    1995-01-01

    A number of different cDNA clones corresponding to the most abundant mRNAs present in immature seeds have been isolated from an almond (Prunus amygdalus cv. Texas) immature seed cDNA library. Those corresponding to proteins involved in storage processes have been further characterized. Two of these cDNAs (PA3BF1 and PA3BE12) code for the almond globulins (prunins), the main family of storage proteins synthesized in seeds during embryogenesis, and another cDNA (PA3BA1) codes for the 15.7 kDa almond oleosin, a protein located on the surface of oil bodies in plant seeds. These cDNAs have been sequenced and their expression during almond fruit development has been studied. Their expression is seed-specific and localized in cotyledons around 100 days after flowering. Both prunin and oleosin genes are present in one or two copies in the almond genome.

  1. [Spatial autocorrelation of genetic structure of Prunus padus population in broadleaved Korean pine forest of Changbai Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiao-Min; Shi, Shuai; Wang, Zheng-Feng; Ye, Wan-Hui; Hao, Zhan-Qing

    2014-02-01

    All 396 Prunus padus individuals of the population with DBH (diameter at breast height) > or = 1 cm were sampled in a 25 hm2 broadleaved Korean pine forest plot of Changbai Mountains and divided into three DBH classes: 1-3 cm, 3-10 cm, and >10 cm. They were then genotyped using microsatellite loci. The spatial autocorrelation of their genetic structure was analyzed at different distance classes and life stages. The results showed that positive autocorrelation mainly occurred at scales less than 70 m, while negative autocorrelation occurred at scales larger than 110 m. The spatial genetic structure (SGS) at different life stages was similar due to limited pollen/seed dispersal and asexual reproduction. No significant self-thinning occurred in the studied population.

  2. Influence of Phosphate Compounds on Certain Fungi and Their Preservative Effects on Fresh Cherry Fruits (Prunus cerasus, L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, F. J.; Coblentz, W. S.; Chou, T. W.; Salunkhe, D. K.

    1968-01-01

    Studies were conducted to ascertain the retarding effects of four phosphate compounds (sodium hexametaphosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium tetraphosphate, and tetrasodium pyrophosphate) on molding of fresh cherries (Prunus cerasus, L.). In vitro studies on their antimycotic effects against the most common fungal spoilers, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus nigricans, and Botrytis sp., were also carried out. Sodium tetraphosphate appeared to be the most effective compound in preserving cherries and also had the greatest antimycotic effects in the in vitro studies. A 10% concentration, when applied as a dip, inhibited fungal growth on fresh cherries for up to 30 days of storage at 1.1 C (34 F) and a relative humidity of 94%, whereas untreated controls showed fungal growth at 14 days. Following in order of effectiveness were sodium hexametaphosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, and tetrasodium pyrophosphate. PMID:4295176

  3. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Sweet Cherries (Prunus Avium L. from West and South-West of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases (such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Currently, most research is focused on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant compounds found in fruit and vegetable. Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. contain a significant amount of polyphenols and several antioxidants that possess many biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties. In present study were investigated the quantification of total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity in fruits of a number of selected sweet cherry genotypes. Although sweet cherry fruits are a significant source of different phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity of sweet cherries is not related only with the total phenolic content.  

  4. Adsorption Properties of Low-Cost Biomaterial Derived from Prunus amygdalus L. for Dye Removal from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability of Prunus amygdalus L. (almond shell for dye removal from aqueous solutions was investigated and methyl orange was used as a model compound. The effects of operational parameters including pH, ionic strength, adsorbent concentration and mesh size, dye concentration, contact time, and temperature on the removal of dye were evaluated. The adsorption kinetics conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data pointed out excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 41.34 mg g−1 at 293 K. Thermodynamic analysis proved a spontaneous, favorable, and exothermic process. It can be concluded that almond shell might be a potential low-cost adsorbent for methyl orange removal from aqueous media.

  5. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 232, Accounts... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232, Accounts...

  6. Changes in biochemical compounds in flesh and peel from Prunus persica fruits grown in Tunisia during two maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbou, Samia; Lussiana, Carola; Maatallah, Samira; Gasco, Laura; Hajlaoui, Hichem; Flamini, Guido

    2016-03-01

    Plants can synthesize tens to hundreds of thousands of primary and secondary metabolites with diverse biological properties and functions. Fatty acids (FA), phenolic compounds (PC) and volatile compounds (VC) of flesh and peel from three Prunus persica cultivars were evaluated at the Regional Centre of Agricultural Research--Experimental Farm (Sidi Bouzid, Tunisia) during two maturation stages. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids are the most abundant FA in Prunus persica cultivars. A genetic effect on FA composition was observed throughout the two sampling periods. Peel was rich in oleic acid with the highest content (31.3% on total FA) in 'O'Henry' cultivar at the commercial ripening date; flesh was rich in linoleic acid with the highest content (44.7% on total FA) in 'Sweet Cap' cultivar at the full ripening date. The monounsaturated/polyunsaturated fatty acids ratios were higher in the commercial ripe than in the full ripe fruits. The analysis of the composition of the VC led to the characterization of 98 different compounds, showing a very high variability among the cultivars. The full ripe fruit (peel and flesh) exhibited the highest total number of terpenoids. Commercial ripe peels were richest in the percentage of hydrocarbons. Comparing cultivars, 'Sweet Cap' cultivar showed the lowest contents of alcohols in peel and flesh of full ripe fruit but highest in peel of commercial ripe fruit, and lowest content of aldehydes in peel and flesh of commercial ripe fruit but highest in peel of ripe ones and the highest ones of lactones. Among PC, the highest contents were observed for o-diphenols and the values showed varietal influence. Total phenols contents decreased during ripening process (p peel and flesh tissues, except found for 'Sweet Cap' cultivar. In conclusion, to achieve better FA composition and greater VC and PC production of the peach fruit, P. persica cultivars should be harvested at the commercial ripening date. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS

  7. The role of polar auxin transport through pedicels of Prunus avium L. in relation to fruit development and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Mark A; Stankiewicz-Davies, Anna P; Crisp, Carol M; Atkinson, Christopher J

    2004-09-01

    It was investigated whether premature fruit abscission in Prunus avium L. was triggered by a reduction in polar auxin transport (PAT). The capacity of pedicels to transport tritiated IAA ([3H]-IAA) via the PAT pathway was measured at intervals throughout flower and fruit development. The extent of passive diffusion, assessed by concurrent applications of [14C]-benzoic acid ([14C]-BA), was negligible. Transported radioactivity recovered from agar blocks eluted at the same retention time as authentic [3H]-IAA during HPLC fractionation. The capacity for PAT was already high 7 d before anthesis and increased further following the fertilization of flowers at anthesis. PAT intensity was greatest immediately following fertilization and at the beginning of the cell expansion phase of fruit growth; the transport intensity in fruitlets destined to abscind was negligible. The amount of endogenous IAA moving through the PAT pathway was greatest during the first 3 weeks after fertilization and was again high at the beginning of the fruit expansion stage. IAA export in the phloem increased following fertilization then declined below detectable levels. ABA export in the phloem increased markedly during stone formation and at the onset of fruit expansion. TIBA applied to pedicels of fruit in situ promoted fruitlet abscission in 2000 but not in 2001, despite PAT capacity being reduced by over 98% in the treated pedicels. The application of TIBA to pedicels did not affect fruit expansion. The role of PAT and IAA in relation to the development and retention of Prunus avium fruit is discussed.

  8. Green synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets with use of Prunus persica for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atchudan, Raji, E-mail: atchudanr@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Perumal, Suguna [Department of Applied Chemistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • N-GCSs was synthesized from the unripe Prunus persica by direct hydrothermal method. • The resulting N-GCSs-2 exhibit an excellent graphitization with 9.33% of nitrogen. • N-GCSs-2 provide high C{sub s} of 176 F g{sup −1} at current density of 0.1 A g{sup −1} in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. • N-GCSs-2 have high capacitance retention and 20% capacity growth after 2000 cycles. • First time, N-GCSs resulted from peach via green route for flexible supercapacitors. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets (N-GCSs) were prepared from the extract of unripe Prunus persica fruit by a direct hydrothermal method. The synthesized N-GCSs were examined by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HRTEM showed that the synthesized carbon sheets were graphitic with lattice fringes and an inter-layer distance of 0.36 nm. Doping with the nitrogen moiety present over the synthesized GCSs was confirmed by XPS, FT-IR spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping. The fruit extract associated with hydrothermal-carbonization method is economical and eco-friendly with a single step process. The resulting carbon sheets could be modified and are promising candidates for nano-electronic applications, including supercapacitors. The synthesized N-GCSs-2 provided a high specific capacitance of 176 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.1 A g{sup −1}. This electrode material has excellent cyclic stability, even after 2000 cycles of charge-discharge at a current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1}.

  9. Diversità funzionale in cloni di ciliegio da legno (Prunus avium L. di provenienza Appennino toscano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cutini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Functionality in wild cherry (Prunus avium L. clones of Tuscany Appenines provenances. Results of a research regarding the functionality of already selected wild cherry (Prunus avium L. clones are reported. The main target was to select the genotypes with the best ecological efficiency and less sensible to environmental stress, in order to give concrete indications for arboriculture for wood productions. Starting from 2002, measurements were carried out in the experimental plot of Papiano (Stia, AR, where the following clones with provenance from the Tuscan Apennines were compared: Casina Alpe 1 (A, Casina Alpe 2 (D, Puzzòlo (C, Paradisino (E, Piantata Catenaia (F. Dendrometrical data were collected at the beginning and at the end of each season, in order to evaluate the growth and the individual current increment of the clones. To better characterize the canopies of each clone, measurements of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR and of the leaf area index (LAI where carried out with ceptometers and PCA LAI 2000. In order to evaluate differences between the clones regarding functionality and response to environmental stress, growth and productivity were related to the most important canopy characteristics. Ecological efficiency was calculated for the different clones using the net assimilation rate (NAR. The results show that the clone E has the most developed canopies and the best results in terms of growth. But at the same time it also presents densely branched round canopies and results more sensible to the effects of summer drought. These elements contribute to advise against the use of this clone in future genetic improvement programs and in high quality wood productions. On the contrary, the clones C and A have both good growth characteristics and a better general architecture and are therefore advised for high quality wood productions especially in the same geographic region.

  10. Cost object in accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertruda Świderska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Polish literature in the field of accounting there are many synonymous terms such as the object of cost calculation, cost unit, or cost driver. Their definitions are often very similar, and their use in certain cir-cumstances unclear. This article aims to answer the question whether the term costs object meaning „something whose cost is of interest to accounting information users”, can replace previously used terms. The analysis applies to literature in Polish, in which different schools have developed their own terms, which is connected with the tradition of schools of accounting in Poland and the evolution of the con-cepts. The analysis aims to verify the hypothesis that for many synonymous terms used in publications in the field of accounting a universal solution can be proposed, taking into account the technological pro-gress and changing user needs. The research methods used include a systematic review of literature in Polish from the period 1966 to 2016 and an analysis of the terms.

  11. Power, policy and the Prunus africana bark trade, 1972-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A; Anoncho, V F; Sunderland, T

    2016-02-03

    After almost 50 years of international trade in wild harvested medicinal bark from Africa and Madagascar, the example of Prunus africana holds several lessons for both policy and practice in the fields of forestry, conservation and rural development. Due to recent CITES restrictions on P. africana exports from Burundi, Kenya and Madagascar, coupled with the lifting of the 2007 European Union (EU) ban in 2011, Cameroon's share of the global P. africana bark trade has risen from an average of 38% between 1995 and 2004, to 72.6% (658.6 metric tons) in 2012. Cameroon is therefore at the center of this international policy arena. This paper draws upon several approaches, combining knowledge in working with P. africana over a 30-year period with a thorough literature review and updated trade data with "ground-truthing" in the field in 2013 and 2014. This enabled the construction of a good perspective on trade volumes (1991-2012), bark prices (and value-chain data) and the gaps between research reports and practice. Two approaches provided excellent lenses for a deeper understanding of policy failure and the "knowing-doing gap" in the P. africana case. A similar approach to Médard's (1992) analyses of power, politics and African development was taken and secondly, studies of commodity chains that assess the power relations that coalesce around different commodities (Ribot, 1998; Ribot and Peluso, 2003). Despite the need to conserve genetically and chemically diverse P. africana, wild populations are vulnerable, even in several "protected areas" in Burundi, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and in the forest reserves of Madagascar. Secondly, hopes of decentralized governance of this forest product are misplaced due to elite capture, market monopolies and subsidized management regimes. At the current European price, for P. africana bark (US$6 per kg) for example, the 2012 bark quota (658.675t) from Cameroon alone was worth over US$3.9 million, with the majority of

  12. Generational Accounting in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Salehi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study of the generation accounts for Iranian’s generation. We applied the method of Auerbach, Gokhale and Kotlihoff (1991 on the period 1967-2008 in Iran. Our calculation shows with compare to industrial countries, fiscal burden for Iranian’s population is very chip and that depend on fiscal system in Iran. Except the recent years the rate of tax in Iran has been very low. The generation account for the old people (40 olds is 2117 $ but the future generation (t+1 is 36985 $. The share of male and female, during the years, in this burden is similar. Fiscal burden for Iranian’s generation is low but this population should support other burden that calls inflation. Because when the government do not receive the tax income, a low generation account transfer to price general level.

