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Sample records for prunella vulgaris lamiaceae

  1. Altitudinal flower size variation correlates with local pollinator size in a bumblebee-pollinated herb, Prunella vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae).

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    Kuriya, S; Hattori, M; Nagano, Y; Itino, T

    2015-10-01

    The influence of locally different species interactions on trait evolution is a focus of recent evolutionary studies. However, few studies have demonstrated that geographically different pollinator-mediated selection influences geographic variation in floral traits, especially across a narrow geographic range. Here, we hypothesized that floral size variation in the Japanese herb Prunella vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) is affected by geographically different pollinator sizes reflecting different pollinator assemblages. To evaluate this hypothesis, we posed two questions. (1) Is there a positive correlation between floral length and the proboscis length of pollinators (bumblebees) across altitude in a mountain range? (2) Does the flower-pollinator size match influence female and male plant fitness? We found geographic variation in the assemblage of pollinators of P. vulgaris along an altitudinal gradient, and, as a consequence, the mean pollinator proboscis length also changed altitudinally. The floral corolla length of P. vulgaris also varied along an altitudinal gradient, and this variation strongly correlated with the local pollinator size but did not correlate with altitude itself. Furthermore, we found that the size match between the floral corolla length and bee proboscis length affected female and male plant fitness and the optimal size match (associated with peak fitness) was similar for the female and male fitness. Collectively, these results suggest that pollinator-mediated selection influences spatial variation in the size of P. vulgaris flowers at a fine spatial scale. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Variation in the Breeding System of Prunella vulgaris L.

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    Prunella vulgaris (Lamiaceae), commonly known as selfheal, is a perennial herb with a long history of use in traditional medicine. Recent studies have found that P. vulgaris possesses anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anti-bacterial properties, which may lead to increased commercial demand. To date...

  3. Thymus vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Pablo Ferrer-Gallego; Albert J. Navarro Peris; Emilio Laguna Lumbreras; Gonzalo Mateo Sanz

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN: Se describe una nueva subespecie de Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae); Th. vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov., caracterizada por presentar un hábito postrado, tallos estoloníferos, decumbentes y radicantes, hojas muy estrechas y una floración otoñal. ABSTRACT: Thymus vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. (Lamiaceae). A new subspecies of Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae); Th. vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. is described. This new subspecies is characterized by its prost...

  4. [Preliminary analysis of bitter substances in spica of Prunella vulgaris].

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    Zhai, Xin; Xi, Meng-Qian; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Han, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Rong-bo; Huang, Xiao-Dan; Zhu, Huan-Rong

    2014-02-01

    Volatile oil components and the contents and types of amino acid in spica of Prunella vulgaris were analysed by GC-MS and amino acid analyzer. Esters, fatty acids, aromatic hydrocarbon, ketone and several alcohol compounds were identified by mass spectrum comparison. In these ingredients, beta-ionone smelled aroma of cedar, raspberry, nerolidol showed weak sweet soft orange blossom flavor, neroli tasted sweet and fresh, nerolidol tasted sweet with light aroma of wood, hexadecanal showed a weak aroma of flowers and wax, alpha-sinensal had rich and fresh sweet orange flavor. To some extent, these types of aromatic substances can affect the taste of herbal tea or decoction made of Spica Prunellae. Among amino acids detected, natural amino acids accounted for a larger proportion, and those natural amino acids showed bitterness, slight bitterness, sourness (freshness), sweetness, slight sweetness, sourness (slight freshness). The results indicated that bitter and slightly bitter amino acids have the greatest impacts on the sense of Spica Prunellae.

  5. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The mint family (Lamiaceae) produces a wide variety of constituents with medicinal properties. Several family members have been reported to have antiviral activity, including lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), sage (Salvia spp.), peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), basil (Ocimum spp.) and self-heal (Prunella vulgaris L.). To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of Prunella vulgaris, water and ethanol extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection. Results Aqueous extracts contained more anti-viral activity than did ethanol extracts, displaying potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 at sub μg/mL concentrations with little to no cellular cytotoxicity at concentrations more than 100-fold higher. Time-of-addition studies demonstrated that aqueous extracts were effective when added during the first five hours following initiation of infection, suggesting that the botanical constituents were targeting entry events. Further analysis revealed that extracts inhibited both virus/cell interactions and post-binding events. While only 40% inhibition was maximally achieved in our virus/cell interaction studies, extract effectively blocked post-binding events at concentrations similar to those that blocked infection, suggesting that it was targeting of these latter steps that was most important for mediating inhibition of virus infectivity. Conclusions We demonstrate that aqueous P. vulgaris extracts inhibited HIV-1 infectivity. Our studies suggest that inhibition occurs primarily by interference of early, post-virion binding events. The ability of aqueous extracts to inhibit early events within the HIV life cycle suggests that these extracts, or purified constituents responsible for the antiviral activity, are promising microbicides and/or antivirals against HIV-1. PMID:21513560

  6. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris L.

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    McCoy Joe-Ann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mint family (Lamiaceae produces a wide variety of constituents with medicinal properties. Several family members have been reported to have antiviral activity, including lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., sage (Salvia spp., peppermint (Mentha × piperita L., hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L., basil (Ocimum spp. and self-heal (Prunella vulgaris L.. To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of Prunella vulgaris, water and ethanol extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection. Results Aqueous extracts contained more anti-viral activity than did ethanol extracts, displaying potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 at sub μg/mL concentrations with little to no cellular cytotoxicity at concentrations more than 100-fold higher. Time-of-addition studies demonstrated that aqueous extracts were effective when added during the first five hours following initiation of infection, suggesting that the botanical constituents were targeting entry events. Further analysis revealed that extracts inhibited both virus/cell interactions and post-binding events. While only 40% inhibition was maximally achieved in our virus/cell interaction studies, extract effectively blocked post-binding events at concentrations similar to those that blocked infection, suggesting that it was targeting of these latter steps that was most important for mediating inhibition of virus infectivity. Conclusions We demonstrate that aqueous P. vulgaris extracts inhibited HIV-1 infectivity. Our studies suggest that inhibition occurs primarily by interference of early, post-virion binding events. The ability of aqueous extracts to inhibit early events within the HIV life cycle suggests that these extracts, or purified constituents responsible for the antiviral activity, are promising microbicides and/or antivirals against HIV-1.

  7. [Effects of seed priming on vigor of Prunella vulgaris seeds].

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    Zhang, Xian-Xiu; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Wang, Yan-Ru

    2008-03-01

    To select an effective way to enhance vigor of Prunella vulgaris seeds. Three population seeds were treated at the 20 degrees C and dark enviroment. Priming with 20% - 30% PEG and 200 - 400 mg x L(-1) GA3 could enhance seeds germination and vigor. Germination percentage of three population seeds treated with 0. 6% - 3.0% NaCl reduced, but they started to germinate in advance. Treated with 0.6% - 2.4% KNO3-KH2PO4, germination rate and vigor of seeds in Zijinshan and Pan' an both increased and the one in Bozhou decreased. Vigor of P. vulgaris seed treated with PEG and GA3 under proper concentration increases, while treated with KNO3-KH2PO, and NaCl low vigor seeds germination rate reduces.

  8. Inhibition of lentivirus replication by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris

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    Hauck Cathy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various members of the mint family have been used historically in Chinese and Native American medicine. Many of these same family members, including Prunella vulgaris, have been reported to have anti-viral activities. To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of P. vulgaris, water and ethanol extractions were tested for their ability to inhibit equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV replication. Results Aqueous extracts contained more anti-viral activity than did ethanol extracts, displaying potent anti-lentiviral activity against virus in cell lines as well as in primary cell cultures with little to no cellular cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition studies demonstrated that the extracts were effective when added during the first four h of the viral life cycle, suggesting that the botanical constituents were targeting the virion itself or early entry events. Further analysis revealed that the extracts did not destroy EIAV virion integrity, but prevented viral particles from binding to the surface of permissive cells. Modest levels of anti-EIAV activity were also detected when the cells were treated with the extracts prior to infection, indicating that anti-EIAV botanical constituents could interact with both viral particles and permissive cells to interfere with infectivity. Size fractionation of the extract demonstrated that eight of the nine fractions generated from aqueous extracts displayed anti-viral activity. Separation of ethanol soluble and insoluble compounds in the eight active fractions revealed that ethanol-soluble constituents were responsible for the anti-viral activity in one fraction whereas ethanol-insoluble constituents were important for the anti-viral activity in two of the other fractions. In three of the five fractions that lost activity upon sub-fractionation, anti-viral activity was restored upon reconstitution of the fractions, indicating that synergistic anti-viral activity is present in several

  9. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris L

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mint family produces many metabolites with medicinal properties. Several species are reported to have antiviral activity, including lemon balm, peppermint, hyssop, basil, sage and self-heal. To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activity of self-heal (Prunella vulgaris), we tested water an...

  10. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers

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    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid derivative found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be of benefit t...

  11. [Textual research on change of medicinal parts and herbal medicine of Prunella vulgaris].

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    Chen, Yuhang; Guo, Qiaosheng; Wang, Chengya

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the herbal medicine of Prunella vulgaris by textual researches, and provide a theoretical basis for clinical medication, exploitation and protection of wild P. vulgaris resources. Textual research on medicinal works of past dynasties and field work were adopted. The natural distributions of P. vulgaris were concentrated distribution in Sichuan province, Huaihe river basin, and Middle-Lower Yangtze river valley in Chinese history. The indications of P. vulgaris in ancient and modern times were basically identical. While there were difference between the medicinal parts, harvest period and processing methods existed difference between ancient and modern. Three periods that whole grass of P. vulgaris as medicinal parts (from late Ming dynasty to late Qing dynasty and early stage of Republic of China), both whole grass and spicas as medicinal parts (from mid-term Republic of China to 1963), and the semi-maturity or maturity of spicas as medicinal parts (from 1963 to today) existed. The processing method for medicinal parts of P. vulgaris adopted sun drying and shady drying in ancient China, but only the sun drying was only used in modern times.

  12. Effect of polyacetylenic acids from Prunella vulgaris on various plant pathogens.

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    Yoon, M-Y; Choi, G J; Choi, Y H; Jang, K S; Park, M S; Cha, B; Kim, J-C

    2010-11-01

    This study is aiming at characterizing antifungal substances from the methanol extract of Prunella vulgaris and at investigating those substances' antifungal and antioomycete activities against various plant pathogens. Two polyacetylenic acids were isolated from P. vulgaris as active principles and identified as octadeca-9,11,13-triynoic acid and trans-octadec-13-ene-9,11-diynoic acid. These two compounds inhibited the growth of Magnaporthe oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora infestans, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani, and Phytophthora capsici. In addition, these two compounds and the wettable powder-type formulation of an n-hexane fraction of P. vulgaris significantly suppressed the development of rice blast, tomato late blight, wheat leaf rust, and red pepper anthracnose. These data show that the extract of P. vulgaris and two polyacetylenic acids possess antifungal and antioomycete activities against a broad spectrum of tested plant pathogens. This is the first report on the occurrence of octadeca-9,11,13-triynoic acid and trans-octadec-13-ene-9,11-diynoic acid in P. vulgaris and their efficacy against plant diseases. The crude extract containing the two polyacetylenic acids can be used as a natural fungicide for the control of various plant diseases. © 2010 The Authors. © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. A tyrosine aminotransferase involved in rosmarinic acid biosynthesis in Prunella vulgaris L.

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    Ru, Mei; Wang, Kunru; Bai, Zhenqing; Peng, Liang; He, Shaoxuan; Wang, Yong; Liang, Zongsuo

    2017-07-07

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) and its derivants are medicinal compounds that comprise the active components of several therapeutics. We isolated and characterised a tyrosine aminotransferase of Prunella vulgaris (PvTAT). Deduced PvTAT was markedly homologous to other known/putative plant TATs. Cytoplasmic localisation of PvTAT was observed in tobacco protoplasts. Recombinantly expressed and purified PvTAT had substrates preference for L-tyrosine and phenylpyruvate, with apparent K m of 0.40 and 0.48 mM, and favoured the conversion of tyrosine to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. In vivo activity was confirmed by functional restoration of the Escherichia coli tyrosine auxotrophic mutant DL39. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated antisense/sense expression of PvTAT in hairy roots was used to evaluate the contribution of PvTAT to RA synthesis. PvTAT were reduced by 46-95% and RA were decreased by 36-91% with low catalytic activity in antisense transgenic hairy root lines; furthermore, PvTAT were increased 0.77-2.6-fold with increased 1.3-1.8-fold RA and strong catalytic activity in sense transgenic hairy root lines compared with wild-type counterparts. The comprehensive physiological and catalytic evidence fills in the gap in RA-producing plants which didn't provide evidence for TAT expression and catalytic activities in vitro and in vivo. That also highlights RA biosynthesis pathway in P. vulgaris and provides useful information to engineer natural products.

  14. Rosmarinic Acid in Prunella vulgaris Ethanol Extract Inhibits LPS-induced Prostaglandin E2 and Nitric Oxide in RAW264.7 Mouse Macrophages

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    Prunella vulgaris has been used therapeutically for inflammation related conditions for centuries, but systematic studies of its anti-inflammatory activity are lacking and no specific active components have been identified. In this study, water and ethanol extracts of four P. vulgaris accessions we...

  15. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers.

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    Qiang, Zhiyi; Ye, Zhong; Hauck, Cathy; Murphy, Patricia A; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P; Reddy, Manju B; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2011-10-11

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general. To investigate the permeabilities of RA and UA as pure compounds and in Prunella vulgaris and Salvia officinalis ethanol extracts across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. The permeabilities and phase II biotransformation of RA and UA as pure compounds and in herbal extracts were compared using Caco-2 cells with HPLC detection. The apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) for RA and RA in Prunella vulgaris extracts was 0.2 ± 0.05 × 10(-6)cm/s, significantly increased to 0.9 ± 0.2 × 10(-6)cm/s after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment. P(app) for UA and UA in Salvia officinalis extract was 2.7 ± 0.3 × 10(-6)cm/s and 2.3 ± 0.5 × 10(-6)cm/s before and after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment, respectively. Neither compound was affected in permeability by the herbal extract matrix. RA and UA in herbal extracts had similar uptake as that found using the pure compounds, which may simplify the prediction of compound efficacy, but the apparent lack of intestinal glucuronidation/sulfation of UA is likely to further enhance the bioavailability of that compound compared with RA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prunella vulgaris Suppresses HG-Induced Vascular Inflammation via Nrf2/HO-1/eNOS Activation

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    Ho Sub Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular inflammation is an important factor which can promote diabetic complications. In this study, the inhibitory effects of aqueous extract from Prunella vulgaris (APV on high glucose (HG-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC are reported. APV decreased HG-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and E-selectin. APV also dose-dependently inhibited HG-induced adhesion of HL-60 monocytic cells. APV suppressed p65 NF-κB activation in HG-treated cells. APV significantly inhibited the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. HG-stimulated HUVEC secreted gelatinases, however, APV inhibited it. APV induced Akt phosphorylation as well as activation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, eNOS, and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, which may protect vascular inflammation caused by HG. In conclusion, APV exerts anti-inflammatory effect via inhibition of ROS/NF-κB pathway by inducing HO-1 and eNOS expression mediated by Nrf2, thereby suggesting that Prunella vulgaris may be a possible therapeutic approach to the inhibition of diabetic vascular diseases.

  17. Optimisation of potassium chloride nutrition for proper growth, physiological development and bioactive component production in Prunella vulgaris L.

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    Yuhang Chen

    Full Text Available Prunella vulgaris L. is an important medicinal plant with a variety of pharmacological activities, but limited information is available about its response to potassium chloride (KCl supplementation. P. vulgaris seedlings were cultured in media with four different KCl levels (0, 1.00, 6.00 and 40.00 mM. Characteristics relating to the growth, foliar potassium, water and chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, transpiration, nitrogen metabolism, bioactive constituent concentrations and yield were determined after three months. The appropriate KCl concentration was 6.00 mM to result in the highest values for dry weight, shoot height, spica and root weight, spica length and number in P. vulgaris. The optimum KCl concentration resulted in a maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pn that could be associated with the highest chlorophyll content and fully open stomata conductance. A supply of surplus KCl resulted in a higher concentration of foliar potassium and negatively correlated with the biomass. Plants that were treated with the appropriate KCl level showed a greater capacity for nitrate assimilation. The Pn was significantly and positively correlated with nitrate reductase (NR and glutamine synthetase (GS activities and was positively correlated with leaf-soluble protein and free amino acid (FAA contents. Both KCl starvation (0 mM and high KCl (40.00 mM led to water loss through a high transpiration rate and low water absorption, respectively, and resulted in increased concentrations of ursolic acid (UA, oleanolic acid (OA and flavonoids, with the exception of rosmarinic acid (RA. Moreover, the optimum concentration of KCl significantly increased the yields of RA, UA, OA and flavonoids. Our findings suggested that significantly higher plant biomass; chlorophyll content; Pn; stronger nitrogen anabolism; lower RA, UA, OA and flavonoid accumulation; and greater RA, UA, OA and flavonoid yields in P. vulgaris could be expected in the presence of the

  18. Effects of ammonium to nitrate ratio on growth, nitrogen metabolism, photosynthetic efficiency and bioactive phytochemical production of Prunella vulgaris.

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    Zhu, Zai-Biao; Yu, Man-Man; Chen, Yu-Hang; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Zhang, Li-Xia; Shi, Hong-Zhuan; Liu, Li

    2014-12-01

    Prunella vulgaris L (Labiatae) is commonly used as a traditional medicinal herb in some Asian and Europe countries. To date, few studies have been conducted to determine the influence of [Formula: see text] - N/[Formula: see text] - N ratio on growth, physiological development, and bioactive phytochemical accumulation in hydroponically grown P. vulgaris. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of five [Formula: see text] - N/[Formula: see text] - N ratios on growth, nitrogen metabolism, photosynthetic efficiency, and bioactive phytochemical production in P. vulgaris. Hydroponically cultivated P. vulgaris were fertilized with five [Formula: see text] - N/[Formula: see text] - N ratios in a greenhouse for 85 d. Dried weight of root, stem, leaf and spica, leaf area, photosynthetic efficiency, activities of nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and the concentrations of N, soluble protein, and free amino acids in the leaves, as well as the contents of rosmarinic acid (RA), ursolic acid (UA), and oleanolic acid (OA) in the spicas were measured. Both [Formula: see text] - N and [Formula: see text] - N as the sole source of nitrogen had inhibitory effects on P. vulgaris growth. P. vulgaris fertilized with the 25/75 ([Formula: see text] - N/NO3 - N) ratio had the highest leaf area, photosynthetic rate, and chlorophyll content. The 25/75 ([Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text]) ratio increased the spica biomass by 1828%, nitrate-reductase (NR) activity by 98%, and soluble protein concentration by 29.45% compared with the 100/0 ([Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text]) treatment. Additionally, 25 [Formula: see text] - N/75 NO3 - N resulted in the highest contents of RA and total flavonoids as well as relatively high contents of UA and OA; therefore, this ratio had the highest yield of RA, UA, OA, and total flavonoids in spicas. The use of 25 [Formula: see text] - N/75 [Formula: see text

  19. Comparative in silico analyses of Cannabis sativa, Prunella vulgaris and Withania somnifera compounds elucidating the medicinal properties against rheumatoid arthritis.

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    Zaka, Mehreen; Sehgal, Sheikh Arslan; Shafique, Shagufta; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

    2017-06-01

    From last decade, there has been progressive improvement in computational drug designing. Several diseases are being cured from different plant extracts and products. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most shared disease among auto-inflammatory diseases. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α is associated with RA pathway and has adverse effects. Extensive literature review showed that plant species under study (Cannabis sativa, Prunella vulgaris and Withania somnifera) possess anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and anti-rheumatic properties. 13 anti-inflammatory compounds were characterised and filtered out from medicinal plant species and analysed for RA by targeting TNF-α through in silico analyses. By using ligand based pharmacophore generation approach and virtual screening against natural products libraries we retrieved twenty unique molecules that displayed utmost binding affinity, least binding energies and effective drug properties. The docking analyses revealed that Ala-22, Glu-23, Ser-65, Gln-67, Tyr-141, Leu-142, Asp-143, Phe-144 and Ala-145 were critical interacting residues for receptor-ligand interactions. It is proposed that the RA patients should use reported compounds for the prescription of RA by targeting TNF-α. This report is opening new dimensions for designing innovative therapeutic targets to cure RA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Correlation of different spectral lights with biomass accumulation and production of antioxidant secondary metabolites in callus cultures of medicinally important Prunella vulgaris L.

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    Fazal, Hina; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Ali, Syed Shujait; Akbar, Fazal; Kanwal, Farina

    2016-06-01

    Light is one of the key elicitors that directly fluctuates plant developmental processes and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In this study, the effects of various spectral lights on biomass accumulation and production of antioxidant secondary metabolites in callus cultures of Prunella vulgaris were investigated. Among different spectral lights, green light induced the maximum callogenic response (95%). Enhanced fresh biomass accumulation was observed in log phases on day-35, when callus cultures were exposed to yellow and violet lights. Yellow light induced maximum biomass accumulation (3.67g/100ml) from leaf explants as compared to control (1.27g/100ml). In contrast, violet lights enhanced biomass accumulation (3.49g/100ml) from petiole explant. Maximum total phenolics content (TPC; 23.9mg/g-DW) and total flavonoids content (TFC; 1.65mg/g-DW) were observed when cultures were grown under blue lights. In contrast, green and yellow lights enhanced total phenolics production (TPP; 112.52g/100ml) and total flavonoids production (TFP; 9.64g/100ml) as compared to control. The calli grown under green, red and blue lights enhanced DPPH-free radical scavenging activity (DFRSA; 91.3%, 93.1% and 93%) than control (56.44%) respectively. The DFRSA was correlated either with TPC and TFC or TPP and TFP. Furthermore, yellow lights enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and protease activities, however, the content of total protein (CTP) was higher in control cultures (186μg BSAE/mg FW) as compared to spectral lights. These results suggest that the exposure of callus cultures to various spectral lights have shown a key role in biomass accumulation and production of antioxidant secondary metabolites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical variation of leaf essential oil at different stages of plant growth and in vitro antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris Lamiaceae, from Iran

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    Azizollah Nezhadali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil components of the leaves were isolated by hydrodistillation from Thymus vulgaris (T. Lamiaceae, at different stages of plant growth. The essential oils from T. Lamiaceae leaves were obtained in yields of 0.83–1.39% (w/w. The oils were studied by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS and thirty-six components were identified in the oil. The major components in the leaf oils were: thymol (38.23–63.01%, o-cymene (5.56–15.47%, γ-terpinene (4.43–7.17%, borneol (1.72–6.65%, 4-terpineol (1.24–5.16% and 1,8-cineole (0.09–1.54%. The results showed that the oil yield and the major constituents' percentage of the leaf were different at different stages of plant growth. The essential oils of T. Lamiaceae leaves were tested against five strains of Gram positive bacteria (g+ and five strains of Gram negative bacteria (g−. The average minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of essential oils were determined using agar dilution method against the organisms by agar dilution method.

  2. Combination of Active Components Enhances the Efficacy of Prunella in Prevention and Treatment of Lung Cancer

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    Feng Shi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of Prunella extracts in the prevention and treatment of lung cancer has been attributed to different components. In this study, an "active components combination model" hypothesis was proposed to explain the anti-tumor activity of Prunella. The efficacy of Prunella extracts from different regions was compared in vitro and in vivo, and the TNF-α activity in serum of tumor-bearing mice was also evaluated. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to analyze the extracts and identify 26 common peaks. Prunella samples from different regions were classified by the cluster analysis method; both P. vulgaris L. from Bozhou and P. asiatica Nakai from Nanjing, which had the highest activities, were further divided into different classes. Six peaks from the HPLC analysis were very similar, and were identified as caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, rutin, quercetin, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. The total ratio of these compounds in Prunella from Bozhou and Nanjing were 1.0:14.7:3.9:1.0:4.4:1.4 and 1.0:14.8:4.0:0.8:5.6:1.8, respectively. Total triterpenes and total phenols in Prunella were separated by macroporous resin purification for activity studies. The results showed that total triterpenes and total phenols had anti-lung cancer activity and their combination significantly enhanced the activity. In addition, the combination also significantly increased the TNF-α content compared to total triterpenes or total phenols. The results indicated that the efficacy of Prunella against lung cancer was attributable to multiple components acting at an optimal ratio.

  3. Environ: E00065 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C01579], Organic acid, Potassium salt, Prunellin, Fenchone [CPD:C09859], Tannin Prunella vulgaris [TAX:39358] Same as: D06691 Lamiace...ae (mint family) Prunella spike Major component: Prunellin ...

  4. Vulgaris

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    Mukaddes Kavala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thyroid disorders may affect all of the organ systems of the body and they are also highly associated with a wide variety of skin disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thyroid function abnormalities and thyroid autoimmunity in patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV and to determine the association between thyroid disorders and clinical involvement and systemic corticosteroid treatment in patients with PV. Methods. The study consisted of eighty patients with PV and eighty healthy individuals. Thyroid functions (fT3, fT4, and TSH and thyroid autoimmunity (anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO, and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg antibodies were investigated in both groups. Primary thyroid disease (PTD was diagnosed with one or more of the following diagnostic criteria: (i positive antithyroid antibodies, (ii primary thyroid function abnormalities. Results. Significant changes in the serum thyroid profile were found in 16% (13/80 of the PV group and 5% (4/80 of the control group. Positive titers of antithyroid antibodies (anti-TPO and anti-Tg were observed in 7 patients (9% with PV and one in the control group (1,2%. Hashimoto thyroiditis was diagnosed in 9% of PV patients and it was found to be more prevalent in the mucosal form of PV. PTD was found in 13 of (%16 PV patients which was significantly high compared to controls. PTD was not found to be associated with systemic corticosteroid use. Free T3 levels were significantly lower in PV group compared to the control group and free T4 levels were significantly higher in PV group compared to the controls. Conclusions. PV may exist together with autoimmune thyroid diseases especially Hashimoto thyroiditis and primer thyroid diseases. Laboratory work-up for thyroid function tests and thyroid autoantibodies should be performed to determine underlying thyroid diseases in patients with PV.

  5. Effect of Prunella vulgaris L extract on hyperprolactinemia in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of PVE on serum prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (PGN), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were investigated in the rats. MMQ cells derived from rat pituitary adenoma cells and GH3 cells from rat pituitary lactotropictumoral cells were used for in vitro experiments.

  6. Effect of Prunella vulgaris L extract on hyperplasia of mammary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African. Index Medicus, JournalSeek, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Directory of Open Access Journals. (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts. INTRODUCTION.

  7. Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic investigation on Lamiaceae plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösch, P.; Popp, J.; Kiefer, W.

    1999-05-01

    The essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgaris are studied by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy. The containing monoterpenes can be identified by their Raman spectra. Further the essential oils are investigated in their natural environment, the so-called oil cells of these Lamiaceae plants, with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). This method has the advantage to enhance Raman signals and furthermore the SERS effect leads to fluorescence quenching.

  8. Impact of ethanolic lamiaceae extracts on herpesvirus infectivity in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichling, Jürgen; Nolkemper, Silke; Stintzing, Florian C; Schnitzler, Paul

    2008-12-01

    Extracts of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs for antimicrobial and antiviral agents, since microorganisms might develop resistance to commonly used antimicrobial or antiviral agents. Ethanolic extracts from Lamiaceae plants prunella, peppermint, rosemary and thyme were phytochemically characterised. The inhibitory activity of four 20% ethanolic plant extracts and four 80% ethanolic extracts against herpes simplex virus (HSV) strains was tested in cell culture. Rosmarinic acid, a typical compound in Lamiaceae species, was identified in the extracts except for thyme 20% ethanolic extract. In addition, some other phenolic compounds such as apigenin- and luteolin-derivatives were identified in different amounts. All extracts exhibited high and concentration-dependent levels of antiviral activity against free acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 strains with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.05-0.82 microg/ml. Mechanistically, exposure of free virions as well as host cells to prunella and peppermint 80% ethanolic extracts at maximum non-cytotoxic concentrations prior to infection reduced plaque formation drastically. Thus, both extracts revealed a dual mode of action similar to aqueous lemon balm extracts. Since infectivity of acyclovir-susceptible and acyclovir-resistant HSV strains was significantly reduced with Lamiaceae extracts, the results obtained indicate that ethanolic plant extracts affected herpesvirus prior to and during adsorption and in a different way than acyclovir. Based on its dual mode of action, e.g. antiviral effect against free virions and blocking virus attachment to host cells, prunella and peppermint 80% ethanolic extracts are promising antiviral agents in recurrent herpes labialis for topical therapeutic applications. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Combination of Active Components Enhances the Efficacy of Prunella in Prevention and Treatment of Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Shi; Xiao-Bin Tan; Mao-Mao Zhu; Yan Chen; Liang Feng; Jun Jiang; Xiao-Bin Jia

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of Prunella extracts in the prevention and treatment of lung cancer has been attributed to different components. In this study, an "active components combination model" hypothesis was proposed to explain the anti-tumor activity of Prunella. The efficacy of Prunella extracts from different regions was compared in vitro and in vivo, and the TNF-α activity in serum of tumor-bearing mice was also evaluated. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the extract...

  10. Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae) in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongcheewin, B.; Chantaranotha, P.; Paton, A.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae) in Thailand is revised in preparation for the Flora of Thailand treatment. Eight species are found in Thailand, three of which, E. blanda, E. kachinensis and E. pilosa, are lectotypified. Elsholtzia griffithii and E. penduliflora are recorded for Thailand for the first

  11. Effects of Thymus Vulgaris L. and Thymbra Spicata L. on diabetes mellitus associated cognitive impairment and neuropathy: Thymus Vulgaris and Cognitive Function Improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Akan, Zafer; Dikilidal, Melek; Ozdemir, Hulya; Oto, Gokhan; Yilmaz, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease due to increased blood glucose, with multiple organ involvement. Although various oral drugs are used to treat DM, they do not prevent the development of DM related diseases such as cognitive disorder, neuropathy and vascular diseases. Thus novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of DM are urgently needed. This research aimed to reveal the effects of Thymus Vulgaris Lamiaceae (TVL) and Thymbra Spicata Lamiaceae (TSL) on the damaging...

  12. Extraction and analysis of Ursolic Acid from Spica Prunellae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-quan LI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the extract technology of Ursolic Acid from Spica Prunellae,and to build the method of determining its content. Methods: Adopting the method of ethanol extract and agglutination separate to isolate Ursolic Acid.The content of Ursolic Acid in sample is determined by HPLC with Methanol-H2O-Glacial acetic acid-Triethylamine (83:17:0.04:0.02 as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0ml/min,and detection wavelength at 210nm. Beckman ODS 150mm×4.6mm column is used at 25℃. Results: The product is recognized to be Ursolic Acid by physicochemical contents and thin layer chromatography.Adopting peak area normalization method for counting.The extraction rate is 99.8%. Conclusion: The technology of isolating and preparation Ursolic Acid is advanced、pratical、reasonable and feasible. It can be applied in industrial production. The purity of Ursolic Acid is high and the safety is good. The analytical method is simple and accurate.It can be adapted to evaluate the quality of Ursolic Acid.

  13. Beta vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heat treated Beetroot have the highest value for ABTS scavenging ability. ... powdered sample was stored in a clean dry plastic container at room ..... Nutritional value and economic feasibility of red beetroot. (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris Rote Kugel) from different production systems. African Journal of. Agricultural ...

  14. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory, antioxidant and phytochemical properties of selected medicinal plants of the Lamiaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir-Knežević, Sanda; Blažeković, Biljana; Kindl, Marija; Vladić, Jelena; Lower-Nedza, Agnieszka D; Brantner, Adelheid H

    2014-01-09

    The present study aimed to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Lamiaceae medicinal plants growing wild in Croatia. Using Ellman's colorimetric assay all tested ethanolic extracts and their hydroxycinnamic acid constituents demonstrated in vitro AChE inhibitory properties in a dose dependent manner. The extracts of Mentha x piperita, M. longifolia, Salvia officinalis, Satureja montana, Teucrium arduini, T. chamaedrys, T. montanum, T. polium and Thymus vulgaris at 1 mg/mL showed strong inhibitory activity against AChE. The antioxidant potential of the investigated Lamiaceae species was assessed by DPPH• scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity assays, in comparison with hydroxycinnamic acids and trolox. The extracts differed greatly in their total hydroxycinnamic derivatives content, determined spectrophotometrically. Rosmarinic acid was found to be the predominant constituent in most of the investigated medicinal plants (by RP-HPLC) and had a substantial influence on their AChE inhibitory and antioxidant properties, with the exception of Teucrium species. These findings indicate that Lamiaceae species are a rich source of various natural AChE inhibitors and antioxidants that could be useful in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's and other related diseases.

  15. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory, Antioxidant and Phytochemical Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants of the Lamiaceae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Vladimir-Knežević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Lamiaceae medicinal plants growing wild in Croatia. Using Ellman’s colorimetric assay all tested ethanolic extracts and their hydroxycinnamic acid constituents demonstrated in vitro AChE inhibitory properties in a dose dependent manner. The extracts of Mentha x piperita, M. longifolia, Salvia officinalis, Satureja montana, Teucrium arduini, T. chamaedrys, T. montanum, T. polium and Thymus vulgaris at 1 mg/mL showed strong inhibitory activity against AChE. The antioxidant potential of the investigated Lamiaceae species was assessed by DPPH• scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity assays, in comparison with hydroxycinnamic acids and trolox. The extracts differed greatly in their total hydroxycinnamic derivatives content, determined spectrophotometrically. Rosmarinic acid was found to be the predominant constituent in most of the investigated medicinal plants (by RP-HPLC and had a substantial influence on their AChE inhibitory and antioxidant properties, with the exception of Teucrium species. These findings indicate that Lamiaceae species are a rich source of various natural AChE inhibitors and antioxidants that could be useful in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s and other related diseases.

  16. The polyphenolic content of common lamiaceae species available as herbal tea products in Romanian pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Răileanu, Elena; Trifan, Adriana; Cioanca, Oana

    2013-01-01

    The plants belonging to Lamiaceae family are widely used in medicine, cosmetic and food industry. Besides volatile oils, the main constituents of these plants are polyphenols. These compounds are secondary metabolites with multiple biological activities useful in the prevention and treatment of many disorders. To determine the flavonoids. hydroxycinnamic acids and total polyphenols content in several aromatic Lamiaceae plants available in Romanian pharmacies as herbal tea products: Melissa officinalis, Lavandula officinalis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Mentha piperita, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia pratensis. The quantitative determination of different types of polyphenols was performed in ethanolic extracts 70% and 50%, respectively, of each sample, using spectrophotometric methods. The total polyphenols levels in the investigated products ranged between 3.10% and 6.51% (expressed as g GAE/100 g dry weight), the largest amount being identified in Melissa officinalis (6.51%). The samples of Salvia pratensis and Mentha piperita were the richest in flavonoid derivatives expressed as g rutin/100 g dry weight (1.83% and 1.53%, respectively), the optimal extraction being with 70% ethanol. The highest content in hydroxycinnamic acids expressed as g rosmarinic acid/100 g dry weight was found in Melissa officinalis sample (4.15%). There is a wide variability of polyphenolic content not only by species, but also depending on the polyphenols type or solvent used for extraction. The best extraction rate of total polyphenols in the investigated Lamiaceae species was obtained with 50% ethanol.

  17. Ichthyosis vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Godoy-Gijon, E; Elias, P M

    2013-01-01

    Ichthyosis vulgaris is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) and is characterized clinically by xerosis, scaling, keratosis pilaris, palmar and plantar hyperlinearity, and a strong association with atopic disorders. According to the published studies presented in this r......Ichthyosis vulgaris is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) and is characterized clinically by xerosis, scaling, keratosis pilaris, palmar and plantar hyperlinearity, and a strong association with atopic disorders. According to the published studies presented...... or irritants. Moreover, with our current knowledge, individuals with ichthyosis vulgaris should be protected against neonatal exposure to cats to prevent atopic dermatitis and should abstain from smoking to prevent asthma. Finally, they should be advised against excessive exposure to factors that decrease skin...

  18. New chromosome reports in Lamiaceae of Kashmir (Northwest Himalaya), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Reyaz Ahmad; Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Singh, Vijay; Bala, Santosh; Kumari, Santosh

    2017-03-01

    Meiotic studies and chromosome data are imperative in order to have an overall germplasm evaluation of a taxon. In the present effort, the meiotic study is carried out in 48 populations belonging to 26 species of Lamiaceae collected from their natural habitats in Kashmir Himalaya, which forms an important part of Northwest Himalaya. Chromosome counts in the five species viz. Dracocephalum nutans (2n = 10), Lycopus europaeus (2n = 22), Marrubium vulgare (2n = 54), Nepeta nervosa (2n = 18) and Salvia sclarea (2n = 22) are first time reported from India. Besides, 17 species are cytologically evaluated for the first time from the study area-Kashmir Himalaya. In Marrubium vulgare, hexaploid cytotype (2n = 6 × =54) is reported for the first time. Also, diploid and tetraploid cytomorphovariants are observed in Calamintha vulgaris (2n = 20, 40), Elsholtzia ciliata (2n = 16, 32) and Mentha longifolia (2n = 20, 40). Various meiotic abnormalities like chromatin stickiness, cytomixis, nonsynchronous disjunction, laggards, chromatin bridges, etc. leading to pollen abnormalities have been documented for the first time in some species. The worldwide status of chromosome number data in each genus is presented.

  19. Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Ghorpade

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris causes much emotional trauma, social embarrassment and cosmetic disfiguration in teenage girls and boys. The multifactorial etiology, pathogenesis and clinical features of this condition are narrated. The mechanism of comedo formation is briefly discussed. Recent concepts in the management of this chronic malady are critically reviewed.

  20. Micromeria acropolitana (Lamiaceae) rediscovered in Athens (Greece)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Tsounis, Gregory; Tsounis, Lambros

    2010-01-01

    Micromeria acropolitana (Lamiaceae) was first collected in 1906 from the Acropolis, Athens and considered extinct until its rediscovery in 2006, a hundred years later. Its greatest threat within the archaeological site is human disturbance. It has survived in its original habitat, the natural rock...

  1. Inhibitory efficacy of the quantified prunellae spica extract on H22 tumor bearing mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2013-02-01

    Hepatocarcinoma, a malignant cancer, threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistence of the advanced hepatocarcinoma to chemotherapy. In this report, we assessed the antitumor activity of a prunellae spica aqueous extract (PSE) in vitro and in vivo. PSE was quantified by HPLC and UV. MTT assay showed that PSE did not effectively inhibit the growth of H22 cells. The in vivo anti-tumor activity was assessed by using the mice bearing H22 tumor. In vivo studies showed the higher antitumor efficacy of PSE without significant side effect assessed by the reduced tumor weight, and the extended survival time of the mice bearing H22 solid and ascites tumor. Collectively, PSE is a promising Chinese medicinal herb for treating hepatocarcinoma.

  2. Nondestructive Analysis of Phytochemical Components by Near Infared (NIR) Spectroscopy: Measurement of Rosmarinic Acid in Prunella Vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIR spectroscopy has developed into a rapid nondestructive method to analyze, in a single event, an increasingly complex number of general and specific components in solid and liquid samples, including dissolved solids, acids, density, pH, microbial contamination, and percent oil, carbohydrate, prot...

  3. Acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Sarah; de Berker, David

    2011-01-05

    Acne vulgaris affects over 80% of teenagers, and persists beyond the age of 25 years in 3% of men and 12% of women. Typical lesions of acne include comedones, inflammatory papules, and pustules. Nodules and cysts occur in more severe acne and can cause scarring and psychological distress. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of topical and oral treatments in people with acne vulgaris? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to February 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 69 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: topical treatments (adapalene, azelaic acid, benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, erythromycin [alone or plus zinc]; isotretinoin, tetracycline, tretinoin); and oral treatments (doxycycline, isotretinoin, lymecycline, minocycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline).

  4. [Acne vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, C C

    2014-08-01

    Acne vulgaris is worldwide the most common skin disease. Acne is an inflammatory disorder in whose emergence androgens, PPAR ligands, the IGF-1 signaling pathway, regulating neuropeptides and environmental factors are probably involved. These factors interrupt the natural cycling process in the sebaceous gland follicle and support the transition of microcomedones to comedones and inflammatory lesions. Proinflammatory lipids and cytokines are mediators for the development of acne lesions. Bacterial antigens can potentate the inflammatory phenomena. Acne is predominantly treated with combination therapy. Selecting a treatment regimen depends on the exact classification of acne type and severity. The development of scars is the main criterion for the choice of systemic therapy. Retinoids for mild comedonal acne and the combination of retinoids with antibiotics and/or benzoyl peroxide for mild to moderate papulopustular acne are the drugs of first choice for topical treatment. The use of topical antibiotics is not recommended any more because of the development of resistant bacterial strains. Systemic antibiotics, in combination with topical retinoids and/or benzoyl peroxide, for moderate papular/nodular acne and isotretinoin for severe nodular/conglobate acne are the columns of systemic acne treatment. Systemic anti-androgens are used in women against moderate papulopustular acne. Due to advances in the understanding of the underlying inflammatory mechanisms in recent years the development of new therapeutic agents with good efficacy and better side effect profile should be expected in the future.

  5. Comparative leaf anatomy of Iranian Phlomoides (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Seyedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phlomoides (Lamiaceae: Lamioideae is a species rich, widespread, and taxonomically complex genus. A comparative anatomical study of the petioles and leaf lamina of 17 Phlomoides taxa representing 4 sections of the genus distributed in Iran was carried out to evaluate interspecific relationships and anatomical features that may be useful in species identification and subgeneric classification. The general leaf anatomy of Phlomoides species presented here corroborates earlier studies in Lamiaceae and on a few studied species in the genus. Leaf anatomy provides valuable characters that are useful in subgeneric classification as well as species discrimination in Phlomoides. The most important diagnostic characters are as follows: the shape of transverse section, length of ventral and dorsiventral axis, number of median bundles in the petiole, number of cell layers of palisade and spongy parenchyma, type and thickness of collenchyma as well as trichome type. Based on the present study and in accordance with previous works, some large sections such as Eremostachys appears to be natural, while circumscription of sect. Filipendula should be revised.

  6. Structural units of shoot systems of Thymus marschallianus Willd. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Kolegova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Structural units of shoot systems of Thymus marschallianus Willd. (Lamiaceae in Western Siberia (Russia have been studied. It was allocated 5 hierarchical units combined into 3 modules.

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of neo-Clerodane Diterpenoids isolated from Lamiaceae Species against Pathogenic and Food Spoilage Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozov, Petko; Girova, Tania; Prisadova, Natalia; Hristova, Yana; Gochev, Velizar

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial activity of nineteen neo-clerodane diterpenoids, isolated from the acetone extracts of the aerial parts of Scutellaria and Salvia species (Lamiaceae) were tested against thirteen strains belonging to nine different species of pathogenic and food spoilage bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella abony and Staphylococcus aureus as well as against two yeast strains belonging to species Candida albicans. Seven of the evaluated compounds scutalpin A, scutalpin E, scutalpin F, salviarin, splenolide A, splenolide B and splendidin demonstrated antimicrobial activity against used test microbial strains, the rest of the compounds were inactive within the studied concentration range. Among all of the tested compounds the highest antimicrobial activity was detected for scutalpin A against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 25 µg/mL).

  8. Effects of Thymol and Carvacrol, Constituents of Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil, on the Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachini-Queiroz, Fernanda Carolina; Kummer, Raquel; Estevão-Silva, Camila Fernanda; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Cunha, Joice Maria; Grespan, Renata; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae) is an aromatic and medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine, phytopharmaceutical preparations, food preservatives, and as an aromatic ingredient. The effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO) and its isolated constituents thymol and cavacrol (CVL) were studied in the following experimental models: ear edema, carrageenan-induced pleurisy, and chemotaxis in vitro. In the pleurisy model, TEO, CVL, and thymol significantly inhibited inflammatory edema. However, only TEO and CVL inhibited leukocyte migration. In the in vitro chemotaxis experiment, CVL inhibited leukocyte migration, whereas thymol exerted a potent chemoattractant effect. In the ear edema model, CVL (10 mg/ear), applied topically, reduced edema formation, exerting a topical anti-inflammatory effect. Thymol did not reduce edema formation but rather presented an irritative response, probably dependent on histamine and prostanoid release. Our data suggest that the antiinflammatory effects of TEO and CVL are attributable to the inhibition of inflammatory edema and leukocyte migration. PMID:22919415

  9. Multicentric lupus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra S

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60 year old female patient presented with disseminated tuberculosis. She had multicentric lupus vulgaris and her joints, bones, lymph nodes and lungs were also affected. Haematogenous dissemination was because of her poor health.

  10. Caffeic Acid Derivatives in Dried Lamiaceae and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations of caffeic acid derivatives within Lamiaceae and Echinacea (herb, spice, tea, and dietary supplement forms) readily available in the U.S. marketplace (n=72) were determined. After the first identification of chicoric acid in Ocimum basilicum (basil), the extent to which chicoric a...

  11. Protection of cadmium chloride induced DNA damage by Lamiaceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanasampandan, Ramaraj; Jayakumar, Rajarajeswaran

    2011-10-01

    To analyze the total phenolic content, DNA protecting and radical scavenging activity of ethanolic leaf extracts of three Lamiaceae plants, i.e. Anisomelos malabarica (A. malabarica), Leucas aspera (L. aspera) and Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum). The total polyphenols and flavonoids were analyzed in the ethanolic leaf extracts of the lamiaceae plants. To determine the DNA protecting activity, various concentrations of the plant extracts were prepared and treated on cultured HepG2 human lung cancer cells. The pretreated cells were exposed to H2O2 to induce DNA damage through oxidative stress. Comet assay was done and the tail length of individual comets was measured. Nitric oxide and superoxide anion scavenging activities of lamiaceae plants were analyzed. Among the three plant extracts, the highest amount of total phenolic content was found in O. basilicum (189.33 mg/g), whereas A. malabarica showed high levels of flavonoids (10.66 mg/g). O. basilicum also showed high levels of DNA protecting (85%) and radical scavenging activity. The results of this study shows that bioactive phenols present in lamiaceae plants may prevent carcinogenesis through scavenging free radicals and inhibiting DNA damage.

  12. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  13. Breeding biology and variable mating system of a population of introduced dunnocks (Prunella modularis in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo S A Santos

    Full Text Available Species with variable mating systems provide a unique opportunity to investigate whether females receive direct fitness benefits from additional male partners. The direct benefits provide an obvious explanation for why females would breed polyandrously, in a situation where males clearly do not attain their optimal reproductive success. Evidence for these direct benefits is, however, mixed. Here, we present a detailed study of the breeding biology of the dunnock, Prunella modularis, which inform an investigation into the effects of the social mating system on the reproductive success in a population of dunnocks in Southern New Zealand. We studied 80 different social groups over the course of three breeding seasons. Dunnocks in our population presented a variable mating system, with socially monogamous (45%, socially polyandrous (54% and socially polygynandrous (1% groups being observed in the same breeding season. We did not observe any polygynous social units in our study period although polygyny exists in the population. We found little difference in the numbers of eggs laid, and egg volume between monogamous and polyandrous nests. However, polyandrous groups had better hatching and fledging success than monogamous groups (composite d = 0.385, 95% CI: 0.307 to 0.463. Overall our results support the notion that polyandry is beneficial for females.

  14. Population differentiation and behavioural association of the two 'personality' genes DRD4 and SERT in dunnocks (Prunella modularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtmann, B; Grosser, S; Lagisz, M; Johnson, S L; Santos, E S A; Lara, C E; Robertson, B C; Nakagawa, S

    2016-02-01

    Quantifying the variation in behaviour-related genes within and between populations provides insight into how evolutionary processes shape consistent behavioural traits (i.e. personality). Deliberate introductions of non-native species offer opportunities to investigate how such genes differ between native and introduced populations and how polymorphisms in the genes are related to variation in behaviour. Here, we compared the genetic variation of the two 'personality' genes, DRD4 and SERT, between a native (United Kingdom, UK) and an introduced (New Zealand, NZ) population of dunnocks, Prunella modularis. The NZ population showed a significantly lower number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) compared to the UK population. Standardized F'st estimates of the personality genes and neutral microsatellites indicate that selection (anthropogenic and natural) probably occurred during and post the introduction event. Notably, the largest genetic differentiation was found in the intronic regions of the genes. In the NZ population, we also examined the association between polymorphisms in DRD4 and SERT and two highly repeatable behavioural traits: flight-initiation distance and mating status (promiscuous females and cobreeding males). We found 38 significant associations (for different allele effect models) between the two behavioural traits and the studied genes. Further, 22 of the tested associations showed antagonistic allele effects for males and females. Our findings illustrate how introduction events and accompanying ecological changes could influence the genetic diversity of behaviour-related genes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Psoriasiform lupus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathy, L; Rao, L Lakshmana; Ethirajan, N; Dhanlaklshmi, M

    2008-04-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in both developing and developed countries. Cutaneous Tuberculosis constitutes a minor proportion of extra-pulmonary manifestations of Tuberculosis. Lupus Vulgaris (LV) is one of the clinical variants of Cutaneous Tuberculosis. A case of a large plaque type psoriasiform lesion of lupus vulgaris on the thigh, of 15 years' duration, in an 18-year-old girl is reported. This case highlights the ignorance level among the patients and consequent failure to avail proper anti-tuberculous treatment despite campaign in print and audio visual media.

  16. The Essential Oil Secretory Structures of Prostanthera ovalifolia (Lamiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    GERSBACH, P. V.

    2002-01-01

    The structure of the essential oil secretory tissues of Prostanthera ovalifolia R.Br was investigated using bright‐ and dark‐field optical microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The leaves of P. ovalifolia have glandular trichomes of the peltate type common to many Lamiaceae species. The trichomes consist of a basal cell embedded in the epidermis, a stalk cell with heavily cutinized walls and a 16‐celled secretory head, but they differ from those of many previously reported Lamiaceae species in their morphological form defined by the elevated cuticle. The sub‐cuticular space contains a mixture of lipid and aqueous phases. Secretory cells have dense cytoplasm with many leucoplasts present. Volatile terpenoids are eliminated from the cytoplasm into the sub‐cuticular space, the site of essential oil accumulation, via granulocrine secretion. PMID:12096737

  17. Molecular phylogeny of tribe Stachydeae (Lamiaceae subfamily Lamioideae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmaki, Yasaman; Zarre, Shahin; Ryding, Olof

    2013-01-01

    subclades are congruent between the plastid and nuclear tree topologies, whereas their relative phylogenetic placements are often not. This level of plastid-nuclear incongruence suggests considerable impact of hybridization in the evolution of Stachydeae. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.......Although tribe Stachydeae (Lamiaceae) is considered monophyletic, relationships within the tribe are still poorly understood. The complexity of Stachydeae includes paraphyletic genera, considerable morphological plasticity, a range of ploidy levels, and presumably frequent natural hybridization. We...

  18. Acne vulgaris: endocriene aspecten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, O. M.; Thio, B. H.; Romijn, J. A.; Smit, J. W. A.

    2006-01-01

    Androgens play an important part in the development of acne vulgaris. Androgen levels in patients with acne are higher than those in controls and people with the androgen insensitivity syndrome do not develop acne. Local factors other than androgen plasma levels, also play a part in the development

  19. Oral Pemphigus Vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2015-10-04

    Oct 4, 2015 ... CONCLUSION: Dental professionals must be sufficiently familiar with the clinical manifestations of pemphigus vulgaris to ensure early ... 3 SDM College of Dental Sciences, Dharwad, India. Corresponding Author: Rai Arpita, ... sign in this case led to provisional diagnosis of vesiculo-bullous lesion affecting ...

  20. Sonography of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortsman, Ximena; Claveria, Pedro; Valenzuela, Fernando; Molina, Maria Teresa; Wortsman, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sonographic morphology of the clinical and subclinical pathology of facial acne vulgaris. We studied patients with facial acne vulgaris diagnosed by certified dermatologists, and using a standardized protocol for sonographic examinations, we sequentially described the sonographic pathomorphologic characteristics. Lesions of particular interest to the referring clinician were also analyzed separately. Additionally, acne involvement was staged clinically and sonographically (SOS-Acne) using morphologic definitions of the relevant lesions and predefined scoring systems for gradation of the severity of acne lesions. A total of 245 acne lesions in 20 consecutive patients were studied. Sonographic abnormalities consisted of pseudocysts, folliculitis, fistulas, and calcinosis. Most conditions were subclinical and mostly due to lesion extensions deep into the dermis and hypodermis (52% of pseudocysts and 68% of fistulas). The statistical concordance between acne severity scores assigned by two separate clinicians was strong (κ = 0.8020), but the corresponding sonographic scores generally showed more severe and clinically occult involvement. Facial acne vulgaris often involves deeper tissues, beyond the reach of the spatially restricted clinical examination; these subclinical conditions can be detected and defined with sonography. Additionally, acne vulgaris is amenable to sonographic scoring.

  1. Comparison of Soxhlet, accelerated solvent and supercritical fluid extraction techniques for volatile (GC-MS and GC/FID) and phenolic compounds (HPLC-ESI/MS/MS) from Lamiaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Solana, Raquel; Salgado, José Manuel; Domínguez, José Manuel; Cortés-Diéguez, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Plants from the Lamiaceae family have been known traditionally for their beneficial health-promoting properties, attributed to their anti-inflammatory, anaesthetic and anti-microbial effects. The purposes of this study was to characterise the essential oils from four Lamiaceae plants by applying different extraction techniques. Accelerated solvent (ASE), Soxhlet and supercritical fluid (SFE) extraction methods were compared for their efficiency in obtaining the essential oils from plants. The volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS and the main chemotype was quantified by GC with flame ionisation detection (FID). Phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by HPLC and electrospray ionisation (ESI) with MS/MS. The essential oils Mentha piperita (ct. menthol/menthone), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (ct. eucalyptol/camphor) and Origanum vulgare (ct. carvacrol/thymol), whereas Thymus vulgaris L. was found to be a pure chemotype (ct. thymol). All three extracts also contained six phenolic compounds. The highest extraction yields were achieved by the Soxhlet and ASE techniques, with M. piperita and R. officinalis L. producing the highest concentrations of rosmarinic and carnosic acids. Finally, it was observed that M. piperita and O. vulgare produced the highest total phenolic content, whereas R. officinalis L. and T. vulgaris L. produced the highest anti-oxidant activity. The ASE and Soxhlet extraction techniques presented the highest yields of volatile and phenolic compounds, showing their suitability to characterise the chemical profile of aromatic plants. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of acetone and methanol extracts from Thymus leucotrichius (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukanli, Z; Cigremis, Y; Ilcim, A

    2011-06-01

    Thymus species has been used as tonic and herbal tea, antiseptic, antitussive, carminative, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. The acetone and methanol extracts of Thymus (T.) leucotrichius (Labiatae/Lamiaceae) was examined for antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The antioxidant properties of acetone and methanol extracts of Thymus leucotrichius were investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)/nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total phenolic substance analysis. Antibacterial, antiyeast and antifungal activity of the plant extracts were tested using the disc diffusion method. Results showed that IC50 of Thymus leucotrichius acetone and methanol extracts that scavenged 50% of the DPPH radical in the medium was found to be 109.72 microg/ml, 43.53 microg/ml, respectively. It was found that IC50 of Thymus leucotrichius acetone and methanol extracts which scavenged 50% of the NO radical in the medium was 180.56 microg/ml, and 67.34 microg/ml, respectively. In the Thymus leucotrichius acetone and methanol extracts (1 mg), 35.64 microg and 51.78 microg pyrocatechol equivalents of phenols were detected, respectively. Neither acetone nor methanol extract possessed activity towards Proteus vulgaris, Rhodotorula rubra, Candida albicans, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus niger. Acetone extract was the most active on Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium. The sentivity was also observed against towards Escherichia coli H7:O157, Kluvyeromyces fragilis and Fusarium proliferatum when acetone extract used. The methanol extract also displayed more or less similar inhibitory activity towards the test microorganisms. Kluvyeromyces fragilis was resistant to methanol extract of the species unlike acetone extracts of the species. However, the fungus Fusarium proliferatum was markedly inhibited by the methanol extract of test species at 1000 microg and above. Significant inhibitory activities of the two

  3. The effect of drying on antioxidant activity of selected lamiaceae herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Adámková

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity and total phenolics content of selected fresh and dried herbs from the Lamiaceae family were compared. The analysed herbs included Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Satureja hortensis, Origanum majorana, and Origanum heracleoticum from the 1st and the 2nd harvests. The antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method and the total content of phenols was analysed using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Ascorbic and gallic acids were used as reference standards. All the analysed herbs had the reasonable potential to reduce the DPPH radical. The dried herbs from the 2nd harvest had the highest antioxidant activity. Oregano exhibited the highest antioxidant activity from the analyzed samples of both harvests together. The descending order of the samples was oregano ˃ Greek oregano ˃ marjoram ˃ summer savory ˃ thyme. Marjoram from the 2nd harvest had the highest antioxidant activity from the fresh samples. The lowest activity was observed in thyme from the 2nd harvest. In case of dried samples, the highest antioxidant activity was measured in sample of Greek oregano from the 2nd harwest. The lowest activity was observed in thyme from the 1st and 2nd harvest again. The descending order of total phenolics content for both harvests together was oregano ˃ Greek oregano ˃ marjoram ˃ summer savory ˃ thyme. In case of fresh herbs the highest total phenolics content was measured in oregano from the 1st harvest, the lowest content was measured in summer savory from the 2nd harvest. Greek oregano from the 2nd harvest had the highest values from dried herbs. Dried thyme from the second harvest had the lowest total phenolics content. The correlation between the DPPH values and the total content of phenols was determined (for fresh herbs: 0.4917; for dried herbs: 0.8698. According to the total content of phenols a statistically significant difference between the fresh and dried herbs from the 2nd harvest (p = 0.0185 was found.

  4. Lupus vulgaris: difficulties in diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Julia; Caccetta, Tony Philip; Tait, Clare

    2013-05-01

    Lupus vulgaris is one of the most common forms of cutaneous tuberculosis. It presents a diagnostic challenge due to its paucibacillary nature. This is a report of a case of a delayed diagnosis of lupus vulgaris, presenting as perianal and peristomal plaques, followed by a review of the diagnostic tools for lupus vulgaris and their limitations. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2012 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  5. Lung and lupus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukta, V; Jayachandran, K

    2011-04-01

    Lupus vulgaris is chronic, postprimary, paucibacillary cutaneous tuberculosis found in individuals with moderate immunity and high degree of tuberculin sensitivity. Eighty percent of the lesions are on the head and neck. We present the case of a 38 year old lady who was admitted with complaints of worsening breathlessness and low grade fever of one month duration. Examination showed multiple, nontender skin ulcers on bilateral lumbar areas, two oozing serosanguinous discharge and others scarred in the centre. Respiratory system examination and chest X-ray revealed right sided pleural effusion. On investigation, pleural fluid was tuberculous in nature. Skin biopsy from the edge of ulcer was also suggestive of tuberculosis. Patient is doing well on antituberculous drugs. This case highlights the importance of cutaneous manifestations of systemic disease and is an example of the unusual presentation of lupus vulgaris in a case of pleural effusion.

