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Sample records for pruned chipped branches

  1. Highly erodible terrain in agriculture land against chipped pruned branches. Or how to stop the soil erosion with low investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.

    2009-04-01

    The session on "Soil erosion and sediment control with vegetation and bioengineering on severely eroded terrain" pays special attention to the severe soil erosion suffered on steep slopes and erodible parent materials and soils. Within the last 20 years, in the Mediterranean lands, the citrus orchards were reallocated on steep slopes due to the urban development and better climatic and management conditions of the new plantations. The lack of vegetation cover on the new slope plantations of citrus resulted in high erosion rates. Those non-sustainable soil losses were measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments, Gerlach collectors, geomorphological transect and topographical measurements. The October 2007 and October 2008 rainy periods resulted in sheet, rill and gully erosion. Some recently planted orchards (2005) had the first pruning season in 2008. The pruned chipped branches reduced the soil losses to 50 % of the expected, although the litter (pruned branches) covered 4.67 % of the soil. This is why a research was developed by means of simulated rainfall experiments to determine the vegetation cover (litter, mainly leaves) to protect the soil to reach a sustainable erosion rate. Rainfall simulation experiments at 43 mm h-1 where performed on 1 m2 plots covered with 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 80 and 100 % litter cover (pruned chipped branches) to determine the sustainable litter cover to avoid the soil losses. The results show that more that 45 % litter cover almost reduces the soil losses to negligible rates. The results confirm that 4 % of vegetation cover reduces the soil losses to 50 %. Key words: Agriculture land, erodible terrain, land management, citrus, erosion, Spain, Valencia, herbicides. Acknowledgements, We thanks the financial support of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación by means of the project CGL2008-02879/BTE, "PERDIDA DE SUELO EN NUEVAS EXPLOTACIONES CITRICOLAS EN PENDIENTE. ESTRATEGIAS PARA EL CONTROL DE LA EROSION HIDRICA"

  2. The use of chipped pruned branches to control the soil and water losses in citrus plantations in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Ritsema, Coen J.; Burguet, María

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion is the main cause of soil degradation in agriculture land, which is a world-wide problem (Cerdà et al., 2009; Novara et al., 2011; Biwas et al., 2015, Colazo and Buschiazzo, 2015; Ligonja and Shrestha, 2015). High erosion rates result in the loss of soil and also changes the hydrological, erosional, biological, and geochemical cycles (Keesstra et al., 2012; Berendse et al., 2015; Decock et al., 2015; Brevik et al., 2015; Smith et al., 2015). Thus, there is a need to reduce the soil losses to achieve soil sustainability. However, although some findings show that straw, geotextiles, vegetation cover and tillage reduction are efficient strategies (Gimenez Morera et al., 2010; Cerdà et al., 2015; Lieskovský and Kenderessy, 2014; Taguas et al., 2015) there is still a need to find easy strategies for farmers to adopt in their fields that will protect, and also recover, their soils. Chipped branches are usually burned in many orchards to remove them from the fields. However, when they would be chipped and spread on the fields, they can be a source of organic matter, and in addition this might reduce soil losses and improve the water retention capacity of the soils (Mukherjee et al., 2014; Yazdanpanah et al., 2016). The hypothesis is that the chipped branches reduce soil loss. To test this hypothesis we selected 3 study sites in which chipped branches were applied, and paired sites with bare soil to check the changes introduced by the chipped branches on the soils. We selected 3 sites of the Cànyoles river watershed (Montesa municipality), SW Spain, with 10 plots in each site. At each site, 10 rainfall simulation experiments were carried out. Paired plots were selected in the nearby (less than 10 m in distance) orchard where the pruned branches were removed. Then, 60 rainfall simulation experiments at 55 mm h-1 of rainfall intensity during 1 hour were carried out in small 0.25 m2 plots to determine the soil particle detachment. The results show that in all

  3. EVALUATION OF THE CUTTING FORCE ON VINE BRANCHES IN WINTER PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pezzi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical pruning, usually integrated with manual finishing, still excites some doubts regarding the quality of the cut which appears not to be the best as precision and cleanliness. This aspect, probably conditioned by the model and the application of pruning machines, might also be affected by the characteristics of the vine branches in particular by their cutting force. In order to evaluate the cutting force on different vine type, laboratory and field trails were carried out. The experiments were set in order to evaluate this parameter during winter pruning in relation to three variables: vine type; branch size; pruning time. The results show how the cutting resistance of vine branches during vegetative rest depends on vine variety (Trebbiano 675 N Cabernet 1175 N, on the diameter of the canes (increase of force from 56 % to 86 % between the classes of diameter and on the pruning date (26% decrease of the cutting force in the latest period for Trebbiano and Sangiovese, and 32 % for Cabernet Sauvignon. Such variations, which can be considerable, affect directly the pruning results. High values of cutting force can generate tiring of operator in manual pruning or cutting damages on the vegetation during mechanical pruning.

  4. Factors affecting branch wound occlusion and associated decay following pruning – a case study with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

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    Jonathan Sheppard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pruning wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is a common silvicultural practice carried out to produce valuable timber at a veneer wood quality. Sub-optimal pruning treatments can permit un-occluded pruning wounds to develop devaluing decay. The aim of this study is to determine relevant branch, tree and pruning characteristics affecting the occlusion process of pruning wounds. Important factors influencing occlusion time for an optimised pruning treatment for valuable timber production utilising wild cherry are derived. 85 artificially pruned branches originating from ten wild cherry trees were retrospectively analysed. Branch stub length, branch diameter and radial stem increment during occlusion were found to be significant predictors for occlusion time. From the results it could be concluded that for the long term success of artificial pruning of wild cherry it is crucial to (i keep branch stubs short (while avoiding damage to the branch collar, (ii to enable the tree to maintain significant radial growth after pruning, (iii to avoid large pruning wounds (>2.5 cm by removing steeply angled and fast growing branches at an early stage.

  5. Effects of leader topping and branch pruning on efficiency of Douglas-fir cone harvesting with a tree shaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.L. Copes

    1985-01-01

    In 1983, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of leader topping and branch pruning on the efficiency to tree shaking to remove Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) cones. Removal efficiency for three topping and pruning treatments averaged 69 percent, whereas for the uncut control treatment it was 62 percent. The treatment...

  6. Phylogenies without Branch Bounds: Contracting the Short, Pruning the Deep

    CERN Document Server

    Daskalakis, Constantinos; Roch, Sebastien

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new phylogenetic reconstruction algorithm which, unlike most previous rigorous inference techniques, does not rely on assumptions regarding the branch lengths or the depth of the tree. The algorithm returns a forest which is guaranteed to contain all edges that are: 1) sufficiently long and 2) sufficiently close to the leaves. How much of the true tree is recovered depends on the sequence length provided. The algorithm is distance-based and runs in polynomial time.

  7. Effects of adding urea on fermentation quality of pruned persimmon branch silage and its digestibility, preference, nitrogen balance and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Zang, Yanqing; Lv, Renlong; Takahashi, Toshiyoshi; Yoshida, Norio; Yang, Huanmin

    2014-03-01

    Four cattle were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to study digestibility, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen retention and preference of ensiling pruned persimmon branch (PPB) chips treated with urea. After 60 days of ensiling, urea-treated PPB showed higher (P  low-urea > no-urea > high-urea. The results suggested that urea treatment of PPB inhibited growth of mold and yeast during silage storage, enhanced its digestibility and had nutritive value almost equivalent to that of rice straw. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. The interplay between branching and pruning on neuronal target search during developmental growth: functional role and implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Oşan

    Full Text Available Regenerative strategies that facilitate the regrowth and reconnection of neurons are some of the most promising methods in spinal cord injury research. An essential part of these strategies is an increased understanding of the mechanisms by which growing neurites seek out and synapse with viable targets. In this paper, we use computational and theoretical tools to examine the targeting efficiency of growing neurites subject to limited resources, such as maximum total neural tree length. We find that in order to efficiently reach a particular target, growing neurites must achieve balance between pruning and branching: rapidly growing neurites that do not prune will exhaust their resources, and frequently pruning neurites will fail to explore space effectively. We also find that the optimal branching/pruning balance must shift as the target distance changes: different strategies are called for to reach nearby vs. distant targets. This suggests the existence of a currently unidentified higher-level regulatory factor to control arborization dynamics. We propose that these findings may be useful in future therapies seeking to improve targeting rates through manipulation of arborization behaviors.

  9. Steam explosion treatment for ethanol production from branches pruned from pear trees by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Okumura, Ryosuke; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the production of ethanol from unutilized branches pruned from pear trees by steam explosion pretreatment. Steam pressures of 25, 35, and 45 atm were applied for 5 min, followed by enzymatic saccharification of the extracted residues with cellulase (Cellic CTec2). High glucose recoveries, of 93.3, 99.7, and 87.1%, of the total sugar derived from the cellulose were obtained from water- and methanol-extracted residues after steam explosion at 25, 35, and 45 tm, respectively. These values corresponded to 34.9, 34.3, and 27.1 g of glucose per 100 g of dry steam-exploded branches. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation experiments were done on water-extracted residues and water- and methanol-extracted residues by Kluyveromyces marxianus NBRC 1777. An overall highest theoretical ethanol yield of 76% of the total sugar derived from cellulose was achieved when 100 g/L of water- and methanol-washed residues from 35 atm-exploded pear branches was used as substrate.

  10. Aerial pruning mechanism, initial real environment test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Javier; Hirai, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    In this research, a pruning mechanism for aerial pruning tasks is tested in a real environment. Since the final goal of the aerial pruning robot will be to prune tree branches close to power lines, some experiments related to wireless communication and pruning performance were conducted. The experiments consisted of testing the communication between two XBee RF modules for monitoring purposes as well as testing the speed control of the circular saw used for pruning tree branches. Results show that both the monitoring and the pruning tasks were successfully done in a real environment.

  11. Pruning in poplar plantations by mechanized device Stihl HT-75

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    Danilović Milorad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of branch pruning device Stihl HT-75 were researched on sample plots in FA Kupinovo and FA Klenak, in poplar plantations of Populus×euramericana 'I-214', Populus×euramericana 'M1' and Populus deltoides of different planting spaces and different ages. The analysed factors were: pruning method, site conditions, number of pruned branches, pruning height, branch diameter, etc. Time measurement was performed by the flow method, and the required number of measurements was calculated by variation statistics. The results of the analysis of variance show the statistical significance of the differences between pruning times of different clone species, different planting spaces and different plantation ages. The results of the analysis of variance and statistical tests show that there are no statistically significant differences between the average time of poplar pruning in plantations of the same age and different planting spaces. The correlation of branch pruning time and the number of pruned branches is represented by the power function model, which according to the results of the regression analyses, is the best representation of the nature of this dependence. Exponential function represents the correlation of the average diameter of pruned branches and the time of pruning. Also, there is a correlation of the average diameter of pruned branches and fuel consumption. Pruning time of poplar trees increases with the increase of the average diameter of pruned branches.

  12. Development of a Grapevine Pruning Algorithm for Using in Pruning

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    S. M Hosseini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Great areas of the orchards in the world are dedicated to cultivation of the grapevine. Normally grape vineyards are pruned twice a year. Among the operations of grape production, winter pruning of the bushes is the only operation that still has not been fully mechanized while it is known as the most laborious jobs in the farm. Some of the grape producing countries use various mechanical machines to prune the grapevines, but in most cases, these machines do not have a good performance. Therefore intelligent pruning machine seems to be necessary in this regard and this intelligent pruning machines can reduce the labor required to prune the vineyards. It this study in was attempted to develop an algorithm that uses image processing techniques to identify which parts of the grapevine should be cut. Stereo vision technique was used to obtain three dimensional images from the bare bushes whose leaves were fallen in autumn. Stereo vision systems are used to determine the depth from two images taken at the same time but from slightly different viewpoints using two cameras. Each pair of images of a common scene is related by a popular geometry, and corresponding points in the images pairs are constrained to lie on pairs of conjugate popular lines. Materials and Methods Photos were taken from gardens of the Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources of Fars province, Iran. At first, the distance between the plants and the cameras should be determined. The distance between the plants and cameras can be obtained by using the stereo vision techniques. Therefore, this method was used in this paper by two pictures taken from each plant with the left and right cameras. The algorithm was written in MATLAB. To facilitate the segmentation of the branches from the rows at the back, a blue plate with dimensions of 2×2 m2 were used at the background. After invoking the images, branches were segmented from the background to produce the binary

  13. PP prune users guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.A. Bolon; R.D. Fight; J.M. Cahill

    1992-01-01

    The PP PRUNE program allows users to conduct a financial analysis of pruning ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.). The increase in product value and rate of return from pruning the butt 16.5-foot log can be estimated. Lumber recovery information is based on actual mill experience with pruned and unpruned logs. Users supply lumber prices...

  14. Effect of mechanical pruning on the yield and quality of ‘Fortune’ mandarins

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    Bernardo Martin-Gorriz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work compares mechanical pruning followed up by hand pruning versus manual pruning in the case of ‘Fortune’ mandarins. Yield and fruit quality were measured over a three-year period. Two mechanical pruning intensities were tested, these intensities being measured as the width of the row middles left free after mechanical pruning. Although there were differences in biomass and diameter of the branches that were cut, no differences were observed between the two mechanical pruning intensities in terms of yield or fruit quality. In all pruning treatments, fruit size reached the highest category. The pruning treatments consisted in: (i hand pruning every year, (ii mechanical pruning followed up by hand pruning every year, and (iii alternating the two previous methods over the years studied. On analysing the accumulated fruit production of the three years, it can be observed that there were no significant differences in yield when mechanical pruning was alternated with hand pruning over the years. When only mechanical pruning was used for the three years, however, a 22% reduction in yield was observed with respect to the treatment involving hand pruning alone. From the economic point of view, mechanical pruning shortened the time needed to complete the follow-up hand pruning by 13% with respect to just hand pruning, but this reduction in labour does not offset the cost of the mechanical equipment.

  15. How to Prune Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Bedker; Joseph O' Brien; Manfred Mielke

    2012-01-01

    The objective of pruning is to produce strong, healthy, attractive plants. By understanding how, when and why to prune, and by following a few simple principles, this objective can be achievedHow to Prune Trees (Revised 2012) Agency Publisher: Agriculture Dept., Forest Service, Northeastern Area State and Price forestry USA List Price:$4.00 Sale...

  16. Pruning Chinese trees : an experimental and modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Bo

    2001-01-01

    Pruning of trees, in which some branches are removed from the lower crown of a tree, has been extensively used in China in silvicultural management for many purposes. With an experimental and modelling approach, the effects of pruning on tree growth and on the harvest of plant material were studied.

  17. Black Walnut on Kansas Strip Mine Spoils: Some Observations 25 Years after Pruning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex L. Shigo; Nelson F. Rogers; E. Allen, Jr. McGinnes; David T. Funk

    1978-01-01

    Dissections of 14 slow-growing black walnut trees on a strip-mine site revealed that bands of discolored heartwood were associated with pruned and nonpruned branch stubs. Ring shakes were associated with a few pruned and nonpruned stubs, especially with groups of stubs at the same position on the stem. The advantage of early pruning was that even the defects that...

  18. Desempenho do pimentão em cultivo orgânico, submetido ao desbaste e consórcio Performance of sweet pepper under organic cultivation, submitted to intercropping with crotalaria and branch pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcius Nei Zanin Cesar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available As cultivares de pimentão Magali R e Magda Super foram comparadas no sistema orgânico de produção, consorciadas ou não com crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, e sem desbaste de ramos ou desbastadas a partir da terceira ramificação. A produtividade, em frutos de padrão comercial, alcançou média geral de 37 t ha-1, com o máximo próximo de 43 t ha-1. O híbrido Magali R produziu frutos mais pesados e longos do que a cultivar Magda Super. Entretanto, não houve diferença significativa entre as duas cultivares com relação à produtividade. Os frutos, tanto de Magali R quanto de Magda Super, ultrapassaram em média os 10 cm de comprimento mínimo para atingir a cotação " extra" de mercado. O número de frutos por planta aumentou nas parcelas não desbastadas, independentemente do consórcio. O desbaste de ramos reduziu o diâmetro basal médio, mas elevou o peso médio dos frutos, não influindo porém na produtividade. O híbrido Magali R apresentou apenas 15% de plantas com sintomas de mosaico, ao final do ciclo produtivo, contra 38% referentes à cv. Magda Super. O consórcio com a leguminosa resultou em ganho de produtividade e aumentou o comprimento dos frutos. Com a inclusão da crotalária, houve incremento do teor de nitrogênio nos frutos, bem como da quantidade desse elemento exportada na colheita.Sweet pepper cultivars Magali R and Magda Super under organic management were compared, intercropped or not with Crotalaria juncea, and submitted or not to pruning starting from the third branch. Average yield of commercial fruits was 37 t ha-1 with maximum value of 43 t ha-1. The hybrid Magali R produced heavier and longer fruits than cv. Magda Super. However, no significant difference of productivity was found between cultivars. Fruits of both Magali R and Magda Super reached more than 10 cm of average length, the minimum required for highest market standard. The number of fruits increased in plants not submitted to pruning

  19. A Case of Prune Belly Syndrome

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    Wei Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prune belly syndrome (PBS is a rare congenital disorder characterized by deficient abdominal wall muscles, urinary tract malformation, and, in males, cryptorchidism. We present a case of PBS in China. The patient was a newborn baby boy who had wrinkled, “prune-like” abdominal skin, bilateral cryptorchidism, and urinary system malformation, complicated with hypoplasia of the lung and branch of the coronary artery–right ventricular fistula. His kidney function was inadequate. The patient subsequently died at age 28 days due to septicemia from a severe urinary tract infection.

  20. Pruning Allegheny hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. D. Zeedyk; A. F. Hough

    1958-01-01

    The continuing heavy demand for high-quality Allegheny hardwoods, particularly black cherry and sugar maple, impresses on us the need for more information responses of hardwoods to pruning. Pruning may have beneficial effects: it may increase quality without sacrificing growth. Or it may have detrimental effects: it may cause dieback of cambium, decay, staining and...

  1. Prune belly syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The causes of prune belly syndrome are unknown. The condition affects mostly boys. While in the womb, the developing baby's abdomen swells with fluid. Often, the cause is a problem in the urinary tract. The fluid disappears after birth, leading ...

  2. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates (Cox...

  3. PHENOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GENOTYPES FROM CATTLEY GUAVA AND GUAVA TREES SUBMITTED TO FRUCTIFICATION PRUNING

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    CINTIA APARECIDA BREMENKAMP

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Psidium cattleianum Sabine is a species from the Myrtaceae family that serves as an option for the native fruits cultivation, besides being considered a source of resistance to the Meloidogyne enterolobii nematode. Although cattley guava trees from this species produce flower buds in young branches, there are no reports of response to fructification pruning or phenological synchronism with the guava tree. The objective of this paper was the comparative evaluation of the genotype response of strawberry guava trees and guava cultivars to fructification pruning, thus, describing the phenology of both species under the same cultivation conditions. The experiment was conducted under an entirely randomized outline, in 7x2 factorial scheme, being evaluated seven genotypes (three from strawberry guava and four from guava trees, and with pruning performed in two seasons (May 2012 and March 2013, with three repetitions. Fructification pruning was executed by a lopping on all mature branches, from the last growth flow in the woody branch region. Were evaluated budding characteristics and fruit harvesting, as well as number of days from pruning to the observation of the phenological event. Cattley guava tree pruning stimulated fructification of all three genotypes after pruning done on May and two genotypes after the March’s pruning. There has been a sync between the guava cultivars’ flowering and both strawberry guava trees genotypes, when those were pruned on May.

  4. Training and Pruning Apple Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Marini, Richard P. (Richard Paul), 1952-

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the pruning and training of apple trees, placing emphasis on proper training of young trees to save time and the expense of future pruning, and to produce earlier profitable crops. Advises about the best techniques for pruning in relation to age of the apple tree.

  5. Coast redwood responses to pruning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin L. O' Hara

    2012-01-01

    A large-scale pruning study was established in the winter of 1999 to 2000 at seven different sites on Green Diamond Resource Company forestlands in Humboldt County. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pruning on increment, epicormic sprouting, stem taper, heartwood formation, and bear damage on these young trees. Pruning treatments varied...

  6. Prune Belly Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    a rare case and review of literature. Europe- an Journal of Plastic Surgery 35, 241-243. Moerman P., Fryns J.P., Goddeeris P. and Lau- weryns J.M. (1984) Pathogenesis of the. Prune-Belly Syndrome: A Functional Ure- thral Obstruction Caused by Prostatic Hy- poplasia. PEDIATRICS 73, 470-475. Okeniyi J.A., Ogunlesi T.A, ...

  7. Post-pruning shoot growth increases fruit abscission and reduces stem carbohydrates and yield in macadamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadyen, Lisa M; Robertson, David; Sedgley, Margaret; Kristiansen, Paul; Olesen, Trevor

    2011-05-01

    There is good evidence for deciduous trees that competition for carbohydrates from shoot growth accentuates early fruit abscission and reduces yield but the effect for evergreen trees is not well defined. Here, whole-tree tip-pruning at anthesis is used to examine the effect of post-pruning shoot development on fruit abscission in the evergreen subtropical tree macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia, M. integrifolia × tetraphylla). Partial-tree tip-pruning is also used to test the localization of the effect. In the first experiment (2005/2006), all branches on trees were tip-pruned at anthesis, some trees were allowed to re-shoot (R treatment) and shoots were removed from others (NR treatment). Fruit set and stem total non-structural carbohydrates (TNSC) over time, and yield were measured. In the second experiment (2006/2007), upper branches of trees were tip-pruned at anthesis, some trees were allowed to re-shoot (R) and shoots were removed from others (NR). Fruit set and yield were measured separately for upper (pruned) and lower (unpruned) branches. In the first experiment, R trees set far fewer fruit and had lower yield than NR trees. TNSC fell and rose in all treatments but the decline in R trees occurred earlier than in NR trees and coincided with early shoot growth and the increase in fruit abscission relative to the other treatments. In the second experiment, fruit abscission on upper branches of R trees increased relative to the other treatments but there was little difference in fruit abscission between treatments on lower branches. This study is the first to demonstrate an increase in fruit abscission in an evergreen tree in response to pruning. The effect appeared to be related to competition for carbohydrates between post-pruning shoot growth and fruit development and was local, with shoot growth on pruned branches having no effect on fruit abscission on unpruned branches.

  8. Effect of pruning height on the architecture of plants of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia HBK Mc Vaugh in the experimental station of IIAP, Ucayali, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Abanto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the response camu camu’s plants in plantations initial undergoing training pruning, an experiment was installed in EE - IIAP-Ucayali, under a design randomized complete block, with 3 replications, making use of 20 plants per experimental unit. The pruning treatments were performing at different heights from the base of the stem, it was considered T0 [witness without pruning], T1 [pruning to 10 cm from the base], T2 [pruning to 20 cm from the base] and T3 [pruning to 40 cm from the base] in plants of known provenance. The investigation was directed to evaluate the number of shoots, shoot growth, plant height, basal diameter, crown diameter and number of branches. After of 9 months of evaluation was found significant differences between the variables except in top diameter. In the variable Height, treatment T0 [witness without pruning] outstanding because they were not pruned, among the remaining treatments has similarly behaved, surpassing the control treatment by 267 %. In addition to this, the basal diameter was found that T1 [pruning to 10 cm from the base] has a better performed with an average value of 1.96 cm compared with the control (1.7cm. The pruning had a positive influence in the number of branches, with an average of 13.4 branches compared with T0 that get 3.1 branches on average, its shows that the pruning can increased up the production of branches to 432.3%.

  9. Engulfing action of glial cells is required for programmed axon pruning during Drosophila metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasaki, Takeshi; Ito, Kei

    2004-04-20

    Axon pruning is involved in establishment and maintenance of functional neural circuits. During metamorphosis of Drosophila, selective pruning of larval axons is developmentally regulated by ecdysone and caused by local axon degeneration. Previous studies have revealed intrinsic molecular and cellular mechanisms that trigger this pruning process, but how pruning is accomplished remains essentially unknown. Detailed analysis of morphological changes in the axon branches of Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neurons revealed that during early pupal stages, clusters of neighboring varicosities, each of which belongs to different axons, disappear simultaneously shortly before the onset of local axon degeneration. At this stage, bundles of axon branches are infiltrated by the processes of surrounding glia. These processes engulf clusters of varicosities and accumulate intracellular degradative compartments. Selective inhibition of cellular functions, including endocytosis, in glial cells via the temperature-sensitive allele of shibire both suppresses glial infiltration and varicosity elimination and induces a severe delay in axon pruning. Selective inhibition of ecdysone receptors in the MB neurons severely suppressed not only axon pruning but also the infiltration and engulfing action of the surrounding glia. These findings strongly suggest that glial cells are extrinsically activated by ecdysone-stimulated MB neurons. These glial cells infiltrate the mass of axon branches to eliminate varicosities and break down axon branches actively rather than just scavenging already-degraded debris. We therefore propose that neuron-glia interaction is essential for the precisely coordinated axon-pruning process during Drosophila metamorphosis.

  10. Effects of pruning in Monterey pine plantations affected by Fusarium circinatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezos, D.; Lomba, J. M.; Martinez-Alvarez, P.; Fernandez, M.; Diez, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg and O'Donnell (1998) is the causal agent of Pitch Canker Disease (PCD) in Pinus species, producing damage to the main trunk and lateral branches as well as causing branch dieback. The disease has been detected recently in northern Spain in Pinus spp. seedlings at nurseries and in Pinus radiata D. Don adult trees in plantations. Fusarium circinatum seems to require a wound to enter the tree, not only that as caused by insects but also that resulting from damage by humans, i.e. mechanical wounds. However, the effects of pruning on the infection process have yet to be studied. The aim of the present study was to know how the presence of mechanical damage caused by pruning affects PCD occurrence and severity in P. radiata plantations. Fifty P. radiata plots (pruned and unpruned) distributed throughout 16 sites affected by F. circinatum in the Cantabria region (northern Spain) were studied. Symptoms of PCD presence, such as dieback, oozing cankers and trunk deformation were evaluated in 25 trees per plot and related to pruning effect. A significant relationship between pruning and the number of cankers per tree was observed, concluding that wounds caused by pruning increase the chance of pathogen infection. Other trunk symptoms, such as the presence of resin outside the cankers, were also higher in pruned plots. These results should be taken into account for future management of Monterey Pine plantations. (Author) 36 refs.

  11. Regularization with a pruning prior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the use of a regularization priorthat we show has pruning properties. Analyses areconducted both using a Bayesian framework and withthe generalization method, on a simple toyproblem. Results are thoroughly compared withthose obtained with a traditional weight decay.......We investigate the use of a regularization priorthat we show has pruning properties. Analyses areconducted both using a Bayesian framework and withthe generalization method, on a simple toyproblem. Results are thoroughly compared withthose obtained with a traditional weight decay....

  12. Critical Dynamics of the k-Core Pruning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Baxter

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the theory of the k-core pruning process (progressive removal of nodes with degree less than k in uncorrelated random networks. We derive exact equations describing this process and the evolution of the network structure and solve them numerically and, in the critical regime of the process, analytically. We show that the pruning process exhibits three different behaviors depending on whether the mean degree ⟨q⟩ of the initial network is above, equal to, or below the threshold ⟨q⟩_{c} corresponding to the emergence of the giant k-core. We find that above the threshold the network relaxes exponentially to the k-core. The system manifests the phenomenon known as “critical slowing-down,” as the relaxation time diverges when ⟨q⟩ tends to ⟨q⟩_{c}. At the threshold, the dynamics become critical, characterized by a power-law relaxation (∝1/t^{2}. Below the threshold, a long-lasting transient process (a “plateau” stage occurs. This transient process ends with a collapse in which the entire network disappears completely. The duration of the process diverges when ⟨q⟩→⟨q⟩_{c}. We show that the critical dynamics of the pruning are determined by branching processes of spreading damage. Clusters of nodes of degree exactly k are the evolving substrate for these branching processes. Our theory completely describes this branching cascade of damage in uncorrelated networks by providing the time-dependent distribution function of branching. These theoretical results are supported by our simulations of the k-core pruning in Erdős-Rényi graphs.

  13. Influence of rootstocks and pruning times on yield and on nutrient content and extraction in 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Tecchio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of rootstocks and pruning times on yield and on nutrient content and extraction by pruned branches and harvested bunches of 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine in subtropical climate. The rootstocks 'IAC 766', 'IAC 572', 'IAC 313', 'IAC 571-6', and '106-8 Mgt' were evaluated. Treatments consisted of a combination between five rootstocks and three pruning times. At pruning, fresh and dry matter mass of branches were evaluated to estimate biomass accumulation. At harvest, yield was estimated by weighing of bunches per plant. Branches and bunches were sampled at pruning and at harvest, respectively, for nutrient content analysis. Nutrient content and dry matter mass of branches and bunches were used to estimate total nutrient extraction. 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine grafted onto the 'IAC 572' rootstock had the highest yield and dry matter mass of bunches, which were significantly different from the ones observed in 'Niagara Rosada'/'IAC 313'. 'Niagara Rosada' grafted onto the 'IAC 572' rootstock extracted the largest quantity of K, P, Mg, S, Cu, and Fe, differing from 'IAC 313' and 'IAC 766' in K and P extraction, and from '106-8 Mgt' in Mg and S extraction. Winter pruning results in higher yield, dry matter accumulation by branches, and total nutrient content and extraction.

  14. Financial analysis of pruning ponderosa pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Fight; Natalie A. Bolon; James M. Cahill

    1992-01-01

    A recent lumber recovery study of pruned and unpruned ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) was used to project the financial return from pruning ponderosa pine in the Medford District of the Bureau of Land Management and in the Ochoco and Deschutes National Forests. The cost of pruning at which the investment would yield an expected 4-...

  15. 7 CFR 993.5 - Prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prunes. 993.5 Section 993.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.5 Prunes. Prunes means and includes all sun-dried or artificially...

  16. Pruning dwarf mistletoe brooms reduces stress on Jeffrey pines, Cleveland National Forest, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Scharpf; Richard S. Smith; Detlev Vogler

    1987-01-01

    Western dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium campylopodum) is a damaging parasite of Jeffrey pines (Pinus jeffreyi) in southern California. Infected branches that develop into brooms are believed to reduce tlee vigor and increase mortality. Brooms were pruned from Jeffrey pines with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection and live...

  17. 75 FR 1269 - Dried Prunes Produced in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ..., Regional Manager, California Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order Administration Branch, Fruit and... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 993 Dried Prunes Produced in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Affirmation of interim final rule as final rule...

  18. The Over-Pruning Hypothesis of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Davis, Rachael; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Knowland, Victoria C. P.; Charman, Tony

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines the "over-pruning hypothesis" of autism. The hypothesis originates in a neurocomputational model of the regressive sub-type (Thomas, Knowland & Karmiloff-Smith, 2011a, 2011b). Here we develop a more general version of the over-pruning hypothesis to address heterogeneity in the timing of manifestation of ASD,…

  19. Olive Crown Porosity Measurement Based on Radiation Transmittance: An Assessment of Pruning Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Castillo-Ruiz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Crown porosity influences radiation interception, air movement through the fruit orchard, spray penetration, and harvesting operation in fruit crops. The aim of the present study was to develop an accurate and reliable methodology based on transmitted radiation measurements to assess the porosity of traditional olive trees under different pruning treatments. Transmitted radiation was employed as an indirect method to measure crown porosity in two olive orchards of the Picual and Hojiblanca cultivars. Additionally, three different pruning treatments were considered to determine if the pruning system influences crown porosity. This study evaluated the accuracy and repeatability of four algorithms in measuring crown porosity under different solar zenith angles. From a 14° to 30° solar zenith angle, the selected algorithm produced an absolute error of less than 5% and a repeatability higher than 0.9. The described method and selected algorithm proved satisfactory in field results, making it possible to measure crown porosity at different solar zenith angles. However, pruning fresh weight did not show any relationship with crown porosity due to the great differences between removed branches. A robust and accurate algorithm was selected for crown porosity measurements in traditional olive trees, making it possible to discern between different pruning treatments.

  20. Financial analysis of pruning coast Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Fight; James M. Cahlll; Thomas D. Fahey; Thomas A. Snellgrove

    1987-01-01

    Pruning of coast Douglas-fir was evaluated; recent product recovery information for pruned and unpruned logs for both sawn and peeled products was used. Dimensions of pruned and unpruned trees were simulated with the Douglas-fir stand simulator (DFSIM). Results are presented for a range of sites, ages at time of pruning, ages at time of harvest, product prices, and...

  1. 7 CFR 993.6 - Non-French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-French prunes. 993.6 Section 993.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.6 Non-French prunes. Non-French prunes means prunes commonly...

  2. Axon Termination, Pruning, and Synaptogenesis in the Giant Fiber System of Drosophila melanogaster Is Promoted by Highwire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, Melissa; Rowland, Kimberly; Boerner, Jana; Lloyd, Brandon; Khan, Aruna; Murphey, Rodney

    2017-03-01

    The ubiquitin ligase Highwire has a conserved role in synapse formation. Here, we show that Highwire coordinates several facets of central synapse formation in the Drosophila melanogaster giant fiber system, including axon termination, axon pruning, and synaptic function. Despite the similarities to the fly neuromuscular junction, the role of Highwire and the underlying signaling pathways are distinct in the fly's giant fiber system. During development, branching of the giant fiber presynaptic terminal occurs and, normally, the transient branches are pruned away. However, in highwire mutants these ectopic branches persist, indicating that Highwire promotes axon pruning. highwire mutants also exhibit defects in synaptic function. Highwire promotes axon pruning and synaptic function cell-autonomously by attenuating a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway including Wallenda, c-Jun N-terminal kinase/Basket, and the transcription factor Jun. We also show a novel role for Highwire in non-cell autonomous promotion of synaptic function from the midline glia. Highwire also regulates axon termination in the giant fibers, as highwire mutant axons exhibit severe overgrowth beyond the pruning defect. This excessive axon growth is increased by manipulating Fos expression in the cells surrounding the giant fiber terminal, suggesting that Fos regulates a trans-synaptic signal that promotes giant fiber axon growth. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  3. Glial remodeling during metamorphosis influences the stabilization of motor neuron branches in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, Sarita; Fernandes, Joyce J

    2010-04-15

    Motor neurons that innervate the dorsal longitudinal (flight) muscles, DLMs, make multiple points of contact along the length of fibers. The stereotypy of the innervation lies in the number of contact points (CPs) made by each motor neuron and is established as a consequence of pruning that occurs during metamorphosis. Coincident with the onset of pruning is the arrival of glial processes that eventually ensheath persistent branches. To test a possible role for glia during pruning, the development of adult-specific glial ensheathment was disrupted using a targeted expression of dominant negative shibire. Such a manipulation resulted in fewer contact points at the DLM fibers. The development of innervation was examined during metamorphosis, specifically to test if the reduction was a consequence of increased pruning. We quantified the number of branches displaying discontinuities in their membrane, an indicator of the level of pruning. Disrupting the formation of glial ensheathment resulted in a two-fold increase in the discontinuities, indicating that pruning is enhanced. Thus glial-neuronal interactions, specifically during pruning are important for the patterning of adult innervation. Our studies also suggest that FasII plays a role in mediating this communication. At the end of the pruning phase, FasII localizes to glia, which envelops each of the stabilized contact points. When glial FasII levels are increased using the Gal4/UAS system of targeted expression, pruning of secondary branches is enhanced. Our results indicate that glia regulate pruning of secondary branches by influencing the balance between stabilization and pruning. This was confirmed by an observed rescue of the innervation phenotype of FasII hypomorphs by over expressing FasII in glia. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Cullin1-based SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase targets the InR/PI3K/TOR pathway to regulate neuronal pruning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Jing Lin Wong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pruning that selectively eliminates unnecessary axons/dendrites is crucial for sculpting the nervous system during development. During Drosophila metamorphosis, dendrite arborization neurons, ddaCs, selectively prune their larval dendrites in response to the steroid hormone ecdysone, whereas mushroom body γ neurons specifically eliminate their axon branches within dorsal and medial lobes. However, it is unknown which E3 ligase directs these two modes of pruning. Here, we identified a conserved SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a critical role in pruning of both ddaC dendrites and mushroom body γ axons. The SCF E3 ligase consists of four core components Cullin1/Roc1a/SkpA/Slimb and promotes ddaC dendrite pruning downstream of EcR-B1 and Sox14, but independently of Mical. Moreover, we demonstrate that the Cullin1-based E3 ligase facilitates ddaC dendrite pruning primarily through inactivation of the InR/PI3K/TOR pathway. We show that the F-box protein Slimb forms a complex with Akt, an activator of the InR/PI3K/TOR pathway, and promotes Akt ubiquitination. Activation of the InR/PI3K/TOR pathway is sufficient to inhibit ddaC dendrite pruning. Thus, our findings provide a novel link between the E3 ligase and the InR/PI3K/TOR pathway during dendrite pruning.

  5. Megalourethra associated with prune-belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökalp, A; Gültekin, E Y

    1993-01-01

    A 14-day-old male infant with megalourethra is presented because of the rarity of the anomaly and its association with prune-belly syndrome. The lax, wrinkled appearance of the abdomen, bilateral cryptorchidism and severe dilatation of the urinary system are features included in the classic triad of the prune-belly syndrome. Our patient had the scaphoid variety of megalourethra since the penis appeared elongated and floppy in the fusiform form.

  6. Abdominoplasty in Prune Belly Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dénes, F T; Park, R; Lopes, R I; Moscardi, P R M; Srougi, M

    2015-10-01

    Many patients with Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS) require abdominoplasty alone or in combination with correction of any urogenital abnormalities. This video presents a simplified technique with which to treat the abdominal flaccidity in PBS. A longitudinal xypho-pubic fusiform figure is drawn on the abdomen, based on the area of skin and subcutaneous tissue to be removed. This is performed with preservation of the musculo-fascial layer and the umbilicus. A lateral elliptical single xypho-pubic line is drawn in the most lax side of the fascia, which is incised along this line. After urinary tract reconstruction and orchidopexy, closure is initiated by suturing the medial edge of the wider fascial flap laterally to the peritoneal side of the contralateral flap. Next, the now outer fascial flap is laid over the inner flap, and a buttonhole is made to expose the umbilicus. The subcutaneous tissue of the inner flap is laterally undermined to gain extra distance for the suture of the outer flap over the inner flap. The subcutaneous tissue and skin are sutured in the midline, incorporating the umbilicus. In a 30-year period, 43 PBS patients underwent this procedure with good cosmetic and long-term functional results. This abdominoplasty technique is simple and presents good functional and cosmetic results in PBS patients. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimating the fruit quality after application the pruning of blue honeysuckle bushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Szot

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed at University of Life Science in the eighth year after plant’s establishment in 2001. In 2008 the “crown thinning” of blue honeysuckle cv. ‘Atut’ and‘Duet’, to improve light penetration and air circulation, was done. In the next year during the “crown reduction” the shortening branches to 5 cm height from ground surface was applied. Effect of treatments on fruit quality in 2010 was evaluated. Berries from pruned bushes characterized significantly by bigger mass of individual fruit and length of fruit, however the diameters of fruit were similar to that from non-pruned bushes Berries from non-pruned bushes had significantly higher content of soluble solids, sugar and acidity and lower content of anthocyanins as compared to fruits from pruned bushes. Significantly bigger fruit with regard to their weight, length and diameter stated in the 2 nd harvest. Fruits from 2 nd harvest had much more soluble solids, sugar, anthocyanins and acidy versus that harvested in the 1 st term.

  8. Enhanced Context Recognition by Sensitivity Pruned Vocabularies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    Language independent `bag-of-words' representations are surprisingly effective for text classification. The generic BOW approach is based on a high-dimensional vocabulary which may reduce the generalization performance of subsequent classifiers, e.g., based on ill-posed principal component...... transformations. In this communication our aim is to study the effect of sensitivity based pruning of the bag-of-words representation. We consider neural network based sensitivity maps for determination of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies documents are classified using...... a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Pruning the vocabularies to approximately 20% of the original size, we find consistent context recognition enhancement for two mid size data-sets for a range of training set sizes. We also study the applicability...

  9. Effect of different winter pruning systems on grapes produced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Caprara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these trials was to evaluate possible effects on properties of grapes, particularly the physical and mechanical features, depending on the winter pruning system. The following pruning techniques were carried out: manual pruning (m; mechanical pruning (M; mechanical pre-pruning and subsequent manual finishing (Mm; mechanical pre-pruning and contemporary fast manual finishing, using a wagon facility with two operators equipped with pneumatic scissors (Mw. The trials were carried out on Sangiovese trained to spurred cordon. During the trials were measured: time and cost of pruning, quality of pruning and the vegetative-productive response of vines. During grape harvesting a consolidated analytical method of texture analysis was applied to evaluate the physical parameters of grapevine cultivar: pedicel detachment, skin perforation, skin thickness, grape features as hardness, cohesiveness, springiness. Analysis of working time showed that the manual pruning (m determined a greater commitment of time, while the mechanized pruning (M presented a time reduction of 95%. The two mechanized pruning associated with manual finishing reduced the time of 21% (Mm and 69% (Mw. The lowering cost is less evident but important anyway. Regarding the quality of pruning, the increase in the level of mechanization has produced an increase of spurs and buds density. It was also detected a higher percentage of damaged spurs and in wrong position. The increasing of mechanization levels of pruning also has produced smaller and sparser bunches with smaller berries. The study of mechanical properties of berries showed significant differences in the mechanical behaviours of the different pruning tests. The mechanized pruning presented higher values for the pedicel detachment, skin perforation and cohesiveness, while it gave lower values for thickness of skin and springiness. The results showed that mechanical pruning can modify properties of the berries which

  10. Veneer grade yield from pruned Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward J. II Dimock; Henry H. Haskell

    1962-01-01

    This paper reports actual veneer yields obtained from 10 trees pruned at age 38 and harvested 20 years later. Information of this kind is needed to help determine if and when to prune and ultimately will be essential to a thorough economic analysis of expected returns from pruning.