  13. Accounting for Universities’ Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perkmann, Markus; Fini, Riccardo; Ross, Jan-Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present an approach that aims to comprehensively account for scientists’ academic engagement and commercialization activities. While previous research has pointed to the economic and social impact of these activities, it has also been hampered by the difficulties of accurately quantifying them....... Our approach complements university administrative records with data retrieved from external sources and surveys to quantify academic consulting, patenting, and academic entrepreneurship. This allows us to accurately account for ‘independent’ activity, i.e., academic engagement and commercialization...... by not accounting for independent activities. However, with the exception of consulting, we find no significant differences between individuals involved in supported (university-recorded) and independent activity, respectively. Our study contributes to work concerned with developing appropriate and accurate...

  14. Global Account Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Wulff, Vlad Stefan

    2012-01-01

    the importance of multilevel relationships in strategic business-to-business relationships. The purpose of this study is to address various issues related to multilevel relationships in strategic partnerships (e.g. the recruitment of the global account manager and his supporting team, turf wars and compensation......Global account management (GAM) has become a critical issue for many multinational corporations that compete in a fast changing global market environment. In this article, we approach GAM from a benchlearning perspective, synthesize selected literature and examine case studies in order to underline...

  15. Variation in Minerals, Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Peel and Pulp of Different Varieties of Peach (Prunus persica L.) Fruit from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Ashraf; Zahed Mahmood; Umer Rashid; Maleeha Manzoor; Farooq Anwar

    2012-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica L.), being a potential source of bioactive compounds, has been demonstrated to have medicinal benefits. In this study variation of minerals and antioxidant characteristics (total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of peroxidation using linoleic acid system and DPPH free radical scavenging activity) between peel and pulp parts of different peach varieties, namely Golden, Shireen, and Shahpasand were investigated. T...

  16. Improvement of Root System Architecture in Peach (Prunus persica) Seedlings by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, Related to Allocation of Glucose/Sucrose to Root

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Guo-Huai LI; Zou, Ying-Ning

    2011-01-01

    Root system architecture (RSA) is used to describe the spatial configuration of a root system in the soil, which substantially determines the capacity of a plant to take up nutrients and water. The present study was to assess if arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Glomus mosseae, G. versiforme, and Paraglomus occultum would alter RSA of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) seedlings, and the alteration due to mycorrhization was related to allocation of glucose/sucrose to root (Aglucose/sucrose). ...

  17. Effects of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. extract and methyl vanillate on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions and TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced chemokines production in HaCaT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sue Ji; Kim, Myungsuk; Randy, Ahmad; Nam, Eui Jeong; Nho, Chu Won

    2016-11-01

    Here, we hypothesized that Hovenia dulcis branch extract (HDB) and its active constituents ameliorates 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions by modulating the T helper Th1/Th2 balance in NC/Nga mice and TNF-α- and IFN-γ-induced production of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) in HaCaT cells. HaCaT cells were stimulated by TNF-α/IFN-γ in the presence of HDB and its constituents. TARC and MDC were measured by ELISA and RT-PCR. For the in-vivo study, oral feeding of HDB was performed for 5 weeks with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) treatment every other day. The efficacy of HDB on parameters of DNCB-induced AD was evaluated morphologically, physiologically and immunologically. In-vitro studies showed that HDB and its constituents suppressed TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced production of TARC and MDC in HaCaT cells by inhibiting MAPK signalling. In-vivo studies showed that HDB regulated immunoglobulin (Ig) E and immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) levels in serum and the expression of mRNA for Th1- and Th2-related mediators in skin lesions. Histopathological analyses revealed reduced epidermal thickness and reduced infiltration of skin lesions by inflammatory cells. These results suggest that HDB inhibits AD-like skin diseases by regulating Th1 and Th2 responses in NC/Nga mice and in HaCaT cells. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. The effect of different types of rootstock on the quality of maiden trees of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cv. ‘Regina’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the period 2006–2009 in Lublin, a study was conducted to determine the effect of five types of rootstock: ‘Colt’, ‘F12/1’, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘GiSelA 5’ and ‘Piast’ mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L., on the growth and quality of maiden sweet cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ in a commercial nursery. Based on the three-year average, rootstocks were shown to have a significant effect on the investigated quality characteristics of maiden sweet cherry trees. Trees budded on ‘Colt’ vegetative rootstock were characterized by strongest growth and best quality. In each year, they were thicker, higher and better branched than sweet cherries on the rootstock. Under the tested conditions, ‘GiSelA 5’ dwarf rootstock significantly reduced the growth and quality of budded sweet cherry trees in the nursery. During the period 2007–2009, no physiological incompatibility symptoms were observed ‘Regina’ sweet cherry cv. and ‘Piast’ seedling rootstocks. The growth of trees budded on ‘Piast’ mahaleb cherry was poorer than on ‘Colt’ clonal rootstock, but it was stronger than on ‘F12/1’ and Prunus avium L. rootstocks.

  19. Human Resource Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Robert L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An interview is reported which discussed the implications for the hiring, recruiting, screening and development of employees in the light of human resource accounting, here defined as the identification, accumulation and dissemination of information about human resources in dollar terms. (SA)

  20. Accountability Measures Report, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota University System, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This document is a valuable tool for demonstrating that the University System is meeting the "flexibility with accountability" expectations of SB 2003 passed by the 2001 Legislative Assembly. The 2006 report reflects some of the many ways North Dakota University System (NDUS) colleges and universities are developing the human capital…

  1. Essays in Financial Accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Jiao (Tao)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation aims to contribute to the literature about the quality of accounting information by investigating its interaction with institutional factors (i.e., their external environment) in which firms operate, such as industry and stock exchange. The research topics of this

  2. Hungary : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Hungary using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS),International Standards on Auditing (ISA), and the relevant portions of European Union (EU) law (also known as the acquis communautaire) as benchmarks. It also draws on ...

  3. Professional Capital as Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullan, Michael; Rincón-Gallardo, Santiago; Hargreaves, Andy

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to clarify and spells out the responsibilities of policy makers to create the conditions for an effective accountability system that produces substantial improvements in student learning, strengthens the teaching profession, and provides transparency of results to the public. The authors point out that U.S. policy makers will need…

  4. Project Lifescape: Butterfly Accounts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 3. Project Lifescape: Butterfly Accounts. Krushnamegh J Kunte. Classroom Volume 5 Issue 3 March 2000 pp 86-97. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/03/0086-0097 ...

  5. Accounting reference desktop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bragg, Steven M

    2002-01-01

    ... (John Wiley & Sons) Financial Analysis (John Wiley & Sons) Just-in-Time Accounting (John Wiley & Sons) Managing Explosive Corporate Growth (John Wiley & Sons) Outsourcing (John Wiley & Sons) Sales and Operations for Your Small Business (John Wiley & Sons) The Controller's Function (John Wiley & Sons) viiFrontmatter (i-xxvi) 3/...

  6. Management accounting for hospitals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management accounting for hospitals. Hennan leyenaar. The worldwide trend today is for the health sector to be under siege with increasing patient loads, more complex procedures and ever-rising medical costs. The cost of hospitalisation is the most dominant cost factor. absorbing most of the resources. Managing the ...

  7. Accounting for Organizational Innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Susanne Boch

    2013-01-01

    institutional logics to account for their creation of three different organizational innovations. While the concept of ‘institutional logic’ helped exploring the legitimizing social meanings embedded in the national reform and locally, the concept of ‘translation’ from actor-network theory shed light...

  8. Accounting for Fetal Origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The Fetal Origins hypothesis has received considerable empirical support, both within epidemiology and economics. The present study compares the ability of two rival theoretical frameworks in accounting for the kind of path dependence implied by the Fetal Origins Hypothesis. We argue that while...

  9. Narrative accounting disclosures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, Walter; Clubb, C.; Imam, S.

    2015-01-01

    Narrative accounting disclosures are an integral part of the corporate financial reporting package. They are deemed to provide a view of the company “through the eyes of management”. The narratives represent management's construal of corporate events and are largely discretionary. Research in

  10. Some Questions on Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Robert J. R.

    An educational publisher poses several questions that are related to accountability for the purpose of stimulating discussion on this topic at a national convention of social studies teachers. Is it appropriate to insist upon the verification or validation of instructional materials? Is it possible to make more money available for the purchase of…

  11. Fiscal Accounting Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Housing and Community Development, Sacramento. Indian Assistance Program.

    Written in simple, easy to understand form, the manual provides a vehicle for the untrained person in bookkeeping to control funds received from grants for Indian Tribal Councils and Indian organizations. The method used to control grants (federal, state, or private) is fund accounting, designed to organize rendering services on a non-profit…

  12. Consumption growth accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; de Groot, Olaf J.; Los, Bart

    The methodology in this paper combines an input-output structural decomposition approach with the supply-side perspective of mainstream growth accounting. In explaining the intertemporal change in consumption per worker, three sets of effects are distinguished. First, contributions due to several

  13. Excel in the Accounting Curriculum: Perceptions from Accounting Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran Rackliffe, Usha; Ragland, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Public accounting firms emphasize the importance of accounting graduates being proficient in Excel. Since many accounting graduates often aspire to work in public accounting, a question arises as to whether there should be an emphasis on Excel in accounting education. The purpose of this paper is to specifically look at this issue by examining…

  14. Accounting outsourcing and some problems of selected software for accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Turková, Lenka

    2009-01-01

    Diploma thesis on Accounting outsourcing and key problems of selected software for accounting deals with the accounting outsourcing. Work focuses here on the question of the proper selection of an accounting firm and on the conditions of cooperation with it. In this work the reader is also acquainted with some software for accounting and with their advantages and disadvantages.

  15. Managing global accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, George S; Bink, Audrey J M

    2007-09-01

    Global account management--which treats a multinational customer's operations as one integrated account, with coherent terms for pricing, product specifications, and service--has proliferated over the past decade. Yet according to the authors' research, only about a third of the suppliers that have offered GAM are pleased with the results. The unhappy majority may be suffering from confusion about when, how, and to whom to provide it. Yip, the director of research and innovation at Capgemini, and Bink, the head of marketing communications at Uxbridge College, have found that GAM can improve customer satisfaction by 20% or more and can raise both profits and revenues by at least 15% within just a few years of its introduction. They provide guidelines to help companies achieve similar results. The first steps are determining whether your products or services are appropriate for GAM, whether your customers want such a program, whether those customers are crucial to your strategy, and how GAM might affect your competitive advantage. If moving forward makes sense, the authors' exhibit, "A Scorecard for Selecting Global Accounts," can help you target the right customers. The final step is deciding which of three basic forms to offer: coordination GAM (in which national operations remain relatively strong), control GAM (in which the global operation and the national operations are fairly balanced), and separate GAM (in which a new business unit has total responsibility for global accounts). Given the difficulty and expense of providing multiple varieties, the vast majority of companies should initially customize just one---and they should be careful not to start with a choice that is too ambitious for either themselves or their customers to handle.

  16. Media Accountability Goes Online

    OpenAIRE

    Baisnée, Olivier; Domingo, David; Glowacki, Michal; Heikkilä, Heikki; Kus, Michal; Pies, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The Internet is both a challenge and an opportunity for media accountability. Newsrooms and citizens are adapting existing practices and developing new ones on news websites, weblogs and social media. This report offers the first comparative study on how these practices are being developed and perceived in thirteen countries in Europe (Bulgaria, Finland, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Serbia, United Kingdom), the Arab world (Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Tunisia) and North America (USA)....

  17. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects......: business entities, the transformation process, types of businesses, stakeholders, legislation, the annual report, the VAT system, double-entry bookkeeping, inventories, and year-end cast flow analysis....

  18. Sustainability, accounting and reporting

    CERN Document Server

    Balachandran, Kashi

    2011-01-01

    The topic of business sustainability is multidisciplinary in nature, and its complexity calls for putting in place a wide variety of research approaches, such as action research, case studies, surveys, model development etc. The papers presented in this ebook represent a comprehensive overview of recent advances in this area of accounting and reporting research. It contains six papers, covering how leasing can increase environmental benefits, CSR, developing social, environmental and economic indicators for SMEs, sustainability reporting and reputation risk and others.