  6. Cryopreservation of Thymus cariensis and T. vulgaris shoot tips: comparison of three vitrification-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozudogru, E A; Kaya, E

    2012-01-01

    Thymus is an important genus of the Lamiaceae family, comprising more than 400 perennial aromatic thyme species, which are used extensively for medicinal and culinary purposes. The present study focused on the development of cryopreservation procedures for Thymus vulgaris and T. cariensis, the latter being an endemic and endangered species of Turkey. For cryopreservation of T. vulgaris shoot tips, PVS2-based one-step freezing methods, i.e., PVS2 vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet-vitrification, were compared. Cold hardening and sucrose preculture were also optimized before the cryopreservation trials. For T. cariensis, a droplet-vitrification method was applied to cold-hardened shoot tips, and after sucrose preculture. In all the methods tested, PVS2 was applied for up to 120 min. The best T. vulgaris cryopreservation was achieved with a droplet-vitrification method, that involved 2-weeks cold hardening of shoot cultures, 48 h preculture of shoot tips on MS medium supplemented with 0.25 M sucrose, and a 90 min PVS2 treatment in droplets. After direct immersion in LN, thawing and plating, 80% of shoot-tips recovered. Post-thaw recovery was significantly lower when the same procedure was applied to T. cariensis shoot tips; however also here 90 min PVS2 treatment produced the highest survival (25 percent) and recovery (25 percent) levels.

  7. AROMATIC PLANT OF LAMIACEAE FAMILY FOR USE IN PHYTOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Logvinenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Therapeutic action of terpenoids of essential oil in uncommon plants like Elsholtzia stauntonii, Agastache foenic-ulum, Monarda fistulosa, Perovskia atri-plicifolia, Majorana hortensis, therefore the study for these plants application in phyto-therapy is timely. The study for componen-tial content of essential oil of 18 uncommon species from Lamiaceae family from the collection of Nikitsky Botanical Garden to increase therapeutic possibilities and their practical use in phytotherapy was the purpose of this paper. The plant species under study were introduced to the South Coast of Crimea from different ecological and geographic zones in seeds from botanical gardens of Europe. Methods. Every species was represented by 3-20 samples, which were studied by biomorpholofical and principal economically valuable features. The article presents the generalization and analysis of long-time studies for biologically active substances from 18 species of aromatic plants from Lamiaceae family. The content of essential oil was determined in a phase of mass blossom, from freshly harvested raw materials by means of hydro distillation at Ginsberg apparatuses. Componential content of essential oil was studied by the method of gas liquid chromatography. Results. Identification of the essential oils components allowed isolation of plant chemotypes with high content of valuable substances (methyl chavicol, carvacrol, pinen, thymol, and others. Highproductive samples (forms, prospective for industrial cultivation were isolated by the features complex. Based on the classification of A.D. Turova in phytotherapeutic action of plants and results of our studies, the isolated plant forms were distributed in 10 groups of usage in phytotherapy. On the example of Agastache foeniculum we showed that one and the same plant species may have different chemotypes, which have treatment and toxic action. Conclusion. The data obtained broaden and add the information about a

  8. Géneros de Lamiaceae de México, diversidad y endemismo Genera of Lamiaceae from Mexico, diversity and endemism

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Martínez-Gordillo; Itzi Fragoso-Martínez; María del Rosario García-Peña; Oscar Montiel

    2013-01-01

    La familia Lamiaceae es muy diversa en México y se distribuye con preferencia en las zonas templadas, aunque es posible encontrar géneros como Hyptis y Asterohyptis, que habitan en zonas secas y calientes; es una de las familias más diversas en el país, de la cual no se tenían datos actualizados sobre su diversidad y endemismo. En este trabajo se presenta una clave para identificar los géneros de la familia, las descripciones de los mismos, con comentarios acerca de su riqueza y endemismo, un...

  9. Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Nieto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges.

  10. Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Gema

    2017-08-23

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges.

  11. Essential oil of Lepechinia schiedeana (Lamiaceae from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Cicció

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil isolated by steam distillation from aerial parts of the Costa Rican herb Lepechinia schiedeana (Schlecht Vatke (Lamiaceae collected in El Empalme, Costa Rica, was determined by capillary gas chromatography (GC and coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analyses. Fifty-one components were identified corresponding ca. 93% of the oil. The major components were -pinene (26.6%, cis -pinocamphone (25.1%, -3-carene (6.1%, trans -pinocamphone (4.0%, camphor (3.8% and -caryophyllene (3.7%.Se estudiaron los constituyentes del aceite esencial de las partes aéreas de Lepechinia schiedeana (Lamiaceae mediante el uso de cromatografía de gases (GC y cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se caracterizaron 51 compuestos (que representan ca. del 93% del aceite. El aceite se caracteriza por la presencia de gran cantidad de hidrocarburos monoterpénicos (45.9% y de monoterpenos oxigenados (39.7%. Los componentes mayoritarios fueron -pineno (26.6%, cis -pinocanfona (25.1%, -3-careno (6.1%, trans -pinocanfona (4.0%, alcanfor (3.8% y -cariofileno (3.7%.

  12. Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Gema

    2017-01-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges. PMID:28930277

  13. Check-list of the Family Lamiaceae in Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília de Fátima C. B. R. de Almeida

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the family Lamiaceae in the state of Pernambuco revealed the presence of 20 genera encompassing 46 species. The genera with the highest number of exsiccatae were Hyptis and Ocimum; others had little representative material, and some taxa were collected only once. Regarding the phytogeographical distribution in the state, 9.1% of the registrations of species occurred in the coastal zone, 54.5% in the forest zone and 36.3% in the caatinga zone.O levantamento da família Lamiaceae no estado de Pernambuco revelou a existência de 20 gêneros aos quais estão subordinadas 46 espécies. Os gêneros com maior número de exsicatas foram Hyptis e Ocimum, outros tiveram poucos materiais representativos, existindo aqueles coletados uma única vez. Com relação a distribuição fitogeográfica no estado, 9,1% dos registros de espécies são da Zona do Litoral, 54,5% da Zona da Mata e 36,3% da Zona da Caatinga.

  14. Expression, crystallization and structure elucidation of γ-terpinene synthase from Thymus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Kristin; Parthier, Christoph; Egerer-Sieber, Claudia; Geiger, Daniel; Muller, Yves A; Kreis, Wolfgang; Müller-Uri, Frieder

    2016-01-01

    The biosynthesis of γ-terpinene, a precursor of the phenolic isomers thymol and carvacrol found in the essential oil from Thymus sp., is attributed to the activitiy of γ-terpinene synthase (TPS). Purified γ-terpinene synthase from T. vulgaris (TvTPS), the Thymus species that is the most widely spread and of the greatest economical importance, is able to catalyze the enzymatic conversion of geranyl diphosphate (GPP) to γ-terpinene. The crystal structure of recombinantly expressed and purified TvTPS is reported at 1.65 Å resolution, confirming the dimeric structure of the enzyme. The putative active site of TvTPS is deduced from its pronounced structural similarity to enzymes from other species of the Lamiaceae family involved in terpenoid biosynthesis: to (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase and 1,8-cineole synthase from Salvia sp. and to (4S)-limonene synthase from Mentha spicata.

  15. Antiulcerogenic activity of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldas, Germana Freire Rocha; do Amaral Costa, Iggor Macêdo; da Silva, Juciene Bezerra Rodrigues; da Nóbrega, Rafaella Farias; Rodrigues, Fabíola Fernandes Galvão; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Hyptis martiusii (Lamiaceae), popularly known as "cidreira-do-mato" or "cidreira-brava", grows in abundance in the Northeast region of Brazil, where its leaves are traditionally used in folk medicine in the treatment...

  16. Marrubium eriocephalum (Lamiaceae); a species new to the flora of Turkey, with contributions to its taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fırat, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Marrubium eriocephalum (Lamiaceae) is described as a new record for the Flora of Turkey (B9 Van). A detailed morphological description, photographs, distribution map, and pollen and nutlet morphology of this new record are given. PMID:26884703

  17. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF PLANTS BELONGING TO LAMIACEAE JUSS. FAMILY

    OpenAIRE

    Shanayda M.I.; Pokryshko O.V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. One of the important sources of therapeutic and prophylactic agents of modern medicines are essential oils of medicinal plants. Essential oils are the main group of biologically active substances of a number of plants belonging to Lamiaceae Juss. Family. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plants belonging to Lamiaceae Family many scientists associated with containing of essential oils. In this regard, considerable interest presents the comparative analysis of the antimicrobial ...

  18. Micropropagation of Micromeria juliana (L. Benth. ex Rchb. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić, S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Micromeria juliana belongs to family Lamiaceae, whose representatives are characterized by a significant level of essential oils and antioxidant components. Several species of genus Micromeria contain biologically active substances and are therefore used in folk medicine, food industry and cosmetic industry. Methods of their tissue culture may provide rapid mass multiplication of plants for various purposes, including research on production, accumulation and metabolism of important secondary metabolites. The goal of this paper was to determine the protocol for regeneration of M. juliana plants through use of nodal explants on nutritive substrate with various growth regulators. The greatest number of axillary buds was formed in explants grown on MS nutritive medium with 3 μM benzyladenine (BA and 0.57 μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA. The explants grown at the medium without any growth regulators and the medium with auxin have shown spontaneous root formation.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Lamiaceae, against oral pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcele A. Ferreira

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Lamiaceae, against oral pathogens is reported. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs for inhibiting the microorganisms growth were determined using the broth microdilution method from the CLSI M7-A7 protocol. Chlorhexidine was used as the positive control. The ethanol crude extract of the aerial parts of A. sellowiana exhibited activity against the microorganisms tested in this work; however, the activity decreased after partition with n-hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate. Among the tested fractions, the n-hexane fraction was found to be the most effective against the evaluated oral pathogens. GC-MS analysis of this latter fraction revealed that fatty acids esters, steroids, and aliphatic sesquiterpene hydrocarbons are its major constituents. These compounds may be responsible for the activity of the n-hexane fraction, but other chemical constituents of the dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and hydroalcoholic fraction may potentialize their activities in the crude extract.

  20. Study of the antioxidant activity of Thymus sibthorpii Bentham (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogiorgis, Christos; Ntella, Maria; Mpompou, Lina; Karallaki, Fotini; Athanasios, Papadopoulos; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Lazari, Diamanto

    2016-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Thymus sibthorpii Bentham (Lamiaceae), five flavonoids apigenin (1), 7-methoxy-apigenin (2), naringenin (3), eriodictyol (4) and eriodictyol-7-glucoside (5), have been isolated together with caffeic acid methyl ester (6), rosmarinic acid (7) and rosmarinic acid methyl ester (8). The structures of the isolated compounds were established by spectroscopic methods. The extracts and the isolated compounds were tested for their free radical scavenging activity using the following in vitro assays: (i) interaction with the free stable radical of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), (ii) inhibition of linoleic acid lipid peroxidation induced by the dihydrochloric acid of 2,2-azobis-2-amidinepropane (AAPH) and (iii) the scavenging activity of enzymatically produced superoxide anion. Their inhibitory activity toward soybean lipoxygenase was evaluated in vitro, using linoleic acid as a substrate. The antioxidant results of the extracts are discussed in terms of their constitution in phenolic compounds, which were determined following the Folin-Ciocalteu method.

  1. Nail manifestations in pemphigus vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Cahali Juliana Burihan; Kakuda Everton Yuji Soyama; Santi Cláudia Giuli; Maruta Celina Wakisaka

    2002-01-01

    Nail involvement in pemphigus vulgaris is rare. We describe 5 patients with pemphigus vulgaris presenting nail involvement. In this disease, nail manifestations present, by order of frequency, as chronic paronychia, onychomadesis, onycholysis, Beau's lines and trachyonychia. All our 5 cases presented with paronychia, and 1 of them also had Beau's lines. Treatment with prednisone and/or cyclophosphamide controlled mucocutaneous and nail manifestations in all cases. O acometimento ungueal no...

  2. Géneros de Lamiaceae de México, diversidad y endemismo Genera of Lamiaceae from Mexico, diversity and endemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Martínez-Gordillo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La familia Lamiaceae es muy diversa en México y se distribuye con preferencia en las zonas templadas, aunque es posible encontrar géneros como Hyptis y Asterohyptis, que habitan en zonas secas y calientes; es una de las familias más diversas en el país, de la cual no se tenían datos actualizados sobre su diversidad y endemismo. En este trabajo se presenta una clave para identificar los géneros de la familia, las descripciones de los mismos, con comentarios acerca de su riqueza y endemismo, un mapa de distribución de la familia y un listado de especies presentes en el país; todo lo anterior a partir de una revisión de la bibliografía, de varios herbarios mexicanos (CHAPA, CHIP, ENCB, FCME, IEB, MEXU, OAX, SERO y UAMIZ y de las colecciones y listados disponibles en Internet (F, K, MO y US. En México se encuentran 32 géneros nativos o naturalizados por largo tiempo y 591 especies que representan el 8.11% de la familia, con un endemismo de 65.82%.The Lamiaceae family is highly diverse in Mexico and it is distributed preferently in temperate zones, nevertheless it is possible find some genera such as Hyptis and Asterohyptis inhabitating dry and hot places. Lamiaceae is one of the most diverse families in the country, and there were no data about its diversity and endemism. In the current contribution a key to the genera of the family, their descriptions, commentaries about their richness and endemism, a map of the family distribution and a list of species in the country are presented; all the above based on a literature search, the revision of herbarium collections (CHAPA, CHIP, ENCB, FCME, IEB, MEXU, OAX, SERO y UAMIZ and species lists available on the web (F, K, MO and US. In Mexico there are 32 native or naturalized for a long time genera and 591 species that represent 8.11% of the family, with an endemism of 65.82%.

  3. Chemical constituents and antiedematogenic activity of Peltodon radicans (Lamiaceae); Constituintes quimicos e atividade antiedematogenica de Peltodon radicans (Lamiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Habdel Nasser Rocha da [Universidade Federal de Roraima, Boa Vista, RR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia. Dept. de Quimica; Santos, Maria Cristina dos [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Parasitologia; Alcantara, Antonio Flavio de Carvalho; Silva, Marilda Conceicao; Franca, Roberta Cabral; Pilo-Veloso, Dorila [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: aalcantara@zeus.qui.ufmg.br

    2008-07-01

    Most of the snakebite incidents in the Amazon region involve Bothrops atrox, whose venom presents the most potent edematogenic and necrotic activities in the genus. This work describes the studies of isolation of the chemical constituents and antiedematogenic activity of the species Peltodon radicans (Lamiaceae), which is used in the treatment of snakebites and scorpion stings in the region. The extracts presented aliphatic hydrocarbons, 3{beta}-OH,{beta}-amirin (1), 3{beta}-OH,a-amirin (2), {beta}-sitosterol (3), stigmasterol (4), ursolic acid (5), 2{alpha},3{beta},19{alpha}- trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (tormentic acid, 6), methyl 3{beta}-hydroxy,28-methyl-ursolate (7), sitosterol-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (8), and stigmasterol-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (9). The flower extracts presented the higher antiedematogenic activity. This is the first report on the study of the flowers, stem, and roots of this plant. (author)

  4. Effects of Thymol and Carvacrol, Constituents of Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil, on the Inflammatory Response

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    Fernanda Carolina Fachini-Queiroz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae is an aromatic and medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine, phytopharmaceutical preparations, food preservatives, and as an aromatic ingredient. The effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO and its isolated constituents thymol and cavacrol (CVL were studied in the following experimental models: ear edema, carrageenan-induced pleurisy, and chemotaxis in vitro. In the pleurisy model, TEO, CVL, and thymol significantly inhibited inflammatory edema. However, only TEO and CVL inhibited leukocyte migration. In the in vitro chemotaxis experiment, CVL inhibited leukocyte migration, whereas thymol exerted a potent chemoattractant effect. In the ear edema model, CVL (10 mg/ear, applied topically, reduced edema formation, exerting a topical anti-inflammatory effect. Thymol did not reduce edema formation but rather presented an irritative response, probably dependent on histamine and prostanoid release. Our data suggest that the antiinflammatory effects of TEO and CVL are attributable to the inhibition of inflammatory edema and leukocyte migration.

  5. Phaseolus vulgaris - recalcitrant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatuszko-Konka, Katarzyna; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Gerszberg, Aneta; Wiktorek-Smagur, Aneta; Kononowicz, Andrzej K

    2014-11-15

    Since the ability to genetically engineer plants was established, researchers have modified a great number of plant species to satisfy agricultural, horticultural, industrial, medicinal or veterinary requirements. Almost thirty years after the first approaches to the genetic modification of pulse crops, it is possible to transform many grain legumes. However, one of the most important species for human nutrition, Phaseolus vulgaris, still lacks some practical tools for genomic research, such as routine genetic transformation. Its recalcitrance towards in vitro regeneration and rooting significantly hampers the possibilities of improvement of the common bean that suffers from many biotic and abiotic constraints. Thus, an efficient and reproducible system for regeneration of a whole plant is desired. Although noticeable progress has been made, the rate of recovery of transgenic lines is still low. Here, the current status of tissue culture and recent progress in transformation methodology are presented. Some major challenges and obstacles are discussed and some examples of their solutions are presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Essential Oil Composition of Salvia tebesana Bunge (Lamiaceae from Iran

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    Seyed Mostafa Goldansaz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Salvia tebesana Bunge (Lamiaceae is an endemic medicinal species which grows wild in center of Iran. In the present study, chemical composition of the essential oil of the plant at two developmental stages (vegetative and full flowering was reported for the first time. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from air-dried samples and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The yield of oil (w/w % in different stages was in the order: full flowering (0.32 % > vegetative (0.14 %. In total 44 and 61 constituents were identified and quantified in the studied samples representing 99.6 and 99.2 % of the total oil, respectively. The main constituents were 7-epi-α-eudesmol, (E-nerolidol, (E-caryophyllene, α-pinene, caryophyllene oxide, and δ-cadinen. Oxygenated sesquiterpens (43.7% and 48.2% followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (30.3% and 32.7% were the main group of compound in the oil of the plant at vegetative and full flowering stages, respectively.

  7. Seasonal variation of flavonoids in Teucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae

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    Gjoshe Stefkov

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Тhe aim of the present study was identification of flavone aglycones and determination of the content of each and the content of total flavonoids as well as investigation of the eventual seasonal variations of flavonoids in Teucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae. The plant samples were collected at six different locations in Republic of Macedonia, during summer in 1999, 2000 and 2003. For determination of seasonal variations, the samples were collected in v. Koleshino, in 2004, each month during the whole season. Six flavone aglycones (luteolin, apigenin, diosmetin, cirsiliol, cirsimaritin and cirsilineol were identified in the hydrolyzed extracts of the over ground part of Teucrium polium by HPLC method. The most abundant flavone was luteolin, followed by apigenin and cirsimaritin. Great seasonal variations were found in the content of each and in the content of total amount of flavonoids. The most abundant flavone during the whole season was luteolin with the highest content in May. The content of total flavonids was the highest in the period from May to July, which could be recommended as the most convenience period in the season for collecting of the plant material from Teucrium polium.

  8. Biological effects of four frequently used medicinal plants of Lamiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srancikova, A; Horvathova, E; Kozics, K

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of cancer cells. There are several hundred thousands of new cases of cancer worldwide. Clinical oncology is still challenged by toxicity and side effects of multimodal therapy strategies in which it is associated with poor prognosis for patients. There is an urgent necessity to develop novel therapy strategies and to utilize preventive potential of natural compounds. As the majority of anticancer drugs are of natural origin, natural products represent a valuable source for the identification and development of novel treatment options and chemopreventive mechanisms for cancer. This review is focused on the summary of published knowledges on the antioxidant and potential chemopreventive effects of biologically active substances present in the extracts of four plants of the family Lamiaceae (sage, thyme, rosemary and lavander) in different animal and in vitro systems. It is assumed that the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of natural compounds is the result of a combined action of several mechanisms.

  9. Molecular phylogeny of tribe Stachydeae (Lamiaceae subfamily Lamioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaki, Yasaman; Zarre, Shahin; Ryding, Olof; Lindqvist, Charlotte; Bräuchler, Christian; Heubl, Günther; Barber, Janet; Bendiksby, Mika

    2013-12-01

    Although tribe Stachydeae (Lamiaceae) is considered monophyletic, relationships within the tribe are still poorly understood. The complexity of Stachydeae includes paraphyletic genera, considerable morphological plasticity, a range of ploidy levels, and presumably frequent natural hybridization. We performed parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of nuclear (ribosomal ITS) and plastid (trnL intron, trnL-trnF spacer, rps16 intron) DNA sequence data from a taxonomically and geographically broad sampling of the tribe to identify major evolutionary lineages and to test taxonomic hypotheses within this largest of all lamioid tribes. We included 143 accessions corresponding to 121 species, representing both Old and New World species, and all 12 recognized genera of tribe Stachydeae. Both nuclear and plastid data corroborate monophyly of the tribe, with Melittis as sister to all remaining Stachydeae. For the latter well-supported clade, we suggest the phylogenetic name Eurystachys. Within Eurystachys, although monophyly is supported by both nuclear and plastid data for several named and unnamed groups, the majority of recognized taxa appear to be para- or polyphyletic. The taxon compositions of most subclades are congruent between the plastid and nuclear tree topologies, whereas their relative phylogenetic placements are often not. This level of plastid-nuclear incongruence suggests considerable impact of hybridization in the evolution of Stachydeae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Bambusa vulgaris Var. vulgaris Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the pharmacognostic characters and toxicity of the aqueous ethanolic extract of Bambusa vulgaris leaf in male wistar rats. The microscopy of the leaf revealed diagnostic characters such as anomocytic stomata, sinuous epidermal cells, numerous prisms of calcium oxalate crystals and covering ...

  11. Disseminated lupus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Taru; Ramchander; Shrihar, Rashmi; Gupta, Tanvi Pal; Aggarwal, Shilpi

    2011-01-01

    follicular plugging and multiple epithelioid cell granulomas, rimmed by lymphocytes in the deeper portion of the dermis, mainly peri-appendageal. Stain for acid-fast bacteria was negative. Cultures from the skin lesions were negative. The patient was diagnosed as having lupus vulgaris with multiple lesions of varying morphology at different sites with pulmonary tuberculosis and healed lymph node involvement.

  12. The complete chloroplast genome of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Brigitte; Novak, Johannes

    2013-10-10

    Oregano (Origanum vulgare L., Lamiaceae) is a medicinal and aromatic plant maybe best known for flavouring pizza. New applications e.g. as natural antioxidants for food are emerging due to the plants' high antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Origanum vulgare (GenBank/EBML/DDBJ accession number: JX880022) consists of 151,935 bp and includes a pair of inverted repeats (IR) of 25,527 bp separated by one small and one large single copy region (SSC and LSC) of 17,745 and 83,136 bp, respectively. The genome with an overall GC content of 38% hosts 114 genes that covering 63% of the genome of which 8% were introns. The comparison of the Origanum cp genome with the cp genomes of two other core lamiales (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and Sesamum indicum L.) revealed completely conserved protein-coding regions in the IR region but also in the LSC and SSC regions. Phylogenetic analysis of the lamiids based on 56 protein-coding genes give a hint at the basic structure of the Lamiales. However, further genomes will be necessary to clarify this taxonomically complicated order. The variability of the cp within the genus Origanum, studied exemplarily on 16 different chloroplast DNA regions, demonstrated that in 14 regions analyzed, the variability was extremely low (max. 0.7%), while only two regions showed a moderate variability of up to 2.3%. The cp genome of Origanum vulgare contains 27 perfect mononucleotide repeats (number of repeats>9) consisting exclusively of the nucleotides A or T. 34 perfect repeats (repeat lengths>1 and number of repeats>3) were found, of which 32 were di-, and 2 were trinucleotide repeats. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Phylogenetics, biogeography, and staminal evolution in the tribe Mentheae (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Bryan T; Sytsma, Kenneth J

    2012-05-01

    The mint family (Lamiaceae) is the sixth largest family of flowering plants, with the tribe Mentheae containing about a third of the species. We present a detailed perspective on the evolution of the tribe Mentheae based on a phylogenetic analysis of cpDNA and nrDNA that is the most comprehensive to date, a biogeographic set of analyses using a fossil-calibrated chronogram, and an examination of staminal evolution. Data from four cpDNA and two nrDNA markers representing all extant genera within the tribe Mentheae were analyzed using the programs BEAST, Lagrange, S-DIVA, and BayesTraits. BEAST was used to simultaneously estimate phylogeny and divergence times, Lagrange and S-DIVA were used for biogeographical reconstruction, and BayesTraits was used to infer staminal evolution within the tribe. Currently accepted subtribal delimitations are shown to be invalid and are updated. The Mentheae and all five of its subtribes have a Mediterranean origin and have dispersed to the New World multiple times. The vast majority of New World species of subtribe Menthinae are the product of a single dispersal event in the mid-late Miocene. At least four transitions from four stamens to two stamens have occurred within Mentheae, once in the subtribe Salviinae, once in the subtribe Lycopinae, and at least twice in the subtribe Menthinae. Worldwide cooling trends probably played a large role in the diversification and present day distribution of the tribe Mentheae. Additional work is needed to ascertain relationships within some Mentheae genera, especially in the subtribe Menthinae.

  14. Allozyme Diversity in the Tetraploid Endemic Thymus loscosii (Lamiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LÓPEZ‐PUJOL, JORDI; BOSCH, MARIA; SIMON, JOAN; BLANCHÉ, CÈSAR

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Thymus loscosii (Lamiaceae) is a tetraploid perennial species endemic to the Ebro river basin (north‐eastern Spain), which is included in the National Catalogue of Endangered Species. It is a tetraploid species (2n = 54), presumably an autotetraploid originated by the duplication of a 2n = 28 genome and the subsequent loss of two chromosomes. Allozyme electrophoresis was conducted to survey the levels and distribution of genetic diversity and to test the previous autopolyploid hypothesis for its origin. In addition, both in situ and ex situ conservation measures are proposed. • Methods Eight populations were sampled for analysis by standard methods of starch gel electrophoresis, and six putative enzymatic loci were resolved (five consistently and one only partially). • Key Results Banding patterns exhibited no evidence of fixed heterozygosity and showed both balanced and unbalanced heterozygotes. In addition, most individuals showed a pattern consistent with the presence of three or four alleles at a single locus. High levels of genetic variability were found at population level (P = 85 %, A = 3·0, He = 0·422), in addition to a trend of an excess of heterozygotes. • Conclusions Allozyme data support the hypothesis that T. loscosii is an autotetraploid, and the high number of alleles at some loci may be due to repeated polyploidization events. The high values of genetic variation found in this species agree with those expected for tetraploids. The excess of heterozygotes may be due to some barriers to inbreeding (e.g. occurrence of gynodioecy) and/or selection for heterozygosity. PMID:14742353

  15. Antioxidative properties of Thymus vulgaris leaves: comparison of different extracts and essential oil chemotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzola, Remigius; Michitsch, Hanneliese; Franz, Chlodwig

    2008-08-27

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae) is a subshrub from the Lamiaceae family with plants that are rich in essential oils and antioxidative phenolic substances. Twelve accessions originating from southern France and the variety 'Deutscher Winter' were grown in an experimental field in eastern Austria. Leaf samples from these plants as well as from a commercial thyme rich in thymol were analyzed for their essential oil and the antioxidative potential in various extracts. The assays for antioxidative activity were the total phenolics according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method, DPPH decoloration, and Fe(3+) reduction (FRAP). Both extraction techniques used, in the water bath at 40 degrees C and in the ultrasonic bath at room temperature, proved to be efficient. The best results were obtained with 60% ethanol as extractant. In the comparison of the different accessions the less active and the most active of these extracts differed by factors of 2.1 and 2.6 in the total phenolics and FRAP assay, respectively, and by factors 1.5-2.0 in the DPPH assay. Rosmarinic acid accounted for 22-55% of the antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extracts. Essential oils with high proportions of the phenolic components thymol and/or carvacrol showed the highest antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts from the residues after distillation were considerably lower in antioxidant activity than the respective extracts from the dried leaves. Extracts with CH2Cl2 in the ultrasonic bath contained volatiles in proportions close to the essential oil but displayed very low antioxidant activity.

  16. Amtimicrobial activity of essential oil of Melissa officinalis L, Lamiaceae

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    Aničić Nada V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis was investigated in this paper. The essential oil was obtained by the principle of water and steam and analyzed by GC and GC-MS using FID and MSD. The main components of the oil of Melissa officinalis were geranial (17.30%, neral (14.70% and citronellal (10.70%. The antimicrobial properties were tested against the following bacterial species: B subtilis, B.cereus Bifidobacterium sp., Corynobacterium sp., E. coli, Klebsiella sp., L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, Listeria monocytogenes, P. vulgaris, P. aerugenosa, S. enteritidis, Shigella sp., S. aureus, and fungi Candida albicans, Alternarija sp. and Aspergillus niger. The diffusion technique was used for testing: the antimicrobial activity, and the MIC was determined by the broth dilution method. The essential oil of M. officinalis showed high antimicrobial activity.

  17. Pemphigus vulgaris in adolescence: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Jean Paulo Rodolfo [UNESP; Araújo, Paula Caetano [UNESP; SAliba, Marcos Tadeu Adas [UNESP; Consolaro, Renata Bianco; |Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba [UNESP]|

    2013-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune disease, normally associated with oral lesions that generally affects patients aged 40 - 60 years. The aim of this study was to report a case of pemphigus vulgaris presenting at an uncommon age with advanced periodontal disease, and to describe the treatment performed from the time of diagnosis through oral environment restoration and follow-up monitoring. One gingival vesicular lesion was biopsied. After the histological confirmation of pemphigus vulgaris,...

  18. Salvia hunzikeri (Lamiaceae, una nueva especie de los Andes del Perú

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    Arturo Granda Paucar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Salvia hunzikeri (Lamiaceae, una nueva especie restringida al valle del río Mantaro en el Perú, es descrita, ilustrada y sus rasgos más notables contrastados con los de otras especies de la sección Flocculosae.

  19. A large-scale chloroplast phylogeny of the Lamiaceae sheds new light on its subfamilial classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Cantino, Philip D.; Olmstead, Richard G.; Bramley, Gemma L. C.; Xiang, Chun-Lei; Ma, Zhong-Hui; Tan, Yun-Hong; Zhang, Dian-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Lamiaceae, the sixth largest angiosperm family, contains more than 7000 species distributed all over the world. However, although considerable progress has been made in the last two decades, its phylogenetic backbone has never been well resolved. In the present study, a large-scale phylogenetic reconstruction of Lamiaceae using chloroplast sequences was carried out with the most comprehensive sampling of the family to date (288 species in 191 genera, representing approximately 78% of the genera of Lamiaceae). Twelve strongly supported primary clades were inferred, which form the phylogenetic backbone of Lamiaceae. Six of the primary clades correspond to the current recognized subfamilies Ajugoideae, Lamioideae, Nepetoideae, Prostantheroideae, Scutellarioideae, and Symphorematoideae, and one corresponds to a portion of Viticoideae. The other five clades comprise: 1) Acrymia and Cymaria; 2) Hymenopyramis, Petraeovitex, Peronema, and Garrettia; 3) Premna, Gmelina, and Cornutia; 4) Callicarpa; and 5) Tectona. Based on these results, three new subfamilies—Cymarioideae, Peronematoideae, and Premnoideae—are described, and the compositions of other subfamilies are updated based on new findings from the last decade. Furthermore, our analyses revealed five strongly supported, more inclusive clades that contain subfamilies, and we give them phylogenetically defined, unranked names: Cymalamiina, Scutelamiina, Perolamiina, Viticisymphorina, and Calliprostantherina. PMID:27748362

  20. Germination and Seed Bank Studies of Macbridea alba (Lamiaceae), a Federally Theatened Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Madsen Schulze; John L. Walker; Timothy P. Spira

    2002-01-01

    Macbridea alba (Lamiaceae) is a Federally threatened plant endemic to Florida. Seedlings are rarely observed in natural populations, but seed production has been documented. We assessed the germinability of dry-stored seeds and of experimentally buried seeds, and sampled soil to detect a persistent seed bank.More than 20% of recorded seeds...

  1. Monopodial shoot systems of Lamiaceae of Ukrainian flora and the models of its formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosyp Berko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Special characteristics of formation and morphostructure of monopodial shoot systems of perennial herbaceous and sиbshrub life forms of Lamiaceae from Ukrainian flora are described as based on two models – the monopodial long-shoot and monopodial rosetted. As well as relevant submodels are classified.

  2. Lupus vulgaris associated with Scrofuloderma

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    Isha Preet Tuli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lupus vulgaris is a rare manifestation of tuberculosis. It is even rarer for it to complicate scrofuloderma. We report a case of a 27-year-old man who had undergone a successful treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis presenting with scrofuloderma with lesions of lupus on the overlying skin. The Mantoux test was positive and initial chest X-ray did not show any active features of tuberculosis. Discharge from the lesion stained positive for acid fast bacilli. Multiple fine needle aspirations were inconclusive. However the histopathology of biopsied lesion revealed tuberculoid granuloma with Langhans giant cells. TThe patient improved with antitubercular therapy. We are presenting this case as a rare coexistence of scrofuloderma with lupus vulgaris.

  3. rDNA Loci Evolution in the Genus Glechoma (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Tae-Soo; McCann, Jamie; Parker, John S; Takayama, Koji; Hong, Suk-Pyo; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Glechoma L. (Lamiaceae) is distributed in eastern Asia and Europe. Understanding chromosome evolution in Glechoma has been strongly hampered by its small chromosomes, constant karyotype and polyploidy. Here phylogenetic patterns and chromosomal variation in Glechoma species are considered, using genome sizes, chromosome mapping of 5S and 35S rDNAs by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), and phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribed spacers (nrITS) of 35S rDNA and 5S rDNA NTS sequences. Species and populations of Glechoma are tetraploid (2n = 36) with base chromosome number of x = 9. Four chromosomes carry pericentric 5S rDNA sites in their short arms in all the species. Two to four of these chromosomes also carry 35S rDNA in subterminal regions of the same arms. Two to four other chromosomes have 35S rDNA sites, all located subterminally within short arms; one individual possessed additional weak pericentric 35S rDNA signals on three other chromosomes. Five types of rDNA locus distribution have been defined on the basis of 35S rDNA variation, but none is species-specific, and most species have more than one type. Glechoma hederacea has four types. Genome size in Glechoma ranges from 0.80 to 0.94 pg (1C), with low levels of intrapopulational variation in all species. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS and NTS sequences distinguish three main clades coinciding with geographical distribution: European (G. hederacea-G. hirsuta), Chinese and Korean (G. longituba), and Japanese (G. grandis). The paper presents the first comparative cytogenetic analyses of Glechoma species including karyotype structure, rDNA location and number, and genome size interpreted in a phylogenetic context. The observed variation suggests that the genus is still in genomic flux. Genome size, but not rDNA loci number and distribution, provides a character for species delimitation which allows better inferences of interspecific relationships to be made, in the absence of well

  4. Essential oil of Kurzamra pulchella (Clos) Kuntze (Lamiaceae, Nepetoideae, Mentheae, Menthinae): relationship with chemotype groups in the subtribe Menthinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Javier; Niemeyer, Hermann M

    2017-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Kurzamra pulchella (Lamiaceae) was determined. Twelve compounds were identified, with isomenthone (60.6%) and pulegone (37.1%) predominating. Chemotaxonomical considerations were discussed.

  5. Sporotrichoid lupus vulgaris: A rare presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Anshul; Tiwari, Siddhi; Mathur, Deepak K; Bhargava, Puneet

    2015-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common presentation of cutaneous tuberculosis in India and can present as papular, nodular, plaque, ulcerative, vegetating, and tumid forms. Unusual variants include the frambesiform, gangrenous, ulcerovegetating, lichen simplex chronicus, myxomatous, and sporotrichoid types. We describe a rare sporotrichoid presentation of lupus vulgaris on the leg of a 28-year-old female of 12 years duration.

  6. Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer (Diptera,Agromyzidae: descriptions, redescriptions and first record in Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Rodrigues de Sousa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer (Diptera, Agromyzidae: descriptions, redescriptions and first record in Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae in Brazil. All phases of the leafminer Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer are for the first time described, including the larva, puparium and adult female. Illustrations are presented for male and female terminalia, mine, larva and pupa. The species is first recorded in leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae in Brazil.

  7. Lupus vulgaris with squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motswaledi, Mojakgomo Hendrick; Doman, Chantal

    2007-12-01

    Tuberculosis is still a significant problem in developing countries. Cutaneous forms of tuberculosis account for approximately 10% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of true infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or because of tuberculids. Tuberculids are immunological reactions to haematogenously spread antigenic components of M. tuberculosis. True cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of inoculation or haematogenous spread of M. tuberculosis to the skin. Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of true cutaneous tuberculosis. Other forms of true cutaneous tuberculosis are tuberculous chancre, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis, scrofuloderma, periorificial tuberculosis and miliary tuberculosis of the skin. Lupus vulgaris is usually chronic and progressive. It occurs in patients with moderate to high immunity against M. tuberculosis as evidenced by strongly positive tuberculin test. Long-standing cases of lupus vulgaris may be complicated by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We describe a patient who had undiagnosed lupus vulgaris for 35 years until she developed SCC on the lesion of lupus vulgaris.

  8. Vegetative propagation of Bambusa vulgaris

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    Rafael Malfitano Braga

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is an important source of raw material of multiple uses. The development of simple techniques for its propagation is a practical way to enable its implementation in ownership of low technology. The present work had the objective of evaluating artisanal propagation methods for Bambusa vulgaris. Two types of propagules were tested, with buds budded or not, and three relative positions to the removal of vegetative material on the culm. The best propagule was with only one node, extracted from the lower thirds of the stem, presenting 72% of rooting. This result demonstrates its potential for seedling production of this species under low tech.

  9. Spica prunellae and its marker compound rosmarinic acid induced the expression of efflux transporters through activation of Nrf2-mediated signaling pathway in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinjun; Zhu, Yuanfeng; Li, Fangyuan; Zhang, Guiyu; Shi, Jian; Ou, Rilan; Tong, Yunli; Liu, Yuting; Liu, Liang; Lu, Linlin; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2016-12-04

    Spica prunellae (SP) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal herb with properties of antihypertensive, antihyperglycemic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. This herb is also popularly consumed as a food additive in some drinks or other food forms for treating pyreticosis. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is the marker compound from SP, which possesses anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory functions. This study aims to investigate the regulatory effect of the water extract of SP (WESP) and RA on efflux transports (ETs), including P-glycoprotein (p-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in HepG2 cell line. Results would provide beneficial information for the proper application of SP in clinics. HepG2 cells were treated with different doses of the tested drugs for 24 or 96h. MTT assay was used to examine cell viability. The protein and mRNA levels of the ETs were measured by using Western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Reporter assay was used to study the antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferin activity by using HepG2-C8 cells, which were generated by transfecting plasmid containing ARE-luciferin gene into HepG2 cells. The transport activities of ETs were tested by using substrate probes. WESP significantly (p<0.05) increased the expression of ETs in a dose-dependent manner. The increase caused by WESP was stronger than RA alone. Both WESP and RA promoted the translocation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) from cytoplasm to the nucleus as well as significantly (p<0.05) enhanced the ARE-luciferin activity. WESP and RA also enhanced the efflux activity of P-gp and MRP2, accompanied by marked increase (p<0.05) in the intracellular ATP levels. WESP could significantly induce the expression of ETs through the activation of Nrf2-mediated signaling pathway in HepG2 cells. RA could be one of the active compounds responsible for the induction. WESP and RA also enhanced the efflux

  10. Aromatic Medicinal Plants of the Lamiaceae Family from Uzbekistan: Ethnopharmacology, Essential Oils Composition, and Biological Activities

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    Nilufar Z. Mamadalieva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Lamiaceae family are important ornamental, medicinal, and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils that are used in traditional and modern medicine, and in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industry. Various species of the genera Hyssopus, Leonurus, Mentha, Nepeta, Origanum, Perovskia, Phlomis, Salvia, Scutellaria, and Ziziphora are widespread throughout the world, are the most popular plants in Uzbek traditional remedies, and are often used for the treatment of wounds, gastritis, infections, dermatitis, bronchitis, and inflammation. Extensive studies of the chemical components of these plants have led to the identification of many compounds, as well as essentials oils, with medicinal and other commercial values. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical overview of the literature surrounding the traditional uses, ethnopharmacology, biological activities, and essential oils composition of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, from the Uzbek flora.

  11. Plants from Lamiaceae family as source of antifungal molecules in humane and veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Stefanie Bressan; Cleff, Marlete Brum; Serra, Emanoele Figueiredo; Silva, Anna Luiza; Gomes, Angelita Dos Reis; de Mello, João Roberto Braga; de Faria, Renata Osório; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2017-03-01

    This work aimed to review the main plants of Lamiaceae family with activity against pathogenic fungi of medical and veterinary interest. Published studies in the main international databases between January 2002 and June 2016 showed that 55 botanical species belonging to 27 genus presented antifungal activity in different forms of extractions, mainly essential oils. Pathogenic fungi of Aspergillus spp., Candida spp., Malassezia spp., Cryptococcus spp., Sporothrix spp., Microsporum spp., Trichophyton spp. and Epidermophyton spp. genus were in vitro sensitive to several plants of Lamiaceae family. Chemical molecules isolated were described as promising use as antifungals in mycoses, highlighting estragole, 1,8-cineole, terpineol-4, γ-terpinene, among others. However, it should be alert to need of universal standardization in the laboratories tests with natural products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aromatic Medicinal Plants of the Lamiaceae Family from Uzbekistan: Ethnopharmacology, Essential Oils Composition, and Biological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamadalieva, Nilufar Z.; Akramov, Davlat Kh.; Ovidi, Elisa; Tiezzi, Antonio; Nahar, Lutfun; Azimova, Shahnoz S.; Sarker, Satyajit D.

    2017-01-01

    Plants of the Lamiaceae family are important ornamental, medicinal, and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils that are used in traditional and modern medicine, and in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industry. Various species of the genera Hyssopus, Leonurus, Mentha, Nepeta, Origanum, Perovskia, Phlomis, Salvia, Scutellaria, and Ziziphora are widespread throughout the world, are the most popular plants in Uzbek traditional remedies, and are often used for the treatment of wounds, gastritis, infections, dermatitis, bronchitis, and inflammation. Extensive studies of the chemical components of these plants have led to the identification of many compounds, as well as essentials oils, with medicinal and other commercial values. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical overview of the literature surrounding the traditional uses, ethnopharmacology, biological activities, and essential oils composition of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, from the Uzbek flora. PMID:28930224

  13. Antioxidant Studies on Ethanol Extracts from Two Selected Genera of Indian Lamiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Ramu, G.; Dhanabal, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present work is targeted to evaluate antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts from the leaves of Plectranthus mollis and Salvia officinalis belonging to family Lamiaceae using nitric oxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and lipid peroxidation methods. The results of the study indicate that the leaf extracts of both the plants possess in vitro antioxidant activity. The higher amount of flavanoids and phenolic compounds may correspond to th...

  14. The quest to resolve recent radiations : plastid phylogenomics of extinct and endangered Hawaiian endemic mints (Lamiaceae).

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, A.J.; Collins, K.; Ratan, A; Drautz-Moses, D.I.; Schuster, S C; Lindqvist, C.

    2016-01-01

    The Hawaiian mints (Lamiaceae), one of the largest endemic plant lineages in the archipelago, provide an excellent system to study rapid diversification of a lineage with a remote, likely paleohybrid origin. Since their divergence from New World mints 4–5 million years ago the members of this lineage have diversified greatly and represent a remarkable array of vegetative and reproductive phenotypes. Today many members of this group are endangered or already extinct, and molecular phylogenetic...

  15. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Hyptis ovalifolia Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Cecília M. A. de; Silva,Maria do Rosário R; Kato, Lucília; Silva,Cleuza C. da; Heleno D. Ferreira; Souza,Lúcia K. H.

    2004-01-01

    The leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia Benth. (Lamiaceae) were subjected to hydrodistillation and the resulting volatiles were investigated by GC/MS. The main constituent representing 60% of the essential oil was isolated by column chromatography and identified by spectroscopic methods as (R)-6-[(Z)-1-heptenyl]-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one (1). This compound showed strong in vitro activity against four dermatophyte fungi Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Tricophyton mentagrophytes, and Tricophyt...

  16. Management strategies for acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney KM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Kristen M Whitney1, Chérie M Ditre21Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Skin Enhancement Center and Cosmetic Dermatology, Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USADate of preparation: 30th November 2010Conflicts of interest: None declaredClinical question: What are the most effective treatment(s for mild, moderate, severe, and hormonally driven acne?Results: Mild acne responds favorably to topical treatments such as benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and a low-dose retinoid. Moderate acne responds well to combination therapy comprising-topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and/or retinoids, as well as oral antibiotics in refractory cases and oral contraceptive pills for female acne patients. Severe nodulocystic acne vulgaris responds best to oral isotretinoin therapy. In female patients with moderate to severe acne, facial hair, loss of scalp hair and irregular periods, polycystic ovarian syndrome should be considered and appropriate treatment with hormonal modulation given. Adjunctive procedures can also be considered for all acne patients.Implementation: Pitfalls to avoid when treating acne: treatment of acne in women of childbearing age; familiarization of all acne treatments in order to individualize management for patients; indications for specialist referral.Keywords: acne vulgaris, benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics, light and laser therapy, photodynamic therapy, photopneumatic therapy, chemical peels

  17. Acne vulgaris: pathogenesis, treatment, and needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen-Larson, Siri; Dawson, Annelise L; Dunnick, Cory A; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition with substantial cutaneous and psychologic disease burden. Studies suggest that the emotional impact of acne is comparable to that experienced by patients with systemic diseases, like diabetes and epilepsy. In conjunction with the considerable personal burden experienced by patients with acne, acne vulgaris also accounts for substantial societal and health care burden. The pathogenesis and existing treatment strategies for acne are complex. This article discusses the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of acne vulgaris. The burden of disease in the United States and future directions in the management of acne are also addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Extensive keloidal healing of pemphigus vulgaris

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    Khanna Neena

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullae of pemphigus vulgaris heal without scarring. We here report a patient of pemphigus vulgaris whose lesions healed with a one-month history of extensive flaccid bullae and uninfected erosions on the trunk and extremities along with superficial erosions in the oral mucosa. The clinical suspicion of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by histopathological and immunohistological examination. Pulse therapy with monthly parenteral dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide pulse was instituted. The cutaneous lesions on healing formed extensive keloidal scars despite high dose of monthly corticosteroid therapy.

  19. Hypertrophic lupus vulgaris: an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vijay K; Aggarwal, Kamal; Jain, Sarika; Singh, Sunita

    2009-07-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis occurring in previously sensitized individuals with a high degree of tuberculin sensitivity. Various forms including plaque, ulcerative, hypertrophic, vegetative, papular, and nodular forms have been described. A 30-year-old male patient presented with a very large hypertrophic lupus vulgaris lesion over left side of chest since 22 years. Histopathological examination showed granulomatous infiltration without caseation necrosis. The Mantoux reaction was strongly positive. Hypertrophic lupus vulgaris of such a giant size and that too at an unusual site is extremely rare and hence is being reported.

  20. Evaluation of the use of Ocimum suave Willd. (Lamiaceae), Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. (Rutaceae) as antimalarial remedies in Kenyan folk medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraithe, Micheni N; Nguta, Joseph M; Mbaria, James M; Kiama, Stephen G

    2016-02-03

    Crude extracts from the leaves of Ocimum suave Willd (Lamiaceae) and the root barks of Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. (Rutaceae) were studied to ascertain the ethnopharmacological standing of their antimalarial usage in Kenyan folk medicine. Aqueous and Chloroform: Methanol (1:1) extracts of the plants were used in this study. Toxicity of the extracts was investigated by using brine shrimp lethality test and acute oral toxicity in mice. The antimalarial activity at a dose of 100 mg/kg was screened in Swiss albino mice against chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei (D6) using Peters 4-day suppressive test. Chloroquine, at a dosage rate of 20 mg/kg was used as a reference drug. The extracts showed some signs of acute toxicity in the brine shrimp lethality test. However, no signs of toxicity were observed in the mice at a dose of 2000 mg/kg of the crude extracts. The results revealed that all the tested crude extracts were safe. Z. chalybeum aqueous extract and P. barbatus organic extract showed chemosuppressive activities of 81.45% and 78.69%, respectively. This antimalarial activity was not significantly different from that of chloroquine (P<0.05). The findings suggest that the Kenyan folkloric medicinal application of these plants has a pharmacological basis. Bioactivity guided fractionation and isolation of bioactive molecules from the two species could lead to new hits against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pharmacological activity of the essential oil of Satureja viminea (Lamiaceae

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    Adriana Suárez

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract and the essential oil of Satureja viminea (Lamiaceae were tested. General physiologic effects were assessed through the Hippocratic screening test. Non fasted female Sprague Dawley rats were utilized and 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg doses were used. Two animals were used for each dosage level and for the vehicle alone. Exploratory behavior and curiosity were measured using a hole board apparatus and placing non-trained mice on the board and recording the number of holes explored in a 5 minute period. The Boissier chimney test was used to evaluate motor coordination. Muscle strength was assessed through a grasping test where mice were hung by their fore-limbs 40 cm above the base on a horizontal metal stainless bar. In all these tests, 3 groups of 6 albino mice, were treated with 1000 mg/kg of each the essential oil of S. viminea, the vehicle and diazepan (1 mg/kg as a positive control. Analgesic activity was explored in Sprague-Dawley rats. The tail flick method described by D`Amour and Smith (1941 modified by CYTED was implemented on three groups (6 rats each of animals treated with, each the essential oil of S. viminea (1000 mg/kg, the vehicle and indomethacine. The test was carried out just before and 30, 60 and 120 min after oral treatment. Peristaltic activity was measured in albino mice, three groups of 6 animals each, treated orally with each the essential oil of S. viminea (1000 mg/kg, the aqueous extract (1000 mg/kg, and the vehicle. The marker used was activated carbon. Animals were sacrificed 30 min after the marker was given and the percent of total small intestine traversed by it was calculated. Also a lethal dose 50 (LD 50 was determined with the Spearman-Karber method. A dose-related spontaneous motor activity reduction was observed. Exploratory behavior and curiosity were diminished. The grasping strength of mice was reduced. A very clear and significant analgesic effect was observed with the oral

  2. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF PLANTS BELONGING TO LAMIACEAE JUSS. FAMILY

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    Shanayda M.I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the important sources of therapeutic and prophylactic agents of modern medicines are essential oils of medicinal plants. Essential oils are the main group of biologically active substances of a number of plants belonging to Lamiaceae Juss. Family. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plants belonging to Lamiaceae Family many scientists associated with containing of essential oils. In this regard, considerable interest presents the comparative analysis of the antimicrobial properties of essential oils of Lamiaceae Family representatives. Material and methods.The antimicrobial activity of essential oils of investigated plants was studied with using in vitro condition. The essential oils derived from the aerial parts of cultivated plants of Ocimum, Hyssopus, Dracocephalum, Lophanthus, Monarda and Satureja genus harvested during flowering period (in terms of Ternopil region. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils studied plants was studied by serial dilution method and disk diffusion assay. It has been applied on standard microorganism test strains: Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Candida albicans ATCC 885-653. Results and discussion. It was conducted a comparative study of the influence of some essential oils of cultivated plants belonging to Lamiaceae family on microorganisms in conditions in vitro. It was found that essential oils of the studied plants were most effective in the maximum concentration (1:10. Gram-positive cocci S. aureus and yeast C. albicans were the most sensitive to influence of investigated essential oils. It was analyzed the relationship of the biological activity with the component composition of essential oils of plants. Essential oils of L. anisatus, M. fistulosa and S. hortensis characterized by the dominance of aromatic compounds and had shown stronger antimicrobial activity than essential oils of

  3. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Tamayo, Cristian; Janniger, Camila K; Micali, Giuseppe; Schwartz, Robert A

    2014-07-01

    Acne may present in neonates, infants, and small children. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris are not considered to be rare. The presentation of acne in this patient population sometimes represents virilization and may portend later development of severe adolescent acne. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris must be distinguished from other cutaneous disorders seen in newborns and infants. Infantile acne tends to be more pleomorphic and inflammatory, thus requiring more vigorous therapy than neonatal acne.

  4. Pulse Clarithromycin Therapy In Severe ACNE Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi Sanjay K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Three patients with severe acne vulgaris, not responding with long courses of doxycycline, minocycline and erythromycin were given oral clarithromycin in pulsed regimen. The patients were given 7 days course of clarithromycin 250mg twice daily, which was repeated after a gap of 10 days. Such 3 courses were given. The lesions responded significantly. No significant side effect was noted. Pulse clarithromycin therapy seems to be a good alternative and effective tool in the management of severe acne vulgaris.

  5. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  6. Management strategies for acne vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Kristen M; Ditre, Chérie M

    2011-01-01

    Clinical question: What are the most effective treatment(s) for mild, moderate, severe, and hormonally driven acne? Results: Mild acne responds favorably to topical treatments such as benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and a low-dose retinoid. Moderate acne responds well to combination therapy comprising-topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and/or retinoids, as well as oral antibiotics in refractory cases and oral contraceptive pills for female acne patients. Severe nodulocystic acne vulgaris responds best to oral isotretinoin therapy. In female patients with moderate to severe acne, facial hair, loss of scalp hair and irregular periods, polycystic ovarian syndrome should be considered and appropriate treatment with hormonal modulation given. Adjunctive procedures can also be considered for all acne patients. Implementation: Pitfalls to avoid when treating acne: treatment of acne in women of child-bearing age; familiarization of all acne treatments in order to individualize management for patients; indications for specialist referral. PMID:21691566

  7. The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton Vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M F Kovtun; Ya V Stepanyuk

    2015-01-01

      The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata). Kovtun, M. F, Stepanyuk, Ya. V. - Using common histological methods, the morphogenesis of olfactory analyzer peripheral part of Lissotriton vulgaris...

  8. The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton Vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. F. Kovtun; Ya. V. Stepanyuk

    2015-01-01

    The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata). Kovtun, M. F, Stepanyuk, Ya. V. - Using common histological methods, the morphogenesis of olfactory analyzer peripheral part of Lissotriton vulgaris...

  9. Floral biology and reproductive mechanisms of the Ocimum canum Sims (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Lúcio Fernandes Amaral

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ocimum genus (Lamiaceae presents essential oils used in the pharmaceutical, perfume, cosmetics and culinary industries. The aim of this paper was to study the fl oral biology and breeding mechanisms of Ocimum canum Sims. in relation to improved plant breeding. Ocimum canum has inflorescences with white, protandrous and hermaphoditic flowers. The osmophores are located at the anthers and stigma. Anthesis occurs between 10:30 and 11:30 a.m. The main fl oral visitors were bees of the Apis and Augochloropsis genuses. Ocimum canum presents a breeding system with a predominance of outcrossing that possibly demonstrates the wide reproductive flexibility of this species.

  10. The most dangerous pathogens of herbs from Lamiaceae and Plantaginaceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Zimowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the diversity of fungi colonizing and damaging various parts of herbs from Lamiaceae family were carried out in 2004-2009 and from Plantaginaceae family in 2009-2011 correspondingly. Phoma strasseri, the most dangerous pathogen of peppermint (Mentha piperita was commonly obtained from peppermint rhizomes and stems with symptoms of necrosis and tissue disintegration.Phomopsis sclareawas isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis stems, showing symptoms of necrosis, peeling off and bark breaking. Phoma nepeticolawas obtained from the motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca leaves and stems with symptoms of small necrotic spots. Phyllosticta plantaginiswas isolated from leaves of ribwort (Plantago lanceolata showing symptoms of small, regular, necrotic spots.

  11. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Hyptis ovalifolia Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cecilia M.A. de; Kato, Lucilia [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: cecilia@quimica.ufg.br; Silva, Maria do Rosario R.; Souza, Lucia K.H. [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Patologia Tropical; Silva, Cleuza C. da [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Ferreira, Heleno D. [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2004-10-01

    The leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia Benth. (Lamiaceae) were subjected to hydro distillation and the resulting volatiles were investigated by GC/MS. The main constituent representing 60% of the essential oil was isolated by column chromatography and identified by spectroscopic methods as (R)-6-[(Z)-1-heptenyl]-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one (1). This compound showed strong in vitro activity against four dermatophyte fungi Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Tricophyton mentagrophytes, and Tricophyton rubrum (a total of 60 strains) with a minimal inhibitory concentration observed in the range of 125-7.8 mg {mu}L{sup -1}. (author)

  12. Bioassay-guided isolation of vasorelaxant compounds from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senejoux, François; Demougeot, Céline; Kerram, Parhat; Aisa, Haji Akber; Berthelot, Alain; Bévalot, Françoise; Girard-Thernier, Corine

    2012-03-01

    Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. (Lamiaceae) is traditionally used in Uighur's medicine for the treatment of hypertension. Our study determined and evaluated the bioactive compounds by performing an activity-guided fractionation of a hydroalcoholic extract of the whole plant, using an in vitro model of rat isolated thoracic aortic rings. Seven compounds were identified as active principles: acacetin, apigenin, chrysin, thymonin, acetovanillone, 4-hydroxyacetophenone and ethyl 4-coumarate. Apigenin, chrysin and ethyl 4-coumarate were found to be the most effective. Our results provide the first evidence that the vasodilation induced by Z. clinopodioides Lam. is mediated, at least in part, by phenolic components. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical composition, olfactory analysis and antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris chemotypes geraniol, 4-thujanol/terpinen-4-ol, thymol and linalool cultivated in southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Erich; Wanner, Jürgen; Hiiferl, Martina; Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tania; Stoyanova, Albena; Geissler, Margit

    2012-08-01

    The essential oils of four chemotypes of Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) were analyzed for their composition and antibacterial activity to assess their different properties. GC-MS and GC-FID analyses revealed that the essentials oils can be classified into the chemotypes thymol (41.0% thymol), geraniol (26.4% geraniol), linalool (72.5% linalool) and 4-thujanol/terpinen-4-ol (42.2% cis- and 7.3% trans-sabinene hydrate, 6.5 % terpinen-4-ol). The olfactory examination confirmed the explicit differences between these chemotypes. Furthermore, antibacterial activity was investigated against several strains of two Gram-positive (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Staphylococcus aureus) and four Gram-negative food-borne bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. fragi). All essential oil samples were demonstrated to be highly effective against Gram-positive strains, whereas the impact on Gram-negative microorganisms was significantly smaller, but still considerable. The results obtained indicate that, despite their different properties, the essential oils of selected T. vulgaris chemotypes are potent antimicrobials to be employed as useful additives in food products as well as for therapeutic applications.