  11. Effects of root pruning in sour cherry (Prunus cersus) "Stevnsbaer"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldam-Andersen, Torben; Jensen, Nauja Lisa; Dencker, Ivar Blücher

    2007-01-01

    (May), initial and final fruit set (June) were recorded. Root pruning had little effect on fruit set, fruit size and yield in the year of pruning. Only in one plot with a severe root pruning (26 cm from the trunks), negative effects were found. The effects on growth, flowering and fruit set in 2003...

  12. 7 CFR 993.149 - Receiving of prunes by handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... same procedure shall apply as set forth in paragraph (d)(1) of this section. For each day on which a... and usually received by a handler in any considerable volume as ranch deliveries, and at which there... samples of prunes drawn as prune plums and dehydrated in the same manner as the prunes to which they are...

  13. Pruning the vocabulary for better context recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies, documents are classified using a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Reducing the bag-of-words vocabularies with 90%-98%, we find consistent classification improvement using two...

  14. Vocabulary Pruning for Improved Context Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies documents are classified using a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Reducing the bag-of-words vocabularies with 90%-98%, we find consistent classification improvement using two...

  15. 21 CFR 145.190 - Canned prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned prunes. 145.190 Section 145.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...: (1) Natural and artificial flavors. (2) Spice. (3) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic acids. (4...

  16. Supertrees Based on the Subtree Prune-and-Regraft Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whidden, Christopher; Zeh, Norbert; Beiko, Robert G

    2014-07-01

    Supertree methods reconcile a set of phylogenetic trees into a single structure that is often interpreted as a branching history of species. A key challenge is combining conflicting evolutionary histories that are due to artifacts of phylogenetic reconstruction and phenomena such as lateral gene transfer (LGT). Many supertree approaches use optimality criteria that do not reflect underlying processes, have known biases, and may be unduly influenced by LGT. We present the first method to construct supertrees by using the subtree prune-and-regraft (SPR) distance as an optimality criterion. Although calculating the rooted SPR distance between a pair of trees is NP-hard, our new maximum agreement forest-based methods can reconcile trees with hundreds of taxa and>50 transfers in fractions of a second, which enables repeated calculations during the course of an iterative search. Our approach can accommodate trees in which uncertain relationships have been collapsed to multifurcating nodes. Using a series of benchmark datasets simulated under plausible rates of LGT, we show that SPR supertrees are more similar to correct species histories than supertrees based on parsimony or Robinson-Foulds distance criteria. We successfully constructed an SPR supertree from a phylogenomic dataset of 40,631 gene trees that covered 244 genomes representing several major bacterial phyla. Our SPR-based approach also allowed direct inference of highways of gene transfer between bacterial classes and genera. A Small number of these highways connect genera in different phyla and can highlight specific genes implicated in long-distance LGT. [Lateral gene transfer; matrix representation with parsimony; phylogenomics; prokaryotic phylogeny; Robinson-Foulds; subtree prune-and-regraft; supertrees.]. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

  17. Small-Scale Effect of Pine Stand Pruning on Snowpack Distribution in the Pyrenees Observed with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Revuelto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forests in snow-dominated areas have substantial effects on the snowpack and its evolution over time. Such interactions have significant consequences for the hydrological response of mountain rivers. Thus, the impact of forest management actions on the snow distribution, and hence the storage of water in the form of snow during winter and spring, is a major concern. The results of this study provide the first detailed comparison of the small-scale effect of forest characteristics on the snowpack distribution, assessed prior to and following major modification of the structure of the canopy by pruning of the lower branches of the trees to 3 m above the ground. This is a common management practice aimed at reducing the spread of forest fires. The snowpack distribution was determined using terrestrial laser scanning (LiDAR technology at a high spatial resolution (0.25 m over a 1000 m2 study area during 23 survey dates over three snow seasons in a small study area in the central Pyrenees. The pruning was conducted during summer following the snow season in the second year of the study (i.e., the study duration encompassed two seasons prior to canopy pruning and one following. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to identify recurring spatial patterns of snow distribution. The results showed that pruning reduced the average radius of the canopy of trees by 1.2 m, and increased the clearance around the trunks, as all the branches that formerly contacted the ground were removed. However, the impact on the snowpack was moderate. The PCA revealed that the spatial configuration of the snowpack did not change significantly, as the principal components included survey days from different periods of the snow season, and did not discriminate days surveyed prior to and following pruning. Nevertheless, removal of the lower branches reduced the area beneath the canopy by 36%, and led to an average increase in total snow depth of approximately 14%.

  18. 7 CFR 993.109 - Modified definition of non-French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modified definition of non-French prunes. 993.109... definition of non-French prunes. The definition of non-French prunes set forth in § 993.6 is modified to read as follows: Non-French Prunes means prunes commonly known as Imperial, Sugar, Robe de Sargent, Burton...

  19. Prune Belly syndrome: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Samal, Sunil Kumar; Rathod, Setu

    2015-01-01

    Prune Belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital anomaly of uncertain etiology almost exclusive to males. We report a case of term male baby born to a 39-year-old grand multipara with previous four normal vaginal births. There was no history of genetic or congenital anomaly in her family. Examination of the baby revealed hypotonia, deficient abdominal muscle, cryptorchidism, palpable kidney, and bladder. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen revealed bilateral gross hydronephrosis and megauret...

  20. Impact of wood pruning to greenhouse gas emissions in three orchards and a vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, Sonja; Schleicher, Sarah; Bischoff, Wolf-Anno; Gomez Palermo, Maider; Kern, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Pruning of orchards and vineyards is usually burned or left on the soil for nutrient and organic carbon recycling. Recently the interest rose to extract pruning for energetic use. Very few studies exist that analyzed the effects of pruning removal on soil physical and chemical characteristics. This is linked to the fact that changes are expected rather in the long term, but project funding is typically restricted to 2 or 3 years. Some soil characteristics, however, as organic carbon content and greenhouse gas emissions might also change on the short term as our literature review reveals. The main objective of this research is to determine if pruning extraction from orchards and vineyards impact greenhouse gas emissions (N2O, CH4, and CO2) from soil to the atmosphere, change soil nitrogen and carbon content or effect nitrogen leaching. Results from our study and from the literature will be compiled to formulate best management practices for sustainable pruning utilization from orchards and vineyards. Here we compare four different study sites in a block design over two rows each with two parcels where we extracted pruning and two parcels where pruning was chipped and left on the soil (n=4). Comparisons were made for initial soil chemistry and greenhouse gas emissions in a cherry orchard without irrigation in Germany, a vineyard without irrigation in France, an almond orchard with drip irrigation in Spain and a peach orchard with flood irrigation in Spain. Soil greenhouse gas emissions depend on soil chemistry and soil moisture. These characteristics can be expected to vary between the tree rows and inter-rows of orchards. Therefore we took soil samples from row and inter-row positions of each study site and analyzed them for chemical parameters (pH, total C, N, S, and H, and available PO4, NH4, NO3, K, Mg, Ca). Additionally soil moisture and temperature data have been recorded for tree rows and inter-rows in the cherry orchard and the vineyard. Gas samples were

  1. EFFECTS OF SOME CHEMICAL PRE-TREATMENTS ON SOME PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTICLEBOARD MANUFACTURED FROM VINE PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergün GÜNTEKİN, Samim YAŞAR, Beyhan KARAKUŞ, Mustafa Burak ARSLAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of some pre-treatments on some physical and mechanical properties of particleboard manufactured from vine pruning. Chips that were produced from vine pruning were subjected to some pre-treatments namely cold water, 1 % sodium hydroxide, and 1 % acetic acid in order to improve their performance in particleboard manufacturing. One-layer experimental particleboards with density of 0.5 g/cm3 were manufactured from vine pruning using 6,8,10 % percent of urea formaldehyde (UF adhesive. Modulus of elasticity (MOE, modulus of rupture (MOR, internal bond strength (IB, thickness swelling (TS and water absorption properties of the boards were evaluated, and a statistical analysis was performed in order to evaluate effects of pre-treatments on physical and mechanical properties. The results have shown that pre-treatments increase bending and internal bond strength of the boards while no significant effects has been observed on modulus of elasticity. The results also indicate that pre-treatments have significant effects on water absorption values of the boards but not on thickness swelling of the boards. This study demonstrates that vine pruning can be more efficiently used in particleboard manufacturing.

  2. Unusual presentation of prune belly syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Demisse, Abayneh Girma; Berhanu, Ashenafi; Tadesse, Temesgen

    2017-01-01

    Background Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital malformation of unknown etiology, with the following triad of findings: abdominal muscle wall weakness, undescended testes, and urinary tract abnormalities. In most cases, detection of prune belly syndrome occurs during neonatal or infancy period. In this case report, we describe a 12-year-old boy from Ethiopia with the triad of findings of prune belly syndrome along with skeletal malformations. We are unaware of any previous report of prun...

  3. Effects of pruning intensity on jujube transpiration and soil moisture of plantation in the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhenyi; Wang, Xing; Wang, Youke; Ma, Jianpeng; Wei, Xinguang; Chen, Dianyu

    2017-01-01

    In order to ease soil desiccation and prevent ecological deterioration in the Loess Plateau, where jujube (Zizyphus jujube MIll) is widely cultivated as a drought tolerant plant, four pruning intensities (PI), from PI-1 (light) to PI-4 (heavy) were set up based on total length of secondary branches to study the effects of pruning on transpiration and soil moisture in jujube plantations. Furthermore, growth indexes were regularly monitored to estimate jujubes biomass. Sap flow, meteorological and soil moisture conditions were monitored using thermal dissipation probes (TDP), weather station (RR-9100) and the combination of time domain transmission (TDT) technology and neutron moisture gauges (CNC503B), respectively. The results showed that daily actual transpiration of jujube was positively correlated with leaf biomass. Compared with PI-1, jujube transpiration during growth period under PI-2, PI-3, and PI-4 dropped by 11.1%, 29.2%, and 47.9%, respectively. On the contrary, annual water storage under PI-2, PI-3, and PI-4 increased by 6.29 mm, 25.78 mm and 34.74 mm while water use efficiency increased by 5.1%, 15.7% and 24.2%, respectively. Overall, increase in pruning intensity could significantly reduce water consumption of jujube and improve soil moisture in jujube plantations.

  4. Evaluation of fungicides to protect pruning wounds from Botryosphaeriaceae species infections on almond trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego OLMO

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In vitro efficacy of ten fungicides was evaluated against four Botryosphaeriaceae spp. (Diplodia seriata, Neofusicoccum luteum, N. mediterraneum and N. parvum associated with branch cankers on almond trees. Cyproconazole, pyraclostrobin, tebuconazole, and thiophanate-methyl were effective for the inhibition of mycelial growth of most of these fungi. An experiment on 3-year-old almond trees evaluated boscalid, mancozeb, thiophanate-methyl, pyraclostrobin and tebuconazole for preventative ability against infections caused by the four pathogens. Five months after pruning and fungicide application, lesion length measurements and isolation percentages showed no significant differences among the four pathogens after they were inoculated onto the trees, and also between the two inoculation times tested (1 or 7 d after fungicide application. Thiophanate-methyl was the most effective fungicide, resulting in the shortest lesion lengths and the lowest isolation percentages from artificially inoculated pruning wounds. This chemical is therefore a candidate for inclusion in integrated disease management, to protect pruning wounds from infections caused by species of Botryosphaeriaceae. This study represents the first approach to development of chemical control strategies for the management of canker diseases caused by Botryosphaeriaceae fungi on almond trees. 

  5. Prune belly syndrome with pouch colon and absent dermatome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prune belly syndrome with pouch colon and absent dermatome. AA Baba, SA Hussain, AH Shera, R Patnaik. Abstract. Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital constellation of defects in pediatric surgical practice. Although anorectal anomalies have been reported in association with PBS, only few case of pouch ...

  6. Prune belly syndrome: Early management outcome of nine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prune belly syndrome: Early management outcome of nine consecutive cases. ... Background: Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital malformation of unclear etiology. The disease progress and ... The degree of the anterior abdominal wall and the urinary tract morphology varies from patient to patient. Urinary tract ...

  7. Pruning quality affects infection of Acacia mangium and A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pruning (singling) is a common silvicultural practice in commercial Acacia plantations because these trees tend to have multiple stems. The wounds resulting from pruning are susceptible to infection by pathogens. Ceratocystis acaciivora and Lasiodiplodia theobromae have been shown recently to be important pathogens ...

  8. Prune Belly Syndrome | Hammond | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two cases of prune belly syndrome in Black infants are presented. The prune belly syndrome, or congenital absence of abdominal muscles, is accompanied by hydro-ureter, hydronephrosis, megalocystis and usually undescended testes. Other associated congenital defects occur, of which orthopaedic defects appear to be ...

  9. Effect of mycorrhiza and pruning regimes on seasonality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of mycorrhiza and pruning regimes on seasonality of hedgerow tree mulch contribution to alley-cropped cassava in Ibadan, Nigeria. ... promoted dry season pruning production which was masked in Leucaena at 3 months by biomass diversion into flowering and in Gliricidia with both flowering and mite infestation.

  10. Chip, Chip, Hooray!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a science laboratory using different brands of potato chips in which students test their oiliness, size, thickness, saltiness, quality, and cost, then analyze the results to determine the best chip. Gives a brief history of potato chips. (YDS)

  11. The importance of pruning to the quality of wine grape fruits (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under high-altitude tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, the Ain-Karim Vineyard has been growing different grape varieties for the production of high-altitude tropical wines in the municipality of Sutamarchan, located in the Alto Ricaurte region of Boyaca (Colombia. Pruning is used to limit the number and length of branches, generating a suitable balance between plant vigor and production; thereby, regulating fruit quantity and quality and ensuring reserves for the subsequent production. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three pruning types (short = two buds on two spurs; long = five buds on three spurs and mixed = combination of short and long pruning types on the fruit quality of V. vinifera, Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc varieties. To accomplish this, a completely randomized two-factor design was used. Physicochemical variables of fruit quality (fresh cluster weight, water content, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, technical maturity index (TMI, and pH were determined at harvest. The long pruning type presented the highest values for the fresh cluster weight and TSS of the fruits from both varieties and a higher TMI in the Cabernet Sauvignon variety. These results indicate that, under the conditions of the vineyard, long pruning is the most suitable.

  12. Extraction of arbutin and its comparative content in branches, leaves, stems, and fruits of Japanese pear Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Ichitani, Masaki; Kunimoto, Ko-Ki; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Arbutin is a tyrosinase inhibitor and is extensively used as a human skin-whitening agent. This study investigated the optimum conditions for extracting arbutin by ultrasonic homogenization from discarded branches pruned from Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui) trees. The arbutin content was measured in the branches and also in the leaves, stems, fruit peel, and fruit flesh.

  13. Prune Belly syndrome: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Sunil Kumar; Rathod, Setu

    2015-01-01

    Prune Belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital anomaly of uncertain etiology almost exclusive to males. We report a case of term male baby born to a 39-year-old grand multipara with previous four normal vaginal births. There was no history of genetic or congenital anomaly in her family. Examination of the baby revealed hypotonia, deficient abdominal muscle, cryptorchidism, palpable kidney, and bladder. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen revealed bilateral gross hydronephrosis and megaureter. Provisional diagnosis of PBS was made and the baby was admitted in neonatal intensive care units for further management. Routine antenatal care with ultrasonography will help in detecting renal anomalies, which can be followed postnatally. Early diagnosis of this syndrome and determining its optimal treatment are very important in helping to avoid its fatal course.

  14. Efficient Pruning Method for Ensemble Self-Generating Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Inoue

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, multiple classifier systems (MCS have been used for practical applications to improve classification accuracy. Self-generating neural networks (SGNN are one of the suitable base-classifiers for MCS because of their simple setting and fast learning. However, the computation cost of the MCS increases in proportion to the number of SGNN. In this paper, we propose an efficient pruning method for the structure of the SGNN in the MCS. We compare the pruned MCS with two sampling methods. Experiments have been conducted to compare the pruned MCS with an unpruned MCS, the MCS based on C4.5, and k-nearest neighbor method. The results show that the pruned MCS can improve its classification accuracy as well as reducing the computation cost.

  15. [Effect of TUBB3, TS and ERCC1 mRNA expression on chemoresponse and clinical outcome of advanced gastric cancer by multiplex branched-DNA liquid chip technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Hu, Huabin; Xie, Yangchun; Tang, Youhong; Liu, Wei; Zhong, Meizuo

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the impact of β-tubulin-III (TUBB3), thymidylate synthase (TS) and excision repair cross complementation group 1 (ERCC1) mRNA expression on chemoresponse and clinical outcome of patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with TXT/CDDP/FU (DCF) regimen chemotherapy. The study population consisted of 48 patients with advanced gastric cancer. All patients were treated with DCF regimen palliative chemotherapy. The mRNA expressions of TUBB3, TS and ERCC1 of primary tumors were examined by multiplex branched-DNA liquid chip technology. The patients with low TUBB3 mRNA expression had higher response rate to chemotherapy than patients with high TUBB3 expression (P=0.011). There were no significant differences between response rate and TS or ERCC1 expression pattern. Median overall survival (OS) and median time to progression (TTP) were significantly longer in patients with low TUBB3 mRNA expression (P=0.002, PTS or ERCC1 expression was not correlated with TTP and OS. In the combined analysis including TUBB3, TS and ERCC1, the patients with 0 or 1 high expression gene had better response rate, TTP and OS than the remaining patients (all PTS and ERCC1 expression can promote the individual treatment in advanced gastric cancer.

  16. Partial prune belly syndrome: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Pratap Singh; Vinay Mathur; Ramesh Tanger; Arun Kumar Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is characterized by deficient development of abdominal muscles that causes the skin of the abdomen to wrinkle like a prune, bilateral cryptorchidism, abnormalities of the urinary tract. The etiology of PBS is unclear and possible familial genetic inheritance was reported in some of the studies. We are presenting here a case with the absence of the muscle in the right side of the abdomen as hernia, thinning of the muscle on left side with bilateral cryptorchidism, an...

  17. DANNP: an efficient artificial neural network pruning tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Alshahrani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Artificial neural networks (ANNs are a robust class of machine learning models and are a frequent choice for solving classification problems. However, determining the structure of the ANNs is not trivial as a large number of weights (connection links may lead to overfitting the training data. Although several ANN pruning algorithms have been proposed for the simplification of ANNs, these algorithms are not able to efficiently cope with intricate ANN structures required for complex classification problems. Methods We developed DANNP, a web-based tool, that implements parallelized versions of several ANN pruning algorithms. The DANNP tool uses a modified version of the Fast Compressed Neural Network software implemented in C++ to considerably enhance the running time of the ANN pruning algorithms we implemented. In addition to the performance evaluation of the pruned ANNs, we systematically compared the set of features that remained in the pruned ANN with those obtained by different state-of-the-art feature selection (FS methods. Results Although the ANN pruning algorithms are not entirely parallelizable, DANNP was able to speed up the ANN pruning up to eight times on a 32-core machine, compared to the serial implementations. To assess the impact of the ANN pruning by DANNP tool, we used 16 datasets from different domains. In eight out of the 16 datasets, DANNP significantly reduced the number of weights by 70%–99%, while maintaining a competitive or better model performance compared to the unpruned ANN. Finally, we used a naïve Bayes classifier derived with the features selected as a byproduct of the ANN pruning and demonstrated that its accuracy is comparable to those obtained by the classifiers trained with the features selected by several state-of-the-art FS methods. The FS ranking methodology proposed in this study allows the users to identify the most discriminant features of the problem at hand. To the best of our knowledge

  18. DANNP: an efficient artificial neural network pruning tool

    KAUST Repository

    Alshahrani, Mona

    2017-11-06

    Background Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are a robust class of machine learning models and are a frequent choice for solving classification problems. However, determining the structure of the ANNs is not trivial as a large number of weights (connection links) may lead to overfitting the training data. Although several ANN pruning algorithms have been proposed for the simplification of ANNs, these algorithms are not able to efficiently cope with intricate ANN structures required for complex classification problems. Methods We developed DANNP, a web-based tool, that implements parallelized versions of several ANN pruning algorithms. The DANNP tool uses a modified version of the Fast Compressed Neural Network software implemented in C++ to considerably enhance the running time of the ANN pruning algorithms we implemented. In addition to the performance evaluation of the pruned ANNs, we systematically compared the set of features that remained in the pruned ANN with those obtained by different state-of-the-art feature selection (FS) methods. Results Although the ANN pruning algorithms are not entirely parallelizable, DANNP was able to speed up the ANN pruning up to eight times on a 32-core machine, compared to the serial implementations. To assess the impact of the ANN pruning by DANNP tool, we used 16 datasets from different domains. In eight out of the 16 datasets, DANNP significantly reduced the number of weights by 70%–99%, while maintaining a competitive or better model performance compared to the unpruned ANN. Finally, we used a naïve Bayes classifier derived with the features selected as a byproduct of the ANN pruning and demonstrated that its accuracy is comparable to those obtained by the classifiers trained with the features selected by several state-of-the-art FS methods. The FS ranking methodology proposed in this study allows the users to identify the most discriminant features of the problem at hand. To the best of our knowledge, DANNP (publicly

  19. Branched polymers on branched polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Durhuus, Bergfinnur; Jonsson, Thordur

    1996-01-01

    We study an ensemble of branched polymers which are embedded on other branched polymers. This is a toy model which allows us to study explicitly the reaction of a statistical system on an underlying geometrical structure, a problem of interest in the study of the interaction of matter and quantized gravity. We find a phase transition at which the embedded polymers begin to cover the basis polymers. At the phase transition point the susceptibility exponent $\\gamma$ takes the value 3/4 and the ...

  20. Phenology, growth and physiological adjustments of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) to sink limitation induced by fruit pruning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, S; Mialet-Serra, I; Caliman, J-P; Siregar, F A; Clement-Vidal, A; Fabre, D; Dingkuhn, M

    2009-11-01

    Despite its simple architecture and small phenotypic plasticity, oil palm has complex phenology and source-sink interactions. Phytomers appear in regular succession but their development takes years, involving long lag periods between environmental influences and their effects on sinks. Plant adjustments to resulting source-sink imbalances are poorly understood. This study investigated oil palm adjustments to imbalances caused by severe fruit pruning. An experiment with two treatments (control and complete fruit pruning) during 22 months in 2006-2008) and six replications per treatment was conducted in Indonesia. Phenology, growth of above-ground vegetative and reproductive organs, leaf morphology, inflorescence sex differentiation, dynamics of non-structural carbohydrate reserves and light-saturated net photosynthesis (A(max)) were monitored. Artificial sink limitation by complete fruit pruning accelerated development rate, resulting in higher phytomer, leaf and inflorescence numbers. Leaf size and morphology remained unchanged. Complete fruit pruning also suppressed the abortion of male inflorescences, estimated to be triggered at about 16 months before bunch maturity. The number of female inflorescences increased after an estimated lag of 24-26 months, corresponding to time from sex differentiation to bunch maturity. The most important adjustment process was increased assimilate storage in the stem, attaining nearly 50 % of dry weight in the stem top, mainly as starch, whereas glucose, which in controls was the most abundant non-structural carbohydrate stored in oil palm, decreased. The development rate of oil palm is in part controlled by source-sink relationships. Although increased rate of development and proportion of female inflorescences constituted observed adjustments to sink limitation, the low plasticity of plant architecture (constant leaf size, absence of branching) limited compensatory growth. Non-structural carbohydrate storage was thus the main

  1. Antioxidant and sensorial properties of acacia honey supplemented with prunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumbas Vesna T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in total phenol and flavonoid content, as well as antioxidant activity was monitored in acacia honey supplemented with prunes in 20, 30 and 40% mass concentrations. The total phenolic content increased by 2.5 times (from 16.18 to 41.64 mg GAE/100 g with increasing concentration of prunes in honey, while the increase in flavonoid content was even higher, approximately 11.5-fold (from 2.65 to 30.86 mg RE/100 g. The addition of prunes also improved the antioxidant activity of acacia honey. The honey samples with highest content of prunes, 40%, exhibited the best antioxidant activity measured by hydroxyl radical sacvenging assay (EC50 •OH=4.56 mg/ml, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay (EC50 DPPH=16.48 mg/ml, and reducing power (EC50 RP=81.17 mg/ml. Judging from the high correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.771 to 0.947 for total phenolics, and from 0.862 to 0.993 for total flavonoids, it is obvious that these compounds were associated with the antioxidant mechanisms. On the other hand, sensorial properties of supplemented honeys were lower than that of pure acacia honey, where flavor of supplemented honey was the least affected. Our results indicate that the supplementation of honey with prunes improves antioxidant activity of honey by enriching the phenolic composition, with slight modifications in sensorial characteristics.

  2. Energy potential of fruit tree pruned biomass in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilandzija, N.; Voca, N.; Kricka, T.; Martin, A.; Jurisic, V.

    2012-11-01

    The world's most developed countries and the European Union (EU) deem that the renewable energy sources should partly substitute fossil fuels and become a bridge to the utilization of other energy sources of the future. This paper will present the possibility of using pruned biomass from fruit cultivars. It will also present the calculation of potential energy from the mentioned raw materials in order to determine the extent of replacement of non-renewable sources with these types of renewable energy. One of the results of the intensive fruit-growing process, in post pruning stage, is large amount of pruned biomass waste. Based on the calculated biomass (kg ha{sup 1}) from intensively grown woody fruit crops that are most grown in Croatia (apple, pear, apricots, peach and nectarine, sweet cherry, sour cherry, prune, walnut, hazelnut, almond, fig, grapevine, and olive) and the analysis of combustible (carbon 45.55-49.28%, hydrogen 5.91-6.83%, and sulphur 0.18-0.21%) and non-combustible matters (oxygen 43.34-46.6%, nitrogen 0.54-1.05%, moisture 3.65-8.83%, ashes 1.52-5.39%) with impact of lowering the biomass heating value (15.602-17.727 MJ kg{sup 1}), the energy potential of the pruned fruit biomass is calculated at 4.21 PJ. (Author) 31 refs.

  3. Ensemble Pruning for Glaucoma Detection in an Unbalanced Data Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Werner; Gefeller, Olaf; Gul, Asma; Horn, Folkert K; Khan, Zardad; Lausen, Berthold

    2016-12-07

    Random forests are successful classifier ensemble methods consisting of typically 100 to 1000 classification trees. Ensemble pruning techniques reduce the computational cost, especially the memory demand, of random forests by reducing the number of trees without relevant loss of performance or even with increased performance of the sub-ensemble. The application to the problem of an early detection of glaucoma, a severe eye disease with low prevalence, based on topographical measurements of the eye background faces specific challenges. We examine the performance of ensemble pruning strategies for glaucoma detection in an unbalanced data situation. The data set consists of 102 topographical features of the eye background of 254 healthy controls and 55 glaucoma patients. We compare the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and the Brier score on the total data set, in the majority class, and in the minority class of pruned random forest ensembles obtained with strategies based on the prediction accuracy of greedily grown sub-ensembles, the uncertainty weighted accuracy, and the similarity between single trees. To validate the findings and to examine the influence of the prevalence of glaucoma in the data set, we additionally perform a simulation study with lower prevalences of glaucoma. In glaucoma classification all three pruning strategies lead to improved AUC and smaller Brier scores on the total data set with sub-ensembles as small as 30 to 80 trees compared to the classification results obtained with the full ensemble consisting of 1000 trees. In the simulation study, we were able to show that the prevalence of glaucoma is a critical factor and lower prevalence decreases the performance of our pruning strategies. The memory demand for glaucoma classification in an unbalanced data situation based on random forests could effectively be reduced by the application of pruning strategies without loss of performance in a population with increased

  4. Partial prune belly syndrome: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Pratap Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prune belly syndrome (PBS is characterized by deficient development of abdominal muscles that causes the skin of the abdomen to wrinkle like a prune, bilateral cryptorchidism, abnormalities of the urinary tract. The etiology of PBS is unclear and possible familial genetic inheritance was reported in some of the studies. We are presenting here a case with the absence of the muscle in the right side of the abdomen as hernia, thinning of the muscle on left side with bilateral cryptorchidism, and abnormalities of the urinary tract. It is the partial presentation of the PBS.

  5. Effect of Root Pruning and Irrigation Regimes on Yield and Physiology of Pear Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yufei

    Clara Frijs’ is the dominant pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar in Denmark. It is vigorous with long annual shoots, and therefore can be difficult to prune. Root pruning has been widely used to control the canopy size of fruit trees including pears. However, root pruned trees are more likely to su...

  6. Structure Learning by Pruning in Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Andreas; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    We discuss pruning as a means of structure learning in independent component analysis. Sparse models are attractive in both signal processing and in analysis of abstract data, they can assist model interpretation, generalizability and reduce computation. We derive the relevant saliency expressions...

  7. Structure learning by pruning in independent component analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    We discuss pruning as a means of structure learning in independent component analysis (ICA). Learning the structure is attractive in both signal processing and in analysis of abstract data, where it can assist model interpretation, generalizability and reduce computation. We derive the relevant...

  8. Pathophysiologic and anesthetic correlations of the prune-belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, J P

    1989-04-01

    "Prune-Belly" is the name given to the disease which is characterized by a congenital wrinkled appearance of the abdomen. Usually, a triad of congenital anomalies highlights the components of the prune-belly syndrome. This triad consists of undescended testicles, abdominal musculature deficiency and urinary tract abnormalities. The previously described triad of the syndrome is by no means the total spectrum of the disease. Prune-belly syndrome is also associated with diseases of the respiratory, cardiovascular, skeletal, gastrointestinal and central nervous systems. Associated diseases of major body systems which are caused by renal and cardiopulmonary anomalies, as well as the surgical procedure to be performed, influence the plan for the administration of anesthesia. The nature of the genitourinary diseases in the prune-belly baby may obviate the need for surgical intervention as early as the neonatal period of life. Although this congenital disease occurs with some rarity, the gravity of the syndrome demands an in-depth knowledge of its pathophysiology in order to assure uncomplicated anesthetic care. Astute surveillance during preanesthetic, anesthetic, and postanesthetic management is germane to the prevention of mishaps.

  9. On the use of a pruning prior for neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril

    1996-01-01

    We address the problem of using a regularization prior that prunes unnecessary weights in a neural network architecture. This prior provides a convenient alternative to traditional weight-decay. Two examples are studied to support this method and illustrate its use. First we use the sunspots...

  10. Prune-Belly Syndrome: A Case Report from Rwanda | Ngendahayo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prune-Belly syndrome, Eagle-Barret syndrome and triad syndrome, all refer to congenital anomalies involving abdominal musculature, urinary tract and testicles. The syndrome consists of a triad of abdominal muscle aplasia, massive ureteral and bladder dilatation and cryptorchidism. Kidneys are often affected ...

  11. Effect of mycorrhiza and pruning regimes on seasonality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-16

    Jul 16, 2006 ... Effect of mycorrhiza and pruning regimes on seasonality of hedgerow tree mulch contribution to .... Mycorrhizae are symbiotic association between plant roots and certain soil fungi (Sieverding, 1991). ..... inoculum was put under the seeds in the polythene bags for inoculated hedgerow tree seedlings and ...

  12. Chemical root pruning of conifer seedlings in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnulfo Aldrete; John G. Mexal

    2002-01-01

    Many countries grow seedlings for reforestation in polybags where root spiraling and root egression can decrease seedling survival and growth following outplanting. The overall objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of chemical root pruning on root spiraling, root egression, and nursery performance of Pinus pseudostrobus, P...

  13. 7 CFR 993.150 - Disposition of prunes by handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... manifest or billing number; and (2) receive from the inspection service a DFA Form P-5 “Shipping Inspection...)(iii) of this section) the Committee's approval of his application to do so. (ii) Application for approval. The handler's application to ship or otherwise make final disposition of any such prunes shall be...

  14. influence of cassava planting patterns and pruning methods on crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-12-03

    Dec 3, 2003 ... Field experiments were conducted at the University of Ibadan, Ni geria on the effect ofcassava (Manihot esculenta. Crantz) planting pattern and pruning methods on eassava yield and yield ofassociated crops, namely, maize (Zea mays L. ), melon (Colocynthis vulgaris L.) and cowpea ( Vigna unguiculaia) in ...

  15. Growth responses of Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens to pruning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The responses of Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens to pruning (removal of 0 or 60% of the green crown depth) in two lifts and nitrogen (N) fertiliser application (0 [N0], 100 [N1], 300 [N3] and 500 [N5] kg N ha–1) were compared at a site in south-east Tasmania under conditions where both species can be successfully grown.

  16. Targeted pruning of a neuron’s dendritic tree via femtosecond laser dendrotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Mary Ann; Choy, Julian Min Chiang; Colibaba, Alexandru Serban; Redman, Stephen; Bachor, Hans-A.; Stricker, Christian; Daria, Vincent Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Neurons are classified according to action potential firing in response to current injection. While such firing patterns are shaped by the composition and distribution of ion channels, modelling studies suggest that the geometry of dendritic branches also influences temporal firing patterns. Verifying this link is crucial to understanding how neurons transform their inputs to output but has so far been technically challenging. Here, we investigate branching-dependent firing by pruning the dendritic tree of pyramidal neurons. We use a focused ultrafast laser to achieve highly localized and minimally invasive cutting of dendrites, thus keeping the rest of the dendritic tree intact and the neuron functional. We verify successful dendrotomy via two-photon uncaging of neurotransmitters before and after dendrotomy at sites around the cut region and via biocytin staining. Our results show that significantly altering the dendritic arborisation, such as by severing the apical trunk, enhances excitability in layer V cortical pyramidal neurons as predicted by simulations. This method may be applied to the analysis of specific relationships between dendritic structure and neuronal function. The capacity to dynamically manipulate dendritic topology or isolate inputs from various dendritic domains can provide a fresh perspective on the roles they play in shaping neuronal output.

  17. Unusual presentation of prune belly syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demisse, Abayneh Girma; Berhanu, Ashenafi; Tadesse, Temesgen

    2017-12-04

    Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital malformation of unknown etiology, with the following triad of findings: abdominal muscle wall weakness, undescended testes, and urinary tract abnormalities. In most cases, detection of prune belly syndrome occurs during neonatal or infancy period. In this case report, we describe a 12-year-old boy from Ethiopia with the triad of findings of prune belly syndrome along with skeletal malformations. We are unaware of any previous report of prune belly syndrome in Ethiopia. A 12-year-old Amhara boy from the Northwest Gondar Amhara regional state presented to our referral hospital with a complaint of swelling over his left flank for the past 3 months. Maternal pregnancy course and medical history were noncontributory, and he had an attended birth at a health center. He has seven siblings, none of whom had similar symptoms. On examination he had a distended abdomen, asymmetric with bulging left flank, visible horizontal line, upward umbilical slit, and absent rectus abdominis muscles. His abdomen was soft with a tender cystic, bimanually palpable mass on the left flank measuring 13 × 11 cm. Both testes were undescended and he also has developmental dysplasia of the hips. An abdominal ultrasound revealed a large cystic mass in his left kidney area with echo debris and a hip X-ray showed bilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip. Intraoperative findings were cystic left kidney, both testes were intraperitoneal, tortuous left renal vein, enlarged bladder reaching above umbilicus, and left megaureter. bilateral orchidectomy and left nephrectomy were done. He was given intravenously administered antibiotics for treatment of pyelonephritis and discharged home with an appointment for follow up and possible abdominoplasty. In the current report delayed presentation contributed to testicular atrophy and decision for orchidectomy. Furthermore, he will be at potential risk for sex hormone abnormality. Therefore, diagnosis of prune

  18. Estimation of soil coverage of chopped pruning residues in olive orchards by image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jiménez-Jiménez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Residue chopping from orchard pruning is becoming a common practice in conservation agriculture after the establishment of eco-conditionality policies in the European Union. This type of residue is used to protect the soil from erosion and improve the water balance and fertility of soils by improving the organic matter content. However, no studies have evaluated the influence of pruning residues and size on soil coverage. This study examines the effect of different treatments on pruning residue soil coverage in an olive orchard (cv. Picual. Treatments consisted of two quantities of pruning residues, specifically, high (2.04 kg m-2 and low (1.02 kg m-2, and two chopping speeds, low (2.4 km h-1 and high (3.2 km h-1. The different treatments were evaluated by image analysis and pixel counting to determine the soil cover percentage, size, number and distribution of the pruning residues after chopping. After chopping, the soil cover percentage was 39% higher in the high quantity pruning residue treatments but was not significantly influenced by the chopping speed. The size and number of lignified residues was quantified via pixel counting. In the high quantity pruning residue treatments, the number of large lignified residues (> 6 cm2 was higher, and the number of pruning residues smaller than 2 cm2 was lower, when compared with low quantity pruning residue treatments. The high chopping speed treatments produced more smaller-sized pruning residues.

  19. [A case of Prune Belly Syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, S; Palomo Góngora, E; García, V

    1995-09-01

    Prune Belly Syndrome is a rare and complicated condition affecting the genitourinary organs and abdominal wall, it was named after the aspect of the abdomen after the bladder has been drained. In its fully developed form presents with the triad: megalocyst, abdominal muscle deficiency and cryptorchidism. We present a case of a patient with 22 weeks of gestation with ultrasonographic diagnosis of a large thoracoabdominal cyst. The delivery was by cesarean operation. We analyzed the literature.

  20. Partial polygon pruning of hydrographic features in automated generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stum, Alexander K.; Buttenfield, Barbara P.; Stanislawski, Larry V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a working method to automatically detect and prune portions of waterbody polygons to support creation of a multi-scale hydrographic database. Water features are known to be sensitive to scale change; and thus multiple representations are required to maintain visual and geographic logic at smaller scales. Partial pruning of polygonal features—such as long and sinuous reservoir arms, stream channels that are too narrow at the target scale, and islands that begin to coalesce—entails concurrent management of the length and width of polygonal features as well as integrating pruned polygons with other generalized point and linear hydrographic features to maintain stream network connectivity. The implementation follows data representation standards developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD). Portions of polygonal rivers, streams, and canals are automatically characterized for width, length, and connectivity. This paper describes an algorithm for automatic detection and subsequent processing, and shows results for a sample of NHD subbasins in different landscape conditions in the United States.

  1. On the use of inexact, pruned hardware in atmospheric modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düben, Peter D; Joven, Jaume; Lingamneni, Avinash; McNamara, Hugh; De Micheli, Giovanni; Palem, Krishna V; Palmer, T N

    2014-06-28

    Inexact hardware design, which advocates trading the accuracy of computations in exchange for significant savings in area, power and/or performance of computing hardware, has received increasing prominence in several error-tolerant application domains, particularly those involving perceptual or statistical end-users. In this paper, we evaluate inexact hardware for its applicability in weather and climate modelling. We expand previous studies on inexact techniques, in particular probabilistic pruning, to floating point arithmetic units and derive several simulated set-ups of pruned hardware with reasonable levels of error for applications in atmospheric modelling. The set-up is tested on the Lorenz '96 model, a toy model for atmospheric dynamics, using software emulation for the proposed hardware. The results show that large parts of the computation tolerate the use of pruned hardware blocks without major changes in the quality of short- and long-time diagnostics, such as forecast errors and probability density functions. This could open the door to significant savings in computational cost and to higher resolution simulations with weather and climate models.

  2. Síndrome de prune belly: presentación de caso Prune belly syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    María Elena Toledo Lamela; Orlando Rafael Expósito Reyes; Roberto E Segura Figueredo; Elsa M Díaz Suárez; Carlos Tornés Salgado

    2008-01-01

    El síndrome de prune belly es una rara enfermedad congénita de causa desconocida. Se presenta el caso de un recién nacido a término, del sexo masculino y de un día de nacido, que fue remitido al servicio de urología pediátrica por presentar ausencia de los músculos de la pared anterior del abdomen (rectos anteriores), criptorquidia bilateral y gran globo vesical. A partir de los hallazgos del examen físico se planteó el diagnóstico de síndrome de prune belly. Se encontraron anomalías asociada...

  3. Spinogenesis and pruning in the anterior ventral inferotemporal cortex of the macaque monkey: an intracellular injection study of layer III pyramidal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy N. Elston

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cortical pyramidal cells grow and mature at different rates in visual, auditory and prefrontal cortex of the macaque monkey. In particular, differences across the areas have been reported in both the timing and magnitude of growth, branching, spinogenesis and pruning in the basal dendritic trees of cells in layer III. Presently available data suggest that these different growth profiles reflect the type of functions performed by these cells in the adult brain. However, to date, studies have focussed on only a relatively few cortical areas. In the present investigation we quantified the growth of the dendritic trees of layer III pyramidal cells in the anterior ventral portion of cytoarchitectonic area TE (TEav to better comprehend developmental trends in the cerebral cortex. We quantified the growth and branching of the dendrities, and spinogenesis and pruning of spines, from post-natal day 2 (PND2 to four and a half years of age. We found that the dendritic trees increase in size from PND2 to 7 months of age and thereafter become smaller. The dendritic trees became increasingly more branched from PND2 into adulthood. There was a 2-fold increase in the number of spines in the basal dendritic trees of pyramidal cells from PND2 to 3½ months of age and then a 10% net decrease in spine number into adulthood. Thus, the growth profile of layer III pyramidal cells in the anterior ventral portion of the inferotemporal cortex differs to that in other cortical areas associated with visual processing.

  4. Drosophila IKK-related kinase Ik2 and Katanin p60-like 1 regulate dendrite pruning of sensory neuron during metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiu-Hsiang; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh-Nung

    2009-04-14

    Pruning is a widely observed mechanism for developing nervous systems to refine their circuitry. During metamorphosis, certain Drosophila sensory neurons undergo large-scale dendrite pruning to remove their larval branches before regeneration of their adult dendrites. Dendrite pruning involves dendrite severing, followed with debris removal. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying dendrite severing. Here, we show that both the Ik2 kinase and Katanin p60-like 1 (Kat-60L1) of the Katanin family of microtubule severing proteins are required for dendrite severing. Mutant neurons with disrupted Ik2 function have diminished ability in severing their larval dendrites in pupae. Conversely, premature activation of Ik2 triggers precocious dendrite severing in larvae, revealing a critical role of Ik2 in initiating dendrite severing. We found a role for Kat-60L1 in facilitating dendrite severing by breaking microtubule in proximal dendrites, where the dendrites subsequently separate from the soma. Our study thus implicates Ik2 and Kat-60L1 in dendrite severing that involves local microtubule disassembly.