  19. UTILIZACION DE ISOENZIMAS DE EXTRACTOS DE HOJAS EN LA CARACTERIZACION DE CULTIVARES DE DURAZNERO (Prunus persica (L Batsch THE USE OF ISOZYME LEAF EXTRACTS IN THE CHARACTERIZATION OF PEACH CULTIVARS (Prunus persica L Batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HECTOR ABEL ALTUBE

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available La caracterización de cultivares de duraznero (Prunus persica (L Batsch se hace por medio de la descripción de caracteres agronómicos y morfológicos codificados por organizaciones internacionales, los cuales están fuertemente influenciados por el ambiente. Se han buscado métodos alternativos de caracterización y las isoenzimas han sido utilizadas por su independencia de las condiciones del ambiente, además de identificar individuos en etapas tempranas de su desarrollo. El objetivo del presente estudio es caracterizar cultivares de duraznero mediante el análisis isoenzimático de catecol oxidasas, fosfatasas ácidas, esterazas y peroxidazos en extractos de hojas. Los cultivares de duraznero analizados presentaron bajo polimorfismo isoenzimático, las esterazas caracterizaron diez cultivares, las catecol oxidasas un cultivar agrupándose el resto en cinco modelos, las fosfatasas ácidas caracterizaron dos cultivares agrupándose los otros en siete modelos y las peroxidazos formaron tres grupos. Ello puede explicarse ya que el duraznero es una especie autofértil y presenta una base genética muy reducida. Los evidentes límites discriminatorios de este tipo de análisis hacen que su aporte sea sólo complementario a los métodos de los caracteres agronómicos y morfológicos.Characterization of peach cultivars (Prunus persica (L Batsh was made by description of agronomical and morphological characters codified from international organizations, which are strongly affected by environmental conditions. Alternative methods of characterization have been searched, and isoenzymes have been used as independent of environmental conditions in addition to identify some individuals in early stages of development. The goal of this study is the peach cultivars characterization by isoenzymatic analysis of catecol oxidases, acid phosphatases, esterases and peroxidases within the leaf extracts. The peach cultivars analyzed have showed low isoenzymatic

  20. Japanese Cost Accounting Systems - analysis of the cost accounting systems of the Japanese cost accounting standard

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, Winter

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at providing an insight into Japanese cost accounting. Firstly, the development of cost accounting in Japan is delineated. Subsequently, the cost accounting systems codified in the Japanese cost accounting standard are analysed based on the classification according to Hoitsch/Schmitz. Lastly, a critical appraisal of the cost accounting systems of the Japanese cost accounting standard as well as a comparison to German and American cost accounting systems are conducted.

  1. 77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost Accounting... correcting amendments. SUMMARY: The Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards...

  2. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  3. Improving School Accountability Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Kane; Douglas O. Staiger

    2001-01-01

    A growing number of states are using annual school-level test scores as part of their school accountability systems. We highlight an under-appreciated weakness of that approach the imprecision of school-level test score means -- and propose a method for better discerning signal from noise in annual school report cards. For an elementary school of average size in North Carolina, we estimate that 28 percent of the variance in 5th grade reading scores is due to sampling variation and about 10 pe...

  4. Total quality accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijašević Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of competitive "battle" shifted from the price towards non-price instruments, above all, towards quality that became the key variable for profitability increase and achievement of better comparative position of a company. Under such conditions, management of a company, which, according to the established and certified system of total quality, strives towards achieving of a better market position, faces the problem of quality cost measurement and determination. Management, above all, cost accounting can help in solving of this problem, but the question is how much of its potential is being used for that purpose.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana MIHAI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available From a company’s perspective, there seem to be two underlying forces driving company interest in various kinds of environmental performance data that might be considered varieties of accounting. The first is a growing demand from company stakeholders, based on an increased interest in environmental issues. Interested stakeholders are not only the consumers, but also industrial customers, financialinstitutions and others. For this reason, more and more companies are producing environmental reports, but these are often low on data content, which adversely affects company credibility on environmental issues.

  6. 76 FR 53378 - Cost Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board (Board), Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP... Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board, is providing public...

  7. Teaching Elementary Accounting to Non-Accounting Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Abbey, Augustus

    2009-01-01

    A central recurring theme in business education is the optimal strategy for improving introductory accounting, the gateway subject of business education. For many students, especially non-accounting majors, who are required to take introductory accounting as a requirement of the curriculum, introductory accounting has become a major obstacle for…

  8. Computerised Accounting Software; A Curriculum That Enhances an Accounting Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machera, Robert P.; Machera, Precious C.

    2017-01-01

    There has been an outcry in commerce and industry about students who fail to perform in the accounting department due to lack of "practical accounting skills". It is from this background that the researchers were motivated to investigate the impact of a Computerised Accounting Software Curriculum that enhances an Accounting Programme. At…

  9. The effect of the time of budding of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. seedlings on the quality of maiden trees of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. 'Łutówka'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted at the Felin Experi- mental Farm, belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin, during the period 2005–2008. The experimental material consisted of maiden trees of sour cherry 'Łutówka' budded on seedlings of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. of unknown origin. The experiment evaluated the effect of four budding times: 15 July, 1 August, 15 August, and 1 September, on the quality of cherry trees in a nursery. The mean for the three years showed that budding time did not have a significant effect on the quality of cherry trees in the nursery. It was observed that the budding of mahaleb cherry performed on the two August dates (1st and 15th had a more beneficial effect on the growth and branching of trees than the budding done on 15 July and 1 September. The quality of maiden cherry trees 'Łutówka' in the nursery was primarily dependent on weather conditions in a given growing season, which is evidenced by the significant differences between production cycles, high variation in the quantitative results in individual years, and the absence of significant differences in the mean for 2006–2008.

  10. Financial Accountant Versus Managerial Accountant in the Hotel Business System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Zubac

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of financial or managerial accountant, subject of interest in this paper is the relationship of financial and managerial accounting in the hotel business. Being necessary functions within the business system of hotel company, their mutual connection as well as their differences are explained. The management of hotel company makes decisions based on accounting information from both parts of accounting. As support to hotel management in decision-making, financial accountant provides financial information about past events, while managerial accountant provides non-financial information oriented toward future. The example above is just one out of many specific tasks, which are performed by accountants of specific part of hotel accounting system. Without their support, the management could not make correct and timely decisions with certainty. The importance of the roles of financial and managerial accountant is reflected through need for a wide knowledge in the field of accounting in specific business conditions of hotel industry.

  11. Role of Management Accounting in Accounting in General

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksandr Panadiy

    2015-01-01

    The article elucidates main scientific approaches to understanding of essence of management accounting. From scientific studies of domestic scientists it is concluded that most of them classify management accounting under competence of accounting in general. It is shown that the first institutional factors concomitant with division of general theory of accounting into financial and management components were development of forms of business and implementation of accounting standards and manua...

  12. Content of the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin in almond seeds related to the bitterness genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Arrázola; Raquel Sánchez P; Federico Dicenta; Nuria Grané

    2012-01-01

    Almond kernels can be sweet, slightly bitter or bitter. Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) and other Prunus species is related to the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. When an almond containing amygdalin is chopped, glucose, benzaldehyde (bitter flavor) and hydrogen cyanide (which is toxic) are released. This two-year-study with 29 different almond cultivars for bitterness was carried out in order to relate the concentration of amygdalin in the kernel with the phenotype...

  13. Dicty_cDB: VSG250 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 BU574126 |BU574126.1 PA__Ea0006F03f Almond developing seed Prunus dulcis cDNA clone PA__Ea0006F03f...010 1 BU044788 |BU044788.1 PP_LEa0020I02f Peach developing fruit mesocarp Prunus persica cDNA clone PP_LEa0020I02f

  14. Automated Accounting. Payroll. Instructor Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Duane R.

    This teacher's guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting Payroll Version 3.0 edition software in their accounting programs. The module contains assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting--payroll. Basic accounting skills are…

  15. Evaluation of multiple approaches to identify genome-wide polymorphisms in closely related genotypes of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seanna Hewitt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of genetic polymorphisms and subsequent development of molecular markers is important for marker assisted breeding of superior cultivars of economically important species. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. is an economically important non-climacteric tree fruit crop in the Rosaceae family and has undergone a genetic bottleneck due to breeding, resulting in limited genetic diversity in the germplasm that is utilized for breeding new cultivars. Therefore, it is critical to recognize the best platforms for identifying genome-wide polymorphisms that can help identify, and consequently preserve, the diversity in a genetically constrained species. For the identification of polymorphisms in five closely related genotypes of sweet cherry, a gel-based approach (TRAP, reduced representation sequencing (TRAPseq, a 6k cherry SNParray, and whole genome sequencing (WGS approaches were evaluated in the identification of genome-wide polymorphisms in sweet cherry cultivars. All platforms facilitated detection of polymorphisms among the genotypes with variable efficiency. In assessing multiple SNP detection platforms, this study has demonstrated that a combination of appropriate approaches is necessary for efficient polymorphism identification, especially between closely related cultivars of a species. The information generated in this study provides a valuable resource for future genetic and genomic studies in sweet cherry, and the insights gained from the evaluation of multiple approaches can be utilized for other closely related species with limited genetic diversity in the breeding germplasm.

  16. Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman: the overexploitation of a medicinal plant species and its legal context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeker, Gerard; van 't Klooster, Charlotte; Weisbord, Emma

    2014-11-01

    The linkage between herbal medicines and the sustainability of medical plants from which they are manufactured is increasingly being understood and receiving attention through international accords and trade labeling systems. However, little attention is paid to the fair trade aspects of this sector, including the issue of benefit-sharing agreements with traditional societies whose knowledge and resources are being exploited for commercial herbal medicine development and production. This article examines the case of Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman, from equatorial Africa. While the conservation and cultivation dimension of the trade in P. africana has been much discussed in literature, no research appears to have focused on the traditional resource rights and related ethical dimensions of this trade in traditional medicine of Africa. Serving as a cautionary tale for the unbridled exploitation of medicinal plants, the history of P. africana extraction is considered here in the context of relevant treaties and agreements existing today. These include the Nagoya Protocol, a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement from the World Trade Organization, and two African regional frameworks: the Swakopmund Protocol and the Organisation Africaine de la Propriété Intellectuelle Initiative. In the context of strengthening medicinal plant research in Africa, a novel international capacity-building project on traditional medicines for better public health in Africa will be discussed, illustrating how access and benefit sharing principles might be incorporated in future projects on traditional medicines.

  17. 1-Methylcyclopropene affects the antioxidant system of apricots (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Búlida) during storage at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Martínez-Madrid, Maria C; Romojaro, Felix; Sánchez-Bel, Paloma

    2010-03-15

    Apricots (Prunus armeniaca cv. Búlida) were treated with 1 μL L⁻¹ [corrected] 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) immediately after harvest and stored in air at 2 degrees C for 21 days. Antioxidant levels (ascorbic acid and carotenoids), enzymatic antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and unspecific peroxidase (POX)) and total antioxidant capacity (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)) were determined. The level of oxidative stress was also established by measuring ion leakage during storage. The changes in the antioxidant potential of apricots were related to the capacity of 1-MCP to increase their commercial life. 1-MCP-treated fruits exhibited higher SOD activity, whereas POX activity was significantly higher only after 21 days at 2 degrees C. Treated fruits also exhibited better retention of ascorbate and carotenoids and higher TEAC during storage. In accordance with these observations, lower ion leakage values were detected in 1-MCP-treated apricots. Taken together, these results suggest that 1-MCP conferred a greater resistance to oxidative stress. This, along with the reduction in ethylene production, could contribute to the increase in commercial life and nutritional value observed in 1-MCP-treated apricots.

  18. Sweet almond (Prunus amygdalus “dulcis” seeds as a potential feedstock for Nigerian Biodiesel Automotive Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Giwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents sweet almond (Prunus amygdalus “dulcis” seed oil (SASO as a non-conventional feedstock for the preparation of biodiesel in Nigeria, rather than the traditional oils of palm, groundnut and palm kernel. SASO was extracted via the solvent method, pretreated to reduce the acid value, and transesterified using methanol (solvent and sodium hydroxide (catalyst. The oil content and acid value of SASO were 51.45 ± 3.92% and 1.07 mg KOH/g, respectively. The fatty acid composition of SASO reveals the predominance of oleic acid (69.7%, linoleic acid (18.2% and palmitic acid (9.3%. Specific fuel properties of sweet almond oil methyl esters (SAOME were determined using standard test methods and were found to satisfy both EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards; the cold flow properties were particularly outstanding (cloud point; -3ºC and pour point; -9ºC. SASO appears to offer great promise as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production in Nigeria.

  19. Shade, leaf growth and crown development of Quercus rubra, Quercus velutina, Prunus serotina and Acer rubrum seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Kurt W.

    1994-01-01

    The study was conducted in an open field to determine the optimum irradiance for establishment and growth of two oak species and two major associated woody species. Half-sib seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and black oak (Q. velutina Lam.) were grown for two years under shade-cloth tents. Eight shade treatments (94, 70, 57, 45, 37, 27, 20 and 8% of full sunlight) with three replications each were used. Measurements were made on seedlings harvested at the end of the first and second growing seasons. In the second year, shading significantly decreased the number of leaves for all species except black cherry, but only significantly decreased leaf area in northern red oak. Shading significantly decreased average leaf size of red maple. Average leaf size of black cherry was largest in the intermediate shade treatments and decreased significantly with increased and decreased shade. Leaf weight/leaf area (mg cm(-2)) increased significantly in a quadratic pattern with decreasing shade for all four species. Leaf area ratio (cm(2) g(-1)) decreased significantly with decreasing shade for all species except red maple in the first year and black oak in the second year. Total branch development increased significantly with decreasing shade in red maple and northern red oak, whereas indeterminate branches increased significantly with decreasing shade only in black cherry, and short branches increased significantly with decreasing shade only in red maple.

  20. Comparison of kinetic and molecular properties of two forms of amygdalin hydrolase from black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, G W; Poulton, J E

    1986-06-01

    Two forms of the beta-glucosidase amygdalin hydrolase (AH I and II), which catalyze the hydrolysis of (R)-amygdalin to (R)-prunasin and D-glucose, have been purified over 200-fold from mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds. These proteins showed very similar molecular and kinetic properties but could be resolved by chromatofocusing and isoelectric focusing. AH I and II were monomeric (Mr 60,000) and had isoelectric points of 6.6 and 6.5, respectively. Their glycoprotein character was indicated by positive periodic acid-Schiff staining and by their binding to concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B with subsequent elution by alpha-Me-D-glucoside. Of the natural glycosidic substrates tested, both enzymes showed a pronounced preference for the endogenous cyanogenic disaccharide (R)-amygdalin. They also hydrolyzed at the same active site the synthetic substrates p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside and 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucoside but were inactive towards (R)-prunasin, p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucoside, and 4-methylumbelliferyl-alpha-D-glucoside. Maximum hydrolytic activity was shown in citrate-phosphate buffer in the pH range 4.5-5.0. AH I and II were inhibited competitively by the reaction product (R)-prunasin and noncompetitively (mixed type) by delta-gluconolactone and castanospermine.