  14. Complementary therapies for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Liu, Jian Ping; Smith, Caroline A; Luo, Hui; Liu, Yueming

    2015-01-19

    Acne is a chronic skin disease characterised by inflamed spots and blackheads on the face, neck, back, and chest. Cysts and scarring can also occur, especially in more severe disease. People with acne often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, and dietary modifications, because of their concerns about the adverse effects of conventional medicines. However, evidence for CAM therapies has not been systematically assessed. To assess the effects and safety of any complementary therapies in people with acne vulgaris. We searched the following databases from inception up to 22 January 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014,Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1981), Scopus (from 1966), and a number of other databases listed in the Methods section of the review. The Cochrane CAM Field Specialised Register was searched up to May 2014. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of articles for further references to relevant trials. We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (or the first phase data of randomised cross-over trials) of any kind of CAM, compared with no treatment, placebo, or other active therapies, in people with a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Three authors collected data from each included trial and evaluated the methodological quality independently. They resolved disagreements by discussion and, as needed, arbitration by another author. We included 35 studies, with a total of 3227 participants. We evaluated the majority as having unclear risk of selection, attrition, reporting, detection, and other biases. Because of the clinical heterogeneity between trials and the incomplete data reporting, we could only include four trials in two meta-analyses, with two trials in each meta-analysis. The categories of CAM included

  15. MELLIFEROUS CHARACTHERISTICS OF SPONTANEOUS LAMIACEAE SPECIES, IDENTIFIED IN THE DANUBE VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA ION

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Thus the spontaneous and melliferous species of the Lamiaceae family occurring inthe Danube Valley are not very important in number; they represent one of the mainhoney sources for the Romanian apiculture. Therefore a study was carried out onthe melliferous potential of the species belonging to the Lamiaceae family from theDanube Valley. The effective area of study was represented by the Danube Valley inCălăraşi County. Within this study, the species belonging to the Mint genre wereidentified and their melliferous potential was established.A number of three species of mint (Mentha pulegium L., Mentha longifolia L.,Mentha arvensis L. was identified, to which biometric measures were performed (asthe height of plant, number of flowering stems per plant, number of flowers perplant, number of plant per square meter as well as melliferous determinations (asnectar secretion in mg per flower and the nectar concentration in sugar, and byusing a mathematical formula there were established the melliferous potential foreach identified mint species.

  16. Phylogenetic Analysis of Selected Menthol-Producing Species Belonging to the Lamiaceae Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Motahareh; Mirzaei, Hamed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Bagherian, Ali; Masoud Khoi, Mohammad Jaber; Reza Mirzaei, Hamid; Salehi, Rasoul; Reza Jaafari, Mahmoud; Kazemi Oskuee, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Menthol is an organic compound with diverse medicinal and commercial applications, and is made either synthetically or through extraction from mint oils. The aim of the present study was to investigate menthol levels in selected menthol-producing species belonging to the Lamiaceae family, and to determine phylogenetic relationships of menthol dehydrogenase gene sequence among these species. Three genus of Lamiaceae, namely Mentha, Salvia, and Micromeria, were selected for phytochemical and phylogenetic analyses. After identification of each species based on menthol dehydrogenase gene in NCBI, BLAST software was used for the sequence alignment. MEGA4 software was used to draw phylogenetic tree for various species. Phytochemical analysis revealed that the highest and lowest amounts of both essential oil and menthol belonged to Mentha spicata and Micromeria hyssopifolia, respectively. The species Mentha spicata and Mentha piperita, which were assigned to one cluster in the dendrogram, contained the highest amounts of essential oil and menthol while Micromeria species, which was in the distinct cluster and placed in the farther evolutionary distance, contained the lowest amount of essential oil and menthol. Phylogenetic and phytochemistry analyses showed that essential oil and menthol contents of menthol-producing species are associated with menthol dehydrogenase gene sequence.

  17. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of 24 Lamiaceae species growing in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firuzi, Omidreza; Javidnia, Katayoun; Gholami, Maryam; Soltani, Mohammad; Miri, Ramin

    2010-02-01

    The antioxidant activities of the methanolic extracts of 9 Salvia species and 15 other Lamiaceae plants growing in Iran were evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assays. FRAP values ranged form 8.5 to 79.0 microM quercetin equivalents/g dry weight, and IC50 values in the DPPH assay from 115.7 to 1350.2 microg dry weight/mL. Salvia species showed the highest antioxidant activities. S. santolinifolia, S. eremophila and S. palestina, which have not been studied before, were the most active plants. These were more active than the previously studied species from this family, such as S. multicaulis and Marrubium vulgare. S. hydrangea and Gontscharovia popovii also showed high antioxidant activities. FRAP and DPPH assay results showed good correlations with the total phenolic contents of the plants, measured by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay (r2 = 0.925 and 0.799, respectively, p Lamiaceae plants growing in Iran represent good potential sources of natural antioxidants useful for either prevention or treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases.

  18. In vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Lamiaceae Phenolic Extracts: A Correlation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Ljubenkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Total phenols and phenolic subgroups of five Lamiaceae plant extracts (sage, thyme, lemon balm, peppermint and oregano were determined spectrophotometrically, whereas the individual phenolics were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated by means of a multiple method approach, while the antibacterial activity was tested against major foodborne pathogens such as Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Infantis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest content of total phenolics and non-flavonoids was detected in the sage extract, which also showed the best antibacterial activity, especially against Gram-positive bacteria and C. coli. The best reducing power and free radical scavenging activity were obtained in lemon balm extract, with the highest content of rosmarinic acid. Additionally, the effect of the phenolics, especially rosmarinic acid, on biological properties of Lamiaceae plant extracts was investigated using principal component analysis. Rosmarinic acid showed good correlation with all antioxidant parameters, confirming its significant contribution to antioxidant activity of investigated plant extracts.

  19. Dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs-(oregano and sage) modulates innate immunity parameters in Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattem, D A; Lester, Ce; Deleon, Rc; Jamison, By; Maitin, V

    2013-01-01

    Lamiaceae herbs have are well known for their immunomodulatory effects, however, the mechanism by which they effect innate immune system is not clearly understood. The effect of dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs (oregano and sage) modulation of on innate immunological parameters was investigated in Lumbricus terrestris. Animals were fed (ad libitum) on herbs supplemented diet [(0.1% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v)] for 6 days. Changes in immune competent cell counts, viability, and relative neutrophil-like cell counts were determined in response to herb treatment. Changes in nitric oxide, phagocytic activity, and respiratory burst index were also determined in response to herb treatment relative to control. Additionally, effect of herb co-treatment cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg-BW) induced immunosuppression was also evaluated. Our results suggested abrogation of CP-induced immunosuppression in response to co-treatment with herbs. Significant increase in nitric oxide-mediated immune-competent cell counts, viability, and differentiation into neutrophil-like cells were observed in response to dietary supplementation with Lamiaceae herbs. Significantly higher phagocytic activity relative to control was also noted in response to dietary intake of oregano and sage. However, the respiratory burst index did not increase exponentially in response to herb treatments, suggesting a potential enhancement in pathogen recognition and antioxidant defenses. Lamiaceae herbs may have potential immune-modulatory properties important for human health and merits further investigation.

  20. Dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs-(oregano and sage) modulates innate immunity parameters in Lumbricus terrestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattem, DA; Lester, CE; DeLeon, RC; Jamison, BY; Maitin, V

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Lamiaceae herbs have are well known for their immunomodulatory effects, however, the mechanism by which they effect innate immune system is not clearly understood. Objective: The effect of dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs (oregano and sage) modulation of on innate immunological parameters was investigated in Lumbricus terrestris. Materials and Methods: Animals were fed (ad libitum) on herbs supplemented diet [(0.1% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v)] for 6 days. Changes in immune competent cell counts, viability, and relative neutrophil-like cell counts were determined in response to herb treatment. Changes in nitric oxide, phagocytic activity, and respiratory burst index were also determined in response to herb treatment relative to control. Additionally, effect of herb co-treatment cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg-BW) induced immunosuppression was also evaluated. Results: Our results suggested abrogation of CP-induced immunosuppression in response to co-treatment with herbs. Significant increase in nitric oxide-mediated immune-competent cell counts, viability, and differentiation into neutrophil-like cells were observed in response to dietary supplementation with Lamiaceae herbs. Significantly higher phagocytic activity relative to control was also noted in response to dietary intake of oregano and sage. However, the respiratory burst index did not increase exponentially in response to herb treatments, suggesting a potential enhancement in pathogen recognition and antioxidant defenses. Conclusion: Lamiaceae herbs may have potential immune-modulatory properties important for human health and merits further investigation. PMID:23598918

  1. Complementary therapies for acne vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Liu, Jian Ping; Smith, Caroline A; Luo, Hui; Liu, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    Background Acne is a chronic skin disease characterised by inflamed spots and blackheads on the face, neck, back, and chest. Cysts and scarring can also occur, especially in more severe disease. People with acne often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, and dietary modifications, because of their concerns about the adverse effects of conventional medicines. However, evidence for CAM therapies has not been systematically assessed. Objectives To assess the effects and safety of any complementary therapies in people with acne vulgaris. Search methods We searched the following databases from inception up to 22 January 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1981), Scopus (from 1966), and a number of other databases listed in the Methods section of the review. The Cochrane CAM Field Specialised Register was searched up to May 2014. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of articles for further references to relevant trials. Selection criteria We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (or the first phase data of randomised cross-over trials) of any kind of CAM, compared with no treatment, placebo, or other active therapies, in people with a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Data collection and analysis Three authors collected data from each included trial and evaluated the methodological quality independently. They resolved disagreements by discussion and, as needed, arbitration by another author. Main results We included 35 studies, with a total of 3227 participants. We evaluated the majority as having unclear risk of selection, attrition, reporting, detection, and other biases. Because of the clinical heterogeneity between trials and the incomplete data reporting, we could only include four

  2. Lupus Vulgaris At A Rare Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaduri Gautam

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of lupus vulgaris at a rare site-eyelid is reported here. Delayed diagnosis of the condition affecting the left eyelid in a female patient aged 78 years, led to scarring and fixity of eyelids with resultant exposure keratitis and dimness of vision. Antitubercular therapy improved skin condition but dimness f vision persisted.

  3. streptococcus pneumoniae , klebsiella pneumoniae proteus vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. This investigation was conducted to determine the in-vitro effect of aqueous, ethanol and methanol crude extracts of Euphorbia hirta at concentrations ranging from 10mg/ml – 100mg/ml against three pathogenic bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris) using cup plate ...

  4. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus

  5. Antimitochondrial Autoantibodies in Pemphigus Vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, Steve; Chernyavsky, Alexander I.; Arredondo, Juan; Gindi, Vivian; Grando, Sergei A.

    2010-01-01

    A loss of epidermal cohesion in pemphigus vulgaris (PV) results from autoantibody action on keratinocytes (KCs) activating the signaling kinases and executioner caspases that damage KCs, causing their shrinkage, detachment from neighboring cells, and rounding up (apoptolysis). In this study, we found that PV antibody binding leads to activation of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase, Src, p38 MAPK, and JNK in KCs with time pattern variations from patient to patient. Both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways were also activated. Although Fas ligand neutralizing antibody could inhibit the former pathway, the mechanism of activation of the latter remained unknown. PV antibodies increased cytochrome c release, suggesting damage to mitochondria. The immunoblotting experiments revealed penetration of PVIgG into the subcellular mitochondrial fraction. The antimitochondrial antibodies from different PV patients recognized distinct combinations of antigens with apparent molecular sizes of 25, 30, 35, 57, 60, and 100 kDa. Antimitochondrial antibodies were pathogenic because their absorption abolished the ability of PVIgG to cause keratinocyte detachment both in vitro and in vivo. The downstream signaling of antimitochondrial antibodies involved JNK and late p38 MAPK activation, whereas the signaling of anti-desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) antibody involved JNK and biphasic p38 MAPK activation. Using KCs grown from Dsg3−/− mice, we determined that Dsg3 did not serve as a surrogate antigen allowing antimitochondrial antibodies to enter KCs. The PVIgG-induced activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and Src was affected neither in Dsg3−/− KCs nor due to absorption of antimitochondrial antibodies. These results demonstrated that apoptolysis in PV is a complex process initiated by at least three classes of autoantibodies directed against desmosomal, mitochondrial, and other keratinocyte self-antigens. These autoantibodies synergize with the proapoptotic serum and

  6. In vitro antioxidant and anti-rhizopus activities of Lamiaceae herbal extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Víctor; Akerreta, Silvia; Casanova, Esther; García-Mina, Jose María; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Calvo, María Isabel

    2007-12-01

    Eighty-eight extracts of different polarity obtained from 18 Lamiaceae medicinal and aromatic plants were screened for their antioxidant and antifungal properties. A TLC analysis combined with two bioassays were used to detect these activities. In most cases the highest radical scavenger capacity was detected in methanolic and aqueous extracts and polyphenols may be responsible. The most interesting antioxidant activity was observed in polar extracts obtained from Lycopus europaeus, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare subsp. virens and Lavandula latifolia. On the contrary, the best results for the antifungal test against Rhizopus stolonifer were produced by non-polar herbal extracts. Phlomis lychnitis, Salvia pratensis and Calamintha sylvatica caused the highest inhibition on Rhizopus growth.

  7. Glandular trichomes and essential oil composition of Thymus pannonicus All. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BOZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Glandular trichomes of Lamiaceae are among the most investigated secretory structures. Micromorphological and anatomical analyses of the glandular trichomes of Th. pannonicus L. were carried out using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy. Our research results show that, the secretory structures are always multicellular, consisting in a basal cell, a unicellular pedicel and a gland which bears 1, 2, 8 or 12 cells. Aerial parts of Th. pannonicus L. were subjected to hydrodistillation to yield volatile oil which were subsequently analysed by GC/MS (gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The main compounds identified in Th. pannonicus L. volatil oil were a-terpinyl acetate (48.83%, germacrene D (12.12%, cariophyllene oxide (6.35% and mircene (4.73%.

  8. Volatile constituents of Cunila polyantha (Lamiaceae from Costa Rica. A rich source of menthone

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    José F. Cicció

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The constituents of the volatile oil of Cunila polyantha from Dota, Costa Rica, were investigated using coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analyses. Menthone (63%, pulegone (14%, -caryophyllene (4.5% and 3-octanyl acetate (3% were found to be the major constituents of the volatile oil.Se investigaron los constituyentes del aceite esencial obtenido por hidrodestilación de la parte aérea de la planta Cunila polyantha (Lamiaceae, mediante las técnicas de cromatografía de gases y espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se encontró que los constituyentes mayoritarios del aceite fueron los monoterpenoides mentona (63% y pulegona (14%, el sesquiterpeno -cariofileno (4.5% y el acetato de 3-octanilo (3%.

  9. Identification of Aroma Compounds of Lamiaceae Species in Turkey Using the Purge and Trap Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica. Aroma components of the S. officinalis, L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples. PMID:28231089

  10. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish steno-endemic Origanum leptocladum Boiss. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Doğu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Origanum leptocladum Boiss. is an endemic East Mediterranean element, naturally growing only in Ermenek district of Karaman province in Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine anatomical features of the species. The study materials were collected from Karaman-Ermenek in 2009 and then preserved in 70 % alcohol. O. leptocladum generally exhibits the anatomical feaures of the family Lamiaceae. Hovewer, herbaceaus stem is weakly-rectangle shaped or tends to be circular, the collenchymatic tissue at the corner of the stem and scleranchymatic pericycle around the vascular tissue are weakly-developed. The most striking anatomical feature is that leaf lamina is dorsiventral in the region near to midvein, but equifacial out of the midvein. According to the results, while the stomata are of mesomorphic type on the leaf surfaces, O. leptocladum has xeromorphic characters such as palisade richness in mesophyll, the occurrence of rich scleranchymatic tissue in midvein and cuticle thickness on leaf surface.

  11. Identification of Aroma Compounds of Lamiaceae Species in Turkey Using the Purge and Trap Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Salih Sonmezdag

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica. Aroma components of the S. officinalis, L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples.

  12. Composition of essential oil compounds from different Syrian populations of Origanum syriacum L. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Brigitte; Schmiderer, Corinna; Franz, Chlodwig; Novak, Johannes

    2009-02-25

    The chemical compositions of the essential oil compounds of 117 individual plants belonging to 11 Syrian populations of Origanum syriacum L. (Lamiaceae) were studied by GC-FID and GC-MS. The composition was dominated by carvacrol and/or thymol with a high degree of polymorphism in the occurrence of these two compounds between the different populations. In three populations carvacrol was dominating, with thymol being present only in minor amounts, whereas in only one population thymol was the main compound, with carvacrol only in traces. In all other populations both carvacrol and thymol were present as major compounds. No geographical pattern could be detected for the occurrence of the chemotypes. Thymoquinone, a promising anticancer candidate, was present in the extracts in a wide range between 0.04 and 23.7%.

  13. Total phenolic content and antioxidative properties of commercial tinctures obtained from some Lamiaceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Adam; Biskup, Izabela; Fecka, Izabela

    2012-12-01

    The antioxidant level of commercial tinctures from three Lamiaceae plants, Salvia officinalis, Mentha piperita, and Melissa officinalis, have been determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the 2.2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydracyl hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging technique and ABTS assay. Total phenolic content was expressed as GAE (gallic acid equivalent) and ranged from 0.24 to 3.99 mg/mL. Antioxidant activity in the ABTS assay, calculated as TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity), ranged from 23.5 to 35.6 micromol Trolox/mL, while in the DPPH method, the EC50 value ranged from 0.04 to 0.07 mL/assay. Radical scavenging activity was correlated with total phenolic content. Correlations between ABTS and F-C methods, DPPH and F-C methods and ABTS and DPPH methods were calculated. The obtained results can be useful as additional information about the antioxidant activity of galenical preparations.

  14. Identification of aphids of Aphis frangulae-group living on Lamiaceae species through DNA barcode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocuzza, Giuseppe E Massimino; Cavalieri, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    The genus Aphis frangulae-group living on Lamiaceae includes several postulate species, which are morphologically indistinguishable. As a consequence, identification is possible only on the basis of the host plant or life cycle. This study tested the utility of a fragment (614 bp) of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI) with the aim of identifying the species and/or to confirm the previous classification based on host plant and data reported in the literature. Although the general nucleotide variability found was rather low, the analysis enabled the separation and identification of all the specimens collected. In some cases, the lack of nucleotide variability among postulated taxa indicates the limits of identification based on biological traits. Consequently, based on the molecular analysis, the postulate species A. symphyti, A. stachydis and A. lamiorum should be regarded as synonymous of A. frangulae. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Evolution and origins of the Mazatec hallucinogenic sage, Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae): a molecular phylogenetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Aaron A; Walker, Jay B; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2011-09-01

    Salvia divinorum Epl. & Játiva-M. (Lamiaceae) is a potent hallucinogenic plant that is classified within Salvia subgenus Calosphace, section Dusenostachys, and hypothesized to be an interspecific hybrid. It is of ethnobotanical significance due to its employment in traditional healing ceremonies by the Mazatecs of Oaxaca, Mexico, and due to its unique pharmacology-a highly selective, non-nitrogenous, κ-opioid receptor agonist. In order to test its phylogenetic position and putative hybridity, we sequenced multiple DNA regions (ITS, trnL-trnF, and psbA-trnH) of 52 species-representing the major lineages of subgenus Calosphace-and six accessions of S. divinorum. Our molecular phylogenetic results suggest that S. divinorum should not be classified within Dusenostachys and that it is not a hybrid. Additionally, we determine that the closest known relative of this psychoactive Mexican sage is S. venulosa, a rare endemic of Colombia.

  16. Antinociceptive activity of the volatile oils of Hyptis pectinata L. Poit. (Lamiaceae) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Antoniolli, A R; Caetano, L C; Campos, D A; Blank, A F; Alves, P B

    2008-05-01

    Hyptis pectinata L. Poit (Lamiaceae) is known popularly in Brazil as "sambacaita" or "canudinho" and is used in the treatment of inflammations, bacterial infections and ache. The antinociceptive activity of the volatile oils of six genotypes, at doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body wt., were investigated using abdominal writhe models induced by acetic acid and hot plate tests. The volatile oils of all the genotypes are composed mainly of sesquiterpenoids. All the genotypes showed antinociceptive effects in both models used; the SAM002 genotype showed the major inhibitory effect at dose of 100mg/kg body wt. These results suggest that the volatile oil of H. pectinata has peripheral (writhe reduction) and central (time delay of thermal reaction) effects. These observations indicate that H. pectinata may be useful as an analgesic drug.

  17. Una nueva especie de Salvia (Lamiaceae del Norte de Perú

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    Abundio Sagástegui Alva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Salvia L. (Lamiaceae, denominada Salvia vargas-llosae Sagást. & E. Rodr. sp. nov. perteneciente a la sección Cylindriflorae (Epling Epling, procedente de los andes del Norte del Perú (provincia Celendín, departamento Cajamarca, típica de la jalca Sendamal-Kumulca-Challuayaco sobre los 3000 m de altitud y aparentemente endémica a esta parte del país. Se discute con sus relacionadas y adicionalmente se presentan datos sobre su distribución geográfica, ecológica y estado de conservación.

  18. Cross-genera transferable e-microsatellite markers for 12 genera of the Lamiaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Mehmet; Ince, Ayse Gul; Aydin, Adnan; Ay, Saadet T

    2013-06-01

    The Lamiaceae family contains many high-valued medicinal, aromatic and ornamental plant species. Several members of the genera in this family are under heavy pressure of collection for commercial use. DNA markers such as microsatellites could be used to identify commercially important genotypes and to select high-yielding ones for development of new varieties. A total of 12,432 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Salvia fruticosa, S. miltiorrhiza, S. sclarea and Stenogyne rugosa were analyzed. A total of 6216 ESTs were found to be unique according the redundancy test used. Results of this study indicated that the use of redundant ESTs in comparison to non-redundant ESTs was advantageous in terms of higher cross-genera transferability of the markers. A total of 75 EST-microsatellite primer pairs were tested using two different polymerase chain reaction amplification profiles and 52 were found to be cross-genera transferable. Cross-genera transferability of the e-microsatellite primer pairs varied from one species to 12 species tested. It was noted that cross-genera transferability of e-microsatellite primer pairs decreased as the evolutionary distance between the sources and target species increased. This study indicated that EST resources from Salvia spp. and Stenogyne rugosa could be successfully used to identify cross-genera transferable e-microsatellite markers for uncharacterized genomes of the genera in the Lamiaceae family. These e-microsatellite markers could allow one to perform comparative analyses of population structure and genomic studies, and facilitate comparative linkage mapping in the genera studied. E-microsatellite primer pairs reported in this manuscript are equivalent to a total of 135 e-microsatellite primer pairs since many e-microsatellite primer pairs show cross-genera transferability. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Repeated and diverse losses of corolla bilateral symmetry in the Lamiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jinshun; Preston, Jill C; Hileman, Lena C; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2017-05-01

    Independent evolution of derived complex characters provides a unique opportunity to assess whether and how similar genetic changes correlate with morphological convergence. Bilaterally symmetrical corollas have evolved multiple times independently from radially symmetrical ancestors and likely represent adaptations to attract specific pollinators. On the other hand, losses of bilateral corolla symmetry have occurred sporadically in various groups, due to either modification of bilaterally symmetrical corollas in late development or early establishment of radial symmetry. This study integrated phylogenetic, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-based morphological, and gene expression approaches to assess the possible mechanisms underlying independent evolutionary losses of corolla bilateral symmetry. This work compared three species of Lamiaceae having radially symmetrical mature corollas with a representative sister taxon having bilaterally symmetrical corollas and found that each reaches radial symmetry in a different way. Higher core Lamiales share a common duplication in the CYCLOIDEA (CYC ) 2 gene lineage and show conserved and asymmetrical expression of CYC2 clade and RAD genes along the adaxial-abaxial floral axis in species having bilateral corolla symmetry. In Lycopus americanus , the development and expression pattern of La-CYC2A and La-CYC2B are similar to those of their bilaterally symmetrical relatives, whereas the loss of La-RAD expression correlates with a late switch to radial corolla symmetry. In Mentha longifolia , late radial symmetry may be explained by the loss of Ml-CYC2A , and by altered expression of two Ml-CYC2B and Ml-RAD genes . Finally, expanded expression of Cc-CYC2A and Cc-RAD strongly correlates with the early development of radially symmetrical corollas in Callicarpa cathayana . Repeated losses of mature corolla bilateral symmetry in Lamiaceae are not uncommon, and may be achieved by distinct mechanisms and various changes to symmetry

  20. Genomic characterization, molecular cloning and expression analysis of two terpene synthases from Thymus caespititius (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A Sofia; Schimmel, Jette; Lukas, Brigitte; Novak, Johannes; Barroso, José G; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Pedro, Luis G; Degenhardt, Jörg; Trindade, Helena

    2013-07-01

    The identification, isolation and functional characterization of two genes encoding two monoterpene synthases-γ-terpinene synthase (Tctps2) and α-terpineol synthase (Tctps5)-from three chemically distinct Thymus caespititius (Lamiaceae) genotypes were performed. Genomic exon-intron structure was also determined for both terpene synthase genes, revealing an organization with seven exons and six introns. The cDNA of Tctps2 was 2,308 bp long and had an open reading frame of 1,794 bp encoding for a protein with 598 amino acids. Tctps5 was longer, mainly due to intron sequences, and presented high intraspecific variability on the plants analyzed. It encoded for a protein of 602 amino acids from an open reading frame of 1,806 bp comprising a total of 2,507 bp genomic sequence. The amino acid sequence of these two active Tctps genes shared 74 % pairwise identity, ranging between 42 and 94 % similarity with about 50 known terpene synthases of other Lamiaceae species. Gene expression revealed a multi-product Tctps2 and Tctps5 enzymes, producing γ-terpinene and α-terpineol as major components, respectively. These enzymatic results were consistent with the monoterpene profile present in T. caespititius field plants, suggesting a transcriptional regulation in leaves. Herewith reported for the first time for this species, these two newly characterized Tctps genes improve the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of reaction responsible for terpene biosynthesis and chemical diversity found in T. caespititius.

  1. Phylogenetic relationships, character evolution and biogeographic diversification of Pogostemon s.l. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Gang; Drew, Bryan T; Yi, Ting-Shuang; Yan, Hai-Fei; Yuan, Yong-Ming; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-05-01

    Pogostemon (Lamiaceae; Lamioideae) sensu lato is a large genus consisting of about 80 species with a disjunct African/Asian distribution. The infrageneric taxonomy of the genus has historically been troublesome due to morphological variability and putative convergent evolution within the genus. Notably, some species of Pogostemon are obligately aquatic, perhaps the only Lamiaceae taxa which exhibit this trait. Phylogenetic analyses using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and five plastid regions (matK, rbcL, rps16, trnH-psbA, trnL-F), confirmed the monophyly of Pogostemon and its sister relationship with the genus Anisomeles. Pogostemon was resolved into two major clades, and none of the three morphologically defined subgenera of Pogostemon were supported as monophyletic. Inflorescence type (spikes with more than two lateral branches vs. a single terminal spike, or rarely with two lateral branches) is phylogenetically informative and consistent with the two main clades we recovered. Accordingly, a new infrageneric classification of Pogostemon consisting of two subgenera is proposed. Molecular dating and biogeographic diversification analyses suggest that Pogostemon split from its sister genus in southern and southeast Asia in the early Miocene. The early strengthening of the Asia monsoon system that was triggered by the uplifting of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau may have played an important role in the subsequent diversification of the genus. In addition, our results suggest that transoceanic long-distance dispersal of Pogostemon from Asia to Africa occurred at least twice, once in the late Miocene and again during the late-Miocene/early-Pliocene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Diet in pathogenesis of acne vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdarska, Katarzyna; Osucha, Karolina; Savitskyi, Stepan; Malejczyk, Jacek; Galus, Ryszard

    2017-10-23

    Acne vulgaris is one of the most common dermatologic condition especially among adolescents. Acne is related to excess sebum production by sebaceous glands, inflammation both within and adjacent to the comedones, hyperproliferation of Propionibacterium acnes. Some of investigations show association between acne and diet. Milk increases the level of IGF-1 leading to the synthesis of androgen-mediated increases sebum production. Chocolate predispose to hyperglycemia and insulinemia which aggravate of acne vulgaris. High levels of omega-6 fatty acids have been associated with increase of acne in contrast to omega-3 fatty acids, which decrease inflammation. Food have huge impact on development and severity of acne and may exert beneficial effect in the treatment of this disorder.

  3. Spotlight on adapalene in acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, John; Noble, Stuart; Scott, Lesley J

    2004-01-01

    Adapalene (Differin) is a retinoid agent indicated for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris. In clinical trials, 0.1% adapalene gel has proved to be effective in this indication and was as effective as 0.025% tretinoin gel, 0.1% tretinoin microsphere gel, 0.05% tretinoin cream and 0.1% tazarotene gel once every two days; however, the drug was less effective than once-daily 0.1% tazarotene gel. It can be used alone in mild acne or in combination with antimicrobials in inflammatory acne and has proved efficacious as maintenance treatment. Adapalene has a rapid onset of action and a particularly favorable tolerability profile compared with other retinoids. These attributes can potentially promote patient compliance, an important factor in treatment success. Adapalene is, therefore, assured of a role in the first-line treatment of acne vulgaris.

  4. Adapalene In The Treatment Of Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad H R Y

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical tretinoin, a retinoid long in use for the treatment of acne vulgaris, has the disadvantage of skin irritation. Adapalene, a third generation retinoid, has been claimed to have less side-effects. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of adapalene in an open uncontrolled trial. Thirty three patients of mild to moderate acne vulgaris were included in the study. Of them, 22 patients completed the study period of 12 weeks. The mean age of all 33 patients was 19 year with male to female ratio of 1.75:1. There was significant decrease in lesion count in each of 1,4,8 and 12 weeks evaluations (p <0.05 in both inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. About 70% complained of burning, 60% of itching and 30% of dryness. However, none of the side-effects was severe enough to stop the medication except in one case.

  5. Giant lupus vulgaris: A rare presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchidanand, S; Sharavana, S; Mallikarjun, M; Nataraja, H V

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis continues to be an important public health problem even with the availability of highly effective anti-tuberculous drugs. It constitutes 0.1% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis that occurs in previously sensitized individuals with a moderate degree of immunity against tubercle bacilli. The different types of lupus vulgaris include plaque, ulcerative, vegetative, papular and nodular, and tumor forms. A 40-year-old man presented with large multiple plaques over right upper limb, right side of chest and back, and right lower limb for the past 30 years. Histopathology showed numerous noncaseating granulomas with Langhan's type of giant cells. The Mantoux test showed strong positivity and there was excellent response to anti-tuberculous treatment. This case is being reported because of its extreme chronicity of 30 years duration, unusually large size and multiplicity of lesions.

  6. Caracterização e ontogenia dos tricomas glandulares de Ocimum selloi Benth. - Lamiaceae Characterization and ontogeny of the glandular trichomes of Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul e na medicina popular tem sido usada devido suas propriedades analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiespasmódica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os tipos de tricomas glandulares que ocorrem nos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos de O. selloi e determinar a ontogenia desses tricomas. Ramos laterais em início de formação, folhas totalmente expandidas, flores em diferentes estádios de diferenciação, amostras de caule e do eixo das inflorescências foram analisados em microscopias de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Tricomas glandulares do tipo peltado e capitado subséssil foram observados no caule, nas folhas, no eixo da inflorescência e na superfície adaxial das sépalas. Nas sépalas foi encontrado, além dos tricomas secretores peltados e capitados subsésseis, o tricoma glandular capitado pedunculado. A ontogenia inicia-se com a expansão de uma célula protodérmica que, de acordo com a seqüência de divisões periclinais e anticlinais (ora simétricas, ora assimétricas, dá origem aos tricomas. A diferenciação dos tricomas glandulares peltados e capitados não é sincrônica e ocorre muito cedo no desenvolvimento da folha, do caule e do eixo floral.Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae is native to South America and in traditional medicine has been used due to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antispasmodic properties. The aim of this study was to identify the types of glandular trichomes that occur on the vegetative and reproductive organs of O. selloi and to determine trichome ontogeny. Lateral branches at the initial formation phase, fully opened leaves, flowers at different differentiation stages, and stem and inflorescence axes were analyzed under light and scanning electron microscopy. Glandular trichomes of the peltate and subsessile capitate types were observed on the stem, leaves, inflorescence axis and the adaxial surface of the

  7. Chloroplast Microsatellite Diversity in Phaseolus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiderio, F.; Bitocchi, E.; Bellucci, E.; Rau, D.; Rodriguez, M.; Attene, G.; Papa, R.; Nanni, L.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary studies that are aimed at defining the processes behind the present level and organization of crop genetic diversity represent the fundamental bases for biodiversity conservation and use. A Mesoamerican origin of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris was recently suggested through analysis of nucleotide polymorphism at the nuclear level. Here, we have used chloroplast microsatellites to investigate the origin of the common bean, on the basis of the specific characteristics of these markers (no recombination, haploid genome, uniparental inheritance), to validate these recent findings. Indeed, comparisons of the results obtained through analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA should allow the resolution of some of the contrasting information available on the evolutionary processes. The main outcomes of the present study are: (i) confirmation at the chloroplast level of the results obtained through nuclear data, further supporting the Mesoamerican origin of P. vulgaris, with central Mexico representing the cradle of its diversity; (ii) identification of a putative ancestral plastidial genome, which is characteristic of a group of accessions distributed from central Mexico to Peru, but which have not been highlighted beforehand through analyses at the nuclear level. Finally, the present study suggests that when a single species is analyzed, there is the need to take into account the complexity of the relationships between P. vulgaris and its closely related and partially intercrossable species P. coccineus and P. dumosus. Thus, the present study stresses the importance for the investigation of the speciation processes of these taxa through comparisons of both plastidial and nuclear variability. This knowledge will be fundamental not only from an evolutionary point of view, but also to put P. coccineus and P. dumosus germplasm to better use as a source of useful diversity for P. vulgaris breeding. PMID:23346091

  8. Chloroplast microsatellite diversity in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eDesiderio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary studies that are aimed at defining the processes behind the present level and organization of crop genetic diversity represent the fundamental bases for biodiversity conservation and use. A Mesoamerican origin of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris was recently suggested through analysis of nucleotide polymorphism at the nuclear level. Here, we have used chloroplast microsatellites to investigate the origin of the common bean, on the basis of the specific characteristics of these markers (no recombination, haploid genome, uniparental inheritance, to validate these recent findings. Indeed, comparisons of the results obtained through analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA should allow the resolution of some of the contrasting information available on the evolutionary processes. The main outcomes of the present study are: (i confirmation at the chloroplast level of the results obtained through nuclear data, further supporting the Mesoamerican origin of P. vulgaris, with central Mexico representing the cradle of its diversity; (ii identification of a putative ancestral plastidial genome, which is characteristic of a group of accessions distributed from central Mexico to Peru, but which have not been highlighted beforehand through analyses at the nuclear level. Finally, the present study suggests that when a single species is analysed, there is the need to take into account the complexity of the relationships between P. vulgaris and its closely related and partially intercrossable species P. coccineus and P. dumosus. Thus, the present study stresses the importance for the investigation of the speciation processes of these taxa through comparisons of both plastidial and nuclear variability. This knowledge will be fundamental not only from an evolutionary point of view, but also to put P. coccineus and P. dumosus germplasm to better use as a source of useful diversity for P. vulgaris breeding.

  9. [ACNE VULGARIS--AETIOLOGY, CLASSIFICATION, TREATMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Katarzyna; Chwilkowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    A spotless skin is a rarity. Both women and men have different problems related to the complexion. One of the most common problems is acne, which affects an increasing number of people of all ages. Seborrhea skin areas rich in sebaceous glands, the formation of comedones, inflammation, and scars are characteristic for this disease. The aim of the study was to discuss the causes of acne vulgaris, methods of treatment, and proper care of the skin affected by this problem.

  10. The psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neirita Hazarika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris causes erythematous papulopustular lesions in active stage and often leave behind residual scarring and pigmentation. Its onset in adolescence may add to the emotional and psychological challenges experienced during this period. Aims: To assess the impact of acne on the various psychosocial domains of daily life. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study done in the dermatology out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital from January to March 2015. A total of 100 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients of acne vulgaris, aged 15 years and above were included in this study. The relationship between acne vulgaris and its sequelae was analyzed with ten different domains of daily life by using dermatology life quality index (DLQI questionnaire. Results: Females (56%, 15–20 year olds (61%, facial lesions (60%, and Grade II acne (70% were most common. Acne scars were noted in 75% patients, whereas 79% cases had post-acne hyperpigmentation. Thirty-seven percent patients had DLQI scores of (6–10 interpreted as moderate effect on patient's life. Statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05 found were as follows: Physical symptoms with grade of acne; embarrassment with site and grade of acne; daily activities with grade of acne and post-acne pigmentation; choice of clothes with site of acne; social activities with gender, site and grade of acne; effect on work/study with grade of acne; interpersonal problems with site and post-acne pigmentation; sexual difficulties with grade of acne. Limitation: It was a hospital-based study with small sample size. Conclusion: Significant impact of acne and its sequelae was noted on emotions, daily activities, social activities, study/work, and interpersonal relationships. Assurance and counseling along with early treatment of acne vulgaris is important to reduce disease-related psychosocial sequelae and increase the efficacy of treatment.

  11. [Concepts for immune intervention in psoriasis vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, F O

    2000-09-14

    Psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with a genetic background. Activated T-cells and their secreted products seem to play an essential role in the induction as well as the promotion of the psoriatic plaque. We will focus on some recent concepts on the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis highlighting the role of dendritic cells as initiators of the disease as well as the recruitment of disease specific T-cells. Concepts for immunointervention will be introduced.

  12. Seedling emergence, growth and trace elements tolerance and accumulation by Lamiaceae species in a mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, A; Zornoza, R; Conesa, E; Gómez-López, M D; Faz, A

    2014-10-01

    The potential use of three Laminaceae species (Lavandula dentata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris) for the phytostabilisation of a trace elements contaminated (acid) soil has been evaluated. These species were grown in mine tailing soil unamended (TS) and amended with calcium carbonate and pig manure (ATS), and unpolluted substrate for control (CT); plant growth, root characterisation, soil trace elements contents and their accumulation in plants were measured. Results indicated that seed emergence was independent from substrate characteristics, but seedlings died in TS with 40% survival in ATS. The biomass of L. dentata and T. vulgaris and root development in R. officinalis were negatively affected when grown in TS but without differences between ATS and CT. Applicating amendments reduced soil exchangeable and extractable fractions concentrations of trace elements in ATS compared with TS. The establishment of L. dentata and R. officinalis were related to trace elements immobilisation. Trace element concentrations in plants grown in tailing soils were similar to those reported for control, although applicating amendments reduced Zn accumulation in all species, and favoured increased absorption and aerial translocation of As and Pb by L. dentata and T. vulgaris; nonetheless, levels were below toxicity thresholds. Thus, these species fulfill the criteria for phytostabilisation purposes, aided by employing amendments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pemfigus Vulgaris Manifestasi di Mulut dan Penatalaksanaannya

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    Metawati Tarmidi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pemfigus is an autoimmune disease involving the skin and mucosa and characterized by intraepidermal bullae formation. The four variations of pemphigus are pemphigus vulgaris, vegetans, foliaceus, and erythematosus. Although several clinical variants are recognized, pemphigus vulgaris is the most common form and the type most likely to exhibit oral manifestations. There are from 0,1 to 0,5 cases reported each year per 100,000 population with the highest incidence occurring in the fourth and seventh decades of life. Only rare cases have been reported in children and the elderly. Before the advent of systemic corticosteroid therapy, pemphigus vulgaris was fatal within few months to two years. A characteristic feature is the nikolsky sign which is the ability to elicit the formation of bullae by the application of firm lateral pressure on normal-appearing skin. The oral lesions often have a slow, insidious onset with symptoms present for many months before a diagnosis is made or skin lesions develop. Lesions may be found anywhere but are most common on the palate, buccal mucosa, and gingiva. Although the oral lesions are vesicobullous in nature, intact blisters are rarely seen. Diagnosis is established by biopsy and immunofluorescent studies. Titers on indirect immunofluorescence often correlate to the severity of the disease. The aim of this study is to promote and support early dental diagnosis when the prognosis is good.

  14. Insulin resistance in severe acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiroğlu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-08-01

    Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous gland disease that usually affects people from puberty to young adulthood. It is seen especially on the face, neck, trunk and arms. Its severity differs from patient to patient and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. The main pathogenic factors of acne are high sebaceous gland secretion, follicular hyperproliferation, high androgen effects, propionibacterium acnes colonization and inflammation. Diet is always thought a probable reason for acne and many studies are done about acne and diet. To determine the effect of insulin resistance in severe acne vulgaris. Two hundred and forty-three acne vulgaris patients and 156 healthy controls were enrolled into the study. The blood levels of insulin and glucose were measured. Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) Index was calculated. The values were compared with the control group. All of the patients were in the severe acne group according to their scores on the global acne scoring scale. While fasting blood glucose levels were not different between the groups (p > 0.05, 82.91 ±9.76 vs. 80.26 ±8.33), the fasting insulin levels were significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (p pathogenesis of acne.

  15. Correlation of total polyphenolic content with antioxidant and antibacterial activity of 24 extracts from Greek domestic Lamiaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagos, Dimitrios; Portesis, Nikolaos; Spanou, Chryssa; Mossialos, Dimitrios; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Chaita, Eliza; Panagoulis, Christos; Reri, Eleni; Skaltsounis, Leandros; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2012-11-01

    Lamiaceae family species are considered important because of their use in folk medicine, culinary and flavouring throughout the world. Their interesting bioactivities are attributed mainly to essential oils, polyphenols and terpenes. However, there are only few studies about polyphenolic extracts from Lamiaceae plants. Thus, 24 polyphenolic extracts from three Lamiaceae genera, Salvia, Mentha and Sideritis, collected in Greece were examined for antioxidant and antibacterial activity in correlation with their polyphenolic content. The results showed that the tested polyphenolic extracts had strong free radical scavenging activity against DPPH· and ABTS(+) radicals and protected from hydroxyl and peroxyl radical-induced DNA damage. Moreover, five extracts inhibited Staphylococcus aureus growth. Furthermore, the results showed that the total polyphenolic content is not correlated with the above activities, although this relation was different within each plant genus. This is the first study regarding the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina, S. pomifera ssp. pomifera, Mentha microphylla and Sideritis raeseri ssp. attica species, and one of the few concerning protection from DNA damage and antibacterial activity of polyphenolic extracts from the rest of the tested species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The application of multiplex fluorimetric sensor for the analysis of flavonoids content in the medicinal herbs family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytar, Oksana; Bruckova, Klaudia; Hunkova, Elena; Zivcak, Marek; Konate, Kiessoun; Brestic, Marian

    2015-01-16

    The aim of our research work was to quantify total flavonoid contents in the leaves of 13 plant species family Asteraceae, 8 representatives of family Lamiaceae and 9 plant species belonging to family Rosaceae, using the multiplex fluorimetric sensor. Fluorescence was measured using optical fluorescence apparatus Multiplex(R) 3 (Force-A, France) for non-destructive flavonoids estimation. The content of total flavonoids was estimated by FLAV index (expressed in relative units), that is deduced from flavonoids UV absorbing properties. Among observed plant species, the highest amount of total flavonoids has been found in leaves of Helianthus multiflorus (1.65 RU) and Echinops ritro (1.27 RU), Rudbeckia fulgida (1.13 RU) belonging to the family Asteraceae. Lowest flavonoid content has been observed in the leaves of marigold (Calendula officinalis) (0.14 RU) also belonging to family Asteraceae. The highest content of flavonoids among experimental plants of family Rosaceae has been estimated in the leaves of Rosa canina (1.18 RU) and among plant species of family Lamiaceae in the leaves of Coleus blumei (0.90 RU). This research work was done as pre-screening of flavonoids content in the leaves of plant species belonging to family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae. Results indicated that statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) in flavonoids content were observed not only between families, but also among individual plant species within one family.

  17. Preliminary antimycobacterial study on selected Turkish plants (Lamiaceae) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and search for some phenolic constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askun, Tülin; Tekwu, Emmanuel Mouafo; Satil, Fatih; Modanlioglu, Seyma; Aydeniz, Hatice

    2013-12-21

    The global resurgence of tuberculosis is a significant threat. Lamiaceae members have been used in folk remedies for centuries. This study was designed to assess the in-vitro antimycobacterial activity of eighteen crude extracts from six plants (Lamiaceae) and to characterize their phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Six Turkish medicinal plants of the family Lamiaceae (Stachys tmolea Boiss., Stachys thirkei C. Koch, Ballota acetabulosa (L.) Benth., Thymus sipthorpii Benth., Satureja aintabensis P.H. Davis, and Micromeria juliana (L.) Benth. ex Reich.) were collected in 2009 - 2010. Dried and crushed plant samples were subjected to sequential extraction with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol in order of increasing polarity. A broth microdilution method was employed to screen extracts against four mycobacterial strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Phenolic and flavonoid compounds were characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. S. aintabensis, T. sibthorpii, and M. juliana were found to develop considerable activity against the four strains of M. tuberculosis with the minimal inhibitory concentrations value of 12.5-100 μg/ml. S. aintabensis and T. sibthorpii extracts killed M. tuberculosis with the minimum bactericidal concentration value of 50-800 μg/ml. On the basis of these prominent antimycobacterial activity, we suggest that they could be a source of natural anti-tuberculosis agents. S. aintabensis and T. sibthorpii showed activity by killing Mycobacteria strains. The major phenolic compound was rosmarinic for T. sibthorpii and S. aintabensis. Flavonoids might be "a modal" for the drug design.

  18. Antioxidant effect of Citrullus vulgaris (watermelon) extract against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Antioxidant effect of Citrullus Vulgaris (Watermelon) extract was evaluated against lipid oxidation in freshly caught fishes during cooking. GC-MS analysis of Hexane and total phenolic extract of Citrullus Vulgaris flesh reveals that the extracts contain 55 compounds which includes 5- hydroxymethyl furfural, ...

  19. [Sensitivity of Chlorella vulgaris to metribuzin, puma and alachlor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiqiang; Dong, Bo; Wu, Jincai

    2004-09-01

    The relative sensitivities of Chlorella vulgaris to three commonly used herbicides metribuzin, puma and alachlor were determined by toxicity tests of 96-h static exposures. The results showed that the toxicities of metribuzin and alachlor to C. vulgaris increased with exposure time, and the density of C. vulgaris decreased with increasing concentrations of these two herbicides in the test media. The maximum specific growth rate of C. vulgaris exposed to metribuzin (0.24 mgL x L(-1)) and alachlor (12.8 mg x L(-1)) was 12.38% and 31.58% of the control, respectively. At low concentration, puma stimulated C. vulgaris growth, but at high concentration, it inhibited the growth significantly. The maximum specific growth rate of C. vulgaris under 0.08 mg x L(-1) puma was 111.44% of the control, and the toxicity of puma declined with increasing exposure duration. The EC50 value of metribuzin, puma and alachlor was 0.021, 0.937, and 5.54 mg x L(-1), respectively. The relative sensitivities of C. vulgaris to the three herbicides decreased in the order of metribuzin, puma and alachlor. The chlorophyll a content of C. vulgaris decreased with the increasing concentrations of metribuzin, puma and alachlor.

  20. Energy-Based Devices in Treatment of Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Marc Z; Bloom, Bradley S; Goldberg, David J

    2016-05-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic dermatologic complaint with a multifactorial cause. Traditionally, antibiotics and retinoids have been used to manage the condition; patient compliance has been an ongoing issue. A variety of energy-based devices have been reported to be effective in the treatment of acne vulgaris. To review and summarize the current literature specific to treatment of acne vulgaris with energy-based devices. A review of the current literature of energy-based devices used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Although limited randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acne have been performed, significant clinical improvement of acne vulgaris, especially of inflammatory lesions, has been demonstrated with a variety of energy-based devices. Newer approaches may lead to even better results.

  1. Changes in hemostasis in foals naturally infected with Strongylus vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Krarup Nielsen, Martin; Jacobsen, Stine

    2017-01-01

    Strongylus vulgaris has been found endemic in equine populations subject to parasite control by targeted selective anthelmintic therapy. This study investigated hemostasis in foals naturally infected with S. vulgaris and monitored this response over the course of progressing infection stages....... The hemostatic indices D-dimer, antithrombin III (ATIII), fibrinogen, prothrombin time (PT), and activated partial thromboplastin time were evaluated in weekly blood samples for up to 50 weeks in 12 foals born into a herd with high prevalence of S. vulgaris. Results were compared with weekly S. vulgaris antibody...... enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay values in all foals using a linear mixed effects model with repeated measures and to total numbers of S. vulgaris larvae in nine foals at necropsy with Pearson linear correlation. In the first week of life, all evaluated indices of hemostasis were significantly different...

  2. Essential oil yield and composition of Lamiaceae species growing in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Agostini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Lamiaceae family has been described to be rich in essential oil. The aim of the present work was to identify the native species of Rio Grande do Sul with potential use as the aromatic plants. Seven species of the family were collected in the different localities of the state. The essential oils were obtained by 1h hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus. The constituents were identified by comparing their GC Kovats retention indices (RI, determined with reference to a homologous series of n-alkanes and by comparing their mass spectral fragmentation patterns with literature data. Cunila incisa and Mentha aquatica resulted in the higher esssential oil yields (1.94% v/w and 0.93% v/w, respectively. The composition of M. aquatica was 80% methone, with almost 14% pulegone. C. microcephala had 53% menthofuran and C. incisa nearly 45% of 1.8-cineol and 18% α-terpineol.Em vista do reconhecimento de espécies da família Lamiaceae como produtoras de óleos essenciais, este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar algumas espécies nativas do Rio Grande do Sul, bem como avaliar seu potencial aromático. Para isso, foram coletadas sete amostras pertencentes à esta família, em diferentes localidades do Estado. O óleo essencial foi obtido por hidrodestilação em aparelho Clevenger pelo período de 1 hora. Os compostos foram identificados por comparação de seus Índices de Retenção de Kovats (R.I, deterninados com referência a uma série homóloga de n-alcanos e por comparação de seus padrões de fragmentação de massa com dados da literatura. C. incisa e M. aquatica, apresentaram os melhores rendimentos de óleo essencial (1.94% v/p e 0.93% v/p respectivamente. M. aquatica também destacou-se por apresentar cerca de 80% de mentona, além de pouco mais de 14% de pulegona. C. microcephala apresentou aproximadamente 53% de mentofurano e C. incisa cerca de 45% de 1,8-cineol e 18% de α-terpineol.

  3. STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM STEMS OF ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS L. (LAMIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Tohsirova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial activities using the method of wells of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil, introduced in the Botanical garden of PMPI. It is established that the essential oil has the most pronounced antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, less – Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Antimicrobial effect on the test-cultures of microorganisms Pseudamonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris are not expressed.

  4. Assessment of rosmarinic acid content in six Lamiaceae species extracts and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Oniga, Ilioara; Tiperciuc, Brindusa; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Raita, Oana; Bischin, Cristina; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Vlase, Laurian

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, six indigenous species of Lamiaceae family (Origanum vulgare L., Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Salvia officinalis L. and Hyssopus officinalis L.), have been analyzed to assess the rosmarinic acid, phenyl propane derivatives and polyphenolic contents and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. HPLC-MS method has been used for the analysis ofrosmarinicacid. The phenyl propane derivatives and total phenolic contents were determined using spectrophotometric method. The ethanolic extracts were screened for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging, HAPX (hemoglobin ascorbate per oxidase activity inhibition), and EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) methods. The ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of rosmarinic acid in the largest amount in O. vulgare (12.40mg/g) and in the lowest in R. officinalis (1.33 mg/g). O. vulgare extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, in line with the rosmarinic acid and polyphenolic contents. The antimicrobial testing showed a significant activity against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and C. albicans for all six extracts.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd. (Lamiaceae) against cariogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Nathalya Isabel; de Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo; Fracarolli, Letícia; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio Sola; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Crotti, Antônio Eduardo Miller

    2015-01-01

    In Brazilian folk medicine, Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd. (Lamiaceae) is used to treat toothaches and dental abscesses and diseases induced by worms, bacteria, or fungi. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition and the antibacterial effects of the essential oil obtained from Tetradenia riparia leaves (TR-EO) grown in Southeastern Brazil against a representative panel of oral pathogens. We evaluated the antibacterial activity of TR-EO in terms of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). We identified aromadendrene oxide (14.0%), (E,E)-farnesol (13.6%), dronabinol (12.5%), and fenchone (6.2%) as the major constituents of TR-EO. TR-EO displayed MIC values between 31.2 and 500 μg/mL, with the lowest MIC value being obtained against Streptococcus mitis (31.2 μg/mL), S. mutans (62.5 μg/mL), S. sobrinus (31.2 μg/mL), and Lactobacillus casei (62.5 μg/mL). In time-kill experiments, TR-EO demonstrated bactericidal activity against S. mutans within the first 12 h, resulting in a curve profile similar to that of chlorhexidine. These results revealed that the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia displays promising activity against most of the selected cariogenic bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans. PMID:26273268

  6. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial and Mutagenic Activities of Seven Lamiaceae Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Martino

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Deeper knowledge of the potentiality of aromatic plants can provide results of economic importance for food and pharmacological industry. The essential oils of seven Lamiaceae species were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed for their antibacterial, antifungal and mutagenic activities. Monoterpenes in the oils ranged between 82.47% (hyssop oil and 97.48% (thyme oil, being mainly represented by oxygenated compounds. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against six pathogenic and five non-pathogenic bacterial strains. Oregano and thyme oils showed the strongest antibacterial activity against the pathogenic ones. The antifungal activity was evaluated against six fungal strains of agrifood interest: the oils tested exhibited variable degrees of activity. Two Salmonella typhimurium strains were used to assess the possible mutagenic activity. No oil showed mutagenic activity. Data obtained let us hypothesise that the use of essential oils could be a viable and safe way to decrease the utilisation of synthetic food preservatives. Further research is needed to obtain information regarding the practical effectiveness of essential oils to prevent the growth of food borne and spoiling microbes under specific application conditions.

  7. Diversity of essential oil glands of clary sage (Salvia sclarea L., Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiderer, C; Grassi, P; Novak, J; Weber, M; Franz, C

    2008-07-01

    The Lamiaceae is rich in aromatic plant species. Most of these species produce and store essential oils in specialised epidermal oil glands, which are responsible for their specific flavour. Two types of glands producing essential oil and possessing different morphological structure can be found in Salvia sclarea: peltate and capitate glands. The content of single oil glands from different positions on the plant (corolla, calyx and leaf) were sampled using an SPME fibre and analysed by gas chromatography in order to study variability of the essential oil composition. It was found that the composition of terpenoids is quite variable within an individual plant. Capitate oil glands mainly produce three essential oil compounds: the monoterpenes linalool and linalyl acetate, and the diterpene sclareol. Peltate oil glands, however, accumulate noticeable concentrations of sesquiterpenes and an unknown compound (m/z = 354). Furthermore, the oil composition varies within each gland type according to the plant organ. Linalool and linalyl acetate are characteristic substances of flowers, whereas the sesquiterpenes occur in higher proportions in leaves. Even within one gland type on a single leaf, the chemical variability is exceedingly high.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst. Codd. (Lamiaceae against cariogenic bacteria

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    Nathalya Isabel de Melo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazilian folk medicine, Tetradenia riparia (Hochst. Codd. (Lamiaceae is used to treat toothaches and dental abscesses and diseases induced by worms, bacteria, or fungi. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition and the antibacterial effects of the essential oil obtained from Tetradenia riparia leaves (TR-EO grown in Southeastern Brazil against a representative panel of oral pathogens. We evaluated the antibacterial activity of TR-EO in terms of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. We identified aromadendrene oxide (14.0%, (E,E-farnesol (13.6%, dronabinol (12.5%, and fenchone (6.2% as the major constituents of TR-EO. TR-EO displayed MIC values between 31.2 and 500 μg/mL, with the lowest MIC value being obtained against Streptococcus mitis (31.2 μg/mL, S. mutans (62.5 μg/mL, S. sobrinus (31.2 μg/mL, and Lactobacillus casei (62.5 μg/mL. In time-kill experiments, TR-EO demonstrated bactericidal activity against S. mutans within the first 12 h, resulting in a curve profile similar to that of chlorhexidine. These results revealed that the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia displays promising activity against most of the selected cariogenic bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Three Lamiaceae Essential Oils Against Common Oral Pathogens

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    Nikolić Miloš

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of commercial essential oils’ samples from the aerial plant parts of H. officinalis, R. officinalis and S. officinalis were investigated. Analyses by GC-FID and GC-MS confirmed 52 oil components. The major constituent of the H. officinalis oil was cis-pinocamphone (34.4%, followed by transpinocamphone (23.3%, and β-pinene (11.3%. Analysis of R. officinalis oil revealed 1.8-cineol as a major constituent (43.8%, as well as transpinocamphone (12.5%, α-pinene (11.5% and β-pinene (8.2%. The most dominant constituent of S. officinalis oil was cis-thujone (32.7%, in addition to camphor (17.2%, 1.8-cineol (10.1%, α-pinene (8.6%, transthujone (7.7% and camphene (7.3%. The essential oil antimicrobial activity assay was performed by the use of microdilution method against oral Candida spp. and bacteria, the major causative agents of a number of human oral disorders; all of them were susceptible to tested concentrations of H. officinalis, R. officinalis and S. officinalis essential oils, although the oil of S. officinalis exhibited the lowest antimicrobial potential. The results obtained in this study encourage use of investigated essential oils from Lamiaceae family in development of safe natural agents for prevention and/ or alternative therapy of human oral diseases. However, a special care during development of an effective natural preparation is required.

  10. An in-depth review on the medicinal flora Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae).

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    Begum, Asia; Sandhya, Subarda; Shaffath Ali, Syed; Vinod, Kombath Ravindran; Reddy, Swapna; Banji, David

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) is a common household plant which belongs to the family Lamiaceae and is grown in many parts of the world. It is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple or blue flowers. The two most commonly grown hardy Rosemaries are Rosmarinus officinalis 'Arp' and R. officinalis 'Madelene Hill' (syn. 'Hill Hardy'). The other cultivars of the plant are R. officinalis 'Albus', R. officinalis 'Bendenen Blue', R. officinalis 'Goodwin Creek', R. officinalis 'Herb Cottage', R. officinalis 'Logee's Light Blue', R. officinalis 'Miss Jessup's Upright', R. officinalis 'Russian River', R. officinalis 'Salem'. The chemical constituents include bitter principle, resin, tannic acid, volatile oils and fl avonoids. The volatile oil consists of borneol, bornyl acetate, camphene, cineol, pinene and camphor. It is used for problems involved in central nervous system, cardio vascular system, genito urinary conditions, liver treatments, reproductive system and respiratory system. The volatile oil of the plant is used in oils and lotions for the treatment of various ailments like arthritis, gout, muscular pain, neuralgia, wound and rubbed into hair for stimulating the hair bulbs to renewed activity, to prevent premature baldness.