  5. Effects of different rates of olive pruning residues on soil moisture and organic carbon in superintensive olive orchards: a study case in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Moreno, Víctor; Castillo Amaro, M.; Barranco, Diego; Cerdá, Artemi; Cobacho, J. Antonio; García-Ferrer, Alfonso; Mateos, Luciano; Mesas, F. Javier; Díez, Concepción M.; Pérez, Rafael; Quero, José L.; Serio, M. Angela; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2017-04-01

    Pruning residues of olive orchards improve soil fertility and protect soil against water erosion (Repullo et al., 2012; Prosdocimi et al., 2016). Because of the high transport cost of the pruning waste and despite the risk of the transmission of some diseases (such as verticillium wilt), leaving the chopped residues on the ground is becoming a common practice in the Andalusian olive groves, particularly in super-intensive orchards (>1500 trees/ha) (Calatrava and Franco, 2011). However, there is little quantitative information describing the effects of this practice on soil moisture and organic matter. The objectives of this study are, firstly, the determination of the amount of residues that effectively improve soil moisture, bulk density and organic carbon, and, secondly, the assessment of the residue decomposition rates for our experimental Mediterranean conditions. The experiment consists of 4 treatments (with 5 replicates of 6 x 2 m plots) where fresh pruning residues were applied at rates equivalent to 0.0 t/ha (control), 7.5 t/ha, 15.0 t/ha and 30.0 t/ha. Gravimetric soil moisture at the first 10-cm-horizon was measured approximately every 45 days. Organic carbon and bulk density were determined at the end of the campaign for the first 10-cm-horizon. The characteristics of pruning residues (composition in term of leaves, fine twigs, branches and moisture) and their decomposition rate were determined through of the analysis of moisture loss. A thermographic camera was used to measure the temperature of the plot surface and its variability (bare soil and over/under residue layer) among and within the plots. Preliminary results corresponding to the first campaign 2016-2017 are presented. REFERENCES: J. Calatrava, J.A. Franco. 2011. Using pruning residues as mulch: Analysis of its adoption and process of diffusion in Southern Spain olive orchards. Journal of Environmental Management 92, 620-629. M. Prosdocimi, P. Tarolli, A. Cerdà. 2016. Mulching practices for

  6. Branched nanotrees with immobilized acetylcholine esterase for nanobiosensor applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risveden, Klas; Dick, Kimberly A; Bhand, Sunil

    2010-01-01

    A novel lab-on-a-chip nanotree enzyme reactor is demonstrated for the detection of acetylcholine. The reactors are intended for use in the RISFET (regional ion sensitive field effect transistor) nanosensor, and are constructed from gold-tipped branched nanorod structures grown on SiN(x)-covered w......A novel lab-on-a-chip nanotree enzyme reactor is demonstrated for the detection of acetylcholine. The reactors are intended for use in the RISFET (regional ion sensitive field effect transistor) nanosensor, and are constructed from gold-tipped branched nanorod structures grown on Si...

  7. A Pruning-Based Disk Scheduling Algorithm for Heterogeneous I/O Workloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeseok Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In heterogeneous I/O workload environments, disk scheduling algorithms should support different QoS (Quality-of-Service for each I/O request. For example, the algorithm should meet the deadlines of real-time requests and at the same time provide reasonable response time for best-effort requests. This paper presents a novel disk scheduling algorithm called G-SCAN (Grouping-SCAN for handling heterogeneous I/O workloads. To find a schedule that satisfies the deadline constraints and seek time minimization simultaneously, G-SCAN maintains a series of candidate schedules and expands the schedules whenever a new request arrives. Maintaining these candidate schedules requires excessive spatial and temporal overhead, but G-SCAN reduces the overhead to a manageable level via pruning the state space using two heuristics. One is grouping that clusters adjacent best-effort requests into a single scheduling unit and the other is the branch-and-bound strategy that cuts off inefficient or impractical schedules. Experiments with various synthetic and real-world I/O workloads show that G-SCAN outperforms existing disk scheduling algorithms significantly in terms of the average response time, throughput, and QoS-guarantees for heterogeneous I/O workloads. We also show that the overhead of G-SCAN is reasonable for on-line execution.

  8. Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein developmentally regulates activity-dependent axon pruning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Charles R; Broadie, Kendal

    2008-04-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is a broad-spectrum neurological disorder with symptoms ranging from hyperexcitability to mental retardation and autism. Loss of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene product, the mRNA-binding translational regulator FMRP, causes structural over-elaboration of dendritic and axonal processes, as well as functional alterations in synaptic plasticity at maturity. It is unclear, however, whether FraX is primarily a disease of development, a disease of plasticity or both: a distinction that is vital for engineering intervention strategies. To address this crucial issue, we have used the Drosophila FraX model to investigate the developmental function of Drosophila FMRP (dFMRP). dFMRP expression and regulation of chickadee/profilin coincides with a transient window of late brain development. During this time, dFMRP is positively regulated by sensory input activity, and is required to limit axon growth and for efficient activity-dependent pruning of axon branches in the Mushroom Body learning/memory center. These results demonstrate that dFMRP has a primary role in activity-dependent neural circuit refinement during late brain development.

  9. Abdominal wall reconstruction in the prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, J; Cavett, C; Eng, G

    1981-12-01

    In our institution, 12 patients have been encountered with prune belly syndrome. Eight children have undergone evaluation of their abdominal musculature by electromyography. Results of their studies show that major functioning or recoverable muscle exists in the lateral and upper sector of the abdomen, but that little or no muscle exists in the lower central abdomen. Based in part on these findings, an operation has been devised which spares all potentially functioning musculature and corresponding motor nerves, and disposes of nonfunctioning and nonrecoverable muscle. In terms of cosmetic appearance and gross motor testing, these growing boys show significant improvement.

  10. REDUCING COMPETITION IN AGROFORESTRY BY PRUNING NATIVE TREES

    OpenAIRE

    Nicodemo,Maria Luiza Franceschi; Castiglioni, Paula Priscila; Pezzopane,José Ricardo Macedo; Tholon, Patrícia; Carpanezzi, Antônio Aparecido

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The degree to which pruning helps reestablish balance in agroforestry was assessed in a system established in São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil, in 2008. Seven native tree species were planted at a density of 600 trees/ha in five strips of three rows each, and annual crops were cultivated in the 17-m crop strips between the tree strips. Competition was established after 35 months, decreasing the aboveground biomass production of corn planted close to the trees. An assessment of black oat...

  11. Influence of plant prunings on soil properties and yield of yam minisett

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of the application of agroforestry prunings on improvement of the soil organic matter cannot be overemphasized. The study focused on the influence of plant prunings on soil properties and yield of yam minisett. There is no doubt that effective production of seed yam through minisett technique requires ...

  12. Prune belly syndrome associated with bilateral multicystic dysplastic kidneys and urethral obstruction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Akdag

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital disorder defined by a characteristic clinical triad: Abdominal muscle deficiency, severe urinary tract abnormalities, and bilateral cryptorchidism. We describe a preterm neonate of Prune Belly syndrome who had abdominal muscle deficiency, multicystic dysplastic kidney, urethral hypoplasia and pulmonary hypoplasia. We presented this rare case with the data gathered from the literatüre.

  13. Source-Sink Relations in Fruits VII. Effects of Pruning in Sour Cherry and Plum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo; Hansen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Sour cherries cv. 'Stevnsbær' and plums cv. 'Victoria' were heavily pruned in 1987. Fruit samples were collected during the growing season and concentrations of different quality components were determined. Pruning resulted in a small increase in fruit size, the effect being greater on the older...

  14. Response of smaller European elm bark beetles to pruning wounds on American elm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack H. Barger; William N. Cannon

    1987-01-01

    From 1982 to 1984, inflight smaller European elm bark beetles, Scolytus multistriatus, were captured on American elms, Ulmus americana, that were therapeutically pruned for Dutch elm disease control. Pruning wounds were treated with wound dressing or left untreated to determine effects of the treatments on beetle attraction....

  15. An Integrated Pruning Criterion for Ensemble Learning Based on Classification Accuracy and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Bin; Wang, Zhihai; Pan, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Ensemble pruning is an important issue in the field of ensemble learning. Diversity is a key criterion to determine how the pruning process has been done and measure what result has been derived. However, there is few formal definitions of diversity yet. Hence, three important factors that should......-climbing search, compared with other definitions of diversity and other criteria....

  16. Evaluation of soil carbon pools after the addition of prunings in subtropical orchards placed in terraces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez San Emeterio, Layla; Martín Reyes, Marino Pedro; Ortiz Bernad, Irene; Fernández Ondoño, Emilia; Sierra Aragón, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    The amount of carbon that can be stored in a soil depends on many factors, such as the type of soil, the chemical composition of plant rests and the climate, and is also highly affected by land use and soil management. Agricultural ecosystems are proved to absorb a large amount of CO2 from the atmosphere through several sustainable management practices. In addition, organic materials such as leaves, grass, prunings, etc., comprise a significant type of agricultural practices as a result of waste recycling. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of the addition of different organic prunings on the potential for carbon sequestration in agricultural soils placed in terraces. Three subtropical orchards were sampled in Almuñécar (Granada, S Spain): mango (Mangifera indica L.), avocado (Persea americana Mill.) and cherimoya (Annonacherimola Mill.). The predominant climate is Subtropical Mediterranean and the soil is an Eutric Anthrosol. The experimental design consisted in the application of prunings from avocado, cherimoya and mango trees, placed on the surface soil underneath their correspondent trees, as well as garden prunings from the green areas surrounding the town center on the surface soils under the three orchard trees. Control experiences without the addition of prunings were also evaluated. These experiences were followed for three years. Soil samples were taken at4 cm depth. They were dried for 3-4 days and then sieved (avocado prunings and their control soil, and between soils under garden prunings with cherimoya and their control soil. Regarding the water-soluble soil organic carbon, low differences were shown. Differences in mineral-associated and non-oxidable organic carbon fractions were also statistically significant between soils under avocado prunings and their control soil, and between soils under garden prunings with cherimoya and their control soil. No significant differences in any organic carbon pool were founded for the soils

  17. Phenotype profiling and multivariate statistical analysis of Spur-pruning type Grapevine in National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR, Davis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most Korean vineyards employed spur-pruning type modified-T trellis system. This produce system is suitable to spur-pruning type cultivars. But most European table grape is not adaptable to this produce system because their fruitfulness is sufficient to cane-pruning type system. Total 20 of fruit ch...

  18. Síndrome de prune belly: presentación de caso Prune belly syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Toledo Lamela

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de prune belly es una rara enfermedad congénita de causa desconocida. Se presenta el caso de un recién nacido a término, del sexo masculino y de un día de nacido, que fue remitido al servicio de urología pediátrica por presentar ausencia de los músculos de la pared anterior del abdomen (rectos anteriores, criptorquidia bilateral y gran globo vesical. A partir de los hallazgos del examen físico se planteó el diagnóstico de síndrome de prune belly. Se encontraron anomalías asociadas como escoliosis y agenesia del pie derecho. En el estudio radiológico del tracto urinario se confirmaron malformaciones congénitas como valva de uretra posterior y megavejiga con uretero-hidronefrosis bilateral. Los análisis de laboratorio confirmaron la afectación de la función renal y una infección urinaria asociada. Se practicó una cistostomía a cielo abierto. El paciente falleció a los 10 días a causa de las complicaciones de la insuficiencia renalThe prune belly syndrome is a congenital rare disease of unknown origin. The case of a one-day-old full- term male newborn infant that was referred to the pediatric urology service for presenting absence of the muscles of the anterior abdomen wall (anterior rectus muscle, bilateral cryptochordism and big vesical globe, was presented. Starting from the findings of the physical examination, the prune belly syndrome was diagnosed. Associated abnormalities such as scoliosis and agenesis of the right leg were found. In the radiological study of the urinary tract, congenital malformations as posterior urethra valve and megabladder with bilateral ureterohydronephrosis were confirmed. The lab tests corroborated the affectation of the renal function and an associated urinary infection. The patient died at 10 days as a result of the complications of renal failure

  19. Pruning method for a cluster-based neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Kenneth I.; Khatri, Hiralal; Nguyen, Lam H.; Sichina, Jeffrey

    2000-08-01

    Many radar automatic target detection (ATD) algorithms operate on a set of data statistics or features rather than on the raw radar sensor data. These features are selected based on their ability to separate target data samples from background clutter samples. The ATD algorithms often operate on the features through a set of parameters that must be determined from a set of training data that are statistically similar to the data set to be encountered in practice. The designer usually attempts to minimize the number of features used by the algorithm -- a process commonly referred to as pruning. This not only reduces the computational demands of the algorithm, but it also prevents overspecialization to the samples from the training data set. Thus, the algorithm will perform better on a set of test data samples it has not encountered during training. The Optimal Brain Surgeon (OBS) and Divergence Method provide two different approaches to pruning. We apply the two methods to a set of radar data features to determine a new, reduced set of features. We then evaluate the resulting feature sets and discuss the differences between the two methods.

  20. A Pruning Neural Network Model in Credit Classification Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajiao Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, credit classification models are widely applied because they can help financial decision-makers to handle credit classification issues. Among them, artificial neural networks (ANNs have been widely accepted as the convincing methods in the credit industry. In this paper, we propose a pruning neural network (PNN and apply it to solve credit classification problem by adopting the well-known Australian and Japanese credit datasets. The model is inspired by synaptic nonlinearity of a dendritic tree in a biological neural model. And it is trained by an error back-propagation algorithm. The model is capable of realizing a neuronal pruning function by removing the superfluous synapses and useless dendrites and forms a tidy dendritic morphology at the end of learning. Furthermore, we utilize logic circuits (LCs to simulate the dendritic structures successfully which makes PNN be implemented on the hardware effectively. The statistical results of our experiments have verified that PNN obtains superior performance in comparison with other classical algorithms in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  1. Neuro-Oncology Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BTTC are experts in their respective fields. Neuro-Oncology Clinical Fellowship This is a joint program with ... can increase survival rates. Learn more... The Neuro-Oncology Branch welcomes Dr. Mark Gilbert as new Branch ...

  2. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  3. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  4. First steps in translating human cognitive processes of cane pruning grapevines into AI rules for automated robotic pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxton Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cane pruning of grapevines is a skilled task for which, internationally, there is a dire shortage of human pruners. As part of a larger project developing an automated robotic pruner, we have used artificial intelligence (AI algorithms to create an expert system for selecting new canes and cutting off unwanted canes. A domain and ontology has been created for AI, which reflects the expertise of expert human pruners. The first step in the creation of an expert system was to generate virtual vines, which were then ‘pruned’ by human pruners and also by the expert system in its infancy. Here we examined the decisions of 12 human pruners, for consistency of decision, on 60 virtual vines. 96.7% of the 12 pruners agreed on at least one cane choice after which there was diminishing agreement on which further canes to select for laying. Our results indicate that techniques developed in computational intelligence can be used to co-ordinate and synthesise the expertise of human pruners into a best practice format. This paper describes first steps in this knowledge elicitation process, and discusses the fit between cane pruning expertise and the expertise that can be elicited using AI based expert system techniques.

  5. Rootstock on vine performance and wine quality of ‘Syrah’ under double pruning management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Alcântara Novelli Dias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the Brazilian Southeast, the production of high quality wines is attained by a new management approach called double pruning. This management changes the harvesting of wine grape (Vitis vinifera L. from wet summer to dry winter through a two pruning procedures carried out during the year. The first pruning is done during the winter to induce a vegetative cycle (all clusters are removed and a second pruning is done during the summer to induce the reproductive cycle. In this study, ten different rootstocks were compared in order to optimize yield and wine quality of Syrah vines conducted under autumn-winter season by double pruning approach. Syrah grapevines grafted onto ‘Rupestris du Lot’ and ‘IAC 766’ showed the highest pruning weight, while ‘110 Richter’ and ‘161-49 Courdec’ induced the lowest cane vigor. The average production of two seasons identified ‘IAC 766’, ‘Kober 5BB’ and ‘Rupestris du Lot’ as the most productive rootstocks. In both seasons, the grape quality was more influenced by the plant development status than by rootstocks. ‘Syrah’ wine from vigorous and high yielding rootstocks, ‘IAC 766’ and ‘Rupestris du Lot’, showed satisfactory wine phenolic composition and alcohol/acidity balance. This study showed that vigorous rootstock increased yield without compromising grape and winter wine quality of Syrah grapevines subjected to double pruning management in the Brazilian Southeast.

  6. Effect of root pruning and irrigation regimes on leaf water relations and xylem ABA and ionic concentrations in pear trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yufei; Bertelsen, Marianne G.; Petersen, Karen Koefoed

    2014-01-01

    pruning caused water deficit stress in pear trees. Further RP trees had significantly lower concentrations of total cations and anions and the sum of cations and anions than the NP trees implying root pruning decreased acquisition of nutrients from the soil. In the root pruned trees, the leaf water......Root pruning is an effective approach for controlling vegetative growth of pear trees (Pyrus communis L.), yet the underlying mechanisms for such effect remain largely elusive. A two-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of root pruning and irrigation regimes on leaf water...... relation characteristics, stomatal conductance and xylem sap abscisic acid (ABA) and ionic concentrations. Results showed that leaf water potential, leaf turgor and stomatal conductance of root pruning (RP) treatment was significantly lower than those of non-root pruning (NP) treatment indicating that root...

  7. Growing degree-days for the `Niagara Rosada' grapevine pruned in different seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpare, Fábio Vale; Scarpare Filho, João Alexio; Rodrigues, Alessandro; Reichardt, Klaus; Angelocci, Luiz Roberto

    2012-09-01

    Plant growth and development are proportional to biological time, or the thermal time of the species, which can be defined as the integral of the temperature over time between the lower and upper temperature developmental thresholds. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of the growing degree-day (GDD) approach for vines of the `Niagara Rosada' cultivar pruned in winter and summer seasons, and physiological phases (mobilisation and reserve accumulation) in a humid subtropical region. The experiment was carried out on 13-year-old plants in Piracicaba, São Paulo State-Brazil, evaluating 24 production cycles, 12 from the winter pruning, and 12 from the summer pruning. The statistical design was comprised of randomised blocks, using the pruning dates as treatment: 20 July, 4 August, 19 August, and 3 September (winter); 1 February, 15 February, 2 March, and 16 March (summer). Comparison of the mean values of GDD among pruning dates was evaluated by the Tukey test, and comparison between pruning seasons was made by the F test for orthogonal contrasts, both at the 5% probability level. The results showed good agreement between the values of GDD required to complete the cycle from the winter pruning until harvest when compared with other studies performed with the same cultivar grown in the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil. However, there was a consistent statistical difference between GDD computed for winter and summer pruning, which allowed us to conclude that this bio-meteorological index is not sufficient to distinguish vines pruned in different seasons and physiological phases applied in humid subtropical climates.

  8. Growing degree-days for the 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine pruned in different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpare, Fábio Vale; Scarpare Filho, João Alexio; Rodrigues, Alessandro; Reichardt, Klaus; Angelocci, Luiz Roberto

    2012-09-01

    Plant growth and development are proportional to biological time, or the thermal time of the species, which can be defined as the integral of the temperature over time between the lower and upper temperature developmental thresholds. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of the growing degree-day (GDD) approach for vines of the 'Niagara Rosada' cultivar pruned in winter and summer seasons, and physiological phases (mobilisation and reserve accumulation) in a humid subtropical region. The experiment was carried out on 13-year-old plants in Piracicaba, São Paulo State-Brazil, evaluating 24 production cycles, 12 from the winter pruning, and 12 from the summer pruning. The statistical design was comprised of randomised blocks, using the pruning dates as treatment: 20 July, 4 August, 19 August, and 3 September (winter); 1 February, 15 February, 2 March, and 16 March (summer). Comparison of the mean values of GDD among pruning dates was evaluated by the Tukey test, and comparison between pruning seasons was made by the F test for orthogonal contrasts, both at the 5% probability level. The results showed good agreement between the values of GDD required to complete the cycle from the winter pruning until harvest when compared with other studies performed with the same cultivar grown in the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil. However, there was a consistent statistical difference between GDD computed for winter and summer pruning, which allowed us to conclude that this bio-meteorological index is not sufficient to distinguish vines pruned in different seasons and physiological phases applied in humid subtropical climates.

  9. Ability of chestnut oak to tolerate acorn pruning by rodents: The role of the cotyledonary petiole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xianfeng; Curtis, Rachel; Bartlow, Andrew W; Agosta, Salvatore J; Steele, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Acorns of many white oak species germinate soon after autumn seed fall, a characteristic widely interpreted as a general adaptation to escape predation by small rodents. However, the mechanism by which early, rapid germination allows escape and/or tolerance of seed damage remains unclear. Here we reported how specific germination traits of chestnut oak (Quercus montana) acorns, and those of other white oak species, allow successful escape from acorn pruning by rodents. During germination, chestnut oak acorns develop elongated cotyledonary petioles, which extend beyond the distal end of the acorn (1-2 cm) to the point at which the epicotyl and radicle diverge. However, granivorous rodents often prune the taproots above or below the plumule when eating or caching these germinated acorns in autumn. Hence, we hypothesized elongation of cotyledonary petioles allows chestnut oaks to escape acorn pruning by rodents. We simulated pruning by rodents by cutting the taproot at different stages of germination (radicle length) to evaluate the regeneration capacity of four resulting seedling remnants following taproot pruning: acorns with the plumule (remnant I), acorns without the plumule (remnant II), and pruned taproots with (remnant III) or without the plumule (remnant IV). Our results showed that remnant I germinated into seedlings regardless of the length of the taproot previously pruned and removed. Remnant III successfully germinated and survived provided that taproots were ≥6 cm in length, whereas remnant IV was unable to produce seedlings. Remnant II only developed adventitious roots near the severed ends of the cotyledonary petioles. Field experiments also showed that pruned taproots with the plumule successfully regenerated into seedlings. We suggest that the elongated cotyledonary petioles, typical of most white oak species in North America, represent a key adaptation that allows frequent escape from rodent damage and predation. The ability of pruned taproots to

  10. Ability of chestnut oak to tolerate acorn pruning by rodents. The role of the cotyledonary petiole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xianfeng; Curtis, Rachel; Bartlow, Andrew W.; Agosta, Salvatore J.; Steele, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Acorns of many white oak species germinate soon after autumn seed fall, a characteristic widely interpreted as a general adaptation to escape predation by small rodents. However, the mechanism by which early, rapid germination allows escape and/or tolerance of seed damage remains unclear. Here we reported how specific germination traits of chestnut oak ( Quercus montana) acorns, and those of other white oak species, allow successful escape from acorn pruning by rodents. During germination, chestnut oak acorns develop elongated cotyledonary petioles, which extend beyond the distal end of the acorn (1-2 cm) to the point at which the epicotyl and radicle diverge. However, granivorous rodents often prune the taproots above or below the plumule when eating or caching these germinated acorns in autumn. Hence, we hypothesized elongation of cotyledonary petioles allows chestnut oaks to escape acorn pruning by rodents. We simulated pruning by rodents by cutting the taproot at different stages of germination (radicle length) to evaluate the regeneration capacity of four resulting seedling remnants following taproot pruning: acorns with the plumule (remnant I), acorns without the plumule (remnant II), and pruned taproots with (remnant III) or without the plumule (remnant IV). Our results showed that remnant I germinated into seedlings regardless of the length of the taproot previously pruned and removed. Remnant III successfully germinated and survived provided that taproots were ≥6 cm in length, whereas remnant IV was unable to produce seedlings. Remnant II only developed adventitious roots near the severed ends of the cotyledonary petioles. Field experiments also showed that pruned taproots with the plumule successfully regenerated into seedlings. We suggest that the elongated cotyledonary petioles, typical of most white oak species in North America, represent a key adaptation that allows frequent escape from rodent damage and predation. The ability of pruned taproots to

  11. Feticismo e desiderio in Poulet aux prunes di Marjane Satrapi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Rimini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio si propone di individuare e descrivere le sfumature erotiche e sentimentali del film Poulet aux prunes di Marjane Satrapi, felice adattamento dell’omonima graphic novel. Il racconto procede per scarti, ellissi, anticipazioni e flasback, dando luogo a una narrazione labirintica dalla singolare trama arabescante. Le sottili dinamiche seduttive messe in campo dal complesso stile di regia di Satrapi-Paronnaud vengono analizzate alla luce delle categorie feticistiche individuate da Massimo Fusillo, che offrono interessanti modelli di interazione fra desiderio e creatività. L’esito di tale indagine consente di ampliare il dibattito relativo al rapporto di scambio e interferenza fra oggetti, pulsioni e sguardi nel cinema contemporaneo.

  12. Generalized k-core pruning process on directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Hua

    2017-06-01

    The resilience of a complex interconnected system concerns the size of the macroscopic functioning node clusters after external perturbations based on a random or designed scheme. For a representation of interconnected systems with directional or asymmetrical interactions among constituents, the directed network is a convenient choice. Yet, how the interaction directions affect the network resilience still lacks a thorough exploration. Here, we study the resilience of directed networks with a generalized k-core pruning process as a simple failure procedure based on both the in- and out-degrees of nodes, in which any node with an in-degree  networks more vulnerable against perturbations based on in- and out-degrees separately.

  13. Associated rare anomalies in prune belly syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fette

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The triad of deficient abdominal wall musculature, undescended testes and urinary tract anomalies characterizes the Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS. PBS can be associated with other comorbid urological and non urological conditions. But the full pathogenesis and best treatment is still a matter of debate. A term newborn with a classical PBS (Woodhouse Group 2, Smith and Woodard Group 2 plus lung hypoplasia and funnel chest deformity, a megapenis with a tight phimosis and an obturated anterior urethra is presented. Unfortunately, the baby died in urosepsis and renal failure in his 3rd week of life, despite urine drainage surgery and peritoneal dialysis undertaken. According to the best of our knowledge, this is an unique combination of rare anomalies in PBS patients.

  14. Quantifying pruning impacts on olive tree architecture and annual canopy growth by using UAV-based 3D modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Brenes, F M; López-Granados, F; de Castro, A I; Torres-Sánchez, J; Serrano, N; Peña, J M

    2017-01-01

    Tree pruning is a costly practice with important implications for crop harvest and nutrition, pest and disease control, soil protection and irrigation strategies. Investigations on tree pruning usually involve tedious on-ground measurements of the primary tree crown dimensions, which also might generate inconsistent results due to the irregular geometry of the trees. As an alternative to intensive field-work, this study shows a innovative procedure based on combining unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology and advanced object-based image analysis (OBIA) methodology for multi-temporal three-dimensional (3D) monitoring of hundreds of olive trees that were pruned with three different strategies (traditional, adapted and mechanical pruning). The UAV images were collected before pruning, after pruning and a year after pruning, and the impacts of each pruning treatment on the projected canopy area, tree height and crown volume of every tree were quantified and analyzed over time. The full procedure described here automatically identified every olive tree on the orchard and computed their primary 3D dimensions on the three study dates with high accuracy in the most cases. Adapted pruning was generally the most aggressive treatment in terms of the area and volume (the trees decreased by 38.95 and 42.05% on average, respectively), followed by trees under traditional pruning (33.02 and 35.72% on average, respectively). Regarding the tree heights, mechanical pruning produced a greater decrease (12.15%), and these values were minimal for the other two treatments. The tree growth over one year was affected by the pruning severity and by the type of pruning treatment, i.e., the adapted-pruning trees experienced higher growth than the trees from the other two treatments when pruning intensity was low (<10%), similar to the traditionally pruned trees at moderate intensity (10-30%), and lower than the other trees when the pruning intensity was higher than 30% of the crown volume

  15. DNA Chip

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. In the human ge- nome, the ratio between coding and non-coding DNA is very low (less than 3% of the human .... construction of a Tm-specific chip, i.e. all the oligos/cDNA on the chip will hybridize at the same temperature. The techniques available are still not able to create a chip ...

  16. Síndrome de Prune Belly: Presentación de un caso y revisión de la literatura Prune Belly Syndrome: Case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Franz Guerrero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El síndrome de Prune Belly (SPB, también conocido como el síndrome de Eagle Barrett, se caracteriza por una triada de anomalías que incluye grados variables de hipoplasia de la musculatura abdominal, anomalías del tracto urinario y criptorquidia bilateral. Objetivo: Se describe el caso de un paciente masculino con Síndrome de Prune Belly y se realiza una revisión de la literatura sobre esta rara enfermedad. Conclusión: La característica arrugada del abdomen similar a una ciruela pasa, le da el nombre al síndrome. Además, puede estar asociado a alteraciones cardiovasculares, respiratorias, ortopédicas y gastrointestinales. Salud UIS 2010; 42: 78-85Introduction: Prune-belly syndrome, also known as Eagle-Barrett syndrome is characterized by a triad of anomalies that include varying degrees of abdominal musculature hypoplasia, urinary tract anomalies, and bilateral cryptorchidism. Objective: We describe the case of a male patient with Prune Belly Syndrome and we review the literature on this rare disease. Conclusions: The characteristic wrinkled, prune-like abdomen, gives the name to the syndrome. Can also be associated with cardiovascular, respiratory, orthopedic and gastrointestinal anomalies. Salud UIS 2010; 42: 78-85.

  17. Fast pairwise structural RNA alignments by pruning of the dynamical programming matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob H Havgaard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available It has become clear that noncoding RNAs (ncRNA play important roles in cells, and emerging studies indicate that there might be a large number of unknown ncRNAs in mammalian genomes. There exist computational methods that can be used to search for ncRNAs by comparing sequences from different genomes. One main problem with these methods is their computational complexity, and heuristics are therefore employed. Two heuristics are currently very popular: pre-folding and pre-aligning. However, these heuristics are not ideal, as pre-aligning is dependent on sequence similarity that may not be present and pre-folding ignores the comparative information. Here, pruning of the dynamical programming matrix is presented as an alternative novel heuristic constraint. All subalignments that do not exceed a length-dependent minimum score are discarded as the matrix is filled out, thus giving the advantage of providing the constraints dynamically. This has been included in a new implementation of the FOLDALIGN algorithm for pairwise local or global structural alignment of RNA sequences. It is shown that time and memory requirements are dramatically lowered while overall performance is maintained. Furthermore, a new divide and conquer method is introduced to limit the memory requirement during global alignment and backtrack of local alignment. All branch points in the computed RNA structure are found and used to divide the structure into smaller unbranched segments. Each segment is then realigned and backtracked in a normal fashion. Finally, the FOLDALIGN algorithm has also been updated with a better memory implementation and an improved energy model. With these improvements in the algorithm, the FOLDALIGN software package provides the molecular biologist with an efficient and user-friendly tool for searching for new ncRNAs. The software package is available for download at http://foldalign.ku.dk.

  18. Época de poda da figueira cultivada no estado de São Paulo Pruning time for fig trees in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Rigitano

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available No Estado de São Paulo as figueiras (Ficus carica L. são anualmente submetidas a um tipo de poda hibernal que consiste na eliminação quase total da copa formada na estação anterior. Com a finalidade de estudar o comportamento de figueiras podadas em diferentes épocas durante o inverno, foi iniciado em 1960, em Campinas, um experimento com cinco épocas de poda no período de 1.° de maio a 1.° de setembro. São apresentados os dados de produção, por tratamento obtidos em 1962 e 1963, relativos ao número e ao pêso de figos, assim como os pesos médios de uma fruta. Os dados de 1963, revelaram diferenças significativas e permitiram várias conclusões. A poda feita em 1.° de agôsto ofereceu os melhores resultados, embora sem diferir significativamente daquela executada em 1.° de julho. Como era esperado, as podas levadas a efeito nas épocas extremas, isto é, em princípios de maio e de setembro, resultaram nas produções mais baixas. Observou-se tendência da obtenção de colheitas mais precoces e figos mais pesados nos tratamentos mais produtivos.With a view to compare the effects on fruit bearing, pruning of fig trees was carried out in Campinas, State of São Paulo, during the dormant season of the plant, at 5 different dates, namely on the 1st day of each of the months of May, June, July, August and September. Pruning was started as soon as the plants became more or less dormant in the fall and was continued until vegetation again appeared at the end of winter. The pruning operation took place for two following years and at the dates mentioned all the new branches were cut back to short stubs. The experimental plot consisted of 30 trees of the variety "Roxo de Valinhos" (San Piero spread apart 7 by 13 feet and was laid out in randomized blocks with 3 replications. The results of this trial can be summarized as follows: a Trees pruned on August 1st gave the highest yield followed by those pruned on July 1st. While the

  19. EVALUATION OF TEMPORALVARIATIONS IN MOISTURE AND CALORIFIC VALUE OF VINE AND OLIVE PRUNING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porceddu, Pier Riccardo; Rosati, Laura; Dionigi, Marco

    2012-01-01

    .... The calorific value is significantly influenced by the moisture content of wood. This work has evaluated the changes in moisture content and calorific value with time for different harvesting and storage systems of vine and olive pruning...

  20. [On breeding burst-resistant self-pruning tomatoes : Preliminary communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, M; Schwanitz, F

    1968-01-01

    From crossings of a self-pruning German commercial tomato variety with medium sized round fruits, relative resistance against bursting in rain with a self-pruning Central American form with medium sized pruneshaped and never bursting fruits a selfpruning F1 was obtained whose round fruits of medium size never burst. In the F2 a greater number of self-pruning types with round fruits completely burst-resistant and of medium size was found. One self-pruning and burst-resistant plant had remarkably large fruits. Furthermore, two dwarfs and a great number of "cherry"-tomatoes were found. The value of these findings for plant breeding and evolution is discussed.

  1. Regulating mineralization rates of Tithonia diversifolia and Lantana camara prunings to improve phosphorus availability in calcareous soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Nuraini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mixing of Tithonia diversifolia and Lantana camara prunings to improve synchronization between P released from the prunings with crop demand for P was studied in a laboratory and in a glasshouse. Tithonia diversifolia prunings (Td, Lantana camara prunings (Lc, and farmyard manure (Pk were thoroughly mixed with the proportion (% of dry weight of; 25Td +75 Lc ; 50Td +50 Lc ; 75Td +25 Lc ; 90Lc +10 Pk ; 45Td +45 +10 Lc Pk ; 100Td and 100Lc, and then mixed with 100 g of air-dried soil with a rate equivalent to 100 kg P / ha. Results of the study showed that the pruning mixtures decomposed and mineralized faster than that of Lantana camara pruning only, but slower than that of Tithonia diversifolia pruning only. The amount of P released from the pruning mixtures increased with increasing proportion of Tithonia diversifolia pruning in the mixtures. Increasing proportion of Tithonia diversifolia pruning in the mixture applied to the soil increased the amount of P taken up by maize.

  2. Congenital megalourethra in 2 weeks old boy associated with Prune-Belly syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawal Barau Abdullahi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The megalourethra is a rare congenital anomaly of the penile urethra. It is characterized by the congenital absence of the corpus spongiosum and/or corpus cavernosum. It is especially common associated with Prune-Belly syndrome, and with upper tract abnormalities. We present a 2 weeks old boy with congenital megalourethra because of its association with the Prune-Belly syndrome.

  3. Pseudo Prune Belly Syndrome: Diagnosis Revealed by Imaging ? A Case Report and Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Grover, Hemal; Sethi, Sanjay; Garg, Jatin; Ahluwalia, Amrit Pal

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS) is a rare entity, usually found in male neonates. It comprises complex urinary tract anomalies, bilateral undescended testis and absence of anterior abdominal wall muscles. Patients with unilateral abdominal wall deficiency, unilateral undescended testis and female neonates with abdominal wall laxity are classified as Pseudo Prune Belly syndrome (PPBS). Reports on PPBS do not highlight the radiological and imaging characteristics of this syndrome ...

  4. Prune belly syndrome in an Egyptian infant with Down syndrome: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Metwalley Kotb A; Farghalley Hekma S; Abd-Elsayed Alaa A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly of uncertain aetiology almost exclusive to males. The association between prune belly syndrome and Down syndrome is very rare. Case presentation A 4-month-old Egyptian boy was admitted to our institute for management of acute bronchiolitis. He was born at full term by normal vaginal delivery. His mother, a 42-year-Egyptian villager with six other children, had no antenatal or prenatal care. On examination, the boy was fou...

  5. PRUNE is crucial for normal brain development and mutated in microcephaly with neurodevelopmental impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollo, Massimo; Ahmed, Mustafa; Ferrucci, Veronica; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Asadzadeh, Fatemeh; Carotenuto, Marianeve; Maroofian, Reza; Al-Amri, Ahmed; Singh, Royana; Scognamiglio, Iolanda; Mojarrad, Majid; Musella, Luca; Duilio, Angela; Di Somma, Angela; Karaca, Ender; Rajab, Anna; Al-Khayat, Aisha; Mohan Mohapatra, Tribhuvan; Eslahi, Atieh; Ashrafzadeh, Farah; Rawlins, Lettie E; Prasad, Rajniti; Gupta, Rashmi; Kumari, Preeti; Srivastava, Mona; Cozzolino, Flora; Kumar Rai, Sunil; Monti, Maria; Harlalka, Gaurav V; Simpson, Michael A; Rich, Philip; Al-Salmi, Fatema; Patton, Michael A; Chioza, Barry A; Efthymiou, Stephanie; Granata, Francesca; Di Rosa, Gabriella; Wiethoff, Sarah; Borgione, Eugenia; Scuderi, Carmela; Mankad, Kshitij; Hanna, Michael G; Pucci, Piero; Houlden, Henry; Lupski, James R; Crosby, Andrew H; Baple, Emma L

    2017-04-01

    PRUNE is a member of the DHH (Asp-His-His) phosphoesterase protein superfamily of molecules important for cell motility, and implicated in cancer progression. Here we investigated multiple families from Oman, India, Iran and Italy with individuals affected by a new autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and degenerative disorder in which the cardinal features include primary microcephaly and profound global developmental delay. Our genetic studies identified biallelic mutations of PRUNE1 as responsible. Our functional assays of disease-associated variant alleles revealed impaired microtubule polymerization, as well as cell migration and proliferation properties, of mutant PRUNE. Additionally, our studies also highlight a potential new role for PRUNE during microtubule polymerization, which is essential for the cytoskeletal rearrangements that occur during cellular division and proliferation. Together these studies define PRUNE as a molecule fundamental for normal human cortical development and define cellular and clinical consequences associated with PRUNE mutation. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  6. Síndrome de Prune Belly: Presentación de un caso y revisión de la literatura Prune Belly Syndrome: Case report and review

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Franz Guerrero; Carlos Augusto Cuadros; Diana Carolina Archila; Sandra Milena Beltrán; Gustavo Adolfo Cuadros

    2010-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de Prune Belly (SPB), también conocido como el síndrome de Eagle Barrett, se caracteriza por una triada de anomalías que incluye grados variables de hipoplasia de la musculatura abdominal, anomalías del tracto urinario y criptorquidia bilateral. Objetivo: Se describe el caso de un paciente masculino con Síndrome de Prune Belly y se realiza una revisión de la literatura sobre esta rara enfermedad. Conclusión: La característica arrugada del abdomen similar a una ciruel...

  7. Coherent branching feature bisimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Belder

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the behavioral analysis of software product lines at the family level benefits from further development of the underlying semantical theory. Here, we propose a behavioral equivalence for feature transition systems (FTS generalizing branching bisimulation for labeled transition systems (LTS. We prove that branching feature bisimulation for an FTS of a family of products coincides with branching bisimulation for the LTS projection of each the individual products. For a restricted notion of coherent branching feature bisimulation we furthermore present a minimization algorithm and show its correctness. Although the minimization problem for coherent branching feature bisimulation is shown to be intractable, application of the algorithm in the setting of a small case study results in a significant speed-up of model checking of behavioral properties.