  1. Isolation and characterization of multiple forms of mandelonitrile lyase from mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemm, R S; Poulton, J E

    1986-06-01

    Five multiple forms (forms 1-5) of mandelonitrile lyase (EC 4.1.2.10) which catalyze the decomposition of mandelonitrile to benzaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide have been extensively purified from seeds of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) by concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B chromatography and chromatofocusing. These forms are monomers which differ only slightly in molecular weight (57,000-59,000) and isoelectric point (4.58-4.63), but heterogeneity in their carbohydrate side-chains was suggested by concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B chromatography. The absorption spectra of the predominating forms 4 and 5 showed maxima of 278, 380, and 460 nm, indicative of flavoprotein character. Detailed comparative kinetic studies of forms 4 and 5 revealed few significant differences in behavior. Both proteins showed pH optima between 6.0 and 7.0, had identical Km values (0.17 mM) for (R,S)-mandelonitrile, and retained similar activities upon storage at 4 and -20 degrees C. Neither form exhibited a metal ion requirement and both were affected similarly by metal salts, beta-mercaptoethanol, and sulfhydryl reagents. Benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, and benzyl alcohol inhibited both forms.

  2. Characterization of white Mahlab (Prunus mahaleb L.) seed oil: a rich source of α-eleostearic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2014-05-01

    Seed oils with high polyunsaturated fatty acid content are used in various industries including the food and pharmaceutical industries. White mahlab (Prunus mahaleb L.) seed was found to contain 31% oil. The oil was highly polyunsaturated and abundant in α-eleostearic (38.32%), oleic (31.29%), and linoleic (22.96%) acids, which together comprised 93.91% of the total fatty acids. The α-eleostearic acid was identified and characterized based on (1)H-NMR, UV, and FTIR spectroscopy. The oil was characterized by a relatively high quantity of tocopherols with γ-tocopherol as the major tocopherol isomer. The physicochemical characteristics of the white mahlab seed and seed oil were also determined. The thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the oil was thermally stable up to 350 °C and began to decompose at 520 °C. This study demonstrated that these seeds may be reused and their oil incorporated into other food products, a beneficial practice considering that the compounds present in the seeds and oils have positive effects on human health. In this study, mahlab seed oil was found to have potentials to become a new edible oil source as it contained a high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids especially, α-eleostearic acid, which is a conjugated fatty acid rarely found in vegetable oils and has a beneficial effects on human health. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Novel insights for permeant lead structures through in vitro skin diffusion assays of Prunus lusitanica L., the Portugal Laurel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Maria do Céu; Duarte, Patrícia; Neng, Nuno R.; Nogueira, José M. F.; Costa, Filomena; Rosado, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    As a contribution for the generation of libraries in which a natural product (NP) is used as the guiding structure, this work sought to investigate molecular features of triterpenes as deliver leads to cross the stratum corneum at a significant rate. Seeking a bioguided investigation of the dermocosmetic lead-like potential of triterpenes in Prunus lusitanica L., various extracts were obtained by two different methods (Soxhlet extractor and Accelerated Solvent Extraction-ASE) and analyzed by GC-MS and NMR. In vitro assays were conducted to quantify the friedelin 1 and crude plant extract permeation through a membrane of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), as well as their skin penetration enhancement capacity using two model molecules, caffeine 19 and ibuprofen 20. Friedelin 1 was identified as the major component (16-77%, GC) with isolated yield of 51% w/w (94%, GC) from Soxhlet residue (1.7% p/p) of the dried aerial parts of the plant harvested when in early flowering stage. Friedelin 1 promoted the penetration of the lipophilic molecule 20, however, it did not influence the permeation of the hydrophilic permeant 20. On the other hand, the crude extract acted as a retardant of the penetration of both substances. Molecular characteristics for the applicability of P. lusitanica L. in the development of dermocosmetics, as well as a new potential use for friedelin 1 in particular, are demonstrated. Probable mechanisms for chemical penetration enhancement using triterpenes as models for transdermal administration are herein discussed.

  4. Genetic diversity and relatedness of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cultivars based on single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel eFernandez i Marti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD and SSR markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of SNP markers generated from 3’UTRs for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars and old cultivars imported from different parts of the world were screened with 7 SSR markers developed from other Prunus species and with 40 SNPs obtained from 3’UTR sequences of Rainier and Bing sweet cherry cultivars. Both types of marker study had 99 accessions in common. The SSR data was used to validate the SNP results. Results showed that the average number of alleles per locus, mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity and polymorphic information content (PIC values were higher in SSRs than in SNPs although both set of markers were similar in their grouping of the sweet cherry accessions as shown in the dendrogram. SNPs were able to distinguish sport mutants from their wild type germplasm. For example, ‘Stella’ was separated from ‘Compact Stella’. This demonstrates the greater power of SNPs for discriminating mutants from their original parents than SSRs. In addition, SNP markers confirmed parentage and also determined relationships of the accessions in a manner consistent with their pedigree relationships. We would recommend the use of 3’ UTR SNPs for genetic fingerprinting, parentage verification, gene mapping and study of genetic diversity in sweet cherry.

  5. Chemical constituents and ovicidal effects of mahlab, Prunus mahaleb L. kernels oil on cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mead Hala M.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The carried out investigations evaluated ovicidal activity of mahlab, Prunus mahaleb L. kernel oil against cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.. The chemical constituents of the fixed oil of mahlab were analyzed using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC. Timnodonic (33.07%, oleic (28.71% and linoleic (24.35% were the basic fatty acids, while the major hydrocarbon and sterol were found to be heneicosane (62.57% and β-sitosterol (10.57%. The LC50 values for the one-day-old egg masses were found to be more susceptible than 3-day-old ones. Moreover, the leaf dip technique occurred to be more efficient than spraying technique. The results also showed abnormalities in the external morphology of egg shell, chorion surface, shell imprints and aeropyles of S. littoralis eggs treated with mahlab and KZ oils as compared to a control by using scanning electron microscope. Generally, the tested oils significantly reduced the activities of transaminase enzymes (AST and ALT, acid and alkaline phosphatases and total soluble protein except mahlab oil on acid phosphatase as compared to a control. Additionally, the oils of both mahlab and KZ oil affected some biological aspects such as incubation period, larval duration, larval mortality and pupal weight comparing to a control.

  6. Physiological and foliar injury responses of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana, and Acer rubrum seedlings to varying soil moisture and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, M; Skelly, J M; Steiner, K C; Davis, D D; Pennypacker, S P; Zhang, J; Ferdinand, J A; Savage, J E; Stevenson, R E

    2003-01-01

    Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings were exposed to three different ozone scenarios (ambient air: 100% O3; non-filtered air: 98% ambient O3; charcoal-filtered air: 50% ambient O3) within each of two different water regimes (nine plots irrigated, nine plots non-irrigated) during three growing seasons. During the 1998 and 1999 growing season, leaf gas exchange, plant water relations, and foliar injury were measured. Climatic data,ambient- and chamber-ozone-concentrations were monitored. We found that seedlings grown under irrigated conditions had similar (in 1998) but significantly higher gas exchange rates (in 1999) than seedlings grown within non-irrigated plots among similar ozone exposures. Cherry and ash had similar ozone uptake but cherry developed more ozone-induced injury (moisture altered seedling responses to ambient ozone exposures.

  7. Plum (Prunus domestica) trees transformed with poplar FT1 result in altered architecture, dormancy requirement, and continuous flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Chinnathambi; Dardick, Chris; Callahan, Ann; Scorza, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    The Flowering Locus T1 (FT1) gene from Populus trichocarpa under the control of the 35S promoter was transformed into European plum (Prunus domestica L). Transgenic plants expressing higher levels of FT flowered and produced fruits in the greenhouse within 1 to 10 months. FT plums did not enter dormancy after cold or short day treatments yet field planted FT plums remained winter hardy down to at least -10°C. The plants also displayed pleiotropic phenotypes atypical for plum including shrub-type growth habit and panicle flower architecture. The flowering and fruiting phenotype was found to be continuous in the greenhouse but limited to spring and fall in the field. The pattern of flowering in the field correlated with lower daily temperatures. This apparent temperature effect was subsequently confirmed in growth chamber studies. The pleitropic phenotypes associated with FT1 expression in plum suggests a fundamental role of this gene in plant growth and development. This study demonstrates the potential for a single transgene event to markedly affect the vegetative and reproductive growth and development of an economically important temperate woody perennial crop. We suggest that FT1 may be a useful tool to modify temperate plants to changing climates and/or to adapt these crops to new growing areas.

  8. Draft genome sequence for virulent and avirulent strains of Xanthomonas arboricola isolated from Prunus spp. in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garita-Cambronero, Jerson; Palacio-Bielsa, Ana; López, María M; Cubero, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola is a species in genus Xanthomonas which is mainly comprised of plant pathogens. Among the members of this taxon, X. arboricola pv. pruni, the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruits and almond, is distributed worldwide although it is considered a quarantine pathogen in the European Union. Herein, we report the draft genome sequence, the classification, the annotation and the sequence analyses of a virulent strain, IVIA 2626.1, and an avirulent strain, CITA 44, of X. arboricola associated with Prunus spp. The draft genome sequence of IVIA 2626.1 consists of 5,027,671 bp, 4,720 protein coding genes and 50 RNA encoding genes. The draft genome sequence of strain CITA 44 consists of 4,760,482 bp, 4,250 protein coding genes and 56 RNA coding genes. Initial comparative analyses reveals differences in the presence of structural and regulatory components of the type IV pilus, the type III secretion system, the type III effectors as well as variations in the number of the type IV secretion systems. The genome sequence data for these strains will facilitate the development of molecular diagnostics protocols that differentiate virulent and avirulent strains. In addition, comparative genome analysis will provide insights into the plant-pathogen interaction during the bacterial spot disease process.

  9. Effect of Organic and Conventional Management on Bio-Functional Quality of Thirteen Plum Cultivars (Prunus salicina Lindl..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Julián Cuevas

    Full Text Available In this study, thirteen Japanese plum cultivars (Prunus salicina Lindl. grown under conventional and organic conditions were compared to evaluate the influence of the culture system on bioactive compounds. Their organic acids content (malic, citric, tartaric, succinic, shikimic, ascorbic and fumaric acid, total polyphenols, total anthocyanins, total carotenoids and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, ABTS were evaluated. The study was performed during two consecutive seasons (2012 and 2013 in two experimental orchards located at the IFAPA centre Las Torres-Tomejil (Seville, SW Spain. The culture system affected all the studied parameters except for total carotenoid content. The organic plums had significantly higher polyphenol and anthocyanin concentrations and a greater antioxidant capacity. Additionally, significant differences between cultivars were also found. 'Showtime' and 'Friar' were the cultivars with the highest polyphenol concentration and antioxidant capacity. 'Black Amber' had the highest anthocyanin content and 'Larry Ann' and 'Songold' the highest carotenoid content. 'Sapphire' and 'Black amber' were the cultivars with the highest concentration of ascorbic acid. Our results showed a strong year effect. In conclusion, organic management had an impact on the production of phytochemical compounds in plums.

  10. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Five Samples of Prunus mume Umezu from Different Factories in South and East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yi Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated chemical composition and antioxidant activities of umezu, pickling liquid of Prunus mume, from different factories in South and East China. The organic acid and phenolic acid profiles were also analyzed. Results showed that umezu was rich in organic acids and extremely sour as P. mume fruit in addition to its high NaCl level (≥20%. Total acid in umezu was more than 43.78 g/L in which main organic acids were citric acid and malic acid. Umezu contained more than 250.54 mg GAE/L total phenolic in which dominant phenolic acids were hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. Umezu exhibited powerful antioxidant activities in ORAC, ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. Reducing sugar, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activities of umezu were affected by sample origins and fruit cultivars. Given its rich flavor components and high antioxidant activity, umezu could serve as a new dietary supplement or a natural preservative in food industry.

  11. Host Suitability of Eight Prunus spp. and One Pyrus communis Rootstocks to Pratylenchus vulnus, P. neglectus, and P. thornei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Verdejo-Lucas, S; Marull, J

    1991-10-01

    The effects of Pratylenchus vulnus on rootstocks of eight commonly used Prunus spp. and one Pyrus communis were evaluated under greenhouse conditions during a 15-month period. In a first experiment, two almonds (Moncayo and Garrigues), one peach (GF-305), and two peach-almond hybrids (GF-677 and Adafuel) inoculated with 2,000 nematodes per plant proved to be good hosts of P. vulnus. Highest (P < 0.05) numbers of nematodes per gram of fresh root weight were recovered from Adafuel and GF-677. Root weights were higher in uninoculated compared to inoculated plants of all rootstocks, whereas top weights of uninoculated Garrigues, GF-305, and GF-677 differed (P < 0.05) from those of inoculated plants. In a second experiment, three plum (Marianna 2624, Myrobalan 605, and San Julian 655-2) and one pear (OHF-333) rootstocks were also found to be good hosts of P. vulnus, although significantly fewer nematodes were recovered from Myrohalan 605 roots than from the other three materials. Inoculated OHF-333 and San Julian 655-2 differed (P < 0.05) in root weights over uninoculated plants. Only inoculated San Julian 655-2 showed differences in top weights over uninoculated treatments. Rootstocks were poor or non-hosts for P. neglectus and P. thornei.