  11. Evolutionary relationships within the lamioid tribe Synandreae (Lamiaceae based on multiple low-copy nuclear loci

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    Tilottama Roy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Lamioideae (Lamiaceae comprises ten tribes, of which only Stachydeae and Synandreae include New World members. Previous studies have investigated the phylogenetic relationships among the members of Synandreae based on plastid and nuclear ribosomal DNA loci. In an effort to re-examine the phylogenetic relationships within Synandreae, the current study incorporates data from four low-copy nuclear loci, PHOT1, PHOT2, COR, and PPR. Our results confirm previous studies based on chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal markers in supporting the monophyly of tribe Synandreae, as well as sister relationships between Brazoria and Warnockia, and between that pair of genera and a monophyletic Physostegia. However, we observe incongruence in the relationships of Macbridea and Synandra. The placement of Synandreae within Lamioideae is poorly resolved and incongruent among different analyses, and the sister group of Synandreae remains enigmatic. Comparison of the colonization and migration patterns corroborates a single colonization of the New World by Synandreae during the Late Miocene/Tortonian age. This is in contrast to the only other lamioid tribe that includes New World members, Stachydeae, which colonized the New World at least twice—during the mid-Miocene and Pliocene. Edaphic conditions and intolerance of soil acidity may be factors that restricted the distribution of most genera of Synandreae to southeastern and south–central North America, whereas polyploidy could have increased the colonizing capability of the more wide-ranging genus, Physostegia.

  12. Chemical diversity among the essential oils of wild populations of Stachys lavandulifolia VAHL (Lamiaceae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Yaqub; Hossein Mirjalili, Mohammad; Nazeri, Vahideh

    2013-02-01

    The variation of the essential-oil composition among ten wild populations of Stachys lavandulifolia VAHL (Lamiaceae), collected from different geographical regions of Iran, was assessed by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, and their intraspecific chemical variability was determined. Altogether, 49 compounds were identified in the oils, and a relatively high variation in their contents was found. The major compounds of the essential oils were myrcene (0.0-26.2%), limonene (0.0-24.5%), germacrene D (4.2-19.3%), bicyclogermacrene (1.6-18.0%), δ-cadinene (6.5-16.0%), pulegone (0.0-15.1%), (Z)-hex-3-enyl tiglate (0.0-15.1%), (E)-caryophyllene (0.0-12.9), α-zingiberene (0.2-12.2%), and spathulenol (1.6-11.1%). For the determination of the chemotypes and the chemical variability, the essential-oil components were subjected to cluster analysis (CA). The five different chemotypes characterized were Chemotype I (germacrene D/bicyclogermacrene), Chemotype II (germacrene D/spathulenol), Chemotype III (limonene/δ-cadinene), Chemotype IV (pulegone), and Chemotype V (α-zingiberene). The high chemical variation among the populations according to their geographical and bioclimatic distribution imposes that conservation strategies of populations should be made appropriately, taking into account these factors. The in situ and ex situ conservation strategies should concern all populations representing the different chemotypes. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  13. Secretory structures and essential oil composition in Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevisan subsp. officinalis (Lamiaceae) from Italy.

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    Giuliani, Claudia; Pellegrino, Roberto Maria; Selvaggi, Roberta; Tani, Corrado; Tirillini, Bruno; Maleci Bini, Laura

    2017-05-01

    The secretory structures and the volatile fraction of Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevisan subsp. officinalis (Lamiaceae) from Italy were studied for the first time. Peltate and small capitate trichomes were observed on the whole plant (leaves and inflorescences). In the peltate trichomes, an unusual polyphenols content was evidenced by the histochemical methods. The volatile fraction was obtained by a solvent extract from the distillation water of leaves and inflorescences and analysed by GC-MS. Forty-four constituents for leaves, representing 94.1% of the total volatiles, and 57 compounds for flowers, accounting for 90.1% of the total volatiles, were identified. (E)-caryophyllene (20.1%), (E)-nerolidol (14.3%), caryophyllene oxide (6.1%) and γ-cadinene (5.7%) were recognised as the main constituents for the leaf volatile fraction, while caryophyllene oxide (16.5%), (E)-nerolidol (15.4%), humulene epoxide II (9.2%) and α-pinene (7.0%) were the main compounds for the flower volatile fraction.

  14. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some medicinal plants from the Lamiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkowski, Adam; Piotrowska, Magdalena

    2006-07-01

    Antioxidative effects of methanolic extracts from six wild European Lamiaceae species have been studied with the use of three in vitro assays. The ability of scavenging free radicals was measured by DPPH reduction spectrophotometric assay. The reducing potential towards transition metals was tested by phosphomolybdenum method and the inhibition of lipid oxidation was tested by Fe/ascorbate system with photometric TBARS detection. All studied herbs exposed strong antioxidant capability, but the results were different for each species depending on the applied test. In DPPH scavenging the order from strongest to the weakest was: Leonurus cardiaca, Lamium album, Marrubium vulgare, Stachys officinalis, Lamium purpureum, Galeopsis speciosa. With phosphomolybdenum method the extract of S. officinalis was the strongest in both 40 degrees Celsius and 90 degrees Celsius but other species acted differently in both temperatures. In lipid peroxidation assay, the maximum inhibition of 78% was reached by S. officinalis and M. vulgare, whereas for both Lamium sp. and L. cardiaca slightly exceeded 70% and for G. speciosa reached 65%. The observed differences indicate the complexity of involved mechanisms and support the necessity of combining several assays in studying the antioxidant potential of medicinal plants.

  15. Quantitative analysis of forskolin in Coleus forskohlii (Lamiaceae) by reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaneberg, Brian T; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2003-01-01

    A rapid method was developed for the evaluation of forskolin in Coleus forskohlii Briq. (Lamiaceae). Forskolin was quantitated in the root and stem of dried C. forskohlii and in 17 market products by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) with a photodiode array detector at 210 nm. The temperature was held constant at 30 degrees C, and the retention time of forskolin was approximately 6.8 min. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile by sonication. The precision of the method was confirmed by a standard deviation < 5.0% (n = 3), and forskolin recovery was 99.1%. Limit of detection was 1.5 microg/mL, and the response was linear through zero from 6.3 to 630 microg/mL with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9998. Identity of the marker compound was confirmed by an LC/mass spectrometry experiment. The method was successful in the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the marker compound in C. forskohlii plant material and in market products claiming to contain C. forskohlii.

  16. Essential Oil Contents and Micromorphological Traits of Stachys iva Griseb. and S. horvaticii Micevski (Lamiaceae

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    Dario Kremer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of the essential oil (EO (analysed by GC and GC/MS, the types and distribution of trichomes, and pollen morphology were investigated in Stachys iva Griseb. and S. horvaticii Micevski (Lamiaceae growing in Republic of Macedonia. The essential oil of Stachys iva was characterized by a high concentration of oxygenated sesquiterpene (43.8% of which caryophyllene oxide (34.2% and spathulenol (8.3% being the principal compounds, while hexadecanoic acid being a major component in the both S. horvaticii oil with percentages of 25.7% in the oil from locality Babuna River Gorge and 28.4 % in the oil from locality Rajec River Gorge. Non-glandular trichomes, and two type of capitate trichomes (type 1 composed of one basal epidermal cell, one stem cell and a unicellular head cell with subcuticular space; type 2 composed of one elevated basal epidermal cell, one stem cells, and a head composed of four, sometimes two small cells were observed on leaves, calyx and the stem.

  17. Composition of the essential oils of three Uzbek Scutellaria species (Lamiaceae) and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamadalieva, Nilufar Zokirjonovna; Sharopov, Farukh; Satyal, Prabodh; Azimova, Shahnoz Sadykovna; Wink, Michael

    2017-05-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Scutellaria immaculata Nevski ex Juz., Scutellaria ramosissima M. Pop. and Scutellaria schachristanica Juz. (Lamiaceae) growing wild in Uzbekistan was analysed by GC and GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oils from S. immaculata were acetophenone (30.39%), eugenol (20.61%), thymol (10.04%) and linalool (6.92%), whereas constituents of the essential oils fromS. schachristanica were acetophenone (34.74%), linalool (26.98%) and eugenol (20.67%). The S. ramosissima oil is dominated by germacrene D (23.96%), β-caryophyllene (11.09%), linalool (9.63%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.34%). The essential oils of Scutellaria species exhibited weaker antioxidant effects in DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. In FRAP assay, only eugenol exhibited a substantial reducing power IC 50  = 2476.92 ± 15.8 (mM Fe(II)/g).

  18. Volatile compounds of Lamiaceae exhibit a synergistic antibacterial activity with streptomycin

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    Sthéfane G. Araújo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections cause thousands of deaths in the world every year. In most cases, infections are more serious because the patient is already weakened, and often, the bacteria are already resistant to the antibiotics used. Counterparting this negative scenario, the interest in medicinal plants as an alternative to the synthetic antimicrobial drugs is blossoming worldwide. In the present work, we identified the volatile compounds of ethanol extracts of Melissa officinalis, Mentha sp., Ocimum basilicum, Plectranthus barbatus, and Rosmarinus officinalis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Also was evaluated antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts against 6 bacteria of clinical interest, and was tested the interaction of these extracts with a commercial antibiotic streptomycin. Phytol was a compound identified in all extracts by GC/MS, being majoritary component in Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis. The Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to ethanol extracts, and Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis were the most active extracts. Ethanol extracts exhibited a synergetic effect with streptomycin. These results encourage additional studies, in order to evaluate the possibilities of using ethanol extracts of Lamiaceae family as natural source for antibacterial activity.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd. (Lamiaceae) against cariogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Nathalya Isabel; de Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo; Fracarolli, Letícia; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio Sola; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Crotti, Antônio Eduardo Miller

    2015-06-01

    In Brazilian folk medicine, Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd. (Lamiaceae) is used to treat toothaches and dental abscesses and diseases induced by worms, bacteria, or fungi. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition and the antibacterial effects of the essential oil obtained from Tetradenia riparia leaves (TR-EO) grown in Southeastern Brazil against a representative panel of oral pathogens. We evaluated the antibacterial activity of TR-EO in terms of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). We identified aromadendrene oxide (14.0%), (E,E)-farnesol (13.6%), dronabinol (12.5%), and fenchone (6.2%) as the major constituents of TR-EO. TR-EO displayed MIC values between 31.2 and 500 μg/mL, with the lowest MIC value being obtained against Streptococcus mitis (31.2 μg/mL), S. mutans (62.5 μg/mL), S. sobrinus (31.2 μg/mL), and Lactobacillus casei (62.5 μg/mL). In time-kill experiments, TR-EO demonstrated bactericidal activity against S. mutans within the first 12 h, resulting in a curve profile similar to that of chlorhexidine. These results revealed that the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia displays promising activity against most of the selected cariogenic bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans.

  20. In vitro antiprotozoal activity of extracts of five Turkish Lamiaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmizibekmez, Hasan; Atay, Irem; Kaiser, Marcel; Yesilada, Erdem; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2011-11-01

    The in vitro antiprotozoal activities of crude methanolic extracts from the aerial parts of five Lamiaceae plants (Salvia tomentosa, S. sclarea, S. dichroantha, Nepeta nuda subsp. nuda and Marrubium astracanicum subsp. macrodon) were evaluated against four parasitic protozoa, i.e. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi, Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum. The cytotoxic potentials of the extracts on L6 cells were also evaluated. Melarsoprol, benznidazole, miltefosine, chloroquine and podophyllotoxin were used as reference drugs. All crude MeOH extracts showed antiprotozoal potential against at least three parasites, so they were dispersed in water and partitioned against n-hexane and chloroform to yield three subextracts that were screened in the same test systems. The n-hexane extract of N. nuda was the most active against T. brucei rhodesiense while the CHCl3 extracts of S. tomentosa and S. dichroantha showed significant activity against L. donovani. All organic extracts displayed in vitro antimalarial and moderate trypanocidal activities against T. cruzi with the n-hexane extract of S. sclarea being the most active against the latter. The extracts displayed low or no cytotoxicity towards mammalian L6 cells.

  1. Genetic Differentiations among the Populations of Salvia japonica (Lamiaceae and Its Related Species

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    SUDARMONO

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and genetic variations within Salvia japonica (Lamiaceae and its related species in Japan were analyzed for clarifying their taxonomic significance. The genetic variations were explored through chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences and allozyme polymorphisms. Since chromosome numbers characterized the genus of Salvia, we also examined whether the karyotypes were different. We examined 58 populations of S. japonica and 14 populations of others species of Salvia. Among the populations of S. japonica represented four forms (f. japonica, f. longipes, f. lanuginosa and f. albiflora. The size of chromosomes were various among Salvia spp. Based on the allozyme as well as the DNA sequence, the populations of S. japonica separated from the others Salvia species. The populations of S. japonica exhibited four combinations of the morphological characters. However, these combinations did not correlate to the four forms of S. japonica. In addition, the morphological variations did not correlate to the allozyme and DNA sequences. It is suggested that the four morphological variations as well as the four form of S. japonica should not considered to be a taxonomic unit; accordingly, S. japonica were considered to be still at the early stage of speciation process.

  2. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Satureja biflora (Lamiaceae

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    Josphat C. Matasyoh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-distilled essential oil from Satureja biflora (Lamiaceae growing in Kenya was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. Twenty two compounds which constitute 99.29 % of the total oil were identified. The oil was dominated by monoterpenes, which accounted for 62.02 % of the oil. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of linalool (50.60 % such that this Satureja species can be classified as the linalool chemotype. The other major monoterpenes were α-terpineol (2.80 %, β-ocimene (2.25 %, β-pinene (1.96 % and cis-linalool oxide (1.91 %. Sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts are germacrene D (10.63 %, α-cadinol (4.53 %, β-bourbonene (2.33 %, δ-cadinene (2.19 %, τ-cadinol (2.17 %, endo-1-bourbonanol (2.14 % and β-caryophyllene (1.98 %. Aliphatic alcohols and acids accounted for 7.23 % of the oil, of which the major one was linoleic acid (4.48 %. The oil was screened for antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus ssp. and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pheumoniae, Proteus mirabilis bacteria and a pathogenic fungus (Candida albicans. To the best of our knowledge nothing concerning the chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of S. biflora has been reported.

  3. Micromorphological traits and essential oil contents of Micromeria kerneri Murb. and M. juliana (L.) Benth. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Dario; Dunkić, Valerija; Ruščić, Mirko; Matevski, Vlado; Ballian, Dalibor; Bogunić, Faruk; Eleftheriadou, Eleni; Stešević, Danijela; Kosalec, Ivan; Bezić, Nada; Stabentheiner, Edith

    2014-02-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil (analysed by GC and GC-MS), the types and distribution of trichomes and pollen morphology (analysed by scanning electron microscopy) were investigated in two closely related species, Micromeria kerneri Murb. and Micromeria juliana (L.) Benth. (Lamiaceae) from Southeast Europe as a contribution to their taxonomy. The essential oil of M. kerneri was characterized by a high concentration of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, with caryophyllene-oxide as the major compound. Caryophyllene-oxide was also the major component of the essential oil of M. juliana from all localities, except from Mt Krivošije (Montenegro), where piperitone oxide was the major constituent. Non-glandular trichomes, peltate trichomes, and two types of capitate trichomes (type 1 composed of one basal epidermal cell, and one head cell with subcuticular space; type 2 composed of one basal epidermal cell, two stalk cells, and one head cell with subcuticular space) were observed on leaves, the calyx and on the stem. Pollen of both species had six apertures (hexacolpate) set in the equatorial pollen belt (zonocolpate) and showed medium reticulate ornamentation. Multivariate analysis (PCA and UPGMA) of essential oil components clearly separated the investigated M. kerneri and M. juliana populations, and confirmed the opinion that they are different taxa. On the other hand, micromorphological traits between these species were the same. Nevertheless, definitive conclusions about the taxonomic relationships among these species will require genetic analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of 11 single-locus and seven multilocus DNA barcodes in Lamium L. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, K; Szczecińska, M; Sawicki, J

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the suitability of selected DNA regions in the barcoding of plants, based on the species belonging to the genus Lamium (Lamiaceae). For this purpose, nine chloroplast barcodes, that is, accD, matK, rbcL, rpoA, rpoB, rpoC1, rpoC2, trnH-psbA, trnL-trnF, as well as ITS nuclear region, and intron of mitochondrial nad5 gene were tested. Among the single-locus barcodes, most effective in the identification of Lamium species was the trnH-psbA spacer and matK gene. The high level of variability and resolving power was also observed in the case of rpoA and rpoC2 genes. Despite the high interspecies variability of ITS region, it turned out to be inapplicable in Lamium identification. An important disadvantage of ITS as a barcode is a limitation of its use in polyploid plants, samples contaminated with fungal material or samples with partially degraded DNA. We have also evaluated five-two-locus and two-three-locus barcode regions created from a combination of most effective single loci. The best-performing barcode combinations were matK + trnH-psbA and matK + rpoA. Both of them had equally high discriminative power to identify Lamium species. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Volatile compounds of Lamiaceae exhibit a synergistic antibacterial activity with streptomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Sthéfane G; Alves, Lucas F; Pinto, Maria Eduarda A; Oliveira, Graziela T; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Ribeiro, Rosy I M A; Ferreira, Jaqueline M S; Lima, Luciana A R S

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infections cause thousands of deaths in the world every year. In most cases, infections are more serious because the patient is already weakened, and often, the bacteria are already resistant to the antibiotics used. Counterparting this negative scenario, the interest in medicinal plants as an alternative to the synthetic antimicrobial drugs is blossoming worldwide. In the present work, we identified the volatile compounds of ethanol extracts of Melissa officinalis, Mentha sp., Ocimum basilicum, Plectranthus barbatus, and Rosmarinus officinalis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Also was evaluated antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts against 6 bacteria of clinical interest, and was tested the interaction of these extracts with a commercial antibiotic streptomycin. Phytol was a compound identified in all extracts by GC/MS, being majoritary component in Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis. The Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to ethanol extracts, and Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis were the most active extracts. Ethanol extracts exhibited a synergetic effect with streptomycin. These results encourage additional studies, in order to evaluate the possibilities of using ethanol extracts of Lamiaceae family as natural source for antibacterial activity.

  6. Identification and Determination of Phenolics in Lamiaceae Species by UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Saliha Esin; Tufan, Ayse Nur; Bekdeser, Burcu; Özyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Apak, Resat

    2017-03-01

    This study reports the phenolic profile screening of aromatic Lamiaceae species such as marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), lavender (Lavandula officinalis) and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) using a novel and validated ultra performance liquid chromatography method coupled with DAD diode array detector and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in negative mode of electrospray ionization. Identification and quantification of phenolics in these plant extracts has been realized within 12 min. This method showed good precision (percentage relative standard deviation; RSD% 0.54-2.72 for intra-day, 1.71-4.64 for inter-day), reproducibility (percentage recovery, REC% 92.0-109.0) and linearity (r = 0.9988-0.9999). Limits of detection ranged from 0.02 to 18.2 ng/mL. The extraction of plants was performed using microwave-assisted extraction technique and 60% (v/v) aqueous methanol solvent medium was selected as suitable solvent because of maximum extraction efficiency. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activity of these plant extracts were tested and the results correlated well among each other. According to the Folin assay, phenolic contents of Origanum majorana L., Mentha pulegium L. and Lavandula officinalis were calculated as 119 ± 3.4, 85.1 ± 2.8 and 57.8 ± 2.1 mg GAE/g dry matter, respectively. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Evolutionary relationships within the lamioid tribe Synandreae (Lamiaceae) based on multiple low-copy nuclear loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tilottama; Catlin, Nathan S.; Garner, Drake M.G.; Cantino, Philip D.; Scheen, Anne-Cathrine

    2016-01-01

    The subfamily Lamioideae (Lamiaceae) comprises ten tribes, of which only Stachydeae and Synandreae include New World members. Previous studies have investigated the phylogenetic relationships among the members of Synandreae based on plastid and nuclear ribosomal DNA loci. In an effort to re-examine the phylogenetic relationships within Synandreae, the current study incorporates data from four low-copy nuclear loci, PHOT1, PHOT2, COR, and PPR. Our results confirm previous studies based on chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal markers in supporting the monophyly of tribe Synandreae, as well as sister relationships between Brazoria and Warnockia, and between that pair of genera and a monophyletic Physostegia. However, we observe incongruence in the relationships of Macbridea and Synandra. The placement of Synandreae within Lamioideae is poorly resolved and incongruent among different analyses, and the sister group of Synandreae remains enigmatic. Comparison of the colonization and migration patterns corroborates a single colonization of the New World by Synandreae during the Late Miocene/Tortonian age. This is in contrast to the only other lamioid tribe that includes New World members, Stachydeae, which colonized the New World at least twice—during the mid-Miocene and Pliocene. Edaphic conditions and intolerance of soil acidity may be factors that restricted the distribution of most genera of Synandreae to southeastern and south–central North America, whereas polyploidy could have increased the colonizing capability of the more wide-ranging genus, Physostegia. PMID:27547537

  8. Functionality of Selected Aromatic Lamiaceae in Attracting Pollinators in Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbir, Jelena; Azpiazu, Celeste; Badenes-Pérez, Francisco R; Fernández-Quintanilla, César; Dorado, José

    2016-04-01

    Planting floral margins in agricultural landscapes has been shown to increase the abundance of pollinators in agro-ecosystems. However, to create efficient margins, it is necessary to use attractive, not weedy native plants with different blooming periods to prolong the availability of floral resources. Six native perennial plants of the Lamiaceae with different blooming periods were studied in a randomized block design, with the final aim to select the most efficient plants in floral mixtures by studying relationships between their floral phenology, floral density, and attractiveness to pollinators in Central Spain. In addition, their spatial expansion, i.e., potential weediness, was estimated under the field conditions, as the final purpose of the plants is to be implemented within the agro-ecosystems. The results showed that plant species with higher floral density (Nepeta tuberosa L. and Hyssopus officinalis L.) showed significantly higher attractiveness to pollinators and enhanced the attractiveness of floral mixtures. Species that bloomed in early spring (Salvia verbenaca L.) and in summer (Melissa officinalis L. and Thymbra capitata L.) did not efficiently contribute to the attractiveness of the mixtures to pollinators. In addition, besides high floral density of Salvia officinalis L. and N. tuberosa in the spring, warm and dry weather in spring 2012 enhanced the activity of bees, while cold and rainy weather in spring 2013 enhanced the activity of hoverflies. None of the plants showed weedy growth and so posed no danger of invading adjacent crops.

  9. Pharmacological perspectives from Brazilian Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae): antioxidant, and antitumor in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Charlene S C; Menti, Caroline; Lambert, Ana Paula F; Barcellos, Thiago; Moura, Sidnei; Calloni, Caroline; Branco, Cátia S; Salvador, Mirian; Roesch-Ely, Mariana; Henriques, João A P

    2016-03-01

    Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) has been used in south of Brazil as a diary homemade, in food condiment and tea-beverage used for the treatment of several disorders. The objective of this study was to characterize chemical compounds in the hydroalcoholic (ExtHS) and aqueous (ExtAS) extract from Salvia officinalis (L.) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF MS/MS), evaluate in vitro ability to scavenge the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+), catalase (CAT-like) and superoxide dismutase (SOD-like) activity, moreover cytotoxic by MTT assay, alterations on cell morphology by giemsa and apoptotic-induced mechanism for annexin V/propidium iodide. Chemical identification sage extracts revealed the presence of acids and phenolic compounds. In vitro antioxidant analysis for both extracts indicated promising activities. The cytotoxic assays using tumor (Hep-2, HeLa, A-549, HT-29 and A-375) and in non-tumor (HEK-293 and MRC-5), showed selectivity for tumor cell lines. Immunocytochemistry presenting a majority of tumor cells at late stages of the apoptotic process and necrosis. Given the results presented here, Brazilian Salvia officinalis (L.) used as condiment and tea, may protect the body against some disease, in particularly those where oxidative stress is involved, like neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation and cancer.

  10. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661

  11. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsaie ML

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed L Elsaie Department of Dermatology and Venereology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. Keywords: acne, hormones, hyperandrogenism

  12. Nootropic effect of meadowsweet (Filipendula vulgaris) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the extracts of the aboveground parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench on the behavior and memory of mice after hypoxic injury and their physical performance in the open-field test were studied using the models of hypoxia in a sealed volume, conditioned passive avoidance response (CPAR), and forced swimming with a load. The extracts improved animal resistance to hypoxia, normalized orientation and exploration activities, promoted CPAR retention after hypoxic injury, and increased physical performance. Aqueous extract of meadowsweet had the most pronounced effect that corresponded to the effect of the reference drug piracetam. These effects were probably caused by modulation of hippocampal activity.

  13. Lupus vulgaris in a young girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Tarang; Varshney, Anupam; Bakshi, S K

    2013-01-01

    With the estimated global burden of TB being 8.8 million incident cases and 1.1 million deaths from TB in HIV-negative cases and additional 0.35 million deaths in HIV-associated cases,1 the total number of cutaneous TB cases ( lupus vulgaris in a young girl with rapid progression of a large plaque with hypertrophic features in the periphery. The case is unusual due to its rapid progression, unusual site and extensive giant form which have never been reported previously.

  14. Annular Lupus Vulgaris Mimicking Tinea Cruris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Young Soo; Shin, Won Woong; Kim, Yong Ju; Song, Hae Jun

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infrequent form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It is often clinically and histopathologically confused with various cutaneous disorders. A 36-year-old man attended our clinic with slowly progressive, asymptomatic, annular skin lesions on both the thighs and buttocks for 10 years. He consulted with many physicians and was improperly treated with an oral antifungal agent for several months under the diagnosis of tinea cruris, but no resolution of his condition was observed. A diagnosis of lupus vulgaris was made based on the histopathologic examination and the polymerase chain reaction assay. Anti-tuberculosis therapy was administered and the lesions started to regress. PMID:20548922

  15. Disseminated lupus vulgaris: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Burce; Zindanci, Ilkin; Turkoglu, Zafer; Kavala, Mukaddes; Ulucay, Vasfiye; Demir, Filiz Topaloglu

    2014-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is a secondary form of cutaneous tuberculosis which persists for years if not treated. The head and neck are the most commonly affected sites. While less frequently arms and legs, and rarely the trunk and the scalp are involved. Herein, we describe a 73-year-old man with a 5-year history of slowly growing, atrophic, some eroded and ulcerated, red-brown plaques on his forehead, nose, cheeks, ear lobes, trunk and extremites. All of his disseminated lesions healed after antituberculosis therapy.

  16. Evaluation of active oxygen effect on photosynthesis of Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, S; Ueda, R; Sugata, K

    1996-09-01

    The relationship between O2 and an active oxygen scavenging system in Chlorella vulgaris var.vulgaris (IAM C-534) was investigated. When Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to 2% O2, only traces of active oxygen scavenging enzymes were found. When the Chlorella vulgaris was treated with 20% or 50% O2, it was shown that the level of enzyme activity increased as the O2 concentration increased. An increase in enzyme activity was not found in any specific enzyme but in all of the enzymes, but the level of glutathione and ascorbate remained the same in all the cases. In addition, the photosynthetic efficiency also decreased as the concentration of O2 was increased. These results suggest that an O2 enriched environment can lead to an increase in the production of active oxygen species such as O2.- and H2O2 and to a decrease in the photosynthetic efficiency in Chlorella vulgaris. The hydroxyl radical (.OH) was detected directly in the Chlorella vulgaris suspension with a spin trapping reagent. It was also clear that the increase in the .OH intensity as the visible light intensity increased was unrelated to the O2 concentration. It was suggested that the conditions for producting .OH and the other active oxygen species were different, and that two types of oxygen stress should exist in the Chlorella vulgaris.

  17. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM LAMIACEAE FAMILY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Laudy, Agnieszka E; Przybył, Jarosław; Ziarno, Małgorzata; Majewska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of aqueous (ethanolic and methanolic) extracts from herbs often used in Polish cuisine and traditional herbal medicine including thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were compared. The aqueous ethanolic extracts contained slightly higher levels of phenolics compared to the aqueous methanolic extracts. In turn, GC-MS analysis showed that the aqueous methanolic extracts of thyme, rosemary and sage contained several additional compounds such as eugenol or ledol. The present studies also indicated that the bacterial species applied in the experiment exhibited different sensitivities towards tested extracts. Staphylococcus aureus strains were found to be the most sensitive bacteria to aqueous (ethanolic and methanolic) rosemary and sage extracts and aqueous methanolic thyme extract. Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and Proteus vulgaris NCTC 4635 were more susceptible to the aqueous methanolic thyme extract. However, Listeria monocytogenes 1043S was the most sensitive to the aqueous ethanolic rosemary extract. Gram-positive bacteria were generally more sensitive to the tested extracts than Gram-negative ones.

  18. Lupus vulgaris: unusual presentation on face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilani, A; Vora, R V

    2014-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is a variant of cutaneous tuberculosis. As the disease has potential to mutilate when left untreated, leaving deforming scars and disfigurement, an early diagnosis is of paramount importance. Though the common type is plaque type, rarely mutilating and vegetative forms also are found. A 28 year old female, labourer presented with progressive annular plaque over right side of cheek extending upto right lower lid and ala of nose. There were two satellite plaques near the right side of giant lesion. On diascopy apple jelly nodule was seen. There was no regional lymhadenopathy. Histopathological examination showed many granulomas in upper dermis extending to deep dermis comprising of epitheloid cells with langhans' type of giant cells, lymphocytic infiltration & focal necrosis suggestive of lupus vulgaris. The consequences of failing to make an early diagnosis can be disastrous for the patients, as the progression of the disease can lead to necrosis, destruction of bones and cartilage leading to permanent deformity. Thus it is vital for clinicians to have a high index of suspicion of such atypical forms and take biopsy samples for histological and bacteriological studies.

  19. [Microstructural changes in hardened beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica, Maria Virginia; Granito, Marisela; Soto, Naudy

    2015-06-01

    (Phaseolus vulgaris). The hardening of Phaseolus vulgaris beans stored at high temperature and high relative humidity is one of the main constraints for consumption. The objective of this research was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy, structural changes in cotyledons and testa of the hardened beans. The freshly harvested grains were stored for twelve months under two conditions: 5 ° C-34% RH and 37 ° C-75% RH, in order to promote hardening. The stored raw and cooked grains were lyophilized and fractured. The sections of testa and cotyledons were observed in an electron microscope JSM-6390. After twelve months, grains stored at 37 ° C-75% RH increased their hardness by 503%, whereas there were no significant changes in grains stored at 5 ° C-34% RH. At the microstructural level, the cotyledons of the raw grains show clear differences in appearance of the cell wall, into the intercellular space size and texture matrix protein. There were also differences in compaction of palisade and sub-epidermal layer in the testa of raw grains. After cooking, cotyledon cells of the soft grains were well separated while these ofhard grains were seldom separated. In conclusion, the found differences in hard and soft grains showed a significant participation of both structures, cotyledons and testa, in the grains hardening.

  20. Calcinosis cutis secondary to facial acne vulgaris: A rare complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srimanta Kumar Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disease commonly affecting the adolescent and young adults. It is characterized by the presence of pleomorphic skin lesions such as comadones, papules, pustules, and nodules. The common complications are postacne hyperpigmentation and scarring causing psychological impact. Calcinosis cutis is the pathologic deposition of insoluble calcium salt in the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Calcinosis cutis following acne vulgaris is rarely reported in the literature. We report a case of calcinosis cutis in acne vulgaris in a 55-year-old man.

  1. [Study on chemical constituents of Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Xiao-Lei; Zhou, Dan-Dan; Dai, Hang; Deng, Jia-Gang

    2013-10-01

    To study the chemical constituents of ethyl acetate fraction of Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine. Compounds were isolated and purified by polyamide column chromatography, silica gel column chromatography, thin layer chromatography and sephadex gel column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Ten compounds were isolated from Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine and elucidated as: pentadecanoic acid (1), monopentadecanoin (2), 2, 3-dihydroxypropyl nonadecoate (3), lignoceric acid-2, 3-dihydroxy-propanenyl ester (4), lancerebroside 5 (5), salicylic acid (6), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (7), hydroquinone (8), succinic acid (9) and vanillic acid (10). Compounds 1 - 10 are obtained from Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine for the first time.

  2. Vascular cognitive impairment in Pemphigus vulgaris: a case report

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    José Ibiapina Siqueira- Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pemphigus vulgaris is a systemic auto-immune medical condition that mainly manifests with changes in skin and vasculopathy. This is a case report of a 69-year-old male with confirmed histopathologic diagnosis of Pemphigus vulgaris presenting ulterior Cognitive Impairment, mostly in executive function. The patient was treated using steroids, immunomodulatory therapy, fluoxetine and galantamine. Neuropsychological testing and magnetic resonance (MRI were performed. This is the first report of correlational cognitive impairment with Pemphigus vulgaris in the literature. Physicians should be aware of vascular causes for cognitive impairment in patients presenting auto-immune conditions.

  3. Structure, anti-Phytophthora and anti-tumor activities of a nortriterpenoid from the rhizome of Phlomis purpurea (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Maria C; Neves, Dina; Dacunha, Bruno; Laczko, Endre; Maia, Cristiana; Teixeira, Rúben; Cravador, Alfredo

    2016-11-01

    To investigate bioactive compounds potentially involved in the biotic interactions exhibited by Phlomis purpurea (Lamiaceae) in rhizospheres infested with Phytophthora cinnamomi, the plant rhizome was chemically analysed. The nortriterpenoid (17S)-2α,3α,11α,23,24-pentahydroxy-19(18 → 17)-abeo-28-norolean-12-en-18-one, was isolated and its structure was elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, chiefly using 2D NMR experiments, and X-ray analysis. It was shown to be exuded by roots and to exhibit anti-Phytophthora and antitumor activities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Estudo farmacobotânico comparativo das folhas de Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit. e Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lima Diniz Basílio, Ionaldo José; Agra, Maria de Fátima; Rocha, Emerson Antônio; Abreu Leal, Crislaine Kieva; Figueiredo Abrantes, Hálamo

    2006-01-01

    Realizou-se um estudo farmacobotânico comparativo entre Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit. e Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. O gênero Hyptis Jacq. (Lamiaceae) possui cerca de 300 espécies, com ampla distribuição, ocorrendo principalmente nas regiões tropicais das Américas e África. No Nordeste do Brasil, Hyptis pectinata e Hyptis suaveolens são empregadas na medicina popular e comercializadas pelos raizeiros e vendedores de plantas medicinais nas feiras livres da região. As análises macroscópicas e mic...

  5. Phytochemistry and bioactivity of aromatic and medicinal plants from the genusAgastache(Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Sylwia; Matkowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Agastache is a small genus of Lamiaceae , comprising 22 species of perennial aromatic medicinal herbs. In this article, we review recent advances in phytochemical, pharmacological, biotechnological and molecular research on Agastache . The phytochemical profile of all Agastache species studied to date is generally similar, consisted of two main metabolic classes-phenylpropanoids and terpenoids. In the relatively variable essential oils, most populations of different Agastache species contain over 50 % of a phenylallyl compound-estragole. Also, other volatile compounds (methyleugenol, pulegone, menthone, isomenthone and spathulenol) were reported in various proportions. Major non-volatile metabolites belong to phenolic compounds, such as caffeic acid derivatives, especially rosmarinic acid as well as several flavones and flavone glycosides like acacetin, tilianin, agastachoside, and a rare dimeric malonyl flavone (agastachin). Two unique lignans-agastenol and agastinol-were also isolated. Terpenoids include triterpenoids of oleanane-type (maslinic acid, oleanolic acid and β-amyrin), ursane-type (ursolic acid, corosolic acid and α-amyrin), and typical plant sterols, as well as abietane-type oxidized diterpenes (e.g., agastaquinone, agastol, and others). The bioactivity of various extracts or individual compounds in vitro and in vivo include antimicrobial, antiviral and anti-mutagenic activity, cytotoxic activity to cancer cell lines, and anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, antioxidant as well as biocidal activity to several foodstuff pests. Biotechnological and molecular studies have focused on in vitro propagation and enhancing the biosynthesis of bioactive metabolites in cell or organ cultures, as well as on the expression of genes involved in phenolic biosynthesis.

  6. Volatile organic compounds obtained by in vitro callus cultivation of Plectranthus ornatus Codd. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passinho-Soares, Helna C; Meira, Paloma R; David, Juceni P; Mesquita, Paulo R R; do Vale, Ademir E; de M Rodrigues, Frederico; de P Pereira, Pedro A; de Santana, José Raniere F; de Oliveira, Fabio S; de Andrade, Jailson B; David, Jorge M

    2013-08-26

    Plectranthus spp (Lamiaceae) are plants of economic importance because they are sources of aromatic essential oils and are also cultivated and several species of this genus are used as folk medicines. This paper describes the effects of different concentrations of the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on the induction of callus from nodal segments of Plectranthus ornatus Codd and in the production of volatile organic compounds (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes). The 20 and 40 day calli were subjected to solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) and submitted to GCMS analysis. Variations in VOCs between the samples were observed and, a direct relationship was observed between of the major constituent detected (α-terpinyl acetate) and the monoterpenes α-thujene, α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, sabinene and α-limonene that were present in the volatile fractions. Besides α-terpinyl acetate, isobornyl acetate and α-limonene were also major constituents. Variations were observed in VOCs in the analyzed periods. The best cultivation media for the production of VOCs was found to be MS0 (control). Moderate success was achieved by treatment with 2.68 µM and 5:37 µM NAA (Group 2). With 2,4-D (9.0 µM), only the presence of α-terpinyl acetate and isocumene were detected and, with 2.26 µM of 2,4-D was produced mainly α-terpinyl acetate, α-thujene and β-caryophyllene (16.2%). The VOC profiles present in P. ornatus were interpreted using PCA and HCA. The results permitted us to determine the best cultivation media for VOC production and, the PCA and HCA analysis allowed us to recognize four groups among the different treatments from the compounds identified in this set of treatments.

  7. Volatile Organic Compounds Obtained by in Vitro Callus Cultivation of Plectranthus ornatus Codd. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio S. de Oliveira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus spp (Lamiaceae are plants of economic importance because they are sources of aromatic essential oils and are also cultivated and several species of this genus are used as folk medicines. This paper describes the effects of different concentrations of the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA on the induction of callus from nodal segments of Plectranthus ornatus Codd and in the production of volatile organic compounds (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The 20 and 40 day calli were subjected to solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME and submitted to GCMS analysis. Variations in VOCs between the samples were observed and, a direct relationship was observed between of the major constituent detected (α-terpinyl acetate and the monoterpenes α-thujene, α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, sabinene and α-limonene that were present in the volatile fractions. Besides α-terpinyl acetate, isobornyl acetate and α-limonene were also major constituents. Variations were observed in VOCs in the analyzed periods. The best cultivation media for the production of VOCs was found to be MS0 (control. Moderate success was achieved by treatment with 2.68 µM and 5:37 µM NAA (Group 2. With 2,4-D (9.0 µM, only the presence of α-terpinyl acetate and isocumene were detected and, with 2.26 µM of 2,4-D was produced mainly α-terpinyl acetate, α-thujene and β-caryophyllene (16.2%. The VOC profiles present in P. ornatus were interpreted using PCA and HCA. The results permitted us to determine the best cultivation media for VOC production and, the PCA and HCA analysis allowed us to recognize four groups among the different treatments from the compounds identified in this set of treatments.

  8. Dual Effect of Phenolic Nectar on Three Floral Visitors of Elsholtzia rugulosa (Lamiaceae in SW China.

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    Feng-Ping Zhang

    Full Text Available Some plants secrete toxic nectar to appeal to most effective pollinators and deter non-pollinators or nectar thieves; however available information about ecological function of toxic nectar remains scarce. Elsholtzia rugulosa stands out as a plant with toxic nectar recorded in SW China. We focused on the functional significance of the phenolic compound that imparts toxic to the nectar of E. rugulosa. The effects of phenolic nectar were studied in three visitors of the flowers of the winter-blooming E. rugulosa Hemsl. (Lamiaceae in SW China. The pollinating species Apis cerana Fabricius (Apidae; Asian honey bee and two occasional visitors, Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Vespidae; yellow-legged Asian hornet and Bombus eximius Smith (Apidae; a bumble bee were tested for their preferences for low and high concentrations of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in hexose and sucrose solutions. The pollinator is important for the plant, which is dependent on pollinator visits to attain a higher seed production and it is most likely that the combination of phenolic toxic nectar and the adaptation to phenolic nectar by A. cerana delivers an evolutionary advantage to both actors. The low and high concentrations of the phenolic acid were nearly totally refused by both occasional visitors V. velutina and B. eximius and were preferred by the pollinator A. cerana. E. rugulosa gains by having a much higher seed production and the pollinating honey bee by having an exclusive and reliable food source during the winter season at high altitudes in SW China. We found that the function of the toxic phenolic compound has dual roles by appealing to legitimate pollinators and deterring non-pollinators of E. rugulosa.

  9. Dual Effect of Phenolic Nectar on Three Floral Visitors of Elsholtzia rugulosa (Lamiaceae) in SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Ping; Yang, Qiu-Yun; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Some plants secrete toxic nectar to appeal to most effective pollinators and deter non-pollinators or nectar thieves; however available information about ecological function of toxic nectar remains scarce. Elsholtzia rugulosa stands out as a plant with toxic nectar recorded in SW China. We focused on the functional significance of the phenolic compound that imparts toxic to the nectar of E. rugulosa. The effects of phenolic nectar were studied in three visitors of the flowers of the winter-blooming E. rugulosa Hemsl. (Lamiaceae) in SW China. The pollinating species Apis cerana Fabricius (Apidae; Asian honey bee) and two occasional visitors, Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Vespidae; yellow-legged Asian hornet) and Bombus eximius Smith (Apidae; a bumble bee) were tested for their preferences for low and high concentrations of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in hexose and sucrose solutions. The pollinator is important for the plant, which is dependent on pollinator visits to attain a higher seed production and it is most likely that the combination of phenolic toxic nectar and the adaptation to phenolic nectar by A. cerana delivers an evolutionary advantage to both actors. The low and high concentrations of the phenolic acid were nearly totally refused by both occasional visitors V. velutina and B. eximius and were preferred by the pollinator A. cerana. E. rugulosa gains by having a much higher seed production and the pollinating honey bee by having an exclusive and reliable food source during the winter season at high altitudes in SW China. We found that the function of the toxic phenolic compound has dual roles by appealing to legitimate pollinators and deterring non-pollinators of E. rugulosa.

  10. Why Africa matters: evolution of Old World Salvia (Lamiaceae) in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Maria; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2014-07-01

    Salvia is the largest genus in Lamiaceae and it has recently been found to be non-monophyletic. Molecular data on Old World Salvia are largely lacking. In this study, we present data concerning Salvia in Africa. The focus is on the colonization of the continent, character evolution and the switch of pollination systems in the genus. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference were used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Analyses were based on two nuclear markers [internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS)] and one plastid marker (rpl32-trnL). Sequence data were generated for 41 of the 62 African taxa (66 %). Mesquite was used to reconstruct ancestral character states for distribution, life form, calyx shape, stamen type and pollination syndrome. Salvia in Africa is non-monophyletic. Each of the five major regions in Africa, except Madagascar, was colonized at least twice, and floristic links between North African, south-west Asian and European species are strongly supported. The large radiation in Sub-Saharan Africa (23 species) can be traced back to dispersal from North Africa via East Africa to the Cape Region. Adaptation to bird pollination in southern Africa and Madagascar reflects parallel evolution. The phenotypic diversity in African Salvia is associated with repeated introductions to the continent. Many important evolutionary processes, such as colonization, adaptation, parallelism and character transformation, are reflected in this comparatively small group. The data presented in this study can help to understand the evolution of Salvia sensu lato and other large genera. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Evaluation of antiviral activity of fractionated extracts of sage Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmidling Dragana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity and extracellular and intracellular antiviral activity of frac­tionated extracts of wild and cultivated sage Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae in vitro using the WISH-VSV model system. Extracts were obtained by fractionating depigmented ethanol extracts of sage plants with supercritical CO2 at different pressures. Cytotoxicity was determined by examining cellular morphology in situ with the aid of a colorimetric micromethod and by cell staining with trypan blue. The fraction of distilled cultivated sage obtained at CO2 pressure of 300 bars and temperature of 60°C (149/3 was the most cytotoxic, with CTD10 44 μg/ml. That of non-distilled cultivated sage obtained at CO2 pressure of 500 bars and temperature of 100°C (144/5 was the least toxic (CTD10 199 μg/ml. Moreover, 144/5 had an antiviral effect at the intracellular level: when added 5 hours before VSV infection, it caused 100% reduction of CPE at concentrations of 99.5 and 199.0 μg/ml; when added after virus penetration had occurred, the same concentrations caused 35 and 60% reduction, respectively. The obtained results indicate that antiviral activity of 144/5 involves inhibition of the early steps of the virus infective cycle without a direct virucidal effect. Abbreviations: WISH - human amnion epithelial cells, VSV - vesicular stomatitis virus, HSV - herpes simplex virus, CPE - cytopathic effect, IS - selectivity index, TCID50 - tissue culture infective dose, CTD10 - 10% cytotoxic concentrations.

  12. Population genetic structure of the tropical tree species Aegiphila sellowiana (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medri, C; Ruas, E A; Ruas, C F; Medri, P S; Medri, M E; Ruas, P M

    2011-12-20

    The Tibagi River, located in southern Brazil, is associated with a significant degree of environmental heterogeneity, along its 550 km extension. There is concern about the integrity of this river's ecosystem, as human interference has been increasing. Aegiphila sellowiana (Lamiaceae) is an important pioneer tree species, commonly found near rivers; the fruit is consumed by avifauna. We studied this species along three ecological gradients, comprising the upper, middle, and lower regions of the Tibagi River basin. The genetic structure of nine subpopulations of A. sellowiana distributed along these gradients was investigated using RAPDs. Moderate levels of gene diversity (ranging from 0.091 to 0.132) were identified, inferred by a traditional approach and a Bayesian model-based method. The F-statistic, G(ST) parameters and molecular variance analysis showed high genetic differentiation among the three regions (39.5 to 50.26%). Analysis of molecular variance revealed high levels of genetic variation between populations (50.26%), while lower values of genetic variation (ranging from 9.56 to 16.35%) were seen between subpopulations within the upper, middle, and lower regions of the Tibagi River basin. The validity of these results was confirmed by principal coordinate analysis. Linear regression analysis showed significant correlations (r = 0.621, P = 0.0001) between the genetic and geographical distances. The differences observed in genetic variation between regions are probably due to habitat fragmentation; for conservation purposes, we recommend that at least one subpopulation from each region of the Tibagi River should be maintained.

  13. Why Africa matters: evolution of Old World Salvia (Lamiaceae) in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Maria; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Salvia is the largest genus in Lamiaceae and it has recently been found to be non-monophyletic. Molecular data on Old World Salvia are largely lacking. In this study, we present data concerning Salvia in Africa. The focus is on the colonization of the continent, character evolution and the switch of pollination systems in the genus. Methods Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference were used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Analyses were based on two nuclear markers [internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS)] and one plastid marker (rpl32-trnL). Sequence data were generated for 41 of the 62 African taxa (66 %). Mesquite was used to reconstruct ancestral character states for distribution, life form, calyx shape, stamen type and pollination syndrome. Key Results Salvia in Africa is non-monophyletic. Each of the five major regions in Africa, except Madagascar, was colonized at least twice, and floristic links between North African, south-west Asian and European species are strongly supported. The large radiation in Sub-Saharan Africa (23 species) can be traced back to dispersal from North Africa via East Africa to the Cape Region. Adaptation to bird pollination in southern Africa and Madagascar reflects parallel evolution. Conclusions The phenotypic diversity in African Salvia is associated with repeated introductions to the continent. Many important evolutionary processes, such as colonization, adaptation, parallelism and character transformation, are reflected in this comparatively small group. The data presented in this study can help to understand the evolution of Salvia sensu lato and other large genera. PMID:24966353

  14. Untangling reticulate evolutionary relationships among New World and Hawaiian mints (Stachydeae, Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tilottama; Cole, Logan W; Chang, Tien-Hao; Lindqvist, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    The phenomenon of polyploidy and hybridization usually results in novel genetic combinations, leading to complex, reticulate evolution and incongruence among gene trees, which in turn may show different phylogenetic histories than the inherent species tree. The largest tribe within the subfamily Lamioideae (Lamiaceae), Stachydeae, which includes the globally distributed Stachys, and one of the largest Hawaiian angiosperm radiations, the endemic mints, is a widespread and taxonomically challenging lineage displaying a wide spectrum of morphological and chromosomal diversity. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies have showed that while the Hawaiian mints group with Mexican-South American Stachys based on chloroplast DNA sequence data, nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) sequences suggest that they are most closely related to temperate North American Stachys. Here, we have utilized five independently inherited, low-copy nuclear loci, and a variety of phylogenetic methods, including multi-locus coalescence-based tree reconstructions, to provide insight into the complex origins and evolutionary relationships between the New World Stachys and the Hawaiian mints. Our results demonstrate incongruence between individual gene trees, grouping the Hawaiian mints with both temperate North American and Meso-South American Stachys clades. However, our multi-locus coalescence tree is concurrent with previous nrDNA results placing them within the temperate North American Stachys clade. Our results point toward a possible allopolyploid hybrid origin of the Hawaiian mints arising from temperate North American and Meso-South American ancestors, as well as a reticulate origin for South American Stachys. As such, our study is another significant step toward further understanding the putative parentage and the potential influence of hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting in giving rise to this insular plant lineage, which following colonization underwent rapid morphological and

  15. Pollen–Stigma Interference in Two Gynodioecious Species of Lamiaceae with Intermediate Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Riaño, Tomás; Dafni, Amots

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Intermediate individuals (perfect flowers with very high degree of pollen abortion) in a gynodioecious plant species are very rare. A study is made of male–female relationships in each flower type and how floral characters can enhance the avoidance of ‘pollen discounting’ and ‘self-pollination’ in two gynodioecious species, Teucrium capitatum and Origanum syriacum. Methods The relationship between stigma receptivity and pollen viability was studied in two gynodioecious protandrous species of Lamiaceae, in addition to measuring some floral morphological characters over the life span of the flowers. Key Results Three plant types in each species were found: plants bearing hermaphrodite (or male fertile) flowers (MF), female (or male sterile) flowers (MS) and intermediate flowers (INT). Plant types differed in flower size, with MS types being shorter than the other two types. There was no difference in style length among plant types in T. capitatum. Stigma receptivity decayed with floral age and was negative and significantly correlated with pollen viability in the two species, and positive and significantly correlated with style length in O. syriacum but only in MS flowers of T. capitatum. Conclusions Reduction in size of floral characters is associated with male sterility, except style length in T. capitatum. MF flowers have two successive reproductive impediments: self-pollination and pollen–stigma interference. In both species, self-pollination is avoided by dichogamy (negative correlation between stigma receptivity and pollen viability), and pollen–stigma interference shows two different patterns: (1) style elongation in O. syriacum is characterized by a significant length increase, final MF dimensions are greater than those of MS dimensions, and style length is positively and significantly correlated with stigma receptivity; and (2) style movement in T. capitatum is characterized by a non-significant increase in style length

  16. Composition of the Essential Oil of Salvia ballotiflora (Lamiaceae and Its Insecticidal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Cecilia Cárdenas-Ortega

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils can be used as an alternative to using synthetic insecticides for pest management. Therefore, the insectistatic and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of aerial parts of Salvia ballotiflora (Lamiaceae were tested against the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The results demonstrated insecticidal and insectistatical activities against this insect pest with concentrations at 80 µg·mL−1 resulting in 20% larval viability and 10% pupal viability. The larval viability fifty (LV50 corresponded to a concentration of 128.8 µg·mL−1. This oil also increased the duration of the larval phase by 5.5 days and reduced the pupal weight by 29.2% withrespect to the control. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of S. ballotiflora showed its main components to be caryophyllene oxide (15.97%, and β-caryophyllene (12.74%, which showed insecticidal and insectistatical activities against S. frugiperda. The insecticidal activity of β-caryophyllene began at 80 µg·mL−1, giving a larval viability of 25% and viability pupal of 20%. The insectistatic activity also started at 80 µg·mL−1 reducing the pupal weight by 22.1% with respect to control. Caryophyllene oxide showed insecticidal activity at 80 µg·mL−1 giving a larval viability of 35% and viability pupal of 20%.The insectistatic activity started at 400 µg·mL−1 and increased the larval phase by 8.8% days with respect to control. The LV50 values for these compounds were 153.1 and 146.5 µg·mL−1, respectively.

  17. Antiulcerogenic activity of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Germana Freire Rocha; do Amaral Costa, Iggor Macêdo; da Silva, Juciene Bezerra Rodrigues; da Nóbrega, Rafaella Farias; Rodrigues, Fabíola Fernandes Galvão; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves

    2011-09-01

    Hyptis martiusii (Lamiaceae), popularly known as "cidreira-do-mato" or "cidreira-brava", grows in abundance in the Northeast region of Brazil, where its leaves are traditionally used in folk medicine in the treatment of intestinal and stomach diseases. The aim of this study was to characterize the chemical constituents and to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic activity of the essential oil of the leaves of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM) in in vivo models of experimental ulcers in rodents. EOHM was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Acute gastric ulcer was induced using absolute ethanol, HCl/ethanol and indomethacin. The volume, pH and total acidity of gastric secretion were determined by the pyloric ligature method and gastrointestinal motility using gastric emptying and intestinal transit. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of 24 components that account for 92.13% of the essential oil of dried leaves, indicating the occurrence of mono and sesquiterpenes. Oral administration of EOHM (100, 200 and 400mg/kg) inhibited ethanol-, HCl/ethanol- and indomethacin-induced ulcers. In the case of pylorus ligature, the oil reduced the volume of gastric juices and total acidity, and increased gastric pH. The EOHM reduced the rate of gastric emptying with only the highest doses, but did not show any effect on intestinal transit at any of the three doses. The results indicate that the essential oil of leaves of Hyptis martiusii has an antiulcerogenic activity, as evidenced by its significant inhibition of the formation of ulcers in various models. This effect could be related to an increase of gastric mucosal defensive factors. Further pharmacological studies are being undertaken in order to provide more precise elucidation of the action mechanism involved in this activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Seasonal influence on gene expression of monoterpene synthases in Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Schmiderer, Corinna; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes

    2012-03-01

    Garden sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants and possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, formed mainly in very young leaves, is in part responsible for these activities. It is mainly composed of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, α- and β-thujone and camphor synthesized by the 1,8-cineole synthase, the (+)-sabinene synthase and the (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, respectively, and is produced and stored in epidermal glands. In this study, the seasonal influence on the formation of the main monoterpenes in young, still expanding leaves of field-grown sage plants was studied in two cultivars at the level of mRNA expression, analyzed by qRT-PCR, and at the level of end-products, analyzed by gas chromatography. All monoterpene synthases and monoterpenes were significantly influenced by cultivar and season. 1,8-Cineole synthase and its end product 1,8-cineole remained constant until August and then decreased slightly. The thujones increased steadily during the vegetative period. The transcript level of their corresponding terpene synthase, however, showed its maximum in the middle of the vegetative period and declined afterwards. Camphor remained constant until August and then declined, exactly correlated with the mRNA level of the corresponding terpene synthase. In summary, terpene synthase mRNA expression and respective end product levels were concordant in the case of 1,8-cineole (r=0.51 and 0.67 for the two cultivars, respectively; p<0.05) and camphor (r=0.75 and 0.82; p<0.05) indicating basically transcriptional control, but discordant for α-/β-thujone (r=-0.05 and 0.42; p=0.87 and 0.13, respectively). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Propionibacterium acnes in the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Hsieh, Yao-Dung; Lin, Ya-Ching; Two, Aimee; Shu, Chih-Wen; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris, a multi-factorial disease, is one of the most common skin diseases, affecting an estimated 80% of Americans at some point during their lives. The gram-positive and anaerobic Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) bacterium has been implicated in acne inflammation and pathogenesis. Therapies for acne vulgaris using antibiotics generally lack bacterial specificity, promote the generation of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, and cause adverse effects. Immunotherapy against P. acnes or its antigens (sialidase and CAMP factor) has been demonstrated to be effective in mice, attenuating P. acnes-induced inflammation; thus, this method may be applied to develop a potential vaccine targeting P. acnes for acne vulgaris treatment. This review summarizes reports describing the role of P. acnes in the pathogenesis of acne and various immunotherapy-based approaches targeting P. acnes, suggesting the potential effectiveness of immunotherapy for acne vulgaris as well as P. acnes-associated diseases.

  20. Fatty acids composition of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris can be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatty acids composition of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris can be modulated by varying carbon dioxide concentration in outdoor culture. YAM Yusof, JMH Basari, NA Mukti, R Sabuddin, AR Muda, S Sulaiman, S Makpol, WZW Ngah ...

  1. Effects of Kidney Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris Meal on the Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Oreochromis niloticus (mean weight 1.36 + 0.05 g) fed diets containing varying levels of the kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris were investigated under laboratory conditions. The kidney bean was incorporated at separate levels of 60, 40, ...

  2. Performance of climber common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    pathogen co-adaptation in Malawi. Proceed- ings of Bean/Cowpea CRSP Eastern African Regionalisation. Workshop, Lilongwe, p. 7. Mloza Banda HR, Ferguson AE, Mkandawire ABC (2003). The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris ...

  3. Antifertility activity of Artemisia vulgaris leaves on female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Afsar; Kanhere, Rupesh S; Cuddapah, Rajaram; Nelson, Kumar S; Vara, Prasanth Reddy; Sibyala, Saisaran

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the antifertility activity of Artemisia vulgaris leaves on female Wistar rats. The plant extract was tested for its effect on implant formation at two dose levels, 300 and 600 mg·kg⁻¹, respectively. The effective methanolic plant extract was further studied for estrogenic potency on ovariectomised immature female Wistar rats. The data presented in this study demonstrate the antifertility potential of Artemisia vulgaris methanolic leaf extract, which shows a strong and significant decrease in implant formation (100%), and a strong estrogenic effect resulting in a significant increase in uterine weight in immature ovariectomised rats. These observations suggest that the methanolic extract of Artemisia vulgaris leaves has strong anti-implantation activity and estrogenic activity. The methanolic plant extract of A. vulgaris has antifertility activity. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatoprotective activity of Thymus vulgaris extract against Toxoplasma gondii infection

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    Nagwa Mostafa El-Sayed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris extract against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection in experimentally infected mice. Methods: Sixty mice were divided into six groups (Group I–Group VI. Group I was normal control (non-infected, non-treated; Group II was non-infected and treated with T. vulgaris extract (500 mg/kg; Group III was T. gondii infected-non-immunosuppressed control; Group IV consisted of infected immunosuppressed mice; Group V was infected and treated with T. vulgaris extract; Group VI consisted of infected immunosuppressed mice treated with T. vulgaris extract. Hepatoprotective effect of T. vulgaris extract was evaluated by histopathological examination of tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, determination of liver function parameters (alanine aminotransaminase, aspartate aminotransaminase and alkaline phosphates, total bilirubin, total protein concentrations and assessment of hepatocytes genotoxicity by comet assay.Antigenotoxic effect of T. vulgaris was assessed by several comet assay parameters that were provided by the image analysis software, including % tailed cells, % of DNA in the tail, tail length, and tail moment. Results: Treatment with T. vulgaris in both Groups V and VI improved T. gondii induced pathological lesions in the infected liver that regressed to near the normal picture especially in Group V. Also, it restored the altered values of liver function parameters near to the normal levels significantly (P < 0.05 compared with Groups III and IV respectively. Regarding comet assay parameters, all of them were significantly increased (P < 0.05 after T. gondii infection (Group III and reached the greatest values in infected immunosuppressed group (Group IV compared to the normal controls (Group I. With treatment by T. vulgaris in Groups V and VI, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in all values compared to Groups III and V respectively. The

  5. Pemphigus vulgaris and laser therapy: Crucial role of dentists

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlić Verica; Vujić-Aleksić Vesna; Zubović Nina; Veselinović Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Pemphigus vulgaris is a relatively rare, chronic, autoimmune vesiculobullous disorder characterized by formation of intraepithelial vesiculae and/or bullae in the skin and mucous membrane. Systemic steroids are considered to be the standard first-line therapy for pemphigus vulgaris. However, for patients unresponsive to standard therapy, the new treatment modalities are being sought. Low-level laser therapy has been accepted as an alternative ...