  8. Dictionary Pruning with Visual Word Significance for Medical Image Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Song, Yang; Cai, Weidong; Hauptmann, Alexander G.; Liu, Sidong; Pujol, Sonia; Kikinis, Ron; Fulham, Michael J; Feng, David Dagan; Chen, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Content-based medical image retrieval (CBMIR) is an active research area for disease diagnosis and treatment but it can be problematic given the small visual variations between anatomical structures. We propose a retrieval method based on a bag-of-visual-words (BoVW) to identify discriminative characteristics between different medical images with Pruned Dictionary based on Latent Semantic Topic description. We refer to this as the PD-LST retrieval. Our method has two main components. First, we calculate a topic-word significance value for each visual word given a certain latent topic to evaluate how the word is connected to this latent topic. The latent topics are learnt, based on the relationship between the images and words, and are employed to bridge the gap between low-level visual features and high-level semantics. These latent topics describe the images and words semantically and can thus facilitate more meaningful comparisons between the words. Second, we compute an overall-word significance value to evaluate the significance of a visual word within the entire dictionary. We designed an iterative ranking method to measure overall-word significance by considering the relationship between all latent topics and words. The words with higher values are considered meaningful with more significant discriminative power in differentiating medical images. We evaluated our method on two public medical imaging datasets and it showed improved retrieval accuracy and efficiency. PMID:27688597

  9. Randomised clinical trial: dried plums (prunes) vs. psyllium for constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaluri, A; Donahoe, R; Valestin, J; Brown, K; Rao, S S C

    2011-04-01

    Treatment of chronic constipation remains challenging with 50% of patients dissatisfied with current therapy. There is an unmet need for natural and safe alternatives. Dried plums (prunes) have been used traditionally for constipation but their efficacy is not known. Aim To assess and compare the effects of dried plums and psyllium in patients with chronic constipation. Subjects were enrolled in an 8-week, single-blind, randomised cross-over study. Subjects received either dried plums (50 g b.d., fibre=6 gm/day) or psyllium (11 g b.d., fibre=6 gm/day) for 3 weeks each, in a crossover trial with a 1-week washout period. Subjects maintained a daily symptom and stool diary. Assessments included number of complete spontaneous bowel movements per week, global relief of constipation, stool consistency, straining, tolerability and taste. Forty constipated subjects (m/f=3/37, mean age=38 years) participated. The number of complete spontaneous bowel movements per week (primary outcome measure) and stool consistency scores improved significantly (Ppsyllium. Straining and global constipation symptoms did not differ significantly between treatments (P=N.S.). Dried plums and psyllium were rated as equally palatable and both were safe and well tolerated. Dried plums are safe, palatable and more effective than psyllium for the treatment of mild to moderate constipation, and should be considered as a first line therapy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Prune belly syndrome, splenic torsion, and malrotation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Sifrance; Grossman, Eric; Barsness, Katherine A

    2013-02-01

    An 18 year old male with a history of prune belly syndrome (PBS) presented with acute abdominal pain and palpable left upper quadrant mass. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed a medialized spleen with a "whirl sign" in the splenic vessels, consistent with splenic torsion. Coincidentally, the small bowel was also noted to be on the right side of the abdomen, while the colon was located on the left, indicative of malrotation. Emergent diagnostic laparoscopy confirmed splenic torsion and intestinal malrotation. Successful laparoscopic reduction of the splenic torsion was achieved, however, conversion to an open procedure by a vertical midline incision was necessary owing to the patient's unique anatomy. Open splenopexy with a mesh sling and Ladd's procedure were subsequently performed. Malrotation and wandering spleen are known, rare associated anomalies in PBS; however, both have not been reported concurrently in a patient with PBS in the literature. In patients with PBS, acute abdominal pain, and an abdominal mass, high clinical suspicion for gastrointestinal malformations and prompt attention can result in spleen preservation and appropriate malrotation management. We present a case of a teenager who presented with a history of PBS, acute abdominal pain, and a palpable abdominal mass. The patient was found to have splenic torsion and intestinal malrotation. The clinical findings, diagnostic imaging, and surgical treatment options of splenic torsion are reviewed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Renal Branch Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Zarah; Thisted, Ebbe; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension is a common cause of pediatric hypertension. In the fraction of cases that are unrelated to syndromes such as neurofibromatosis, patients with a solitary stenosis on a branch of the renal artery are common and can be diagnostically challenging. Imaging techniques...... that perform well in the diagnosis of main renal artery stenosis may fall short when it comes to branch artery stenosis. We report 2 cases that illustrate these difficulties and show that a branch artery stenosis may be overlooked even by the gold standard method, renal angiography....

  12. Materials Test Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  13. Survival of emerald ash borer in chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; David L. Cappaert

    2005-01-01

    The ability of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, to survive following chipping or grinding of infested ash trees remains a critical question for regulatory officials. In October 2002, we felled eight infested ash trees and sampled sections of the trunk and large branches from each tree to estimate EAB density.

  14. Formation of acrylamide at temperatures lower than 100°C: the case of prunes and a model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becalski, A.; Brady, B.; Feng, S.; Gauthier, B.R.; Zhao, T.

    2011-01-01

    Acrylamide concentrations in prune products – baby strained prunes (range = 75–265 μg kg−−1), baby apple/prune juice (33–61 μg kg−−1), prune juice (186–916 μg kg−−1) and prunes (58–332 μg kg−−1) – on the Canadian market were determined. The formation of acrylamide in a simulated plum juice was also investigated under ‘drying conditions’ in an open vessel at temperatures Acrylamide was produced in a simulated plum juice under ‘drying conditions’ in amounts comparable with those found in prunes and prune juices. Acrylamide was not produced in simulated plum juice under ‘wet conditions’ in a closed vessel at temperature of 120°C for 1 h, but under the same condition an authentic prune juice doubled its acrylamide concentration. Formation of acrylamide in prune products was attributed to the presence of asparagine and sugars in the starting materials. PMID:21623495

  15. Yield and crop cycle time of peaches cultivated in subtropical climates and subjected to different pruning times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Augusto Ferraz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of peaches in regions of subtropical and tropical climate is currently achieved through a set of practices such as using less demanding cultivars in cold conditions, applying plant growth regulators to break dormancy, and performing specific pruning, like production and renewal pruning. Research on the climate adaptation of cultivars is of great importance in establishing a crop in a given region. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of three cultivars subjected to different production pruning times in Botucatu/SP, where 2-year old peach trees were evaluated, grown at a spacing of 6.0 x 4.0 meters. The experimental design was a split plot design with four blocks, using the cultivars Douradão, BRS Kampai and BRS Rubimel, and the subplots corresponded to pruning times in May, June, July and August. Ten plants were used per plot, with the four central plants considered useful and the remaining considered as margins. Pruning in June and July showed the best results in terms of percentage of fruit set and production. The cultivar BRS Rubimel showed the best percentage of fruit set when pruned in June (44.96%, and best fruit production when pruned in July (18.7 kg plant-1. Pruning in May anticipated the harvest of cultivar BRS Rubimel by 13 days whereas pruning carried out in July and August provided late harvests for cultivars Douradão and BRS Kampai.

  16. Cover crops and pruning in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards have little influence on grapevine nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pérez-Bermúdez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops may improve vineyard soil properties, grapevine nutrient status and berry composition, however, factors such as cover crop type, annual rainfall, climate and irrigation may change their effects on vineyards. From 2008 to 2011, the effects of a non-permanent cover crop and two pruning techniques on soil as well as vine nutrients and grapevine performance of two vineyards (cv. Tempranillo and cv. Bobal were evaluated. For that purpose, two legumes were sown in inter-rows of hand-pruned vines in February and were tilled at flowering. Soil tillage, or cover cropping, was combined with either light pruning or severe pruning to study foliar nutrient variations. Soil N, P, K and total organic carbon (TOC were determined in samples taken from the Ap1 horizon in January prior to vine pruning. Foliar N, P, K contents were measured in leaves sampled upon grape veraison. The differences between vineyards with cover cropping and bare soils suggest that legumes positively affected soil N (1.55 vs. 1.68 g kg−1 and 1.49 vs. 1.76 g kg−1 in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards, respectively and soil organic matter (SOM (12.5 vs. 15.5 g kg−1 and 12.9 vs. 17.2 g kg−1 in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards, respectively. The use of cover crops did not affect grapevine yields nor quality of Bobal and Tempranillo berry . Cover crops, or light pruning, did not alter the foliar N, P, K contents of both cultivars since their concentrations were similar to those found in the leaves from vineyards with soil tillage or severe pruning.

  17. EVALUATION OF TEMPORALVARIATIONS IN MOISTURE AND CALORIFIC VALUE OF VINE AND OLIVE PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Riccardo Porceddu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Italy arboreal crops, in particular vine and olive, cover a surface area of around 19.6×109 m2 from which about 4.6×109 kg of pruning are cut. These by-products are currently ploughed into the soil or else harvested and burned in open fields. On the other hand such materials would be more useful as an energy source. If these materials are to be used as fuel, it is important to know their calorific value. The calorific value is significantly influenced by the moisture content of wood. This work has evaluated the changes in moisture content and calorific value with time for different harvesting and storage systems of vine and olive pruning. The observed decrease in the moisture content of the vine and olive pruning depended on the storage system utilized, in particular on the product compression ratio and air circulation. Some differences were observed between the results obtained for vine and olive pruning. The time required for these materials to obtain their best energetic performance was identified at 32 weeks from their harvesting. Harvesting with balers and forwarding costs are about 6.21×10-2 €/kg for vine pruning and 4.64×10-2 €/kg for olive pruning. They are very similar to the price currently offered for energy biomass in Italy (5.00×10-2 €/kg. While the cost actually paid to plough pruning into the soil amounts to about 2.50×10-2 €/kg. Therefore the energy chain encourages a cost-and-benefit analysis.

  18. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015. Bundle branch block Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  19. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  20. Eficiência da poda em cafeeiros no controle da Xylella fastidiosa Prune efficiency in the control of Xylella fastidiosa in coffee trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan

    2006-01-01

    management procedures have attenuated the disease incidence, such as the use of bacteria-free seedlings and insect vector control. Pruning is an important practice for optimization of coffee orchard production. Coffee growers refer to pruning as training; coffee tree training depends on the coffee plant type and environment, using traditional or drastic trimming. This research aimed at evaluating the efficiency of different prune procedures in the control of X. fastidiosa incidence in coffee commercial cultivars Acaiá IAC 474-19 and Catuaí Vermelho IAC 81. Eight plants of each cultivar were submitted to three pruning types (traditional, "skeleton cut" and trunking; and eight plants were not pruned (controls. Prior to pruning, five plant branches were collected for anatomical studies. Thereafter, five other branches from all treatments were collected in October/2004 (rainy period and June/2005 (dry period for the anatomical studies. No significant differences were observed for `Acaiá IAC 474-19' that presented lower proportion of xylem vessel obstruction independent of the prune treatment. Prune treatments in `Catuaí Vermelho IAC 81' were also not significantly different; however, plants submitted to dramatic trimmings such as the "skeleton cut" and trunking showed a trend for lower proportion of xylem vessel obstruction by the bacteria, in both rainy and dry periods. It was suggested that the drastic pruning procedures ("skeleton cut" and trunking might be advantageous for the Xyllela control in situations of high disease incidence.

  1. Chemical Composition of Sea Buckthorn Leaves, Branches and Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradt Ina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea buckthorn leaves and branches presently create waste-/by-products of harvesting after pruning the plants. It is already known that sea buckthorn berries are important for their chemical composition and based on this occupy a wide field in nutrition. We raised the idea that sea buckthorn leaves, branches, and especially the bark, have also an extraordinary chemical composition like the berries. The aim of this study was to describe these by-products. For this purpose, detailed full analyses of corresponding samples from Russia (seven varieties and Germany (four varieties were performed. Especially the dry mass, fat content, proteins, carbohydrates, starch content, and crude fiber were investigated to obtain an overview. Minor components like total phenol content, metals, and water- and fat-soluble vitamins were also studied. All analytical parameters were based on an official collection of analysis methods (German ASU - amtliche Sammlung von Untersuchungsverfahren. The results of the full analysis of leaves and branches show some interesting aspects about the differences between male and female plants. Furthermore, we observed differences between Russian and German sea buckthorn varieties. Investigation of minor components showed that vitamins were present in very low amount (< 0.1 %.

  2. Density based pruning for identification of differentially expressed genes from microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation Identification of differentially expressed genes from microarray datasets is one of the most important analyses for microarray data mining. Popular algorithms such as statistical t-test rank genes based on a single statistics. The false positive rate of these methods can be improved by considering other features of differentially expressed genes. Results We proposed a pattern recognition strategy for identifying differentially expressed genes. Genes are mapped to a two dimension feature space composed of average difference of gene expression and average expression levels. A density based pruning algorithm (DB Pruning is developed to screen out potential differentially expressed genes usually located in the sparse boundary region. Biases of popular algorithms for identifying differentially expressed genes are visually characterized. Experiments on 17 datasets from Gene Omnibus Database (GEO with experimentally verified differentially expressed genes showed that DB pruning can significantly improve the prediction accuracy of popular identification algorithms such as t-test, rank product, and fold change. Conclusions Density based pruning of non-differentially expressed genes is an effective method for enhancing statistical testing based algorithms for identifying differentially expressed genes. It improves t-test, rank product, and fold change by 11% to 50% in the numbers of identified true differentially expressed genes. The source code of DB pruning is freely available on our website http://mleg.cse.sc.edu/degprune

  3. Pruning management of Chardonnay grapevines at high altitude in Brazilian southeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania dos Reis Mendonça

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The agronomical responses of Chardonnay, a variety indicated for sparkling wine production, is influenced by the vineyard management and the edaphoclimatic conditions of the region. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two pruning types (Royat and double Guyot on vegetative and reproductive development of Chardonnay vine growing at high altitude in the Brazilian southeastern region. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard located at 1,280 m of altitude in Divinolândia, São Paulo State, Brazil. The Chardonnay vines (clone 96, grafted onto 1103 Paulsen rootstock and trained in a vertical shoot positioning trellis system, were assessed. Vegetative vigor, bud fruitfulness, production and physicochemical composition of grapes were evaluated during 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. The Royat pruning induced higher vegetative vigor and increased the bud fruitfulness, the cluster number and the productivity of Chardonnay vine when compared to Guyot pruning. Even though the increase on yield was observed, there was no effect of pruning type on grape final quality. Therefore, the choice of pruning method in function of variety genetic characteristics and their interaction with environment can optimize the vineyard profitability. In the Brazilian southeast, the Royat system is the most suitable one to grow Chardonnay for sparkling wines production.

  4. Modified abdominoplasty for patients with the Prune Belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dénes, Francisco Tibor; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; Oliveira, Lorena Marçalo; Tavares, Alessandro; Srougi, Miguel

    2014-02-01

    To present the results of a new technique for abdominoplasty in patients with the Prune Belly syndrome (PBS). Since 1985, 46 children with PBS underwent surgical treatment that included urinary tract reconstruction (UTR), orchidopexy, and abdominoplasty. In 41 patients, we performed the abdominoplasty as follows: (1) fusiform longitudinal resection of the mid-abdominal skin and subcutaneous tissue, with preservation of the musculo-aponeurotic fascia (MAF) and umbilicus, (2) ellipsoid unilateral longitudinal incision of the MAF in the most weakened side of the abdomen, producing 2 flaps, with the umbilicus being kept intact in the widest flap, (3) after UTR and bilateral orchiopexy, suture fixation of the widest MAF layer to the inner side of the contralateral abdominal wall, creating an inner MAF layer, (4) lateral suture fixation of the other flap over the inner layer, creating an outer MAF layer with a buttonhole exposing the umbilicus, that is sutured to the outer layer, and (5) approximation of the skin edges with incorporation of the umbilicus in the suture. Skin coaptation was excellent in all patients, and no trimming was necessary in incision extremities. There was no dehiscence or skin necrosis and all patients presented immediate improvement of the abdominal tonus and appearance. Further improvement with growth was observed in all except 4 patients, 2 requiring secondary abdominoplasties. We conclude that this technique is applicable in all forms of weakened abdomen typical of PBS, even in asymmetrical cases, requiring only 1 MAF incision, with good cosmetic and functional results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis of branched polysaccharides with tunable degree of branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciric, Jelena; Loos, Katja

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro enzyme-catalyzed tandem reaction using the enzymes phosphorylase b from rabbit muscle and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme (Dg GBE) to obtain branched polyglucans with tunable degree of branching (2% divided by 13%) is presented. The tunable degree of branching is

  6. Urethral obstruction malformation complex: a cause of abdominal muscle deficiency and the "prune belly".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagon, R A; Smith, D W; Shepard, T H

    1979-06-01

    Abdominal muscle deficiency with a "prune belly" abdomen as been a major feature of the so-called prune belly syndrome, which has been regarded as a specific entity, although the etiology and developmental pathology are not understood. We present evidence that abdominal muscle deficiency is an etiologically nonspecific anatomic defect which is secondary to fetal abdominal distention of various causes. One of the more common causes is urethral obstruction with consequent early bladder distention, causing abdominal distention and other anomalies, a constellation of findings which we have termed the urethral obstruction malformation complex. This interpretation of the etiology of most cases of prune belly syndrome accounts for the male predominance, the observed variability in severity, and the lack of a defined mode of inheritance. Recurrence risk figures need to be redefined for each specific obstructing lesion of the urethra. The possibility of early prenatal diagnosis and management of fetuses with urethral obstruction needs further study.

  7. An Artificial Neural Network Modeling for Force Control System of a Robotic Pruning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hashemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there has been an increasing application of pruning robots for planted forests due to the growing concern on the efficiency and safety issues. Power consumption and working time of agricultural machines have become important issues due to the high value of energy in modern world. In this study, different multi-layer back-propagation networks were utilized for mapping the complex and highly interactive of pruning process parameters and to predict power consumption and cutting time of a force control equipped robotic pruning machine by knowing input parameters such as: rotation speed, stalk diameter, and sensitivity coefficient. Results showed significant effects of all input parameters on output parameters except rotational speed on cutting time. Therefore, for reducing the wear of cutting system, a less rotational speed in every sensitivity coefficient should be selected.

  8. Longleaf Pine Root System Development and Seedling Quality in Response to Copper Root Pruning and Cavity Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Shi-Jean Susana Sung; James D. Haywood

    2011-01-01

    Cultural practices that modify root system structure in the plug of container-grown seedlings have the potential to improve root system function after planting. Our objective was to assess how copper root pruning affects the quality and root system development of longleaf pine seedlings grown in three cavity sizes in a greenhouse. Copper root pruning increased seedling...

  9. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  10. Pruning for crop regulation in high density guava (Psidium guajava L.) plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakre, M.; Lal, S.; Uniyal, S.; Goswami, A.K. Prakash. P.

    2016-11-01

    High density management and crop regulation are two important aspects in guava (Psidium guajava L.) production. Therefore, to find out the economic way of managing high density planting and crop regulation, the present work was carried out on 6-year-old guava trees of cv. Pant Prabhat under double-hedge row system of planting during 2009-10 and 2010-11. Seven different forms of pruning [FBT: flower bud thinning by hand, FBTT: flower bud thinning by hand followed by removal of terminal one leaf pair, RLFO: removal of leaves and flower buds by hand, retaining one leaf pair at the top, RLF: removal of all leaves and flowers by hand, OLPS: one leaf pair shoot pruning, FSP: full shoot pruning, OLPF: one leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only] were studied along with control (C).Minimum annual increase in tree volume (6.764 m3) was recorded with the treatment OLPF, which was 2.31 times less than the control (15.682 m3). Highest yield during winter season (55.30 kg/tree) and total yield (59.87 kg/tree) was obtained from treatment OLPF. One leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only (OLPF) was also found profitable among other treatments by recording cost:benefit ratio of 1:2.96. This treatment also recorded the highest return distributed in rainy as well as in winter season. On the basis of findings it can be concluded that one leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only is suitable for profitable high density management as well as crop regulation of guava in farmer friendly manner. (Author)

  11. Chips 2020

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The release of this second volume of CHIPS 2020 coincides with the 50th anniversary of Moore’s Law, a critical year marked by the end of the nanometer roadmap and by a significantly reduced annual rise in chip performance. At the same time, we are witnessing a data explosion in the Internet, which is consuming 40% more electrical power every year, leading to fears of a major blackout of the Internet by 2020. The messages of the first CHIPS 2020, published in 2012, concerned the realization of quantum steps for improving the energy efficiency of all chip functions. With this second volume, we review these messages and amplify upon the most promising directions: ultra-low-voltage electronics, nanoscale monolithic 3D integration, relevant-data, brain- and human-vision-inspired processing, and energy harvesting for chip autonomy. The team of authors, enlarged by more world leaders in low-power, monolithic 3D, video, and Silicon brains, presents new vistas in nanoelectronics, promising  Moore-like exponential g...

  12. Case Report: Prune perineum syndrome: a rare case with an unfavourable outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Roberto I.; D?nes, Francisco T.; Messi, Gustavo B.; Machado, Marcos G.

    2016-01-01

    Prune perineum syndrome (PPS) is a rare anomaly, with only two previous case reports, both dying in the perinatal period. We report the first case of PPS that reached childhood. The patient presented with a hypoplastic genitalia and bilateral cryptorchidism. There was no evidence of an anal orifice. A significant prune-like mass was observed, extending from the perineum to both gluteal regions and to a cephalic mid-line bony prominence, with a 1cm central orifice that discharged urine. MRI co...

  13. Cane pruning on Chardonnay grapevine in the high-altitude regions of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho José Luiz Marcon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude regions of southern Brazil, located above 900 m above sea level, the cordon training with spur pruning is widely used because of easier application. In these regions, Chardonnay wine grape shows potential to produce quality wines, however, in commercial vineyards, the training system used has not provided productivities that makes economically viable the cultivation of this variety. Given this, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different cane-pruning systems on the vegetative, productive and enological potential of Chardonnay grapevines grown in the high-altitude region of Southern Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a commercial Chardonnay vineyard, located in São Joaquim – Santa Catarina State (28o17 ′39”S and 49∘ 55′56” W, to 1230 m a.s.l during 2015 and 2016 vintages. Chardonnay vines (grafted on 1103 Paulsen were planted in 2010, with a 3.0 m (row × 1.0 m (vine spacing. The treatments consisted of different cane-pruning systems: Cordon spur-pruning (control; Sylvoz; Cazenave; Capovolto; single Guyot and double Guyot. Pruning was performed in August of each year when the buds were in the green tip developmental stage. Data was analyzed by Scott Knott test (p < 0.05 following a randomized block design with four replicates, each consisting of 12 vines per plot. We observed higher yield in the Cazenave and double Guyot training system with three and two more tons of grapes than spur-pruning respectively. The bud fertility was higher in plants trained in double Guyot. Vines spur-pruned showed higher relation of leaf area: production, with values above 100 cm2 g−1 grape at 2016 vintage. Commercial maturity of grapes (soluble solids, acidity and polyphenols did not differ among training systems studied. The results suggest that cane-pruning systems could be an alternative to increase production efficiency of Chardonnay in high-altitude region of southern Brazil.

  14. Grapevine cultivar variation to pruning wound protection by Trichoderma species against trunk pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheusi MUTAWILA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Using Trichoderma species to protect grapevine pruning wounds from trunk disease pathogensis one of the options available for managing grapevine trunk diseases. The growth and persistence of Trichoderma species in the pruning wound and the resulting control effect may depend on intrinsic wound factors and hence may vary between cultivars. Cultivar variability to pruning wound protection by Trichoderma species was evaluated in eight wine grape (Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Chenin blanc, Colombar, Merlot,Pinotage, Sauvignon blanc and Shiraz and four table grape (Prime, Red Globe, Thompson Seedless andVictoria cultivars. Two strains of Trichoderma atroviride (USPP-T1 and USPP-T2 separately or in combinationand Eco 77® a registered pruning wound biocontrol agent based on T. harzianum, were applied to fresh pruning wounds of spur-pruned wine grapevines and cane-pruned table grapevines. Trichoderma spp. and a variety of trunk pathogens, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and species of Phaeoacremonium, Phomopsis, Botryosphaeriaceae and Diatrypaceae, were isolated from the pruning wounds eight months after treatment. Significant treatment × cultivar interactions (P<0.01 were found in the incidence of Trichoderma spp. in table and wine grapes. Trichoderma incidence varied greatly between cultivars and was less between Trichoderma treatments within the same cultivar. The highest Trichoderma incidence in wine grapes was found in Chenin blanc (71.4–82.5% and in table grapes in Thompson Seedless (43.5–76.7%. In the remaining winegrape cultivars Trichoderma incidence varied between 20–50% while with all treatments in Chardonnay Trichoderma incidence was less than 24%. In table grapes Trichoderma incidence varied from 20-67% in the other cultivars. Trichoderma reduced the pathogen by between 10.3% in Chardonnay to 66.7% in Cheninblanc. Trichoderma incidence and pathogen reduction were significantly correlated in most cultivars (r> 0.50;P<0.05 though not

  15. Dried Plums, Prunes and Bone Health: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C. Wallace

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advocate for increasing fruit intake and replacing energy-dense foods with those that are nutrient-dense. Nutrition across the lifespan is pivotal for the healthy development and maintenance of bone. The National Osteoporosis Foundation estimates that over half of Americans age 50+ have either osteoporosis or low bone mass. Dried plums, also commonly referred to as prunes, have a unique nutrient and dietary bioactive profile and are suggested to exert beneficial effects on bone. To further elucidate and summarize the potential mechanisms and effects of dried plums on bone health, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature was conducted. The PubMed database was searched through 24 January 2017 for all cell, animal, population and clinical studies that examined the effects of dried plums and/or extracts of the former on markers of bone health. Twenty-four studies were included in the review and summarized in table form. The beneficial effects of dried plums on bone health may be in part due to the variety of phenolics present in the fruit. Animal and cell studies suggest that dried plums and/or their extracts enhance bone formation and inhibit bone resorption through their actions on cell signaling pathways that influence osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. These studies are consistent with clinical studies that show that dried plums may exert beneficial effects on bone mineral density (BMD. Long-term prospective cohort studies using fractures and BMD as primary endpoints are needed to confirm the effects of smaller clinical, animal and mechanistic studies. Clinical and prospective cohort studies in men are also needed, since they represent roughly 29% of fractures, and likewise, diverse race and ethnic groups. No adverse effects were noted among any of the studies included in this comprehensive review. While the data are not completely consistent, this review suggests that

  16. State-set branching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Møller; Veloso, Manuela M.; Bryant, Randal E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we present a framework called state-set branching that combines symbolic search based on reduced ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) with best-first search, such as A* and greedy best-first search. The framework relies on an extension of these algorithms from expanding a sing...

  17. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  18. On-line identification of hybrid systems using an adaptive growing and pruning RBF neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alizadeh, Tohid

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces an adaptive growing and pruning radial basis function (GAP-RBF) neural network for on-line identification of hybrid systems. The main idea is to identify a global nonlinear model that can predict the continuous outputs of hybrid systems. In the proposed approach, GAP-RBF neu...

  19. Fast pairwise structural RNA alignments by pruning of the dynamical programming matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havgaard, Jakob Hull; Torarinsson, Elfar; Gorodkin, Jan

    2007-01-01

    not be present and pre-folding ignores the comparative information. Here, pruning of the dynamical programming matrix is presented as an alternative novel heuristic constraint. All subalignments that do not exceed a length-dependent minimum score are discarded as the matrix is filled out, thus giving...

  20. Pruning affects the vegetative balance of the wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Grape cultivation for wine production at altitudes between 2,200 and 2,600 m a.s.l. started in the department of Boyaca in 1982. Quality wines are produced by the AinKarim Vineyard in Ricaurte High. Wine grapes have to possess suitable organoleptic compounds at harvest in order to guarantee quality grape must that can be converted into wine. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain a suitable ratio the sources and the sinks and to guarantee production, quality and vegetative sustainability over time, conserving the equilibrium and benefiting the productive potential of the vineyard. The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive and vegetative balance effect in the wine grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc in Sutamarchan-Boyaca, considering different pruning types (short, long, and mixed. A bifactorial, completely random statistical design was used. At the time of harvest, the fruit production and pruned wood were evaluated. The long-pruned vines showed the best behavior and the most balanced source/sink relationship,, while Sauvignon Blanc demonstrated a better productive yield. Meanwhile, the short and mixed prunings had the better values for the Ravaz index (balance between fruit production and vegetative growth, indicating that they are more suitable for the conditions of the region, allowing for sustainability during the productive cycles of the wine grapes.

  1. Sensitivity of directed networks to the addition and pruning of edges and vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsev, A. V.; Timár, G.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2017-08-01

    Directed networks have various topologically different extensive components, in contrast to a single giant component in undirected networks. We study the sensitivity (response) of the sizes of these extensive components in directed complex networks to the addition and pruning of edges and vertices. We introduce the susceptibility, which quantifies this sensitivity. We show that topologically different parts of a directed network have different sensitivity to the addition and pruning of edges and vertices and, therefore, they are characterized by different susceptibilities. These susceptibilities diverge at the critical point of the directed percolation transition, signaling the appearance (or disappearance) of the giant strongly connected component in the infinite size limit. We demonstrate this behavior in randomly damaged real and synthetic directed complex networks, such as the World Wide Web, Twitter, the Caenorhabditis elegans neural network, directed Erdős-Rényi graphs, and others. We reveal a nonmonotonic dependence of the sensitivity to random pruning of edges or vertices in the case of C. elegans and Twitter that manifests specific structural peculiarities of these networks. We propose the measurements of the susceptibilities during the addition or pruning of edges and vertices as a new method for studying structural peculiarities of directed networks.

  2. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables... plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes for processing; (3) Olives for processing into oil; (4) Grapefruit for animal feed; or (5) Avocados for seed shall obtain an “Importer's Exempt Commodity Form” (FV-6...

  3. Prune belly syndrome in an Egyptian infant with Down syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwalley, Kotb A; Farghalley, Hekma S; Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A

    2008-10-02

    Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly of uncertain aetiology almost exclusive to males. The association between prune belly syndrome and Down syndrome is very rare. A 4-month-old Egyptian boy was admitted to our institute for management of acute bronchiolitis. He was born at full term by normal vaginal delivery. His mother, a 42-year-Egyptian villager with six other children, had no antenatal or prenatal care. On examination, the boy was found to be hypotonic. In addition to features of Down syndrome, karyotyping confirmed the diagnosis of trisomy 21. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen showed bilateral gross hydronephrosis with megaureter. Micturating cystourethrography showed grade V vesicoureteric reflux bilaterally with no urethral obstruction. Serum creatinine concentration was 90 mumol/litre, serum sodium was 132 mmol/litre and serum potassium was 5.9 mmol/litre. We report an Egyptian infant with Down syndrome and prune belly syndrome. The incidence of this association is unknown. Routine antenatal ultrasonography will help in discovering renal anomalies which can be followed postnatally. Postnatal detection of prune belly syndrome necessitates full radiological investigation to detect any renal anomalies. Early diagnosis of this syndrome and determining its optimal treatment are very important in helping to avoid its fatal course.

  4. Prune belly syndrome in an Egyptian infant with Down syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metwalley Kotb A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly of uncertain aetiology almost exclusive to males. The association between prune belly syndrome and Down syndrome is very rare. Case presentation A 4-month-old Egyptian boy was admitted to our institute for management of acute bronchiolitis. He was born at full term by normal vaginal delivery. His mother, a 42-year-Egyptian villager with six other children, had no antenatal or prenatal care. On examination, the boy was found to be hypotonic. In addition to features of Down syndrome, karyotyping confirmed the diagnosis of trisomy 21. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen showed bilateral gross hydronephrosis with megaureter. Micturating cystourethrography showed grade V vesicoureteric reflux bilaterally with no urethral obstruction. Serum creatinine concentration was 90 μmol/litre, serum sodium was 132 mmol/litre and serum potassium was 5.9 mmol/litre. Conclusion We report an Egyptian infant with Down syndrome and prune belly syndrome. The incidence of this association is unknown. Routine antenatal ultrasonography will help in discovering renal anomalies which can be followed postnatally. Postnatal detection of prune belly syndrome necessitates full radiological investigation to detect any renal anomalies. Early diagnosis of this syndrome and determining its optimal treatment are very important in helping to avoid its fatal course.

  5. Growing Up With Prune Belly Syndrome In A Resource Poor Setting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges here are for the care givers as well as the physicians who are confronted with the enormous task of taking care of a child with congenital abnormality against a backdrop of lack of resources and a cultural environment that is almost intolerant of dysmorphology. Keywords : Dysmorphology, Prune belly ...

  6. Decreasing-Rate Pruning Optimizes the Construction of Efficient and Robust Distributed Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saket Navlakha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Robust, efficient, and low-cost networks are advantageous in both biological and engineered systems. During neural network development in the brain, synapses are massively over-produced and then pruned-back over time. This strategy is not commonly used when designing engineered networks, since adding connections that will soon be removed is considered wasteful. Here, we show that for large distributed routing networks, network function is markedly enhanced by hyper-connectivity followed by aggressive pruning and that the global rate of pruning, a developmental parameter not previously studied by experimentalists, plays a critical role in optimizing network structure. We first used high-throughput image analysis techniques to quantify the rate of pruning in the mammalian neocortex across a broad developmental time window and found that the rate is decreasing over time. Based on these results, we analyzed a model of computational routing networks and show using both theoretical analysis and simulations that decreasing rates lead to more robust and efficient networks compared to other rates. We also present an application of this strategy to improve the distributed design of airline networks. Thus, inspiration from neural network formation suggests effective ways to design distributed networks across several domains.

  7. Prune belly syndrome in a set of twins, a family tragedy: Case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report prune belly syndrome, a rare congenital malformation, in a set of twins delivered to a young couple with a history of three previous first trimester spontaneous abortions, discordant HIV seropositivity and antenatal ultrasound report that indicated renal abnormalities in only one of the twins. The challenges of ...

  8. On failure of the pruning technique in "error repair in shift-reduce parsers"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertsch, E; Nederhof, MJ

    A previous article presented a technique to compute the least-cost error repair by incrementally generating configurations that result from inserting and deleting tokens in a syntactically incorrect input. An additional mechanism to improve the run-time efficiency of this algorithm by pruning some

  9. 76 FR 75805 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Prune Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC36 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Prune Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) proposes to amend the Common Crop Insurance...

  10. Development of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce following thinning and pruning in south-east Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; R. James Barbour; Michael H. McClellan; Dean L. Parry

    2003-01-01

    The frequency and size of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) were assessed in five 23-29 year-old mixed Sitka spruce-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stands that were uniformly thinned and pruned to 2.4, 3.7 and 5.2 m lift heights. Six to nine years after treatment sprouts were...

  11. Can early thinning and pruning lessen the impact of pine plantations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dwelling insects found in pine tree plantations in Patagonia. We compared the abundance, species richness and composition of the beetle and ant assemblages within 16-year-old pine stands (n = 10) subjected to early pruning and thinning (i.e. ...

  12. Competition in apple, as influenced by Alar sprays, fruiting, pruning and tree spacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, E.W.M.

    1972-01-01

    In the spring of 1965 a trial was planted with Golden Delicious IX and James Grieve 'aimed' VII, in which tree spacing, deblossoming, Alar sprays and pruning were variable factors, Results are presented over the period 1966-1969.

    At the end of 1969, the 5th year from planting, 400

  13. Effect of Staking and Pruning on the Growth and Yield of Cucumber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of pruning and staking on the vegetative growth and yield of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.). The experiment was a 3 x 2 factorial laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with five replications. The results showed that vine length, number of flowers, total ...

  14. Effect of Time and Level of Pruning on Vegetative Growth, Flowering, Yield, and Quality of Guava

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Shiva; Kandel, Tanka Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Poor quality fruit production in the rainy season and failure to manipulate production periods are common problems for guava production in India and Nepal. As a possible management to overcome these problems, a field experiment was conducted to understand the effect of time and level of pruning o...

  15. Evaluation of fungicides as potential grapevine pruning wound protectants against Botryosphaeria species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bester, W.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Protection of wounds against infection by trunk disease pathogens is the most efficient and cost-effective means to prevent grapevine trunk diseases. Studies done to determine the effectiveness of chemical pruning wound protectants have mostly focused on the control of Eutypa lata. However, other

  16. Effect of electrical conductivity, fruit pruning, and truss position on quality in greenhouse tomato fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanasca, S.; Martino, A.; Heuvelink, E.; Stanghellini, C.

    2007-01-01

    The combined effects of electrical conductivity (an EC of 2.5 dS m-1 or 8 dS m-1 in the root zone) and fruit pruning (three or six fruit per truss) on tomato fruit quality were studied in a greenhouse experiment, planted in January 2005. Taste-related attributes [dry matter content (DM), total

  17. Effect of edge pruning on structural controllability and observability of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengiste, Simachew Abebe; Aertsen, Ad; Kumar, Arvind

    2015-12-01

    Controllability and observability of complex systems are vital concepts in many fields of science. The network structure of the system plays a crucial role in determining its controllability and observability. Because most naturally occurring complex systems show dynamic changes in their network connectivity, it is important to understand how perturbations in the connectivity affect the controllability of the system. To this end, we studied the control structure of different types of artificial, social and biological neuronal networks (BNN) as their connections were progressively pruned using four different pruning strategies. We show that the BNNs are more similar to scale-free networks than to small-world networks, when comparing the robustness of their control structure to structural perturbations. We introduce a new graph descriptor, ‘the cardinality curve’, to quantify the robustness of the control structure of a network to progressive edge pruning. Knowing the susceptibility of control structures to different pruning methods could help design strategies to destroy the control structures of dangerous networks such as epidemic networks. On the other hand, it could help make useful networks more resistant to edge attacks.

  18. 78 FR 63128 - Dried Prunes Produced in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 993 Dried Prunes Produced in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This... the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 601-674), hereinafter referred...

  19. Mineralization and N-use efficiency of tree legume prunings from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatment combinations were laid out as a randomized complete blocks design. Mixtures of tree prunings with 2.5 t ha-1 maize stover increased maize N uptake and grain yield whereas 5 t ha-1 maize stover reduced maize N uptake and grain yield during the wetter season. Mixtures of Pea-R, Stover-1 or Stover-2 with ...

  20. Wood quality for longleaf pines: a spacing, thinning and pruning study on the Kisatchie National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi-Leung So; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Daniel J. Leduc; Leslie H. Groom; Jeffery C. G. Goelz

    2010-01-01

    Twenty 70-year-old longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) trees were harvested from a spacing, thinning, and pruning study on the Kisatchie National Forest, LA. Tree property mapping was used to show the property variation within and between three of the trees. The construction of such maps is both time consuming and cost prohibitive using traditional...

  1. Delayed axonal pruning in the ant brain: a study of developmental trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Marc A; Wehner, Rüdiger

    2009-05-01

    The coordination of neuronal maturation and behavioral development is a vital component of survival. The degradation of excessive axonal processes and neuronal networks is a ubiquitous developmental process. In Drosophila, a great portion of axonal pruning occurs during metamorphosis and transpires within hours after pupation. In contrast, we show, using EM-serial sectioning and 3D-reconstructions, that axonal pruning occurs after eclosion and over the course of 60 days in Cataglyphis albicans. Using the mushroom bodies of the brains of Cataglyphis, which have well-developed lip (olfactory integrator) and collar (visual integrator) regions, we show that axonal pruning is dependent upon the differences in the developmental trajectory of the lip and the collar brain regions and happens after eclosion. The elimination of the axonal boutons is most delayed in the collar region, where it is postponed until the ant has had extensive visual experience. We found that individual brain components within a single neuropil can develop at different rates that correlate with the behavioral ecology of these ants and suggest that glia may be mediating the axonal pruning. Our study provides evidence that adult ants may have relatively neotenous brains, and thus more flexibility, allowing them to neuronally adapt to the environment. This neoteny may, in part, explain the neural basis for age-dependent division of labor and the amazing behavioral flexibility exhibited by ants.

  2. The potential of legume tree prunings as organic matters for improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wahyudi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study that was aimed to elucidate roles of Gliricidia sepium and Tithonia diversifolia prunings and their extracted humic and fulvic acids on improving phosphorus availability and decreasing aluminum concentration in an Ultisol was conducted in a glasshouse. Thirteen treatments consisting of two prunings, six rates of pruning application (5, 7.5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 t/ha and one control (no added prunings were arranged in a randomized block design with four replicates. Each mixture of prunings and soil was placed in a pot containing 8 kg of soil and maize of Srikandi cultivar was grown on it for 45 days. At harvest, soil pH, P content and aluminium concentration were measured. Results of the glasshouse experiment showed that application of Gliricidia and Tithonia prunings significantly increased soil pH, reduced Alo concentration, increased Alp content, increased P availability, and increased P taken up by maize grown for 45 days. The optimum rate of both Gliricidia and Tithonia pruning should be 40 t/ha. However, at the same rate, optimum production gained by Tithonia would be higher than that of Gliricidia.

  3. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  4. Towards an Efficient Artificial Neural Network Pruning and Feature Ranking Tool

    KAUST Repository

    AlShahrani, Mona

    2015-05-24

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are known to be among the most effective and expressive machine learning models. Their impressive abilities to learn have been reflected in many broad application domains such as image recognition, medical diagnosis, online banking, robotics, dynamic systems, and many others. ANNs with multiple layers of complex non-linear transformations (a.k.a Deep ANNs) have shown recently successful results in the area of computer vision and speech recognition. ANNs are parametric models that approximate unknown functions in which parameter values (weights) are adapted during training. ANN’s weights can be large in number and thus render the trained model more complex with chances for “overfitting” training data. In this study, we explore the effects of network pruning on performance of ANNs and ranking of features that describe the data. Simplified ANN model results in fewer parameters, less computation and faster training. We investigate the use of Hessian-based pruning algorithms as well as simpler ones (i.e. non Hessian-based) on nine datasets with varying number of input features and ANN parameters. The Hessian-based Optimal Brain Surgeon algorithm (OBS) is robust but slow. Therefore a faster parallel Hessian- approximation is provided. An additional speedup is provided using a variant we name ‘Simple n Optimal Brain Surgeon’ (SNOBS), which represents a good compromise between robustness and time efficiency. For some of the datasets, the ANN pruning experiments show on average 91% reduction in the number of ANN parameters and about 60% - 90% in the number of ANN input features, while maintaining comparable or better accuracy to the case when no pruning is applied. Finally, we show through a comprehensive comparison with seven state-of-the art feature filtering methods that the feature selection and ranking obtained as a byproduct of the ANN pruning is comparable in accuracy to these methods.