  12. The evaluation of extraction techniques for Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) from apple (Malus domestica) and cherry (Prunus avium) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Adrian L; Ullah, Roshan; Fountain, Michelle T

    2017-08-01

    Tetranychus urticae is a widespread polyphagous mite, found on a variety of fruit crops. Tetranychus urticae feeds on the underside of the leaves perforating plant cells and sucking the cell contents. Foliar damage and excess webbing produced by T. urticae can reduce fruit yield. Assessments of T. urticae populations while small provide reliable and accurate ways of targeting control strategies and recording their efficacy against T. urticae. The aim of this study was to evaluate four methods for extracting low levels of T. urticae from leaf samples, representative of developing infestations. These methods were compared to directly counting of mites on leaves under a dissecting microscope. These methods were ethanol washing, a modified paraffin/ethanol meniscus technique, Tullgren funnel extraction and the Henderson and McBurnie mite brushing machine with consideration to: accuracy, precision and simplicity. In addition, two physically different leaf morphologies were compared; Prunus leaves which are glabrous with Malus leaves which are setaceous. Ethanol extraction consistently yielded the highest numbers of mites and was the most rapid method for recovering T. urticae from leaf samples, irrespective of leaf structure. In addition the samples could be processed and stored before final counting. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed in detail.

  13. Rangewide determinants of population performance in Prunus lusitanica: Lessons for the contemporary conservation of a Tertiary relict tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Adara; Cáceres, Yonatan; Pulido, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Relict species are an extremely important part of biodiversity and as such studies on the factors that allow their current persistence are required. The aim of this study was to assess the determinants of the distribution and range-wide population performance of the Tertiary relict tree Prunus lusitanica L. This threatened species is confined to Iberia, Northern Morocco and Macaronesia with a fragmented and scattered distribution. Using ecological niche modelling, we calculated the level of range filling across the range and tested its relationship with human impact. We then assessed the relative importance of climatic suitability as obtained through niche modelling, topographic factors and contemporary human impact on range-wide population performance. Results showed that the species occupies only 2.4% of the overall area predicted to be climatically suitable for its presence and the level of range filling varied across regions. A weak negative relationship among range filling and human impact was found. Overall climatic suitability was the strongest predictor of population performance. However, it showed high variability across regions: the effect was positive in Iberia whereas negative but not significant in Macaronesia and Morocco. Human impact showed a significant negative effect and finally topographic factors such as altitude had a minor negative effect. Our results highlight that both climate and human impact play a major role in the current limited range filling and performance of the species. Management plans to minimize anthropogenic disturbances together with reforestation measures are urgently needed in order to conserve this unique species.

  14. Immune-enhancing effect of fermented Maesil (Prunus mume Siebold & Zucc.) with probiotics against Bordetella bronchiseptica in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Ko, Jae-Hyung; Cho, Sun-Ju; Koh, Hong-Bum; Yoon, So-Rah; Han, Dong-Un; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2010-09-01

    Maesil (Prunus mume) has long been used as a traditional drug and healthy food in East Asian countries. It possesses a number of beneficial biological activities including potential antimicrobial effects against pathogens. Probiotics also have antibacterial effects. Moreover, some probiotics have an important role in regulating the immune system. The present study evaluated the immune enhancing effects of fermented Maesil with probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus) in mice, especially against Bordetella bronchiseptica, as an initial step towards the development of feed supplements for the promotion of immune activity and prevention of disease, especially in pigs. Continuous ingestion of fermented Maesil with probiotics markedly increased the macrophage ratio in peripheral blood and the T lymphocyte ratio in the spleen. In addition, antibody production against formalin-killed B. bronchiseptica significantly increased in the mice fed fermented Maesil compared with the control group. The number of leukocytes was significantly higher in the bronchio-alveolar lavage obtained from the fermented Maesil-fed animals compared to it in the control group at day 3 (maximal peak time) after experimental B. bronchiseptica infection. Moreover, at 7 day post-infection, relative messenger RNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor- α and interferon-γ were significantly increased in splenocytes of mice fed fermented Maesil compared with those in the control group. Taken together, these findings suggest that feed containing fermented Maesil with probiotics enhances immune activity in mice, especially against B. bronchiseptica, via the potent stimulation of non-specific immune responses.

  15. SEEDLINGS GROWTH OF Prunus brasiliensis (Cham. & Schltdl. D. Dietr. IN SEWAGE SLUDGE-BASED COMPOST AND MINERAL FERTILIZER

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    Maurício Bergamini Scheer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987555The increasing amount of solid waste generates the need for its use. An opportunity is the use of sewage sludge to attend the demand for alternative inputs in the agricultural and forestry practices. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Prunus brasiliensis (Cham. & Schltdl. D. Dietr. (pessegueiro – bravo grown on substrates prepared from aerobic sewage sludge composted with ground tree pruning and with different levels of a granulated fertilizer, and to compare its performance with those grown on commercial substrate, which is widely used in forest nurseries. The experiment was conducted in a shadehouse (from July/08 to Oct/08 and in an outdoor growing area (from Nov/08 to Feb/09 at Sanitation Company of Paraná State, located in Araucária, southern Brazil. Three different substrates were used: commercial substrate, consisting of composted pine bark and vermiculite, and 3:1 (v:v and 2:1 (v:v composted substrate based on crushed tree pruning and sewage sludge. The following variables were measured: seedling height, diameter and biomass of leaves and branches. The results showed higher growth rates of seedlings grown on substrates containing sewage sludge than on those grown on commercial substrate. Both composts with sewage sludge, using the two levels of fertilization (2,7 and 4 g dm-3, present similar results for the majority of the variables tested.

  16. Factors affecting branch wound occlusion and associated decay following pruning – a case study with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

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    Jonathan Sheppard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pruning wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is a common silvicultural practice carried out to produce valuable timber at a veneer wood quality. Sub-optimal pruning treatments can permit un-occluded pruning wounds to develop devaluing decay. The aim of this study is to determine relevant branch, tree and pruning characteristics affecting the occlusion process of pruning wounds. Important factors influencing occlusion time for an optimised pruning treatment for valuable timber production utilising wild cherry are derived. 85 artificially pruned branches originating from ten wild cherry trees were retrospectively analysed. Branch stub length, branch diameter and radial stem increment during occlusion were found to be significant predictors for occlusion time. From the results it could be concluded that for the long term success of artificial pruning of wild cherry it is crucial to (i keep branch stubs short (while avoiding damage to the branch collar, (ii to enable the tree to maintain significant radial growth after pruning, (iii to avoid large pruning wounds (>2.5 cm by removing steeply angled and fast growing branches at an early stage.

  17. Discovery and Annotation of Plant Endogenous Target Mimicry Sequences from Public Transcriptome Libraries: A Case Study of Prunus persica.

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    Karakülah, Gökhan

    2017-06-28

    Novel transcript discovery through RNA sequencing has substantially improved our understanding of the transcriptome dynamics of biological systems. Endogenous target mimicry (eTM) transcripts, a novel class of regulatory molecules, bind to their target microRNAs (miRNAs) by base pairing and block their biological activity. The objective of this study was to provide a computational analysis framework for the prediction of putative eTM sequences in plants, and as an example, to discover previously un-annotated eTMs in Prunus persica (peach) transcriptome. Therefore, two public peach transcriptome libraries downloaded from Sequence Read Archive (SRA) and a previously published set of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were investigated with multi-step analysis pipeline, and 44 putative eTMs were found. Additionally, an eTM-miRNA-mRNA regulatory network module associated with peach fruit organ development was built via integration of the miRNA target information and predicted eTM-miRNA interactions. My findings suggest that one of the most widely expressed miRNA families among diverse plant species, miR156, might be potentially sponged by seven putative eTMs. Besides, the study indicates eTMs potentially play roles in the regulation of development processes in peach fruit via targeting specific miRNAs. In conclusion, by following the step-by step instructions provided in this study, novel eTMs can be identified and annotated effectively in public plant transcriptome libraries.

  18. Towards further understanding on the antioxidative activities of Prunus persica fruit: A comparative study with four different fractions

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    Dhingra, Naveen; Sharma, Rajesh; Kar, Anand

    2014-11-01

    In the present study we have evaluated the antioxidant activities of different fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions) of Prunus persica fruit. For extraction simple warring blender method was employed and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were correlated with different antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H2O2 scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, iron chelating and their reducing power properties). Different in vitro antioxidant studies showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions had the maximum activities that were well correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Maximum yield (25.14 ± 2.2%) was obtained in its aqueous fraction. Both ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed significant inhibitory effects on different antioxidant activities. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between total antioxidant activities and with total phenolic as well as total flavonoid contents. It appears that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. persica may serve as new potential sources of natural antioxidants and could be of therapeutic use in treating several diseases.

  19. Plum pox virus induces differential gene expression in the partially resistant stone fruit tree Prunus armeniaca cv. Goldrich.

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    Schurdi-Levraud Escalettes, Valérie; Hullot, Clémence; Wawrzy'nczak, Danuta; Mathieu, Elodie; Eyquard, Jean-Philippe; Le Gall, Olivier; Decroocq, Véronique

    2006-06-07

    We investigated the changes in the expression profiles of the partially resistant apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivar Goldrich following inoculation with Plum pox virus (PPV) using cDNA-amplification fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Altered expression patterns were detected and twenty-one differentially expressed cDNA had homologies with genes in databases coding for proteins involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense, stress and intra/intercellular connections. Seven of the modified expressed patterns were further investigated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR or Northern blotting. The expression patterns of five of these genes were confirmed in the partially resistant P. armeniaca cv. 'Goldrich' and assessed in a susceptible genotype. One of these cDNAs, coding for a putative class III chitinase, appeared to be repressed in infected plants of the partially resistant genotype and expressed in the susceptible one which could be related to the partially resistant phenotype. On the contrary, the expression patterns of the genes coding for a transketolase, a kinesin-like and an ankyrin-like protein, were clearly linked to the susceptible interaction. These candidate genes could play a role either in the compatible interaction leading to virus invasion or to the quantitative resistance of apricot to PPV.

  20. Green synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets with use of Prunus persica for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Perumal, Suguna; Lee, Yong Rok

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets (N-GCSs) were prepared from the extract of unripe Prunus persica fruit by a direct hydrothermal method. The synthesized N-GCSs were examined by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HRTEM showed that the synthesized carbon sheets were graphitic with lattice fringes and an inter-layer distance of 0.36 nm. Doping with the nitrogen moiety present over the synthesized GCSs was confirmed by XPS, FT-IR spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping. The fruit extract associated with hydrothermal-carbonization method is economical and eco-friendly with a single step process. The resulting carbon sheets could be modified and are promising candidates for nano-electronic applications, including supercapacitors. The synthesized N-GCSs-2 provided a high specific capacitance of 176 F g-1 at a current density of 0.1 A g-1. This electrode material has excellent cyclic stability, even after 2000 cycles of charge-discharge at a current density of 0.5 A g-1.

  1. Prunus persica var. platycarpa (Tabacchiera Peach): Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Pulp, Peel and Seed Ethanolic Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica R; Pacetti, Deborah; Lucci, Paolo; Núñez, Oscar; Menichini, Francesco; Frega, Natale Giuseppe; Tundis, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    A comparative analysis of ethanol extracts from peel, pulp and seed of Prunus persica var. platycarpa (Tabacchiera peach) was done. The total phenol, flavonoid and carotenoid content as well as the antioxidant properties by using different in vitro assays (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, Fe-chelating, β-carotene bleaching test) were evaluated. Pulp extract was subjected to liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, protocatechualdehyde, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid were identified as main constituents. Pulp extract was characterized by the highest total phytonutrients content and exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in all in vitro assays (IC(50) values of 2.2 μg/mL after 60 min of incubation by using β-carotene bleaching test and 2.9 μg/mL by using Fe-chelating assay). Overall, the obtained results suggest that P. persica var. platycarpa displays a good antioxidant activity and its consumption could be promoted.

  2. Variation Of Odour Profile Detected In The Floral Stages of Prunus Persica (L) Batsch Using An Electronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeria, Messina; Silvia, Radice; Rosa, Baby; de Reca Noemí, Walsöe

    2009-05-01

    Bees use signals from plants to identify worthwhile visits. They learn quickly to differentiate mainly their floral odor than their colour. In some species the flowers remain open, intact and turgid until they are pollinated (anthesis) after which they are no longer attractive to pollinators (post-anthesis). Pollinators use fragrance for distance orientation, approach, landing, feeding and associative learning. The aim of this work was to study the variation of odor profile between anthesis and post-anthesis produced in flowers of different cultivars of Prunus Persica (L.) batsch, using an electronic nose since odor is a communication between flowering plants and bees. Visual results on field showed that peach flowers are generally more visited in the anthesis stage. Among all the analysed cultivars, Forastero cultivar was the only one visited in this floral stage. Statistical analysis of the electronic nose data showed that doped semiconductuvtive SnO2 sensors could differentiate between stages (anthesis and post-anthesis) only in case of Forastero cultivar.