  6. Lupus vulgaris of external nose--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, J S; Naveen, K N; Prasad, K C; Santhosh, S G; Hegde, J S

    2013-02-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common morphological variant of cutaneous tuberculosis accounting for approximately 59% of cases of cutaneous tuberculosis in India. We present a case of lupus vulgaris of external nose diagnosed early and treated with CAT-3 RNTCP regimen for six months without any nasal deformity except for a small scar over the dorsum of the nose. Patient followed up for one year after completion of the prescribed regimen, there being no recurrence of the lesion.

  7. Pemphigus vulgaris with significant periodontal findings: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, A R; Manojkumar, S Thorat; Arjun, Raju

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to report a case of pemphigus vulgaris associated with periodontitis (plaque-induced inflammation), and the role of a dermatologist and a periodontist in its management. This case reaffirms the fact that plaque control is the most important procedure in preventing periodontal infection in pemphigus vulgaris patients. These patients should be informed about the risk of periodontitis and encouraged to pursue long-term periodontal follow up to prevent their periodontal disease progression.

  8. Novel techniques for enhancement and segmentation of acne vulgaris lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, A S; Humayun, J; Kamel, N; Yap, F B-B

    2014-08-01

    More than 99% acne patients suffer from acne vulgaris. While diagnosing the severity of acne vulgaris lesions, dermatologists have observed inter-rater and intra-rater variability in diagnosis results. This is because during assessment, identifying lesion types and their counting is a tedious job for dermatologists. To make the assessment job objective and easier for dermatologists, an automated system based on image processing methods is proposed in this study. There are two main objectives: (i) to develop an algorithm for the enhancement of various acne vulgaris lesions; and (ii) to develop a method for the segmentation of enhanced acne vulgaris lesions. For the first objective, an algorithm is developed based on the theory of high dynamic range (HDR) images. The proposed algorithm uses local rank transform to generate the HDR images from a single acne image followed by the log transformation. Then, segmentation is performed by clustering the pixels based on Mahalanobis distance of each pixel from spectral models of acne vulgaris lesions. Two metrics are used to evaluate the enhancement of acne vulgaris lesions, i.e., contrast improvement factor (CIF) and image contrast normalization (ICN). The proposed algorithm is compared with two other methods. The proposed enhancement algorithm shows better result than both the other methods based on CIF and ICN. In addition, sensitivity and specificity are calculated for the segmentation results. The proposed segmentation method shows higher sensitivity and specificity than other methods. This article specifically discusses the contrast enhancement and segmentation for automated diagnosis system of acne vulgaris lesions. The results are promising that can be used for further classification of acne vulgaris lesions for final grading of the lesions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Essential Oil Characterization of Thymus vulgaris from Various Geographical Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. is a commonly used flavoring agent and medicinal herb. Several chemotypes of thyme, based on essential oil compositions, have been established, including (1 linalool; (2 borneol; (3 geraniol; (4 sabinene hydrate; (5 thymol; (6 carvacrol, as well as a number of multiple-component chemotypes. In this work, two different T. vulgaris essential oils were obtained from France and two were obtained from Serbia. The chemical compositions were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In addition, chiral gas chromatography was used to determine the enantiomeric compositions of several monoterpenoid components. The T. vulgaris oil from Nyons, France was of the linalool chemotype (linalool, 76.2%; linalyl acetate, 14.3%; the oil sample from Jablanicki, Serbia was of the geraniol chemotype (geraniol, 59.8%; geranyl acetate, 16.7%; the sample from Pomoravje District, Serbia was of the sabinene hydrate chemotype (cis-sabinene hydrate, 30.8%; trans-sabinene hydrate, 5.0%; and the essential oil from Richerenches, France was of the thymol chemotype (thymol, 47.1%; p-cymene, 20.1%. A cluster analysis based on the compositions of these essential oils as well as 81 additional T. vulgaris essential oils reported in the literature revealed 20 different chemotypes. This work represents the first chiral analysis of T. vulgaris monoterpenoids and a comprehensive description of the different chemotypes of T. vulgaris.

  10. Changes in serum desnutrin levels in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Betul; Ucak, Haydar; Cicek, Demet; Aydin, Suleyman; Erden, Ilker; Dertlioglu, Selma Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Androgens and insulin may contribute to increased sebum production in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. We investigated the association between serum desnutrin levels and acne vulgaris in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. 25 patients presenting with acne vulgaris and 25 control subjects participated in this study. Fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, HDL, total cholesterol, insulin, C-peptide and thyroid function tests were measured. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to calculate insulin resistance. Desnutrin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) according to the manufacturer's protocol. Patients with acne vulgaris had a mean serum desnutrin level of (8.83 ± 1.13 μIU/mL), which was statistically significantly lower in the control group (10:58 ± 3.43 μIU/mL). In patients with acne vulgaris the serum glucose levels, insulin levels and HOMA-IR values (87.92 ± 7:46 mg/dL, 11.33 ± 5.93 μIU/mL, 2.49 ± 1.40, respectively) were significantly higher than the control group (77.36 ± 9.83 mg/dL, 5.82 ± 2.68 μIU/mL, 1.11 ± 0.51, respectively) (p = 0.01, pacne vulgaris, as a result of increased levels of serum glucose and insulin, the function of desnutrin was suppressed, perhaps contributing to insulin resistance.

  11. Essential Oil Characterization of Thymus vulgaris from Various Geographical Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Murray, Brittney L.; McFeeters, Robert L.; Setzer, William N.

    2016-01-01

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is a commonly used flavoring agent and medicinal herb. Several chemotypes of thyme, based on essential oil compositions, have been established, including (1) linalool; (2) borneol; (3) geraniol; (4) sabinene hydrate; (5) thymol; (6) carvacrol, as well as a number of multiple-component chemotypes. In this work, two different T. vulgaris essential oils were obtained from France and two were obtained from Serbia. The chemical compositions were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In addition, chiral gas chromatography was used to determine the enantiomeric compositions of several monoterpenoid components. The T. vulgaris oil from Nyons, France was of the linalool chemotype (linalool, 76.2%; linalyl acetate, 14.3%); the oil sample from Jablanicki, Serbia was of the geraniol chemotype (geraniol, 59.8%; geranyl acetate, 16.7%); the sample from Pomoravje District, Serbia was of the sabinene hydrate chemotype (cis-sabinene hydrate, 30.8%; trans-sabinene hydrate, 5.0%); and the essential oil from Richerenches, France was of the thymol chemotype (thymol, 47.1%; p-cymene, 20.1%). A cluster analysis based on the compositions of these essential oils as well as 81 additional T. vulgaris essential oils reported in the literature revealed 20 different chemotypes. This work represents the first chiral analysis of T. vulgaris monoterpenoids and a comprehensive description of the different chemotypes of T. vulgaris. PMID:28231164

  12. Chlorella vulgaris: A Multifunctional Dietary Supplement with Diverse Medicinal Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Darvishi, Behrad; Jowzi, Narges; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris is a green unicellular microalgae with biological and pharmacological properties important for human health. C. vulgaris has a long history of use as a food source and contains a unique and diverse composition of functional macro- and micro-nutrients including proteinsChlorella vulgaris is a green unicellular microalgae with biological and pharmacological properties important for human health. C. vulgaris has a long history of use as a food source and contains a unique and diverse composition of functional macro- and micro-nutrients including proteins, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Clinical trials have suggested that supplementation with C. vulgaris can ameliorate amelioration hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, and protect against oxidative stress, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this review, we summarize the findings on the health benefits of Chlorella supplementation and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects., omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Clinical trials have suggested that supplementation with C. vulgaris can ameliorate amelioration hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, and protect against oxidative stress, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this review, we summarize the findings on the health benefits of Chlorella supplementation and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects.

  13. Pemphigus Vulgaris and Infections: A Retrospective Study on 155 Patients

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    Nafiseh Esmaili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Autoimmune process and immunosuppressive therapy of pemphigus vulgaris would predispose the patients to infections. Aim. We aimed to study the prevalence of infection and pathogenic agents in pemphigus vulgaris patients admitted to dermatology service. Material and methods. This retrospective study was conducted on 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients (68 males, 87 females admitted to dermatology service between 2009 and 2011. In this study, the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by light microscopic and direct immunofluorescence findings. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Results. Of 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients, 33 had infection at admission and 9 acquired nosocomial infection. In addition, 37 cases of oral candidiasis and 15 cases of localized herpes simplex were recorded. Totally, 94 cases of infection were recorded. The occurrence of infection was significantly related to the severity of disease, number of hospital admissions, and presence of diabetes mellitus. The most common pathogenic germs isolated from cultures were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Conclusion. Severity of pemphigus vulgaris and diabetes were directly related with tendency to infections. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most common pathogenic agents. Due to limitations of retrospective study, a prospective study is recommended.

  14. Oral gugulipid in acne vulgaris management

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    Jaideep Dogra

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Gugulipid is the standardized extract of the oleo-resin of Commiphora mukul (Burseraceace an Indian medicinal plant. The active ingredients are two guggulsterones Z and E. Gugulipid is an effective hypolipidemic agent, has a marked antilipolytic activity in rats. Considering the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris and the pharmacological properties of Gugulipid this trial was initiated. Thirty patients with moderate to severe acne ( Grade 4 were included in this study. Tab Guglip was prescribed in tds dosage for 6 weeks. Excellent, good and moderate response was seen in nine (30% fourteen (46.66% and seven (23.33% patients respectively out of the total thirty. No topical treatment was recommended except for local skin -hygiene. The drug showed excellent tolerance. Only three patients (10% reported relapse when examined at 3 months follow up.

  15. Role of olfaction in Octopus vulgaris reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Gianluca; Bertapelle, Carla; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory system in any animal is the primary sensory system that responds to chemical stimuli emanating from a distant source. In aquatic animals "Odours" are molecules in solution that guide them to locate food, partners, nesting sites, and dangers to avoid. Fish, crustaceans and aquatic molluscs possess sensory systems that have anatomical similarities to the olfactory systems of land-based animals. Molluscs are a large group of aquatic and terrestrial animals that rely heavily on chemical communication with a generally dispersed sense of touch and chemical sensitivity. Cephalopods, the smallest class among extant marine molluscs, are predators with high visual capability and well developed vestibular, auditory, and tactile systems. Nevertheless they possess a well developed olfactory organ, but to date almost nothing is known about the mechanisms, functions and modulation of this chemosensory structure in octopods. Cephalopod brains are the largest of all invertebrate brains and across molluscs show the highest degree of centralization. The reproductive behaviour of Octopus vulgaris is under the control of a complex set of signal molecules such as neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and sex steroids that guide the behaviour from the level of individuals in evaluating mates, to stimulating or deterring copulation, to sperm-egg chemical signalling that promotes fertilization. These signals are intercepted by the olfactory organs and integrated in the olfactory lobes in the central nervous system. In this context we propose a model in which the olfactory organ and the olfactory lobe of O. vulgaris could represent the on-off switch between food intake and reproduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Phototherapy in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Nevien A; Attia, Abeer T; Badawi, Ashraf M

    2008-07-01

    Achieving an effective management of acne vulgaris with minimal complications remains a difficult challenge for physicians. Moreover, the rise in antibiotic-resistant strains reduce the future usefulness of current mainstay therapies, and accordingly, the need for alternative therapies is mandatory. Phototherapy has been shown to be an effective treatment for acne, and there has been a renewed interest in photodynamic therapy as a treatment modality for this condition. To evaluate the effectiveness of pulsed dye laser (PDL), intense pulsed light (IPL) and light-emitting diode (LED) phototherapy for the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris. Forty-five patients with moderate to severe acne were randomly divided into 3 equal groups. Group 1 was treated with a PDL, group 2 was treated with IPL, and group 3 was treated with a blue-red combination LED. Treatment was continued until a > or = 90% clearance of patient lesions was achieved. Clinical assessments were conducted before starting treatment, at 1 month as a midpoint evaluation, and after the final treatment session. Patients treated with the PDL reached a > or = 90% clearance of their inflammatory lesions after a mean of 4.1 +/- 1.39 sessions, while patients treated with IPL required a mean of 6 +/- 2.05 sessions. Patients treated with the LED required a mean of 10 +/- 3.34 sessions. At the mid-point evaluation, the percent reduction in acne lesions treated with the PDL was 90% or more, in cases of IPL and the LED, the percent reductions were 41.7% and 35.3%, respectively. Laser and light phototherapy sessions were well tolerated with minimal adverse events experienced as being mild and usually self-limiting. The encouraging results of the present study contributes evidence of phototherapy as useful therapeutic option for treatment of moderate to severe acne, and validates further studies to evaluate treatments with a larger number of patients and for a longer period of follow-up.

  17. Biological Activities of Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Risco, Mónica R; Mouhid, Lamia; Salas-Pérez, Lilia; López-Padilla, Alexis; Santoyo, Susana; Jaime, Laura; Ramírez de Molina, Ana; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2017-03-01

    Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) extracts were obtained by applying two sequential extraction processes: supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide, followed by ultrasonic assisted extraction using green solvents (ethanol and ethanol:water 50:50). The extracts were analyzed in terms of the total content of phenolic compounds and the content of flavonoids; the volatile oil composition of supercritical extracts was analyzed by gas chromatography and the antioxidant capacity and cell toxicity was determined. Lamiaceae plant extracts presented higher content of phenolics (and flavonoids) than Asteraceae extracts. Regardless of the species studied, the supercritical extracts presented the lowest antioxidant activity and the ethanol:water extracts offered the largest, following the order Origanum majorana > Melissa officinalis ≈ Achillea millefolium > Calendula officinalis. However, concerning the effect on cell toxicity, Asteraceae (especially Achillea millefolium) supercritical extracts were significantly more efficient despite being the less active as an antioxidant agent. These results indicate that the effect on cell viability is not related to the antioxidant activity of the extracts.

  18. Direct determination of rosmarinic acid in Lamiaceae herbs using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltas, Dimitrios; Pappas, Christos S; Daferera, Dimitra; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos G

    2013-04-03

    For the determination of rosmarinic acid (RA) directly in pulverized plant material, a method is developed using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) without any physicochemical pretreatment of samples. The RA content of 11 samples of eight different Lamiaceae herbs, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), varied between 86 ± 1 mg/g (in lemon balm) and 12.0 ± 0.8 mg/g (in hyssop) of dried plant material. The 11 samples and 50 other additional samples, which were prepared by mixing initial samples with KBr, were measured using DRIFTS. The second derivative of the spectral region 1344-806 cm(-1) was used and the corresponding data were analyzed using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The correlation between infrared spectral analysis and HPLC measurements shows that the DRIFTS method is sufficiently accurate, simple, and rapid. The RA content of the 11 Lamiaceae samples determined by DRIFTS ranged from 81 ± 4 mg/g (in lemon balm) to 12 ± 3 mg/g (in hyssop) of dried plant material.

  19. Morphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes in Hyptis villosa Pohl ex Benth. (Lamiaceae and differential labeling of cytoskeletal elements

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    Luiz Ricardo dos Santos Tozin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lamiaceae contains many species known for their aromatic properties that are produced by the production of essential oils in glandular trichomes. Hyptis is one of the most common genera of Lamiaceae in the Brazilian flora, and includes several species with medicinal value. However, studies on the morphology and functioning of their glandular trichomes are lacking. We analyzed the morphology, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes in leaves of H. villosa, emphasizing the differential distribution of actin filaments and microtubules in cells secreting hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. Four morphotypes of glandular trichomes were identified. Total lipid, terpenes, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, proteins and polysaccharides were histochemically detected in all morphotyes. This evidences the mixed nature of the secretions of this species, although there are differences in the prevalence of lipophilic and hydrophilic components among the glandular morphotypes and among the cells of the same trichome. The actin microfilaments are more abundant in cells that secrete mainly hydrophilic compounds, and microtubules predominate in cells that secrete lipophilic compounds. Our results corroborate the correlation between the glandular morphotype and the composition of the secretion produced, with a differential distribution of the cytoskeletal elements according to the prevalence of either hydrophilic or lipophilic substances.

  20. Larvicidal and repellent activity of Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae) essential oil against the mosquito Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Barbara; Benelli, Giovanni; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Profeti, Raffaele; Ceccarini, Lucia; Macchia, Mario; Canale, Angelo

    2012-05-01

    Lamiaceae have traditionally been used in developing countries for their insecticidal and repellent properties against several insect species. In our research, the essential oil (EO) extracted from fresh leaves of Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), and its main constituents were evaluated for larvicidal and repellent activity against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae), currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. H. suaveolens EO had insecticidal activity against A. albopictus larvae and mortality was dosage dependent. At the highest dosages of 450 and 400 ppm, there were no significant differences on larval mortality, as mortality ranged between 98.33% and 93.33%, respectively. At dosages ranging from 250 to 350 ppm, mortality rates were lower and not significantly different from each other. Terpinolene was found to be the most effective pure compound. Efficacy protection from H. suaveolens EO, at dosages ranging from 0.03748 to 0.7496 μg cm(-2) of skin, was evaluated during 150 min of observation. Results indicated that this EO had a significant repellent activity (RD(50) = 0.00035 μg cm(-2); RD(90) = 0.00048 μg cm(-2)), with differences in repellency rates, as a function of both concentration and observation time. Protection time ranged from 16 to 135 min. These results clearly evidenced that the larvicidal and repellent activity of H. suaveolens EO could be used for the development of new and safer products against A. albopictus.

  1. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition and antimicrobal activities of some of Lamiaceae family species and Eucaliptus (Eucaliptus globules M

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    Pecarski Danijela M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity of four essential oils that belong to Lamiaceae family (sage, oregano, thyme and eucalyptus oil. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS revealed that the highest percent of essential oils 98.93% include three classes of compounds - monoterpene hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and oxidized monoterpenes. The main components are oxidized monoterpenes: carvacrol (59.03%; thymol (36.12%, eucalyptol (20.66%, hydrocarbon monoterpenes: limonene (30.96% and α-pinene (12.21% and aromatic monoterpene, p-cymene (22.25% All essential oils showed great potential of antimicrobial activity against several bacteria and yeast C. albicans, using the agar diffusion method with wells. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for the essential oils has been determined by the broth dilution method and valued in the range from 1 to 5 μL/m, depending on the essential oil and bacteria tested, and up to 100 μL/ml for C. albicans. The essential oils of Lamiaceae family exhibited a strong antibacterial activity for tested microorganisms, while the essential oils of thyme were especially recognized.

  2. Coleus namuliensis and Coleus caudatus (Lamiaceae):a new species and a new combination in the Afromontane flora of Mozambique and Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downes, E.; Darbyshire, I.

    2017-01-01

    The new species Coleus namuliensis (Lamiaceae) is described from the granite outcrops and grasslands of Mt Namuli in Zambezia Province of Mozambique. It has previously been confused with Plectranthus caudatus, a species that is restricted to the quartzite outcrops of the Chimanimani Mountains on the

  3. Towards Elucidating Carnosic Acid Biosynthesis in Lamiaceae: Funtional Characterization of the Three First Steps of the Pathway in Slavia Fruicosa and Rosmarinus officinalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozic, D.; Papaefthimiou, D.; Brückner, K.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Tsoleridis, C.A.; Katsarou, D.; Papanikolaou, A.; Pateraki, I.; Chatzopoulou, F.M.; Dimitriadou, E.; Kostas, S.; Manzano, D.; Scheler, U.; Ferrer, A.; Tissier, A.; Makris, A.M.; Kampranis, S.C.; Kanellis, A.

    2015-01-01

    Carnosic acid (CA) is a phenolic diterpene with anti-tumour, anti-diabetic, antibacterial and neuroprotective properties that is produced by a number of species from several genera of the Lamiaceae family, including Salvia fruticosa (Cretan sage) and Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary). To elucidate

  4. Genetics, chemistry and ecology of a qualitative glucosinolate polymorphism in Barbarea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leur, H.

    2008-01-01

    Like many other plants, chemical defence compounds are involved in the defense of Barbarea vulgaris against natural enemies. Barbarea vulgaris produces glucosinolates, which are present in most crucifers such as cabbage, mustard, and the scientific model species Arabidopsis thaliana. Glucosinolates

  5. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF OIL-BEARING PLANTS LAMIACEAE LINDL. TOWARDS ESCHERICHIA COLI

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    L.A. Kotyuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper relates to study of biological activity of 40% ethanol extracts of Dracocephalum moldavica, Hyssopus officinalis, Satureja hortensis, Lophanthus anisatus and Monarda diduma, grown in Ukrainian Polissya, against a pathogenic agent Escherichia coli UCM – B (ATCC 25922. The research proves that ethanol extracts of H. officinalis, D. moldavica, S. hortensis, L. anisatus exert antimicrobial activity as the extracted substances provided a twofold increase in minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values against E. coli. Likewise, a twofold increase was observed in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of L. anisatus ethanol extracts. As to M. diduma ethanol extracts, their inhibitory and bactericidal influence on E. coli was not registered. Oil-bearing plants (family Lamiaceae, grown in Zhytomyr Polissya, are characterized by antimicrobial properties, attributed to biologically active substances that are formed and accumulated in the plant material. The main components of hyssop essential oil are isopinocamphone (44.43%, pinocamphone (35.49%, myrtenol (5.26 %, germacrene D (3.15 %, pulegone (2.93 %, bicyclogermacrene (1.35 %. In mint anise essential oil prevailed pulegone (59.19%, izomenton (14.34%, bicyclogermacrene (3,21 %, β-kariofilen (2,99 %, menton (2.21 %, 1,6-germacradien-5-ol (1.5 %, isopulegone (1.4 %, in summer savory – carvacrol (89.07%, g-terpinene (3.53%, α-thujone (1.7 %, camphor (1.48 %. The dominant components of moldavian dragonhead essential oil were geranial (26.19% and neral (22.36%, 2-(1-hydroxy-1-isopropyl-cyklopentanon (8.29 % , 2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole (6.87 %, 3-(1-hydroxy-1-isopropyl cyklopentanon (6,51 %, nerol (4.74 %, 3-methyl-2-cyclohexane 1-on (2.13 %. The paper draws attention to further more detailed study of ethanol extracts of hyssop, moldavian dragonhead, summer savory, mint anise with the aim of producing antibacterial herbal

  6. Estudo das folhas e caule de Hyptidendron canum(Pohl ex Benth. Harley, Lamiaceae

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    Tatiana S. Fiuza

    Full Text Available Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth. Harley, Lamiaceae, é utilizada popularmente como antimalárica, antiinflamatória, antiulcerativa, anti-hepatotóxica e anticancerígena. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o estudo morfo-anatômico das folhas e caules e identificar as principais classes de metabólitos secundários presentes nas folhas de H. canum, dados ainda não descritos na literatura. As folhas e caules jovens coletados em Goiânia (GO foram seccionados à mão livre e preparados para análise microscópica. Foram realizadas reações de identificação de metabólitos secundários do material dessecado e pulverizado. Preparou-se o extrato etanólico bruto, que posteriormente foi fracionado por partição líquido-líquido com hexano, clorofórmio e acetato de etila. As frações foram submetidas à análise cromatográfica em camada delgada (CCD. As lâminas foliares apresentam epiderme adaxial constituída por células poligonais com parede reta. Na epiderme abaxial observam-se células com parede reta a ondulada e estômatos diacíticos e anisocíticos. Tricomas tectores e glandulares estão presente em ambas as faces da lâmina foliar. O pecíolo apresenta aspecto canaletado, epiderme adaxial e abaxial unisseriada. O caule, em secção transversal possui contorno em geral quadrangular, com presença de tricomas tectores e glandulares. As reações e a CCD das folhas evidenciaram a presença de flavonóides, saponinas, terpenos e lignanas. Este trabalho contribuiu para um maior conhecimento da morfo-anatomia e das classes químicas presentes em H. canum.

  7. Molecular phylogeny of Menthinae (Lamiaceae, Nepetoideae, Mentheae)--Taxonomy, biogeography and conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuchler, Christian; Meimberg, Harald; Heubl, Günther

    2010-05-01

    Although the subfamily Nepetoideae (Lamiaceae) is considered to be monophyletic, relationships between tribes, subtribes and genera within the subfamily are poorly understood as complex and possibly homoplasious morphological characters make taxa difficult to delimit. DNA sequence data from three regions (chloroplast: trnK intron; trnL-F; nuclear: ITS) in total including 278 accessions, representing 38 out of 40 genera of subtribe Menthinae and 11 outgroup genera, were used to reconstruct the evolutionary history, test previous hypotheses of classification, explain biogeographic patterns and elucidate character evolution. Using maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian analysis phylogenetic reconstructions based on nuclear and chloroplast sequence data were incongruent, consequently the data were analyzed separately. Both nuclear and chloroplast datasets provide strong support for three major lineages: the "Satureja", "Micromeria" and "Clinopodium" group. The first contains members of Satureja and Gontscharovia. In the second lineage Micromeria s.str. and Origanum were resolved as monophyletic, Pentapleura and Zataria indicated as sister groups. Thymbra includes two species of Satureja turning the latter genus polyphyletic. Thymus is revealed as paraphyletic with respect to Argantoniella and Saccocalyx in both and Origanum in the plastid dataset only. In the third lineage, the Clinopodium-group, branching pattern is highly incongruent among datasets and possibly influenced by recent and ancient hybridization, chloroplast capture and incomplete lineage sorting. However, identical terminal groups are inferred in both analyses. A Madagascan lineage of "Micromeria", sister to the recently described South African Killickia, is suggested to represent a new genus. The Himalayan Clinopodium nepalense group and the tropical African C. abyssinicum alliance are monophyletic but indicated in different positions. Both groups appear in the ITS phylogeny in a clade with Cyclotrichium

  8. Toxicity and antitumor potential of Mesosphaerum sidifolium (Lamiaceae) oil and fenchone, its major component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolim, Thaísa Leite; Meireles, Déborah Ribeiro Pessoa; Batista, Tatianne Mota; de Sousa, Tatyanna Kelvia Gomes; Mangueira, Vivianne Mendes; de Abrantes, Renata Albuquerque; Pita, João Carlos Lima Rodrigues; Xavier, Aline Lira; Costa, Vicente Carlos Oliveira; Batista, Leônia Maria; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; Sobral, Marianna Vieira

    2017-07-03

    The essential oil from Mesosphaerum sidifolium (L'Hérit.) Harley & J.F.B.Pastore (syn. Hyptis umbrosa), Lamiaceae (EOM), and its major component, have been tested for toxicity and antitumor activity. EOM was obtained from aerial parts of M. sidifolium subjected to hydro distillation, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to characterize the EOM chemical composition. The toxicity was evaluated using haemolysis assay, and acute toxicity and micronucleus tests. Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model was used to evaluate the in vivo antitumor activity and toxicity of EOM (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg), and fenchone (30 and 60 mg/kg) after 9 d of treatment. The EOM major components were fenchone (24.8%), cubebol (6.9%), limonene (5.4%), spathulenol (4.5%), β-caryophyllene (4.6%) and α-cadinol (4.7%). The HC50 (concentration producing 50% haemolysis) was 494.9 μg/mL for EOM and higher than 3000 μg/mL for fenchone. The LD50 for EOM was approximately 500 mg/kg in mice. The essential oil induced increase of micronucleated erythrocytes only at 300 mg/kg, suggesting moderate genotoxicity. EOM (100 or 150 mg/kg) and fenchone (60 mg/kg) reduced all analyzed parameters (tumor volume and mass, and total viable cancer cells). Survival also increased for the treated animals with EOM and fenchone. For EOM 150 mg/kg and 5-FU treatment, most cells were arrested in the G0/G1 phase, whereas for fenchone, cells arrested in the S phase, which represents a blockage in cell cycle progression. Regarding the toxicological evaluation, EOM induced weight loss, but did not induce hematological, biochemical or histological (liver and kidneys) toxicity. Fenchone induced decrease of AST and ALT, suggesting liver damage. The data showed EOM caused in vivo cell growth inhibition on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model by inducing cell cycle arrest, without major changes in the toxicity parameters evaluated. In addition, this activity was associated with the presence of fenchone, its major

  9. Antihypertensive activity of Salvia elegans Vahl. (Lamiaceae): ACE inhibition and angiotensin II antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Badillo, Fidel Hernández; González-Cortazar, Manases; Tortoriello, Jaime; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel

    2010-07-20

    Salvia elegans Vahl. (Lamiaceae), recognized with the popular name of "mirto" is widely used in Mexico for healing purposes, and also them as antihypertensive treatment. The high prevalence of this illness and the side effects of antihypertensive drugs conducted us to the evaluation of the Salvia elegans extract on angiotensin II action. The acute response of blood pressure to angiotensin II administration was measured in mice. We also tested in vitro the inhibitory effect on angiotensin convertase enzyme. Additionally, characterization of the pharmacological effect of the extract fraction was obtained. We obtained dose-response curve for the administration of complete extract and extract fractions. Due to the hydroalcoholic extract (SeHA) treatment blood pressure decreased significantly from systolic dose of 0.75 mg kg(-1) (p<0.05) and even had an antihypertensive effect that was greater than that treatment with losartan. SeHA extract decreased the E(max) of the AG II hypertensive effect by about 20% in both systolic and diastolic pressures, treatment with losartan also decreased the same parameter between 6% and 8% for systolic and diastolic pressures, respectively. Fractions SeF8 and SeF8-8 showed similar levels of AG II ED(50) for both pressures compared with losartan, these fractions showed major compounds with maximum absorbance peaks at 221, 289 and 330 nm typical of flavonoids. In the inhibition assay the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), the extract SeHA showed percentage inhibition (%IACE) of 50.27+/-5.09% (n=5). SeBuOH fraction is found to have greater inhibitory capacity of achieving a IACE 78.40+/-2.24% (n=5), which was similar to the values obtained in the presence of the SeF8-22 fraction (82.61+/-1.74%) and lisinopril (87.18+/-1.16%). The changes in the value of K(M) suggest that components of the extracts and fractions were recognized by the enzyme's active site. The main compounds of the fractions SeBuOH, SeF8-22 were by flavonoid

  10. Gastroprotective and ulcer healing effects of essential oil from Hyptis spicigera Lam. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Christiane; de-Faria, Felipe Meira; de Almeida, Ana Cristina Alves; Valim-Araújo, Deborah de Arantes e Oliveira; Rehen, Camilla Souza; Dunder, Ricardo José; Socca, Eduardo Augusto Rabelo; Manzo, Luis Paulo; Rozza, Ariane Leite; Salvador, Marcos José; Pellizzon, Claúdia Helena; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Luiz-Ferreira, Anderson; Souza-Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro

    2011-04-26

    Hyptis Jacq. (Lamiaceae) is being used in traditional medicine to treat fever, inflammation and gastric disturbances. Hyptis spicigera Lam. is a native plant distributed across the central region of Brazil. The essential oil extracted from this plant is used in folk medicine as antipyretic. The effects of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Hyptis spicigera (OEH) were evaluated for their gastroprotective and healing activities. OEH chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The gastroprotective action of the OEH was evaluated in rodent experimental models (ethanol and NSAID). To elucidate mechanisms of action, the antisecretory action and involvements of NO, SH, mucus and PGE2 were evaluated. The acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer model and Western Blot assay (COX-2 and EGF) were also used to evaluate the OEH healing capacity. GC-MS analysis of OEH indicated three monoterpenes as major compounds: alpha-pinene (50.8%), cineole (20.3%) and beta-pinene (18.3%) and, at the dose of 100 mg/Kg, p.o., OEH provided effective gastroprotection against lesions induced by absolute ethanol (97%) and NSAID (84%) in rats. OEH do not interfere with H+ secretion in gastric mucosa and its gastric protection does not depend on nitric oxide (NO) and sulfhydryl compounds (SH). The gastroprotective action of OEH occurs due to an increase in the gastric mucus production (28%) induced by PGE2 levels. Furthermore, OEH demonstrated a great healing capacity with 87% of reduction in ulcerative lesion area. It accelerated the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric lesions due to an increase in COX-2 (75%) and EGF (115%) expression in gastric mucosa. No sign of toxicity was observed in this study, considering the analyzed parameters. All these results suggest the efficacy and safety of Hyptis spicigera in combating and healing gastric ulcer. Considering the results, it is suggested that the OEH could probably be a good therapeutic agent for

  11. Salt Stress in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: An integratedgenomics approach

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    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; He, Zhili; Alm, Eric J.; Arkin, Adam P.; Baidoo, Edward E.; Borglin, Sharon C.; Chen, Wenqiong; Hazen, Terry C.; He, Qiang; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Huang, Katherine; Huang, Rick; Hoyner,Dominique C.; Katz, Natalie; Keller, Martin; Oeller, Paul; Redding,Alyssa; Sun, Jun; Wall, Judy; Wei, Jing; Yang, Zamin; Yen, Huei-Che; Zhou, Jizhong; Keasling Jay D.

    2005-12-08

    The ability of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to reduce, and therefore contain, toxic and radioactive metal waste has made all factors that affect the physiology of this organism of great interest. Increased salinity is an important and frequent fluctuation faced by D. vulgaris in its natural habitat. In liquid culture, exposure to excess salt resulted in striking elongation of D. vulgaris cells. Using data from transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolite assays, phospholipid fatty acid profiling, and electron microscopy, we used a systems approach to explore the effects of excess NaCl on D. vulgaris. In this study we demonstrated that import of osmoprotectants, such as glycine betaine and ectoine, is the primary mechanism used by D. vulgaris to counter hyperionic stress. Several efflux systems were also highly up-regulated, as was the ATP synthesis pathway. Increases in the levels of both RNA and DNA helicases suggested that salt stress affected the stability of nucleic acid base pairing. An overall increase in the level of branched fatty acids indicated that there were changes in cell wall fluidity. The immediate response to salt stress included up-regulation of chemotaxis genes, although flagellar biosynthesis was down-regulated. Other down-regulated systems included lactate uptake permeases and ABC transport systems. The results of an extensive NaCl stress analysis were compared with microarray data from a KCl stress analysis, and unlike many other bacteria, D. vulgaris responded similarly to the two stresses. Integration of data from multiple methods allowed us to develop a conceptual model for the salt stress response in D. vulgaris that can be compared to those in other microorganisms.

  12. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Biomass-Kinetic Model for Chlorella vulgaris in a Biofuel Production Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS BIOMASS-KINETIC MODEL FOR CHLORELLA VULGARIS IN A BIOFUEL PRODUCTION SCHEME THESIS William M. Rowley, Major...States Government. AFIT/GES/ENV/10-M04 NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS BIOMASS-KINETIC MODEL FOR CHLORELLA VULGARIS IN A BIOFUEL...MODEL FOR CHLORELLA VULGARIS IN A BIOFUEL PRODUCTION SCHEME William M. Rowley, BS Major, USMC Approved

  13. [A revision of chiggers in the vulgaris group (Trombiculidae: Neotrombicula)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekol'nikov, A A

    1999-01-01

    A revision of chigger mites species, being closely related to Neotrombicula vulgaris (Schluger, 1955), is given. 2 new species are described: N. aideriensis sp. n. from Western Kopetdagh and N. macrovulgaris sp. n. from Western Caucasus. N. aideriensis sp. n. differs from all other species of the vulgaris group by presence of single barb on the lateral seta of palpal tibia in most specimens. This species differs also from N. vulgaris by lesser width of scutum, shorter setae of scutum and idiosoma and by longer legs. N. macrovulgaris sp. n. differs from all other species of the vulgaris group by longer legs, more numerous idiosomal setae and by larger scutum. N. vulgaris is recorded for the first time in Bulgaria, Turkmenistan (western Kopet-Dag) and Krasnodar Territory, N. baschkirica Kudryashova, 1998--in Chuvashia, Kirov Province, Komi Republic and Tyumen' Province, N. kharadovi Kudryashova, 1998--in Russia (Altai Territory) and in Karaganda Province (Kazakhstan). The latter species is reported from several new hosts. Variation of morphometric parameters in the vulgaris group are investigated by the methods of multivariate analysis, the pattern of correlations between them is shown. A complex of diagnostic features in the group is revised. Discriminant functions produced by the computer program DIADIS (A. L. Lobanov, ZI RAS) allows to determine confidently representatives of the vulgaris group. Ecogeographical component of intraspecific variability and character variance at the specific level is revealed in vulgaris group. N. macrovulgaris characterized by the largest scutum, numerous setae and long legs was found in the most rigorous, cold and damp climate (alpine zone of western Caucasus). On the other hand, N. kharadovi, which have the most fine scutum and shortest setae, inhabits rather dry and warm Middle Asia and neighbouring territories. The sample of N. vulgaris collected in the steppe part of Stavropol' Territory differed from the material collected in

  14. [Lupus vulgaris manifestation as a destructive nose and facial tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, D; Reisser, C

    2009-04-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most frequent manifestation of cutaneous tuberculosis, but in Europe it is limited to isolated cases. Mainly immunocompetent individuals are affected by this result of an endogenous reinfection on a lymphogenous-less frequently hematogenous-pathway. Lupus vulgaris has been observed to develop in more than 50% of all patients who already suffer from other manifestations of tuberculosis. The development of a squamous cell carcinoma in the lupus vulgaris is a rare complication; therefore, lupus vulgaris is deemed a facultative precancerosis.A 68-year-old female Serbo-Croatian patient presented with an extensive ulcerative nose and facial tumor. Her anamnesis included a squamous cell carcinoma of the nose that had been excised alio loco 3 years before. Further examinations revealed enlarged cervical lymphoma on both sides, and pulmonary metastases were also suspected. The tumor biopsy revealed a necrotic, granulomatous inflammation. No acid-fast rods were seen on Ziehl-Neelsen stain. The tuberculous origin of this ulcerative skin tumor-the lupus vulgaris-as an endogenous reinfection of pulmonary tuberculosis manifestation was confirmed by the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in polymerase chain reaction and the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis colonies in the bacterial culture (skin biopsy and bronchial secretion). The skin tumor as well as the pulmonary manifestation were successfully treated with combined tuberculostatic therapy and showed a dramatic response within 3 months.

  15. Cytotoxic impact of phenolics from Lamiaceae species on human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdowska, Izabela; Zieliński, Bogdan; Fecka, Izabela; Kulbacka, Julita; Saczko, Jolanta; Gamian, Andrzej

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of dried aqueous extracts from Thymus serpyllum (ExTs), Thymus vulgaris (ExTv), Majorana hortensis (ExMh), and Mentha piperita (ExMp), and the phenolic compounds caffeic acid (CA), rosmarinic acid (RA), lithospermic acid (LA), luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (Lgr), luteolin-7-O-rutinoside (Lr), eriodictiol-7-O-rutinoside (Er), and arbutin (Ab), on two human breast cancer cell lines: Adriamycin-resistant MCF-7/Adr and wild-type MCF-7/wt. In the MTT assay, ExMh showed the highest cytotoxicity, especially against MCF-7/Adr, whereas ExMp was the least toxic; particularly against MCF-7/wt cells. RA and LA exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity against both MCF-7 cell lines, over 2-fold greater than CA and Lgr, around 3-fold greater than Er, and around 4- to 7-fold in comparison with Lr and Ab. Except for Lr and Ab, all other phytochemicals were more toxic against MCF-7/wt, and all extracts exhibited higher toxicity against MCF-7/Adr. It might be concluded that the tested phenolics exhibited more beneficial properties when they were applied in the form of extracts comprising their mixtures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. OXIDATIVE STABILISATION OF SUNFLOWER OIL BY ANTIOXIDANT FRACTIONS FROM SELECTED LAMIACEAE HERBS

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    NADA BABOVIĆ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the effect of antioxidant fractions from rosemary (Rosma-rinus officinalis, sage (Salvia officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and hyssop (Hyssop officinalis on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil at elevated tempe¬rature. In order to isolate antioxidant fractions, the method of fractional super¬critical extraction with carbon dioxide at 35 MPa and 100 C was applied. Anti¬oxidant fractions were added to sunflower oil at concentrations of 200 mg/kg oil and the samples were stored in an oven maintained at 98 C. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by measuring peroxide values (PV. Among investigated extracts, the rosemary extract was most effective on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was com¬pared to the activity of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and a commercial rose¬mary extract Flavor’ Plus. On the basis of PV assay, the antioxidant activity of the investigated plant extracts after 12 h of storage at 98 C followed the order: rosemary extract > BHA > sage extract > Flavor’ Plus > thyme extract > hyssop extract.

  17. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han; Cao, Hua; Cai, Yan-Fei; Wang, Ji-Hua; Qu, Su-Ping; Huang, Xing-Qi

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) chloroplast genome (cpDNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 149,637 bp in length, containing a pair of 24,439 bp inverted repeat regions (IR), which were separated by small and large single copy regions (SSC and LSC) of 17,701 and 83,057 bp, respectively. 53.4% of the sugar beet cpDNA consisted of gene coding regions (protein coding and RNA genes). The gene content and relative positions of 113 individual genes (79 protein encoding genes, 30 tRNA genes, 4 rRNA genes) were almost identical to those of tobacco cpDNA. The overall AT contents of the sugar beet cpDNA were 63.6% and in the LSC, SSC and IR regions were 65.9%, 70.8% and 57.8%, respectively. Fifteen genes contained one intron, while three genes had two introns.

  18. ACNE VULGARIS TREATMENT : THE CURRENT SCENARIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Sanjay K

    2011-01-01

    Acne Vulgaris is one of the most common skin disorders which dermatologists have to treat. It mainly affect adolescent, though may present at any age. In recent years, due to better understanding of the pathogenesis of acne, new therapeutic modalities and various permutation and combinations have been designed. In topical agents; benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, etc are the mainstay of treatment; can be given in combinations. While systemic therapy includes oral antibiotics, hormonal therapy, and isotretinoin, depending upon the need of patients it has to be selected. Physical treatment in the form of lesion removal, photo-therapy is also helpful in few of them. Since various old and new topical and systemic agents are available to treat acne, it sometime confuse treating dermatologist. To overcome this, panel of physicians and researchers worked together as a global alliance and task force to improve outcomes in acne treatment. They have tried to give consensus recommendation for the treatment of acne. Successful management of acne needs careful selection of anti-acne agents according to clinical presentation and individual patient needs. PMID:21572783

  19. Acne vulgaris treatment : The Current Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K Rathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acne Vulgaris is one of the most common skin disorders which dermatologists have to treat. It mainly affect adolescent, though may present at any age. In recent years, due to better understanding of the pathogenesis of acne, new therapeutic modalities and various permutation and combinations have been designed. In topical agents; benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, etc are the mainstay of treatment; can be given in combinations. While systemic therapy includes oral antibiotics, hormonal therapy, and isotretinoin, depending upon the need of patients it has to be selected. Physical treatment in the form of lesion removal, photo-therapy is also helpful in few of them. Since various old and new topical and systemic agents are available to treat acne, it sometime confuse treating dermatologist. To overcome this, panel of physicians and researchers worked together as a global alliance and task force to improve outcomes in acne treatment. They have tried to give consensus recommendation for the treatment of acne. Successful management of acne needs careful selection of anti-acne agents according to clinical presentation and individual patient needs.

  20. A review of phytotherapy of Acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Glavas Dodov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris (acne is a cutaneous pleomorphic disorder of the pilosebaceous unit involving abnormalities in sebum production and is characterized by both inflammatory (papules, pustules and nodules and non-inflammatory (comedones, open and closed lesions. Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are common pus-forming microbes responsible for the development of various forms of acne. This disease remains a common condition in industrialized societies, with many mainstream treatment options available. There are many acne products on the market, and making an appropriate selection can be daunting. Common therapies that are used for the treatment of acne include topical, systemic, hormonal, herbal and combination therapy. Topically used agents are benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics and retinoid. Systemically used agents are antibiotics and isotretinoin. However, all such treatments carry risks and none is completely satisfactory. Natural alternatives are gaining greater research support, and have much to offer clinically in this disorder. This review focuses primarily on herbal treatments for acne that show scientific evidence of clinical efficacy, as well as the more common herbs shown to be useful in the treatment of this dermatologic disorder.

  1. Treatment of acne vulgaris in pregnant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugashetti, Rupa; Shinkai, Kanade

    2013-01-01

    The management of acne vulgaris in the setting of pregnancy raises important clinical considerations regarding the efficacy and safety of acne treatments in this special patient population. Particular challenges include the absence of safety data, discrepancy in safety data between different safety rating systems, and lack of evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of acne during pregnancy. Nonetheless, many therapeutic options exist, and the treatment of acne in pregnant women can be safely and often effectively accomplished. For mild or moderate disease, patients can be treated with topical antimicrobial agents, anti-inflammatory agents, as well as glycolic and salicylic acid. Several topical agents, notably benzoyl peroxide, previously viewed as potentially dangerous are cited by many sources as being considered safe. When necessary, systemic therapies that can be safely added include penicillins, amoxicillin, cephalosporins, erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracyclines or sulfonamides, depending on the stage of fetal development. Adjunct therapy may include phototherapy or laser treatments. Physicians should work with this often highly motivated, safety-conscious patient population to tailor an individualized treatment regimen. This treatment regimen will likely shift throughout the different stages of fetal development, as distinct safety considerations are raised prior to conception as well as during each of the trimesters of pregnancy. Important considerations regarding acne management in breast-feeding mothers is also discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Acne vulgaris in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnopp, C; Mempel, M

    2011-08-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common inflammatory skin disease originating from the pilosebaceous unit. Peak incidence is at puberty, but acne can affect all age groups. Prepubertal acne is rare, but important to recognize as diagnostic and therapeutic procedures differ from pubertal acne. Acne neonatorum is a mild, self-limiting disease, whereas acne infantum commonly presents with moderate to severe lesions and high risk of scarring thus requiring early intervention. Mid-childhood or prepubertal acne raises the suspicion of hyperandrogenemia, further investigations are indicated to rule out underlying disease. The same applies to any patient with very severe acne, acne not responding to therapy or unusual clinical presentation. Etiopathogenesis of acne is not yet fully understood. Familiy history is the most important risk factor to develop severe acne and scarring. The relevance of life style factors such as smoking or diet is controversial. Lately high carbohydrate diet and dairy products have been implicated as aggravating factors. Mild acne normally responds to topical monotherapy, in moderate disease combination of two synergistically acting substances (e.g. benzoyl peroxid plus antibiotic, benzoyl peroxid plus retinoid, retinoid plus antibiotic, benzoyl peroxid plus azelaic acid) will improve clinical response. Retinoids and/or benzoylperoxid have been shown to be effective in maintenance therapy. In patients with severe disease or high risk of scarring systemic therapy with antibiotics, oral contraceptives with antiandrogenic properties and in particularly isotretinoin as most effective acne treatment should be considered early to avoid physical and emotional scars.

  3. Data characterizing the chloroplast genomes of extinct and endangered Hawaiian endemic mints (Lamiaceae and their close relatives

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    Andreanna J. Welch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available These data are presented in support of a plastid phylogenomic analysis of the recent radiation of the Hawaiian endemic mints (Lamiaceae, and their close relatives in the genus Stachys, “The quest to resolve recent radiations: Plastid phylogenomics of extinct and endangered Hawaiian endemic mints (Lamiaceae” [1]. Here we describe the chloroplast genome sequences for 12 mint taxa. Data presented include summaries of gene content and length for these taxa, structural comparison of the mint chloroplast genomes with published sequences from other species in the order Lamiales, and comparisons of variability among three Hawaiian taxa vs. three outgroup taxa. Finally, we provide a list of 108 primer pairs targeting the most variable regions within this group and designed specifically for amplification of DNA extracted from degraded herbarium material.

  4. ESTUDO TAXONÔMICO DE HYPTIS, SECÇÃO PELTODON HARLEY & J. F. B. PASTORE (LAMIACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza Bispo, Thayná; Faculdade Araguaia.; Faria, Maria Tereza; Faculdade Araguaia; Dias Ferreira, Heleno; Universidade Federal de Goiás

    2014-01-01

    Neste trabalho apresenta-se o tratamento taxonômico da secção Peltodon Harley & J. F. B. Pastore do gênero Hyptis Jacq., como parte do projeto “Estudo das espécies do gênero Hyptis Jacq. (Lamiaceae) ocorrentes em Goiás”. Após estudos morfológicos com auxílio de bibliografias especializadas, complementadas pela análise de espécimes de herbários,realizaram-se as identificações, descrições e ilustrações botânicas. A seção está representada no Brasil por cinco espécies: Hyptis campestris Harl...

  5. Use of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sing-Lai; Chu, Wan-Loy; Phang, Siew-Moi

    2010-10-01

    The potential application of Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001 for bioremediation of textile wastewater (TW) was investigated using four batches of cultures in high rate algae ponds (HRAP) containing textile dye (Supranol Red 3BW) or TW. The biomass attained ranged from 0.17 to 2.26 mg chlorophyll a/L while colour removal ranged from 41.8% to 50.0%. There was also reduction of NH(4)-N (44.4-45.1%), PO(4)-P (33.1-33.3%) and COD (38.3-62.3%) in the TW. Supplementation of the TW with nutrients of Bold's Basal Medium (BBM) increased biomass production but did not improve colour removal or reduction of pollutants. The mechanism of colour removal by C. vulgaris is biosorption, in accordance with both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The HRAP using C. vulgaris offers a good system for the polishing of TW before final discharge. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An Atlas of annotations of Hydra vulgaris transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Daniela; Tripathi, Kumar Parijat; Guarracino, Mario Rosario

    2016-09-22

    RNA sequencing takes advantage of the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies for analyzing RNA transcript counts with an excellent accuracy. Trying to interpret this huge amount of data in biological information is still a key issue, reason for which the creation of web-resources useful for their analysis is highly desiderable. Starting from a previous work, Transcriptator, we present the Atlas of Hydra's vulgaris, an extensible web tool in which its complete transcriptome is annotated. In order to provide to the users an advantageous resource that include the whole functional annotated transcriptome of Hydra vulgaris water polyp, we implemented the Atlas web-tool contains 31.988 accesible and downloadable transcripts of this non-reference model organism. Atlas, as a freely available resource, can be considered a valuable tool to rapidly retrieve functional annotation for transcripts differentially expressed in Hydra vulgaris exposed to the distinct experimental treatments. WEB RESOURCE URL: http://www-labgtp.na.icar.cnr.it/Atlas .

  7. Lupus vulgaris in a pediatric patient: a clinicohistopathological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, F Sule; Afsar, Ilhan; Diniz, Gulden; Asilsoy, Suna; Sorguc, Yelda

    2008-04-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis which usually occurs in patients previously sensitized to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We present a case of a 10-year-old boy who was diagnosed as lupus vulgaris clinically and histopathologically. He had well demarcated, irregularly bordered, pink, infiltrated plaques on his left cheek showing apple-jelly appearance on diascopy. The histopathological examination showed tuberculoid granulomas with Langhans type giant cells. The Mantoux reactivity was in normal limits, and no acid-fast bacilli was found in the lesion, either by direct stained smears or by culture. The lesions showed marked improvement on anti-tuberculosis treatment. We want to emphasize that histopathological examination has diagnostic value in lupus vulgaris in correlation with clinical appearance, when direct analysis or culture is negative.

  8. Lupus vulgaris occurring in a locus minoris resistentiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard; Beatch, Anita; Lee, Mao-Cheng; Cheung-Lee, Melody; Wasel, Norman

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lupus vulgaris, a form of cutaneous tuberculosis, is not always clear, especially in patients who do not have coexistent extracutaneous tuberculosis and in patients with single lesions. To report a case of lupus vulgaris in a locus minoris resistentiae (a site of reduced resistance) and to use a unique set of clinical circumstances and laboratory tests to reconstruct the pathogenesis of the lesion and the response to treatment. Lupus vulgaris can occur in a locus minoris resistentiae; local trauma and possibly other factors, such as increased temperature, topical corticosteroids, and the virulence of the infecting strain, may facilitate the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis present at a locus minoris resistentiae as a result of a silent bacillemia.

  9. Lupus vulgaris in a pediatric patient: a clinicohistopathological diagnosis

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    F. Sule Afsar

    Full Text Available Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis which usually occurs in patients previously sensitized to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We present a case of a 10-year-old boy who was diagnosed as lupus vulgaris clinically and histopathologically. He had well demarcated, irregularly bordered, pink, infiltrated plaques on his left cheek showing apple-jelly appearance on diascopy. The histopathological examination showed tuberculoid granulomas with Langhans type giant cells. The Mantoux reactivity was in normal limits, and no acid-fast bacilli was found in the lesion, either by direct stained smears or by culture. The lesions showed marked improvement on anti-tuberculosis treatment. We want to emphasize that histopathological examination has diagnostic value in lupus vulgaris in correlation with clinical appearance, when direct analysis or culture is negative.

  10. Annular floral nectary with oil-producing trichomes in Salvia farinacea (Lamiaceae): Anatomy, histochemistry, ultrastructure, and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Sawhney, Vipen K; Davis, Arthur R

    2014-11-01

    Many angiosperms produce nectar that entices pollinator visits. Each floral nectary tends to embody a singular form, such as the receptacular ring arising beneath the ovary in mint flowers (Lamiaceae). Exceptionally, the annular floral nectary in Salvia farinacea possesses modified stomata plus secretory trichomes. This first study of nectary ultrastructure within the largest genus of Lamiaceae examined this unusual condition. Nectary anatomy, histochemistry, and ultrastructure were investigated from fresh and fixed material using light microscopy and scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The annular nectary encircled the ovary plus extended ventrally as a projection. Modified stomata occurred only in the projection's abaxial epidermis. Conversely, peltate trichomes with a basal cell, a stalk cell, and 4-7 head cells were interspersed among the ovary lobes and covered the projection's adaxial surface. Phloem and xylem supplied the nectary interior, where parenchyma cells had numerous mitochondria and plastids with little starch, but few dictyosomes and little endoplasmic reticulum. Nectar accumulated as a drop opposite the projection's abaxial surface, escaping through stomatal pores and probably the cuticle. However, the annular nectary's glistening trichomes secreted a Sudan-positive product largely retained below the distended cuticle, but not nectar. This first ultrastructural study of co-occurring secretory trichomes and modified stomata on a mint nectary suggests multiple interactive functions for this atypical structure. These trichomes-possibly generating a substance informative to pollinators or as an ovarian defense against phytophagy-produced oil in an aqueous milieu, rather than contributing fluid to nectar. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  11. Transcriptome analysis of the Octopus vulgaris central nervous system.

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    Xiang Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cephalopoda are a class of Mollusca species found in all the world's oceans. They are an important model organism in neurobiology. Unfortunately, the lack of neuronal molecular sequences, such as ESTs, transcriptomic or genomic information, has limited the development of molecular neurobiology research in this unique model organism. RESULTS: With high-throughput Illumina Solexa sequencing technology, we have generated 59,859 high quality sequences from 12,918,391 paired-end reads. Using BLASTx/BLASTn, 12,227 contigs have blast hits in the Swissprot, NR protein database and NT nucleotide database with E-value cutoff 1e(-5. The comparison between the Octopus vulgaris central nervous system (CNS library and the Aplysia californica/Lymnaea stagnalis CNS ESTs library yielded 5.93%/13.45% of O. vulgaris sequences with significant matches (1e(-5 using BLASTn/tBLASTx. Meanwhile the hit percentage of the recently published Schistocerca gregaria, Tilapia or Hirudo medicinalis CNS library to the O. vulgaris CNS library is 21.03%-46.19%. We constructed the Phylogenetic tree using two genes related to CNS function, Synaptotagmin-7 and Synaptophysin. Lastly, we demonstrated that O. vulgaris may have a vertebrate-like Blood-Brain Barrier based on bioinformatic analysis. CONCLUSION: This study provides a mass of molecular information that will contribute to further molecular biology research on O. vulgaris. In our presentation of the first CNS transcriptome analysis of O. vulgaris, we hope to accelerate the study of functional molecular neurobiology and comparative evolutionary biology.

  12. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Cytotoxic Activities of Ocimum forskolei and Teucrium yemense (Lamiaceae) Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nasser A. Awadh; Chhetri, Bhuwan K.; Dosoky, Noura S.; Shari, Khola; Al-Fahad, Ahmed J. A.; Wessjohann, Ludger; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ocimum forskolei and Teucrium yemense (Lamiaceae) are used in traditional medicine in Yemen. Methods: The chemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils isolated from the leaves of Ocimum forskolei Benth. (EOOF) and two different populations of Teucrium yemense Deflers., one collected from Dhamar province (EOTY-d), and another collected from Taiz (EOTY-t) were investigated. The antimicrobial activities of the oils were evaluated against several microorganisms with the disc diffusion test or the broth microdilution test. The essential oils were screened for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against human tumor cells. EOOF and EOTY-d were screened for free-radical-inhibitory activity using the DPPH radical scavenging assay. Results: Sixty-four compounds were identified in (EOOF) representing 100% of the oil content with endo-fenchol (31.1%), fenchone (12.2%), τ-cadinol (12.2%), and methyl (E)-cinnamate (5.1%) as the major compounds. In EOTY-d, 67 compounds were identified, which made up 91% of the total oil. The most abundant constituents were (E)-caryophyllene (11.2%), α-humulene (4.0.%), γ-selinene (5.5%), 7-epi-α-selinene (20.1%), and caryophyllene oxide (20.1%), while the major compounds in EOTY-t were α-pinene (6.6%), (E)-caryophyllene (19.1%) α-humulene (6.4%), δ-cadinene (6.5%), caryophyllene oxide (4.3%), α-cadinol (9.5%), and shyobunol (4.6%). The most sensitive microorganisms for EOOF were B. subtilis, S. aureus, and C. albicans with inhibition zones of 34, 16, and 24 mm and MIC values of, 4.3 mg/mL, 4.3 mg/mL, and 8.6 mg/mL, respectively. EOTY-t showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, B. cereus, A. niger, and B. cinerea with MIC values of 0.156, 0.156, 0.313 and 0.313 mg/mL, respectively. Neither essential oil showed remarkable radical inhibition (IC50 = 31.55 and 31.41 μL/mL). EOTY-d was active against HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines with IC50 = 43.7

  13. A review of adapalene in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Cynthia E; Yentzer, Brad A; Feldman, Steven R

    2008-11-01

    Topical retinoids help address the early lesions of acne vulgaris. Consensus guidelines advocate the use of topical retinoids as the primary treatment for most forms of acne vulgaris. However, all topical retinoid preparations may be irritating, and this may contribute to underutilization in clinical practices. Topical adapalene fosters topical retinoid treatment of acne with less irritation. Adapalene is a more stable molecule than tretinoin. Adapalene can be used without concern for photo-deactivation. Because of its chemical stability, adapalene can be used in combination with benzoyl peroxide products. The availability of a stable topical retinoid associated with little irritation may facilitate meeting acne treatment consensus guidelines.