  5. Efeito da poda do tipo decote no controle da xylella fastidiosa em cultivares de cafeeiro "Decote" type pruning effect upon xylella fastidiosa control in coffee cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan

    2007-01-01

    ' de C. canephora, foram os tratamentos com maior severidade e, novamente no período chuvoso, as diferenças não foram observadas. Concluiu-se, portanto, que a prática da poda do tipo decote não resultou nesse experimento em um controle eficiente da X. fastidiosa em cafeeiros de C. arabica de pé-franco ou enxertados e infectados por esta moléstia.Xylella fastidiosa plant colonization causes damages to the coffee production and nowadays there is no available economic chemical control to this bacterium. Adequate cultivation management as the use of bacteria-free scions and control of the insect vector (cicadas, are practices that may attenuate the disease incidence. Pruning, that has been recommended for citrus and vines for disease control, still does not have its efficiency proved for coffee plants. This research work aimed to quantify the proportion of xylem vessel elements obstructed by the bacteria, as well as to evaluate the disease external symptoms severity after the "decote" type pruning. In June 2003 (dry season, eight months after pruning, it was observed that 4% of the petiole vessel elements were obstructed by X. fastidiosa, 2% of the central vein and 1% of the stem. In the rainy season, 14 months after pruning, the obstruction proportion of vessel elements decreased to 2% in the petiole and to 1% in central vein and stem respectively. Therefore, the pruning practice decreased slightly the xylem vessel obstruction caused by the bacteria in the dry period, once prior to pruning a 6% obstruction in the petiole was observed. The new branches sprouted during the rainy season seemed to compensate obstruction in older branches, thus decreasing vase obstruction proportion. In 2003 there were no differences in the disease symptom severity among treatments in the two periods (dry and rainy season, however, in the dry period of 2004, 'Catuaí Vermelho IAC 81' and 'Mundo Novo IAC 515-20' cultivars, grafted on C. canephora 'Apoatã IAC 2258', presented higher

  6. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  7. The branch librarians' handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Rivers, Vickie

    2004-01-01

    ""Recommended""--Booklist; ""an excellent addition...highly recommended""--Public Libraries; ""clear...very sound advice...strongly recommend""--Catholic Library World; ""excellent resource...organized...well written""--Against the Grain; ""interesting...thoroughly practical...a very good book...well organized...clearly written""--ARBA. This handbook covers a wide variety of issues that the branch librarian must deal with every day. Chapters are devoted to mission statements (the Dallas Public Library and Dayton Metro Library mission statements are highlighted as examples), library systems,

  8. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  9. Tree growth and management in Ugandan agroforestry systems: effects of root pruning on tree growth and crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajja-Musukwe, Tellie-Nelson; Wilson, Julia; Sprent, Janet I; Ong, Chin K; Deans, J Douglas; Okorio, John

    2008-02-01

    Tree root pruning is a potential tool for managing belowground competition when trees and crops are grown together in agroforestry systems. We investigated the effects of tree root pruning on shoot growth and root distribution of Alnus acuminata (H.B. & K.), Casuarina equisetifolia L., Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br., Maesopsis eminii Engl. and Markhamia lutea (Benth.) K. Schum. and on yield of adjacent crops in sub-humid Uganda. The trees were 3 years old at the commencement of the study, and most species were competing strongly with crops. Tree roots were pruned 41 months after planting by cutting and back-filling a trench to a depth of 0.3 m, at a distance of 0.3 m from the trees, on one side of the tree row. The trench was reopened and roots recut at 50 and 62 months after planting. We assessed the effects on tree growth and root distribution over a 3 year period, and crop yield after the third root pruning at 62 months. Overall, root pruning had only a slight effect on aboveground tree growth: height growth was unaffected and diameter growth was reduced by only 4%. A substantial amount of root regrowth was observed by 11 months after pruning. Tree species varied in the number and distribution of roots, and C. equisetifolia and M. lutea had considerably more roots per unit of trunk volume than the other species, especially in the surface soil layers. Casuarina equisetifolia and M. eminii were the tree species most competitive with crops and G. robusta and M. lutea the least competitive. Crop yield data provided strong evidence of the redistribution of root activity following root pruning, with competition increasing on the unpruned side of tree rows. Thus, one-sided root pruning will be useful in only a few circumstances.

  10. Integrating olive grove maintenance and energy biomass recovery with a single-pass pruning and harvesting machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Raffaele; Nati, Carla; Picchi, Gianni [CNR-IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Magagnotti, Natascia [DEIAGRA, University of Bologna, Via Fanin 50, Bologna (Italy); Cantini, Claudio; Sani, Graziano [CNR-IVALSA, Azienda S. Paolina, Follonica, GR (Italy); Biocca, Marcello [CRA-ISMA, Via della Pascolare 16, Monterotondo, Roma (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    In Italy, olive tree groves may offer up to a million tonnes of dry biomass per year as pruning residue. Searching for a cost-effective way to tap this potential, the authors tested a new machine, capable of recovering pruning residue at the same time as pruning. The pre-commercial prototype was tested on four different plots and compared to a simpler tractor-base mechanical pruning unit. The authors conducted detailed time-studies in order to determine machine productivity and residue recovery cost. The integrated machine can treat between 0.2 and 0.6 ha h{sup -1}, producing between 0.33 and 1.03 tonnes of fresh residue hour{sup -1}. Its integrated residue recovery function does not slow the pruning, which actually proceeds faster than with the tractor-base unit, due to the more efficient multiple-disc cutting bar. The marginal cost of residue recovery hovers around 40-45 EUR fresh tonne{sup -1}. However, the new machine must not be considered just as a biomass harvester, but rather as a mechanical pruning unit with an integrated biomass recovery function. Its main benefit derives from the capacity of performing a very effective mechanical pruning, and the residue recovery function is a secondary benefit yet unavailable on standard pruning machines. Its deployment must be seen in the context of a general effort to modernize olive grove management and to develop an integrated biomass production system, rather than as a further attempt to build a specialised biomass supply chain. (author)

  11. Sec71 functions as a GEF for the small GTPase Arf1 to govern dendrite pruning ofDrosophilasensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Heng; Shi, Meng; Liou, Yih-Cherng; Lu, Lei; Yu, Fengwei

    2017-05-15

    Pruning, whereby neurons eliminate their excess neurites, is central for the maturation of the nervous system. In Drosophila , sensory neurons, ddaCs, selectively prune their larval dendrites without affecting their axons during metamorphosis. However, it is unknown whether the secretory pathway plays a role in dendrite pruning. Here, we show that the small GTPase Arf1, an important regulator of the secretory pathway, is specifically required for dendrite pruning of ddaC/D/E sensory neurons but dispensable for apoptosis of ddaF neurons. Analyses of the GTP- and GDP-locked forms of Arf1 indicate that the cycling of Arf1 between GDP-bound and GTP-bound forms is essential for dendrite pruning. We further identified Sec71 as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf1 that preferentially interacts with its GDP-bound form. Like Arf1, Sec71 is also important for dendrite pruning, but not for apoptosis, of sensory neurons. Arf1 and Sec71 are interdependent for their localizations on Golgi. Finally, we show that the Sec71/Arf1-mediated trafficking process is a prerequisite for Rab5-dependent endocytosis to facilitate endocytosis and degradation of the cell-adhesion molecule Neuroglian (Nrg). © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Pruning-Based Sparse Recovery for Electrocardiogram Reconstruction from Compressed Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseok Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the necessity of the low-power implementation of newly-developed electrocardiogram (ECG sensors, exact ECG data reconstruction from the compressed measurements has received much attention in recent years. Our interest lies in improving the compression ratio (CR, as well as the ECG reconstruction performance of the sparse signal recovery. To this end, we propose a sparse signal reconstruction method by pruning-based tree search, which attempts to choose the globally-optimal solution by minimizing the cost function. In order to achieve low complexity for the real-time implementation, we employ a novel pruning strategy to avoid exhaustive tree search. Through the restricted isometry property (RIP-based analysis, we show that the exact recovery condition of our approach is more relaxed than any of the existing methods. Through the simulations, we demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the existing sparse recovery methods for ECG reconstruction.

  13. A novel technique for reconstruction of the abdominal wall in the prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort, G; Guys, J M; Bocciardi, A; Coquet, M; Chevallier, D

    1991-08-01

    There is currently widespread enthusiasm for abdominal wall reconstruction in patients with the prune belly syndrome. We have devised an operation that appears to offer some advantages over those proposed by Ehrlich and Randolph. The technique preserves the umbilicus, and thickens and strengthens the anterior abdominal wall. By narrowing the waist, it also produces a better cosmetic appearance. After full thickness resection of a varying amount of skin from the central abdomen, the anterior wall is sutured in double-breasted fashion, thus, preserving all vascularization and the umbilicus. Since 1969 we have successfully performed this procedure on 9 prune belly patients including 1 girl. The results were excellent in terms of duration and cosmetic appearance.

  14. Brief clinical report: prune belly syndrome: observations supporting the hypothesis of abdominal overdistention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, B K; Dillard, R G

    1984-03-01

    We report on an infant with the prune belly syndrome who was unusual in that the typical manifestations of the disorder were accompanied by an anterior abdominal wall defect. We speculate that this defect may have occurred as a result of splitting of the abdominal wall secondary to massive bladder dilatation and stretching of the abdominal muscles. An alternative explanation is that the defect may have been the result of secondary pressure necrosis from stretching forces or from contact with another structure, such as the cervix. This case lends further support to the hypothesis that bladder distention with overdistention of the abdomen may be the primary event leading to the findings observed in the prune belly syndrome.

  15. Degree Associated Edge Reconstruction Number of Graphs with Regular Pruned Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anusha Devi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An ecard of a graph $G$ is a subgraph formed by deleting an edge. A da-ecard specifies the degree of the deleted edge along with the ecard. The degree associated edge reconstruction number of a graph $G,~dern(G,$ is the minimum number of da-ecards that uniquely determines $G.$  The adversary degree associated edge reconstruction number of a graph $G, adern(G,$ is the minimum number $k$ such that every collection of $k$ da-ecards of $G$ uniquely determines $G.$ The maximal subgraph without end vertices of a graph $G$ which is not a tree is the pruned graph of $G.$ It is shown that $dern$ of complete multipartite graphs and some connected graphs with regular pruned graph is $1$ or $2.$ We also determine $dern$ and $adern$ of corona product of standard graphs.

  16. Combining soft decision algorithms and scale-sequential hypotheses pruning for object recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.P.; Manolakos, E.S. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a system that exploits the synergy of Hierarchical Mixture Density (HMD) estimation with multiresolution decomposition based hypothesis pruning to perform efficiently joint segmentation and labeling of partially occluded objects in images. First we present the overall structure of the HMD estimation algorithm in the form of a recurrent neural network which generates the posterior probabilities of the various hypotheses associated with the image. Then in order to reduce the large memory and computation requirement we propose a hypothesis pruning scheme making use of the orthonormal discrete wavelet transform for dimensionality reduction. We provide an intuitive justification for the validity of this scheme and present experimental results and performance analysis on real and synthetic images to verify our claims.

  17. Improvement of growth parameters of prune callus cultures destined to initiate celi suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Hanus-Fajerska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Callus was inducted on wounded leaf explants from shoot tips of a particular Prunus domestica 'Węgierka Zwykła' clone cultivated in vitro. The improvement of Sweet Common Prune stock callus tissue parameters has been approached by experiments on culture protocols. Either for the induction or maintenance of tissue modified Murashige and Skoog medium, supplemented with different auxins and cytokinins at varying concentrations, was used. The goal was to obtain the highiest possible proliferative capacity of friable tissue without any signs of cell redifferentiation for about 10 weeks. The choice of auxin was an important factor regulating the rate and kind of tissue growth, and for the examined prune clone auxin alone brought a relatively small proportion of cells into division, so advantageous was to combine it with oxygenated cytokinin. Friable tissue was obtained on media supplemented with dicamba or with picloram, but not with 2.4-D neither alone nor combinated with IBA.

  18. Growth following pruning of young loblolly pine trees: some early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph L. Amateis; Harold E. Burkhart

    2006-01-01

    In the spring of 2000, a designed experiment was established to study the effects of pruning on juvenile loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) tree growth and the subsequent formation of mature wood. Trees were planted at a 3 m x 3 m square spacing in plots of 6 rows with 6 trees per row, with the inner 16 trees constituting the measurement plot. Among the...

  19. Thinning and Pruning Influence Glaze Damage in a Loblolly Pine Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Burton

    1981-01-01

    An old-field plantation was thinned and pruned at age 11 and again at age 14 to 4 basal area levels and 3 crown percent levels. A survey was made to determine how damage by an ice storm at age 15 was influenced by treatment. Severe damage was heaviest in the densest stands and in stands with the shortest crowns, while the percent of stand destroyed was least under the...

  20. Using State Merging and State Pruning to Address the Path Explosion Problem Faced by Symbolic Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-19

    Forward and Pruned States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 xii List of Acronyms Acronym Definition ASLR address space layout randomization CFG control flow...Decomposition LLVM low-level virtual machine SUT system under test CUT component under test CFG control flow graph KLOC thousands (kilo) of lines of code LOC...State merging can be done either statically or dynamically. Static state merging requires the building and traversal of a control flow graph ( CFG ) [20

  1. Mycotoxin risks and toxigenic fungi in date, prune and dried apricot among Mediterranean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin OZER

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dried fruit is fruit that is preserved by removing the original water content naturally, through sun drying or artificially, by the use of specialized dryers or dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradition of use dating back to the fourth millennium BC in Mesopotamia and is prized because of its sweet taste, nutritive value and long shelf life. Traditional dried fruits such as raisins, figs, dates, apricots and prunes have been a staple of Mediterranean diets for millennia. The Mediterranean region is very favourable for production of dried fruits, not only with its climatic conditions, but also its exceptional fertile lands. Additionally, proximity to trade routes historically has allowed Mediterranean countries more access to dried fruits than landlocked countries. Today, dried fruit consumption is widespread. Nearly half of the dried fruits sold throughout the world are raisins, followed by dates, prunes (dried plums, figs, apricots, peaches, apples and pears. Dates, prunes, apricots, figs and raisins are the major dried fruits produced in the Mediterranean area. Dried fruits are not perishable but can support mold growth, some of which can produce mycotoxins. Occurence of toxigenic molds and mycotoxins on these dried fruits can be a problem in the Mediterranean basin, as in the other parts of the world, being a health hazard to the population as well as a trade issue for the export of local products. Although the most important mycotoxins occuring in Mediterranean crops are aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2 and ochratoxin A, the type and level of mycotoxins and toxigenic molds vary by crop and also by country and in some cases geographic location within a country. In this review mycotoxin risks and toxigenic fungi in date, prune and dried apricot among Mediterranean crops are reported and discussed.

  2. Visual versus chemical evaluation: Effects of pruning wood decomposition on soil quality in a cherry orchard (Northeast Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Renee; Germer, Sonja; Kern, Jürgen; Stoorvogel, Jetse

    2016-04-01

    Returning crop residues to the soil is a well-known practice to keep a sustainable soil quality in agriculture. In an orchard, pruning material could be returned for soil and water conservation or could be removed for energy production. Pruning wood decomposition rates and their impact on soil quality and greenhouse-gas emissions depend on climate, soil type, land management and water availability. Changing the soil management from leaving wood prunings on soil to removing them from the orchard is expected to result in a slow but lasting change of soil quality. Therefore a quick and cost-effective technique for soil quality evaluation is needed. This study aims to compare pruning wood decomposition effects on soil quality determined by soil chemistry (pH, C/N-ratio) or by Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation (VSEE). In addition, treatments effects on soil quality were compared for sampling positions in tree rows versus interrows. In a cherry orchard (Northeast Germany) six plots were established spreading over two planting rows. At each plot, three subplots with 1x (0.55 kg/m2), 2x (1.10 kg/m2) and 10x (5.50 kg/m2) the average pruning wood rates were installed in both tree and interrows. 5 months later the soils were sampled and a Visual Soil Evaluation and Examination (VSEE) was applied. To relate wood decomposition to impacts on soil quality, wood bags were placed in each plot and were sampled in time intervals of 5 weeks (till a maximum of 20 weeks). Wood decomposition was characterized by decomposition rates and changes in carbon and nitrogen contents. To assess environmental effects, CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions or uptake from soils with different pruning rates were determined with the closed chamber method. There were no significant differences in pH and C/N-ratio between the 3 pruning rates. However, pH was significant higher in the tree row compared to the interrow for the 10-fold pruning rate. The 10-fold pruning rate had significant higher VSEE

  3. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  4. Carbon footprint associated with four disposal scenarios for urban pruning waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Yuri Rommel Vieira; de Góis, Monijany Lins; Junior, Luiz Moreira Coelho; Carvalho, Monica

    2017-11-04

    The inadequate disposal of urban pruning residues can cause significant environmental impacts. The objective of the study presented herein was to quantify the carbon footprint and analyze four disposal scenarios for the urban pruning waste of the city of Joao Pessoa (Northeast Brazil). Software SimaPro was utilized for the quantification of the carbon footprint, with the IPCC 2013 GWP 100y impact evaluation method. The end-of-life treatments considered were sanitary landfilling (with and without collection of methane), simple municipal incineration, and reutilization of wood (transformation into briquettes). The results indicated that simple disposal in sanitary landfill generated 136.34 kg CO2/t urban pruning waste collected (highest carbon footprint), sanitary landfill with methane collection emitted 113.43 kg CO2/t waste, municipal incineration generated 71.31 kg CO2/t waste, and reutilization of woody residues was the scenario with the lowest carbon footprint, with 27.82 kg CO2/t waste. This study demonstrated that reutilization of biomass, besides being environmentally viable, presents the potential to contribute to the city's environmental quality, including the possibility of being used to obtain carbon credits.

  5. [Prenatal diagnosis of prune belly syndrome occurring in siblings in 2 consecutive pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feige, A; Fiedler, K; Rempen, A; Osterhage, H R

    1984-01-01

    The present paper reports on the occurrence of Prune Belly syndrome in siblings. The mother, now 21, gave birth in 1981 to a boy with Prune Belly syndrome. In the second pregnancy the changes in the fetus were first diagnosed by sonography in the 26th week. An ovarian tumor was ruled out by transabdominal puncture of the tumor in the girl's lower abdomen; dilatation of the bladder was diagnosed by the subsequent sonographic check-up. At the same time amniotic fluid was taken in order to determine the fetal karyotype. As the quantity of amniotic fluid was normal, further treatment was put off: a vesicoamniotic shunt, which had been considered at one stage, was not constructed, even though the dilatory changes in the urinary tract increased. In the 37th week a girl was delivered by cesarean section. She had Prune Belly syndrome. Kidney function post part was normal; the prognosis for the infant is good, as it is for her brother who was not treated prenatally. The authors' observations, especially of the course of the second pregnancy, show that provided the quantity of amniotic fluid is normal, prenatal therapy with its attendant risks should only be considered with great reservation.

  6. Effect of summer pruning and CPPU on yield and quality of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanick, K K; Kashyap, Poonam; Kishore, D K; Sharma, Y P

    2015-03-01

    A field experiment was conducted on bearing vines of kiwifruit cv. Abbott to find the effect of CPPU (N-(2- chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea) and summer pruning on fruit yield, fruit size and quality. CPPU greatly stimulated fruit growth indicating that it can be a powerful tool for improving kiwifruit cropping. Application of CPPU at 10 ppm concentration was done by dipping the fruits for 10 sec in the aqueous solution of compound at petal fall and 30 days after petal fall. CPPU applied fruits increased size by 20-70 g over control. Summer pruning along with CPPU application proved to be more effective in obtaining fruits of high grades with increased fruit weight (95.37 g fruit(-1)) and high quality. Summer pruning, when done by pinching 1/5th at Petal Fall stage + CPPU dipping (10 ml(-1)) and pinching 1/5th continued till harvest, at one month interval resulted in increased fruit yield (54.80 kg vine(-1)), high TSS (17.60 Brix), high total sugar (9.85%), advanced ripening by one week and reduced flesh firmness.

  7. Investigation of the Best Method for Winter Pruning of Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa L., cv. Hayward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Adouli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter pruning of kiwifruit has significant effect on yield and quality of fruits. But many growers do not follow a correct pattern for this practice. To determine the effect of this pruning on performance and introducing the appropriate method to do the pruning, a two-year project was carried out as a RCBD with two factors [number of canes per leader (6, 8, 10 and 12 and number of left buds for each cane (6, 12 and 18] with three replications and two vines of Hayward cultivar for each replication of each treatment. For pollination of the flowers, Tomuri variety was planted with 1: 8 ratio with Hayward cultivar. Obtained results showed that both factors had significant effects on yield and fruit size. The best fruits were produced by vines that had 10 or 12 canes per leader and 12 buds on each cane. By these treatments, the yield was improved approximately 5 t/ha more than local orchards. Quality of the fruits was not affected by the studied factors.

  8. Rapid Retrieval of Lung Nodule CT Images Based on Hashing and Pruning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The similarity-based retrieval of lung nodule computed tomography (CT images is an important task in the computer-aided diagnosis of lung lesions. It can provide similar clinical cases for physicians and help them make reliable clinical diagnostic decisions. However, when handling large-scale lung images with a general-purpose computer, traditional image retrieval methods may not be efficient. In this paper, a new retrieval framework based on a hashing method for lung nodule CT images is proposed. This method can translate high-dimensional image features into a compact hash code, so the retrieval time and required memory space can be reduced greatly. Moreover, a pruning algorithm is presented to further improve the retrieval speed, and a pruning-based decision rule is presented to improve the retrieval precision. Finally, the proposed retrieval method is validated on 2,450 lung nodule CT images selected from the public Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC database. The experimental results show that the proposed pruning algorithm effectively reduces the retrieval time of lung nodule CT images and improves the retrieval precision. In addition, the retrieval framework is evaluated by differentiating benign and malignant nodules, and the classification accuracy can reach 86.62%, outperforming other commonly used classification methods.

  9. Rapid Retrieval of Lung Nodule CT Images Based on Hashing and Pruning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ling; Qiang, Yan; Yuan, Jie; Wu, Lidong

    2016-01-01

    The similarity-based retrieval of lung nodule computed tomography (CT) images is an important task in the computer-aided diagnosis of lung lesions. It can provide similar clinical cases for physicians and help them make reliable clinical diagnostic decisions. However, when handling large-scale lung images with a general-purpose computer, traditional image retrieval methods may not be efficient. In this paper, a new retrieval framework based on a hashing method for lung nodule CT images is proposed. This method can translate high-dimensional image features into a compact hash code, so the retrieval time and required memory space can be reduced greatly. Moreover, a pruning algorithm is presented to further improve the retrieval speed, and a pruning-based decision rule is presented to improve the retrieval precision. Finally, the proposed retrieval method is validated on 2,450 lung nodule CT images selected from the public Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) database. The experimental results show that the proposed pruning algorithm effectively reduces the retrieval time of lung nodule CT images and improves the retrieval precision. In addition, the retrieval framework is evaluated by differentiating benign and malignant nodules, and the classification accuracy can reach 86.62%, outperforming other commonly used classification methods.

  10. Induction and pruning of classification rules for prediction of microseismic hazards in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, M. [Silesian Technical University, Gliwice (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents results of application of a rule induction and pruning algorithm for classification of a microseismic hazard state in coal mines. Due to imbalanced distribution of examples describing states 'hazardous' and 'safe', the special algorithm was used for induction and rule pruning. The algorithm selects optimal parameters' values influencing rule induction and pruning based on training and tuning sets. A rule quality measure which decides about a form and classification abilities of rules that are induced is the basic parameter of the algorithm. The specificity and sensitivity of a classifier were used to evaluate its quality. Conducted tests show that the admitted method of rules induction and classifier's quality evaluation enables to get better results of classification of microseismic hazards than by methods currently used in mining practice. Results obtained by the rules-based classifier were also compared with results got by a decision tree induction algorithm and by a neuro-fuzzy system.

  11. Developmental downregulation of LIS1 expression limits axonal extension and allows axon pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Kumamoto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The robust axonal growth and regenerative capacities of young neurons decrease substantially with age. This developmental downregulation of axonal growth may facilitate axonal pruning and neural circuit formation but limits functional recovery following nerve damage. While external factors influencing axonal growth have been extensively investigated, relatively little is known about the intrinsic molecular changes underlying the age-dependent reduction in regeneration capacity. We report that developmental downregulation of LIS1 is responsible for the decreased axonal extension capacity of mature dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons. In contrast, exogenous LIS1 expression or endogenous LIS1 augmentation by calpain inhibition restored axonal extension capacity in mature DRG neurons and facilitated regeneration of the damaged sciatic nerve. The insulator protein CTCF suppressed LIS1 expression in mature DRG neurons, and this reduction resulted in excessive accumulation of phosphoactivated GSK-3β at the axon tip, causing failure of the axonal extension. Conversely, sustained LIS1 expression inhibited developmental axon pruning in the mammillary body. Thus, LIS1 regulation may coordinate the balance between axonal growth and pruning during maturation of neuronal circuits.

  12. Effectiveness of Natural Antifungal Compounds in Controlling Infection by Grapevine Trunk Disease Pathogens through Pruning Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos, Rebeca; Mateos, Rosa María; Álvarez-Pérez, José Manuel; Olego, Miguel Angel; Sevillano, Silvia; González-García, Sandra; Garzón-Jimeno, Enrique; Coque, Juan José R

    2015-09-01

    Grapevine trunk fungal pathogens, such as Diplodia seriata and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, can infect plants through pruning wounds. They cause grapevine trunk diseases and are involved in grapevine decline. Accordingly, the protection of pruning wounds is crucial for the management of grapevine trunk diseases. The efficacy of different natural antifungals in inhibiting the growth of several fungi causing grapevine trunk diseases was evaluated in vitro. The fungi showing greater in vitro efficacy were tested on autoclaved grape wood assays against D. seriata and P. chlamydospora. Based on results from these assays, chitosan oligosaccharide, vanillin, and garlic extract were selected for further evaluation on pruning wounds inoculated with D. seriata and P. chlamydospora in field trials. A significant decrease in plant mortality was observed after 2 years of growth in the plants treated with the different natural antifungals compared to the mortality rate observed in infected plants that were not treated with antifungals. Also, the infection rate for the inoculated pathogens was significantly reduced in plants treated with the selected natural antifungals. Therefore, natural antifungals represent a promising alternative for disease control and could provide significant economic benefits for the grape-growing industry. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. A Novel Pruning Algorithm for Smoothing Feedforward Neural Networks Based on Group Lasso Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Xu, Chen; Yang, Xifeng; Zurada, Jacek M

    2017-09-26

    In this paper, we propose four new variants of the backpropagation algorithm to improve the generalization ability for feedforward neural networks. The basic idea of these methods stems from the Group Lasso concept which deals with the variable selection problem at the group level. There are two main drawbacks when the Group Lasso penalty has been directly employed during network training. They are numerical oscillations and theoretical challenges in computing the gradients at the origin. To overcome these obstacles, smoothing functions have then been introduced by approximating the Group Lasso penalty. Numerical experiments for classification and regression problems demonstrate that the proposed algorithms perform better than the other three classical penalization methods, Weight Decay, Weight Elimination, and Approximate Smoother, on both generalization and pruning efficiency. In addition, detailed simulations based on a specific data set have been performed to compare with some other common pruning strategies, which verify the advantages of the proposed algorithm. The pruning abilities of the proposed strategy have been investigated in detail for a relatively large data set, MNIST, in terms of various smoothing approximation cases.

  14. Durability of branches in branched and fenestrated endografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastracci, Tara M; Greenberg, Roy K; Eagleton, Matthew J; Hernandez, Adrian V

    2013-04-01

    Branched and fenestrated repair has been shown to be effective for treatment of complex aortic aneurysms. However, the long-term durability of branches is not well reported. Prospective data collected for all patients enrolled in a physician-sponsored investigational device exemption trial for branched and fenestrated endografts were analyzed. Retrospective review of imaging studies and electronic records was used to supplement the dataset. Incidences of branch stent secondary intervention, stent fracture, migration, branch-related rupture, and death were calculated. A time-to-event analysis was performed for secondary intervention for any branch. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify related variables. Branch instability, a composite outcome of any branch event, was reported as a function of exponential decay to capture the loss of freedom from complications over time. Between the years 2001 and 2010, 650 patients underwent endovascular aortic repair with branched or fenestrated devices. Over 9 years of follow-up (mean [standard deviation], 3 [2.3] years), secondary procedures were performed for 0.6% of celiac, 4% of superior mesenteric artery (SMA), 6% of right renal artery, and 5% of left renal artery stents. Mean time to reintervention was 237 (354) days. The 30-day, 1-year, and 5-year freedom from branch intervention was 98% (95% confidence interval [CI], 96%-99%), 94% (95% CI, 92%-96%), and 84% (95% CI, 78%-90%), respectively. Death from branch stent complications occurred in three patients, two related to SMA thrombosis and one due to an unstented SMA scallop. Multivariable analysis revealed no factors as independent predictors of need for branch reintervention. Branches, after branched or fenestrated aortic repair, appear to be durable and are rarely the cause of patient death. The absence of long-term data on branch patency in open repair precludes comparison, yet the lower morbidity and mortality risk coupled with longer

  15. The control of branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iber, Dagmar; Menshykau, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Many organs of higher organisms are heavily branched structures and arise by an apparently similar process of branching morphogenesis. Yet the regulatory components and local interactions that have been identified differ greatly in these organs. It is an open question whether the regulatory processes work according to a common principle and how far physical and geometrical constraints determine the branching process. Here, we review the known regulatory factors and physical constraints in lung, kidney, pancreas, prostate, mammary gland and salivary gland branching morphogenesis, and describe the models that have been formulated to analyse their impacts. PMID:24004663

  16. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  17. Uso da poda e de diferentes diâmetros de alporques sobre o desenvolvimento e o acúmulo de nutrientes de mudas de lichieira Use of pruning and different air laying diameters on plant development and nutrient accumulation in litchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudemir Facincani Franco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do diâmetro do caule e da poda de alporques sobre o desenvolvimento e o acúmulo de nutrientes em mudas de lichieira cultivadas em substrato. Para isso utilizou-se de alporques da variedade Bengal. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, com oito repetições, sendo três diâmetros do alporque: fino (1,0 ±0,5 cm; médio (2,0 ±0,5 cm e grosso (3,0 ±0,5 cm, e alporques com e sem poda. As mudas de lichieira foram cultivadas durante 140 dias após o plantio dos alporques. Avaliaram-se a matéria seca das brotações da parte aérea e das raízes, e os teores de macro e micronutrientes. A melhor muda de lichieira foi obtida de alporque com diâmetro grosso, e podado. O alporque de diâmetro médio e fino não-podado, comparado ao podado, proporcionou maior desenvolvimento da muda de lichieira. O alporque com diâmetro grosso proporcionou maior acúmulo de nutrientes na parte aérea e na raiz da muda de lichieira.This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of stem diameter and layer pruning on the development and nutrient accumulation in litchi grown on substrate. The variety used here was Bengal. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design in a factorial 3 x 2 with eight replications, with three layer diameters: thin (1.0 ± 0.5 cm; medium (2.0 ± 0.5 cm and thick (3.0 ± 0.5 cm and pruned and not pruned layers. Litchi plants were grown for 140 days after planting the layers. The dry matter of shoot branches and roots and the levels of macro and micronutrients were evaluated. The best litchi plants were obtained from thick, pruned layers. Not pruned layers with medium and thin diameter improved plant development in comparison to pruned ones. Thick layers showed higher nutrient accumulation in shoots and roots.

  18. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  19. Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    Authorizations Since 1999, by Matthew E. Glassman . Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations Congressional Research Service 10 The FY2012 level of...Congresses, by Matthew E. Glassman . Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations Congressional Research Service 11 Members’ Representational...vehicles; communications equipment; security equipment and its installation; dignitary protection; intelligence analysis; hazardous material response

  20. Row spacing and pruning regimes on organically grown cherry tomato Espaçamento e sistema de condução de tomate cereja em cultivo orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlamir F de Azevedo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of branch number and plant densities on organically grown cherry tomato yield and fruit quality were studied. Labor costs for pruning were also assessed. The essay was conducted at the experimental fields of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from September 2004 to January 2005. A factorial design was used combining three row spacings (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 m, two cherry tomato cultivars (hybrid 'Super-Sweet' and a local self pollinated 'Perinha' and three pruning regimes (free growth, one branch per plant and two branches per plant. The row spacing treatment of 0.6 x 1.5 m resulted in lower number of fruits when compared to the 0.4 x 1.5 m treatment, however, producing fruits with higher individual average mass, which resulted in similar final yield. These yields were higher than the 0.8 m treatment. Yield increases due to the higher number of plants per area were mostly due to the increase of fruit number, which compensated for the decrease of fruit size and mass. The 'free growth' treatment yielded similarly to the two branches per plant treatment. The labor costs were lower under 'free growth' due to the absence of pruning. Both cultivars responded similarly to plant population and pruning regimes.Com o objetivo de se avaliar o efeito do manejo e da densidade de plantio na produtividade de frutos e no custo com mão de obra em sistema orgânico de produção de tomate cereja, foi realizado um experimento no Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFRRJ, Seropédica-RJ, de setembro de 2004 a janeiro de 2005. Foram avaliados os efeitos da combinação de três sistemas de condução (sem tutoramento e sem limitação do número de hastes por planta; tutoramento com condução de uma haste por planta e, tutoramento com condução de duas hastes por planta, três espaçamentos entre plantas (0,4; 0,6 e 0,8 m e duas cultivares de tomate cereja (Perinha Água Branca e Super Sweet. O tratamento com espaçamento de 0,6 x 1,5 m

  1. The Torus Routing Chip

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dally, William J; Seitz, Charles L

    1986-01-01

    The torus routing chip (TRC) is a self-timed chip that performs deadlock-free cut-through routing in k-ary n-cube multiprocessor interconnection networks using a new method of deadlock avoidance called virtual channels...

  2. Bonsai trees in your head: how the pavlovian system sculpts goal-directed choices by pruning decision trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin J M Huys

    Full Text Available When planning a series of actions, it is usually infeasible to consider all potential future sequences; instead, one must prune the decision tree. Provably optimal pruning is, however, still computationally ruinous and the specific approximations humans employ remain unknown. We designed a new sequential reinforcement-based task and showed that human subjects adopted a simple pruning strategy: during mental evaluation of a sequence of choices, they curtailed any further evaluation of a sequence as soon as they encountered a large loss. This pruning strategy was Pavlovian: it was reflexively evoked by large losses and persisted even when overwhelmingly counterproductive. It was also evident above and beyond loss aversion. We found that the tendency towards Pavlovian pruning was selectively predicted by the degree to which subjects exhibited sub-clinical mood disturbance, in accordance with theories that ascribe Pavlovian behavioural inhibition, via serotonin, a role in mood disorders. We conclude that Pavlovian behavioural inhibition shapes highly flexible, goal-directed choices in a manner that may be important for theories of decision-making in mood disorders.

  3. Bonsai trees in your head: how the pavlovian system sculpts goal-directed choices by pruning decision trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Quentin J M; Eshel, Neir; O'Nions, Elizabeth; Sheridan, Luke; Dayan, Peter; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    When planning a series of actions, it is usually infeasible to consider all potential future sequences; instead, one must prune the decision tree. Provably optimal pruning is, however, still computationally ruinous and the specific approximations humans employ remain unknown. We designed a new sequential reinforcement-based task and showed that human subjects adopted a simple pruning strategy: during mental evaluation of a sequence of choices, they curtailed any further evaluation of a sequence as soon as they encountered a large loss. This pruning strategy was Pavlovian: it was reflexively evoked by large losses and persisted even when overwhelmingly counterproductive. It was also evident above and beyond loss aversion. We found that the tendency towards Pavlovian pruning was selectively predicted by the degree to which subjects exhibited sub-clinical mood disturbance, in accordance with theories that ascribe Pavlovian behavioural inhibition, via serotonin, a role in mood disorders. We conclude that Pavlovian behavioural inhibition shapes highly flexible, goal-directed choices in a manner that may be important for theories of decision-making in mood disorders.

  4. Using a pruned, nondirect product basis in conjunction with the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodraszka, Robert; Carrington, Tucker

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a pruned, nondirect product multi-configuration time dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method for solving the Schrödinger equation. MCTDH uses optimized 1D basis functions, called single particle functions, but the size of the standard direct product MCTDH basis scales exponentially with D, the number of coordinates. We compare the pruned approach to standard MCTDH calculations for basis sizes small enough that the latter are possible and demonstrate that pruning the basis reduces the CPU cost of computing vibrational energy levels of acetonitrile (D = 12) by more than two orders of magnitude. Using the pruned method, it is possible to do calculations with larger bases, for which the cost of standard MCTDH calculations is prohibitive. Pruning the basis complicates the evaluation of matrix-vector products. In this paper, they are done term by term for a sum-of-products Hamiltonian. When no attempt is made to exploit the fact that matrices representing some of the factors of a term are identity matrices, one needs only to carefully constrain indices. In this paper, we develop new ideas that make it possible to further reduce the CPU time by exploiting identity matrices.

  5. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  6. Should Pruning be a Pre-Processor of any Linear System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Syamal K.; Ramakrishnan, Suja; Agarwal, Ravi P.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2011-01-01

    There are many real-world problems whose mathematical models turn out to be linear systems Ax = b, where A is an m x n matrix. Each equation of the linear system is an information. An information, in a physical problem, such as 4 mangoes, 6 bananas, and 5 oranges cost $10, is mathematically modeled as an equation 4x(sub 1) + 6x(sub 2) + 5x(sub 3) = 10 , where x(sub 1), x(sub 2), x(sub 3) are each cost of one mango, that of one banana, and that of one orange, respectively. All the information put together in a specified context, constitutes the physical problem and need not be all distinct. Some of these could be redundant, which cannot be readily identified by inspection. The resulting mathematical model will thus have equations corresponding to this redundant information and hence are linearly dependent and thus superfluous. Consequently, these equations once identified should be better pruned in the process of solving the system. The benefits are (i) less computation and hence less error and consequently a better quality of solution and (ii) reduced storage requirements. In literature, the pruning concept is not in vogue so far although it is most desirable. It is assumed that at least one information, i.e. one equation is known to be correct and which will be our first equation. In a numerical linear system, the system could be slightly inconsistent or inconsistent of varying degree. If the system is too inconsistent, then we should fall back on to the physical problem (PP), check the correctness of the PP derived from the material universe, modify it, if necessary, and then check the corresponding mathematical model (MM) and correct it. In nature/material universe, inconsistency is completely nonexistent. If the MM becomes inconsistent, it could be due to error introduced by the concerned measuring device and/or due to assumptions made on the PP to obtain an MM which is relatively easily solvable or simply due to human error. No measuring device can usually

  7. Combustion of a Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning used as biosorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronda, A., E-mail: alirg@ugr.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Della Zassa, M. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, 35131 Padova (Italy); Martín-Lara, M.A.; Calero, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Canu, P. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • The fate of Pb during combustion at two scales of investigation was studied. • Results from combustion in a flow reactor and in the thermobalance were consistent. • The Pb contained in the solid remained in the ashes. • The Pb does not interfere in the use of OTP as fuel. • The combustion of Pb(II)-loaded OTP does not cause environmental hazards. - Abstract: The olive tree pruning is a specific agroindustrial waste that can be successfully used as adsorbent, to remove Pb(II) from contaminated wastewater. Its final incineration has been studied in a thermobalance and in a laboratory flow reactor. The study aims at evaluating the fate of Pb during combustion, at two different scales of investigation. The flow reactor can treat samples approximately 10{sup 2} larger than the conventional TGA. A detailed characterization of the raw and Pb(II)-loaded waste, before and after combustion is presented, including analysis of gas and solids products. The Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning has been prepared by a previous biosorption step in a lead solution, reaching a concentration of lead of 2.3 wt%. Several characterizations of the ashes and the mass balances proved that after the combustion, all the lead presents in the waste remained in ashes. Combustion in a flow reactor produced results consistent with those obtained in the thermobalance. It is thus confirmed that the combustion of Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning is a viable option to use it after the biosorption process. The Pb contained in the solid remained in the ashes, preventing possible environmental hazards.

  8. Pseudo Prune Belly Syndrome: Diagnosis Revealed by Imaging – A Case Report and Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Hemal; Sethi, Sanjay; Garg, Jatin; Ahluwalia, Amrit Pal

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS) is a rare entity, usually found in male neonates. It comprises complex urinary tract anomalies, bilateral undescended testis and absence of anterior abdominal wall muscles. Patients with unilateral abdominal wall deficiency, unilateral undescended testis and female neonates with abdominal wall laxity are classified as Pseudo Prune Belly syndrome (PPBS). Reports on PPBS do not highlight the radiological and imaging characteristics of this syndrome and the current literature on the role of newer imaging modalities, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), remains relatively sparse. We describe a new case of PPBS and emphasize the role of imaging, especially ultrasound and MRI in the process of diagnosis and briefly review the subject. Case Report A male infant of four months of age was referred for evaluation of left-sided cryptorchidism. Clinical examination revealed laxity of the left abdominal wall. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen, pelvis and scrotum was performed together with routine laboratory tests. Ultrasound examination was followed by intravenous urography, voiding cysto-urethrography and MRI of the abdomen. On ultrasound, the left testis was located in the inguinal canal, the right kidney was slightly enlarged and the left kidney could not be localized. Ultrasound appearances suggested chronic obstruction in the urinary bladder. Intravenous urography, voiding cysto-urethrography and MRI confirmed the ultrasound diagnosis and also revealed a left dysplastic kidney with a dilated, tortuous ureter. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with pseudo prune belly syndrome (PPBS). Conclusions We report a new occurrence of PPBS, a rare entity. The imaging approach for a comprehensive evaluation of the renal system in PPBS, especially with MRI, is emphasized. PMID:28580040

  9. Pseudo Prune Belly Syndrome: Diagnosis Revealed by Imaging - A Case Report and Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Hemal; Sethi, Sanjay; Garg, Jatin; Ahluwalia, Amrit Pal

    2017-01-01

    Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS) is a rare entity, usually found in male neonates. It comprises complex urinary tract anomalies, bilateral undescended testis and absence of anterior abdominal wall muscles. Patients with unilateral abdominal wall deficiency, unilateral undescended testis and female neonates with abdominal wall laxity are classified as Pseudo Prune Belly syndrome (PPBS). Reports on PPBS do not highlight the radiological and imaging characteristics of this syndrome and the current literature on the role of newer imaging modalities, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), remains relatively sparse. We describe a new case of PPBS and emphasize the role of imaging, especially ultrasound and MRI in the process of diagnosis and briefly review the subject. A male infant of four months of age was referred for evaluation of left-sided cryptorchidism. Clinical examination revealed laxity of the left abdominal wall. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen, pelvis and scrotum was performed together with routine laboratory tests. Ultrasound examination was followed by intravenous urography, voiding cysto-urethrography and MRI of the abdomen. On ultrasound, the left testis was located in the inguinal canal, the right kidney was slightly enlarged and the left kidney could not be localized. Ultrasound appearances suggested chronic obstruction in the urinary bladder. Intravenous urography, voiding cysto-urethrography and MRI confirmed the ultrasound diagnosis and also revealed a left dysplastic kidney with a dilated, tortuous ureter. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with pseudo prune belly syndrome (PPBS). We report a new occurrence of PPBS, a rare entity. The imaging approach for a comprehensive evaluation of the renal system in PPBS, especially with MRI, is emphasized.