  3. Comparison between in toto peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) supplementation and its polyphenolic extract on rat liver xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canistro, Donatella; Vivarelli, Fabio; Cirillo, Silvia; Costa, Guglielmo; Andreotti, Carlo; Paolini, Moreno

    2016-11-01

    Over the past years, there has been a growing interest in the natural constituents of foods as a potential means of cancer control. To date, epidemiology studies seem to indicate an inverse association between regular consumption of fruit and vegetables and cancer risk. Here, the potential chemopreventive activity of the polyphenolic extract (PPE) of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and of the freeze-dried fruit in toto (LFT), focusing on the modulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) in vivo, was investigated. Rats were daily supplemented with LFT at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. or with the corresponding amount of PPE (2.5 and 5 mL/kg b.w., respectively) for either 7 or 14 days. While PPE treatment resulted in a widespread phase-I inactivation, a complex modulation pattern with drastic decreases (7α-testosterone hydroxylase, pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD)), coupled with marked up-regulations of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) after LFT administration, was seen. A notable down-regulation (over 50%) following LFT or PPE treatment for the phase-II enzymes was also recorded. The observed remarkable changes in XMEs, if reproduced in humans, might have public health implications. These data suggest caution in promoting peach fruit (mono-diet) consumption or its polyphenolic extract in the field of chemoprevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shenghua; Bielenberg, Douglas G; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana N; Reighard, Gregory L; Okie, William R; Holland, Doron; Abbott, Albert G

    2010-03-01

    *Chilling requirement, together with heat requirement, determines the bloom date, which has an impact on the climatic distribution of the genotypes of tree species. The molecular basis of floral bud chilling requirement is poorly understood, despite its importance to the adaptation and production of fruit trees. In addition, the genetic nature of heat requirement and the genetic interrelationships among chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date remain unclear. *A peach (Prunus persica) F(2) population of 378 genotypes developed from two genotypes with contrasting chilling requirements was used for linkage map construction and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. The floral bud chilling and heat requirements of each genotype were evaluated over 2 yr and the bloom date was scored over 4 yr. *Twenty QTLs with additive effects were identified for three traits, including one major QTL for chilling requirement and two major QTLs for bloom date. The majority of QTLs colocalized with QTLs for other trait(s). In particular, one genomic region of 2 cM, pleiotropic for the three traits, overlapped with the sequenced peach EVG region. *This first report on the QTL mapping of floral bud chilling requirement will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for low chilling requirement cultivars and the map-based cloning of genes controlling chilling requirement. The extensive colocalization of QTLs suggests that there may be one unified temperature sensing and action system regulating chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date together.

  5. Copigmentation triggers the development of skin burning disorder on peach and nectarine fruit [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantín, Celia M; Tian, Li; Qin, Xiaoqiong; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2011-03-23

    Skin burning is a new type of skin damage related to exposure to high pH values during the brushing-waxing postharvest operations that has been observed recently on some newly released peach and nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars. In this work, we described this skin disorder for the first time and studied its triggers and biological basis. Different skin burning susceptibility was observed after screening 21 peach and nectarine cultivars. The stability of the skin phenolic extracts to pH in the range 7-10 was studied by UV-visible spectroscopy. This study demonstrated that fruit skin phenolics are not stable at high pH and that the transformations occurring at high pH are reversible and time-dependent. The changes on the UV-visible absorption spectra at different pH values pointed out the copigmentation of anthocyanins as the mechanism beyond the skin burning disorder. Finally, some recommendations to minimize this postharvest damage are also discussed.

  6. Genome-wide analysis and identification of KT/HAK/KUP potassium transporter gene family in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z Z; Ma, R J; Yu, M L

    2015-01-30

    The KT/HAK/KUP family members encoding high-affinity potassium (K(+)) transporters mediate K(+) transport across the plasma membranes of plant cells to maintain plant normal growth and metabolic activities. In this paper, we identified 16 potassium transporter genes in the peach (Prunus persica) using the Hidden Markov model scanning strategy and searching the peach genome database. Utilizing the Arabidopsis KT/HAK/KUP family as a reference, phylogenetic analysis indicates that the KT/HAK/KUP family in the peach can be classified into 3 groups. Genomic localization indicated that 16 KT/HAK/KUP family genes were well distributed on 7 scaffolds. Gene structure analysis showed that the KT/HAK/KUP family genes have 6-9 introns. In addition, all of the KT/HAK/KUP family members were hydrophobic proteins; they exhibited similar secondary structure patterns and homologous tertiary structures. Putative cis-elements involved in abiotic stress adaption, Ca(2+) response, light and circadian rhythm regulation, and seed development were observed in the promoters of the KT/HAK/KUP family genes. Subcellular localization prediction indicated that the KT/HAK/KUP members were mainly located in the plasma membrane. Expression levels of the KT/HAK/ KUP family genes were much higher in the fruit and flower than those in the other 7 tissues examined, indicating that the KT/HAK/KUP family genes may have important roles in K(+) uptake and transport, which mainly contribute to flower formation and fruit development in the peach.

  7. Chemometric evaluation of trace metals in Prunus persica L. Batech and Malus domestica from Minićevo (Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagić, Slađana Č; Tošić, Snežana B; Dimitrijević, Mile D; Petrović, Jelena V; Medić, Dragana V

    2017-02-15

    The samples of spatial soils and different organs of Prunus persica L. Batech and Malus domestica were analyzed by methods such as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), One-way ANOVA, and calculation of biological accumulation factors (BAFs) with the aim of investigating whether these methods may help in the evaluation of trace metals in plants, as well as in the estimation of plant bioaccumulation potentials. ICP-OES provided accurate data on present concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, and Ni which showed that most concentrations were in normal ranges, except in some cases for Cu, Zn, and As. HCA illustrated nicely various specifics in the distribution of metals in both investigated systems plant-soil. One-way ANOVA pointed successfully on the existing statistical differences between metal concentrations. Calculated BAFs showed that both plants had very low accumulation rates for all elements; they acted as metal excluders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profile Analysis of Prunus persica in Response to Low Sink Demand after Fruit Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Hongguo; Liu, Guotian; Fan, Peige; Liang, Zhenchang; Li, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Prunus persica fruits were removed from 1-year-old shoots to analysis photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and genes changes in leaves to low sink demand caused by fruit removal (-fruit) during the final stage of rapid fruit growth. A decline in net photosynthesis rate was observed, accompanied with a decrease in stomatal conductance. The intercellular CO2 concentrations and leaf temperature increased as compared with a normal fruit load (+fruit). Moreover, low sink demand significantly inhibited the donor side and the reaction center of photosystem II. 382 genes in leaf with an absolute fold change ≥1 change in expression level, representing 116 up- and 266 down-regulated genes except for unknown transcripts. Among these, 25 genes for photosynthesis were down-regulated, 69 stress and 19 redox related genes up-regulated under the low sink demand. These studies revealed high leaf temperature may result in a decline of net photosynthesis rate through down-regulation in photosynthetic related genes and up-regulation in redox and stress related genes, especially heat shock proteins genes. The complex changes in genes at the transcriptional level under low sink demand provided useful starting points for in-depth analyses of source-sink relationship in P. persica.

  9. Anti-allergic inflammatory activity of the fruit of Prunus persica: role of calcium and NF-kappaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Tae-Yong; Park, Seung-Bin; Yoo, Jin-Su; Kim, In Kyeom; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kim, Moon Kyu; Kim, Jung Chul; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2010-10-01

    Mast cell-mediated allergic symptoms are involved in many diseases, such as asthma and sinusitis. In this study, we investigated the effect of ethanol extract of fruits of Prunus persica (L) Batsch (FPP) on the mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation and studied the possible mechanism of action. FPP dose-dependently inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis and immunoglobulin E-mediated local allergic reactions. Histamine releasing from mast cells was reduced by FPP, which was mediated by modulation of intracellular calcium. In addition, FPP attenuated the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human mast cells. The inhibitory effect of FPP on pro-inflammatory cytokines was nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB dependent. Our findings provide evidence that FPP inhibits mast cell-derived allergic inflammation and involvement of calcium and NF-kappaB in these effects. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of pulsed electric fields on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Kristine Ann Gualberto; Hamid, Nazimah; Oey, Indrawati; Gutierrez-Maddox, Noemi; Ma, Qianli; Leong, Sze Ying

    2015-03-23

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella). The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3) generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2). Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds.

  11. Chemical characterization and thermal properties of kernel oils from Tunisian peach and nectarine varieties of Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chamli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was conducted to determine the fatty acids, triacylglycerol compositions and thermal properties of Tunisian kernel oils from the Prunus persica varieties, peach and nectarine, grown in two areas of Tunisia, Gabes and Morneg. Qualitatively, the fatty acids composition and triacylglycerol species were identical for all samples. Oleic acid (67.7-75.0% was the main fatty acid, followed by linoleic (15.7-22.1% and palmitic (5.6-6.3% acids. The major triacylglycerol species were triolein, OOO (38.4-50.5%, followed by OOL (18.2-23.2%, POO (8.3-9.7% and OLL (6.3-10.1%. The thermal profiles were highly influenced by the high content of triolein due to the importance of oleic acid in these oils. Moreover, the fatty acids distribution in TAG external positions was determined as corresponding to an α asymmetry coefficient that was between 0.10 and 0.12, indicating a high asymmetry in the distribution of saturated fatty acids in the position sn-1 and sn-3 in the TAG species of all samples.

  12. Improvement of physicochemical properties and phenolic compounds bioavailability by concentrating dietary fiber of peach (Prunus persica) juice by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Sarahí; Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Amaya-Llano, Silvia; Rodríguez-García, Mario E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2017-12-06

    This study aimed to concentrate dietary fiber (DF) from peach (Prunus persica) juice by-product (PJBP), to improve its functional properties, and its polyphenols bioavailability. The dietary fiber concentrates (DFC) were obtained from PJBP using water/ethanol treatments (100:0, 20:80, 50:50, 80:20, and 0:100, v/v) at 1:5 ratio (wet weight/solvent, w/v) for 5 and 20 min at 21 °C. All treatments concentrated condensed tannins, total and insoluble DF, founding the highest content with 100% H2O treatment. The major polyphenols of DFC were 4-O-caffeoylquinic, chlorogenic, and 1,5-Di-O-caffeoylquinic acids. Water and oil retention capacity and maximum glucose diffusion rate were improved mainly with 100% H2O treatment. Healthy rats were fed with standard diet supplemented with 8% of PJBP, DFC obtained with 100% H2O for 5 min, or DFC obtained with 20% EtOH for 5 min. Gastrointestinal digesta weight and viscosity were increased in animals supplemented with 100% H2O DFC. Moreover, the urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites, mainly glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, was increased with this treatment, indicating a greater bioavailability of PJBP polyphenols, which was associated with an increased dietary fiber porosity. Water treatment could be used to potentiate PJBP functional properties and polyphenols bioavailability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood. Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ℃ were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness was largely determined by the yields of the Na2CO3- and KOH-soluble fractions, enriched in covalently-bound pectins and in matrix glycans, respectively, and correlated well with ascorbic acid contents. The yields of these two cell wall fractions were correlated inversely with pectinmethylesterase and endo-1,4-β-d-glucanase activities, indicating a relevant role of these two enzymes in postharvest firmness changes in sweet cherry. The amount of solubilised cell wall materials was closely associated to the contents of dehydroascorbic acid, suggesting the possible involvement of oxidative mechanisms in cell wall disassembly. These data may help understanding the evolution of fruit quality during the marketing period, and give hints for the design of suitable management strategies to preserve key attributes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Prunus domestica pathogenesis-related protein-5 activates the defense response pathway and enhances the resistance to fungal infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf El-kereamy

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis-related protein-5 (PR-5 has been implicated in plant disease resistance and its antifungal activity has been demonstrated in some fruit species. However, their roles, especially their interactions with the other defense responses in plant cells, are still not fully understood. In this study, we have cloned and characterized a new PR-5 cDNA named PdPR5-1 from the European plum (Prunus domestica. Expression of PdPR5-1 was studied in different cultivars varying in resistance to the brown rot disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Monilinia fructicola. In addition transgenic Arabidopsis, ectopically expressing PdPR5-1 was used to study its role in other plant defense responses after fungal infection. We show that the resistant cultivars exhibited much higher levels of transcripts than the susceptible cultivars during fruit ripening. However, significant rise in the transcript levels after infection with M. fructicola was observed in the susceptible cultivars too. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited more resistance to Alternaria brassicicola. Further, there was a significant increase in the transcripts of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and phytoalexin (camalexin pathway leading to an increase in camalexin content after fungal infection. Our results show that PdPR5-1 gene, in addition to its anti-fungal properties, has a possible role in activating other defense pathways, including phytoalexin production.

  15. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (≅45% more anthocyanins and ≅20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries.