  14. Acne Vulgaris and Acne Rosacea: An Update in Etiopathogenesis

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    Ozlem Ekiz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit, characterized by comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, and scars rarely. The major pathogenic factors are abnormal follicular differentiation and increased ductal cornification, abnormal activity of sebaceous glands, microbial colonization of pilosebaceous units by Propionibacterium acnes and inflammation. Rosacea is a common, chronic inflammatory relapsing skin disorder of the central area of the face characterized by transient or persistent erythema, telangiectasia, papules and pustules. Although several hypotheses have been suggested for the etiopathogenesis of rosacea, the exact etiology is still unknown. In this review, we tried to summarize up-to-date information about etiopathogenesis of acne vulgaris and rosocea.

  15. Coincident systemic lupus erythematosus and psoriasis vulgaris: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Da, G; Yu, Y; Han, J; Li, H

    2015-12-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory skin disease, but its association with other typical autoimmune disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus has only occasionally been reported. We presented a 25-year-old female who developed systemic lupus erythematosus associated with psoriasis vulgaris. Her conditions were in good control after she got administration of prednisolone (5 mg/day) and Tripterygium Wilfordii Hook (20 mg/day). It is necessary to integrate past history and physical examination to diagnose coincident SLE and psoriasis, and combined treatment with prednisolone and Tripterygium Wilfordii Hook proves effective.

  16. The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton Vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata

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    Kovtun M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata. Kovtun, M. F, Stepanyuk, Ya. V. - Using common histological methods, the morphogenesis of olfactory analyzer peripheral part of Lissotriton vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata was studied, during the developmental period starting with olfactory pit laying and finishing with definitive olfactory organ formation. Special attention is paid to vomeronasal organ and vomeronasal gland development. Reasoning from obtained data, we consider that vomeronasal organ emerged as the result of olfactory epithelium and nasal cavity differentiation.

  17. The dual nature of Interleukin-10 in pemphigus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Michael Jeffrey; Ellebrecht, Christoph T.; Payne, Aimee S.

    2014-01-01

    The immunomodulatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) plays beneficial but also potentially detrimental roles in inflammation, infection, and autoimmunity. Recent studies suggest a regulatory role for IL-10-expressing B cells in the autoimmune blistering disease pemphigus vulgaris. Here we review the studies on IL-10 in pemphigus vulgaris and discuss the potential pathophysiological significance of these findings in comparison to prior studies of IL-10 in other human conditions. A better understanding of the complex roles of IL-10 in immune regulation may improve our understanding of pemphigus pathogenesis and treatment. PMID:25464924

  18. SEZARY SYNDROME MIMICKING GENERALIZED PSORIASIS VULGARIS

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    Eko Rianova Lynoora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sezary syndrome is the leukemic variant of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. This disease is characterized by some reddish patches or plaques all over the skin which extends to the whole body into erythroderma, lymphadenopathy. It is also indicated by the presence of atypical lymphocytes called Sezary cells. This case report is aimed to know clinical manifestation, examination and management of Sezary syndrome which clinically resembles generalized psoriasis. A 60 years old man came with scaly reddish brown plaques almost all over his body. It was accompanied by lymphadenopathy on the supraclavicular lymph node right and left as well as intense itchy. Other clinical features were alopecia, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, onychodysthropy, facies leonine without anesthesia on the lesion and enlargement of peripheral nerve. From a laboratory test, an increase in the number of leukocytes and, Sezary cells were found in peripheral blood smear examination; while the histopathology showed focal athrophy and acanthosis of the epidermis and dense infiltration of lymphocytes in the dermo-epidermal junction and superficial dermis. Patient received 3 x 5 mg (1 cycle of methotrexate (MTX with 0,1% cream mometasone furoate and 3x1 tablet of CTM for adjunctive therapy. Methotrexate was discontinued because there was a disturbance in liver function and deterioration of patient’s condition. After 25 days of treatment, the patient got sepsis and then passed away. Early onset of Sezary syndrome in this case is difficult to know because the clinical manifestation is similar with psoriasis vulgaris. Supporting examination such as laboratory test, blood smears and histopathology examination could help the diagnosis. The presence of lymphadenopathy, and atypical lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and the extensive skin involvement reflect the poor prognosis. The most common cause of death was sepsis.

  19. Un nuevo híbrido para el género Teucrium L. (sect. Polium, Lamiaceae en la Comunidad Valenciana

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    Peris, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid is described for the genus Teucrium L. [sect. Polium (Mill. Schreb., Lamiaceae], Teucrium ×guarae-requenae [T. gnaphalodes L’Hér. × T. homotrichum (Font Quer Rivas Mart.] from Fontanars dels Alforins (Valencia Province, Spain. Morphological description and illustrations of the new hybrid are provided.Se describe un nuevo híbrido para el género Teucrium L. [sect. Polium (Mill. Schreb., Lamiaceae], Teucrium ×guaraerequenae [T. gnaphalodes L’Hér. × T. homotrichum (Font Quer Rivas Mart.] procedente de Fontanars dels Alforins (Valencia, España. Se aporta una descripción morfológica detallada así como ilustraciones para esta nueva planta.

  20. QUALITATIVE COMPOSITION AND ORGANI C ACIDS CONTENT IN THE ABOVEGROUN D PART OF PLANTS FRO M FAMILIES LAMIACEAE, ASTERACEAE, APIACEAE AND CHENOPODIACEAE

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    S. M. Marchyshyn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Organic acids are the compounds of aliphatic or aromatic orders, which are widespread in flora and have a wide range of biological activity. We studied the qualitative composition and quantitative contents of organic acids in the aboveground part of some unofficial medicinal plants from families Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Chenopodiaceae is relevant. Objective. The objects of the research are the aboveground part of unofficial medicinal plants from families Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Chenopodiaceae. Methods. Identification of organic acids was performed by means of thin-layer and paper chromatography, their content was determined by means of gas chromatography, the quantitative amount of organic acids was defined by titrimetric analysis. Results. In the studied raw plants the quality of organic acids and their total contents were determined (in terms of malic acid. It is established that the maximum content of organic acids is accumulated in the grass Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae, and the minimal is in the leaves of Chrysánthemum xhortorum L. variety Apro (Asteraceae. In all studied raw plants the dominance of aliphatic acids (citric, malic, oxalic and malonic was determined by means of gas chromatography. Benzoic is predominant among the aromatic acids. Conclusions. In the studied raw plants the quality of organic acids and their total content were determined. The following results can be used in developing the methods of quality control of the studied raw plants and during the study of new bioactive substances.

  1. Composite Phaseolus vulgaris plants with transgenic roots as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a system is described to obtain so-called transgenic composite plants from P. vulgaris. These have a transgenic root system, obtained through Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation of de-rooted seedlings. Their potentials for studies on important processes in the root system will be discussed.

  2. Oral Pemphigus Vulgaris: Case Report | Rai | Ethiopian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty to ninety percent of patients with pemphigus vulgaris develop oral lesions and in 60% of cases oral lesions are the first sign. Timely recognition and therapy of oral lesion is critical as it may prevent skin involvement. If treatment is instituted during this time, the disease is easier to control and the chance for an early ...

  3. Genetic diversity study of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... Phaseolus vulgaris L. (family Leguminosae), is a leguminous crop widely distributed in all parts of the world. In Ethiopia, common bean is cultivated as a source of protein for local consumption and for export. Mostly, it grows in the warm and lowland areas of the country. The aim of this research was to.

  4. Evaluation of Azithromycin in Treatment of Acne Vulgaris Compared to

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Acne vulgaris is the most common dermatological disorder in adolescence. Treatment is essential to prevent physical and psychological scarring. Although many treatments for acne are available, effective management has become increasingly challenging with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of ...

  5. Composite Phaseolus vulgaris plants with transgenic roots as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... ... important processes in the root system will be discussed. Key words: Genetic transformation, Phaseolus vulgaris, Agrobacterium rhizogenes. INTRODUCTION. Grain legumes are important agricultural crops, especially for developing countries, where they provide proteins in vegetarian or meat-poor diets.

  6. Response of Field Beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Unacidulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agronomic effectiveness of minjingu rock phosphate (MRP) was compared with that of highly soluble phosphate triple superphosphate (TSP), in pot studies with field bean (P. vulgaris L. ) in a greenhouse at the field station of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, Kenya. MRP finely ground with 30 Grade % P and ...

  7. allelopathic effects of eucalyptus tereticornis on phaseolus vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The water extracts of leaves (green, brown and decayed stages) and bark of Eucalyptus tereticornis were tested for seed ... percentage of Phaseolus vulgaris due to the treatments of water extracts of leaves and bark of Eucalyptus, also affected the ... chemicals from its leaves or litter which inhibits the germination or growth ...

  8. Assessment of genetic diversity in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... RAPD molecular markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity in the fourteen varieties of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) of three eco-geographical regions of Bangladesh. Out of the 20 primers only,. 6 yielded polymorphic banding patterns. In total, 40 different DNA bands were reproducibly ...

  9. The biomass and ecology of chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-22

    Jan 22, 1991 ... Migration, stock size and ecology of chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii off the West Coast of South Africa were studied and their relationship to other regions compared by analysis of distributional, biomass, and size composition, and biological data collected from biannual research cruises from ...

  10. A comparison between Daphnia pulex and Hydra vulgaris as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mortalities as well as morphological changes (H. vulgaris) were analysed using Microsoft Excel. The LC50-values were statistically determined using the EPA Probit Analysis Model and the Spearman-Karber analysis methods. Prior to being used, analysis of the physico-chemical properties, nutrients and metals of both ...

  11. Effects of Thymus vulgaris and Mentha pulegium on colour, nutrients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Mentha pulegium (mentha) powders on meat colour, nutrient composition and malondialdehyde (MDA) where broiler chickens were under heat stress. Two hundred one-day-old male chicks were used in a completely randomized design with ...

  12. Reproductive Biology of the Common Octopus (Octopus vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    policy in the management of the fishery in. Kenya. METHODS. Sampling for common octopus was carried out ..... Morocco-Mauritania (Hatanaka, 1979; Dia,. 1988). It has been stated that such variations in the sex ratio .... Reproductive cycle and energy allocation of Octopus vulgaris in Galician waters, NE. Atlantic. Fisheries ...

  13. Genetic diversity study of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. (family Leguminosae), is a leguminous crop widely distributed in all parts of the world. In Ethiopia, common bean is cultivated as a source of protein for local consumption and for export. Mostly, it grows in the warm and lowland areas of the country. The aim of this research was to investigate the genetic ...

  14. Assessment of genetic diversity in French bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAPD molecular markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity in the fourteen varieties of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) of three eco-geographical regions of Bangladesh. Out of the 20 primers only, 6 yielded polymorphic banding patterns. In total, 40 different DNA bands were reproducibly obtained, out of which ...

  15. POD DEVELOPMENT INCREASES THE OZONE SENSITIVITY OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine if the O3 sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris L. changed with plant development. Plants exposed to charcoal-filtered air or elevated O3 throughout the study were compared to those exposed only during the vegetative or reproductive s...

  16. Registration of Gabisa Common Bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Variety

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gabisa is a common name for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety with pedigree name of VAX-2. It is a bush food bean variety selected out of common bean lines introduced to Ethiopia through CIAT program and released in 2007 by the Bako Agricultural Research Center for production in western Ethiopia and ...

  17. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) response to charcoal rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Gold. (Mph), is an endemic disease in the prevailing hot and dry conditions in southern Puerto Rico. This study evaluated the 120 bean genotypes that compose the BASE 120 panel under screenhouse conditio...

  18. Phosphorus use efficiency in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tripartite symbiosis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) recombinant inbred line (RIL) 147 with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed in sand culture by comparing the effects of three AMF species on the mycorrhizal root colonization, rhizobial nodulation, plant growth and phosphorus use ...

  19. Gallium-67-citrate uptake in a case of acne vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipper, M.S.; Taylor, A.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1981-09-01

    A case of increased Ga-67 uptake in a patient with active acne vulgaris is reported. The scan was requested in a search for metastatic testicular carcinoma or bleomycin pulmonary toxicity. Careful clinical evaluation including physical examination was necessary in order to avoid an erroneous scan interpretation.

  20. Drug resistant Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris are pathogens often associated with drug resistance traits. They are of public health importance with zoonotic status. They have been globally associated with humans and poultry infections. Multidrug resistant strains of these organisms are routinely isolated from organs samples from ...

  1. Response of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) may occur due to boron (B) deficiency when the susceptible cultivars are grown in calcareous boron deficient soils. The study was therefore aimed at investigating the effects of three B doses: control (0.0 kg ha-1), soil application (3.0 kg ha-1) and foliar fertilization (0.3 kg ...

  2. Investigation of optimal condition for Chlorella vulgaris microalgae growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Daliry

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its abundance and also flexibility of cultivation conditions, Chlorella vulgaris microalgae is one of the most ideal options available in order to production of microalgae based biodiesel. Since vulgaris cultivation for fuel production needs economic considerations to be taken, and in first place providing biomass and lipid production costs is important, wide researches have been conducted in this field, and this study aims to spot the best condition for cultivation of this valuable specie by reviewing the whole research conducted. So far, Researchers' efforts show that, the best condition for vulgaris cultivation is mixotrophic regime which is done in a bubble column photobioreactor. Glucose as carbonic source and nitrate as nitrogen source, have the most efficacy among nutrition conditions. It is known the best results obtain in amounts glucose and nitrate of 20 and o.5 g/L respectively. Alkaline medium (pH 9 to 10, non-continuous illumination, 5 to 7 Klux and a 200 mL/min aeration flow rate, indicated the best physical conditions. The most vulgaris biomass amount produced was 3.43 g/L, and the best lipid productivity was measured 66.25 mg/L/day.

  3. The oral adverse effects of isotretinoin treatment in acne vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Isotretinoin is the most effective therapy to treat severe acne vulgaris and its systemic adverse effects have been well documented, but little is known on dental side effects over the course of treatment. Objectives: This prospective case-control study aimed to evaluate the oral adverse effects of isotretinoin in ...

  4. Reproductive biology of common octopus Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Although common octopus catches are increasing globally, lack of information on the species reproductive biology has been a major concern in its management particularly in Kenya. The present study aimed at investigating the reproductive biology of Octopus vulgaris from Shimoni and Vanga in the Kenyan South ...

  5. Enzymatic Browning in Sugar Beet Leaves (Beta vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Anne; Kiskini, Alexandra; Hilgers, Roelant; Marinea, Marina; Wierenga, Peter Alexander; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves of 8 month (8m) plants showed more enzymatic browning than those of 3 month (3m). Total phenolic content increased from 4.6 to 9.4 mg/g FW in 3m and 8m, respectively, quantitated by

  6. Response of Field Beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Unacidulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of Field Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Unacidulated Phosphorus Source in an Andosols in Kenya. C Owino-Gerroh, JK Keter, JP Mbuvi. Abstract. The agronomic effectiveness of minjingu rock phosphate (MRP) was compared with that of highly soluble phosphate triple superphosphate (TSP), in pot studies with ...

  7. Bioremediation of the textile waste effluent by Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Yassin El-Kassas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The microalgae biomass production from textile waste effluent is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by the effluent discharge into water sources. The potential application of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile waste effluent (WE was investigated using 22 Central Composite Design (CCD. This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae C. vulgaris in textile waste effluent (WE and the study of the best dilution of the WE for maximum biomass production and for the removal of colour and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD by this microalga. The cultivation of C. vulgaris, presented maximum cellular concentrations Cmax and maximum specific growth rates μmax in the wastewater concentration of 5.0% and 17.5%, respectively. The highest colour and COD removals occurred with 17.5% of textile waste effluent. The results of C. vulgaris culture in the textile waste effluent demonstrated the possibility of using this microalga for the colour and COD removal and for biomass production. There was a significant negative relationship between textile waste effluent concentration and Cmax at 0.05 level of significance. However, sodium bicarbonate concentration did not significantly influence the responses of Cmax and the removal of colour and COD.

  8. Composite Phaseolus vulgaris plants with transgenic roots as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large seeded grain legumes such as the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) are very important crops with seeds that are major protein source for people in developing countries, but their yields and improvement lag behind the economically more important cereals. For research purposes ...

  9. Biocontrol Of Viral Necrotic Disease Of Phaseolus Vulgaris By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study revealed that the preinoculation of soil with rhizosphere microorganisms significantly reduced number of local lesions produced by TNV, in P. vulgaris plants either grown in amended or unamended soil. Phaseolus plants grown in fish meal amended soil supplied with RMs singly or in mixtures, and then their ...

  10. Dapsone 7.5% Gel: A Review in Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salama, Zaina T; Deeks, Emma D

    2017-02-01

    Dapsone 7.5% gel (Aczone ® ) is indicated for the once-daily topical treatment of acne vulgaris in patients aged ≥12 years. Dapsone is a sulfone antibacterial with anti-inflammatory actions, which are thought to be largely responsible for its efficacy in treating acne vulgaris. In two phase III trials of 12 weeks' duration in patients aged ≥12 years with moderate acne vulgaris, once-daily dapsone 7.5% gel reduced acne severity (as per the Global Acne Assessment Score) and lesion counts versus vehicle. The benefits of dapsone 7.5% gel over vehicle were seen as early as week 2 for inflammatory lesion counts, and from week 4 or 8 for other outcomes. Dapsone 7.5% gel was well tolerated, with a low incidence of treatment-related adverse events, with the majority of adverse events being administration-site related and mild or moderate in severity. Thus, dapsone 7.5% gel is an effective and well tolerated option for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris in patients aged ≥12 years, with the convenience of once-daily application.

  11. Aluminium Tolerance of Four Bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) varieties ('Rosecoco'– GLP 2, 'Mwitemania'– GLP X 92, 'Mwezi Moja' – GLP 1004, and French bean – 'Amy') locally obtained from seed merchants in Kenya were investigated for their aluminium tolerance under two techniques of screening, namely root elongation and staining.

  12. Performance of Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a soil contaminated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytoremediation is an alternative low cost approach for in situ treatment of polluted soils. This study evaluated growth and biochemical composition of Phaseolus vulgaris as influenced by spent engine oil contaminated soil. The experiment was conducted in a pot during the 2005 cropping season. The soil received (0% ...

  13. Vegetative propagation of Syringa vulgaris L. in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, R.L.M.; Steegmans, H.H.M.; Elias, A.A.; Stiekema, O.T.J.; Velde, van der A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Excised shoot tips from adult Syringa vulgaris L. plants were rejuvenated by repeated subculturing in vitro. The number of subcultures required to rejuvenate the shoots was strongly dependent on the age and genotype of the plant material. Three rootstocks (K8, A2 and A3) and 5 cultivars

  14. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mamadou Gueye

    Rhizobium. INTRODUCTION. In Senegal, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) needs to be inoculated with elite Rhizobium strains in the growing area called Niayes zone (Diouf et al., 1999). Usually, seeds of common bean supplied to farmers are often treated with fungicide to prevent losses due to seed- borne pathogens.

  15. Direct hydroacoustic observations of chokka squid Loligo vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct hydroacoustic observations of chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii spawning activity in deep water. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, ...

  16. The Oral Adverse Effects of Isotretinoin Treatment in Acne Vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-31

    Jan 31, 2016 ... Assessment System, isotretinoin, salivary flow. The Oral Adverse Effects of Isotretinoin Treatment in Acne Vulgaris. Patients: A Prospective, Case–control Study. U Erdemir, G Okan1, S Gungor2, B Tekin3, SO Yildiz4, E Yildiz isotretinoin adversely affects salivary flow and buffer capacity.[6-8]. Dental caries is ...

  17. The biomass and ecology of chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Migration, stock size and ecology of chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii off the West Coast of South Africa were studied and their relationship to other regions compared by analysis of distributional, biomass, and size composition, and biological data collected from biannual research cruises from 1983-1987. Biomass ...

  18. Direct hydroacoustic observations of chokka squid Loligo vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the November 1996 survey, seven such targets were observed near the bottom at depths of 115–125 m, directly south of the traditional inshore spawning grounds of chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii at Cape St Francis. The targets were close to prominent seabed ridges and extended 30–40 m off the bottom.

  19. Chlorella vulgaris modulates hydrogen peroxide-induced dna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A decline in DNA damage was observed in post-treated cells which proves Chlorella vulgaris to present bioremediative properties. In cells induced with oxidative stress, telomere length decreased significantly coupled with a concomitant decline of telomerase activity (p<0.05). However, these reductions were prevented with ...

  20. Topical antibiotic monotherapy prescribing practices in acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, William D; Davis, Scott A; Fleischer, Alan B; Feldman, Steven R

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency of dosing topical antibiotics as monotherapy in the treatment of acne vulgaris, and physician specialty prescribing these medications. This study is a retrospective review of all visits with a sole diagnosis of acne vulgaris (ICD-9-CM code 706.1) found on the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) in 1993-2010. We recorded the number of visits surveyed where acne vulgaris was the sole diagnosis, number of visits where topical antibiotics were the only treatment prescribed, and the specialty of physician in each encounter. Topical erythromycin or clindamycin were the sole medication prescribed in 0.81% of the visits recorded, with 60% of these prescriptions arising from dermatologists and 40% from non-dermatologists. The trend of prescribing topical antibiotic monotherapy is declining (p acnes to topical antibiotic regimens has led to the need to re-evaluate the use of topical antibiotics in the treatment of acne vulgaris. While the rate of topical antibiotic monotherapy is declining, their use should be reserved for situations where the direct need for antibiotics arises. If a clinician feels that antibiotics are a necessary component to acne therapy, they should be used as part of a combination regimen.

  1. Effect of Euphorbia hirta and Thymus vulgaris powders on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ban placed on the long term use of commercial antibiotics at subtherapeutic levels for diseases control and growth promotion in livestock production necessitated a worldwide search for available, cost effective and efficacious alternatives. Accordingly, the effects of Euphorbia hirta (EH) and Thymus vulgaris (TV) ...

  2. Pathological Fracture due to pemphigus vulgaris: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pemphigus vulgaris is a rare but serious autoimmune mucocutaneous bullous disease.The two cardinal pathological processes at work are a split within the epidermis and loss of adhesion of epidermal cells (Acantholysis). It is due to deposition of pathogenic IgG on the Keratinocyte cell surface. The mainstay of treatment is ...

  3. Pinguicula vulgaris L. (Vetblad) weer terug in Noord-Brabant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossenaar, Arnout-Jan; Kierkels, Geert; Schelle, Marian; Bos, Frank

    1999-01-01

    In August 1998 Pinguicula vulgaris was discovered in the middle of Noord-Brabant after almost 50 years of absence in this province. The species appeared on three spots on the embankement of a pool in heathland, after recent restoration measurements.

  4. The epidemiology of acne vulgaris in late adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn DD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Darren D Lynn,1 Tamara Umari,1 Cory A Dunnick,2,3 Robert P Dellavalle2–4 1Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 2Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, 3Dermatology Service, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Eastern Colorado Health Care System, Denver, 4Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA Importance: Acne vulgaris is the most common skin condition affecting late adolescents across the globe. Although prior studies have evaluated epidemiologic patterns of acne vulgaris in various ethnicities and regions, adequate understanding of the worldwide burden of the disease associated with patients in their late adolescence (15–19-year olds remains lacking. Objective: To assess the global burden of the disease associated with acne vulgaris for late adolescents (15–19-year olds and provide an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for acne in this population. Design: Database summary study. Setting: Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 database. Participants: Global Burden of Disease regions comprised countries with prevalence of acne vulgaris between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Main outcomes and measures: Geographic region-level disability-adjusted life year rates (per 100,000 persons associated with acne vulgaris in years 1990 through 2010. Median percentage change in disability-adjusted life year rates was estimated for each region across the specified study period. Conclusion and relevance: Acne vulgaris-associated disease burden exhibits global distribution and has continued to grow in prevalence over time within this population. This continued growth suggests an unmet dermatologic need worldwide for this disorder and potential opportunities for improved access and delivery of dermatologic care. Our analysis of the literature reveals numerous

  5. Association of Serum Testosterone with Acne Vulgaris in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moksedur Rahman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Androgens enhance the sebum production and follicular keratosis that plays the key role in the aetiology of acne. Objective: To find out the association between serum testosterone and acne vulgaris. Methods: A case control study was carried out for a period of two years in the outpatient department of Dermatology and Venereology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Female patients having acne vulgaris were selected as case. Healthy control (age and sex matched were enrolled from the community. Results: The study showed that the mean age of the cases was 22.43 with standard deviation 5.2 years and the mean age of the control was 23.23 with standard deviation 5.9 years. The mean duration of disease was 62.6 months ranging from 12 months to 300 months. All the patients had presented with comedones (blackheads and whiteheads followed by 94.3% had papules and 58.6% had pustules. Considering the site of lesion, all the patients had acne in the face. Data analysis revealed that the percentage of serum testosterone above normal was found to be high among the cases with acne (10% whereas below normal level of serum testosterone was found among the control and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001. Conclusion:The study found a significant association between serum testosterone and acne vulgaris. As serum testosterone is associated with acne vulgaris, testosterone levels should be measured in patients presenting with acne vulgaris especially in treatment resistant cases and anti-androgen treatment may be indicated in cases with elevated testosterone level.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bsmmuj.v5i1.10980 BSMMU J 2012; 5(1:1-5 

  6. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE SUBSTANCES RECEIVED FROM RAW MATERIALS OF LAMIACEAE AND CUCURBITACEAE FAMILY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedchenkova Iu.A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The search of new sources of raw materials for medicine creation is one of the pharmacy priorities. In this, our attention was drawn by the plants which are widely cultivated in Ukraine and have a sufficient source of raw materials. It is summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. and sowing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. of Cucurbitaceae family and also peppermint (Mentha piperita L. of two sorts “Chernolistaya” and “Zgadka” of Lamiaceae family. However the drugs with antimicrobial action derived from the leaves of these plants in the market of Ukraine are absent. Spirit, lipophilic and polysaccharidic fractions were received from the leaves of sowing cucumber, summer squash and two sorts of peppermint by us. Antimicrobial activity studying of the received substances derived from the studied raw materials for expansion of the medicine range is promising. The relevance of researches is that getting for the first time due to complex raw material processing the lipophilic, spirit and polysaccharidic fractions of leaves of a sowing cucumber, summer squash and two sorts of peppermint “Chernolistnaya” and “Zgadka” are systemically studied on existence of antimicrobic activity. The purpose of our research is the studying of antimicrobial activity of getting substances derived from the leaves of sowing cucumber, summer squash and two sorts of peppermint “Chernolistnaya” and “Zgadka”. Materials and methods. Raw materials for substances are the leaves of a sowing cucumber prepared in June, 2015 in the Kharkiv region, the village Selection, in the conditions of industrial cultivation (the selection station of Institute of vegetable-growing and melon-growing of UAAN. The leaves of summer squash were being prepared also in June, 2015 in Valkovsky district of the Kharkiv region, the settlement Dobropolye. The leaves of peppermint of “Chernolistnaya” and “Zgadka” sort were prepared on the industrial squares of Dnipropetrovsk

  7. Comparison of Lamiaceae medicinal uses in eastern Morocco and eastern Andalusia and in Ibn al-Baytar's Compendium of Simple Medicaments (13th century CE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gharbaoui, Asmae; Benítez, Guillermo; González-Tejero, M Reyes; Molero-Mesa, Joaquín; Merzouki, Abderrahmane

    2017-04-18

    Transmission of traditional knowledge over time and across culturally and historically related territories is an important topic in ethnopharmacology. Here, we contribute to this knowledge by analysing data on medicinal uses in two neighbouring areas of the Western Mediterranean in relation to a historical text that has been scarcely mentioned in historical studies despite its interest. This paper discusses the sharing of popular knowledge on the medicinal uses of plants between eastern Morocco and eastern Andalusia (Spain), focusing on one of the most useful plant families in the Mediterranean area: Lamiaceae. Moreover, we used the classical work of Ibn al-Baytar (13th century CE) The Compendium of Simple Medicaments and Foods as a basis to contrast the possible link of this information, analysing the influence of this historical text on current popular tradition of medicinal plant use in both territories. For data collection, we performed ethnobotanical field research in the eastern part of Morocco, recording current medicinal uses for the Lamiaceae. In addition, we systematically reviewed the ethnobotanical literature from eastern Andalusia, developing a database. We investigated the possible historical link of the shared uses and included in this database the information from Ibn al-Baytar's Compendium. To compare the similarity and diversity of the data, we used Jaccard's similarity index. Our field work provided ethnobotanical information for 14 Lamiaceae species with 95 medicinal uses, serving to treat 13 different pathological groups. Of the total uses recorded in Morocco, 30.5% were shared by eastern Andalusia and found in Ibn al-Baytar's work. There was a higher similarity when comparing current uses of the geographically close territories of eastern Morocco and eastern Andalucía (64%) than for eastern Morocco and this historical text (43%). On the other hand, coincidences between current uses in eastern Andalusia and the ones related in the Compendium

  8. Skin prick test results to artesunate in children sensitized to Artemisia vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, F; Pantano, S; Rossi, M E; Montagnani, C; Chiappini, E; Novembre, E; Galli, L; de Martino, M

    2015-09-01

    Artemisia vulgaris L and Artemisia annua L (Chinese: qinghao) are similar plants of the Asterbaceae family. Artesunate, a semi-synthetic derivate of artemisin which is the active principle extract of the plant qinghao, has antimalarial properties. Some cases of severe allergic reactions to artesunate have been described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between positive skin tests to Artemisia vulgaris L allergen and a preparation of injectable artesunate. A total of 531 children were skin prick tested with inhalants (including Artemisia vulgaris L), foods, and artesunate. Among the 59 patients positive to Artemisia vulgaris L only one child was also positive to artesunate. No child was positive to artesunate in those negative to Artemisia vulgaris L. We conclude that Artemisia vulgaris L sensitization is not associated with sensitization to artesunate; consequently, skin test to artesunate should not be carried out before using the drug considering the rare allergic reactions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. The optimal hyperspectral quantitative models for chlorophyll-a of chlorella vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Wu, Xiuju

    2009-09-01

    Chlorophyll-a of Chlorella vulgaris had been related with spectrum. Based on hyperspectral measurement for Chlorella vulgaris, the hyperspectral characteristics of Chlorella vulgaris and their optimal hyperspectral quantitative models of chlorophyll-a (Chla) estimation were researched in situ experiment. The results showed that the optimal hyperspectral quantitative model of Chlorella vulgaris was Chla=180.5+1125787(R700)'+2.4 *109[(R700)']2 (P0Chlorella vulgaris, two reflectance crests were around 540 nm and 700 nm and their locations moved right while Chl-a concentration increased. The reflectance of Chlorella vulgaris decreases with Cha concentration increase in 540 nm, but on the contrary in 700nm.

  10. Identifikasi Kromatografi Lapis Tipis Sudamala (Artemisia vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Arundina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Karsinoma sel skuamosa rongga mulut merupakan jenis kanker yang paling sering ditemukan di rongga mulut. Faktor risiko utama terjadi keganasan di rongga mulut meliputi riwayat serta kebiasaan mengkonsumsi tembakau dan atau alkohol. Tanaman sudamala (Artemisia vulgaris L. sering digunakan di masyarakat sebagai anti tumor pada organ pencernaan termasuk di rongga mulut, namun belum ada penelitian tentang bahan aktif yang berperan sebagai anti kanker di rongga mulut. Banyak didapatkan spesies dari genus Artemisia, sedangkan yang banyak tumbuh di Indonesia adalah spesies Artemisia vulgaris L. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menjelaskan identifikasi menggunakan Kromatografi Lapis Tipis (KLT dari sudamala. Penelitian meliputi ekstraksi sudamala, identifikasi ekstrak sudamala, fraksinasi sudamala menggunakan Kromatografi Kolom Vakum dan identifikasi dari fraksi sudamala menggunakan Kromatografi Lapis Tipis (KLT. Ekstrak heksan sudamala yang dilakukan fraksinasi menggunakan n-heksan: etil asetat menghasilkan 11 fraksi. Fraksi n-heksan: etil asetat (3:7,v/v dari sudamala yang teridentifikasi menggunakan Kromatografi Lapis Tipis (KLT mengandung terpenoid. Identification of Sudamala ( Artemisia vulgaris L. Thin Layer Chromatography. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the type of cancer which is most frequently found in oral cavity. The primary risk factor of malignancy in oral cavity includes the habit of consuming tobacco and or alcohol. The plant sudamala (Artemisia vulgaris L. is often used in the community as anti-tumor in digestive organ, including in oral cavity. However, there have been no studies on active ingredients playing the role as anti-cancer in oral cavity. The species are mostly from the genus Artemisia, while those generally growing in Indonesia are the species Artemisia vulgaris L. The objective of this study is to explain the identification by TLC of sudamala. The study was sudamala extraction, identification of sudamala extract

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF CELL DISRUPTION IN RAPHIDOCELIS SUBCAPITATA AND CHLORELLA VULGARIS FOR BIOMARKER EVALUATION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adeolu Aderemi; Colin Hunter; Ole Pahl; Xinhua Shu

    2015-01-01

      Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris are bioassay microalgae with rigid cellulosic cell wall which can hinder the release of intracellular proteins often studied as toxicity biomarkers...

  12. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of phaseolus vulgaris pods in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuaigel, Mohammad Faisal; Seif, Mosaad A; Albuali, Hamad Waleed; Alharbi, Omar; Alhawash, Amer

    2017-10-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the reduction potential of aqueous extract of casing of pods of phaseolus vulgaris in blood glucose and lipids levels among hyperglycemic streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rats. Oral administration of 150mg/kg of aqueous oral administration of aqueous pod extract of phaseolus vulgaris to diabetic rats for 40days resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose (pphaseolus vulgaris and glibenclamide reduced the blood levels of glucose and lipids. In addition, aqueous extract of phaseolus vulgaris pods was more effective than glibenclamide in reducing blood glucose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Potential Use of Essential oils from Four Tunisian Species of Lamiaceae: Biological Alternative for Fungal and Weed Control

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    Mohsen Hanana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs of four Lamiaceae (Thymus capitatus Hoff. et Link. , Rosmarinus officinalis L., Origanum vulgare L. and Mentha pulegium L. growing wild in Tunisia was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Obtained results showed significant variations among the different species. The major constituents identified for each species were respectively carvacrol (69% and δ-terpinene (17% for T. capitatus, 1,8-cineole (41% and α-pinene (24% for R. officinalis, menthol (39% and 1.8-cineole (17% for M. pulegium , thymol (30%, p-cymene (30% and δ-terpinene (27% for O. vulgare . EO herbicidal effects were evaluated against three invasive weed species in most cultivated crops: Sinapis arvensis L., Phalaris paradoxa L. and Lolium rigidum Gaud. The study of herbicidal activity was carried out on seed germination and seedling vigor and growth. All tested EOs significantly inhibited the germination and growth of weeds in a dose dependent manner and their herbicidal activity could be attributed mainly to their high content in oxygenated monoterpenes. The antifungal ability of EOs was assessed by using disc agar diffusion against ten plant pathogenic fungi affecting crops and stored foods. The EOs displayed strong inhibitory effect on all tested fungi. Our results on EOs chemical composition and biological activities showed properties that could be valorized in managing biocontrol of weeds and plant fungi.

  14. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae against bacterial multiresistant strains isolated from nosocomial patients

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    Adalberto Coelho da Costa

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are considered the main therapeutic option to treat bacterial infections; however, there is the disadvantage of increasing bacterial resistance. Thus, the research of antimicrobials of plant origin has been an important alternative. This work aimed at determining the in vitro antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae on multiresistant bacteria isolated from biological materials. 24 strains of nosocomial bacteria were used and divided into six different species that were inhibited by the essential oil in the preliminary "screening" which was accomplished by the diffusion technique in agar. MIC was determined by the microdilution method, beginning with solutions with the final concentrations: 8 up to 0.125% with the following results: The four samples (100% of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and MRSA were inhibited by the essential oil at the concentration of 0.125%. Three samples (75% of Acinetobacter baumannii at 0.125% and a sample (25% at 0.5%; Klebsiella pneumoniae (75% at 0.125% and 25% at 0.25%; Pseudomonas aeruginosa (75% at 0.5% and 25% at 0.25%. MIC varied from 78 to 83%. It was concluded through the obtained data that there was not difference in the minimum bactericidal concentration (0.5% of the referred oil for Gram positive as well for Gram negative microorganisms.

  15. Acute and chronic pretreatment with essential oil of peppermint (Mentha × piperita L., Lamiaceae) influences drug effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samojlik, Isidora; Petković, Stojan; Mimica-Dukić, Neda; Božin, Biljana

    2012-06-01

    The appearance of common and self-initiative usage of various herbal preparations in everyday practice and life imposes the question of possible interactions with drugs. This survey examined the influence of acute and chronic peppermint oil (PO--Mentha × piperita L., Lamiaceae; prepared as emulsion for oral use) on pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time, analgesic effect of codeine and impairment of motor coordination caused by midazolam in mice. The chemical profile of essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Applied doses of PO were 0.1 and 0.2 mL/kg. Chronic PO intake (in both doses) led to significant decrease of analgesic effect of codeine, while acute intake of PO did not change this effect. Acute PO pretreatment in higher dose caused significant prolongation of pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time, while it was significantly shortened by chronic PO pretreatment at the same dose. Midazolam effect was enhanced and prolonged significantly by chronic PO intake at higher dose, while acute intake of PO did not change this effect. Gut motility was increased only by acute intake of higher PO dose. Regarding the fact that PO produces changes in tested drug effects, the interaction between drugs and phytopreparations containing PO should be additionally followed/confirmed in humans. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Trace Element Studies on Tinospora cordifolia (Menispermaceae), Ocimum sanctum (Lamiaceae), Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae), and Phyllanthus niruri (Euphorbiaceae) Using PIXE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowrishankar, Ramadurai; Kumar, Manish; Menon, Vinay; Divi, Sai Mangala; Saravanan, M; Magudapathy, P; Panigrahi, B K; Nair, K G M; Venkataramaniah, K

    2010-03-01

    Traditionally, Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. F. & Thomson (Menispermaceae), Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae), Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae), and Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) are some of the commonly used medicinal plants in India for curing ailments ranging from common cold, skin diseases, and dental infections to major disorders like diabetes, hypertension, jaundice, rheumatism, etc. To understand and correlate their medicinal use, trace element studies on the aqueous extract of these medicinal plants have been carried out using particle-induced X-ray emission technique. A 2-MeV proton beam was used to identify and characterize major and minor elements namely Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, and Sr in them. Results have revealed that these elements are present in varying concentrations in the selected plants. Notable results include very high concentrations of Cl, K, and Ca in all the leaf samples, appreciable levels of Mn in all plants, high Zn content in T. cordifolia, and the aqueous extract of Moringa leaves compared to others and relative higher concentrations of Cr in all the plants.

  17. Rosmarinic Acid and Its Methyl Ester as Antimicrobial Components of the Hydromethanolic Extract of Hyptis atrorubens Poit. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Abedini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary biological examination of four extracts of the leaves and stems of Hyptis atrorubens Poit. (Lamiaceae, a plant species used as an antimicrobial agent in Guadeloupe, allowed us to select the hydromethanolic extract of the stems for further studies. It was tested against 46 microorganisms in vitro. It was active against 29 microorganisms. The best antibacterial activity was found against bacteria, mostly Gram-positive ones. Bioautography enabled the isolation and identification of four antibacterial compounds from this plant: rosmarinic acid, methyl rosmarinate, isoquercetin, and hyperoside. The MIC and MBC values of these compounds and their combinations were determined against eight pathogenic bacteria. The best inhibitory and bactericidal activity was found for methyl rosmarinate (0.3 mg/mL. Nevertheless, the bactericidal power of rosmarinic acid was much faster in the time kill study. Synergistic effects were found when combining the active compounds. Finally, the inhibitory effects of the compounds were evaluated on the bacterial growth phases at two different temperatures. Our study demonstrated for the first time antimicrobial activity of Hyptis atrorubens with identification of the active compounds. It supports its traditional use in French West Indies. Although its active compounds need to be further evaluated in vivo, this work emphasizes plants as potent sources of new antimicrobial agents when resistance to antibiotics increases dramatically.

  18. Fumigant Toxicity of Lamiaceae Plant Essential Oils and Blends of Their Constituents against Adult Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Woong Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To find a new and safe alternative to conventional insecticides, we evaluated the fumigant toxicity of eight Lamiaceae essential oils and their constituents against the adult rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae. Of the eight species tested, hyssop (Hyssopus offcinalis, majoram (Origanum majorana, and Thymus zygis essential oils showed strong fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae adults at 25 mg/L air concentration. Constituents of active essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector (FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 13, 15, and 17 compounds were identified from hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis essential oils, respectively. Pinocamphone and isopinocamphone were isolated by open column chromatography. Among the test compounds, pinocamphone and isopinocamphone showed the strongest fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae. Sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol exhibited 100% fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae at 3.9 mg/L air concentration. The measured toxicity of the artificial blends of the constituents identified in hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis oils indicated that isopinocamphone, terpine-4-ol, and linalool were major contributors to the fumigant toxicity of the artificial blend, respectively.

  19. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity on tumour cells of the essential oil from Cedronella canariensis var. canariensis (L.) Webb & Berthel. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzetto, Christian; Sánchez-Mateo, Candelaria C; Rabanal, Rosa M; Lupidi, Giulio; Bramucci, Massimo; Quassinti, Luana; Iannarelli, Romilde; Papa, Fabrizio; Maggi, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Cedronella canariensis is a lemon-scented species of the family Lamiaceae endemic to the Canary Islands where it is used in the traditional medicine to prepare infusions or inhalations for anti-catarrhal, tonic, diuretic, hypoglycaemiant, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory and decongestant of the respiratory tract. In this work we investigated for the first time the antioxidant activity of the essential oil and its inhibitory effects on tumour cells (A375, MDA-MB-231, HCT 116) proliferation by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and MTT assays, respectively. The oil, analysed by GC-ionisation flame detector and GC-MS, was characterised by pinocarvone (58.0%) and β-pinene (10.8%) as the major constituents, being typical of the chemotype 'canariensis'. Noteworthy was the cytotoxic activity of the oil against the tumour cells examined, with IC50 values of 4.3, 7.3 and 11.4 μg/mL on A375, MDA-MB-231 and HCT 116 tumour cells, respectively, as well as the scavenging activity against the ABTS radical (IC50 of 10.5 μg/mL).

  20. Biological activity of selected Lamiaceae and Zingiberaceae plant essential oils against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Murugesan, Arunachalam Ganesan

    2012-03-01

    The larvicidal activity of hydrodistillate extracts from Mentha piperita L. Ocimum basilicum L. Curcuma longa L. and Zingiber officinale L. were investigated against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).The results indicated that the mortality rates at 80, 100, 200 and 400 ppm of M. piperita, Z. officinale, C. longa and O. basilicum concentrations were highest amongst all concentrations of the crude extracts tested against all the larval instars and pupae of A. aegypti. Result of log probit analysis (at 95% confidence level) revealed that lethal concentration LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ values were 47.54 and 86.54 ppm for M. piperita, 40.5 and 85.53 ppm for Z. officinale, 115.6 and 193.3 ppm for C. longa and 148.5 and 325.7 ppm for O. basilicum, respectively. All of the tested oils proved to have strong larvicidal activity (doses from 5 to 350 ppm) against A. aegypti fourth instars, with the most potent oil being M. piperita extract, followed by Z. officinale, C. longa and O. basilicum. In general, early instars were more susceptible than the late instars and pupae. The results achieved suggest that, in addition to their medicinal activities, Lamiaceae and Zingiberaceae plant extracts may also serve as a natural larvicidal agent.

  1. Taxonomic study on Japanese Salvia (Lamiaceae): Phylogenetic position of S. akiensis, and polyphyletic nature of S. lutescens var. intermedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Both Salvia akiensis and S. lutescens (Lamiaceae) are endemic to Japan. Salvia akiensis was recently described in 2014 in the Chugoku (= SW Honshu) region, and each four varieties of S. lutescens distributed allopatrically. Among varieties in S. lutescens, var. intermedia show a disjunctive distribution in the Kanto (=E Honshu) and Kinki (= W Honshu) regions. Recent field studies of S. lutescens var. intermedia revealed several morphological differences between the Kanto and Kinki populations. Here, I evaluated these differences among Salvia lutescens var. intermedia and its allies with morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA (internal and external transcribed spacer regions) and plastid DNA (ycf1-rps15 spacer, rbcL, and trnL-F) sequences. Both morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that S. lutescens var. intermedia from the Kinki region and var. lutescens were closely related to each other. However, var. intermedia from the Kanto region exhibited an association with S. lutescens var. crenata and var. stolonifera, which also grew in eastern Japan, rather than var. intermedia in the Kinki region. These results indicated that S. lutescens var. intermedia is not a taxon with a disjunctive distribution, but a combination of two or more allopatric taxa. Present study also suggested that S. akiensis was most closely related to S. omerocalyx. PMID:28781560

  2. Essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of Stachys sylvatica L. (Lamiaceae) from different wild populations in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdari, A; Novak, J; Mustafa, B; Franz, C

    2012-01-01

    Leaves and inflorescences of Stachys sylvatica L. (Lamiaceae) were collected from three different wild populations in Kosovo to study the natural variation of the chemical composition of essential oils, total flavonoids, total phenolics and the antioxidant activity. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS, whereas total flavonoids, total phenolics and antioxidant activities were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Yields of essential oils ranged from 0.001% to 0.007% (v per dry weight). Twenty-eight volatile constituents were identified. The main constituents were α-pinene, β-pinene and germacrene-D. Total phenolics ranged from 39.3 to 70.8 mg g⁻¹ dry mass, whereas total flavonoid content ranged from 30.44 to 70.63 mg g⁻¹ dm. The antioxidant activity, as measured by the DPPH method, exhibited a rather high degree of activity ranging from 25.5% to 57.2%, whereas the FRAP antioxidant activity showed a lower variability and ranged from 93 to 133.4 mg g⁻¹ dm.

  3. Fumigant Toxicity of Lamiaceae Plant Essential Oils and Blends of Their Constituents against Adult Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Woong; Lee, Hyo-Rim; Jang, Myeong-Jin; Jung, Chan-Sik; Park, Il-Kwon

    2016-03-16

    To find a new and safe alternative to conventional insecticides, we evaluated the fumigant toxicity of eight Lamiaceae essential oils and their constituents against the adult rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae. Of the eight species tested, hyssop (Hyssopus offcinalis), majoram (Origanum majorana), and Thymus zygis essential oils showed strong fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae adults at 25 mg/L air concentration. Constituents of active essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector (FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 13, 15, and 17 compounds were identified from hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis essential oils, respectively. Pinocamphone and isopinocamphone were isolated by open column chromatography. Among the test compounds, pinocamphone and isopinocamphone showed the strongest fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae. Sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol exhibited 100% fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae at 3.9 mg/L air concentration. The measured toxicity of the artificial blends of the constituents identified in hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis oils indicated that isopinocamphone, terpine-4-ol, and linalool were major contributors to the fumigant toxicity of the artificial blend, respectively.

  4. Repeated-Doses Toxicity Study of the Essential Oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae) in Swiss Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Rocha Caldas, Germana; Araújo, Alice Valença; Albuquerque, Giwellington Silva; Silva-Neto, Jacinto da Costa; Costa-Silva, João Henrique; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae) is found in abundance in Northeastern Brazil where it is used in traditional medicine to treat gastric disorders. Since there are no studies reporting the toxicity and safety profile of this species, we investigated repeated-doses toxicity of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM). Swiss mice of both sexes were orally treated with EOHM (100 and 500 mg/kg) for 30 days, and biochemical, hematological, and morphological parameters were determined. No toxicity signs or deaths were recorded during the treatment with EOHM. The body weight gain was not affected, but there was an occasional variation in water and food consumption among mice of both sexes treated with both doses. The hematological and biochemical profiles did not show significant differences except for a decrease in the MCV and an increase in albumin, but these variations are within the limits described for the species. The microscopic analysis showed changes in liver, kidneys, lungs, and spleen; however, these changes do not have clinical relevance since they varied among the groups, including the control group. The results indicate that the treatment of repeated-doses with the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii showed low toxicity in mice.

  5. Rosmarinic Acid and Its Methyl Ester as Antimicrobial Components of the Hydromethanolic Extract of Hyptis atrorubens Poit. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Amin; Roumy, Vincent; Mahieux, Séverine; Biabiany, Murielle; Standaert-Vitse, Annie; Rivière, Céline; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François; Neut, Christel; Hennebelle, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Primary biological examination of four extracts of the leaves and stems of Hyptis atrorubens Poit. (Lamiaceae), a plant species used as an antimicrobial agent in Guadeloupe, allowed us to select the hydromethanolic extract of the stems for further studies. It was tested against 46 microorganisms in vitro. It was active against 29 microorganisms. The best antibacterial activity was found against bacteria, mostly Gram-positive ones. Bioautography enabled the isolation and identification of four antibacterial compounds from this plant: rosmarinic acid, methyl rosmarinate, isoquercetin, and hyperoside. The MIC and MBC values of these compounds and their combinations were determined against eight pathogenic bacteria. The best inhibitory and bactericidal activity was found for methyl rosmarinate (0.3 mg/mL). Nevertheless, the bactericidal power of rosmarinic acid was much faster in the time kill study. Synergistic effects were found when combining the active compounds. Finally, the inhibitory effects of the compounds were evaluated on the bacterial growth phases at two different temperatures. Our study demonstrated for the first time antimicrobial activity of Hyptis atrorubens with identification of the active compounds. It supports its traditional use in French West Indies. Although its active compounds need to be further evaluated in vivo, this work emphasizes plants as potent sources of new antimicrobial agents when resistance to antibiotics increases dramatically.

  6. Repeated-Doses Toxicity Study of the Essential Oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae in Swiss Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Freire Rocha Caldas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae is found in abundance in Northeastern Brazil where it is used in traditional medicine to treat gastric disorders. Since there are no studies reporting the toxicity and safety profile of this species, we investigated repeated-doses toxicity of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM. Swiss mice of both sexes were orally treated with EOHM (100 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days, and biochemical, hematological, and morphological parameters were determined. No toxicity signs or deaths were recorded during the treatment with EOHM. The body weight gain was not affected, but there was an occasional variation in water and food consumption among mice of both sexes treated with both doses. The hematological and biochemical profiles did not show significant differences except for a decrease in the MCV and an increase in albumin, but these variations are within the limits described for the species. The microscopic analysis showed changes in liver, kidneys, lungs, and spleen; however, these changes do not have clinical relevance since they varied among the groups, including the control group. The results indicate that the treatment of repeated-doses with the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii showed low toxicity in mice.

  7. Significance of diet in treated and untreated acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Alicja; Szmurło, Agnieszka; Sińska, Beata

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between diet and acne is highly controversial. Several studies during the last decade have led dermatologists to reflect on a potential link between diet and acne. This article presents the latest findings on a potential impact that diet can have on pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. The association between diet and acne can no longer be dismissed. Compelling evidence shows that high glycemic load diets may exacerbate acne. Dairy ingestion appears to be weakly associated with acne and the roles of omega-3 fatty acids, dietary fiber, antioxidants, vitamin A, zinc and iodine remain to be elucidated. The question of what the impact of diet is on the course of acne vulgaris still remains unclear.

  8. Significance of diet in treated and untreated acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Kucharska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between diet and acne is highly controversial. Several studies during the last decade have led dermatologists to reflect on a potential link between diet and acne. This article presents the latest findings on a potential impact that diet can have on pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. The association between diet and acne can no longer be dismissed. Compelling evidence shows that high glycemic load diets may exacerbate acne. Dairy ingestion appears to be weakly associated with acne and the roles of omega-3 fatty acids, dietary fiber, antioxidants, vitamin A, zinc and iodine remain to be elucidated. The question of what the impact of diet is on the course of acne vulgaris still remains unclear.

  9. Thymus vulgaris essential oil: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borugă, O; Jianu, C; Mişcă, C; Goleţ, I; Gruia, A T; Horhat, F G

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris cultivated in Romania. The essential oil was isolated in a yield of 1.25% by steam distillation from the aerial part of the plant and subsequently analyzed by GC-MS. The major components were p-cymene (8.41%), γ-terpinene (30.90%) and thymol (47.59%). Its antimicrobial activity was evaluated on 7 common food-related bacteria and fungus by using the disk diffusion method. The results demonstrate that the Thymus vulgaris essential oil tested possesses strong antimicrobial properties, and may in the future represent a new source of natural antiseptics with applications in the pharmaceutical and food industry.

  10. Respose of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Domínguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance to drought is a desired cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. The present study aimed to determine the response of 22 cultivars of common bean during the early stages of vegetative development character. The plants were subjected to irrigation at 70% or 20% of field capacity (FC for seven days and the indicators were measured relative water content, stomatal opening, stomatal index, proline content and total phenols in leaves. The data obtained were processed using a principal component analysis and the variables studied were represented by a bivariate graph (biplot. It was possible to group the cultivars based on their response in tolerant, moderately tolerant and susceptible to water stress condition induced by irrigation at 20% FC. Stomatal opening and relative water content were recommended to be used as criteria for selecting cultivars tolerant to water stress indicators bean. Key words: PCA, Phaseolus vulgaris L., proline, water stress

  11. LIPID ACCUMULATION OF CHLORELLA VULGARIS UNDER DIFFERENT PHOSPHATE CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Karolina Rokicka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation and utilization of microalgae is now a intensively developing area of research. Some species of microalgae, under appropriate conditions, accumulate large amounts of lipids in the cells. This lipids have a suitable profile of fatty acids for biodiesel production. The culture of microalgae for lipids accumulation should be performed in certain physicochemical conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of variable ortophophates concentrations in the culture medium for lipids accumulation of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and to determine of parameters of the phosphoric shock in the medium. The study confirmed the possibility of the use of the phosphoric shock in the medium to maximize lipids accumulation by the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. In the study, 45.23% of the oil was obtained from the biomass from the culture with phosphoric shock in the medium and 18% less of the oil was obtained from the biomass from the standard culture.

  12. Biodiesel production in crude oil contaminated environment using Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaaldi Kalhor, Aadel; Mohammadi Nassab, Adel Dabbagh; Abedi, Ehsan; Bahrami, Ahmad; Movafeghi, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Biodiesel is a valuable alternative to fossil fuels and many countries choose biodiesel as an unconventional energy source. A large number of investigations have been done on microalgae as a source of oil production. In recent years, wastewater pollutions have caused many ecological problems, and therefore, wastewater phycoremediation has attracted the international attention. This paper studied the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in a crude oil polluted environment for biodiesel production. Intended concentrations were 10 and 20gperliter (crude oil/water) at two times. The results showed that the growth of C. vulgaris was improved in wastewater and the maximum amount of dry mass and oil was produced at the highest concentration of crude oil (0.41g and 0.15g/l, respectively). In addition, dry mass and oil yield of the microalga were significantly enhanced by increasing the experiment duration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Case of lupus vulgaris diagnosed 50 years after onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttawichai, Pattanawadee; Igarashi, Tsukasa; Kawana, Seiji

    2009-02-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infrequent form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, but is a symptom that can lead to diagnosis of tuberculosis. We describe a case of lupus vulgaris in a 79-year-old woman who had a 50-year history of a slowly growing plaque on her right cheek. She visited many hospitals without resolution and the plaque gradually enlarged. Recently, she was misdiagnosed with eczema and prescribed topical steroids that had no effect, and she subsequently visited our outpatient clinic. A diagnosis of lupus vulgaris was made based on histopathology, culture and polymerase chain reaction, and isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol were administered as antituberculosis treatment. Although the incidence of cutaneous tuberculosis has decreased significantly in developed countries, knowledge and awareness of the disease are still of importance for proper diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Phaseolus vulgaris RbohB functions in lateral root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Jesús; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Quinto, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs) catalyze the reduction of oxygen to generate superoxide anion, a kind of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS produced by RBOHs play essential roles in diverse processes, such as root hair development, stomata closure and signaling mechanisms in response to abiotic stimuli and during plant-pathogen interactions. Recently, we found that PvRbohB silencing in transgenic Phaseolus vulgaris roots had a negative impact on lateral root density. In this work, we show that the downregulation of PvRbohB affects both the growth and ROS levels in recently emerged lateral roots. In addition, we found that the PvRbohB promoter was activated during lateral root primordium initiation in the pericycle, and remained active throughout lateral root development. This study identifies RBOHs as potentially important players in lateral root development in P. vulgaris.

  15. Treatment of acne vulgaris during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Y L; Tey, H L

    2013-06-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common problem encountered by pregnant and lactating women. Unfortunately, in clinical practice, treatment is often not optimized as a result of the lack of safety data and unified recommendations on the use of the various anti-acne therapies. In this narrative review, current data on their safety is summarized. We recommend the use of topical medications as first-line treatment for acne vulgaris in pregnant and lactating women. These include antibiotics (erythromycin, clindamycin, metronidazole and dapsone), benzoyl peroxide, azelaic acid and salicylic acid. Oral agents and/or light-based therapy may be considered as second-line treatment. The former consists of oral macrolides (erythromycin and azithromycin), cephalexin or zinc compounds. Blue-violet or red light phototherapy may be used as monotherapy or in addition to topical and/or oral therapies. Hormonal therapy, antibiotics consisting of tetracyclines, co-trimoxazole and fluoroquinolones, and both oral and topical retinoids should be avoided.