  10. Novel methodology for construction and pruning of quasi-median networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Terence A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visualising the evolutionary history of a set of sequences is a challenge for molecular phylogenetics. One approach is to use undirected graphs, such as median networks, to visualise phylogenies where reticulate relationships such as recombination or homoplasy are displayed as cycles. Median networks contain binary representations of sequences as nodes, with edges connecting those sequences differing at one character; hypothetical ancestral nodes are invoked to generate a connected network which contains all most parsimonious trees. Quasi-median networks are a generalisation of median networks which are not restricted to binary data, although phylogenetic information contained within the multistate positions can be lost during the preprocessing of data. Where the history of a set of samples contain frequent homoplasies or recombination events quasi-median networks will have a complex topology. Graph reduction or pruning methods have been used to reduce network complexity but some of these methods are inapplicable to datasets in which recombination has occurred and others are procedurally complex and/or result in disconnected networks. Results We address the problems inherent in construction and reduction of quasi-median networks. We describe a novel method of generating quasi-median networks that uses all characters, both binary and multistate, without imposing an arbitrary ordering of the multistate partitions. We also describe a pruning mechanism which maintains at least one shortest path between observed sequences, displaying the underlying relations between all pairs of sequences while maintaining a connected graph. Conclusion Application of this approach to 5S rDNA sequence data from sea beet produced a pruned network within which genetic isolation between populations by distance was evident, demonstrating the value of this approach for exploration of evolutionary relationships.

  11. A pruning algorithm for Meta-blocking based on cumulative weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fulin; Gao, Zhipeng; Niu, Kun

    2017-08-01

    Entity Resolution is an important process in data cleaning and data integration. It usually employs a blocking method to avoid the quadratic complexity work when scales to large data sets. Meta-blocking can perform better in the context of highly heterogeneous information spaces. Yet, its precision and efficiency still have room to improve. In this paper, we present a new pruning algorithm for Meta-Blocking. It can achieve a higher precision than the existing WEP algorithm at a small cost of recall. In addition, can reduce the runtime of the blocking process. We evaluate our proposed method over five real-world data sets.

  12. Survival of FUngi Associated with Grapevine Decline in Pruned Wood after Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lecomte

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Recycling vine wood pruned in winter in the vineyard, after grinding and composting, might pose a risk of recontamination with fungi associated with grapevine decline. The survival of four ascomycete fungi (Botryosphaeria obtusa, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Eutypa lata in composted material was investigated in a 3-year study conducted in the Bordeaux area. Naturally and artificially infested material was examined before and after composting using classical isolation procedures. Results clearly showed that a composting process can eradicate the four target fungi efficiently.

  13. Combustion behaviour of Olive pruning/animal manure blends in a fluidized bed combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Vamvuka

    2017-09-01

    Both fuels burned mostly within the bed. The maximum temperature of animal manure was 50 °C lower than that of olive pruning, however efficiency was nearly 99%. CO emissions were low, SO2 emissions were negligible, whereas NOx emissions of blends exceeded legislation limits, when excess air ratio was over 1.4. Decreasing excess air from 50 to 30%, or reducing reactor loading, resulted in improved burnout. The optimum performance for the blends was achieved when the feed rate was 0.6 kg/h and excess air was 30%.

  14. Repair of pectus excavatum in a toddler with Prune Belly syndrome and left bronchus compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn T. Liechty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy with prune-belly syndrome and severe pectus excavatum experienced recurrent pulmonary infections. A CT scan of the chest demonstrated compression of the left mainstem bronchus and leftward shift of the heart. The bronchial compression resulted in left upper lobe collapse and left lower lobe air-trapping requiring two hospitalizations for respiratory distress and pneumonia. The child underwent minimally invasive repair of his pectus excavatum and has not experienced any further pulmonary events. The pectus bar was removed 3 years post-operatively and at seven years following surgery he has a sustained repair.

  15. Essential role of the apoptotic cell engulfment genes draper and ced-6 in programmed axon pruning during Drosophila metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasaki, Takeshi; Tatsumi, Ryoko; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Arai, Kunizo; Nakanishi, Yoshinobu; Ueda, Ryu; Ito, Kei

    2006-06-15

    Axon pruning is a common phenomenon in neural circuit development. Previous studies demonstrate that the engulfing action of glial cells is essential in this process. The underlying molecular mechanisms, however, remain unknown. We show that draper (drpr) and ced-6, which are essential for the clearance of apoptotic cells in C. elegans, function in the glial engulfment of larval axons during Drosophila metamorphosis. The drpr mutation and glia-specific knockdown of drpr and ced-6 by RNA interference suppress glial engulfment, resulting in the inhibition of axon pruning. drpr and ced-6 interact genetically in the glial action. Disruption of the microtubule cytoskeleton in the axons to be pruned occurs via ecdysone signaling, independent of glial engulfment. These findings suggest that glial cells engulf degenerating axons through drpr and ced-6. We propose that apoptotic cells and degenerating axons of living neurons are removed by a similar molecular mechanism.

  16. Extinction procedure induces pruning of dendritic spines in CA1 hippocampal field depending on strength of training in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garín-Aguilar, María E.; Díaz-Cintra, Sofía; Quirarte, Gina L.; Aguilar-Vázquez, Azucena; Medina, Andrea C.; Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous reports indicate that learning and memory of conditioned responses are accompanied by genesis of dendritic spines in the hippocampus, although there is a conspicuous lack of information regarding spine modifications after behavioral extinction. There is ample evidence that treatments that typically produce amnesia become innocuous when animals are submitted to a procedure of enhanced training. We now report that extinction of inhibitory avoidance (IA), trained with relatively low foot-shock intensities, induces pruning of dendritic spines along the length of the apical dendrites of hippocampal CA1 neurons. When animals are trained with a relatively high foot-shock there is a high resistance to extinction, and pruning in the proximal and medial segments of the apical dendrite are seen, while spine count in the distal dendrite remains normal. These results indicate that pruning is involved in behavioral extinction, while maintenance of spines is a probable mechanism that mediates the protecting effect against amnesic treatments produced by enhanced training. PMID:22438840

  17. Extinction procedure induces pruning of dendritic spines in CA1 hippocampal field depending on strength of training in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Garín-Aguilar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous reports indicate that learning and memory of conditioned responses are accompanied by genesis of dendritic spines in the hippocampus, although there is a conspicuous lack of information regarding spine modifications after behavioral extinction. There is ample evidence that treatments that typically produce amnesia become innocuous when animals are submitted to a procedure of enhanced training. We now report that extinction of inhibitory avoidance, trained with relatively low foot-shock intensities, induces pruning of dendritic spines along the length of the apical dendrites of hippocampal CA1 neurons. When animals are trained with a relatively high foot-shock there is a high resistance to extinction, and pruning in the proximal and medial segments of the apical dendrite are seen, while spine count in the distal dendrite remains normal. These results indicate that pruning is involved in behavioral extinction, while maintenance of spines is a probable mechanism that mediates the protecting effect against amnesic treatments produced by enhanced training.

  18. A surviving intact branch stabilizes remaining axon architecture after injury as revealed by in vivo imaging in the mouse spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzana, Ariana O; Lee, Jae K; Mui, Matthew; Chang, Amy; Zheng, Binhai

    2015-05-20

    The complex morphology of axons presents a challenge in understanding axonal responses to injury and disease. By in vivo two-photon imaging of spinal dorsal column sensory axons, we systematically examined the effect of injury location relative to the main bifurcation point on axon degeneration and regeneration following highly localized laser injuries. Retrograde but not anterograde degeneration was strongly blocked at the bifurcation point at both the acute and subacute phases. Eliminating either the ascending or descending branch led to a poor regenerative response, while eliminating both led to a strong regenerative response. Thus, a surviving intact branch suppresses both retrograde degeneration and regeneration of the injured branch, thereby preserving the remaining axon architecture. Regenerating axons exhibited a dynamic pattern with alternating phases of regeneration and pruning over a chronic period. In vivo imaging continues to reveal new insights on axonal responses to injury in the mammalian spinal cord. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Models of lung branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Vertebrate airway has a tree-like-branched structure. This structure is generated by repeated tip splitting, which is called branching morphogenesis. Although this phenomenon is extensively studied in developmental biology, the mechanism of the pattern formation is not well understood. Conversely, there are many tree-like structures in purely physical or chemical systems, and their pattern formation mechanisms are well-understood using mathematical models. Recent studies correlate these biological observations and mathematical models to understand lung branching morphogenesis. These models use slightly different mechanisms. In this article, we will review recent progress in modelling lung branching morphogenesis, and future directions to experimentally verify the models. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  1. Long chain branching of PLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liangliang; Xu, Yuewen; Fahnhorst, Grant; Macosko, Christopher W.

    2017-05-01

    A trifunctional aziridine linker, trimethylolpropane tris(2-methyl-1-aziridinepropionate) (TTMAP), was melt blended with linear polylactic acid (PLA) to make star branched PLA. Adding pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) led to long chain branched (LCB) PLA. Mixing torque evolution during melt processing revealed high reactivity of aziridine with the carboxyl end group on PLA and an incomplete reaction of PMDA with the hydroxyl end group. Star-shaped PLA exhibited higher viscosity but no strain hardening in extensional flow while LCB PLA showed significant extensional hardening. Excess TTMAP in the branching reaction resulted in gel formation, which led to failure at low strain in extension. PMDA conversion was estimated based on gelation theory. The strain rate dependence of extensional hardening indicated that the LCB PLA had a low concentration of long chain branched molecules with an H-shaped topology. Unlike current methods used to branch PLA, free radical chemistry or use of an epoxy functional oligomers, our branching strategy produced strain hardening with less increase in shear viscosity. This study provides guidelines for design of polymers with low shear viscosity, which reduces pressure drop in extrusion, combined with strong extensional hardening, which enhances performance in processes that involve melt stretching.

  2. Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefko, George

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 annual report of the Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch reflects the majority of the work performed by the branch staff during the 2002 calendar year. Its purpose is to give a brief review of the branch s technical accomplishments. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch develops innovative computational tools, benchmark experimental data, and solutions to long-term barrier problems in the areas of propulsion aeroelasticity, active and passive damping, engine vibration control, rotor dynamics, magnetic suspension, structural mechanics, probabilistics, smart structures, engine system dynamics, and engine containment. Furthermore, the branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more electric" aircraft. An ultra-high-power-density machine that can generate projected power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, in comparison to conventional electric machines, which generate usually 0.2 hp/lb, is under development for application to electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers. In the future, propulsion and power systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures, and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance and economic viability. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to achieve these complex, challenging goals.

  3. Host status of fresh prunes by potential quarantine pests in laboratory tests and evaluation of packinghouse culls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, V Y; Miller, G T

    1999-04-01

    The status of fresh prunes, Prunus domestica L., as a host for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae); omnivorous leafroller, Platynota stultana Walshingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae); and walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Diptera: Tephritidae), was investigated in laboratory tests and by examination of packinghouse culls. In laboratory no-choice tests, the mean number of adults reared per fruit was 0.01 for codling moth, 0.08 for omnivorous leafroller, 0 for oriental fruit moth, and 1.6 for navel orangeworm. In choice tests the mean number of adults reared per apple or fresh prune was for codling moth, 0.78 and 0.02 (significantly different); for omnivorous leafroller, 0.05 and 0.02; and for oriental fruit moth, 2.07 and 0 (significantly different), respectively. Walnut husk fly oviposited in fresh prunes in no-choice tests but pupae did not develop from the fruit. In choice tests, walnut husk fly did not oviposit in fresh prunes when caged with its normal host, green walnuts, in which large numbers of pupae developed. Inspection of packinghouse culls for immature insects showed that fresh prunes with possible larval feeding sites in the form of frass or fruit gum extrusions were lighter in weight, significantly less firm, similar in color, and had significantly higher soluble solids than noninfested fruit. Based on packinghouse cull samples, 1 fresh prune per 133 harvested fruit would be expected to show possible insect damage. Eleven peach twig borer larvae were found in fresh prune cull samples (213.9 kg) removed from a 16,744.5-kg harvest. The calculated level of infestation was 1 infested fruit per 8,501.8 fruit harvested or per 21.7 cartons of medium-sized packed fruit. Based on our results, the risk of

  4. Characterization and determination of lignin in different types of Iraqi phoenix date palm pruning woods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Hilal M; Abdul Latif, Mohammed H; Attiya, Hanaa G

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to find analytical data base for Iraqi phoenix date palm pruning woods, which produced by pruning process at the season of date palm production. Lignin has been extracted and purified for five types of Iraqi date palm using Klason lignin method. The weight of the extracted lignin ranged from 0.410 g to 0.720 g, and the lignin % ranged from 17.6 to 36. The other ingredients (waxes, oils, resin, and proteins of wood gums) % ranged from 20 to 29.5. FT-IR characterization showed that the (-OH) phenolic group appear in Ashrasi lignin structure only and disappear in other lignin samples, and the (4-O-5 inter monomeric lignin linkage) showed strong to moderate intensity peaks for all studied samples except the Austa omran sample has a weak intensity peaks. Also (DODO inter monomeric lignin linkage) showed strong intensity peaks for all studied samples except the Barban sample showed moderate intensity peaks. UV-vis characterization showed that the lowest absorption maximum (266 nm) corresponds to Barban lignin sample, while the highest absorption maximum (271 nm) corresponds to Sultani lignin sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Endophytic Fungi as Pretreatment to Enhance Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Olive Tree Pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Martín-Sampedro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive tree pruning, as one of the most abundant lignocellulosic residues in Mediterranean countries, has been evaluated as a source of sugars for fuel and chemicals production. A mild acid pretreatment has been combined with a fungal pretreatment using either two endophytes (Ulocladium sp. and Hormonema sp. or a saprophyte (Trametes sp. I-62. The use of endophytes is based on the important role that some of them play during the initial stages of wood decomposition. Without acid treatment, fungal pretreatment with Ulocladium sp. provided a nonsignificant enhancement of 4.6% in glucose digestibility, compared to control. When a mild acid hydrolysis was carried out after fungal pretreatments, significant increases in glucose digestibility from 4.9% to 12.0% (compared to control without fungi were observed for all fungal pretreatments, with maximum values yielded by Hormonema sp. However, despite the observed digestibility boost, the total sugar yields (taking into account solid yield were not significantly increased by the pretreatments. Nevertheless, based on these preliminary improvements in digestibility, this work proves the potential of endophytic fungi to boost the production of sugar from olive tree pruning, which would add an extra value to the bioeconomy of olive crops.

  6. Early bladder outlet obstruction in fetal lambs induces renal dysplasia and the prune-belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, R; Reinberg, Y; Burke, B; Wells, T; Vernier, R L

    1990-03-01

    A model of posterior urethral valves in fetal lambs was developed in order to evaluate the effect of intrauterine urinary obstruction on the developing kidney. Complete urethral obstruction was induced in five fetal lambs at 43 to 45 days of gestation. Two control fetal lambs underwent sham operations. At full term (140 days), two of the five experimental lambs and both control lambs were available for postmortem examination. Results of gross and histological examination of the control lambs were normal. In contrast, the kidneys of the experimental lambs were markedly asymmetrical in size. Histological examination of the kidneys in experimental lambs showed cystic dilatation of the collecting ducts and occasional cystic dilatation of Bowman's spaces, features compatible with obstruction. Also noted were peripheral cortical cysts and primitive tubules lined with cuboidal epithelium and surrounded by fibromuscular collarettes, characteristic of renal dysplasia. One of the infant lambs had many characteristics of the prune-belly syndrome, including a wrinkled, markedly distended abdomen, deficient abdominal wall musculature, flared chest wall, limb deformities, and undescended testes. These results suggest that early in utero urethral obstruction (at the beginning of the second third of gestation) causes renal dysplasia. The results also support the hypothesis that the prune-belly syndrome results from abdominal distention that occurs early in gestation.

  7. Gasification of agricultural residues in a demonstrative plant: Vine pruning and rice husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Enrico; Barontini, Federica; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Tests with vine pruning and rice husks were carried out in a demonstrative downdraft gasifier (350 kW), to prove the reactor operability, quantify the plant efficiency, and thus extend the range of potential energy feedstocks. Pressure drops, syngas flow rate and composition were monitored to study the material and energy balances, and performance indexes. Interesting results were obtained for vine pruning (syngas heating value 5.7 MJ/m(3), equivalent ratio 0.26, cold gas efficiency 65%, power efficiency 21%), while poorer values were obtained for rice husks (syngas heating value 2.5-3.8 MJ/m(3), equivalent ratio 0.4, cold gas efficiency 31-42%, power efficiency 10-13%). The work contains also a comparison with previous results (wood pellets, corn cobs, Miscanthus) for defining an operating diagram, based on material density and particle size and shape, and the critical zones (reactor obstruction, bridging, no bed buildup, combustion regime). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonlinear inversion of electrical resistivity imaging using pruning Bayesian neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fei-Bo; Dai, Qian-Wei; Dong, Li

    2016-06-01

    Conventional artificial neural networks used to solve electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) inversion problem suffer from overfitting and local minima. To solve these problems, we propose to use a pruning Bayesian neural network (PBNN) nonlinear inversion method and a sample design method based on the K-medoids clustering algorithm. In the sample design method, the training samples of the neural network are designed according to the prior information provided by the K-medoids clustering results; thus, the training process of the neural network is well guided. The proposed PBNN, based on Bayesian regularization, is used to select the hidden layer structure by assessing the effect of each hidden neuron to the inversion results. Then, the hyperparameter α k , which is based on the generalized mean, is chosen to guide the pruning process according to the prior distribution of the training samples under the small-sample condition. The proposed algorithm is more efficient than other common adaptive regularization methods in geophysics. The inversion of synthetic data and field data suggests that the proposed method suppresses the noise in the neural network training stage and enhances the generalization. The inversion results with the proposed method are better than those of the BPNN, RBFNN, and RRBFNN inversion methods as well as the conventional least squares inversion.

  9. Classification based on pruning and double covered rule sets for the internet of things applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shasha; Zhou, Zhongmei; Wang, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    The Internet of things (IOT) is a hot issue in recent years. It accumulates large amounts of data by IOT users, which is a great challenge to mining useful knowledge from IOT. Classification is an effective strategy which can predict the need of users in IOT. However, many traditional rule-based classifiers cannot guarantee that all instances can be covered by at least two classification rules. Thus, these algorithms cannot achieve high accuracy in some datasets. In this paper, we propose a new rule-based classification, CDCR-P (Classification based on the Pruning and Double Covered Rule sets). CDCR-P can induce two different rule sets A and B. Every instance in training set can be covered by at least one rule not only in rule set A, but also in rule set B. In order to improve the quality of rule set B, we take measure to prune the length of rules in rule set B. Our experimental results indicate that, CDCR-P not only is feasible, but also it can achieve high accuracy.

  10. Optimising query execution time in LHCb Bookkeeping System using partition pruning and Partition-Wise joins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Zoltan; Charpentier, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The LHCb experiment produces a huge amount of data which has associated metadata such as run number, data taking condition (detector status when the data was taken), simulation condition, etc. The data are stored in files, replicated on the Computing Grid around the world. The LHCb Bookkeeping System provides methods for retrieving datasets based on their metadata. The metadata is stored in a hybrid database model, which is a mixture of Relational and Hierarchical database models and is based on the Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The database access has to be reliable and fast. In order to achieve a high timing performance, the tables are partitioned and the queries are executed in parallel. When we store large amounts of data the partition pruning is essential for database performance, because it reduces the amount of data retrieved from the disk and optimises the resource utilisation. This research presented here is focusing on the extended composite partitioning strategy such as range-hash partition, partition pruning and usage of the Partition-Wise joins. The system has to serve thousands of queries per minute, the performance and capability of the system is measured when the above performance optimization techniques are used.

  11. Parallel gene selection and dynamic ensemble pruning based on Affinity Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Luan, Yu-Shi; He, Xin-Yu; Li, Li-Shuang; Zhu, Yuan-Feng

    2017-08-01

    Gene selection and sample classification based on gene expression data are important research areas in bioinformatics. Selecting important genes closely related to classification is a challenging task due to high dimensionality and small sample size of microarray data. Extended rough set based on neighborhood has been successfully applied to gene selection, as it can select attributes without redundancy and deal with numerical attributes directly. However, the computation of approximations in rough set is extremely time consuming. In this paper, in order to accelerate the process of gene selection, a parallel computation method is proposed to calculate approximations of intersection neighborhood rough set. Furthermore, a novel dynamic ensemble pruning approach based on Affinity Propagation clustering and dynamic pruning framework is proposed to reduce memory usage and computational cost. Experimental results on three Arabidopsis thaliana biotic and abiotic stress response datasets demonstrate that the proposed method can obtain better classification performance than ensemble method with gene pre-selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rootstocks influence yield performance of navel orange trees after drastic pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Belmonte Petry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drastic pruning is an alternative control recommended in orchards affected by citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of six rootstocks on growth, yield and quality of 'Monte Parnaso'(Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. navel oranges, after performing a drastic pruning to eradicate the citrus canker. A complete randomized blocks design, with six treatments and four replicates, was used. The following rootstocks were tested: 'Caipira' sweet orange (C. sinensis (L. Osb., 'Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana Pasq., 'Cravo' Rangpur lime (C. limonia Osb., 'Swingle'citrumelo (C. paradisi Macf. x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., 'Sunki' mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. and 'Troyer' citrange (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata. Traits related to plant height, yield and fruit quality were evaluated. The largest cumulative yield was obtained from 'Cravo', 'Volkamer' and 'Sunki'. 'Cravo' and 'Volkamer' induced higher production efficiency, fruits with the highest average weight and the lowest pre-harvest fruit drop. All the evaluated rootstocks produced high quality fruits and similar canopy sizes.

  13. EVALUATION OF THE WORK CONDITIONS OF ACTIVITIES OF URBAN TREE PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton César Fiedler

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available this work analyzed the work environment in the trees pruning activities in the urban arborization, comparison with the values of the legislation and the practical application of results to provide a better comfort, security, health, welfare to workers, and also a better efficiency and quality of the work. The weather conditions, the noise levels, the light conditions and vibration were analyzed using suitable ergonomic methods. The weather conditions in the work environment were according the permissible values in the legislation (NR15 for index of humid bulb and globe thermometer (IBUTG of 25°C for the activities of pruning, with exception of the schedule to twelve hours (26,2°C, the hours of working should be of 30 minutes of work and 30 minutes of rest. The noise levels found in the activities of cut were 105,7 dB (A and bucking were 103.9 dB (A, above the level permited by legislation (NR15. The minimum light conditions values were acceptable for legislation (NBR 5413/92, but the global indices were too high being able to cause problems to the worker health. The vibration conditions were acceptable.

  14. Lost in space? Generalising subtree prune and regraft to spaces of phylogenetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordewich, Magnus; Linz, Simone; Semple, Charles

    2017-06-21

    Over the last fifteen years, phylogenetic networks have become a popular tool to analyse relationships between species whose past includes reticulation events such as hybridisation or horizontal gene transfer. However, the space of phylogenetic networks is significantly larger than that of phylogenetic trees, and how to analyse and search this enlarged space remains a poorly understood problem. Inspired by the widely-used rooted subtree prune and regraft (rSPR) operation on rooted phylogenetic trees, we propose a new operation-called subnet prune and regraft (SNPR)-that induces a metric on the space of all rooted phylogenetic networks on a fixed set of leaves. We show that the spaces of several popular classes of rooted phylogenetic networks (e.g. tree child, reticulation visible, and tree based) are connected under SNPR and that connectedness remains for the subclasses of these networks with a fixed number of reticulations. Lastly, we bound the distance between two rooted phylogenetic networks under the SNPR operation, show that it is computationally hard to compute this distance exactly, and analyse how the SNPR-distance between two such networks relates to the rSPR-distance between rooted phylogenetic trees that are embedded in these networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CHIP Reporting in the CPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CHIP reporting in the CPS is unreliable. Only 10 to 30 percent of those with CHIP (but not Medicaid) report this type of coverage in the CPS. Many with CHIP report...

  16. Cavity size and copper root pruning affect production and establishment of container-grown longleaf pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marry Anne Sword Sayer; James D. Haywood; Shi-Jean Susana. Sung

    2009-01-01

    With six container types, we tested the effects of cavity size (i.e., 60, 93, and 170 ml) and copper root pruning on the root system development of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings grown in a greenhouse. We then evaluated root egress during a root growth potential test and assessed seedling morphology and root system development 1 year after planting in...

  17. Severity of scab and its effects on fruit weight in mechanically hedge-pruned and topped pecan trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scab is the most damaging disease of pecan in the southeastern USA. Pecan trees can attain 44 m in height, so managing disease in the upper canopy is a problem. Fungicide is ordinarily applied using ground-based air-blast sprayers. Although mechanical hedge-pruning and topping of pecan is done for s...

  18. Thyroid hormone is required for pruning, functioning and long-term maintenance of afferent inner hair cell synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Srividya; Kong, Jee-Hyun; Fang, Qing; Salles, Felipe T.; Wangsawihardja, Felix; Ricci, Anthony J.; Mustapha, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    Functional maturation of afferent synaptic connections to inner hair cells (IHCs) involves pruning of excess synapses formed during development, as well as the strengthening and survival of the retained synapses. These events take place during the thyroid hormone (TH)-critical period of cochlear development, which is in the perinatal period for mice and in the third trimester for humans. Here, we used the hypothyroid Snell dwarf mouse (Pit1dw) as a model to study the role of TH in afferent type I synaptic refinement and functional maturation. We observed defects in afferent synaptic pruning and delays in calcium channel clustering in the IHCs of Pit1dw mice. Nevertheless, calcium currents and capacitance reached near normal levels in Pit1dw IHCs by the age of onset of hearing, despite the excess number of retained synapses. We restored normal synaptic pruning in Pit1dw IHCs by supplementing with TH from postnatal day (P)3 to P8, establishing this window as being critical for TH action on this process. Afferent terminals of older Pit1dw IHCs showed evidence of excitotoxic damage accompanied by a concomitant reduction in the levels of the glial glutamate transporter, GLAST. Our results indicate that a lack of TH during a critical period of inner ear development causes defects in pruning and long-term homeostatic maintenance of afferent synapses. PMID:26386265

  19. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eRameau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TCP transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.

  20. Branch prediction in the pentium family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Agner

    1998-01-01

    How the branch prediction mechanism in the Pentium has been uncovered with all its quirks, and the incredibly more effective branch prediction in the later versions.......How the branch prediction mechanism in the Pentium has been uncovered with all its quirks, and the incredibly more effective branch prediction in the later versions....

  1. Phenology, Canopy Aging and Seasonal Carbon Balance as Related to Delayed Winter Pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese Grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Matteo; Pirez, Facundo J; Chiari, Giorgio; Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Merli, Maria C; Poni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning (LWP) can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP) or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP) performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER) were followed throughout the season. Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs. 34 in SWP), highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP) and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly cluster

  2. Phenology, canopy aging and seasonal carbon balance as related to delayed winter pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eGatti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER was followed throughout the season.Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs 34 in SWP, highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly

  3. TEST ON ABCD CHIPS

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrère, D; Zsenei, A; Kaplon, J; Lacasta, C; Dabrowski, W; Kudlaty, J; Wolter, M; Azman, S

    1998-01-01

    The ABCD chip is one of the two technological options for the binary readout architecture under development for the Silicon Tracker (SCT) in ATLAS. The chip is realised in the DMILL technology (a 0.8 mum BICMOS trench isolation process). This note reports on the first results obtained at CERN on the p-type ABCD chips of the first batch delivered by TEMIC in February 1998.

  4. UW VLSI chip tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Neil

    1989-12-01

    We present a design for a low-cost, functional VLSI chip tester. It is based on the Apple MacIntosh II personal computer. It tests chips that have up to 128 pins. All pin drivers of the tester are bidirectional; each pin is programmed independently as an input or an output. The tester can test both static and dynamic chips. Rudimentary speed testing is provided. Chips are tested by executing C programs written by the user. A software library is provided for program development. Tests run under both the Mac Operating System and A/UX. The design is implemented using Xilinx Logic Cell Arrays. Price/performance tradeoffs are discussed.

  5. An empirical solution for over-pruning with a novel ensemble-learning method for fMRI decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Satoshi; Nambu, Isao; Naito, Eiichi

    2015-01-15

    Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoding techniques allow us to predict the contents of sensory and motor events or participants' mental states from multi-voxel patterns of fMRI signals. Sparse logistic regression (SLR) is a useful pattern classification algorithm that has the advantage of being able to automatically select voxels to avoid over-fitting. However, SLR suffers from over-pruning, in which many voxels that are potentially useful for prediction are discarded. We propose an ensemble solution for over-pruning, called "Iterative Recycling" (iRec), in which sparse classifiers are trained iteratively by recycling over-pruned voxels. Our simulation demonstrates that iRec can effectively rectify over-pruning in SLR and improve its classification accuracy. We also conduct an fMRI experiment in which eight healthy volunteers perform a finger-tapping task with their index or middle fingers. The results indicate that SLR with iRec (iSLR) can predict the finger used more accurately than SLR. Further, iSLR is able to identify a voxel cluster representing the finger movements in the biologically plausible contralateral primary sensory-motor cortices in each participant. We also successfully dissociated the regularly arranged representation for each finger in the cluster. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first study to propose a solution for over-pruning with ensemble-learning that is applicable to any sparse algorithm. In addition, from the viewpoint of machine learning, we provide the novel idea of using the sparse classification algorithm to generate accurate divergent base classifiers. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Qualidade de frutos da tangerina 'Ponkan' após poda de recuperação Quality of 'Ponkan' tangerine tree after recovering pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Mendonça

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar a qualidade de frutos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' em três safras subseqüentes aos tratamentos: poda de topo no rebaixamento da copa e poda da parte baixa da planta (saia. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Vito Crincoli, localizada no município de Perdões - MG. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, sendo poda do topo (sem poda, poda a 3,0; 2,5 e 2,0 m e poda da saia (sem e com a poda com quatro repetições e três plantas úteis por parcela. Os diferentes tipos de poda não prejudicaram a qualidade de frutos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' nas três safras subseqüente as podas. Após o terceiro ano as plantas que sofreram podas mais severas produziram frutos com peso superiores, demonstrando a viabilidade da poda na recuperação da qualidade dos frutos.This research aimed to test top pruning effect on lowering the top canopy and pruning the lower part of the plant on the recovering of 12 years old 'Ponkan' tangerine tree. Plants were four meters height, 6x4 spacing, grafted on 'Cravo' lemon tree. This experiment was carried out at Vito Crincoli' s Farm in Perdões, MG, Brazil . It was used a randomized block experimental design in a factorial scheme of 4x2, top pruning (without pruning, pruning at 3.0; 2.5 and 2.0m from soil level and circumference pruning (with and without pruning with four replications. The useful plot was constituted of three tangerine plants. After third year of treatment plants that had been under more severe pruning gave higher fruit weight. Indicating the used of pruning to recover fruit quality.

  7. TCF bleaching sequence in kraft pulping of olive tree pruning residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, A; Rodríguez, A; Colodette, J L; Gomide, J L; Jiménez, L

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present work was to find a suitable Kraft cooking process for olive tree pruning (OTP), in order to produce pulp of kappa number about 17. The Kraft pulp produced under optimized conditions showed a viscosity of 31.5 mPa·s and good physical, mechanical, and optical properties, which are suitable for paper production. The physical-mechanical and optical properties were measured before and after bleaching. Although the OTP pulp was bleached to 90.9% ISO brightness (kappapulp showed a brightness reversion equal to 1.3%. Furthermore, this bleached pulp did not need a high intensity of beating due to high drainability degree in the unbeaten pulp. So that, OTP is suggested as an interesting raw material for cellulosic pulp production because its properties are comparable to those of other agricultural residues, currently used in the paper industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. LHCb: Optimising query execution time in LHCb Bookkeeping System using partition pruning and partition wise joins

    CERN Multimedia

    Mathe, Z

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb experiment produces a huge amount of data which has associated metadata such as run number, data taking condition (detector status when the data was taken), simulation condition, etc. The data are stored in files, replicated on the Computing Grid around the world. The LHCb Bookkeeping System provides methods for retrieving datasets based on their metadata. The metadata is stored in a hybrid database model, which is a mixture of Relational and Hierarchical database models and is based on the Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The database access has to be reliable and fast. In order to achieve a high timing performance, the tables are partitioned and the queries are executed in parallel. When we store large amounts of data the partition pruning is essential for database performance, because it reduces the amount of data retrieved from the disk and optimises the resource utilisation. This research presented here is focusing on the extended composite partitioning strategy such as rang...

  9. Closing oil palm yield gaps among Indonesian smallholders through industry schemes, pruning, weeding and improved seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, T; Lim, F K S; Lee, J S H; Carrasco, L R

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm production has led to large losses of valuable habitats for tropical biodiversity. Sparing of land for nature could in theory be attained if oil palm yields increased. The efficiency of oil palm smallholders is below its potential capacity, but the factors determining efficiency are poorly understood. We employed a two-stage data envelopment analysis approach to assess the influence of agronomic, supply chain and management factors on oil palm production efficiency in 190 smallholders in six villages in Indonesia. The results show that, on average, yield increases of 65% were possible and that fertilizer and herbicide use was excessive and inefficient. Adopting industry-supported scheme management practices, use of high-quality seeds and higher pruning and weeding rates were found to improve efficiency. Smallholder oil palm production intensification in Indonesia has the capacity to increase production by 26%, an equivalent of 1.75 million hectares of land.

  10. Distinct Defects in Spine Formation or Pruning in Two Gene Duplication Mouse Models of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Li, Huiping; Takumi, Toru; Qiu, Zilong; Xu, Xiu; Yu, Xiang; Bian, Wen-Jie

    2017-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encompasses a complex set of developmental neurological disorders, characterized by deficits in social communication and excessive repetitive behaviors. In recent years, ASD is increasingly being considered as a disease of the synapse. One main type of genetic aberration leading to ASD is gene duplication, and several mouse models have been generated mimicking these mutations. Here, we studied the effects of MECP2 duplication and human chromosome 15q11-13 duplication on synaptic development and neural circuit wiring in the mouse sensory cortices. We showed that mice carrying MECP2 duplication had specific defects in spine pruning, while the 15q11-13 duplication mouse model had impaired spine formation. Our results demonstrate that spine pathology varies significantly between autism models and that distinct aspects of neural circuit development may be targeted in different ASD mutations. Our results further underscore the importance of gene dosage in normal development and function of the brain.

  11. CoRPORATE: cortical reconstruction by pruning outliers with Reeb analysis and topology-preserving evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yonggang; Lai, Rongjie; Toga, Arthur W

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel system for the accurate reconstruction of cortical surfaces from magnetic resonance images. At the core of our system is a novel framework for outlier detection and pruning by integrating intrinsic Reeb analysis of Laplace-Beltrami eigen-functions with topology-preserving evolution for localized filtering of outliers, which avoids unnecessary smoothing and shrinkage of cortical regions with high curvature. In our experiments, we compare our method with FreeSurfer and illustrate that our results can better capture cortical geometry in deep sulcal regions. To demonstrate the robustness of our method, we apply it to over 1300 scans from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We show that cross-sectional group differences and longitudinal changes can be detected successfully with our method.

  12. Monomeric carbohydrates production from olive tree pruning biomass: modeling of dilute acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Juan G; Mateo, Soledad; Fonseca, Bruno G; Roberto, Inês C; Sánchez, Sebastián; Moya, Alberto J

    2013-12-01

    Statistical modeling and optimization of dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of olive tree pruning biomass has been performed using response surface methodology. Central composite rotatable design was applied to assess the effect of acid concentration, reaction time and temperature on efficiency and selectivity of hemicellulosic monomeric carbohydrates to d-xylose. Second-order polynomial model was fitted to experimental data to find the optimum reaction conditions by multiple regression analysis. The monomeric d-xylose recovery 85% (as predicted by the model) was achieved under optimized hydrolysis conditions (1.27% acid concentration, 96.5°C and 138 min), confirming the high validity of the developed model. The content of d-glucose (8.3%) and monosaccharide degradation products (0.1% furfural and 0.04% 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) provided a high quality subtract, ready for subsequent biochemical conversion to value-added products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic algorithm pruning of probabilistic neural networks in medical disease estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzaris, Dimitrios; Anastassopoulos, George; Adamopoulos, Adam

    2011-10-01

    A hybrid model consisting of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and a Genetic Algorithm procedure for diagnostic risk factors selection in Medicine is proposed in this paper. A medical disease prediction may be viewed as a pattern classification problem based on a set of clinical and laboratory parameters. Probabilistic Neural Network models were assessed in terms of their classification accuracy concerning medical disease prediction. A Genetic Algorithm search was performed to examine potential redundancy in the diagnostic factors. This search led to a pruned ANN architecture, minimizing the number of diagnostic factors used during the training phase and therefore minimizing the number of nodes in the ANN input and hidden layer as well as the Mean Square Error of the trained ANN at the testing phase. As a conclusion, a number of diagnostic factors in a patient's data record can be omitted without loss of fidelity in the diagnosis procedure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Space pruning monotonic search for the non-unique probe selection problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Elisa; Ozkok, Beyza Ahlatcioglu; Pardalos, Panos M

    2014-01-01

    Identification of targets, generally viruses or bacteria, in a biological sample is a relevant problem in medicine. Biologists can use hybridisation experiments to determine whether a specific DNA fragment, that represents the virus, is presented in a DNA solution. A probe is a segment of DNA or RNA, labelled with a radioactive isotope, dye or enzyme, used to find a specific target sequence on a DNA molecule by hybridisation. Selecting unique probes through hybridisation experiments is a difficult task, especially when targets have a high degree of similarity, for instance in a case of closely related viruses. After preliminary experiments, performed by a canonical Monte Carlo method with Heuristic Reduction (MCHR), a new combinatorial optimisation approach, the Space Pruning Monotonic Search (SPMS) method, is introduced. The experiments show that SPMS provides high quality solutions and outperforms the current state-of-the-art algorithms.

  15. National Zoological Park Branch Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Kay A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the functions of the National Zoological Park Branch of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, which is dedicated to supporting the special information needs of the zoo. Topics covered include the library's history, collection, programs, services, future plans, and relations with other zoo libraries. (two references) (Author/CLB)

  16. Branching diffusion with particle interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Engländer, János; Zhang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    A $d$-dimensional branching diffusion, $Z$, is investigated, where the linear attraction or repulsion between particles is competing with an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck drift, with parameter $b$ (we take $b>0$ for inward O-U and $b0$) or repulsion ($\\gamma 0$, while escapes to infinity exponentially fast (rate $|b|$) when $b

  17. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  18. Case Report: Prune perineum syndrome: a rare case with an unfavourable outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Roberto I; Dénes, Francisco T; Messi, Gustavo B; Machado, Marcos G

    2016-01-01

    Prune perineum syndrome (PPS) is a rare anomaly, with only two previous case reports, both dying in the perinatal period. We report the first case of PPS that reached childhood. The patient presented with a hypoplastic genitalia and bilateral cryptorchidism. There was no evidence of an anal orifice. A significant prune-like mass was observed, extending from the perineum to both gluteal regions and to a cephalic mid-line bony prominence, with a 1cm central orifice that discharged urine. MRI confirmed the previous findings and revealed a right crossed ectopic kidney, intestinal malrotation, a hypoplastic infrarenal inferior vena cava and a hypoplastic right iliac artery. Endoscopic evaluation through the orifice revealed a cavity lined by urothelial mucosa, with a small communication to the anterior urethra in its anterior wall. A staged reconstruction was planned, with a first-step urinary diversion through a continent abdominal reservoir associated to bilateral orchiopexy. He was discharged from the hospital three weeks later under intermittent catheterization. The next surgical step would be the resection of the perineal mass and its cavity associated to the removal of the prominent sacrococcygeal bones. Unfortunately, four months after the first surgery the patient developed an acute abdomen and was submitted to a laparotomy that revealed a necrotic ileal segment secondary to obstructive adherences. He developed severe malabsorption followed by septic shock, dying five weeks after the procedure. Due to the lack of literature, there is no consensus for the management of these cases. The wish of the family for a better quality of life and social acceptance, compelled us to perform a urinary diversion, to be followed by a plastic and orthopedic reconstruction. Despite the successful initial result, the patient developed a late abdominal obstruction that was misdiagnosed, precipitating his untimely death five months after the first procedure.

  19. GROWTH AND QUALITY OF Pinus taeda. L. SEEDLINGS SUBMITTED TO CHEMICAL ROOT PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Rossi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to study the effects of roots pruning with cupper sulphate, cupper oxychlorate and ethephon (2-cloroethtlphosphonic acid on growth and quality of Pinus taeda L. seedlings produced in tubes. The treatments with cupper sulphate or cupper oxychlorate were applied on the tubes (before their filling with the substrate for plantation, by immersing them into a mixture of equal parts of water and latex paint, at cupper doses of 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48g L-1 of solution (paint + water. The ethefon was sprayed to the aerial part of seedlings (10-15cm height at 0, 50, 75, 100, and 125 mg (a.i. L-1. The experiment followed a completely randomized block design with five replicates. Considering the cupper sources, only cupper sulphate reduced the attributes of root dry matter (mainly by inhibiting the development of lateral roots, collar diameter, seedlings height, and aerial dry matter, with the increase of product dose. The increment of cupper sulphate doses resulted in a higher increase of copper concentration in the substrate than the increase of cupper oxychlorate doses. The increment of cupper oxychlorate doses did not reduce the total root dry matter, but increased the number of lateral roots at the median and higher portion of the root system. Cupper sulphate significantly reduced the emission of lateral roots, as opposed to the effect of cupper oxychlorate. Therefore, the use of increasing doses of cupper oxychlorate seems to show a more positive effect on root pruning, compared to cupper sulphate, since a seedling with a large number of lateral roots of small length is desirable aiming the seedling establishment after transplantation. The increase of ethefon dose sprayed at seedlings aerial part increased the principal root dry matter and the number of later roots at the median (linear effect and lower (quadratic effect parts of root system. There was no effect of ethefon on the other seedling growth attributes.

  20. ALICE chip processor

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    This tiny chip provides data processing for the time projection chamber on ALICE. Known as the ALICE TPC Read Out (ALTRO), this device was designed to minimize the size and power consumption of the TPC front end electronics. This single chip contains 16 low-power analogue-to-digital converters with six million transistors of digital processing and 8 kbits of data storage.