  16. The phenology of cherry blossom (Prunus yedoensis ``Somei-yoshino'') and the geographic features contributing to its flowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Yukitaka; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Shigeta, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Nobuko

    2012-09-01

    We investigated relationships between the flowering phenology of Prunus yedoensis "Somei-yoshino" (cherry blossom) and the local temperatures in Japan. Our observations were carried out across the Okayama Plain, which included Okayama City (about 700,000 inhabitants), from the winter of 2008 to the spring of 2009. Local air temperature (AT) and the globe temperature (GT) were recorded at the tree height. The flowering dates (FDs) of P. yedoensis were earliest in the central commercial area (located at the center of the plain), followed by the north residential area (further inland), and finally the south residential area (seaward). The recorded FDs were related to the period-averaged daily maximum/minimum AT and GT, and the phenologically effective AT and GT defined in this study. Of these parameters, the phenologically effective GTs correlated most with the FDs. Since the GT is determined by AT, solar and infrared radiations, and wind speed, our previous result suggests that a combination of these three components surrounding the tree is more important for budding and flowering than is AT alone. The supposition is supported by the flowering of P. yedoensis being the latest at the coastal region of the Okayama Plain where the AT were higher than at the inland region, excluding the urban area; it is probably caused by stronger winds there than at the other sites.

  17. The phenology of cherry blossom (Prunus yedoensis "Somei-yoshino") and the geographic features contributing to its flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Yukitaka; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Shigeta, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Nobuko

    2012-09-01

    We investigated relationships between the flowering phenology of Prunus yedoensis "Somei-yoshino" (cherry blossom) and the local temperatures in Japan. Our observations were carried out across the Okayama Plain, which included Okayama City (about 700,000 inhabitants), from the winter of 2008 to the spring of 2009. Local air temperature (AT) and the globe temperature (GT) were recorded at the tree height. The flowering dates (FDs) of P. yedoensis were earliest in the central commercial area (located at the center of the plain), followed by the north residential area (further inland), and finally the south residential area (seaward). The recorded FDs were related to the period-averaged daily maximum/minimum AT and GT, and the phenologically effective AT and GT defined in this study. Of these parameters, the phenologically effective GTs correlated most with the FDs. Since the GT is determined by AT, solar and infrared radiations, and wind speed, our previous result suggests that a combination of these three components surrounding the tree is more important for budding and flowering than is AT alone. The supposition is supported by the flowering of P. yedoensis being the latest at the coastal region of the Okayama Plain where the AT were higher than at the inland region, excluding the urban area; it is probably caused by stronger winds there than at the other sites.

  18. Root endophyte symbiosis in vitro between the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Tricholoma matsutake and the arbuscular mycorrhizal plant Prunus speciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Hitoshi; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Yokota, Satoru; Maruyama, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Naoki; Yamamoto, Kohei; Ohira, Tatsuro; Neda, Hitoshi

    2014-05-01

    We previously reported that Tricholoma matsutake and Tricholoma fulvocastaneum, ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes that associate with Pinaceae and Fagaceae, respectively, in the Northern Hemisphere, could interact in vitro as a root endophyte of somatic plants of Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae), which naturally harbors arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in South America, to form a characteristic rhizospheric colony or "shiro". We questioned whether this phenomenon could have occurred because of plant-microbe interactions between geographically separated species that never encounter one another in nature. In the present study, we document that these fungi formed root endophyte interactions and shiro within 140 days of inoculation with somatic plants of Prunus speciosa (=Cerasus speciosa, Rosaceae), a wild cherry tree that naturally harbors arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Japan. Compared with C. odorata, infected P. speciosa plants had less mycelial sheath surrounding the exodermis, and the older the roots, especially main roots, the more hyphae penetrated. In addition, a large number of juvenile roots were not associated with hyphae. We concluded that such root endophyte interactions were not events isolated to the interactions between exotic plants and microbes but could occur generally in vitro. Our pure culture system with a somatic plant allowed these fungi to express symbiosis-related phenotypes that varied with the plant host; these traits are innately programmed but suppressed in nature and could be useful in genetic analyses of plant-fungal symbiosis.

  19. ACCOUNTING ETHICS - RESPONSIBILITY VERSUS CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTIN IOAN UŞURELU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Professional accountants are ordered in some point in their life to take certain decisions that are ethical or not. Accounting ethics is an important aspect of an accountant's work. In the last decades has increased so much interest in accounting ethics so that the financial statements should be prepared to come to include a descriptive report of accounting professionals who have created and filled these situations. This report should include any information considered relevant about factors that influence ethical behaviour. The present research aims to show what is accounting ethics, what is the purpose of the National Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants of Romania, what is creative accounting and ethical behaviour that depends on an accountant, what are the reasons for the use of creative accounting and also what are its main practices.

  20. Financial accounting for radiology executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidmann, Abraham; Mehta, Tushar

    2005-03-01

    The authors review the role of financial accounting information from the perspective of a radiology executive. They begin by introducing the role of pro forma statements. They discuss the fundamental concepts of accounting, including the matching principle and accrual accounting. The authors then explore the use of financial accounting information in making investment decisions in diagnostic medical imaging. The paper focuses on critically evaluating the benefits and limitations of financial accounting for decision making in a radiology practice.

  1. Jalan Terjal Menuju Professional Accountant

    OpenAIRE

    Wardoyo, Trimanto Setyo

    2007-01-01

    To be professional accountant is not easy. The candidate has to follow some stages. He (She) has to be graduate from S1 degree majoring in accounting, completing accounting education program and passing the examination of certified public accountant.Furthermore, in order to get lisence to practice as public accountant the candidate should have practical experience equivalent to 1:500 hours. These stages could be reached only if supported by excellence academics and nonacademics capabilities.

  2. DETERMINATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE AREA AND DRY WEIGHT OF THE LEAF LIMBO OF Prunus persica CV. Jarillo DETERMINACIÓN DE UN MODELO MATEMÁTICO PARA LA ESTIMACIÓN DEL ÁREA FOLIAR Y PESO SECO DEL LIMBO DE Prunus persica CV. Jarillo

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Quevedo García; Martha Esperanza Arévalo González; Giovanni Orlando Cancino Escalante

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. A study was conducted to determine the variables that estimated the leaf limbo area and the leaf limbo dry weight of peach Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cv. Jarillo. Fifty leaves, aged 2.5 months, were selected and measured: leaf limbo length and width, petiole length, leaf length, petiole diameter, leaf limbo fresh weight, petiole fresh weight, leaf fresh weight, leaf limbo dry weight, petiole dry weight, leaf dry weight, length/width limbo, petiole length/limbo length and leaf limbo ...

  3. Determination of a mathematical model to estimate the area and dry weight of the leaf limbo of prunus persica cv. jarillo / determinación de un modelo matemático para la estimación del área foliar y peso seco del limbo de prunus persica cv. jarillo

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo García, Enrique; Arévalo González, Martha Esperanza; Cancino Escalante, Giovanni Orlando

    2013-01-01

    study was conducted to determine the variables that estimated the leaf limbo area and the leaf limbo dry weight of peach Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cv. Jarillo. Fifty leaves, aged 2.5 months, were selected and measured: leaf limbo length and width, petiole length, leaf length, petiole diameter, leaf limbo fresh weight, petiole fresh weight, leaf fresh weight, leaf limbo dry weight, petiole dry weight, leaf dry weight, length/ width limbo, petiole length/limbo length and leaf limbo area. Th...

  4. Prunus domestica, Prunus persica and Prunus avium extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    water emulsions. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) ... Test formulations containing fruit extracts (6%) showed good stability compared to control formulations and pH and conductivity were found as desired. Formulations were studied for patch ...

  5. An efficient viral vector for functional genomic studies of Prunus fruit trees and its induced resistance to Plum pox virus via silencing of a host factor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongguang; Wang, Aiming

    2017-03-01

    RNA silencing is a powerful technology for molecular characterization of gene functions in plants. A commonly used approach to the induction of RNA silencing is through genetic transformation. A potent alternative is to use a modified viral vector for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to degrade RNA molecules sharing similar nucleotide sequence. Unfortunately, genomic studies in many allogamous woody perennials such as peach are severely hindered because they have a long juvenile period and are recalcitrant to genetic transformation. Here, we report the development of a viral vector derived from Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), a widespread fruit tree virus that is endemic in all Prunus fruit production countries and regions in the world. We show that the modified PNRSV vector, harbouring the sense-orientated target gene sequence of 100-200 bp in length in genomic RNA3, could efficiently trigger the silencing of a transgene or an endogenous gene in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. We further demonstrate that the PNRSV-based vector could be manipulated to silence endogenous genes in peach such as eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E isoform (eIF(iso)4E), a host factor of many potyviruses including Plum pox virus (PPV). Moreover, the eIF(iso)4E-knocked down peach plants were resistant to PPV. This work opens a potential avenue for the control of virus diseases in perennial trees via viral vector-mediated silencing of host factors, and the PNRSV vector may serve as a powerful molecular tool for functional genomic studies of Prunus fruit trees. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Heterogeneity in the entire genome for three genotypes of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] as distinguished from sequence analysis of genomic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Martínez-García, Pedro J; Parfitt, Dan E; Crisosto, Carlos H; Gradziel, Thomas M

    2013-11-01

    Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is an economically important fruit crop that has become a genetic-genomic model for all Prunus species in the family Rosaceae. A doubled haploid reference genome sequence length of 227.3 Mb, a narrow genetic base contrasted by a wide phenotypic variability, the generation of cultivars through hybridization with subsequent clonal propagation, and the current accessibility of many founder genotypes, as well as the pedigree of modern commercial cultivars make peach a model for the study of inter-cultivar genomic heterogeneity and its shaping by artificial selection. The quantitative genomic differences among the three genotypes studied as genomic variants, included small variants (SNPs and InDels) and structural variants (SV) (duplications, inversions and translocations). The heirloom cultivar 'Georgia Belle' and an almond by peach introgression breeding line 'F8,1-42' are more heterogeneous than is the modern cultivar 'Dr. Davis' when compared to the peach reference genome ('Lovell'). A pair-wise comparison of consensus genome sequences with 'Lovell' showed that 'F8,1-42' and 'Georgia Belle' were more divergent than were 'Dr. Davis' and 'Lovell'. A novel application of emerging bioinformatics tools to the analysis of ongoing genome sequencing project outputs has led to the identification of a range of genomic variants. Results can be used to delineate the genomic and phenotypic differences among peach genotypes. For crops such as fruit trees, the availability of old cultivars, breeding selections and their pedigrees, make them suitable models for the study of genome shaping by artificial selection. The findings from the study of such genomic variants can then elucidate the control of pomological traits and the characterization of metabolic pathways, thus facilitating the development of protocols for the improvement of Prunus crops.

  7. Overexpression of the Prunus sogdiana NBS-LRR Subgroup Gene PsoRPM2 Promotes Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita in Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (RKNs, particularly Meloidogyne incognita, are the most devastating soil-borne pathogens that significantly affect the production of Prunus spp. fruit. RKN infection is difficult to control and consequently causes massive yield losses each year. However, several germplasms of wild Prunus spp. have been shown to display resistance to M. incognita. Consequently, both the isolation of novel plant resistance (R genes and the characterization of their resistance mechanisms are important strategies for future disease control. R proteins require the co-chaperone protein HSP90-SGT1-RAR1 to achieve correct folding, maturation, and stabilization. Here, we used homologous cloning to isolate the R gene PsoRPM2 from the RKN-resistant species Prunus sogdiana. PsoRPM2 was found to encode a TIR-NB-LRR-type protein and react with significantly elevated PsoRPM2 expression levels in response to RKN infection. Transient expression assays indicated PsoRPM2 to be located in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Four transgenic tobacco lines that heterologously expressed PsoRPM2 showed enhanced resistance to M. incognita. Yeast two-hybrid analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis demonstrated that both PsoRAR1 and PsoRPM2 interacted with PsoHSP90-1 and PsoSGT1, but not with one another. These results indicate that the observed PsoRPM2-mediated RKN resistance requires both PsoHSP90-1 and PsoSGT1, further suggesting that PsoRAR1 plays a functionally redundant role in the HSP90-SGT1-RAR1 co-chaperone.

  8. Overexpression of the Prunus sogdiana NBS-LRR Subgroup Gene PsoRPM2 Promotes Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita in Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang; Xiao, Kun; Cui, Haiyang; Hu, Jianfang

    2017-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs), particularly Meloidogyne incognita, are the most devastating soil-borne pathogens that significantly affect the production of Prunus spp. fruit. RKN infection is difficult to control and consequently causes massive yield losses each year. However, several germplasms of wild Prunus spp. have been shown to display resistance to M. incognita. Consequently, both the isolation of novel plant resistance (R) genes and the characterization of their resistance mechanisms are important strategies for future disease control. R proteins require the co-chaperone protein HSP90-SGT1-RAR1 to achieve correct folding, maturation, and stabilization. Here, we used homologous cloning to isolate the R gene PsoRPM2 from the RKN-resistant species Prunus sogdiana. PsoRPM2 was found to encode a TIR-NB-LRR-type protein and react with significantly elevated PsoRPM2 expression levels in response to RKN infection. Transient expression assays indicated PsoRPM2 to be located in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Four transgenic tobacco lines that heterologously expressed PsoRPM2 showed enhanced resistance to M. incognita. Yeast two-hybrid analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis demonstrated that both PsoRAR1 and PsoRPM2 interacted with PsoHSP90-1 and PsoSGT1, but not with one another. These results indicate that the observed PsoRPM2-mediated RKN resistance requires both PsoHSP90-1 and PsoSGT1, further suggesting that PsoRAR1 plays a functionally redundant role in the HSP90-SGT1-RAR1 co-chaperone.

  9. Accounting Education in Turkey and Professional Accountant Candidates Expectations from Accounting Education: Uludag University Application

    OpenAIRE

    Elif Yucel,; Mehlika Sarac,; Adem Cabuk

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine to what extent the accounting education, that has a long history in our country, covered the expectations of students in the faculty of economics and administrative sciences who are the today’s accountant candidates and to evaluate the results achieved. For this purpose, firstly required quality of accounting education was focused in this study than the progress of the accounting profession and accounting education within the historical process as well as...