  16. The morphology and adhesion mechanism of Octopus vulgaris suckers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramacere, Francesca; Beccai, Lucia; Kuba, Michael; Gozzi, Alessandro; Bifone, Angelo; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The octopus sucker represents a fascinating natural system performing adhesion on different terrains and substrates. Octopuses use suckers to anchor the body to the substrate or to grasp, investigate and manipulate objects, just to mention a few of their functions. Our study focuses on the morphology and adhesion mechanism of suckers in Octopus vulgaris. We use three different techniques (MRI, ultrasonography, and histology) and a 3D reconstruction approach to contribute knowledge on both morphology and functionality of the sucker structure in O. vulgaris. The results of our investigation are two-fold. First, we observe some morphological differences with respect to the octopus species previously studied (i.e., Octopus joubini, Octopus maya, Octopus bimaculoides/bimaculatus and Eledone cirrosa). In particular, in O. vulgaris the acetabular chamber, that is a hollow spherical cavity in other octopuses, shows an ellipsoidal cavity which roof has an important protuberance with surface roughness. Second, based on our findings, we propose a hypothesis on the sucker adhesion mechanism in O. vulgaris. We hypothesize that the process of continuous adhesion is achieved by sealing the orifice between acetabulum and infundibulum portions via the acetabular protuberance. We suggest this to take place while the infundibular part achieves a completely flat shape; and, by sustaining adhesion through preservation of sucker configuration. In vivo ultrasonographic recordings support our proposed adhesion model by showing the sucker in action. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers innovative potential cues for developing bioinspired artificial adhesion systems. Furthermore, we think that it could possibly represent a useful approach in order to investigate any potential difference in the ecology and in the performance of adhesion by different species.

  17. The morphology and adhesion mechanism of Octopus vulgaris suckers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Tramacere

    Full Text Available The octopus sucker represents a fascinating natural system performing adhesion on different terrains and substrates. Octopuses use suckers to anchor the body to the substrate or to grasp, investigate and manipulate objects, just to mention a few of their functions. Our study focuses on the morphology and adhesion mechanism of suckers in Octopus vulgaris. We use three different techniques (MRI, ultrasonography, and histology and a 3D reconstruction approach to contribute knowledge on both morphology and functionality of the sucker structure in O. vulgaris. The results of our investigation are two-fold. First, we observe some morphological differences with respect to the octopus species previously studied (i.e., Octopus joubini, Octopus maya, Octopus bimaculoides/bimaculatus and Eledone cirrosa. In particular, in O. vulgaris the acetabular chamber, that is a hollow spherical cavity in other octopuses, shows an ellipsoidal cavity which roof has an important protuberance with surface roughness. Second, based on our findings, we propose a hypothesis on the sucker adhesion mechanism in O. vulgaris. We hypothesize that the process of continuous adhesion is achieved by sealing the orifice between acetabulum and infundibulum portions via the acetabular protuberance. We suggest this to take place while the infundibular part achieves a completely flat shape; and, by sustaining adhesion through preservation of sucker configuration. In vivo ultrasonographic recordings support our proposed adhesion model by showing the sucker in action. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers innovative potential cues for developing bioinspired artificial adhesion systems. Furthermore, we think that it could possibly represent a useful approach in order to investigate any potential difference in the ecology and in the performance of adhesion by different species.

  18. Miliaria pustulosa misdiagnosed as a case of acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Bukhari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Miliaria is a skin disorder of eccrine glands. Based on the level of sweat duct obstruction, miliaria is subdivided into three main types: Miliaria crystallina, miliaria rubra and miliaria profunda. Besides, resident skin bacteria are thought to play a role in its pathogenesis. In this report we are presenting a case of miliaria pustulosa which was misdiagnosed initially as a case of acne vulgaris.

  19. Dicamba causes genomic instability in Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Murat; Taşpınar, Mahmut Sinan; Arslan, Esra; Yaǧci, Semra; Aǧar, Güleray

    2017-04-01

    The herbicide 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (dicamba) is principally used widely agriculture today. The widely use of dicamba in agriculture may represent a potential toxic risks to some crops. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effects of dicamba by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings. The results showed that persistent DNA damage and decreased genomic template stability (GTS) induced by dicamba (0,2, 0,4 and 0,6 ppm).

  20. Growth of Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochloris oculata in effluents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microalgae were inoculated in photobioreactors in 6 L of medium (WTF or BBM) at an initial concentration of 1.0 × 106 cells ml-1 at 20 ± 2°C. The highest average cell density as well as the highest productivity of biomass observed in the treatments was C. vulgaris treatment in BBM and multi-LED lighting (8.83 × 107 cells ...

  1. TRENDS OF SELF MEDICATION IN PATIENTS WITH ACNE VULGARIS

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzeela Khalid; Tariq Iqbal

    2010-01-01

    Back ground:Self medication is a norm in our country. One factor probably contributing to this phenomenonis over the counter sale of almost all medication without any regulation. In our dermatologypractice, we frequently encounter patients with acne vulgaris deteriorated by topical use of selfmedication. However, there is very little data to support this in our set up.Objective:To determine the percentage of acne patients using self medication in our population.Design:A cross-sectional survey...

  2. Body Image Disturbance in Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Bowe, Whitney P.; Doyle, Amanda K.; CRERAND, CANICE E.; Margolis, David J.; Shalita, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial outcome measures, which attempt to examine acne from the patient's perspective, have become increasingly important in dermatology research. One such measure is the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. The authors' primary aim was to determine the validity and internal consistency of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in patients with acne vulgaris. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between body image disturbance and quality of life. This cross-sectional...

  3. Novel pharmacological approaches for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente Duarte de Sousa, Isabel Cristina

    2014-10-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease worldwide; yet, current treatment options, although effective, are associated with unwanted side effects, chronicity, relapses and recurrences. The adequate control of the four pathogenic mechanisms, involved in the appearance of acne lesions, is paramount to treatment success. The authors discuss and evaluate the pathogenic pathways related to the mechanisms of action of novel molecules, which are currently under investigation for the treatment of acne vulgaris. The manuscript is based on comprehensive searches made through PubMed, GoogleScholar and ClinicalTrial.gov, using different combination of key words, which include acne vulgaris, pathogenesis, treatment, sebogenesis and Propionibacterium acnes. In the near future, more effective treatments with fewer side effects are expected. The use of topical antiandrogens, acetylcholine inhibitors and PPAR modulators seem to be promising options for controlling sebum production. Retinoic acid metabolism-blocking agents and IL-1α inhibitors have the potential to become legitimate alternative options to retinoid therapy in the management of infundibular dyskeratosis. Indeed, the authors believe that there will likely be a decline in the use of antibiotics for controlling P. acnes colonization and targeting the inflammation cascade.

  4. Recycling of food waste as nutrients in Chlorella vulgaris cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kin Yan; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-10-01

    Heterotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris was investigated in food waste hydrolysate. The highest exponential growth rate in terms of biomass of 0.8day(-1) was obtained in a hydrolysate consisting of 17.9gL(-1) glucose, 0.1gL(-1) free amino nitrogen, 0.3gL(-1) phosphate and 4.8mgL(-1) nitrate, while the growth rate was reduced in higher concentrated hydrolysates. C. vulgaris utilized the nutrients recovered from food waste for the formation of biomass and 0.9g biomass was produced per gram glucose consumed. The microalgal biomass produced in nutrient sufficient batch cultures consisted of around 400mgg(-1) carbohydrates, 200mgg(-1) proteins and 200mgg(-1) lipids. The conversion of nutrients derived from food waste and the balanced biomass composition make C. vulgaris a promising strain for the recycling of food waste in food, feed and fuel productions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth of Chlorella vulgaris and associated bacteria in photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Intihar, Veera M; Tuovinen, Olli H; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test three flat plate photobioreactor configurations for growth of Chlorella vulgaris under non-axenic conditions and to characterize and quantify associated bacterial communities. The photobioreactor cultivations were conducted using tap water-based media to introduce background bacterial population. Growth of algae was monitored over time with three independent methods. Additionally, the quantity and quality of eukaryotes and bacteria were analysed using culture-independent molecular tools based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). Static mixers used in the flat plate photobioreactors did not generally enhance the growth at the low light intensities used. The maximum biomass concentration and maximum specific growth rate were 1.0 g l(-1) and 2.0 day(-1) respectively. Bacterial growth as determined by QPCR was associated with the growth of C. vulgaris. Based on PCR-DGGE, bacteria in the cultures mainly originated from the tap water. Bacterial community profiles were diverse but reproducible in all flat plate cultures. Most prominent bacteria in the C. vulgaris cultures belonged to the class Alphaproteobacteria and especially to the genus Sphingomonas. Analysis of the diversity of non-photosynthetic microorganisms in algal mass cultures can provide useful information on the public health aspects and unravel community interactions. © 2011 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) improves lutein production in Chlorella vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruijuan; Lin, Xiangzhi

    2014-03-01

    Vitreoscilla hemoglobin is an oxygen-binding protein that promotes oxygen delivery and reduces oxygen consumption under low oxygen conditions to increase the efficiency of cell respiration and metabolism. In this study, we introduced a Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) into Chlorella vulgaris by Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation (ATMT). PCR analysis confirmed that the vgb gene was successfully integrated into the Chlorella vulgaris genome. Analysis of biomass obtained in shake flasks revealed transformant biomass concentrations as high as 3.28 g/L, which was 38.81% higher than that of the wild-type strain. Lutein content of transformants also increased slightly. Further experiments recovered a maximum lutein yield of 2.91 mg/L from the transformants, which was 36.77% higher than that of the wild-type strain. The above results suggest that integrated expression of the vgb gene may improve cell growth and lutein yield in Chlorella vulgaris, with applications to lutein production from Chlorella during fermentation.

  7. ORAL ANTIBIOTICS IN ACNE VULGARIS: THERAPEUTIC RESPONSE OVER 5 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSHIDAH B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antibiotic resistant P. acnes have influenced acne therapy worldwide resulting in increased use of topicaland systemic retinoids. Judicious use of oral antibiotic is important for effective therapeutic outcome. Objectives: To determine the response and side effects of oral antibiotic treatment in acne vulgaris. To determine the typeof antibiotic used, therapy duration and the types of concomitant topical therapy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of the therapeutic response to oral antibiotics therapy in acne vulgaris in the Dermatology Department, Hospital Kuala Lumpur. New cases of acne vulgaris from 2005 to 2009 were randomly selected. The clinical notes of 250 patients treated with oral antibiotics were reviewed. Results: About 60% of patients achieved good to excellent response to therapy while satisfactory response was seen in 26%. Only 8% patients experienced minor side effects. Doxycycline was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic, followed by tetracycline and erythromycin ethylsuccinate. The prescribing pattern was consistent over the years. The mean duration of treatment is four to five months. Oral antibiotic was augmented with topical therapy in 98.8% of patients. Conclusion: Good to excellent therapeutic response was achieved in the majority of patients and results observed have remained stable over the last five years.

  8. Photon up-conversion increases biomass yield in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Kavya R; Jose, Steffi; Suraishkumar, Gadi K

    2014-12-01

    Photon up-conversion, a process whereby lower energy radiations are converted to higher energy levels via the use of appropriate phosphor systems, was employed as a novel strategy for improving microalgal growth and lipid productivity. Photon up-conversion enables the utilization of regions of the solar spectrum, beyond the typical photosynthetically active radiation, that are usually wasted or are damaging to the algae. The effects of up-conversion of red light by two distinct sets of up-conversion phosphors were studied in the model microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. Up-conversion by set 1 phosphors led to a 2.85 fold increase in biomass concentration and a 3.2 fold increase in specific growth rate of the microalgae. While up-conversion by set 2 phosphors resulted in a 30% increase in biomass and 12% increase in specific intracellular neutral lipid, while the specific growth rates were comparable to that of the control. Furthermore, up-conversion resulted in higher levels of specific intracellular reactive oxygen species in C. vulgaris. Up-conversion of red light (654 nm) was shown to improve biomass yields in C. vulgaris. In principle, up-conversion can be used to increase the utilization range of the electromagnetic spectrum for improved cultivation of photosynthetic systems such as plants, algae, and microalgae. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Growth of Chlorella vulgaris and associated bacteria in photobioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakaniemi, Aino‐Maija; Intihar, Veera M.; Tuovinen, Olli H.; Puhakka, Jaakko A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to test three flat plate photobioreactor configurations for growth of Chlorella vulgaris under non‐axenic conditions and to characterize and quantify associated bacterial communities. The photobioreactor cultivations were conducted using tap water‐based media to introduce background bacterial population. Growth of algae was monitored over time with three independent methods. Additionally, the quantity and quality of eukaryotes and bacteria were analysed using culture‐independent molecular tools based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR‐DGGE) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). Static mixers used in the flat plate photobioreactors did not generally enhance the growth at the low light intensities used. The maximum biomass concentration and maximum specific growth rate were 1.0 g l−1 and 2.0 day−1 respectively. Bacterial growth as determined by QPCR was associated with the growth of C. vulgaris. Based on PCR‐DGGE, bacteria in the cultures mainly originated from the tap water. Bacterial community profiles were diverse but reproducible in all flat plate cultures. Most prominent bacteria in the C. vulgaris cultures belonged to the class Alphaproteobacteria and especially to the genus Sphingomonas. Analysis of the diversity of non‐photosynthetic microorganisms in algal mass cultures can provide useful information on the public health aspects and unravel community interactions. PMID:21936882

  10. Photosynthetic and cellular toxicity of cadmium in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, Hui-Ling; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Lavoie, Michel; He, Wei; Qin, Ning; He, Qi-Shuang; Yang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2013-12-01

    The toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) on the green alga Chlorella vulgaris were investigated by following the response to Cd of various toxicity endpoints (cell growth, cell size, photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light or Φ(PSII), maximal photochemical efficiency or Fv/Fm, chlorophyll a fluorescence, esterase activity, and cell viability). These toxicity endpoints were studied in laboratory batch cultures of C. vulgaris over a long-term 96-h exposure to different Cd concentrations using flow cytometry and pulse amplitude modulated fluorometry. The sequence of sensitivity of these toxicity endpoints was: cell yield > Φ(PSII) ≈ esterase activity > Fv/Fm > chlorophyll a fluorescence ≈ cell viability. It is shown that cell apoptosis or cell death only accounted for a minor part of the reduction in cell yield even at very high algistatic free Cd²⁺ concentrations, and other mechanisms such as blocked cell divisions are major contributors to cell yield inhibition. Furthermore, cadmium may affect both the electron donors and acceptors of the electron transport chain at high free Cd²⁺ concentration. Finally, the resistance of cells to cell death was size-dependent; medium-sized cells had the highest toxicity threshold. The present study brings new insights into the toxicity mechanisms of Cd in C. vulgaris and provides a detailed comparison of the sensitivity of various Cd toxicity endpoints. © 2013 SETAC.

  11. Lipid production of Chlorella vulgaris cultured in artificial wastewater medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yujie; Li, Chao; Zhang, Dawei

    2011-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris was used to study algal lipid production with wastewater treatment. Artificial wastewater was used to cultivate C. vulgaris in a column aeration photobioreactor (CAP) under batch and semi-continuous cultivation with various daily culture replacements (0.5l-1.5l per 2l reactor). The cell density was decreased from 0.89 g/l with the daily replacement of 0.5l to 0.28 g/l with 1.5l replacement. However, C. vulgaris culture achieved the highest lipid content (42%, average value of the phase) and the lipid productivity (147 mg/ld(-1)) with daily replacement of 1.0 l. And then the nutrient removal efficiency were 86% (COD), 97% (NH(4)(+)) and 96% (TP), respectively. Analyses of energy efficiency showed that the net energy ratio (NER) for lipid production with daily replacement of 1.0 l (1.25) was higher than the other volume replacement protocols. And cost analyses showed that the algal biomass can be competitive with petroleum at US$ 63.97 per barrel with the potential credit for wastewater treatment. According to the above results, it is concluded that the present research will lead to an economical technology of algal lipid production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhancement of hydrolysis of Chlorella vulgaris by hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Charnho; Lee, Ja Hyun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Yoo, Hah Young; Lee, Ju Hun; Lee, Soo Kweon; Kim, Seung Wook

    2016-06-01

    Chlorella vulgaris is considered as one of the potential sources of biomass for bio-based products because it consists of large amounts of carbohydrates. In this study, hydrothermal acid hydrolysis with five different acids (hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, peracetic acid, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid) was carried out to produce fermentable sugars (glucose, galactose). The hydrothermal acid hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid showed the highest sugar production. C. vulgaris was hydrolyzed with various concentrations of hydrochloric acid [0.5-10 % (w/w)] and microalgal biomass [20-140 g/L (w/v)] at 121 °C for 20 min. Among the concentrations examined, 2 % hydrochloric acid with 100 g/L biomass yielded the highest conversion of carbohydrates (92.5 %) into reducing sugars. The hydrolysate thus produced from C. vulgaris was fermented using the yeast Brettanomyces custersii H1-603 and obtained bioethanol yield of 0.37 g/g of algal sugars.

  13. A systematic review of benzoyl peroxide for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nor, Noor Hidayah; Aziz, Zoriah

    2013-10-01

    Comparative trials of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) have yielded contradictory results on its effectiveness for acne vulgaris. The aim of the study was to synthesise the evidence for the effectiveness of BPO-containing topical products for facial acne vulgaris. Systematic review. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and other relevant databases were searched without publication date or language restriction. We identified 22 trials involving 2212 participants; 12 trials compared BPO as single agent while the other 10 trials compared BPO in combination products. All trials reported lesion count as the outcome measure but only five trials provided numerical data. However, pooling of data from these trials was inappropriate due to variations between trials in terms of acne severity, comparator used and trial duration. Overall the study quality was fair but most studies had some bias particularly in method of random generation and allocation concealment. Although the results provide some evidence that BPO reduces acne-lesion count, the available evidence is not robust enough for firm conclusions. There is no high quality evidence that topical BPO improves facial acne vulgaris, and further research is needed.

  14. Metastasized squamous cell carcinoma developed on lupus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pătraşcu, V; Georgescu, Claudia Valentina; Tănase, Loredana Elena; Mogoantă, S S

    2008-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV) is the most frequent cutaneous tuberculosis, representing more than 55% of the tuberculoses with this location. Malignization can occur after a long latency (10-30 years), in 1-2% of the cases, and it is mainly in squamous cell carcinoma. The histological exam is highly important in the observation of neoplasic transformations. The authors present a 59-years-old female patient, from the rural environment, working as a farmer, with lupus vulgaris developing since her first childhood years. It started at the age of 2 years, at the right ear lobule, after the empiric perforation for earrings. The evolution was progressive, eccentric, interesting the pinna and the right cheek in the meanwhile. At the first examination, in 2002, a diffuse mass of red-yellowish infiltration was found at the level of the right ear and the right cheek. In the following two years, an ulcero-vegetating tumor developed at the level of the right ear lobule, accompanied by the presence of a right retromandibular adenopathy, of about 1 cm, which was proved by the histopathologic exam to be a squamous cell carcinoma developed from a lupus vulgaris. After scraping out the right retromandibular ganglion, detected by palpation, a histological exam showed ganglion metastasis.

  15. Sensitivity of spoiling and pathogen food-related bacteria to Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil Sensibilidade de bactérias deteriorantes e patogênicas de interesse em alimentos ao óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Evandro Leite de Souza; Tânia Lúcia Montenegro Stamford; Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima

    2006-01-01

    Origanum vulgare L. (oregano), Lamiaceae, has been known as plant specie with prominent biological properties for a long time. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil on various Gram-positive and Gram-negative spoiling and/or pathogen food-related bacteria, as well as to observe its antimicrobial effectiveness in a food conservation micromodel. The results showed a strong antibacterial activity of the assayed essential oil noted by large growt...

  16. Profile of acne vulgaris-A hospital-based study from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adityan Balaji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris is believed to be the most common disease of the skin. There is no Indian study on the profile of acne vulgaris, markers of severe forms of acne vulgaris and a possible correlation between acne vulgaris and markers of androgenicity in females. Aim: To study the profile of acne vulgaris, its seasonal variation, relationship with smoking and possible correlation between acne vulgaris and markers of androgenicity in females. Methods: The study was conducted between August 2006 and June 2008. All patients with acne vulgaris who consented to participate in the study were included. The parameters evaluated included age, gender, age of onset, duration of lesions, site of lesions, grade, relation with menstrual cycle, markers of androgenicity, number of acne lesions such as comedones, papules pustules and nodules, number and site of post-acne scarring, post-acne hyperpigmentation, seasonal variation and history of smoking. Results: A total of 309 patients with acne vulgaris were included in the study. The frequency of acne vulgaris in our study was 1.068%. Mean age of the study group was 19.78 years. Male to female ratio was 1.25:1. The most common age group involved was 16 to 20 years (59.8%. Mean age of onset was 15.97 years. Face was involved in all the patients, followed by back (28.2%, chest (20.1%, neck (9.4% and arms (10%. In the older age groups, women were more likely to report having acne vulgaris than men ( P = 0.01. The closed comedones outnumbered open comedones by a factor of 4.9:1. A total of 186 patients (60.2% had grade 1 acne vulgaris, 85 (27.5% had grade 2 acne, 8 (2.6% had grade 3 acne and 30 (9.7% had grade 4 acne vulgaris. There was a higher incidence of scarring (39.5% and post-acne hyperpigmentation (24.6% in our study. In female patients, 57.7% had premenstrual flare and 12.4% had cutaneous markers of androgenicity. There was no association between severity of acne vulgaris and other markers of

  17. Correlation between the Severity and Type of Acne Lesions with Serum Zinc Levels in Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Rostami Mogaddam, Majid; Safavi Ardabili, Nastaran; Maleki, Nasrollah; Soflaee, Maedeh

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common cutaneous disorder affecting adolescents and young adults. Some studies have reported an association between serum zinc levels and acne vulgaris. We aimed to evaluate the serum zinc level in patients with acne vulgaris and compare it with healthy controls. One hundred patients with acne vulgaris and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic. Acne severity was classified according to Global Acne Grading System (GAGS). Atomic absorption spectrophotometry ...

  18. Hubungan Antara Kadar Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) Dalam Serum Dan Derajat Keparahan Akne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Panjaitan, Joice Sonya

    2011-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a skin disease that is commonly found in the community. Acne vulgaris has been known had a complex pathogenesis and IGF-1 was allegedly had a role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. IGF-1 can enhance keratinocyte cell proliferation and increase sebum production. However, the role of IGF-1 in the various degree of acne vulgaris severity remains unclear. Objective To determine the correlation between the serum IGF-1 level and the severity degree of acne ...

  19. Compilation of Annual Reports of the Navy ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program (1983). Volume 2. Tabs F-J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    September 3 FLOWER VISITATION: Asclepias syriaca dr , Asclepias tuberosa d- Melilotus alba , Nepeta cataria d, Chalicodoma (Chelostomoides) rugifrons...Nepetea cataria Corydalis aurea Prunella vulgaris *Dicentra cucullaria Satureja vulgaris D. canadensis Scutellaria lateriflora GENTIANACEAE S...July - July 26; IR, 5 July. * FLOWER VISITATION: Apocynu m androsaemnifolium er, Helianthus cNepeta cataria d,, Rhus glabra d-, Rudbeckia hirta AD-A148

  20. A novel ring-expanded product with enhanced tyrosinase inhibitory activity from classical Fe-catalyzed oxidation of rosmarinic acid, a potent antioxidative Lamiaceae polyphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Aya; Shingai, Yoshimi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Maekawa, Tomomi; Sone, Yoshiaki; Masuda, Toshiya

    2010-12-15

    The iron-ion catalyzed oxidation of the ethanol solution of rosmarinic acid, a potent antioxidant polyphenol of Lamiaceae (Labiatae) plants, afforded a highly tyrosinase-inhibitory active product. The structure of the active product in the oxidation product mixture was determined using extensive NMR spectroscopy to have a novel oxygen-containing seven-membered ring system. The formation mechanism of the unique ring structure from the catechol part of the rosmarinic acid was proposed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biology and host specificity of Rhinusa pilosa, a recommended biological control agent of Linaria vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre Gassmann; Rosemarie De Clerck-Floate; Sharlene Sing; Ivo Tosevski; Milana Mitrovic; Olivier Krstic

    2014-01-01

    Linaria vulgaris Mill. (Plantaginaceae), common or yellow toadflax, is a Eurasian short-lived perennial forb invasive throughout temperate North America. Rhinusa pilosa (Gyllenhal) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) is a univoltine shoot-galling weevil found exclusively on L. vulgaris in Europe. Under no-choice test conditions, 13 non-native Linaria species exposed toR....

  2. The response of Acne vulgaris to antibiotics both oral and topical | Al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that involves pilosebaceous units. Many systemic treatments used for acne vulgaris such as antibiotics, hormonal therapy, isotretinoin and occasionally, corticosteroids. Oral azithromycin has been advocated by some in the treatment of acne, but its efficacy ...

  3. Effect of uranium uptake on oxidative stress reactions for Phaseolus vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Cuypers, Ann; Vandenhove, H.; Hees, M.; Wannijn, J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study aims to analyze the biological effects induced by bioaccumulation of uranium by Phaseolus vulgaris. Following a 1 week exposure, plant development and the capacity of enzymes involved in the anti-oxidative defense mechanism of the plant were analyzed. uranium; oxidative stress; Phaseolus vulgaris; uptake; hydroponics

  4. Anti-ulcer activity of fruit of Lagenaria vulgaris | Patil | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-ulcer activity of fruit of Lagenaria vulgaris. Kalpana S Patil, Sunil V Garad. Abstract. Petroleum ether (40-600), chloroform, alcohol and aqueous extract of Lagenaria vulgaris fruits have been evaluated for its anti-ulcer activity by using pylorus ligation method in rats. Doses for the different extracts were selected based on ...

  5. Antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil alone and in combination with other essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA RAI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Kon K, Rai M. 2012. Antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil alone and in combination with other essential oils. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 50-56. Essential oils (EOs from plants represent an alternative approach in combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One of the EOs with proven antibacterial properties is Thymus vulgaris EO. The purpose of the present work was to investigate in vitro antibacterial activity of T. vulgaris EO alone and in combination with other EOs. The activity of T. vulgaris EO was screened in combination with 34 EOs against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by disk diffusion method; then the most effective combinations were evaluated by broth microdilution method. Against S. aureus the synergistic effect was found in combination of T. vulgaris and Cinnamomum zeylonicum EOs with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index of 0.26; Juniperus communis and Picea abies EOs showed additive effect (FIC indexes were 0.74 and 0.78, respectively. Combination of T. vulgaris EO with Aniba rosaeodora and Melissa officinalis EOs demonstrated synergistic effect against E. coli (FIC indexes were 0.23 and 0.34, respectively; combination of T. vulgaris and Mentha piperita EOs was additive (FIC index 0.55. Therefore, combining T. vulgaris EO with other EOs has potential in further enhancing its antibacterial properties.

  6. Association of the Köbner phenomenon with disease activity and therapeutic responsiveness in vitiligo vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Njoo, M. D.; Das, P. K.; Bos, J. D.; Westerhof, W.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the association between the experimentally induced Kobner phenomenon (KP-e) and the Kobner phenomenon by history (KP-h), disease activity, and therapeutic responsiveness in vitiligo vulgaris. Cohort study. An outpatient clinic. Sixty-one consecutive patients with vitiligo vulgaris.

  7. Effect of gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorella vulgaris had the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3) which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or to convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of this study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally expressed in mammalian cells and ...

  8. Establishment and characterization of a Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad (Lamiaceae) cell suspension culture: a new in vitro source of rosmarinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraroo, Amir; Mirjalili, Mohammad Hossein; Corchete, Purificación; Babalar, Mesbah; Fattahi Moghadam, Mohammad Reza

    2016-08-01

    An in vitro approach to the production of rosmarinic acid (RA), a medicinally important caffeic acid ester, in a cell suspension culture (CSC) of Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad (Lamiaceae) has been investigated for the first time. The CSC was established from friable calli derived from shoot tip explants in Gamborg's B5 liquid medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 20 mg/L L-glutamine, 200 mg/L casein hydrolysate, 5 mg/L benzyladenine (BA) and 1 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The effect of nitrogen source (KNO3 and (NH4)2SO4) and their different concentrations on the fresh and dry weight (g/L), as well as RA content (mg/g dry weight) were measured. CSC growth measurements indicated a maximum specific cell growth rate of 1.5/day, a doubling time of 7.6 days and a high percentage of cell viability (96.4 %) throughout the growth cycle. Maximum cell fresh weight (353.5 g/L), dry weight (19.7 g/L) and RA production (180.0 mg/g) were attained at day 21 of culture. Cell growth and RA content were affected by nitrogen deficiency. Media containing 8.3 mM of total nitrogen (¼ of B5 standard medium) led to a minimum cell fresh weight (243.0 g/L), dry weight (17.4 g/L) and RA content (38.0 mg/g) after 21 days. The established CSC provided useful material for further optimization experiments aimed at a large-scale production of RA.

  9. HPLC-ELSD Quantification and Centrifugal Partition Chromatography Isolation of 8-O-Acetylharpagide from Oxera coronata (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeur, Camille; Le Borgne, Erell; Gauthier, Léa; Grougnet, Raphaël; Deguin, Brigitte; Poullain, Cyril; Litaudon, Marc

    2017-05-01

    Iridoid glycosides possess highly functionalised monoterpenoid aglycon with several contiguous stereocentres. For the most common, they are often present in quantities reaching several percentage of the fresh plant weight, and thus they may be regarded as starting material for the synthesis of a number of new chiral and bioactive molecules. To quantify and to isolate 8-O-acetylharpagide (AH) from several extracts of Oxera coronata R.P.J. de Kok, a Lamiaceae species endemic to New Caledonia, using HPLC-ELSD (evaporative light scattering detector) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). Oxera coronata produces high amounts of AH in leaves, twigs and fruits. Water and methanol extracts of these plant parts were prepared. The content of AH in each extract was quantified by HPLC-ELSD, using acetonitrile-water (+0.1% formic acid) gradient elution. The HPLC method was validated for precision, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) and accuracy. A ternary solvent system ethyl acetate/n-propanol/water (3:2:5, v/v/v) was selected and applied to recover the target compound using Spot CPC from the leaves aqueous extract. HPLC-ELSD analysis followed by CPC purification led to the efficient isolation of AH from O. coronata leaves aqueous extract. HPLC-ELSD has proven to be a well-adapted detection and quantification method for iridoid glycosides, while CPC confirmed to be an efficient technique for the isolation of polar compounds. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. New insights into evolutionary relationships within the subfamily Lamioideae (Lamiaceae) based on pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) nuclear DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tilottama; Lindqvist, Charlotte

    2015-10-01

    Lamioideae, one of the most species-rich subfamilies within Lamiaceae, exhibits a remarkable diversity in morphology and habit and is found in many temperate to subtropical regions across the globe. Previous studies based on chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequence data produced a tribal classification of Lamioideae, but so far this has not been confirmed with nuclear DNA loci. We investigated sequence variation in a low-copy nuclear pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) region and compared the phylogenetic results with previously published sequence data from a concatenated data set comprising four cpDNA loci. We incorporated representatives of all 10 lamioid tribes and some unclassified taxa, analyzed the data using phylogenetic inference, and estimated divergence times and ancestral areas for major nodes. Our results showed overall topological similarities between the cpDNA and PPR phylogenies with strong support for most tribes. However, we also observed incongruence in the circumscription of some tribes, including Gomphostemmateae and Pogostemoneae and in the relationships among tribes. Our results suggest an Oligocene-Miocene origin of the Lamioideae crown group. Asia and the Mediterranean region appear to have been centers of diversity and place of origin for many lamioid tribes. This study represents the first phylogeny of subfamily Lamioideae inferred from low-copy nuclear DNA data. We show that most lamioid tribes are corroborated, although the exact circumscription of two tribes is questioned. We have shed further light on the evolutionary relationships within Lamioideae, and this study demonstrates the utility of the PPR region for such subfamilial-level phylogenetic studies. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  11. Staminal Evolution in the Genus Salvia (Lamiaceae): Molecular Phylogenetic Evidence for Multiple Origins of the Staminal Lever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jay B.; Sytsma, Kenneth J.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The genus Salvia has traditionally included any member of the tribe Mentheae (Lamiaceae) with only two stamens and with each stamen expressing an elongate connective. The recent demonstration of the non-monophyly of the genus presents interesting implications for staminal evolution in the tribe Mentheae. In the context of a molecular phylogeny, the staminal morphology of the various lineages of Salvia and related genera is characterized and an evolutionary interpretation of staminal variation within the tribe Mentheae is presented. Methods Two molecular analyses are presented in order to investigate phylogenetic relationships in the tribe Mentheae and the genus Salvia. The first presents a tribal survey of the Mentheae and the second concentrates on Salvia and related genera. Schematic sketches are presented for the staminal morphology of each major lineage of Salvia and related genera. Key Results These analyses suggest an independent origin of the staminal elongate connective on at least three different occasions within the tribe Mentheae, each time with a distinct morphology. Each independent origin of the lever mechanism shows a similar progression of staminal change from slight elongation of the connective tissue separating two fertile thecae to abortion of the posterior thecae and fusion of adjacent posterior thecae. A monophyletic lineage within the Mentheae is characterized consisting of the genera Lepechinia, Melissa, Salvia, Dorystaechas, Meriandra, Zhumeria, Perovskia and Rosmarinus. Conclusions Based on these results the following are characterized: (1) the independent origin of the staminal lever mechanism on at least three different occasions in Salvia, (2) that Salvia is clearly polyphyletic, with five other genera intercalated within it, and (3) staminal evolution has proceeded in different ways in each of the three lineages of Salvia but has resulted in remarkably similar staminal morphologies. PMID:16926227

  12. Neuropharmacological study of Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Lamiaceae) in mice: sedative effect and chemical analysis of an aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vázquez, M; Estrada-Reyes, R; Martínez-Laurrabaquio, A; López-Rubalcava, C; Heinze, G

    2012-06-14

    Dracocephalum moldavica is used as a tranquilizer and as remedy for nervous conditions relief in the Mexican traditional medicine. Despite its intensive use no literature reported neuropharmacological studies on Dracocephalum moldavica as yet. The sedative, anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like effects of the aqueous extract of aerial parts of Dracocephalum moldavica (Lamiaceae) (DM) were evaluated in behavioral models in mice. The general toxic effects of DM were evaluated as well as their chemical analysis was performed. DM effects were evaluated on pentobarbital-induced sleeping time (SPT), the hole-board (HBT), and the avoidance exploratory behavior (AEBT) tests and on the forced swimming test (FST). General activity and motor coordination were evaluated in the open field (OFT) and Rota-rod tests, respectively. The acute toxicity of DM was determinate by its LD(50) dose. The chemical analyses DM were performed by chromatographic and HPLC-ESI-MS techniques. DM prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, induced sedation in the HBT, decreased spontaneous activity and produced motor coordination impairment in mice. However, DM did not show anxiolytic effects in the AEBT or HBT and it was not effective in FST. The DM-treatment produced mortalities with LD(50)=470 mg/kg body weight. The HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of DM revealed that (acacetin, apigenin and luteolin)-7-O-β-D-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside derivates are the main compounds of DM. DM induced sedative actions and a general inhibition of CNS activity observed by the decrease of animals' general activity, motor coordination and exploration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Specific leaf mass, fresh: dry weight ratio, sugar and protein contents in species of Lamiaceae from different light environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillo, M; Vizcaino, D; Moreno, E; Latorraca, Z

    2005-01-01

    Samples from eleven species of Lamiaceae were collected from different light environments in Venezuela for laboratory analysis. The studied species were: Plectranthus scutellarioides (Ps), Scutellaria purpurascens (Sp), Hyptis pectinata (Hp)), H. sinuata (Hs). Leonorus japonicus (Lj), Plecthranthus amboinicus (Pa) Ocimum hasilicum (Ocb), O. campechianum (Occ) Origanum majorana (Orm), Rosmarinus officinali, (Ro) and Salvia officinalis (So). Protein and soluble sugar contents per unit of area were measured, Specific Leaf Mass (SLM) and fresh:dry weight (FW/DW) ratios were calculated. The higher values for soluble sugars contents were present in sun species: Lj, Pa, Ocb, Occ, Orm, Ro and So; the lower values were obtained in low light species: Ps, Sp, Hp, Hs. The values of protein content do not show any clear trend or difference between sun and shade environments. The lowest values for the fresh weight: dry weight ratio are observed in sun species with the exception of Lj and Pa, while the highest value is observed in Pa, a succulent plant. The higher values of specific leaf mass (SLM) (Kg DMm(-2)) are observed in sun plants. The two way ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences among species and between sun and low light environments for sugar content and FW:DW ratio. while SLM was significant for environments but no significant for species, and not significant for protein for both species and environments. The soluble sugar content, FW:DW ratio and SLM values obtained in this work, show a clear separation between sun and shade plants. The sugar content and FW:DW ratio are distinctive within the species, and the light environment affected sugar content. FW:DW ratio and SLM. These species may he shade-tolerant and able to survive in sunny environments. Perhaps these species originated in shaded environments and have been adapting to sunny habitats.

  14. [Research on characteristic of interrelationship between toxic organic compound BPA and Chlorella vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shan-Jia; Chen, Xiu-Rong; Yan, Long; Zhao, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Fei; Jiang, Zi-Jian

    2014-04-01

    The effects of different concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) on Chlorella vulgaris and removal capacity of BPA by Chlorella vulgaris were investigated. Results showed that a low concentration (0-20 mg x L(-1)) of BPA promoted the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, whereas a relative high concentration (20-50 mg x L(-1)) of BPA inhibited the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, and the inhibition effect was positively correlated with the concentration of BPA. Likewise, a high dose of initial BPA (> 20 mg x L(-1)) led to a decline in the content of chlorephyll a. Chlorella vulgaris had BPA removal capacity when initial BPA concentration ranged from 2 mg x L(-1) to 50 mg x L(-1). There was positive correlation between the removal rate of BPA per cell and initial BPA concentration. The removal rate of BPA was the highest when initial BPA was 50 mg x L(-1), which appeared between lag phase and logarithmic phase.

  15. Co-pyrolysis characteristics of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and coal through TGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunxiang; Ma, Xiaoqian; He, Yao

    2012-08-01

    To find out an alternative of coal saving, a kind of microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) which is widespread in fresh water was introduced into coal pyrolysis process. In this work, the pyrolysis experiments of C. vulgaris and coal blend (CCB) were carried out by TGA, and those of C. vulgaris and coal were also taken respectively as control groups. It was found that: the TG and DTG profiles of CCB were similar to C. vulgaris, but different from coal under various blending ratios; DTG profiles of CCB were different at several heating rates; interaction was observed between the solid phases of CCB; kinetic triplets were determined by the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS), Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), and master-plots method, respectively. The results provide a reference for further study on co-pyrolysis of microalgae and coal to a certain extent. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Specific leaf mass, fresh: dry weight ratio, sugar and protein contents in species of Lamiaceae from different light environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Castrillo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples from eleven species of Lamiaceae were collected from different light environments in Venezuela for laboratory analysis.The studied species were: Plectranthus scutellarioides (Ps, Scutellaria purpurascens (Sp, Hyptis pectinata (Hp, H. sinuata (Hs, Leonorus japonicus (Lj, Plecthranthus amboinicus (Pa Ocimum basilicum (Ocb, O.campechianum (Occ Origanum majorana (Orm, Rosmarinus officinali ,(Ro and Salvia officinalis (So. Protein and soluble sugar contents per unit of area were measured, Specific Leaf Mass (SLMand fresh: dry weight (FW/DW ratios were calculated. The higher values for soluble sugars contents were present in sun species: Lj, Pa, Ocb, Occ, Or. m, Ro and So; the lower values were obtained in low light species: Ps, Sp, Hp, Hs. The values of protein content do not show any clear trend or difference between sun and shade environments. The lowest values for the fresh weight: dry weight ratio are observed in sun species with the exception of Lj and Pa, while the highest value is observed in Pa, a succulent plant. The higher values of specific leaf mass (SLM(Kg DMm-2 are observed in sun plants. The two way ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences among species and between sun and low light environments for sugar content and FW: DW ratio, while SLM was significant for environments but no significant for species, and not significant for protein for both species and environments. The soluble sugar content, FW: DW ratio and SLM values obtained in this work, show a clear separation between sun and shade plants. The sugar content and FW:DW ratio are distinctive within the species,and the light environment affected sugar content, FW:DW ratio and SLM. These species may be shade-tolerant and able to survive in sunny environments. Perhaps these species originated in shaded environments and have been adapting to sunny habitats.Rev.Biol.Trop.53(1-2:23-28.Epub 2005 Jun 24En once especies de la familia Lamiaceae: Plecthranthus

  17. Celulose monossulfito a partir de Bambusa vulgaris schrad Alkaline monosulphite pulping of Bambusa vulgaris schrad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Em condições de laboratório foram produzidas pastas celulósicas pelo processo alcalino monossulfito, com várias concentrações dos reagentes químicos, sulfito de sódio e licor-verde sulfato. As propriedades dessas celuloses foram comparadas com aquelas da celulose obtida pelo processo sulfato (kraft de uso generalizado pela indústria de celulose e papel. As características físico-mecânicas e ópticas das celuloses monossulfito e sulfato foram satisfatórias e semelhantes, com exceção da resistência ao rasgo, que na celulose sulfato foi maior. Os cavacos utilizados, nas dimensões de 5,5 x 0,8 x 0,5cm, respectivamente para comprimento, largura e espessura, foram adequados ao processo sulfato e inadequados às condições do processo monossulfito, que produziu celulose com menor rendimento depurado, maior porcentagem de rejeitos e maior teor de lignina residual nas fibras, determinado pelo número kappa. A densidade básica e as dimensões das fibras variaram no sentido radial do colmo, principalmente a densidade básica, cujos valores decresceram acentuadamente da camada externa para a interna.Pulps in laboratory conditions were obtained from Bambusa vulgaris Schrad by the alkaline monosulphite process, with various concentrations of the cooking chemicals. The strength properties of these pulps were compared to those obtained by the sulphate process. The results showed that both pulps were similar, excepting the tear resistance that was higher in the sulphate one. It was observed that chips with 5.5 x 0.8 x 0.5cm, respectively to the length, width and thickness were appropriated to the sulphate process but not to the conditions of the alkaline monosulphate process, which produced pulps with low values in terms of screening yield, percentage of screenings and kappa number. The variability of bamboo culm in the radial direction was also determined regarding basic density and fiber dimensions. The results showed variations in those

  18. Potential Health Effects of Enzymatic Protein Hydrolysates from Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Sedighi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Chlorella vulgaris is a multi-cellular edible algal species with abundant proteins. Extraction of high value protein fractions for pharmaceutical and nutritional applications can significantly increase the commercial value of microalga biomasses. There is no known report on the anticancer peptides derived from the Chlorella vulgaris abundant protein.Materials and Methods: This study examined the antimicrobial and anticancer effects of peptides from a hydrolyzed Chlorella vulgaris protein with 62 kDa molecular weight. Protein hydrolysis was done by pepsin as a gastrointestinal protease, and was monitored through protein content measurement, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and high performance liquidchromatography measurements. Inhibitory effect of the produced peptides on Escherichia coli cells and breast cancer cell lines was assayed.Results and Conclusion: Hydrolyzed peptides induced a decrease of about 34.1% in the growth of Escherichia coli, and the peptides of 3 to 5 kDa molecular weight had strong impact on the viability of breast cancer cells with IC50 value of 50 μg μl-1. The peptide fractions demonstrating antimicrobial and anti-cancer activities have the potential for use as functional food ingredients for health benefits. These results demonstrate that inexpensive algae proteinscould be a new alternative to produce anticancer peptides.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  19. Report on the Medicinal Use of Eleven Lamiaceae Species in Lebanon and Rationalization of Their Antimicrobial Potential by Examination of the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Their Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madona Khoury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Lamiaceae species are consumed in the Lebanese cuisine as food or condiment and are largely used in the traditional medicine of Lebanon to treat various diseases, including microbial infections. In this article we report the traditional medicinal uses of eleven Lamiaceae species: Coridothymus capitatus L., Lavandula stoechas L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Mentha spicata L. subsp. condensata, Origanum syriacum L., Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia fruticosa Miller., Satureja cuneifolia Ten., Satureja thymbra L., Thymbra spicata L., and Vitex agnus-castus L. and study the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of their essential oils (EOs. Our survey showed that Lamiaceae species are mainly used against gastrointestinal disorders and microbial infections. Chemical analysis of the EOs obtained from these plants allowed us to identify seventy-five compounds describing more than 90% of the relative composition of each EO. Essential oils with high amounts of thymol and carvacrol possessed the strongest antimicrobial activity. As expected, these two compounds demonstrated an interesting antifungal efficacy against the filamentous fungus T. rubrum. Our results confirmed that some of the Lamiaceae species used in Lebanon ethnopharmacological practices as antimicrobial agents do possess antibacterial and antifungal potential consistent with their use in alternative or complementary medicine.

  20. Report on the Medicinal Use of Eleven Lamiaceae Species in Lebanon and Rationalization of Their Antimicrobial Potential by Examination of the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Their Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Madona; Eparvier, Véronique; Ouaini, Naïm

    2016-01-01

    Many Lamiaceae species are consumed in the Lebanese cuisine as food or condiment and are largely used in the traditional medicine of Lebanon to treat various diseases, including microbial infections. In this article we report the traditional medicinal uses of eleven Lamiaceae species: Coridothymus capitatus L., Lavandula stoechas L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Mentha spicata L. subsp. condensata, Origanum syriacum L., Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia fruticosa Miller., Satureja cuneifolia Ten., Satureja thymbra L., Thymbra spicata L., and Vitex agnus-castus L. and study the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of their essential oils (EOs). Our survey showed that Lamiaceae species are mainly used against gastrointestinal disorders and microbial infections. Chemical analysis of the EOs obtained from these plants allowed us to identify seventy-five compounds describing more than 90% of the relative composition of each EO. Essential oils with high amounts of thymol and carvacrol possessed the strongest antimicrobial activity. As expected, these two compounds demonstrated an interesting antifungal efficacy against the filamentous fungus T. rubrum. Our results confirmed that some of the Lamiaceae species used in Lebanon ethnopharmacological practices as antimicrobial agents do possess antibacterial and antifungal potential consistent with their use in alternative or complementary medicine. PMID:28053641

  1. Managing nonteratogenic adverse reactions to isotretinoin treatment for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Bridget K; Ritsema, Tamara S

    2015-07-01

    Isotretinoin is the strongest, most effective oral treatment for patients with severe acne vulgaris, with remission rates of 89% and higher. Because of its potency, isotretinoin causes many adverse reactions. This article reviews common and severe adverse reactions to isotretinoin and how providers can best manage these reactions. Because of inconclusive research on the correlation between isotretinoin and depression and irritable bowel syndrome, providers should ask patients about symptoms monthly. Prescribing micronized isotretinoin and starting at the lowest dose with gradual upward titration also can help reduce the incidence of adverse reactions.

  2. Newer topical therapies for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2007-11-01

    Newer topical therapies approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of acne vulgaris are dapsone gel 5% and clindamycin phosphate 1.2% and tretinoin 0.025% combination gel. Both are formulated in aqueous-based gel vehicles. These newer topical acne products have been shown to be effective and safe in pivotal 12-week phase 3 trials and long-term studies completed over 12 months. This article reviews applicable pharmacokinetic, efficacy, and safety data reported with both products.

  3. Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oils from Thymus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A.B. Vieira de Melo

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris leaves was studied using experimental data recently obtained in the Florys S.p.A. laboratory. Mass transfer coefficients in the supercritical and solid phases from extraction curves at 40°C and 20 MPa were evaluated using a mathematical model based on the local adsorption equilibrium of essential oil on lipid in leaves. The adsorption equilibrium constant was fitted to these experimental data, and internal and external mass transfer resistances were calculated, allowing identification of the mechanism controlling the extraction process.

  4. Spina ventosa with lupus vulgaris and lymphadenopathy: Multifocal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous dactylitis is a rare yet well-recognized disease of small bones of the hands and feet. It occurs in young children below five years of age. Tubercular dactylitis with lupus vulgaris and lymphadenopathy was suspected clinically and radiologically in an 8-year-old girl who had multiple soft tissue swelling of hands and feet with ulceration, encrustations, and an atrophic scar with lytic expansile lesions of the small bones of the hands and feet. Tubercular lymph node involvement was confirmed histopathologically.

  5. Lupus vulgaris with tubercular lymphadenitis and IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaira, Ambar; Rathi, Om P; Mahajan, Sandeep; Sharma, Alok; Dinda, Amit K; Tiwari, Suresh C

    2008-02-01

    A 14-year-old girl presented with a 10-year history of a large crusted plaque over the right thigh for 10 years and small reddish plaque over the left upper back for 3 months. On routine evaluation, she was found to have hematuria. Skin biopsy from the lesion was suggestive of skin tuberculosis (lupus vulgaris), and kidney biopsy showed features of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Fine-needle aspiration from the inguinal lymph node was consistent with granulomatous disease. The patient has been on anti-tubercular treatment, and the hematuria has subsided.

  6. Ulcerative lupus vulgaris over nose, leading to cosmetic deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Pragya A; Mehta, Malay J; Patel, Bhumi B

    2015-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV), is a chronic and progressive form of secondary cutaneous tuberculosis. In India, it is commonly seen over buttocks, thighs, and legs whereas involvement of nose is quite rare. Ulcerative variant particularly over nose causes destruction of cartilage, leading to irreversible deformities and contracture. High-index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and prevention of cosmetic deformity. A case of LV over nose in a young male with ulceration is reported who responded well to anti-tubercular therapy, but left with scarring of nose, which could have been prevented if adequate awareness regarding extra-pulmonary cases would have been practiced.

  7. Effect of the Glycemic Index of Carbohydrates on Acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Jennie C. Brand-Miller; Peter Petocz; Stockmann, Karola S.; Atkinson, Fiona S.; Choi, James Y. J.; Stephen Lee; Reynolds, Rebecca C.

    2010-01-01

    Acne vulgaris may be improved by dietary factors that increase insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that a low-glycemic index diet would improve facial acne severity and insulin sensitivity. Fifty-eight adolescent males (mean age ± standard deviation 16.5 ± 1.0 y and body mass index 23.1 ± 3.5 kg/m2) were alternately allocated to high or low glycemic index diets. Severity of inflammatory lesions on the face, insulin sensitivity (homeostasis modeling assessment of insulin resistance), androgen...

  8. Novel protocol for lutein extraction from microalga Chlorella vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Este, Martina; De Francisci, Davide; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    Lutein is a pigment generally extracted from marigold flowers. However, lutein is also found in considerable amounts in microalgae. In this study a novel method was developed to improve the extraction efficiency of lutein from microalga C. vulgaris. Differently from conventional methods, ethanol...... purity was increased from 73.6% to 93.7% by decreasing the ethanol-water ratio from 85% to 50% in the resolubilization step. The novel method was also tested with tetrahydrofuran. The extraction proved to be again more effective than the conventional one; however dichloromethane outperformed...

  9. Spina ventosa with lupus vulgaris and lymphadenopathy: Multifocal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjeev; Sood, Shikha; Gupta, Mudita

    2015-12-01

    Tuberculous dactylitis is a rare yet well-recognized disease of small bones of the hands and feet. It occurs in young children below five years of age. Tubercular dactylitis with lupus vulgaris and lymphadenopathy was suspected clinically and radiologically in an 8-year-old girl who had multiple soft tissue swelling of hands and feet with ulceration, encrustations, and an atrophic scar with lytic expansile lesions of the small bones of the hands and feet. Tubercular lymph node involvement was confirmed histopathologically.

  10. The Paleobiolinguistics of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics is used to determine when and where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. developed significance for prehistoric groups of Native America. Dates and locations of proto-languages for which common bean terms reconstruct generally accord with crop-origin and dispersal information from plant genetics and archaeobotany. Paleobiolinguistic and other lines of evidence indicate that human interest in the common bean became significant primarily with the widespread development of a village‐farming way of life in the New World rather than earlier when squash and maize and a few other crops became important.

  11. Inhibitory effects of Iranian Thymus vulgaris extracts on in vitro growth of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnia, Maryam; Haghighi, Ali; Komeylizadeh, Hossein; Tabaei, Seyyed-Javadi Seyyed; Abadi, Alireza

    2008-09-01

    One of the most common drugs used against a wide variety of anaerobic protozoan parasites is metronidazole. However, this drug is mutagenic for bacteria and is a potent carcinogen for rodents. Thymus vulgaris is used for cough suppression and relief of dyspepsia. Also it has antibacterial and antifungal properties. The aim of this study was to investigate antiamebic effect of Thymus vulgaris against Entamoeba histolytica in comparison with metronidazole. One hundred gram air-dried T. vulgaris plant was obtained and macerated at 25 degrees C for 14 days using n-hexane and a mixture of ethanol and water. For essential oil isolation T. vulgaris was subjected to hydrodistillation using a clevenger-type apparatus for 3 hr. E. histolytica, HM-1: IMSS strain was used in all experiments. It was found that the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for T. vulgaris hydroalcoholic, hexanic extracts, and the essential oil after 24 hr was 4 mg/mL, 4 mg/mL, and 0.7 mg/mL, respectively. After 48 hr the MIC for T. vulgaris hydroalcoholic and hexanic extracts was 3 and 3 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Iranian T. vulgaris is effective against the trophozoites of E. histolytica.

  12. Efficacy and safety of superficial chemical peeling in treatment of active acne vulgaris*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Talib, Hassanain; Al-khateeb, Alyaa; Hameed, Ayad; Murugaiah, Chandrika

    2017-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is an extremely common condition affecting the pilosebaceous unit of the skin and characterized by presence of comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, cysts, which might result in permanent scars. Acne vulgaris commonly involve adolescents and young age groups. Active acne vulgaris is usually associated with several complications like hyper or hypopigmentation, scar formation and skin disfigurement. Previous studies have targeted the efficiency and safety of local and systemic agents in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. Superficial chemical peeling is a skin-wounding procedure which might cause some potentially undesirable adverse events. This study was conducted to review the efficacy and safety of superficial chemical peeling in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. It is a structured review of an earlier seven articles meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The clinical assessments were based on pretreatment and post-treatment comparisons and the role of superficial chemical peeling in reduction of papules, pustules and comedones in active acne vulgaris. This study showed that almost all patients tolerated well the chemical peeling procedures despite a mild discomfort, burning, irritation and erythema have been reported; also the incidence of major adverse events was very low and easily manageable. In conclusion, chemical peeling with glycolic acid is a well-tolerated and safe treatment modality in active acne vulgaris while salicylic acid peels is a more convenient for treatment of darker skin patients and it showed significant and earlier improvement than glycolic acid PMID:28538881

  13. Efficacy and safety of superficial chemical peeling in treatment of active acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Talib, Hassanain; Al-Khateeb, Alyaa; Hameed, Ayad; Murugaiah, Chandrika

    2017-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is an extremely common condition affecting the pilosebaceous unit of the skin and characterized by presence of comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, cysts, which might result in permanent scars. Acne vulgaris commonly involve adolescents and young age groups. Active acne vulgaris is usually associated with several complications like hyper or hypopigmentation, scar formation and skin disfigurement. Previous studies have targeted the efficiency and safety of local and systemic agents in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. Superficial chemical peeling is a skin-wounding procedure which might cause some potentially undesirable adverse events. This study was conducted to review the efficacy and safety of superficial chemical peeling in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. It is a structured review of an earlier seven articles meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The clinical assessments were based on pretreatment and post-treatment comparisons and the role of superficial chemical peeling in reduction of papules, pustules and comedones in active acne vulgaris. This study showed that almost all patients tolerated well the chemical peeling procedures despite a mild discomfort, burning, irritation and erythema have been reported; also the incidence of major adverse events was very low and easily manageable. In conclusion, chemical peeling with glycolic acid is a well-tolerated and safe treatment modality in active acne vulgaris while salicylic acid peels is a more convenient for treatment of darker skin patients and it showed significant and earlier improvement than glycolic acid.

  14. Effects of sodium pentaborate pentahydrate exposure on Chlorella vulgaris growth, chlorophyll content, and enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueqing; Pei, Yuansheng

    2016-10-01

    Sodium pentaborate pentahydrate (SPP) is a rare mineral. In this study, SPP was synthesized from boric acid and borax through low-temperature crystallization, and its effects on the growth of the alga, Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) were assessed. The newly synthesized SPP was characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential thermal analysis. The changes in C. vulgaris growth, chlorophyll content, and enzyme activities upon exposure to SPP for 168h were evaluated. Results showed that SPP treatment was detrimental to C. vulgaris growth during the first 24-120h of exposure. The harmful effects, however, diminished over time (168h), even at an effective medium concentration of 226.37mg BL(-1) (the concentration of boron applied per liter of culture medium). A similar trend was observed for chlorophyll content (chlorophyll a and b) and indicated that the photosynthesis of C. vulgaris was not affected and that high levels of SPP may even promote chlorophyll synthesis. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities of C. vulgaris increased during 24-120h exposure to SPP, but these activities gradually decreased as culture time progressed. In other words, the initial detrimental effects of synthetic SPP on C. vulgaris were temporary and reversible. This research provides a scientific basis for applications of SPP in the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A meta-analysis of association between acne vulgaris and Demodex infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-E; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-Ping; Ma, Jun-Xian

    2012-03-01

    Until now, etiology of acne vulgaris is still uncertain. Although clinicians usually deny the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris, it has been proved in some clinical practices. To confirm the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris, a meta-analysis was conducted. Predefined selection criteria were applied to search all published papers that analyzed the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris (January 1950 to August 2011) in ISI Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on fixed effects models or random effects models. We enrolled the 60 Chinese and 3 English papers in this meta-analysis, which covered Turkey and 25 different provinces/municipalities in China and 42130 participants including students and residents, aged from 1 to 78 years. The pooled OR in random effects models is 2.80 (95% CI, 2.34-3.36). Stability is robust according to sensitivity analysis. The fail-safe number is 18477, suggesting that at least 18477 articles with negative conclusions would be needed to reverse the conclusion that acne vulgaris was related to Demodex infestation. So the effect of publication bias was insignificant and could be ignored. It was concluded that acne vulgaris is associated with Demodex infestation. This indicates that when regular treatments for acne vulgaris are ineffective, examination of Demodex mites and necessary acaricidal therapies should be considered.

  16. Chlorella vulgaris production enhancement with supplementation of synthetic medium in dairy manure wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Pandey, Pramod K; Franz, Annaliese K; Deng, Huiping; Jeannotte, Richard

    2016-03-01

    To identify innovative ways for better utilizing flushed dairy manure wastewater, we have assessed the effect of dairy manure and supplementation with synthetic medium on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. A series of experiments were carried out to study the impacts of pretreatment of dairy wastewater and the benefits of supplementing dairy manure wastewater with synthetic medium on C. vulgaris growth increment and the ultrastructure (chloroplast, starch, lipid, and cell wall) of C. vulgaris cells. Results showed that the biomass production of C. vulgaris in dairy wastewater can be enhanced by pretreatment and using supplementation with synthetic media. A recipe combining pretreated dairy wastewater (40 %) and synthetic medium (60 %) exhibited an improved growth of C. vulgaris. The effects of dairy wastewater on the ultrastructure of C. vulgaris cells were distinct compared to that of cells grown in synthetic medium. The C. vulgaris growth in both synthetic medium and manure wastewater without supplementing synthetic medium was lower than the growth in dairy manure supplemented with synthetic medium. We anticipate that the results of this study will help in deriving an enhanced method of coupling nutrient-rich dairy manure wastewater for biofuel production.