  1. Branching processes in disease epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes and contagion (of disease, information or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this thesis, we focus on branching processes as a model for infectious diseases spreading between individuals belonging to different populations. The distinction between populations can arise from species separation (as in the case of diseases which jump across species) or spatial separation (as in the case of disease spreading between farms, cities, urban centers, etc). A prominent example of the former is zoonoses -- infectious diseases that spill from animals to humans -- whose specific examples include Nipah virus, monkeypox, HIV and avian influenza. A prominent example of the latter is infectious diseases of animals such as foot and mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis that spread between farms or cattle herds. Another example of the latter is infectious diseases of humans such as H1N1 that spread from one city to another through migration of infectious hosts. This thesis consists of three main chapters, an introduction and an appendix. The introduction gives a brief history of mathematics in modeling the spread of infectious diseases along with a detailed description of the most commonly used disease model -- the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. The introduction also describes how the stochastic formulation of the model reduces to a branching process in the limit of large population which is analyzed in detail. The second chapter describes a two species model of zoonoses with coupled SIR processes and proceeds into the calculation of statistics pertinent to cross species infection using multitype branching processes. The third chapter describes an SIR process driven by a Poisson process of infection spillovers. This is posed as a

  2. Studies on the susceptibility of pruning wounds to infection by fungi involved in grapevine wood diseases in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of grapevine annual pruning wounds to Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Diplodia seriata was investigated over three years (2005–2007 in a 15 year-old vineyard, cv. Sauvignon blanc. Vines were pruned each year in January, February and March and the wounds were inoculated weekly with conidial suspensions, and with sterile water as a control. Penetration of the fungi into the wood was assessed after 4 weeks by plating pieces of host tissue on agar medium. The susceptibility of annual pruning wounds, expressed as the infection percentages of inoculated spurs, varied with both the trial year and the fungus inoculated. Average infection percentages of inoculated spurs in the three years were respectively 14.7, 38.5 and 50.9% for Pa. chlamydospora, 31.7, 32.2 and 49.4% for Pm. aleophilum and 84.2, 43.8 and 40.9% for D. seriata. The period of pruning was significant for the infection percentages of all fungi in 2005, and for D. seriata in 2006. Natural infection of control spurs by Pa. chlamydospora (2, 4.4, and 11.7% of spurs in the three years respectively and by Pm. aleophilum (0.3, 1.8, and 6.4% began when average weekly temperatures stabilized around 10°C, while infection by D. seriata (12.2, 12 and 18.3% in the same period occurred even below that threshold. Higher infection percentages of both artificially and naturally infected spurs in 2007 were probably due to the higher temperatures recorded in February and March (besides the use of a more efficient selective medium for the isolation of Pa. chlamydospora and Pm. aleophilum. Only artificial infections with D. seriata showed an opposite trend that cannot be explained by the weather data. Infection of one-year-old wood appeared to be an important factor in disease spread. Spurs remained liable to infections with any of the fungi for up to 4 months after pruning, and isolation percentages could be fairly high also in late spring. As a consequence

  3. Perspectives de production et de commercialisation des prunes et des pruneaux au Maroc à l’horizon 2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issam Eddine Sellika

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La filière de production de prunes et pruneaux au Maroc a connu un développement important du fait de coûts de production relativement faibles comparativement à d’autres rosacées. Cet article propose une réflexion globale sur la situation actuelle de la production et commercialisation des prunes et pruneaux au niveau des exploitations agricoles, et leur possible évolution future. Il présente les principales caractéristiques actuelles de la filière, les principaux facteurs d’évolution et deux scénarios à l’horizon 2025. La filière connait déjà des tensions fortes sur les prix au champ, avec des différences importantes liées à la qualité des productions. Trois facteurs de changement ont été identifiés : 1 l’augmentation des coûts de production ; 2 l’augmentation des surfaces plantées induite par le Plan Maroc Vert ; 3 la baisse des prix de vente. Un premier scénario tendanciel prévoit une faible augmentation des superficies, mais une différenciation forte entre les exploitations en fonction de leurs capacités à maitriser les coûts de production, à produire des prunes de qualité, et à prendre des marges en aval en investissant dans la transformation des prunes et la commercialisation des pruneaux. Cette filière restera ainsi rentable pour certaines exploitations tandis que d’autres opteront pour l’arrachage. Un second scénario prévoit des actions publiques pour promouvoir l’export et améliorer la rentabilité sur le marché intérieur, par une baisse des coûts de production, une augmentation de la qualité des prunes et une organisation collective de la transformation des prunes et la commercialisation des pruneaux. Ces activités, menées dans le cadre de coopératives pour les exploitations de petite taille, permettraient à ces exploitations de maintenir voire d’améliorer la rentabilité de cette production.

  4. CHIP, CHIP, ARRAY! THREE CHIPS FOR POST-GENOMIC RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge Healthtech Institute recently held the 4th installment of their popular "Lab-on-a-Chip" series in Zurich, Switzerland. As usual, it was enthusiastically received and over 225 people attended the 2-1/2 day meeting to see and hear about some of the latest developments an...

  5. The Quantification of Consistent Subjective Logic Tree Branch Weights for PSHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, A. K.; Scherbaum, F.

    2012-04-01

    The development of quantitative models for the rate of exceedance of seismically generated ground motion parameters is the target of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). In regions of low to moderate seismicity, the selection and evaluation of source- and/or ground-motion models is often a major challenge to hazard analysts and affected by large epistemic uncertainties. In PSHA this type of uncertainties is commonly treated within a logic tree framework in which the branch weights express the degree-of-belief values of an expert in the corresponding set of models. For the calculation of the distribution of hazard curves, these branch weights are subsequently used as subjective probabilities. However the quality of the results depends strongly on the "quality" of the expert knowledge. A major challenge for experts in this context is to provide weight estimates which are logically consistent (in the sense of Kolmogorov's axioms) and to be aware of and to deal with the multitude of heuristics and biases which affect human judgment under uncertainty. For example, people tend to give smaller weights to each branch of a logic tree the more branches it has, starting with equal weights for all branches and then adjusting this uniform distribution based on his/her beliefs about how the branches differ. This effect is known as pruning bias.¹ A similar unwanted effect, which may even wrongly suggest robustness of the corresponding hazard estimates, will appear in cases where all models are first judged according to some numerical quality measure approach and the resulting weights are subsequently normalized to sum up to one.2 To address these problems, we have developed interactive graphical tools for the determination of logic tree branch weights in form of logically consistent subjective probabilities, based on the concepts suggested in Curtis and Wood (2004).3 Instead of determining the set of weights for all the models in a single step, the computer driven

  6. Branched endografts for thoracoabdominal aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Roy; Eagleton, Matthew; Mastracci, Tara

    2010-12-01

    Endovascular management of thoracoabdominal aneurysms has been studied since 2001, with marked advances allowing for the treatment of complex anatomic situations including chronic aortic dissections, tortuous anatomy, and extensive aneurysms that involve the visceral segment, aortic arch, and iliacs as well. However, the technology is not widely disseminated, and a thorough understanding of the engineering principles, imaging techniques, and devices available is required. Reinforced fenestrated branches coupled with balloon expandable stent grafts, and side-arm branch designs mated with self-expanding stent grafts have been used. Pure fenestrated designs were used for juxtarenal aneurysms, whereas thoracoabdominal aneurysms were treated with reinforced fenestrated branches or hybrid devices including side-arm branches and reinforced fenestrated branches. Intraoperative fusion techniques have been used since 2009, whereby preoperative computed tomographic data are fused with intraoperative fluoroscopy. Long-term survival in accordance with extent of disease was assessed with life table analysis techniques, and differences were analyzed using the log rank test. Intermediate-term data pertaining to patency related to both types of branches and paraplegia have been evaluated and previously published. A total of 406 patients with thoracoabdominal aneurysms and 227 patients with juxtarenal aneurysms have been enrolled in a prospective study. Perioperative and 2-year survival were most closely related to extent of initial disease and were estimated to be 1.8% and 82% for juxtarenal aneurysms, 2.3% and 82% for type IV, and 5.2% and 74% for type II and III thoracoabdominal aneurysms at 24 months, respectively. When patients undergoing endovascular repair (ER group) were matched with those having contemporary surgical repair (SR group) for anatomic disease extent, mortality was similar at 30 days (5.7% ER vs 8.3% SR; P = .2) and at 12 months (15.6% ER vs 15.9% SR; P = .9

  7. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  8. Produção da tangerineira 'ponkan' após poda de recuperação Production of 'ponkan' tangerine tree after pruning recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Mendonça

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou esta pesquisa testar o efeito da poda de topo no rebaixamento da copa e poda da saia, na recuperação da tangerineira 'Ponkan' com 12 anos de idade, altura de 4 metros, espaçadas de 6 x 4 m e enxertadas sobre limoeiro 'Cravo'. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Vito Crincoli localizada no município de Perdões, MG. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, sendo poda do topo (sem poda, poda a 3,0; 2,5 e 2,0m e poda da saia (sem e com a poda com quatro repetições. A parcela útil foi constituída de três plantas. As podas drásticas de topo prejudicaram a primeira produção, contudo a partir do segundo ano após a poda, as plantas apresentaram boa recuperação. Esse comportamento foi confirmado na terceira colheita, quando os diferentes tipos de podas do topo não se diferenciaram na produtividade, sendo que o tratamento com poda da saia foi superior ao sem poda.This research aimed to test top pruning effect on the lowering of plant canopy, pruning the lower canopy on the recover of 12 years old 'Ponkan' tangerine tree, 4 meters height, 6 x 4 spaced and grafted on 'Cravo' lemon rootstock. This experiment was carried out at Vito Crincoli's Farm in Perdões, MG. It was carried out under randomized plots in a factorial scheme of 4x2, top pruning (without pruning, pruning at 3.0; 2.5 and 2.0 m and skirt pruning (with and without pruning with 4 replications. Plot size was composed by three plants. Heavy pruning of the top canopy lowered the first tree yield, however, and in the begining of the second year, the plants showed a very good recover. The same behavior was seem for the third harvest when several kinds of top pruning did not differ in the yield. Skirt pruning treatment was superior to that without any pruning.

  9. Branching processes and neutral evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Taïb, Ziad

    1992-01-01

    The Galton-Watson branching process has its roots in the problem of extinction of family names which was given a precise formulation by F. Galton as problem 4001 in the Educational Times (17, 1873). In 1875, an attempt to solve this problem was made by H. W. Watson but as it turned out, his conclusion was incorrect. Half a century later, R. A. Fisher made use of the Galton-Watson process to determine the extinction probability of the progeny of a mutant gene. However, it was J. B. S. Haldane who finally gave the first sketch of the correct conclusion. J. B. S. Haldane also predicted that mathematical genetics might some day develop into a "respectable branch of applied mathematics" (quoted in M. Kimura & T. Ohta, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton, 1971). Since the time of Fisher and Haldane, the two fields of branching processes and mathematical genetics have attained a high degree of sophistication but in different directions. This monograph is a first attempt to apply the current sta...

  10. Electrostatically anchored branched brush layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Dedinaite, Andra; Rutland, Mark; Thormann, Esben; Visnevskij, Ceslav; Makuska, Ricardas; Claesson, Per M

    2012-11-06

    A novel type of block copolymer has been synthesized. It consists of a linear cationic block and an uncharged bottle-brush block. The nonionic bottle-brush block contains 45 units long poly(ethylene oxide) side chains. This polymer was synthesized with the intention of creating branched brush layers firmly physisorbed to negatively charged surfaces via the cationic block, mimicking the architecture (but not the chemistry) of bottle-brush molecules suggested to be present on the cartilage surface, and contributing to the efficient lubrication of synovial joints. The adsorption properties of the diblock copolymer as well as of the two blocks separately were studied on silica surfaces using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and optical reflectometry. The adsorption kinetics data highlight that the diblock copolymers initially adsorb preferentially parallel to the surface with both the cationic block and the uncharged bottle-brush block in contact with the surface. However, as the adsorption proceeds, a structural change occurs within the layer, and the PEO bottle-brush block extends toward solution, forming a surface-anchored branched brush layer. As the adsorption plateau is reached, the diblock copolymer layer is 46-48 nm thick, and the water content in the layer is above 90 wt %. The combination of strong electrostatic anchoring and highly hydrated branched brush structures provide strong steric repulsion, low friction forces, and high load bearing capacity. The strong electrostatic anchoring also provides high stability of preadsorbed layers under different ionic strength conditions.

  11. Workshop on Branching Processes and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Velasco, Miguel; Martinez, Rodrigo; Molina, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Contains papers presented at the Workshop on Branching Processes and Their Applications (WBPA09), held in Badajoz, Spain, April 20-23, 2009, which deal with theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory

  12. Coulomb branch localization in quiver quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Kazutoshi; Sasai, Yuya [Institute of Physics, Meiji Gakuin University,1518 Kamikurata-cho, Yokohama, 244-8539 (Japan)

    2016-02-16

    We show how to exactly calculate the refined indices of N=4U(1)×U(N) supersymmetric quiver quantum mechanics in the Coulomb branch by using the localization technique. The Coulomb branch localization is discussed from the viewpoint of both non-linear and gauged linear sigma models. A classification of fixed points in the Coulomb branch differs from one in the Higgs branch, but the derived indices completely agree with the results which were obtained by the localization in the Higgs branch. In the Coulomb branch localization, the refined indices can be written as a summation over different sets of the Coulomb branch fixed points. We also discuss a space-time picture of the fixed points in the Coulomb branch.

  13. Megacystis-microlon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome in a newborn girl whose brother had Prune Belly syndrome: Common Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.; Boechat, M.I.; Fereira, M.A.

    1983-07-01

    A case of Megacystis-Microcolon-Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome (MMIHS) is presented. There were important findings: a urachal remnant and a brother with Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS). After a review of the literature, many common characteristics of MMIHS and PBS are described: flaccid abdomen, dilatation of the urinary tract, intestinal malrotation, cryptorchidism, urachal remnants and familial incidence. MMIHS and PBS may be manifestations of the same underlying process.

  14. Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome in a newborn girl whose brother had prune belly syndrome: common pathogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, G; Boechat, M I; Ferreira, M A

    1983-01-01

    A case of megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is presented. There were important findings: a urachal remnant and a brother with prune belly syndrome (PBS). After a review of the literature, many common characteristics of MMIHS and PBS are described: flaccid abdomen, dilatation of the urinary tract, intestinal malrotation, cryptorchidism, urachal remnants and familial incidence. MMIHS and PBS may be manifestations of the same underlying process.

  15. The effects of root pruning and limb strangulation on physiological responses and flower bud development of longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sdoodee, S.

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Flowering induction by physical methods of root pruning and limb strangulation to alleviate the incidence of biennial fruit-bearing in longkong were investigated. The experiment was conducted at the Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla Province, from December, 2001 to November, 2002. In the root-pruning trial, twelve 6-year-old longkong trees were used. Each tree was grown in 1 m3 soil volume. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design having 4 treatments in 3 replications. The treatments were: (1 control, (2 cutting 1 side 30 cm from the stem at 30 cm depth, (3 cutting 1 side 20 cm from the stem at 30 cm depth, and (4 cutting 2 sides 30 cm from the stem at 30 cm depth. In the limb strangulation experiment, six 6-year-old longkong trees were used. Again, each tree was grown in 1 m3 soil volume and the experiment was arranged in a com- pletely randomized design. The treatments were: (1 control, (2 limb strangulation 2 months before bloom, and (3 limb strangulation 1 month before bloom. All treatments were done on one plant with 6 replications (one plant per replicate. The root- pruning methods decreased diurnal water use and a physiological response as compared with the control. All three root-pruning treatments induced flowering; however, only the trees cut on 1 side, 30 cm from the stem at 30 cm depth, stimulated flower-bud elongation. Similarly, the limb strangulation treatments resulted in decreased water use and physiological response as compared with the control. Both limb strangulation methods induced flowering, but strangulation at 1 month before bloom was more effective in the flower-bud development.

  16. The Effects of a Branch Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Donald; Wang, Yaqin

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of a branch campus on the social welfare of the host country and the foreign university. Overall, we find that a branch campus increases both the domestic social welfare (measured by the aggregate student utility) and the tuition revenue of the foreign university. The effect of a branch campus on the brain drain is…

  17. Introduction of Branching Degrees of Octane Isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdih, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The concept of branching degrees is introduced. In the case of octane isomers it is derived from the values of a set of their physicochemical properties, calculating for each isomer the average of the normalized values and these averages are defined as branching degrees of octane isomers. The sequence of these branching degrees of octane isomers does not differ much from the »regular« one defined earlier. 2,2-Dimethylhexane appears to be less branched than 3,4-dimethylhexane and 3-ethyl, 2-methylpentane, whereas 2,3,4-trimethylpentane appears to be less branched than 3-ethyl, 3-methylpentane. While the increasing number of branches gives rise to increasing branching degrees, the peripheral position of branches and the separation between branches decreases the value of the branching degree. The central position of branches increases it. A bigger branch increases it more than a smaller one. The quantification of these structural features and their correlations with few indices is given as well.

  18. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Summaries are presented of fiscal year 1989 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center. Highlights from the branch's major work areas include aeroelasticity, vibration control, dynamic systems, and computation structural methods. A listing of the fiscal year 1989 branch publications is given.

  19. The Effect of Green Pruning on the Yield and Fruit Quality of the Crawling Grape Vines Cultivar Keshmeshy in the Climatic Conditions of Shirvan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sadeghian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green pruning or summer pruning completes winter pruning, and it is conducted during the growing season. The purpose of green pruning is to maximize yield of high quality grapes. Green pruning in fruit trees improves light penetration and increases the quality of fruits. The objectives of this research were to determine the influence of green pruning on fruit quantitative and qualitative attributes in grapevine cultivar 'keshmeshi'. Materials and Methods: The present research was undertaken in Shirvan, Northern Khorasan province. The vines were highly uniform, 17 years old and all had equal vegetative growth strength.The planting distances were 3 × 3 m. The present study was conducted on cultivar 'Keshmeshi' that is considered to be one of the best grapevine cultivars mostly used for raisin production as well as table fresh fruits. In order to evaluate the effect of green pruning on different quantitative and qualitative attributes of fruits in cultivar "keshmeshi", the experiment was carried out in two way randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and three replications. Vines were pruned three times including full bloom, two weeks after full bloom and veraison (eight weeks after full bloom. Pruning was carried out in three levels including tipping after two, four or six nodes above the final cluster. The characteristics studied were cluster weight, berry weight, cluster length and width, berry length and width, number of cluster and berry, vine yield, leaf area, soluble solid, total acidity, pH, berry color, berry sunscald and number of shot berry. The SAS software (SAS, version 9.1 was used for statistical analysis of the recorded data. The mean comparison was performed based on Duncan's multiple range tests at %5 and %1 levels. Results and Discussion: The results of this study indicate that the severity of green pruning has no significant effect on the number and width of berries. This treatment also had no

  20. Thyroid hormone is required for the pruning of afferent type II spiral ganglion neurons in the mouse cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Srividya; Balasubbu, Suganthalakshmi; Mustapha, Mirna

    2015-01-01

    Afferent connections to the sensory inner and outer hair cells in the cochlea refine and functionally mature during the thyroid hormone (TH)- critical period of inner ear development that occurs perinatally in rodents. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypothyroidism on afferent type II innervation to outer hair cells (OHCs) using the Snell dwarf mouse (Pit1dw). Using a transgenic approach to specifically label type II spiral ganglion neurons, we found that a lack of TH causes persistence of excess type II SGN connections to the OHCs, as well as continued expression of the hair cell functional marker, otoferlin, in the OHCs beyond the maturation period. We also observed a concurrent delay in efferent attachment to the OHCs. Supplementing with TH during the early postnatal period from postnatal day (P) 3 to P4 reversed the defect in type II SGN pruning but did not alter otoferlin expression. Our results show that hypothyroidism causes a defect in the large-scale pruning of afferent type II spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea, and a delay in efferent attachment and the maturation of otoferlin expression. Our data suggest that the state of maturation of hair cells, as determined by otoferlin expression, may not regulate the pruning of their afferent innervation. PMID:26592716

  1. Chip to System Testability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McNamer, Michael

    1997-01-01

    The ultimate objective of the Chip-to-System Testability program was the development of a structured testability implementation methodology which will be used as a basis for a PC-based tool called TESPAD...

  2. Medicaid CHIP ESPC Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Environmental Scanning and Program Characteristic (ESPC) Database is in a Microsoft (MS) Access format and contains Medicaid and CHIP data, for the 50 states and...

  3. PRUNE: Dynamic and Decidable Dataflow for Signal Processing on Heterogeneous Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutellier, Jani; Wu, Jiahao; Huttunen, Heikki; Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S.

    2018-02-01

    The majority of contemporary mobile devices and personal computers are based on heterogeneous computing platforms that consist of a number of CPU cores and one or more Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). Despite the high volume of these devices, there are few existing programming frameworks that target full and simultaneous utilization of all CPU and GPU devices of the platform. This article presents a dataflow-flavored Model of Computation (MoC) that has been developed for deploying signal processing applications to heterogeneous platforms. The presented MoC is dynamic and allows describing applications with data dependent run-time behavior. On top of the MoC, formal design rules are presented that enable application descriptions to be simultaneously dynamic and decidable. Decidability guarantees compile-time application analyzability for deadlock freedom and bounded memory. The presented MoC and the design rules are realized in a novel Open Source programming environment "PRUNE" and demonstrated with representative application examples from the domains of image processing, computer vision and wireless communications. Experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms the state-of-the-art in analyzability, flexibility and performance.

  4. Penerapan Algoritma Alphabeta Pruning Sebagai Kecerdasan Buatan pada Game Pawn Battle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridho Rahman Hariadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Catur merupakan game strategi. Catur dimainkan oleh dua orang. Ada dua jenis warna bidak pada permainan catur, yaitu: bidak hitam dan bidak putih. Agar dapat memenangkan sebuah permainan catur, pemain harus menguasai strategi-strategi dalam bermain catur. Ada banyak startegi dalam bermain catur yang hanya dapat dipahami dengan banyak bermain dan berlatih. Modul-modul cara bermain catur pada umumnya hanya menjelaskan kejadian yang biasa terjadi dalam permainan catur. Sehingga berlatih merupakan satu-satu nya cara yang dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan dalam bermain catur. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian implementasi yang menggunakan algoritma Alpha Beta Prunnning sebagai kecerdasan buatan dalam permainan catur. Algoritma yang biasanya digunakan dalam permainan catur adalah algoritma Min-Max. Algoritma Min-Max merupakan algoritma yang digunakan untuk menemukan langkah terbaik dalam permainan catur. Sedangkan Algoritma Alpha Beta Pruning adalah algoritma yang digunakan untuk mencegah perluasan cabang/node untuk mendapatkan hasil pencarian langkah yang lebih baik dari sebelumnya. Penelitian ini diharapkan dapat membantu memberikan gambaran penerapan algoritma Alpha Beta Prunning yang digunakan dalam  membangun sebuah kecerdasan buatan pada permainan catur.

  5. [Peritoneal dialysis in adult patients with prune belly syndrome: an impossible challenge?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musone, Dario; Nicosia, Valentina; D'Alessandro, Riccardo; Treglia, Antonio; Saltarelli, Giuseppe; Montella, Maurizio; Sparagna, Alessandro; Amoroso, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by hypoplasia of the abdominal muscles, urinary tract malformations, and cryptorchidism in males. The estimated incidence is 1 in 35,000 to 50,000 live births. Chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), due both to different degrees of renal hypoplasia or dysplasia and infectious complications, develops in 20-30% of patients who survive the neonatal period. No data are available on progression time to ESRD, owing to the variability of the phenotypic features of nephropathy. Nevertheless, PBS is primarily a pathology of pediatric interest as demonstrated, for example, by the reported average age at transplantation which usually does not exceed fifteen years of age. Therefore the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in adult patients with PBS is unusual. It is reasonable to suppose that the abdominal muscular defects may represent a limit for peritoneal dialysis (PD) utilization in PBS adult patients in many Kidney Units where, conversely, treatment with hemodialysis would be probably the easier choice. Here we describe the case of a 44 -year- old man with PBS who, at the age of 41, required RRT and was faced with the challenge of accepting PD. After more than three years of nocturnal automated peritoneal dialysis treatment we can safely say, as the following case illustrates, that PD is a feasible option in PBS adult patients.

  6. Multi-pruning of decision trees for knowledge representation and classification

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2016-06-09

    We consider two important questions related to decision trees: first how to construct a decision tree with reasonable number of nodes and reasonable number of misclassification, and second how to improve the prediction accuracy of decision trees when they are used as classifiers. We have created a dynamic programming based approach for bi-criteria optimization of decision trees relative to the number of nodes and the number of misclassification. This approach allows us to construct the set of all Pareto optimal points and to derive, for each such point, decision trees with parameters corresponding to that point. Experiments on datasets from UCI ML Repository show that, very often, we can find a suitable Pareto optimal point and derive a decision tree with small number of nodes at the expense of small increment in number of misclassification. Based on the created approach we have proposed a multi-pruning procedure which constructs decision trees that, as classifiers, often outperform decision trees constructed by CART. © 2015 IEEE.

  7. Chiral methyl-branched pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Tetsu; Yamakawa, Rei

    2015-07-01

    Insect pheromones are some of the most interesting natural products because they are utilized for interspecific communication between various insects, such as beetles, moths, ants, and cockroaches. A large number of compounds of many kinds have been identified as pheromone components, reflecting the diversity of insect species. While this review deals only with chiral methyl-branched pheromones, the chemical structures of more than one hundred non-terpene compounds have been determined by applying excellent analytical techniques. Furthermore, their stereoselective syntheses have been achieved by employing trustworthy chiral sources and ingenious enantioselective reactions. The information has been reviewed here not only to make them available for new research but also to understand the characteristic chemical structures of the chiral pheromones. Since biosynthetic studies are still limited, it might be meaningful to examine whether the structures, particularly the positions and configurations of the branched methyl groups, are correlated with the taxonomy of the pheromone producers and also with the function of the pheromones in communication systems.

  8. Branched-Chain Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keisuke; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Yukawa, Hideaki

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), viz., L-isoleucine, L-leucine, and L-valine, are essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in higher organisms and are important nutrition for humans as well as livestock. They are also valued as synthetic intermediates for pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the demand for BCAAs in the feed and pharmaceutical industries is increasing continuously. Traditional industrial fermentative production of BCAAs was performed using microorganisms isolated by random mutagenesis. A collection of these classical strains was also scientifically useful to clarify the details of the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are tightly regulated by feedback inhibition and transcriptional attenuation. Based on this understanding of the metabolism of BCAAs, it is now possible for us to pursue strains with higher BCAA productivity using rational design and advanced molecular biology techniques. Additionally, systems biology approaches using augmented omics information help us to optimize carbon flux toward BCAA production. Here, we describe the biosynthetic pathways of BCAAs and their regulation and then overview the microorganisms developed for BCAA production. Other chemicals, including isobutanol, i.e., a second-generation biofuel, can be synthesized by branching the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are also outlined.

  9. Uso da poda seca e da poda verde para obtenção de duas safras por ciclo vegetativo em três cultivares de videira Use of winter pruning and green pruning for obtaining two harvests by vegetative cicle of three vine cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Anzanello

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas épocas de poda seca e de poda verde visando ao alcance de duas safras por ciclo vegetativo nas videiras 'Niagara Branca', 'Niagara Rosada' e 'Concord', cultivadas em sistema de espaldeira. O experimento foi realizado na Estação Experimental da UFRG, em Eldorado do Sul - RS, na safra de 2007/2008. As plantas foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: T1 (poda seca em 20-07-07 e poda verde em 15-11-07, T2 (poda seca em 20-07-07 e poda verde em 17-12-07; T3 (poda seca em 22-08-07 e poda verde em 15-11-07, e T4 (poda seca em 22-08-07 e poda verde em 17-12-07, sendo a poda de inverno feita em cordão esporonado, e a poda verde, mediante desponte do sarmento a partir da quarta gema acima do último cacho. Avaliaram-se a produção por planta, a massa dos cachos, os sólidos solúveis totais (SST, a acidez total titulável (ATT, a relação SST/ATT, o potencial da água na folha e a relação folha:fruto, de ambas as safras. Os resultados demonstraram que a execução de uma poda seca associada a uma poda verde permitiu obter duas safras de uva por ciclo vegetativo em 'Niagara Branca', Niagara Rosada e 'Concord', sendo mais eficiente quando a poda seca foi realizada em agosto, associada à poda verde em novembro. A 'Niagara Branca' apresentou maior potencial para produzir uma segunda colheita, comparativamente à 'Niagara Rosada' e 'Concord'. Os frutos oriundos da poda verde apresentaram menor valor de SST, maior ATT e menor relação SST/ATT em relação aos obtidos na safra normal.This study aimed to evaluate the effects of winter and green pruning for obtaining two harvests per vegetative cycle for Niagara Branca, Niagara Rosada and Concord grapevine cultivars conducted by cordon training. The experiment was performed at the Agronomic Experimental Station of Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, during the 2007/2008 harvest. Grapevines were submitted to the following treatments: T1 (winter pruning on 07/20/07 and

  10. Branching process models of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This volume develops results on continuous time branching processes and applies them to study rate of tumor growth, extending classic work on the Luria-Delbruck distribution. As a consequence, the authors calculate the probability that mutations that confer resistance to treatment are present at detection and quantify the extent of tumor heterogeneity. As applications, the authors evaluate ovarian cancer screening strategies and give rigorous proofs for results of Heano and Michor concerning tumor metastasis. These notes should be accessible to students who are familiar with Poisson processes and continuous time. Richard Durrett is mathematics professor at Duke University, USA. He is the author of 8 books, over 200 journal articles, and has supervised more than 40 Ph.D. students. Most of his current research concerns the applications of probability to biology: ecology, genetics, and most recently cancer.

  11. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  12. Mechanical stress rapidly induces E-resveratrol and E-piceatannol biosynthesis in grape canes stored as a freshly-pruned byproduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billet, Kévin; Houillé, Benjamin; Besseau, Sébastien; Mélin, Céline; Oudin, Audrey; Papon, Nicolas; Courdavault, Vincent; Clastre, Marc; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Lanoue, Arnaud

    2018-02-01

    Grape canes represent a promising source of bioactive phytochemicals. However the stabilization of the raw material after pruning remains challenging. We recently reported the induction of stilbenoid metabolism after winter pruning including a strong accumulation of E-resveratrol and E-piceatannol during the first six weeks of storage. In the present study, the effect of mechanical wounding on freshly-pruned canes was tested to increase the induction of stilbenoid metabolism. Cutting the grape canes in short segments immediately after pruning triggered a transient expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and stilbene synthase (STS) genes, followed by a rapid accumulation of E-resveratrol and E-piceatannol. The degree of stilbenoid induction was related to the intensity of mechanical wounding. Data suggest that a global defense response is triggered involving jasmonate signaling, PR proteins and stilbenoid metabolism. Mechanical wounding of freshly-pruned canes drastically shortens the time required to reach maximal stilbenoid accumulation from 6 to 2weeks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A growing and pruning sequential learning algorithm of hyper basis function neural network for function approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Najdan; Miljković, Zoran

    2013-10-01

    Radial basis function (RBF) neural network is constructed of certain number of RBF neurons, and these networks are among the most used neural networks for modeling of various nonlinear problems in engineering. Conventional RBF neuron is usually based on Gaussian type of activation function with single width for each activation function. This feature restricts neuron performance for modeling the complex nonlinear problems. To accommodate limitation of a single scale, this paper presents neural network with similar but yet different activation function-hyper basis function (HBF). The HBF allows different scaling of input dimensions to provide better generalization property when dealing with complex nonlinear problems in engineering practice. The HBF is based on generalization of Gaussian type of neuron that applies Mahalanobis-like distance as a distance metrics between input training sample and prototype vector. Compared to the RBF, the HBF neuron has more parameters to optimize, but HBF neural network needs less number of HBF neurons to memorize relationship between input and output sets in order to achieve good generalization property. However, recent research results of HBF neural network performance have shown that optimal way of constructing this type of neural network is needed; this paper addresses this issue and modifies sequential learning algorithm for HBF neural network that exploits the concept of neuron's significance and allows growing and pruning of HBF neuron during learning process. Extensive experimental study shows that HBF neural network, trained with developed learning algorithm, achieves lower prediction error and more compact neural network. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanoslits in silicon chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref, Thomas; Brenner, Matthew; Bezryadin, Alexey

    2009-01-28

    Potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching of a patterned [100] oriented silicon wafer produces V-shaped etch pits. We demonstrate that the remaining thickness of silicon at the tip of the etch pit can be reduced to approximately 5 microm using an appropriately sized etch mask and optical feedback. Starting from such an etched chip, we have developed two different routes for fabricating 100 nm scale slits that penetrate through the macroscopic silicon chip (the slits are approximately 850 microm wide at one face of the chip and gradually narrow to approximately 100-200 nm wide at the opposite face of the chip). In the first process, the etched chips are sonicated to break the thin silicon at the tip of the etch pit and then further KOH etched to form a narrow slit. In the second process, focused ion beam milling is used to etch through the thin silicon at the tip of the etch pit. The first method has the advantage that it uses only low-resolution technology while the second method offers more control over the length and width of the slit. Our slits can be used for preparing mechanically stable, transmission electron microscopy samples compatible with electrical transport measurements or as nanostencils for depositing nanowires seamlessly connected to their contact pads.

  15. Molecular Analysis of Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sakai, Takayoshi; Larsen, Melinda; Kogo, Mikihiko; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2004-01-01

    .... This mini-review describes a recently developed and tested set of approaches for identifying and characterizing molecules essential for branching morphogenesis and other developmental processes...

  16. Axis deviation without left bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Mancuso, Antonia

    2010-04-15

    It has been rarely reported changing axis deviation in the presence of left bundle branch block also during atrial fibrillation and with acute myocardial infarction too. It has also been rarely reported changing axis deviation with changing bundle branch block with onset of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction. We present a case of axis deviation without left bundle branch block and without atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction in a 65-year-old Italian man. To our knowledge, this is the first report of axis deviation without left bundle branch block and without atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch (CTEB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch focuses on factors that influence cancer progression, recurrence, survival, and other treatment outcomes, and factors associated with cancer development.

  18. Toward improved branch prediction through data mining.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmert, K. Scott; Johnson, D. Eric (University of Texas at Austin)

    2009-09-01

    Data mining and machine learning techniques can be applied to computer system design to aid in optimizing design decisions, improving system runtime performance. Data mining techniques have been investigated in the context of branch prediction. Specifically, a comparison of traditional branch predictor performance has been made to data mining algorithms. Additionally, the possiblity of whether additional features available within the architectural state might serve to further improve branch prediction has been evaluated. Results show that data mining techniques indicate potential for improved branch prediction, especially when register file contents are included as a feature set.

  19. On-chip positionable photonic waveguides for chip-to-chip optical interconnects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, T.J.; Tichem, M.; Vivien, Laurent; Pavesi, Lorenzo; Pelli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the progress related to a multichannel photonic alignment concept, aiming for sub-micrometer precision in the alignment of the waveguides of two photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The concept consists of two steps: chip-to-chip positioning and chip bonding provide a coarse

  20. Effects of Silviculture and Genetics on Branch/Knot Attributes of Coastal Pacific Northwest Douglas-Fir and Implications for Wood Quality—A Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eini C. Lowell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Douglas-fir is the most commercially important timber species in the US Pacific Northwest due to its ecological prevalence and its superior wood attributes, especially strength and stiffness properties that make it highly prized for structural applications. Its economic significance has led to extensive establishment and management of plantations over the last few decades. Cultural treatments and genetic improvement designed to increase production of utilizable wood volume also impact tree morphology and wood properties. Many of these impacts are mediated by crown development, particularly the amount and distribution of foliage and size and geometry of branches. Natural selection for branch architecture that optimizes reproductive fitness may not necessarily be optimal for stem volume growth rate or for wood properties controlling the quality of manufactured solid wood products. Furthermore, Douglas-fir does not self-prune within the rotation lengths currently practiced. This paper synthesizes extensive Douglas-fir research in the Pacific Northwest addressing: (1 the effects of silviculture and genetics on branch structure and associated consequences for wood quality and the product value chain; and (2 methods to measure, monitor, modify, and model branch attributes to assist managers in selecting appropriate silvicultural techniques to achieve wood quality objectives and improve the value of their Douglas-fir resource.

  1. Effects of tree species and wood particle size on the properties of cement-bonded particleboard manufacturing from tree prunings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Ramadan A; Al-Mefarrej, H A; Abdel-Aal, M A; Alshahrani, T S

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the possibility of using the prunings of six locally grown tree species in Saudi Arabia for cement-bonded particleboard (CBP) production. Panels were made using four different wood particle sizes and a constant wood/cement ratio (1/3 by weight) and target density (1200 kg/m3). The mechanical properties and dimensional stability of the produced panels were determined. The interfacial area and distribution of the wood particles in cement matrix were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed that the panels produced from these pruning materials at a target density of 1200 kg m(-3) meet the strength and dimensional stability requirements of the commercial CBP panels. The mean moduli of rupture and elasticity (MOR and MOE) ranged from 9.68 to 11.78 N mm2 and from 3952 to 5667 N mm2, respectively. The mean percent water absorption for twenty four hours (WA24) ranged from 12.93% to 23.39%. Thickness swelling values ranged from 0.62% to 1.53%. For CBP panels with high mechanical properties and good dimensional stability, mixed-size or coarse particles should be used. Using the tree prunings for CBPs production may help to solve the problem of getting rid of these residues by reducing their negative effects on environment, which are caused by poor disposal of such materials through direct combustion process and appearance of black cloud and then the impact on human health or the random accumulation and its indirect effects on the environment.

  2. Microglia Activation and Schizophrenia: Lessons From the Effects of Minocycline on Postnatal Neurogenesis, Neuronal Survival and Synaptic Pruning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inta, Dragos; Lang, Undine E; Borgwardt, Stefan; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Gass, Peter

    2017-05-01

    The implication of neuroinflammation in schizophrenia, sustained by recent genetic evidence, represents one of the most exciting topics in schizophrenia research. Drugs which inhibit microglia activation, especially the classical tetracycline antibiotic minocycline are currently under investigation as alternative antipsychotics. However, recent studies demonstrated that microglia activation is not only a hallmark of neuroinflammation, but plays important roles during brain development. Inhibition of microglia activation by minocycline was shown to induce extensive neuronal cell death and to impair subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis and synaptic pruning in the early postnatal and adolescent rodent brain, respectively. These deleterious effects contrast with the neuroprotective actions of minocycline at adult stages. They are of potential importance for schizophrenia, since minocycline triggers similar pro-apoptotic effects in the developing brain as NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonists, known to induce long-term schizophrenia-like abnormalities. Moreover, altered postnatal neurogenesis, recently described in the human striatum, was proposed to induce striatal dopamine dysregulation associated with schizophrenia. Finally, the effect of minocycline on synapse remodeling is of interest considering the recently reported strong genetic association of the pruning-regulating complement factor gene C4A with schizophrenia. This raises the exciting possibility that in conditions of hyperactive synaptic pruning, as supposed in schizophrenia, the inhibitory action of minocycline turns into a beneficial effect, with relevance for early therapeutic interventions. Altogether, these data support a differential view on microglia activation and its inhibition. Further studies are needed to clarify the relevance of these results for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and the use of minocycline as antipsychotic drug. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  3. First report of distal obstructive uropathy and prune-belly syndrome in an infant with amniotic band syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C P; Liu, F F; Jan, S W; Wang, K G; Lan, C C

    1997-01-01

    We describe the first report of distal obstructive uropathy and prune-belly syndrome in an infant with amniotic band syndrome. Prenatal ultrasonographic examination in the third trimester revealed intermittent oligohydramnios, bilateral hydronephrosis, and megacystis. Postnatally, the infant was found to have a scalp defect, a skin pedicle, pseudosyndactyly and constriction rings on the hands, marked distention of the abdomen, a fibrous band attached to the proximal urethra causing urethral stricture, a swollen penile shaft, bilateral talipes equinovarus, and syndactyly of the feet. Multiple fibrous amniotic bands could be identified in the placenta. Our case shows that fetal distal obstructive uropathy can be associated with the congenital constriction band syndrome.

  4. Prune belly syndrome with overlapping presentation of partial urorectal septum malformation sequence in a female newborn with absent perineal openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Azhar; AlAqeel, Alaa; Habib, Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized in males by a triad of anomalous genitourinary tract, deficient development of abdominal wall muscles, and bilateral cryptorchidism. Although similar anomalies have been reported in females, by definition they do not full fill the classical triad. Urorectal septum malformation sequence (URSM) is a lethal condition characterized by presence of ambiguous genitalia, absent perineal openings (urogenital and anal), and lumbosacral abnormalities. In this original case report, the authors discuss the presentation and management of what would be analogous to a Woodhouse category 1 PBS in a female newborn associated with an overlapping presentation of URSM.

  5. Prune Belly Syndrome with Overlapping Presentation of Partial Urorectal Septum Malformation Sequence in a Female Newborn with Absent Perineal Openings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Farooqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prune belly syndrome (PBS is a rare congenital anomaly characterized in males by a triad of anomalous genitourinary tract, deficient development of abdominal wall muscles, and bilateral cryptorchidism. Although similar anomalies have been reported in females, by definition they do not full fill the classical triad. Urorectal septum malformation sequence (URSM is a lethal condition characterized by presence of ambiguous genitalia, absent perineal openings (urogenital and anal, and lumbosacral abnormalities. In this original case report, the authors discuss the presentation and management of what would be analogous to a Woodhouse category 1 PBS in a female newborn associated with an overlapping presentation of URSM.