  10. Financial Accountant Versus Managerial Accountant in the Hotel Business System

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Zubac

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of financial or managerial accountant, subject of interest in this paper is the relationship of financial and managerial accounting in the hotel business. Being necessary functions within the business system of hotel company, their mutual connection as well as their differences are explained. The management of hotel company makes decisions based on accounting information from both parts of accounting. As support to hotel management in decision-making, finan...

  11. Professional accounting media - accountants handing over control to the system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldvinsdottir, Gudrun; Burns, John; Nørreklit, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    . Design/methodology/approach - The paper analyses two software adverts that were published in Chartered Institute of Management Accountants' professional journal. It uses discourse analysis to understand both the image of management accountants and the nature of the management accounting software...

  12. Accountability after structural disaggregation: comparing agency accountability arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overman, S.P.; Genugten, M.L. van; Thiel, S. van

    2015-01-01

    New accountability instruments – performance indicators, audits, and financial incentives – are expected to replace traditional accountability instruments in NPM reforms. We test this expectation by looking at the accountability arrangements of semi-autonomous agencies as a typical example of NPM

  13. Accountability after Structural Disaggregation: Comparing Agency Accountability Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overman, Sjors; Van Genugten, Marieke; Van Thiel, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    New accountability instruments – performance indicators, audits, and financial incentives – are expected to replace traditional accountability instruments in NPM reforms. We test this expectation by looking at the accountability arrangements of semi-autonomous agencies as a typical example of NPM

  14. Accounting Employers' Expectations--The Ideal Accounting Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Mary; Botes, Vida; Rue, David Dela; Allen, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    This research examined what accounting employers are seeking in their "ideal" accounting graduate and sought to provide clarification on the "expectation gap" between what accounting employers require in their graduates, and the skills these graduates are exhibiting. Adopting a qualitative research method, this research paper…

  15. 18 CFR 367.1420 - Account 142, Customer accounts receivable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 142, Customer accounts receivable. 367.1420 Section 367.1420 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY..., FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT...

  16. 18 CFR 367.1430 - Account 143, Other accounts receivable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 143, Other accounts receivable. 367.1430 Section 367.1430 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY..., FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT...

  17. 18 CFR 367.9040 - Account 904, Uncollectible accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 904, Uncollectible accounts. 367.9040 Section 367.9040 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY..., FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT...

  18. 18 CFR 367.1840 - Account 184, Clearing accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 184, Clearing accounts. 367.1840 Section 367.1840 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO...

  19. Size and Weight of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’) Fruit Treated with 3,5,6-TPA and GA3

    OpenAIRE

    Silvija Zeman; Zlatko Čmelik; Tomislav Jemrić

    2014-01-01

    The effect of 10 ppm 3,5,6-TPA (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyloxyocetic acid), 20 ppm GA 3 and their combination on size and weight of cherry fruit (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’) were studied. 3,5,6-TPA was applied 25 days after full bloom and GA 3 during stage of fruit color change from green to straw-yellow. Fruit height, width, thickness and weight were measured. Width, thickness and weight of control fruit were the smallest. Fruit from 3,5,6-TPA - treated trees did not show significant differe...

  20. Transformación genética del albaricoquero (Prunus armeniaca L.), mediada por Agrobacterium, y regeneración de plantas transformadas

    OpenAIRE

    Petri Serrano, César

    2005-01-01

    En esta tesis se ha optimizado un protocolo de regeneración a partir de material varietal de ‘Helena’ y ‘Canino’ de albaricoquero (Prunus armeniaca L.). Mediante el estudio de los diversos factores que afectan la transformación de material adulto, se ha establecido por primera vez un protocolo eficiente de transformación mediada por Agrobacterium tumefaciens de una variedad comercial de albaricoquero. El diseño de una estrategia de selección gradual con paromomicina ha permitido la regeneraci...

  1. Evaluación productiva, económica y social del agua de riego de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch) en Zacatecas (México)

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Ríos-Flores; Miriam Torres-Moreno; José Ruiz-Torres; Marco Antonio Torres-Moreno; Jesús Enrique Cantú-Brito

    2015-01-01

    La escasez de agua limita la agricultura, por lo que su uso debe ser más eficiente en la producción de alimentos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la productividad económica, física y social del agua del cultivo de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch), en la región del Distrito de Desarrollo Rural 183 —correspondiente a Fresnillo, Zacatecas— para el ciclo 2012; se desarrollaron modelos matemáticos para estimar la productividad y eficiencia del agua. En Zacatecas se cosecharon 817 ha d...

  2. Accountability report - fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This document contains the US NRC`s accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement.

  3. AcEST: DK962967 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6_PRUDU Lipoxygenase OS=Prunus dulcis GN=lox PE=2... 42 0.045 tr|A7PS80|A7PS80_VITVI Lipoxygenase OS=Vitis v...+ LD ND A V D + +L GQ V +L+S D Sbjct: 15 NGKNGRK------IKGTVVLMKKNV--LDFNDFNASVLDRVHELLGQGVSLQLISAD 63 >tr|A7PS80|A7PS80

  4. Materials and methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .

    3Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Vine. Center of Biotechnology Borj-Cedria, B.P. 901 Hammam-Lif, 2050 Tunisia. 4Departament of Pomology, Experimental Station of Aula Dei (CSIC), P.O. Box 13034, E-50080 Zaragoza, Spain. Accepted 12 July, 2013. The genetic variance analysis of 82 almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) ...

  5. Environ: E00235 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1] Dicot plants: rosids Rosaceae (rose family) E00235 Almond oil CAS: 8007-69-0 ... ...00255], Vitamin E [DR:D02331] Prunus dulcis [TAX:3755] Same as: D02823 Almond seed Essential oils [BR:br0832

  6. Molecular variance of the Tunisian almond germplasm assessed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic variance analysis of 82 almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) genotypes was performed using ten genomic simple sequence repeats (SSRs). A total of 50 genotypes from Tunisia including local landraces identified while prospecting the different sites of Bizerte and Sidi Bouzid (Northern and central parts) which are the ...

  7. Accountability: new challenges, new forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woerkum, C.; Aarts, N.

    2012-01-01

    The general call for more accountability, affecting all western institutions, has reached the communication professionals as well. How can they cope with this new challenge? The danger is that they focus mainly on outcomes, so on performative accountability, whereas decisional accountability,

  8. Empirical Studies in Financial Accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Gkougkousi (Xanthi)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation contributes to the stream of literature that examines the role of accounting information in capital markets. The first two chapters deal with the economic consequences of changes in accounting regulations. The third chapter examines the relation between accounting

  9. Managerial accounting for transaction costs

    OpenAIRE

    Лабынцев, Николай Тихонович

    2015-01-01

    Essence and significance of transaction accounting and its basic concepts – transaction and transaction costs – have been determined. Main types of transaction costs and elements of transaction accounting for expenses have been considered. Source documents forms for the purpose of accounting for transaction costs have been worked out.

  10. Monetary accounting of ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, R.P.; Edens, Bram; Schröter, Matthias; Hein, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting aims to provide a better understanding of ecosystem contributions to the economy in a spatially explicit way. Ecosystem accounting monitors ecosystem services and measures their monetary value using exchange values consistent with the System of National Accounts (SNA). We

  11. Green Accounts of Christianshavn (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerby, Peder; Pedersen, Bjørn; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    The project was to develope a Green Account of 1998. It is based on public data, the questionnaries filled out by 300 residents and some interviewes.The final account of '98 included 10 subjects which follows up on the '97 account. Besides that it presents two new subjects - the marked of ecologi...

  12. Accounting control and organizational behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Otley, David

    1987-01-01

    This book goes beyond the material usually included in traditional management accounting texts and provides both managers and management accountants with a simple guide to the major issues involved in developing and using accounting systems for management control. Attention is focused particularly on budgetary control systems because these form the basis for management control in most organisation of any size.

  13. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME... Sec. 5 Accounting. The General Agent shall record the amounts of compensation paid from the NSA... Accounting Office, at which time the Maritime Administration will take custody of the records. ...

  14. The history of national accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Frits

    1992-01-01

    At present, the national accounts in most countries are compiled on the basis of concepts and classifications in international guidelines. In this paper, we trace the roots of these guidelines, compare the subsequent quidelines and discuss also alternative accounting systems like extended accounts and SAMs.

  15. Mental Accounting and Economic Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, Gerrit; Ranyard, Rob

    2017-01-01

    This chapter first presents an overview of research into mental accounting and its effects on economic behaviour. It then considers mental accounts posited to broadly categorize financial resources across the life-cycle, and those constructed for specific transactions. Mental accounting has several

  16. 77 FR 40253 - Reserve Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Rural Housing Service 7 CFR Part 3560 RIN 0575-AC66 Reserve Account AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA... regulation to change the Reserve Account for new construction for the Sections 514/516 Farm Labor Housing... reserve accounts for existing portfolios. DATES: Effective Date: This rule is effective September 7, 2012...

  17. The management accounting vocational fallacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bienkie Shuttleworth

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in highly competitive economic environments have created the need for sound financial management in organisations. In order to source sufficient numbers of skilled financial managers, specialised career guidance should be high on the agenda of educational and labour policy makers. While the chartered management accountant (CMA enjoys international status, not many studies have been conducted to measure South African students’ and accounting teachers’ awareness of the CMA designation. This article reports on the results of first-year accounting students’ perceptions of a career in management accounting as well as on the career guidance they received on how to become a CMA. It also reports on accounting teachers’ awareness of the management accounting designation. This study found that first-year accounting students and accounting teachers do not possess sufficient knowledge of the career opportunities in the management accounting field and of the route to follow on how to become a CMA. Recommendations are made for tertiary institutions and professional bodies to alleviate this information gap by distributing brochures and posters to accounting and career guidance teachers and by providing information sessions to them as well as to first-year accounting students on career opportunities in the management accounting field.

  18. Accountability: New challenges, new forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerkum, van C.; Aarts, N.

    2012-01-01

    The general call for more accountability, affecting all western institutions, has reached the communication professionals as well. How can they cope with this new challenge? The danger is that they focus mainly on outcomes, so on performative accountability, whereas decisional accountability,

  19. In vitro conservation of two plant species (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. and Rubus fruticosus L. shoot tips by encapsulation dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružić Đurđina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro grown shoot tips of cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. and blackberry ‘Cacanska Bestrna’ (Rubus fruticosus L. were tested for regrowth after cryopreservation using encapsulation dehydration method. Apical, 2-3 mm long shoot tips, were encapsulated in alginate beads composed of 3, 5 and 10% (w/v alginic acid sodium salt in calcium-free liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing 1.0 mg l-1 benzyladenine, 0.1 mg l-1 indole-3-butyric acid and 0.1 mg l-1 gibberellic acid. Polymerization was done in liquid MS medium with 100 mM CaCl2 for 30 min at room temperature. Encapsulated shoot tips were pre-treated in liquid MS medium with 0.75 or 1 M sucrose for 24 h in growth room and dehydrated for 4 and 8 h (29% and 20% moisture content respectively before rapid immersion in liquid nitrogen. Upon thawing which involved placing the cryovials in the air current of the laminar airflow cabinet for 2 min, the beads were directly transferred to regrowth medium. In cherry plum, osmotic dehydration in 0.75 M sucrose followed by 8-hour desiccation gave the highest regrowth (60% of explants encapsulated in 3% and 5% alginate beads. However, in comparison with cherry plum, blackberry displayed significantly lower capacity for regrowth after cryopreservation under described experimental conditions. In this genotype, osmotic dehydration in 1 M sucrose followed by 8-hour desiccation resulted in the highest regrowth (16.7% of explants encapsulated in 5% alginate beads. Cryopreserved shoot tips of both genotypes multiplied in the three subcultures had normal morphology and similar multiplication capacity in comparison with non-cryopreserved shoots. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-20013 i br. TR-31064

  20. Proanthocyanidin monomers and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside accumulation in blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Juan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the characteristics and mechanisms of proanthocyanidin monomers and anthocyanin synthesis in blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch, the accumulation of catechin, epicatechin and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was determined, and the expression patterns of structural genes associated with biosynthesis of those compounds were investigated in the blood-flesh peach fruit of cultivar “Dahongpao” during fruit development. Our results show that catechin concentration remained low and comparatively stable throughout fruit development. The concentration of epicatechin remained low at the early stages of fruit development and rapidly accumulated during ripening. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was not detected in theearly stages. Epicatechin started to rapidly accumulate during the ripening period, reaching a maximum at the mature stage. The expressions of the early and common genes, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone isomerase, were less associated with proanthocyanidin monomers and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside accumulation. The expression of other flavonoid ‘early’ biosynthetic genes, including chalcone synthase (CHS, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX, were partly associated with proanthocyanidin monomers and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside levels, with expression quantities peaking synchronously at the mature stage. Leucoanthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin reductase, which were the key genes for proanthocyanidin monomer synthesis, correlated during fruit development with catechin and epicatechin accumulation respectively; UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UGFT, the key gene for anthocyanin synthesis, was correlated with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside levels. The synchronous accumulation of epicatechin and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside in blood-flesh peach could not be explained by the current theory of competitive distribution mechanism of common substrate.