  17. Quality of life, self-esteem and psychosocial factors in adolescents with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Gustavo Nunes; Santos, Laís Araújo dos; Sobral Filho, Jader Freire

    2015-01-01

    Dermatological diseases, among which acne vulgaris, have psychological impact on the affected generating feelings of guilt, shame and social isolation. To compare quality of life, self-esteem and other psychosocial variables amongst adolescents with and without acne vulgaris, and between levels of severity. Cross-sectional observational study in a sample of 355 high school students from the city of João Pessoa. Data collection was performed with questionnaires and clinical-dermatological evaluation. The primary variables were the incidence of AV; quality of life, set by the Children's Dermatology Quality of Life Index and Dermatology Quality of Life Index; and self-esteem, measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. For calculation of statistical tests, we used the SPSS 20.0 software, considering p=0.05. The sample, with an average age of 16, showed 89.3% prevalence of acne vulgaris. The most prevalent psychosocial issue was "afraid that acne will never cease", present in 58% of affected youth. The median score of Quality of Life in Children's Dermatology Index was different amongst students with and without acne vulgaris (p=0.003), as well as the Quality of Life in Dermatology (p=0.038) scores, so that students with acne vulgaris have worse QoL. There was a correlation between the severity of acne vulgaris and worse quality of life. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with the occurrence or severity of acne vulgaris. acne vulgaris assumes significance in view of its high prevalence and the effect on quality of life of adolescents, more severe at the more pronounced stages of disease (p<0.001). The psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris should be valued in the management of patients with this condition.

  18. Quality of life, self-esteem and psychosocial factors in adolescents with acne vulgaris*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Gustavo Nunes; dos Santos, Laís Araújo; Sobral Filho, Jader Freire

    2015-01-01

    Background Dermatological diseases, among which acne vulgaris, have psychological impact on the affected generating feelings of guilt, shame and social isolation. Objectives To compare quality of life, self-esteem and other psychosocial variables amongst adolescents with and without acne vulgaris, and between levels of severity. Methods Cross-sectional observational study in a sample of 355 high school students from the city of João Pessoa. Data collection was performed with questionnaires and clinical-dermatological evaluation. The primary variables were the incidence of AV; quality of life, set by the Children's Dermatology Quality of Life Index and Dermatology Quality of Life Index; and self-esteem, measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. For calculation of statistical tests, we used the SPSS 20.0 software, considering p=0.05. Results The sample, with an average age of 16, showed 89.3% prevalence of acne vulgaris. The most prevalent psychosocial issue was "afraid that acne will never cease", present in 58% of affected youth. The median score of Quality of Life in Children's Dermatology Index was different amongst students with and without acne vulgaris (p=0.003), as well as the Quality of Life in Dermatology (p=0.038) scores, so that students with acne vulgaris have worse QoL. There was a correlation between the severity of acne vulgaris and worse quality of life. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with the occurrence or severity of acne vulgaris. Conclusions acne vulgaris assumes significance in view of its high prevalence and the effect on quality of life of adolescents, more severe at the more pronounced stages of disease (pacne vulgaris should be valued in the management of patients with this condition. PMID:26560206

  19. TNFα gene polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Kornélia; Tax, Gábor; Teodorescu-Brinzeu, Dragos; Koreck, Andrea; Kemény, Lajos

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in acne pathogenesis, and pro-inflammatory cytokines are key factors in these events. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a central molecule coded by a gene that shows high level of genetic polymorphisms especially in its promoter region. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TNFα gene have been shown to be associated with an increased risk to develop chronic inflammatory diseases. In order to find out if known TNFα regulatory SNPs (-1031T>C, -857C>T, -863C>A, -308G>A, -238G>A) have a role in the development of the inflammatory reactions in acne vulgaris, we analyzed our genomic collection in a retrospective case-control study using the PCR-RFLP method, and we compared the resulting genotype and allele frequencies. There were no significant differences in the observed genotype or allele frequencies between the control and acne group in case of the -1031, -863, -238 SNPs; however, the TNFα -857 minor T allele was found to act as a protective factor in our study population in acne, and a higher occurrence of the minor -308 A allele in female acne patients was also noted. Genetic variants of the TNFα gene may affect the risk of acne vulgaris. Our results can help to elucidate the molecular events leading to acne development.

  20. Topical tretinoin or adapalene in acne vulgaris: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S

    2004-07-01

    Retinoids target several pathoetiologic events of acne vulgaris. The undisputed efficacy of tretinoin, and yet its underutilization, due to apprehension of retinoid dermatitis, triggered a search for newer, well-tolerated retinoids. The discovery of nuclear retinoic acid receptors has provided clues to a rational design of synthetic, receptor-selective retinoic acid agonists. Adapalene is an addition to the arsenal of topical retinoids. It possesses the biological properties of tretinoin, but has a distinct physiochemical profile, including high lipophilicity and increased chemical and photostability. It exhibits selective affinity for nuclear retinoic acid receptors and does not bind to cytosolic retinoic acid binding proteins. It exemplifies the formulation of a novel retinoid with specific pharmacologic profile and clinical objectives. Accordingly, numerous clinical trials have compared adapalene and tretinoin in the management of acne vulgaris and concluded that tretinoin 0.05% gel exhibits a greater anti-acne efficacy than adapalene 0.1% gel, but has higher skin irritation potential. This article reviews the pharmacology of adapalene, including its retinoid receptor binding profile, antiproliferative effects, cell differentiation modulation, comedolytic and anti-inflammatory activity, and specifically focuses on the comparison of the efficacy and irritation profile of adapalene and tretinoin.

  1. Treatment of Aphthous Stomatitis with topical Alchemilla vulgaris in glycerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Ravi; John, Gareth W

    2006-01-01

    Recurrent aphthous ulceration is the most common oral mucosal disease known. It presents as three types: minor (most prevalent), major and herpetiform. However, there are no well established effective and reliable treatments of this condition. Alchemilla vulgaris (Lady's Mantle) has traditionally been used in oral hygiene and was recently shown to accelerate wound healing when used in combination with glycerine. The objective of this study was to determine whether this combination is effective in the treatment of the most prevalent form of aphthous ulcers. An open-label study was conducted in 48 otherwise healthy male and female patients aged 4-44 years to determine the putative healing properties and tolerability of a standard 3% extract of A. vulgaris in glycerine (Aphtarine) on common minor oral ulcers. Patients with major or herpetiform ulcers were excluded from the study. Topical application three times daily of Aphtarine gel to minor mouth ulcers relieved discomfort and produced complete healing in the majority of patients (60.4%) within 2 days and in 75% within 3 days, compared with 10.4% and 33.3%, respectively, without treatment and 15% and 40%, respectively, with commonly available treatments. Most patients appreciated the product's ease of application, taste and texture. Aphtarine was well tolerated locally and most patients rated the product good to excellent overall. Aphtarine is a safe, well tolerated and highly effective promising new treatment for healing common mouth ulcers.

  2. Predicting dynamic metabolic demands in the photosynthetic eukaryote Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga, Cristal; Levering, Jennifer; Antoniewicz, Maciek R.; Guarnieri, Michael T.; Betenbaugh, Michael J.; Zengler, Karsten

    2017-09-26

    Phototrophic organisms exhibit a highly dynamic proteome, adapting their biomass composition in response to diurnal light/dark cycles and nutrient availability. Here, we used experimentally determined biomass compositions over the course of growth to determine and constrain the biomass objective function (BOF) in a genome-scale metabolic model of Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 395 over time. Changes in the BOF, which encompasses all metabolites necessary to produce biomass, influence the state of the metabolic network thus directly affecting predictions. Simulations using dynamic BOFs predicted distinct proteome demands during heterotrophic or photoautotrophic growth. Model-driven analysis of extracellular nitrogen concentrations and predicted nitrogen uptake rates revealed an intracellular nitrogen pool, which contains 38% of the total nitrogen provided in the medium for photoautotrophic and 13% for heterotrophic growth. Agreement between flux and gene expression trends was determined by statistical comparison. Accordance between predicted fluxes trends and gene expression trends was found for 65% of multi-subunit enzymes and 75% of allosteric reactions. Reactions with the highest agreement between simulations and experimental data were associated with energy metabolism, terpenoid biosynthesis, fatty acids, nucleotides, and amino acids metabolism. Furthermore, predicted flux distributions at each time point were compared with gene expression data to gain new insights into intracellular compartmentalization, specifically for transporters. A total of 103 genes related to internal transport reactions were identified and added to the updated model of C. vulgaris, iCZ946, thus increasing our knowledgebase by 10% for this model green alga.

  3. Treatment of acne vulgaris with fractional radiofrequency microneedling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Tae; Lee, Kang Hoon; Sim, Hyung Jun; Suh, Kee Suck; Jang, Min Soo

    2014-07-01

    Fractional radiofrequency microneedling is a novel radiofrequency technique that uses insulated microneedles to deliver energy to the deep dermis at the point of penetration without destruction of the epidermis. It has been used for the treatment of various dermatological conditions including wrinkles, atrophic scars and hypertrophic scars. There have been few studies evaluating the efficacy of fractional radiofrequency microneedling in the treatment of acne, and none measuring objective parameters like the number of inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions or sebum excretion levels. The safety and efficacy of fractional radiofrequency microneedling in the treatment of acne vulgaris was investigated. In a prospective clinical trial, 25 patients with moderate to severe acne were treated with fractional radiofrequency microneedling. The procedure was carried out three times at 1-month intervals. Acne lesion count, subjective satisfaction score, sebum excretion level and adverse effects were assessed at baseline and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the first treatment as well as 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the last treatment. Number of acne lesions (inflammatory and non-inflammatory) decreased. Sebum excretion and subjective satisfaction were more favorable at every time point compared with the baseline values (P treatment. Fractional radiofrequency microneedling is a safe and effective treatment for acne vulgaris. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  4. Enhanced Harvesting of Chlorella vulgaris Using Combined Flocculants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaochen; Zheng, Hongli; Zhou, Wenguang; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a novel flocculation strategy for harvesting Chlorella vulgaris with combined flocculants, poly (γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) and calcium oxide (CaO), has been developed. The effect of flocculant dosage, the order of flocculant addition, mixing speed, and growth stage on the harvesting efficiency was evaluated. Results showed that the flocculation using combined flocculants significantly decreases the flocculant dosage and settling time compared with control. It was also found that CaO and γ-PGA influenced microalgal flocculation by changing the zeta potential of cells and pH of microalgal suspension. The most suitable order of flocculant addition was CaO first and then γ-PGA. The optimal mixing speed was 200 rpm for 0.5 min, followed by 50 rpm for another 4.5 min for CaO and γ-PGA with the highest flocculation efficiency of 95 % and a concentration factor of 35.5. The biomass concentration and lipid yield of the culture reusing the flocculated medium were similar to those when a fresh medium was used. Overall, the proposed method requires low energy input, alleviates biomass and water contamination, and reduces utilization of water resources and is feasible for harvesting C. vulgaris for biofuel and other bio-based chemical production.

  5. Body image disturbance in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Whitney P; Doyle, Amanda K; Crerand, Canice E; Margolis, David J; Shalita, Alan R

    2011-07-01

    Psychosocial outcome measures, which attempt to examine acne from the patient's perspective, have become increasingly important in dermatology research. One such measure is the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. The authors' primary aim was to determine the validity and internal consistency of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in patients with acne vulgaris. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between body image disturbance and quality of life. This cross-sectional investigation included 52 consecutive acne patients presenting to an outpatient dermatology clinic. Subjects completed the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, Skindex-16, and other body image and psychosocial functioning measures. An objective assessment of acne was performed. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire was internally consistent and converged with other known body image indices. Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire scores also correlated with Skindex-16 scores, confirming that quality of life and body image are related psychosocial constructs. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire appears to be an accurate instrument that can assess appearance-related concern and impairment in patients with acne vulgaris. Limitations include a small sample size and the cross-sectional design.

  6. The electron transfer system of syntrophically grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, C.B.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.K.; Ringbauer, Jr., J.A.; He, Q.; Zhou, J.; Voordouw, G.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Hazen, T.C.; Stolyar, S.; Stahl, D.A.

    2009-05-01

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic couplings between hydrogen producers and consumers are a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent upon growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, D. vulgaris up-regulated numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation when compared with sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn) and the well-characterized high-molecular weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and up-regulated. Additionally, a predicted operon coding for genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited up-regulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little affect on growth via sulfate-respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate-respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that understanding of microbial processes sustaining nutrient cycling must consider lifestyles not captured in pure culture.

  7. The Electron Transfer System of Syntrophically Grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PBD; ENIGMA; GTL; VIMSS; Walker, Christopher B.; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin K.; Ringbauer Jr., Joseph A.; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Voordouw, Gerrit; Wall, Judy D.; Arkin, Adam P.; Hazen, Terry C.; Stolyar, Sergey; Stahl, David A.

    2009-06-22

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic couplings between hydrogen producers and consumers are a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent upon growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, D. vulgaris up-regulated numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation when compared with sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn) and the well-characterized high-molecular weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and up-regulated. Additionally, a predicted operon coding for genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited up-regulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little affect on growth via sulfate-respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate-respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that understanding of microbial processes sustaining nutrient cycling must consider lifestyles not captured in pure culture.

  8. Two endornaviruses show differential infection patterns between gene pools of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankhum, Surasak; Valverde, Rodrigo A; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial A; Osorno, Juan M; Sabanadzovic, Sead

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the occurrence of two plant endornaviruses, Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2, in breeding lines, cultivars, landraces, and wild genotypes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) collected from the two centers of common bean domestication: Mesoamerica and the Andes. The two endornaviruses were detected in many genotypes of Mesoamerican origin but rarely in genotypes of Andean origin. The results suggest that these two endornaviruses were introduced into the Mesoamerican modern genotypes during common bean domestication and provide more evidence for the existence of two divergent gene pools of common bean.

  9. Hubungan Konsumsi Makanan Cepat Saji Terhadap Kejadian Akne Vulgaris pada Mahasiswa FK USU Stambuk 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Bancin, Berry Eka Parda

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Acne vulgaris is a very common disease found in public, especially in adolescence. About 85% of people in their life have had acne vulgaris, so it’s often assumed as a physiological state. High-calorie foods have been long suspected as one of the causes of this disease, this opinion is supported by the increased incidence of acne vulgaris in developing countries today. Since 1946 to 2007 various studies have been conducted on the relationship of food to the occurrence of acne vu...

  10. Oral Spironolactone in Post-teenage Female Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Grace K.

    2012-01-01

    Oral spironolactone has been used for over two decades in the dermatological setting. Although it is not generally considered a primary option in the management of female patients with acne vulgaris, the increase in office visits by post-teenage women with acne vulgaris has recently placed a spotlight on the use of this agent in this subgroup of patients. This article reviews the literature focusing on the use of oral spironolactone in this subset of women with acne vulgaris, including discussions of the recommended starting dose, expected response time, adjustments in therapy, potential adverse effects, and patient monitoring. PMID:22468178

  11. Sobre el complejo taxonómico de Teucrium gnaphalodes l’Hér. (sect. Polium, Lamiaceae y algunos de los híbridos en los que interviene [Taxonomic complex of Teucrium gnaphalodes L’Hér. (Sect. Polium, Lamiaceae and some involved hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio LAGUNA LUMBRERAS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se comenta la variabilidad morfológica de Teucrium gnaphalodes L’Hér. (Sect. Polium, Lamiaceae, a partir del estudio de poblaciones repartidas por toda el área de distribución del taxon. Se concluye la necesidad de diferenciar la subsp. jaennense (Lacaita Rivas-Mart. y también dentro de la subespecie tipo la variedad illerdense Sennen para discriminar ciertos patrones morfológicos con entidad taxonómica propia y reparto geográfico concreto. Se comentan algunos aspectos relacionados con la sistemática y nomenclatura del complejo T. gnaphalodes, al tiempo que se realizan tres lectotipificaciones. Se describe el nuevo híbrido T. × conquense nothosubsp. stuebingii, producto del cruce natural entre T. capitatum subsp. gracillimum y T. gnaphalodes subsp. jaennense. ABSTRACT: Taxonomic complex of Teucrium gnaphalodes L’Hér. (Sect. Polium, Lamiaceae and some involved hybrids. The morphological variability of Teucrium gnaphalodes L’Hér. (Sect. Polium, Lamiaceae are commented, from the study of populations distributed throughout the range of the taxon. We concluded the need to differentiate the subsp. jaennense (Lacaita Rivas-Mart. and the var. illerdense Sennen within the subspecies type, to discriminate certain morphological patterns with own entity taxonomic and specific geographical distribution. Some aspects of systematic and nomenclature of T. gnaphalodes complex are discussed. Three lectotypes are designated. The new hybrid: T. × conquense nothosubsp. stuebingii, a product of natural cross between T. capitatum subsp. gracillimum and T. gnaphalodes subsp. jaennense is described.

  12. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minhee, E-mail: heelee@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Minjune [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 {mu}g/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  13. Shelf-life extension of minimally processed and gamma irradiated red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), Cv. early wonder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandes, Nilber Kenup; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear (DDQBN)]. E-mail: nilberkenup@ctex.eb.br; vital@ctex.eb.br; Coneglian, Regina Celi Cavestre [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst.de Agronomia. Dept. de Fitotecnia]. E-mail: rccconeg@ufrrj.br; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2007-07-01

    This work investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on the shelf-life extension and safety of minimally processed red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.) by performing microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses. Red beets were harvested 73 days after transplanting and their tuberous parts were minimally processed and separated in two groups: control (non-irradiated) and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy). Tests for Salmonella sp., total and fecal coliforms, total count of aerobic mesophilic and lactic-acid bacteria were performed during the 21-day storage at 8 deg C. They indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained in good conditions throughout storage while the unirradiated samples did not last 7 days. Chemical analyses indicated that the concentrations of vitamins B1 and B2 were not affected by irradiation. In contrast the amounts of fructose and glucose increased during storage while the one for sucrose decreased. In addition four series of sensory evaluations including appearance and aroma indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained good for consumption for 20 days. Therefore it was concluded that the use of the doses of 1.0 and 1.5 kGy produced the best effects on the conservation of the samples without harming the sensory characteristics and nutritional constituents tested. (author)

  14. Environ: E00731 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mus zygis [TAX:49990] ... Lamiaceae (mint family) Thymus vulgaris dried herb Obtaine...ineol [CPD:C16772], DL-alpha-Terpineol [CPD:C16772], Carvacrol [CPD:C09840] Thymus vulgaris [TAX:49992], Thy

  15. Transcriptome analysis of salt tolerant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under saline conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hiz, Mahmut Can; Canher, Balkan; Niron, Harun; Turet, Muge

    2014-01-01

    .... Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major protein source in developing countries, is highly affected by soil salinity and the information on genes that play a role in salt tolerance is scarce...

  16. Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bayati, Firas A

    2008-03-28

    Essential oils (EOs) and methanol extracts obtained from aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum seeds were evaluated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against nine Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The essential oils and methanol extracts revealed promising antibacterial activities against most pathogens using broth microdilution method. Maximum activity of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts (MIC 15.6 and 62.5mug/ml) were observed against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Proteus vulgaris. Combinations of essential oils and methanol extracts showed an additive action against most tested pathogens especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  17. Production of Triterpenoid Sapogenins in Hairy Root Cultures of Silene vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Reed, Darwin W; Covello, Patrick S

    2015-11-01

    Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke (Caryophyllaceae) is widely distributed in North America and contains bioactive oleanane-type saponins. In order to investigate in vitro production of triterpenoid saponins, hairy root cultures of S. vulgaris were established by infecting leaf explants with five strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes (LBA9402, R1000, A4, 13333, and 15834). The A. rhizogenes strain LBA9402 had an infection of 100% frequency and induced the most hairy roots per plant. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced changes in triterpenoid saponins in S. vulgaris hairy roots were analyzed. Accumulation of segetalic acid and gypsogenic acid after MeJA treatment was 5-and 2-fold higher, respectively, than that of control root. We suggest that hairy root cultures of S. vulgaris could be an important alternative approach to the production of saponins.

  18. Glycemic response to consumption of a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar on healthy individuals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zambrano, Rosaura; Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers...

  19. Cheilitis in acne vulgaris patients with no previous use of systemic retinoid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balighi, Kamran; Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Lajevardi, Vahideh; Talebi, Shahin; Azizpour, Arghavan

    2017-08-01

    Isotretinoin is commonly used in the treatment of acne vulgaris. While one of the more common side-effects is cheilitis, we have observed an increased incidence of cheilitis prior to the commencement of systemic isotretinoin. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cheilitis among acne vulgaris patients. A non-interventional cross-sectional study of patients with acne vulgaris. Patients with previous use of systemic retinoids were excluded. The patients were examined for signs and symptoms of cheilitis. Of a total of 400 patients, 134 (34%) had evidence of cheilitis at initial presentation. Two-thirds (63%) were female (P acne excorie, compared with only 8% of patients with no signs of cheilitis. Our findings suggest that cheilitis is quite common among acne vulgaris patients even before treatment with isotretinoin. © 2016 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  20. [Effects of different trophic modes on growth characteristics, metabolism and cellular components of Chlorella vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weibao; Wang, Yang; Yang, Hong; Xi, Yuqin; Han, Rui; Niu, Shiquan

    2015-03-04

    We studied the effects of trophic modes related to glucose and light (photoautotrophy, mixotrophy and heterotrophy) on growth, cellular components and carbon metabolic pathway of Chlorella vulgaris. The parameters about growth of algal cells were investigated by using spectroscopy and chromatography techniques. When trophic mode changed from photoautotrophy to mixotrophy and to heterotrophy successively, the concentrations of soluble sugar, lipid and saturated C16/C18 fatty acids in C. vulgaris increased, whereas the concentrations of unsaturated C16, C18 fatty acids, proteins, photosynthetic pigments and 18 relative amino acids decreased. Light and glucose affect the growth, metabolism and the biochemical components biosynthesis of C. vulgaris. Addition of glucose can promote algal biomass accumulation, stimulate the synthesis of carbonaceous components, but inhibit nitrogenous components. Under illumination cultivation, concentration and consumption level of glucose decided the main trophic modes of C. vulgaris. Mixotrophic and heterotrophic cultivation could promote the growth of algal cells.

  1. Bioelectrogenesis with microbial fuel cells (MFCs using the microalga Chlorella vulgaris and bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Huarachi-Olivera

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that MFCs with C. vulgaris and bacterial community have a simultaneous efficiency in the production of bioelectricity and bioremediation processes, becoming an important source of bioenergy in the future.

  2. Chlorella Vulgaris Alleviates Lead-induced Testicular Toxicity Better than Zingiber Officinale: An Ultrastructural Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Hesham N.

    2015-01-01

    Chlorella Vulgaris Alleviates Lead-induced Testicular Toxicity Better than Zingiber Officinale: An Ultrastructural Study   XXIV International Symposium on Morphological Sciences, Prof. Dr. Cemil Bilsel Congress Hall, Faculty of Science, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey. Oral Presentation; 09/2015

  3. Lupus Vulgaris Erythematoides: report of a patient initially misdiagnosed as dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Lopez, Francisco; Fueyo-Casado, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Lara, Leire

    2013-05-15

    A small percentage of patients with tuberculosis present with cutaneous findings, which may be difficult to diagnose. We present a patient diagnosed with a rare, non-scarring form of cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB), classically termed as lupus vulgaris erythematoides.

  4. Photoheterotrophic growth of Chlorella vulgaris ESP6 on organic acids from dark hydrogen fermentation effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Hung; Chang, Chin-Yen; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2013-10-01

    In this work, Chlorella vulgaris ESP6 was used to assimilate the soluble metabolites in the hydrogen fermentation broth of Clostridium butyricum CGS5 to obtain valuable microalgae biomass. The results show that C. vulgaris ESP6 could grow on the 4-fold diluted dark fermentation broth. Acetate was efficiently utilized during the growth of C. vulgaris ESP6, whereas the microalgae growth was inhibited by lactate, butyrate, and HCO3(-) when their concentrations were higher than 0.5, 0.1, and 2.72 g/L, respectively. C. vulgaris ESP6 could completely consume butyrate (the most abundant dark fermentation metabolite) when it was grown on Tris-Acetate-Phosphate medium under a food to microorganism (F/M) ratio of 1.11. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolic dynamics of Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilm grown on a steel surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a comparative metabolomics approach combining gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was applied first between planktonic cells and biofilms and then between pure cultures and biofilms of Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The results revealed that the overall metabolic level of the biofilm cells was down-regulated, especially for metabolites related to the central carbon metabolism, compared to the planktonic cells and the pure culture of D. vulgaris. In addition, pathway enrichment analysis of the 58 metabolites identified by GC-MS showed that fatty acid biosynthesis in the biofilm cells was up-regulated, suggesting that fatty acids may be important for the formation, maintenance and function of D. vulgaris biofilm. This study offers a valuable perspective on the metabolic dynamics of the D. vulgaris biofilm.

  6. Use of intense pulse light for acne vulgaris in Indian skin--a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanan, Saritha; Parveen, Basheerahmed; Annie Malathy, Priyavathani; Gomathi, Nellainayagam

    2012-04-01

    Intense pulse light (IPL) has become extremely popular in Indian cosmetology circles. Yet, literature is silent on its effect in heavily melanized skin. A descriptive study to gauge the effect of IPL on acne vulgaris in Indian patients done in a tertiary care center in south India. Patients with moderate to severe acne vulgaris were given a maximum of five sittings of IPL treatment. Lesion counts were performed and photographs compared before and after treatment. IPL was offered to 10 patients with acne vulgaris. Two patients dropped out, seven patients had a good response after a mean of 3.4 sittings; 87.5% patients expressed satisfaction with the procedure. No adverse effects were noted. IPL serves a useful role in the treatment of acne vulgaris and could reduce treatment costs and pill burden. There is no increased risk of side effects with IPL on Indian skin with standard care. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. Cultivo de Chlorella vulgaris sobre residual de soja con la aplicacion de un campo magnetico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gomez Luna, Liliana; Alvarez, Inaudis; Rivero, Roger

    2011-01-01

    ... vulgaris, obteniendose excelentes valores de densidad celular maxima ([K.sub.max]: 360 x [10.sup.6] cel.[mL.sup.-1]). Posteriormente se evaluan los efectos de la aplicacion de un campo magnetico...

  8. Comparing Nutrient Removal from Membrane Filtered and Unfiltered Domestic Wastewater Using Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhead, Elyssia; Silkina, Alla; Llewellyn, Carole A; Fuentes-Grünewald, Claudio

    2018-01-19

    The nutrient removal efficiency of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in domestic wastewater was investigated, along with the potential to use membrane filtration as a pre-treatment tool during the wastewater treatment process. Chlorella vulgaris was batch cultivated for 12 days in a bubble column system with two different wastewater treatments. Maximum uptake of 94.18% ammonium (NH₄-N) and 97.69% ortho-phosphate (PO₄-P) occurred in 0.2 μm membrane filtered primary wastewater. Membrane filtration enhanced the nutrient uptake performance of C. vulgaris by removing bacteria, protozoa, colloidal particles and suspended solids, thereby improving light availability for photosynthesis. The results of this study suggest that growing C. vulgaris in nutrient rich membrane filtered wastewater provides an option for domestic wastewater treatment to improve the quality of the final effluent.

  9. Comparing Nutrient Removal from Membrane Filtered and Unfiltered Domestic Wastewater Using Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyssia Mayhead

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient removal efficiency of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in domestic wastewater was investigated, along with the potential to use membrane filtration as a pre-treatment tool during the wastewater treatment process. Chlorella vulgaris was batch cultivated for 12 days in a bubble column system with two different wastewater treatments. Maximum uptake of 94.18% ammonium (NH4-N and 97.69% ortho-phosphate (PO4-P occurred in 0.2 μm membrane filtered primary wastewater. Membrane filtration enhanced the nutrient uptake performance of C. vulgaris by removing bacteria, protozoa, colloidal particles and suspended solids, thereby improving light availability for photosynthesis. The results of this study suggest that growing C. vulgaris in nutrient rich membrane filtered wastewater provides an option for domestic wastewater treatment to improve the quality of the final effluent.

  10. Studies on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Five Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mancini, Emilia; Senatore, Federica; Del Monte, Donato; De Martino, Laura; Grulova, Daniela; Scognamiglio, Mariarosa; Snoussi, Mejdi; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the essential oil composition, total phenolic content, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris collected in five different area of the Campania Region, Southern Italy...

  11. Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Bayati, Firas A

    2008-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) and methanol extracts obtained from aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum seeds were evaluated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against nine Gram-positive...

  12. Cranial Mesenteric Arterial Obstruction Due To Strongylus vulgaris Larvae in a Donkey (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borji, Hassan; Moosavi, Zahra; Ahmadi, Fatemeh

    2014-09-01

    Arteritis due to Strongylus vulgaris is a well-known cause of colic in horses and donkeys. The current report describes a fatal incidence of arterial obstruction in cranial mesenteric artery caused by S. vulgaris infection in an adult donkey in which anthelmintic treatment was not regularly administered. Necropsy findings of the abdominal cavity revealed a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to larvae of S. vulgaris, causing severe colic. To the authors' knowledge, a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to verminous arteritis has rarely been described in horses and donkeys. Based on recent reports of fatal arterial obstruction due to S. vulgaris infection in donkeys, it may be evident to consider acute colic caused by this pathogenic parasite a re-emerging disease in donkeys and horses.

  13. Cranial Mesenteric Arterial Obstruction Due To Strongylus vulgaris Larvae in a Donkey (Equus asinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Borji

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Arteritis due to Strongylus vulgaris is a well-known cause of colic in horses and donkeys. The current report describes a fatal incidence of arterial obstruction in cranial mesenteric artery caused by S. vulgaris infection in an adult donkey in which anthelmintic treatment was not regularly administered. Necropsy findings of the abdominal cavity revealed a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to larvae of S. vulgaris, causing severe colic. To the authors' knowledge, a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to verminous arteritis has rarely been described in horses and donkeys. Based on recent reports of fatal arterial obstruction due to S. vulgaris infection in donkeys, it may be evident to consider acute colic caused by this pathogenic parasite a re-emerging disease in donkeys and horses.

  14. Lissotriton vulgaris paedomorphs in south-western Romania: a consequence of a human modified habitat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severus D. Covaciu-Marcov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A Lissotriton vulgaris paedomorph population was identified for the first time ever in south-western Romania. The newts inhabiting a permanent but artificial habitat, surrounded by agricultural fields.

  15. Vasorelaxant effect of Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae, dichloromethane extract on rat mesenteric artery Efeito vasorelaxante do extrato diclorometano de Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae, em artéria mesentérica de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo J. A. Moreira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Vasorelaxant effect of Hyptis fruticosa dichloromethane extract (HFDE on isolated rings of rat mesenteric artery was evaluated in this study. In intact rings, HFDE (0.1-3000 µg/mL induced concentration-dependent vasorelaxations (Emax = 119±14%; n = 6 of phenylephrine tonus that were not modified after endothelium removal (Emax = 116±6%; n = 6, after KCl 20 mM (Emax = 135±9%; n = 6 or in rings pre-contracted with KCl 80 mM (Emax = 125±4%; n = 6. In endothelium denuded rings, HFDE (300 or 1000 µg/mL inhibited contractions induced by CaCl2 (maximal inhibition = 25±7% and 95±1%; respectively. Furthermore, HFDE promoted an additional vasorelaxation (15±3%; n = 7 after maximal response of 10 µM nifedipine (78±3%; n = 7. In conclusion, HFDE induces vasorelaxant effect through an endothelium-independent pathway, which appears to be due in major part to inhibition of the Ca2+ influx through voltage-operated Ca2+ channels.O efeito vasorelaxante do extrato diclorometano de Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae (HFDE, em anéis isolados de artéria mesentérica de ratos foi avaliado nesse estudo. Em anéis intactos, pré-contraídos com fenilefrina (10 µM, HFDE (0,1-3000 µg/mL induziu vasorelaxamento de maneira dependente de concentração (Emax = 119±14%; n = 6, o qual não foi afetado após remoção do endotélio (Emax = 116±6%; n = 6, após KCl 20 mM (Emax = 135±9%; n = 6 ou em anéis pré-contraídos com KCl 80 mM (Emax = 125±4%; n = 6. Em anéis sem endotélio, HFDE (300 ou 1000 µg/mL inibiu as contrações induzidas por CaCl2 (inibição máxima = 25±7% e 95±1%, respectivamente. Além disso, HFDE promoveu um vasorelaxamento adicional (15±3%; n = 7 sobre o relaxamento máximo de 10 µM de nifedipina (78±3%, n = 7. Em conclusão, HFDE induz efeito vasorelaxante através de uma via independente de endotélio, possivelmente devido à inibição do influxo de Ca2+ através de canais de Ca2+ operados por voltagem.

  16. Evaluation of inhomogeneities of repolarization in patients with psoriasis vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Korhan; İnci, Sinan; Aksan, Gökhan; Nar, Gökay; Yüksel, Esra Pancar; Ocal, Hande Serra; Çapraz, Mustafa; Yüksel, Serkan; Şahin, Mahmut

    2016-12-01

    The arrhythmia potential has not been investigated adequately in psoriatic patients. In this study, we assessed the ventricular repolarization dispersion, using the Tp-e interval and the Tp-e/QT ratio, and investigated the association with inflammation. Seventy-one psoriasis vulgaris patients and 70 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. The severity of the disease was calculated using Psoriasis Area and Severity Index scoring. The QTd was defined as the difference between the maximum and minimum QT intervals. The Tp-e interval was defined as the interval from the peak of the T wave to the end of the T wave. The Tp-e interval was corrected for heart rate. The Tp-e/QT ratio was calculated using these measurements. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to basal clinical and laboratory characteristics (p > 0.05). The Tp-e interval, the corrected Tp-e interval (cTp-e) and the Tp-e/QT ratio were also significantly higher in psoriasis patients compared to the control group (78.5 ±8.0 ms vs. 71.4 ±7.6 ms, p < 0.001, 86.3 ±13.2 ms vs. 77.6 ±9.0 ms, p < 0.001 and 0.21 ±0.02 vs. 0.19 ±0.02, p < 0.001 respectively). A significant correlation was detected between the cTp-e time and the Tp-e/QT ratio and the PASI score in the group of psoriatic patients (r = 0.51, p < 0.001; r = 0.59, p < 0.001, respectively). In our study, we detected a significant increase in the Tp-e interval and the Tp-e/QT ratio in patients with psoriasis vulgaris. The Tp-e interval and the Tp-e/QT ratio may be predictors for ventricular arrhythmias in patients with psoriasis vulgaris.

  17. Acne Vulgaris and the Epidermal Barrier: Is Acne Vulgaris Associated with Inherent Epidermal Abnormalities that Cause Impairment of Barrier Functions? Do Any Topical Acne Therapies Alter the Structural and/or Functional Integrity of the Epidermal Barrier?

    OpenAIRE

    Thiboutot, Diane; Del Rosso, James Q.

    2013-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disorder that predominantly affects teenagers, but can also affect preadolescents and post-teen individuals. Despite the fact that acne vulgaris is the most common skin disorder encountered in ambulatory dermatology practice in the United States, there has been limited research on the epidermal permeability barrier in untreated skin of people with acne vulgaris and also after use of acne therapies. This article reviews the research results and discusse...

  18. Expression of a-Amylase in Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna mungo Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Takao, MINAMIKAWA; Daisuke, YAMAUCHI; Sachiko, Wada; Hajime, TAKEUCHI; Department of Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan University

    1992-01-01

    Levels of starch and soluble sugar in pods of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna mungo plants were analyzed during the course of maturation of fruits. The results suggest that the immature pods of P. vulgaris function to some extent as temporary reservoirs of carbohydrates for growth of seeds. A less clear pattern of accumulation of starch was observed in pods of maturing fruits of Vigna mungo. Measurements of a-amylase activites in pods of maturing fruits and immunoblotting with an antiserum again...

  19. Identification of an Alternative to Proteus vulgaris as a Laboratory Standard for Hydrogen Sulfide Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nar'Asha Randall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This project involved the evaluation of a biosafety level 1 alternative to Proteus vulgaris as a positive control for the production of hydrogen sulfide. We determined that Citrobacter freundii could serve as an excellent substitute for P. vulgaris, and that lead acetate strips used in conjunction with triple sugar iron media allows for consistent results following evaluation after up to one week.

  20. Quality of life, self-esteem and psychosocial factors in adolescents with acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Vilar, Gustavo Nunes; Santos, Laís Araújo dos; Sobral Filho,Jader Freire

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground:Dermatological diseases, among which acne vulgaris, have psychological impact on the affected generating feelings of guilt, shame and social isolation.Objectives:To compare quality of life, self-esteem and other psychosocial variables amongst adolescents with and without acne vulgaris, and between levels of severity.Methods:Cross-sectional observational study in a sample of 355 high school students from the city of João Pessoa. Data collection was performed with questionnai...

  1. Phenological Variations in the Surface Flavonoids of Artemisia vulgaris L. and Artemisia absinthium L.

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolova, Milena; VELICKOVIC, Dragan

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative variations in the surface flavonoids in relation to phenological development of Artemisia vulgaris L. and Artemisia absinthium L. were examined. Plant material was harvested at different phenological stages (vegetative, before budding, floral budding, flowering, and fruiting) of the life cycle of the species. In A. vulgaris and A. absinthium acetone exudates, 6 and 4 flavonoid aglycones were identified, respectively, by TLC analysis. Quercetin 3,7,3'-trim...

  2. XML Investigating the Phytochemical, Antibacterial and Antifungal Effects of Thymus Vulgaris and Cuminum Cyminum Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Soghra Valizadeh (MSc); Razzagh Mahmoudi (PhD); Tayebeh Fakheri (DVM); Farzad Katiraee (PhD); Vahideh Rahmani (DVM)

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris and Cuminum Cyminum essential oils against foodborne pathogens and Candida species in vitro. Methods: The essential oils were extracted from the aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and dried Cuminum Cyminum seeds using a Clevenger apparatus for 3 hours. Analysis of the essential oils’ constituents was performed using gas chromatography-mass s...

  3. The genome sequence of Barbarea vulgaris facilitates the study of ecological biochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Stephen L.; Erthmann, Pernille Østerbye; Agerbirk, Niels

    2017-01-01

    The genus Barbarea has emerged as a model for evolution and ecology of plant defense compounds, due to its unusual glucosinolate profile and production of saponins, unique to the Brassicaceae. One species, B. vulgaris, includes two ‘types’, G-type and P-type that differ in trichome density, and t...... deter larvae to the extent that they die. The B. vulgaris genome will promote the study of mechanisms in ecological biochemistry to benefit crop resistance breeding....

  4. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of Chorella vulgaris isolated from Unkal Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Shakeel Ahmed Adhoni; Shivasharana Chandrabanda Thimmappa; Basappa Basawanneppa Kaliwal

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the presence of bioactive molecules and to check their antimicrobial activity from green algae Chlorella vulgaris (AS-3) (C. vulgaris) isolated from Unkal Lake in Dharwad District, Karnataka, India. Methods: Based on the polarity, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, hexane, methanol, petroleum ether and distilled water were the solvents used for the preparation of algal extracts using Soxhlet apparatus, which were further subjected to phytochemi...

  5. POLEN DE LAS MAGNOLIOPSIDA EN EL VOLCÁN (PAMPLONA, COLOMBIA II: FAMILIAS HYPERICACEAE, LAMIACEAE, LOBELIACEAE, POLYGONACEAE, RHAMNACEAE, ROSACEAE, RUBIACEAE, SCROPHULARIACEAE Y SOLANACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE D. MERCADO-GÓMEZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó la morfología polínica de las especies pertenecientes a las familias, Hypericaceae, Lamiaceae, Lobeliaceae, Polygonaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Scrophulariaceae y Solanaceae, encontradas en la zona El Volcán (Pamplona, Colombia. Las observaciones, descripciones y microfotografías de los granos de polen se realizaron con microscopio de luz, contando un mínimo de 25 granos por especie. Todas las familias presentan un carácter euripalinologico, excepto Melastomataceae la cual es estenopalinologica. Asimismo, al realizar comparaciones sobre algunas especies que fueron descritas en otras zonas del bosque altoandino y páramo en la cordillera Central y Occidental, fue posible determinar variaciones en la morfología polínica.

  6. Anti-trypanosomal activity of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-? -D-glucose isolated from Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Roberta T. dos; Hiramoto, Liliane L.; Lago, Joao Henrique G.; Sartorelli, Patricia [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Ambientais, Quimicas e Farmaceuticas; Tempone, Andre G.; Pinto, Erika G. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia; Lorenzi, Harri, E-mail: psartorelli@unifesp.br [Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora, Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    MeOH extract from the leaves of Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae), showed in vitro anti-trypanosomal activity. The bioassay-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation of a gallic acid derivative, identified as 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-{beta}-D-glucose (PGG), after thorough NMR and MS spectral analysis. Finally, this compound was tested against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi and displayed an EC{sub 50} value of 67 {mu}M, at least 6.6-fold more effective than the standard drug benznidazole. This is the first occurrence of PGG in the Plectranthus genus and the first anti-parasitic activity described for PGG in the literature (author)

  7. The application of HPLC ESI MS in the investigation of the flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides of a Caribbean Lamiaceae plant with potential for bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Sonia R; Peru, Kerry M; Fahlman, Brian; McMartin, Dena W; Headley, John V

    2015-01-01

    As part of an exchange technology program between the government of Barbados and Environment Canada, methanolic and aqueous extracts from the flavonoid-rich Lamiaceae family were characterized using negative-ion electrospray mass spectrometry. The species investigated is part of the Caribbean Pharmacopoeia, and is used for a variety of health issues, including colds, flu, diabetes, and hypertension. The extracts were investigated for structural elucidation of phenolics, identification of chemical taxonomic profile, and evidence of bio-accumulator potential. The methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus yielded rosmarinic acid, ladanein, cirsimaritin, and other methoxylated flavonoids. This genus also shows a tendency to form conjugates with monosaccharides, including glucose, galactose, and rhamnose. The aqueous extract yielded four isomeric rhamnosides. The formation of conjugates by Plectranthus amboinicus is thus evidence of high bioaccumulator significance.

  8. Phylogeny of New World Salvia subgenus Calosphace (Lamiaceae) based on cpDNA (psbA-trnH) and nrDNA (ITS) sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Aaron A; Walker, Jay B; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2013-07-01

    Salvia subgenus Calosphace (Lamiaceae) is economically and ethnomedicinally significant and comprised of more than 500 species. Although strongly supported as monophyletic, it has received no comprehensive systematic research since the initial establishment of 91 taxonomic sections in 1939. Representative taxa of 73 sections of Calosphace were sampled to investigate the phylogenetic relationships and identify major lineages using chloroplast (intergenic spacer psbA-trnH) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (internal transcribed spacer). Phylogenetic analysis of the combined data sets established monophyly of seven sections (Blakea, Corrugatae, Erythrostachys, Hastatae, Incarnatae, Microsphace, and Sigmoideae) and four major lineages (S. axillaris, "Hastatae clade", "Uliginosae clade", and "core Calosphace"). Sections spanning two or more centers of diversity are not supported by our results; rather, supported relationships exhibit significant geographic structure. Mexico is supported as the geographic origin of Calosphace, and no more than seven dispersal events to South America are required to account for current disjunct distributions.

  9. Ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils incorporated in protein baits against the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni; Conti, Barbara; Lenzi, Gabriele; Flamini, Guido; Francini, Alessandra; Cioni, Pier Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils (EOs) - Hyptis suaveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia - incorporated in protein baits was evaluated against Bactrocera oleae, a worldwide pest of olive fruits. In laboratory conditions, all the tested EOs showed dose-dependent toxicity on B. oleae, with mortality rates ranging from 12% (EO concentration: 0.01% w:v) to 100% (EO concentration: 1.75% w:v). Semi-field results highlighted the toxicity of L. angustifolia and H. suaveolens EOs, which exerted more than 60% of flies mortality at a concentration of 1.75% (w:v). Gas Chromatography-Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry analyses of the three EOs showed that H. suaveolens EO was dominated by monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the main chemical class in R. officinalis and L. angustifolia EOs. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of these EOs plus food bait against the olive fruit fly in the open field.

  10. Towards Elucidating Carnosic Acid Biosynthesis in Lamiaceae: Functional Characterization of the Three First Steps of the Pathway in Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis.

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    Dragana Božić

    Full Text Available Carnosic acid (CA is a phenolic diterpene with anti-tumour, anti-diabetic, antibacterial and neuroprotective properties that is produced by a number of species from several genera of the Lamiaceae family, including Salvia fruticosa (Cretan sage and Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary. To elucidate CA biosynthesis, glandular trichome transcriptome data of S. fruticosa were mined for terpene synthase genes. Two putative diterpene synthase genes, namely SfCPS and SfKSL, showing similarities to copalyl diphosphate synthase and kaurene synthase-like genes, respectively, were isolated and functionally characterized. Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli followed by in vitro enzyme activity assays confirmed that SfCPS is a copalyl diphosphate synthase. Coupling of SfCPS with SfKSL, both in vitro and in yeast, resulted in the synthesis miltiradiene, as confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR analyses (1H, 13C, DEPT, COSY H-H, HMQC and HMBC. Coupled transient in vivo assays of SfCPS and SfKSL in Nicotiana benthamiana further confirmed production of miltiradiene in planta. To elucidate the subsequent biosynthetic step, RNA-Seq data of S. fruticosa and R. officinalis were searched for cytochrome P450 (CYP encoding genes potentially involved in the synthesis of the first phenolic compound in the CA pathway, ferruginol. Three candidate genes were selected, SfFS, RoFS1 and RoFS2. Using yeast and N. benthamiana expression systems, all three where confirmed to be coding for ferruginol synthases, thus revealing the enzymatic activities responsible for the first three steps leading to CA in two Lamiaceae genera.

  11. Does the Arcto-Tertiary biogeographic hypothesis explain the disjunct distribution of Northern Hemisphere herbaceous plants? The case of Meehania (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tao; Nie, Ze-Long; Drew, Bryan T; Volis, Sergei; Kim, Changkyun; Xiang, Chun-Lei; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Wang, Yue-Hua; Sun, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable progress, many details regarding the evolution of the Arcto-Tertiary flora, including the timing, direction, and relative importance of migration routes in the evolution of woody and herbaceous taxa of the Northern Hemisphere, remain poorly understood. Meehania (Lamiaceae) comprises seven species and five subspecies of annual or perennial herbs, and is one of the few Lamiaceae genera known to have an exclusively disjunct distribution between eastern Asia and eastern North America. We analyzed the phylogeny and biogeographical history of Meehania to explore how the Arcto-Tertiary biogeographic hypothesis and two possible migration routes explain the disjunct distribution of Northern Hemisphere herbaceous plants. Parsimony and Bayesian inference were used for phylogenetic analyses based on five plastid sequences (rbcL, rps16, rpl32-trnH, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F) and two nuclear (ITS and ETS) gene regions. Divergence times and biogeographic inferences were performed using Bayesian methods as implemented in BEAST and S-DIVA, respectively. Analyses including 11 of the 12 known Meehania taxa revealed incongruence between the chloroplast and nuclear trees, particularly in the positions of Glechoma and Meehania cordata, possibly indicating allopolyploidy with chloroplast capture in the late Miocene. Based on nrDNA, Meehania is monophyletic, and the North American species M. cordata is sister to a clade containing the eastern Asian species. The divergence time between the North American M. cordata and the eastern Asian species occurred about 9.81 Mya according to the Bayesian relaxed clock methods applied to the combined nuclear data. Biogeographic analyses suggest a primary role of the Arcto-Tertiary flora in the study taxa distribution, with a northeast Asian origin of Meehania. Our results suggest an Arcto-Tertiary origin of Meehania, with its present distribution most probably being a result of vicariance and southward migrations of populations during

  12. Towards Elucidating Carnosic Acid Biosynthesis in Lamiaceae: Functional Characterization of the Three First Steps of the Pathway in Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božić, Dragana; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Brückner, Kathleen; de Vos, Ric C. H.; Tsoleridis, Constantinos A.; Katsarou, Dimitra; Papanikolaou, Antigoni; Pateraki, Irini; Chatzopoulou, Fani M.; Dimitriadou, Eleni; Kostas, Stefanos; Manzano, David; Scheler, Ulschan; Ferrer, Albert; Tissier, Alain; Makris, Antonios M.; Kampranis, Sotirios C.; Kanellis, Angelos K.

    2015-01-01

    Carnosic acid (CA) is a phenolic diterpene with anti-tumour, anti-diabetic, antibacterial and neuroprotective properties that is produced by a number of species from several genera of the Lamiaceae family, including Salvia fruticosa (Cretan sage) and Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary). To elucidate CA biosynthesis, glandular trichome transcriptome data of S. fruticosa were mined for terpene synthase genes. Two putative diterpene synthase genes, namely SfCPS and SfKSL, showing similarities to copalyl diphosphate synthase and kaurene synthase-like genes, respectively, were isolated and functionally characterized. Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli followed by in vitro enzyme activity assays confirmed that SfCPS is a copalyl diphosphate synthase. Coupling of SfCPS with SfKSL, both in vitro and in yeast, resulted in the synthesis miltiradiene, as confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR analyses (1H, 13C, DEPT, COSY H-H, HMQC and HMBC). Coupled transient in vivo assays of SfCPS and SfKSL in Nicotiana benthamiana further confirmed production of miltiradiene in planta. To elucidate the subsequent biosynthetic step, RNA-Seq data of S. fruticosa and R. officinalis were searched for cytochrome P450 (CYP) encoding genes potentially involved in the synthesis of the first phenolic compound in the CA pathway, ferruginol. Three candidate genes were selected, SfFS, RoFS1 and RoFS2. Using yeast and N. benthamiana expression systems, all three where confirmed to be coding for ferruginol synthases, thus revealing the enzymatic activities responsible for the first three steps leading to CA in two Lamiaceae genera. PMID:26020634

  13. Towards Elucidating Carnosic Acid Biosynthesis in Lamiaceae: Functional Characterization of the Three First Steps of the Pathway in Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božić, Dragana; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Brückner, Kathleen; de Vos, Ric C H; Tsoleridis, Constantinos A; Katsarou, Dimitra; Papanikolaou, Antigoni; Pateraki, Irini; Chatzopoulou, Fani M; Dimitriadou, Eleni; Kostas, Stefanos; Manzano, David; Scheler, Ulschan; Ferrer, Albert; Tissier, Alain; Makris, Antonios M; Kampranis, Sotirios C; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2015-01-01

    Carnosic acid (CA) is a phenolic diterpene with anti-tumour, anti-diabetic, antibacterial and neuroprotective properties that is produced by a number of species from several genera of the Lamiaceae family, including Salvia fruticosa (Cretan sage) and Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary). To elucidate CA biosynthesis, glandular trichome transcriptome data of S. fruticosa were mined for terpene synthase genes. Two putative diterpene synthase genes, namely SfCPS and SfKSL, showing similarities to copalyl diphosphate synthase and kaurene synthase-like genes, respectively, were isolated and functionally characterized. Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli followed by in vitro enzyme activity assays confirmed that SfCPS is a copalyl diphosphate synthase. Coupling of SfCPS with SfKSL, both in vitro and in yeast, resulted in the synthesis miltiradiene, as confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR analyses (1H, 13C, DEPT, COSY H-H, HMQC and HMBC). Coupled transient in vivo assays of SfCPS and SfKSL in Nicotiana benthamiana further confirmed production of miltiradiene in planta. To elucidate the subsequent biosynthetic step, RNA-Seq data of S. fruticosa and R. officinalis were searched for cytochrome P450 (CYP) encoding genes potentially involved in the synthesis of the first phenolic compound in the CA pathway, ferruginol. Three candidate genes were selected, SfFS, RoFS1 and RoFS2. Using yeast and N. benthamiana expression systems, all three where confirmed to be coding for ferruginol synthases, thus revealing the enzymatic activities responsible for the first three steps leading to CA in two Lamiaceae genera.

  14. Ghrelin in the pilosebaceous unit: alteration of ghrelin in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, Demet; Demir, Betul; Erder, Ilker; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Ucer, Ozlem; Aydin, Suleyman; Ucak, Haydar; Dertlioglu, Selma; Kalayci, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin in the pilosebaceous tissues of human skin and ghrelin levels in patients with acne vulgaris have not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study was to screen ghrelin immunoreactivity by immunohistochemistry in human pilosebaceous tissues of human skin and also to determine the quantities of ghrelin in the serum of the patients with acne vulgaris. 30 patients presenting with acne vulgaris and 30 control subjects participated in this study. Ghrelin levels were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Human hair follicles and sebaceous glands were immunohistochemically examined. Immunohistochemistry results showed that there is a strong ghrelin immunoreactivity in the hair follicles and sebaceous glands in sections of human skin. The mean serum ghrelin levels (27.58 ・} 15.44 pg/mL) in patients with acne vulgaris was significantly lower than those of controls (35.62・}20.46 pg/mL). Ghrelin produced in hair follicles and sebaceous glands of the skin might participate in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris and also acne vulgaris in humans might be associated with decreased serum ghrelin.

  15. Study of the effect of extract of Thymus vulgaris on anxiety in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaki, Alireza; Hoseini, Faeghe; Shahidi, Siamak; Baharlouei, Negar

    2016-07-01

    There is some evidence in traditional medicine for the effectiveness of Thymus vulgaris ( bǎi lǐ xiāng) in the treatment of anxiety in humans. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) has broadly been used to investigate anxiolytic and anxiogenic compounds. The present study investigated the effects of extract of T. vulgaris on rat behavior in the EPM. In the present study, the data were obtained from male Wistar rats. Animals were divided into four groups: saline group and T. vulgaris groups (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg infusion for 7 days by feeding). During the test period, the total distance covered by animals, the number of open- and closed-arm entries, and the time spent in open and closed arms of the EPM were recorded. T. vulgaris increased open-arm exploration and open-arm entry in the EPM, whereas extract of this plant has no effects on the total distance covered by animals and the number of closed-arm entries. The results of the present experiment indicate that T. vulgaris may have an anxiolytic profile in rat behavior in the EPM test, which is not influenced by the locomotor activity. Further research is required to determine the mechanisms by which T. vulgaris extract exerts an anxiolytic effect in rats.

  16. Study of artemisinin and sugar accumulation in Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia dracunculus "hairy" root cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobot, Kateryna O; Matvieieva, Nadiia A; Ostapchuk, Andriy M; Kharkhota, Maxim A; Duplij, Volodymyr P

    2017-09-14

    We studied the effect of genetic transformation on biologically active compound (artemisinin and its co-products (ART) as well as sugars) accumulation in Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia dracunculus "hairy" root cultures. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and mannitol were accumulated in A. vulgaris and A. dracunculus "hairy" root lines. Genetic transformation has led in some cases to the sugar content increasing or appearing of nonrelevant for the control plant carbohydrates. Sucrose content was 1.6 times higher in A. vulgaris "hairy" root lines. Fructose content was found to be 3.4 times higher in A. dracunculus "hairy" root cultures than in the control roots. The accumulation of mannitol was a special feature of the leaves of A. vulgaris and A. dracunculus control roots. A. vulgaris "hairy" root lines differed also in ART accumulation level. The increase of ART content up to 1.02 mg/g DW in comparison with the nontransformed roots (up to 0.687 mg/g DW) was observed. Thus, Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated genetic transformation can be used for obtaining of A. vulgaris and A. dracunculus "hairy" root culture produced ART and sugars in a higher amount than mother plants.

  17. Computational identification of miRNAs and their targets in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J; Xie, H; Kong, M L; Sun, Q P; Li, R Z; Pan, J B

    2014-01-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding small RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Although thousands of miRNAs have been identified in plants, limited information is available about miRNAs in Phaseolus vulgaris, despite it being an important food legume worldwide. The high conservation of plant miRNAs enables the identification of new miRNAs in P. vulgaris by homology analysis. Here, 1804 known and unique plant miRNAs from 37 plant species were blast-searched against expressed sequence tag and genomic survey sequence databases to identify novel miRNAs in P. vulgaris. All candidate sequences were screened by a series of miRNA filtering criteria. Finally, we identified 27 conserved miRNAs, belonging to 24 miRNA families. When compared against known miRNAs in P. vulgaris, we found that 24 of the 27 miRNAs were newly discovered. Further, we identified 92 potential target genes with known functions for these novel miRNAs. Most of these target genes were predicted to be involved in plant development, signal transduction, metabolic pathways, disease resistance, and environmental stress response. The identification of the novel miRNAs in P. vulgaris is anticipated to provide baseline information for further research about the biological functions and evolution of miRNAs in P. vulgaris.

  18. Cannibalistic behavior of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Urcera, Jorge; Garci, Manuel E; Roura, Alvaro; González, Angel F; Cabanellas-Reboredo, Miguel; Morales-Nin, Beatriz; Guerra, Angel

    2014-11-01

    The first description of cannibalism in wild adult Octopus vulgaris is presented from 3 observations made in the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain), which were filmed by scuba divers. These records document common traits in cannibalistic behavior: (a) it was intercohort cannibalism; (b) attacks were made by both males and females; (c) in 2 of the records, the prey were transported to the den, which was covered with stones of different sizes; (d) the predator started to eat the tip of the arms of its prey; (e) predation on conspecifics occurred even if there were other abundant prey available (i.e., mussels); and (f) the prey/predator weight ratio in the 3 cases ranged from 20% to 25% body weight. The relationships between this behavior and sex, defense of territory, energy balance, food shortage, competition and predation, as well as how the attacker kills its victim are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Leaf conductance response of phaseolus vulgaris to ozone flux density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiro, B. D.; Gillespie, T. J.

    The effect of ozone flux density on leaf conductance to ozone in Phaseolus vulgaris was examined. The change in conductance was measured within the first two hours of fumigation for mature, fruiting 6-week-old plants of an ozone sensitive cultivar (Seafarer); for young, 14-day-old plants of the same cultivar; and for an ozone resistant cultivar (Gold Crop). Young Seafarer plants showed no change in conductance to ozone over a wide range of ozone flux densities. Gold Crop showed a decrease in conductance of -3.1 % /(mgO 3 m -2 h -1) whereas mature Seafarer plants exhibited a stronger decrease of -7.7% /(mgO 3 m -2 h -1). Diffusion porometer measurements taken on fruiting Seafarer plants in the field illustrated that a decrease in leaf diffusive conductance to water is related to visual ozone injury.

  20. Nootropic Effects of Filipendula Vulgaris Moench Water Extract Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I; Amelchenko, V P

    2015-07-01

    Nootropic activity of water extract fractions from aerial parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench was demonstrated on the models of hermetic volume hypoxia, conditioned passive avoidance response, open field test, and forced swimming with a load. The fractions stimulated hypoxic resistance, normalized orientation and exploratory behavior, improved conditioned response reproduction during testing after hypoxic injury, and increased exercise tolerance. Fractionation of the extract led to dissociation of the effect components, which suggests that individual constituents have specific characteristics. Ethylacetate fraction exhibited most pronounced nootropic activity and was superior to plant extract by some characteristics. The detected effects seemed to be caused by modulation of the hippocampus activity the under the effects of phenol and triterpene compounds.