  6. Quantification of Structural Topology in Branched Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ramnath

    Complex molecular structures occur in various natural and synthetic materials. From common plastics like polyethylene to proteins like hemoglobin, the significant effect of the molecular structure of these materials on their properties cannot be understated. Hence, it is fundamental to comprehensively characterize these complex structures. In the case of polyethylene, branching plays a significant role in determining its structure-property relationships. Various characterization techniques are available to measure the branch content in polyethylene. Qualitative techniques based on gel permeation chromatography and rheology; and absolute measurements from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are commonly used to estimate branch content. Drawbacks posed by these common techniques have been well documented in literature. Further, these techniques are unable to provide a comprehensive picture of the structural topology of polyethylene which is crucial to understanding the structure-property relationships of these systems. In this dissertation, a novel scaling approach is described to quantify branching in polyethylene. The approach is useful in quantifying both short-chain and long-chain branch contents in polyethylene. Additionally, unique measurements such as average long-chain branch length and hyperbranch (branch-on-branch) content are available through this approach. Such enhanced topological information can help us better understand the effect of catalyst systems on the structure of polyethylene as well as the effect of branching on the polymer's physical properties. The scaling approach was successful in quantifying the structure of variety of model and commercial branched polyethylene systems. Specific examples of high-density and linear low-density polyethylene as well as hydrogenated polybutadienes are discussed here. The dissertation is intended to standardize and corroborate the scaling approach in quantifying the structure of branched polymers. The

  7. Compression Debarking of Stored Wood Chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Mattson

    1974-01-01

    Two 750 ft. piles of unbarked chips were stored for 1 year to evaluate the effect of chip storage on the effectiveness of bark-chip separations-segregation methods under study. in processing stored chips suffered more wood loss than fresh chips.

  8. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ghiringhelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study is focused on evaluation and use of the most effective and correct nutrients. In particular, our attention is directed to the role of certain amino acids in cachectic patients. During parenteral nutrition in humans, physician already associates in the PN-bags different formulations including amino acids, lipids and glucose solutions or essential amino acids solution alone or exclusively branched-chain amino acids (BCAA. Studies investigated the effects of dietary BCAA ingestion on different diseases and conditions such as obesity and metabolic disorders, liver disease, muscle atrophy, cancer, impaired immunity or injuries (surgery, trauma, burns, and sepsis. BCAAs have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro, and are essential for lymphocyte proliferation and dendritic cell maturation. Oral or parenteral administration of these three amino acids will allow us to evaluate the real efficacy of these compounds during a therapy to treat malnutrition in subjects unable to feed themselves.

  9. 3D modelling of branching in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Shoot branching is a key determinant of overall aboveground plant form. During plant development, the number of branches formed strongly influences the amount of light absorbed by the plant, and thus the plant’s competitive strength in terms of light capture in relation to neighbouring plants.

  10. A Unifying Theory of Branching Morphogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannezo, Edouard; Scheele, Colinda L G J; Moad, Mohammad; Drogo, Nicholas; Heer, Rakesh; Sampogna, Rosemary V; van Rheenen, Jacco; Simons, Benjamin D

    2017-01-01

    The morphogenesis of branched organs remains a subject of abiding interest. Although much is known about the underlying signaling pathways, it remains unclear how macroscopic features of branched organs, including their size, network topology, and spatial patterning, are encoded. Here, we show that,

  11. Variants of the left aortic arch branches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Variants of the left aortic arch branches. N Z Makhanya. MB ChB. R T Mamogale. MB 0113. N Khan. FCRaD (0). Department of Diagnostic Radiology. Medical University of Southern Africa. Abstract. The normal aorta has three branches from its arch, but variations in this pattern are not uncommon. Our.

  12. Experiment list: SRX122496 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available || chip antibody=Rel || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip ant...ibody catalog number 1=sc-71 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc

  13. Cytometer on a Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Salvador M.

    2011-01-01

    A cytometer now under development exploits spatial sorting of sampled cells on a microarray chip followed by use of grating-coupled surface-plasmon-resonance imaging (GCSPRI) to detect the sorted cells. This cytometer on a chip is a prototype of contemplated future miniature cytometers that would be suitable for rapidly identifying pathogens and other cells of interest in both field and laboratory applications and that would be attractive as alternatives to conventional flow cytometers. The basic principle of operation of a conventional flow cytometer requires fluorescent labeling of sampled cells, stringent optical alignment of a laser beam with a narrow orifice, and flow of the cells through the orifice, which is subject to clogging. In contrast, the principle of operation of the present cytometer on a chip does not require fluorescent labeling of cells, stringent optical alignment, or flow through a narrow orifice. The basic principle of operation of the cytometer on a chip also reduces the complexity, mass, and power of the associated laser and detection systems, relative to those needed in conventional flow cytometry. Instead of making cells flow in single file through a narrow flow orifice for sequential interrogation as in conventional flow cytometry, a liquid containing suspended sampled cells is made to flow over the front surface of a microarray chip on which there are many capture spots. Each capture spot is coated with a thin (approximately 50-nm) layer of gold that is, in turn, coated with antibodies that bind to cell-surface molecules characteristic of one the cell species of interest. The multiplicity of capture spots makes it possible to perform rapid, massively parallel analysis of a large cell population. The binding of cells to each capture spot gives rise to a minute change in the index of refraction at the surface of the chip. This change in the index of refraction is what is sensed in GCSPRI, as described briefly below. The identities of the

  14. Biomass production and essential oil yield from leaves, fine stems and resprouts using pruning the crown of Aniba canelilla (H.B.K.) (Lauraceae) in the Central Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Manhães,Adriana Pellegrini; Veiga-Júnior,Valdir Florêncio da; Wiedemann,Larissa Silveira Moreira; Fernandes,Karenn Silveira; Sampaio,Paulo de Tarso Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Aniba canelilla (H.B.K.) Mez. is a tree species from Amazon that produces essential oil. The oil extraction from its leaves and stems can be an alternative way to avoid the tree cutting for production of essential oil. The aim of this study was to analyse factors that may influence the essential oil production and the biomass of resprouts after pruning the leaves and stems of A. canelilla trees. The tree crowns were pruned in the wet season and after nine months the leaves and stems of the re...

  15. Improved β Decay Branching Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, V. E.; Hardy, J. C.; Golovko, V.

    2008-04-01

    The work we report here aims at increasing the precision possible in the measurement of branching ratios for superallowed β^+decays. Such highly accurate values are essential in generating precise ft-values for 0^+->0^+decays, which can then be used to test the Standard Model via the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix [1]. The required precision is ˜0.1% or better. While this limit was already achieved in the case of ^34Ar [2], it would have been very difficult, if not impossible, to achieve it for other β^+-decays without an upgrade to our acquisition and data-reduction systems. We have thus improved the controls over all the key elements in our experimental set-up: we now have direct control over the dead-time for the singles and coincidence channels and <0.1 mm control over the source-detector distance. In addition, we have extensively studied the efficiency of the β-detector with source-measurements tested against various Monte Carlo programs [3]. We have tested our new acquisition set-up on ^60Co and ^22Na (β^- and β^+ emitters respectively) to validate our new methods. Preliminary results on the two sources are statistically consistent with the expected values. An ^34Ar decay experiment using the new experimental configuration has already been performed and is currently analyzed. [1] J.C. Hardy and I.S. Towner, PRC 71, 055501 (2005) [2] V. Iacob et al., BAPS 52(3)B16; BAPS 52(9)HF3 [3] V. Golovko et al., BAPS 52(9)DH4; this BAPS

  16. Radiometer on a Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Lee, Choonsup; Schlecht, Erich T.; Skalare, Anders; Ward, John S.; Siegel, Peter H.; Thomas, Bertrand C.

    2009-01-01

    The radiometer on a chip (ROC) integrates whole wafers together to p rovide a robust, extremely powerful way of making submillimeter rece ivers that provide vertically integrated functionality. By integratin g at the wafer level, customizing the interconnects, and planarizing the transmission media, it is possible to create a lightweight asse mbly performing the function of several pieces in a more conventiona l radiometer.

  17. Mikrofluidik-Chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorte, E.; Lichtenberg, J.

    2000-01-01

    Microfluidic chips are becoming the new paradigm for chemical processing and analysis in the laboratory. Hair-fine channels made in planar substrates using silicon processing technologies replace beakers and tubing for automated liquid transport and handling on a sub-μ L scale. Reduced conduit

  18. Histo-pathology study of the growth of Trichoderma harzianum, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Eutypa lata on grapevine pruning wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheusi MUTAWILA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Protecting grapevine pruning wounds by inoculating them with Trichoderma spp. can preventinfection from trunk disease pathogens. The growth and interactions of both, the biological control agent Trichoderma spp. and the vine pathogens, are not well understood. Green fluorescent protein (GFP-labelled Trichoderma harzianum and red fluorescent protein (DsRed-labelled T. harzianum, were dual-inoculatedwith Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (DsRed or Eutypa lata (GFP on fresh pruning wounds of one-year-oldCabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon blanc shoots. The inoculated fungi were recovered from varying depthswithin the shoots at 30-day-intervals for 90 days. Trichoderma harzianum suppressed the pathogens and grew deeper in the presence of the pathogens than when it was singly inoculated; possibly an indication of pathogen recognition and competitive response. Eutypa lata was completely eliminated from Sauvignon blancin dual-inoculated canes after 90 days. The mycelium of P. chlamydospora (DsRed grew extensively in thexylem vessels and possibly contributed to vessel occlusion. Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and E. lata caused blockage of the vessels and thickening of the vessel walls. Grapevine wood produced both tyloses and gums (gels that blocked xylem vessels as a result of infection. A thickening of the cell walls of xylem fibres occurredonly in E. lata-inoculated shoots, indicative of a different mode of pathogenesis from P. chlamydospora.

  19. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  20. [Croatian Medical Association--Branch Zagreb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaić, Zvonimir; Sain, Snjezana; Gulić, Mirjana; Mahovlić, Vjekoslav; Krznarić, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    The available literature shows us that "Druztvo ljeciteljah u Zagrebus (the Society of Healers in Zagreb) was founded as far back as the year 1845 by a total of thirteen members. This data allows us to follow the role of doctors and health workers in Zagreb through their everyday profession, research, organizational and social work as well as management through a period of over one hundred to seventy years. The Branch Zagreb was active before the official establishment of subsidiaries of CMA which is evident from the minutes of the regular annual assembly of the Croatian Medical Association on 21 March 1948. Until the end of 1956, there was no clear division of labor, functions and competencies between the Branch and the Main Board. Their actions were instead consolidated and the Branch operated within and under the name of Croatian Medical Association. In that year the Branch became independent. The Branch Zagreb is the largest and one of the most active branches of the Croatian Medical Association. At the moment, the Branch brings together 3621 members, regular members--doctors of medicine (2497), doctors of dental medicine (384), retired physicians (710), and associate members (30 specialists with higher education who are not doctors). The Branch is especially accomplished in its activities in the area of professional development of its members and therefore organizes a series of scientific conferences in the framework of continuous education of physicians, allowing its members to acquire necessary points for the extension of their operating license. The choir "Zagrebacki lijecnici pjevaci" (Zagreb Physicians' Choir) of the Croatian Medical Music Society of the CMA and its activities are inseparable from the Branch Zagreb. The Branch is firmly linked to the parent body, the CMA, and thus has a visible impact on the strategy and the activities of the Association as a whole. Most professional societies of the CMA have their headquarters in Zagreb and this is

  1. [Wood chip alveolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Wening, D; Renck, T; Neuhauss, M

    1999-07-01

    A 52 year old farmer was referred to us for investigation of suspected farmer's lung. For many years the farmer had been exposed to hay, straw, pigeons, and fuel chip dust. Under exertion he suffered from shortness of breath. In the farmer's own fuel chips we could identify Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces species and Mucor species. In the farmer's blood we found IgG-antibodies against his own fuel chips, thermophilic actinomycetes, Penicillium species, Mucor species and Aspergillus fumigatus. We did not detect any IgG-antibodies against pigeon serum or pigeon faeces. In order to determine the responsible allergen we performed two challenge tests. In the first test the farmer had to inhale his own hay and straw dust for one hour. This provocation was negative. A second one-hour inhalative challenge was carried out 16 days later using his own fuel chips. This time he experienced significant pulmonary and systemic reactions: body temperature rose by 3.3 degrees C, leucocytes by 12,200/mm3; PO2 fell by 39.4 mmHg, vital capacity by 52%, DLCO by 36%. After the challenge the farmer complained of coughing and dyspnoea. Rales could be heard on auscultation, and an interstitial infiltrate was seen to develop on chest x-rays. After the challenge the patient had to be treated with oxygen and systemic corticosteroids. We diagnosed a fuel chip-induced exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA). Eight days later the parameters were back to normal and the farmer was discharged from our hospital with further corticosteroid medication. This method of inhalative provocation is very important in diagnosing an EAA. Problems arise when the mode and duration of exposure to substances has to be chosen. Because of the risk of severe reactions, inhalative provocations relating to EAAs should only be performed in special centres with an intensive care unit. In this paper we present a diagnosis of fuel chip lung, which is rarely seen in Germany. However, with the rising use of fuel chips as

  2. Mechanisms of Side Branching and Tip Splitting in a Model of Branching Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yina; Sun, Mingzhu; Garfinkel, Alan; Zhao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental work in lung morphogenesis has described an elegant pattern of branching phenomena. Two primary forms of branching have been identified: side branching and tip splitting. In our previous study of lung branching morphogenesis, we used a 4 variable partial differential equation (PDE), due to Meinhardt, as our mathematical model to describe the reaction and diffusion of morphogens creating those branched patterns. By altering key parameters in the model, we were able to reproduce all the branching styles and the switch between branching modes. Here, we attempt to explain the branching phenomena described above, as growing out of two fundamental instabilities, one in the longitudinal (growth) direction and the other in the transverse direction. We begin by decoupling the original branching process into two semi-independent sub-processes, 1) a classic activator/inhibitor system along the growing stalk, and 2) the spatial growth of the stalk. We then reduced the full branching model into an activator/inhibitor model that embeds growth of the stalk as a controllable parameter, to explore the mechanisms that determine different branching patterns. We found that, in this model, 1) side branching results from a pattern-formation instability of the activator/inhibitor subsystem in the longitudinal direction. This instability is far from equilibrium, requiring a large inhomogeneity in the initial conditions. It successively creates periodic activator peaks along the growing stalk, each of which later on migrates out and forms a side branch; 2) tip splitting is due to a Turing-style instability along the transversal direction, that creates the spatial splitting of the activator peak into 2 simultaneously-formed peaks at the growing tip, the occurrence of which requires the widening of the growing stalk. Tip splitting is abolished when transversal stalk widening is prevented; 3) when both instabilities are satisfied, tip bifurcation occurs together with side

  3. Mechanisms of side branching and tip splitting in a model of branching morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yina Guo

    Full Text Available Recent experimental work in lung morphogenesis has described an elegant pattern of branching phenomena. Two primary forms of branching have been identified: side branching and tip splitting. In our previous study of lung branching morphogenesis, we used a 4 variable partial differential equation (PDE, due to Meinhardt, as our mathematical model to describe the reaction and diffusion of morphogens creating those branched patterns. By altering key parameters in the model, we were able to reproduce all the branching styles and the switch between branching modes. Here, we attempt to explain the branching phenomena described above, as growing out of two fundamental instabilities, one in the longitudinal (growth direction and the other in the transverse direction. We begin by decoupling the original branching process into two semi-independent sub-processes, 1 a classic activator/inhibitor system along the growing stalk, and 2 the spatial growth of the stalk. We then reduced the full branching model into an activator/inhibitor model that embeds growth of the stalk as a controllable parameter, to explore the mechanisms that determine different branching patterns. We found that, in this model, 1 side branching results from a pattern-formation instability of the activator/inhibitor subsystem in the longitudinal direction. This instability is far from equilibrium, requiring a large inhomogeneity in the initial conditions. It successively creates periodic activator peaks along the growing stalk, each of which later on migrates out and forms a side branch; 2 tip splitting is due to a Turing-style instability along the transversal direction, that creates the spatial splitting of the activator peak into 2 simultaneously-formed peaks at the growing tip, the occurrence of which requires the widening of the growing stalk. Tip splitting is abolished when transversal stalk widening is prevented; 3 when both instabilities are satisfied, tip bifurcation occurs

  4. Rentabilidade econômica do cultivo do maracujazeiro-amarelo sob diferentes podas de formação Economic rentability of yellow passion fruit crop under different formation prunings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Mariano Hafle

    2010-12-01

    four replications of three plants. The economic and operational costs were higher for more drastic pruning systems (20 and 14 branches per plant, which presented higher production cost and lower productivity. The net income was negative for systems of less tertiary branches (T4 and T5. The systems with less drastic pruning had positive net income ranging from R$ 1,861.06/ha in T3 to R$ 3,895.74/ha (2006/2007 in T2. In T1, T2 and T3 the economic situation result was super normal profits, indicating that the activity is getting returns higher than the best alternatives for capital employment. However, the treatments T4 and T5, results were positive and negative residues, respectively, covering only part of the farming costs, with trend that the producer to seek better alternatives for its capital application, with abandonment of activity.

  5. Cellular and physical mechanisms of branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2014-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is the developmental program that builds the ramified epithelial trees of various organs, including the airways of the lung, the collecting ducts of the kidney, and the ducts of the mammary and salivary glands. Even though the final geometries of epithelial trees are distinct, the molecular signaling pathways that control branching morphogenesis appear to be conserved across organs and species. However, despite this molecular homology, recent advances in cell lineage analysis and real-time imaging have uncovered surprising differences in the mechanisms that build these diverse tissues. Here, we review these studies and discuss the cellular and physical mechanisms that can contribute to branching morphogenesis. PMID:25005470

  6. SU-8 cantilever chip interconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Alicia Charlotte; Janting, Jakob; Schultz, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The polymer SU-8 is becoming widely used for all kinds of micromechanical and microfluidic devices, not only as a photoresist but also as the constitutional material of the devices. Many of these polymeric devices need to include a microfluidic system as well as electrical connection from...... the electrodes on the SU-8 chip to a printed circuit board. Here, we present two different methods of electrically connecting an SU-8 chip, which contains a microfluidic network and free-hanging mechanical parts. The tested electrical interconnection techniques are flip chip bonding using underfill or flip chip...... bonding using an anisotropic conductive film (ACF). These are both widely used in the Si industry and might also be used for the large scale interconnection of SU-8 chips. The SU-8 chip, to which the interconnections are made, has a microfluidic channel with integrated micrometer-sized cantilevers...

  7. On-chip biomedical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göröcs, Zoltán; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip systems have been rapidly emerging to pave the way toward ultra-compact, efficient, mass producible and cost-effective biomedical research and diagnostic tools. Although such microfluidic and microelectromechanical systems have achieved high levels of integration, and are capable of performing various important tasks on the same chip, such as cell culturing, sorting and staining, they still rely on conventional microscopes for their imaging needs. Recently, several alternative on-chip optical imaging techniques have been introduced, which have the potential to substitute conventional microscopes for various lab-on-a-chip applications. Here we present a critical review of these recently emerging on-chip biomedical imaging modalities, including contact shadow imaging, lens-free holographic microscopy, fluorescent on-chip microscopy and lens-free optical tomography.

  8. The prune belly syndrome in a female foetus with urorectal septum malformation sequence: a case report on a rare entity with an unusual association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Dibyajyoti; Kusre, Giriraj; Dutta, Hemonta Kumar; Sarma, Adity

    2013-08-01

    The prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly which is characterized by the triad of an absent or a deficient development of the abdominal muscle, bilateral cryptorchidism and an anomalous urinary tract. In its full form, this condition occurs only in males. However, a similar condition occurs in females in the absence of cryptorchidism. On the other hand, the urorectal septum malformation sequence is a lethal congenital malformation which is characterized by the development of a phallus like structure, a smooth perineum and the absence of urethral, vaginal and anal openings. We are reporting a case of a female foetus with the prune belly syndrome, which was associated with a urorectal septum malformation sequence. A dead foetus with a protruded abdomen and ambiguous genitalia, was born at 32 weeks of pregnancy. On autopsy, it was found to have female internal genital organs. The left kidney, the urinary bladder and the rectum were absent. The sigmoid colon, the ureters and the fallopian tubes opened into a common cloacal sac. The histopathological examination of the ovary showed the presence of Leydig's cells. The occurrence of the female counterpart of the prune belly syndrome is extremely rare and only few of such cases were found to be discussed in the details in the indexed English literature so far. Hence, we hope that this case report will contribute to the existing knowledge on the prune belly syndrome.

  9. Formulation of an alginate-vineyard pruning waste composite as a new eco-friendly adsorbent to remove micronutrients from agroindustrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino, X; Devesa-Rey, R; Moldes, A B; Cruz, J M

    2014-09-01

    The cellulosic fraction of vineyard pruning waste (free of hemicellulosic sugars) was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and evaluated as an eco-friendly adsorbent for the removal of different nutrients and micronutrients (Mg, P, Zn, K, N-NH4, SO4, TN, TC and PO4) from an agroindustrial effluent (winery wastewater). Batch adsorption studies were performed by varying the amounts of cellulosic adsorbent (0.5-2%), sodium alginate (1-5%) and calcium chloride (0.05-0.9M) included in the biocomposite. The optimal formulation of the adsorbent composite varied depending on the target contaminant. Thus, for the adsorption of cationic contaminants (Mg, Zn, K, N-NH4 and TN), the best mixture comprised 5% sodium alginate, 0.05M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste, whereas for removal of anionic compounds (P, SO4 and PO4), the optimal mixture comprised 1% sodium alginate, 0.9M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste. To remove TC from the winery wastewater, the optimal mixture comprised 3% of sodium alginate, 0.475M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enzymatic hydrolyses of pretreated eucalyptus residues, wheat straw or olive tree pruning, and their mixtures towards flexible sugar-based biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Marques, Susana; Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus residues, wheat straw, and olive tree pruning are lignocellulosic materials largely available in Southern Europe and have high potential to be used solely or in mixtures in sugar-based biorefineries for the production of biofuels and other bio-based products. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ce...

  11. Arkansas State University Beebe Branch Faculty Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Univ., Beebe.

    Arkansas State University Beebe Branch provides a liberal arts oriented program for traditional and nontraditional students. Its faculty handbook contains institutional goals, description of responsibilities of administrative officers and faculty committees, faculty employment policies, and administrative and instructional policies. The…

  12. 77 FR 39143 - Executive Branch Qualified Trusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... executive branch qualified trust, an entity must meet the strict requirements for independence set forth in... this subpart. A parent or guardian may execute the umbrella trust agreement on behalf of a required...

  13. FY 1990 Applied Sciences Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, B.M.; Dippo, P.C. (eds.)

    1991-11-01

    The Applied Sciences Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/SERI goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility which is capable of providing information on the full range of photovoltaic components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of photovoltaic technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. This report contains information on surface and interface analysis, materials characterization, development, electro-optical characterization module testing and performance, surface interactions and FTIR spectroscopy.

  14. Overview of the Advanced High Frequency Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the competencies, selected areas of research and technology development activities, and current external collaborative efforts of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced High Frequency Branch.

  15. How Banks Go Abroad : Branches or Subsidiaries?

    OpenAIRE

    Cerutti, Eugenio; Dell'Ariccia, Giovanni; Martínez Pería, Maria Soledad

    2005-01-01

    The authors examine the factors that influence banks' type of organizational form when operating in foreign markets using an original database of the branches and subsidiaries in Latin America and Eastern Europe of the top 100 international banks. They find that regulation, taxation, the degree of desired penetration in the local market, and host-country economic and political risks matter. Banks are more likely to operate as branches in countries that have higher corporate taxes and when the...

  16. Branch retinal artery occlusion in Susac's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Susac's syndrome is a rare disease attribuited to a microangiopathy involving the arterioles of the cochlea, retina and brain. Encefalopathy, hearing loss, and visual deficits are the hallmarks of the disease. Visual loss is due to multiple, recurrent branch arterial retinal occlusions. We report a case of a 20-year-old women with Susac syndrome presented with peripheral vestibular syndrome, hearing loss, ataxia, vertigo, and vision loss due occlusion of the retinal branch artery.

  17. Pruning System and Foliar Application of MgSO 4 Alter Yield and Secondary Metabolite Profile of Rosa damascena under Rainfed Acidic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Probir K; Mahajan, Mitali

    2017-01-01

    Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) is one of the most high-value essential oil-bearing plants in the world. However, the flower yield and quality of essential oil of R. damascena are largely influenced by the pruning practices and balanced supply of plant nutrition. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis whether the pruning system and foliar fertilization of MgSO4 would influence the flower yield, growth and secondary metabolites profile of R. damascena. A field experiment of 10 treatment combinations comprising two pruning systems (complete and partial) and five levels of MgSO4 (water spray, MgSO4 @ 5.0g L-1, 10.0g L-1,15.0g L-1, and 20.0g L-1) was conducted. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with factorial arrangement. Overall, the flower yield ranged from 503.66 to 1114.47 g bush-1, while oil content varied from 0.039 to 0.046% of the fresh flower. Irrespective of foliar spray, partial pruning produced significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher flower yield (893.02 and 503.66 g bush-1) compared with complete pruning system in both the years. Regardless of pruning system, the foliar application of MgSO4 @ 15.0g L-1 registered about 26-38% higher flower yield compared with water spray control. The major constituents of essential oil were citronellol (19.75-48.88%), E-geraniol (9.63-29.6%), Z-citral (0.07-5.97%), nonadecane (6.76-22.32%), and heneicosane (2.87-10.21%). The principal component analysis revealed that the major hydrocarbons such as nonadecene, nonadecane, and heptadecane are positively and highly correlated with each others. The results suggest that higher yield and quality of R. damascena can be achieved through partial pruning system in combination with foliar application MgSO4 under rainfed acidic conditions.

  18. All change at the CERN UBS branch

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    UBS branches across the country are being modernised, and the CERN branch is no exception. The Bulletin brings you a preview of the project, which will get under way in January 2013.   Mock-up of the renovated UBS branch. The changes at the UBS branch in CERN's Main Building will be no simple facelift. The entire bank will be renovated, transforming the present relatively confined premises into an open and attractive area. "The renovation of the UBS branches is part of a wider campaign designed to further enhance our customer relations," explains Ezio Mangia, the head of the CERN branch.  The UBS bank currently occupies three sets of premises in CERN's Main Building (two on the ground floor and one in the basement). "By the end of the work, which is scheduled to be completed by the middle of next year, CERN customers will benefit from a new area with open-plan counters and "hole-in-the-wall" machines accessible to...

  19. Nanoparticle Reactions on Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, J. M.; Kirner, Th.; Wagner, J.; Csáki, A.; Möller, R.; Fritzsche, W.

    The handling of heterogenous systems in micro reactors is difficult due to their adhesion and transport behaviour. Therefore, the formation of precipitates and gas bubbles has to be avoided in micro reaction technology, in most cases. But, micro channels and other micro reactors offer interesting possibilities for the control of reaction conditions and transport by diffusion and convection due to the laminar flow caused by small Reynolds numbers. This can be used for the preparation and modification of objects, which are much smaller than the cross section of microchannels. The formation of colloidal solutions and the change of surface states of nano particles are two important tasks for the application of chip reactors in nanoparticle technology. Some concepts for the preparation and reaction of nanoparticles in modular chip reactor arrangements will be discussed.

  20. Better branch prediction through prophet/critic hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Falcón Samper, Ayose Jesús; Stark, Jared; Ramírez Bellido, Alejandro; Lai, Konrad; Valero Cortés, Mateo

    2005-01-01

    The prophet/critic hybrid conditional branch predictor has two component predictors. The prophet uses a branch's history to predict its direction. We call this prediction and the ones for branches following it the branch future. The critic uses the branch's history and future to critique the prophet's prediction. The hybrid combines the prophet's prediction with the critique, either agrees or disagree, forming the branch's overall prediction. Results shows these hybrids can reduce mispredicts...

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Schemes for Correlated Branch Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Cliff; Gloy, Nicolas; Smith, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    Modern high-performance architectures require extremely accurate branch prediction to overcome the performance limitations of conditional branches. We present a framework that categorizes branch prediction schemes by the way in which they partition dynamic branches and by the kind of predictor that they use. The framework allows us to compare and contrast branch prediction schemes, and to analyze why they work. We use the framework to show how a static correlated branch prediction scheme incr...

  2. Combining living anionic polymerization with branching reactions in an iterative fashion to design branched polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashihara, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Kenji; Yoo, Hee-Soo; Hayashi, Mayumi; Hirao, Akira

    2010-06-16

    This paper reviews the precise synthesis of many-armed and multi-compositional star-branched polymers, exact graft (co)polymers, and structurally well-defined dendrimer-like star-branched polymers, which are synthetically difficult, by a commonly-featured iterative methodology combining living anionic polymerization with branched reactions to design branched polymers. The methodology basically involves only two synthetic steps; (a) preparation of a polymeric building block corresponding to each branched polymer and (b) connection of the resulting building unit to another unit. The synthetic steps were repeated in a stepwise fashion several times to successively synthesize a series of well-defined target branched polymers. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The Analysis of Alpha Beta Pruning and MTD(f) Algorithm to Determine the Best Algorithm to be Implemented at Connect Four Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommy, Lukas; Hardjianto, Mardi; Agani, Nazori

    2017-04-01

    Connect Four is a two-player game which the players take turns dropping discs into a grid to connect 4 of one’s own discs next to each other vertically, horizontally, or diagonally. At Connect Four, Computer requires artificial intelligence (AI) in order to play properly like human. There are many AI algorithms that can be implemented to Connect Four, but the suitable algorithms are unknown. The suitable algorithm means optimal in choosing move and its execution time is not slow at search depth which is deep enough. In this research, analysis and comparison between standard alpha beta (AB) Pruning and MTD(f) will be carried out at the prototype of Connect Four in terms of optimality (win percentage) and speed (execution time and the number of leaf nodes). Experiments are carried out by running computer versus computer mode with 12 different conditions, i.e. varied search depth (5 through 10) and who moves first. The percentage achieved by MTD(f) based on experiments is win 45,83%, lose 37,5% and draw 16,67%. In the experiments with search depth 8, MTD(f) execution time is 35, 19% faster and evaluate 56,27% fewer leaf nodes than AB Pruning. The results of this research are MTD(f) is as optimal as AB Pruning at Connect Four prototype, but MTD(f) on average is faster and evaluates fewer leaf nodes than AB Pruning. The execution time of MTD(f) is not slow and much faster than AB Pruning at search depth which is deep enough.

  4. The content of secondary phenol metabolites in pruned leaves of Aloe arborescens, a comparison between two methods: leaf exudates and leaf water extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutterman, Yitzchak; Chauser-Volfson, Elena

    2008-10-01

    Aloe arborescens plants, originating from the deserts of South Africa, are grown in the Introduction Garden at Sede Boker in the Negev Desert of Israel. In previous studies, we developed agro-technical methods to raise the content of secondary phenol metabolites (SPhMs) in the Aloe leaves. Plants that are subjected to repeated leaf pruning respond by increasing the content of their SPhMs. The SPhMs found in Aloe arborescens include barbaloin, aloenin and derivatives of aloeresin. Such compounds are used for many purposes, including human skin protection from sun and fire burns and high radiation, as products of the pharmaceutics and cosmetics industries, and as food supplements for treating stomach ulcers and diabetes. In the current study, the SPhMs were separated from pruned leaves of the same A. arborescens plants at the same time by two methods: (1) exudation by squeezing the tissues of the leaves, (2) immersion of the leaves' pruned cut bottom in water and collection of the extract. The exudates and extract were frozen, freeze-dried to a powder and the SPhMs were then separated by chromatography. The yield of powder from water extraction from pruned leaves was much lower than the yield from the exudates. However, higher percentages of the powder from the water extraction contained SPhMs (between 80 and 92.7%). The content of powder in leaf exudates from pruned leaves was much higher because the SPhMs were squeezed out from the cells and tissues. However, the percentages of SPhMs in this powder were much lower (between 39 and 62%).

  5. Amdahl 470 Chip Package

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    In the late 70s the larger IBM computers were water cooled. Amdahl, an IBM competitor, invented an air cooling technology for it's computers. His company worked hard, developing a computer that was faster and less expensive than the IBM System/360 mainframe computer systems. This object contains an actual Amdahl series 470 computer logic chip with an air cooling device mounted on top. The package leads and cooling tower are gold-plated.

  6. Prenatal diagnosis of prune-belly syndrome at 13 weeks of gestation: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantoniou, Nikolaos; Papoutsis, Dimitrios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Chatzipapas, Ioannis; Sindos, Michael; Papaspyrou, Irini; Mesogitis, Spiridon; Antsaklis, Aris

    2010-10-01

    We present a case report of a foetus with Prune-Belly syndrome (PBS) which was diagnosed sonographically during the 13th week of gestation and review of the literature. Sonographic diagnosis was based on abnormally distended urinary bladder and abdomen and absence of 'keyhole sign'. Termination was performed on parental request and post-mortem examination revealed absence of abdominal wall musculature and the distended urinary bladder in a male foetus. Prenatal diagnosis of PBS is based on ultrasound and is usually diagnosed in the second trimester. In the first trimester there are very few reports to date. Prognosis and possible treatment options are herein discussed as well as the underlying mechanisms that may explain the clinical presentation of the syndrome.

  7. Peramalan Beban Listrik Jangka Pendek Menggunakan Optimally Pruned Extreme Learning Machine (OPELM pada Sistem Kelistrikan Jawa Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januar Adi Perdana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Peramalan beban listrik jangka pendek merupakan faktor yang sangat penting dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian sistem tenaga listrik. Tujuan dari peramalan beban listrik adalah agar permintaan listrik dan penyediaan listrik dapat seimbang. Karakteristik beban di wilayah Jawa Timur sangat fluktuatif sehingga pada penelitian ini digunakan metode Optimally Pruned Extreme Learning Machine (OPELM untuk meramalkan beban listrik. Kelebihan OPELM ada pada learning speed yang cepat dan pemilihan model yang tepat meskipun datanya mempunyai pola non linier. Keakuratan metode OPELM dapat diketahui dengan menggunakan metode pembanding yaitu metode ELM. Kriteria keakuratan yang digunakan adalah MAPE. Hasil dari perbandingan kriteria keakuratan menunjukkan bahwa hasil peramalan OPELM lebih baik dari ELM. Error rata-rata hasil pengujian peramalan paling minimum menunjukkan MAPE sebesar 1,3579% terjadi pada peramalan hari Jumat, sementara pada hari yang sama dengan metode ELM menghasilkan MAPE sebesar 2,2179%.

  8. Towards Dependable Network-on-Chip Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.

    2015-01-01

    The aggressive semiconductor technology scaling provides the means for doubling the amount of transistors on a single chip each and every 18 months. To efficiently utilize these vast chip resources, Multi-Processor Systems on Chip (MPSoCs) integrated with a Network-on-Chip (NoC) communication

  9. Focal-plane sensor-processor chips

    CERN Document Server

    Zarándy, Ákos

    2011-01-01

    Focal-Plane Sensor-Processor Chips explores both the implementation and application of state-of-the-art vision chips. Presenting an overview of focal plane chip technology, the text discusses smart imagers and cellular wave computers, along with numerous examples of current vision chips.

  10. Ultra-thin chip technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-thin chips are the "smart skin" of a conventional silicon chip. This book shows how very thin and flexible chips can be fabricated and used in many new applications in microelectronics, microsystems, biomedical and other fields. It provides a comprehensive reference to the fabrication technology, post processing, characterization and the applications of ultra-thin chips.

  11. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  12. A Unifying Theory of Branching Morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannezo, Edouard; Scheele, Colinda L G J; Moad, Mohammad; Drogo, Nicholas; Heer, Rakesh; Sampogna, Rosemary V; van Rheenen, Jacco; Simons, Benjamin D

    2017-09-21

    The morphogenesis of branched organs remains a subject of abiding interest. Although much is known about the underlying signaling pathways, it remains unclear how macroscopic features of branched organs, including their size, network topology, and spatial patterning, are encoded. Here, we show that, in mouse mammary gland, kidney, and human prostate, these features can be explained quantitatively within a single unifying framework of branching and annihilating random walks. Based on quantitative analyses of large-scale organ reconstructions and proliferation kinetics measurements, we propose that morphogenesis follows from the proliferative activity of equipotent tips that stochastically branch and randomly explore their environment but compete neutrally for space, becoming proliferatively inactive when in proximity with neighboring ducts. These results show that complex branched epithelial structures develop as a self-organized process, reliant upon a strikingly simple but generic rule, without recourse to a rigid and deterministic sequence of genetically programmed events. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. THE CHIPS SHAPES AT THE BEECH WOODTURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian POPESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available we did research on the process of beech woodturning with low cutting speed. We studied the different chip shapes resulted for different feeds. Based on chip shapes, the phenomena that occur in the cutting area were interpreted by the theory of woodturning. It was found that broken chips occur and the variable hardness of some areas on the workingpiece determined forming of smaller flowing chips. We give the resulting images of the chips which are then analysed and commented.

  14. Measurement of Tau Lepton Branching Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, N.

    2003-12-19

    We present {tau}{sup -} lepton branching fraction measurements based on data from the TPC/Two-Gamma detector at PEP. Using a sample of {tau}{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} events, we examine the resonance structure of the K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} system and obtain the first measurements of branching fractions for {tau}{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sub 1}{sup -}(1270) and {tau}{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sub 1}{sup -}(1400). We also describe a complete set of branching fraction measurements in which all the decays of the {tau}{sup -} lepton are separated into classes defined by the identities of the charged particles and an estimate of the number of neutrals. This is the first such global measurement with decay classes defined by the four possible charged particle species, e, {mu}, {pi}, and K.

  15. Crack branching in cross-ply composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Saponara, Valeria

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this research work is to examine the behavior of an interface crack in a cross-ply laminate which is subject to static and fatigue loading. The failure mechanism analyzed here is crack branching (or crack kinking or intra-layer crack): the delamination located between two different plies starts growing as an interface crack and then may branch into the less tough ply. The specimens were manufactured from different types of Glass/Epoxy and Graphite/Epoxy, by hand lay-up, vacuum bagging and cure in autoclave. Each specimen had a delamination starter. Static mixed mode tests and compressive fatigue tests were performed. Experiments showed the scale of the problem, one ply thickness, and some significant features, like contact in the branched crack. The amount of scatter in the experiments required use of statistics. Exploratory Data Analysis and a factorial design of experiments based on a 8 x 8 Hadamard matrix were used. Experiments and statistics show that there is a critical branching angle above which crack growth is greatly accelerated. This angle seems: (1) not to be affected by the specimens' life; (2) not to depend on the specimen geometry and loading conditions; (3) to strongly depend on the amount of contact in the branched crack. Numerical analysis was conducted to predict crack propagation based on the actual displacement/load curves for static tests. This method allows us to predict the total crack propagation in 2D conditions, while neglecting branching. Finally, the existence of a solution based on analytic continuation is discussed.

  16. The branching channel network in the Yangtze Estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.B.; Ding, P.X.

    2012-01-01

    The channels in the Yangtze Estuary have an ordered-branching structure: The estuary is first divided by the Chongming Island into the North Branch and the South Branch. Then the South Branch is divided into the North Channel and South Channel by the Islands Changxing and Hengsha. The South Channel

  17. Suitability Of Plum And Prune Cultivars, Grown In A High Density Planting System, For Mechanical Harvesting With A Canopy Contact, Straddle Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Augustyn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relation of hand-harvesting cost in plum and prune production to the total costs amounts to 25-40%. Mechanical harvesting makes it possible to cut drastically both the harvesting and total costs. To test the suitability of plum and prune species to be mechanically harvested, an experimental grove (area 0.8 ha was established in 2008. Three plum cultivars and one prune cultivar grafted on semi-dwarf and vigorous rootstocks were planted at high density (1250; 1666; 2500 trees·ha−1. During the span of full yielding (2012-2014, fruits were harvested mechanically with a canopy contact, straddle harvester in continuous motion, designed at the Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice, to harvest tart cherry, and later adapted to harvesting plums and prunes. Trees grafted on semi-dwarf rootstock (‘Wangenheim Prune’ appeared to be more suitable for mechanical harvesting than strong-growing trees grafted on Prunus cerasifera clone ‘Myrobalan’. Cumulative yield per ha (years 2012-2014 was the highest at the highest planting density. Trees grafted on the semi-dwarf rootstock had a higher productivity index than trees grafted on the vigorous rootstock. There was no significant difference in fruit quality related to planting distance. Mechanical harvesting was nearly 40 times more efficient than hand picking. The efficiency of mechanical harvest was from 85% to 90%. Over 5% of fruits were lost on the ground and from 1 to 5% of fruits were left on the tree. Up to 18% of the plums and no more than 10% of the prunes harvested mechanically showed some damage. They can be fully acceptable for processing, for up to 10 days, providing the potential deterioration processes are inhibited by cold storage. The large-fruited cultivars seem to be more susceptible to bruising than the small-fruited ones. For the latter, the share of marketable quality fruits within the mechanically harvested crop amounted to about 80%, which could be a good prognostic

  18. Nature of branching in disordered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Amit S.

    The phenomenon of structural branching is ubiquitous in a wide array of materials such as polymers, ceramic aggregates, networks and gels. These materials with structural branching are a unique class of disordered materials and often display complex architectures. Branching has a strong influence over the structure-property relationships of these materials. Despite the generic importance across a wide spectrum of materials, our physical understanding of the scientific nature of branching and the analytic description and quantification of branching is at an early stage, though many decades of effort have been made. For polymers, branching is conventionally characterized by hydrodynamic radius (size exclusion chromatography, SEC, rheology) or by counting branch sites (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, NMR). SEC and rheology are, at best, qualitative; and quantitative characterization techniques like NMR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (for ceramic nanoparticulate aggregates) have limitations in providing routine quantification. Effective structure characterization, though an important step in understanding these materials, remains elusive. For ceramic aggregates, theoretical work has dominated and only a few publications on analytic studies exist to support theory. A new generic scaling model is proposed in Chapter I, which encompasses the critical structural features associated with these complex architectures. The central theme of this work is the application of this model to describe a variety of disordered structures like aggregated nano-particulates, long chain branched polymers like polyethylene, hyperbranched polymers, multi-arm star polymers, and cyclic macromolecules. The application of the proposed model to these materials results in a number of fundamental structural parameters, like the mass-fractal dimension, df, the minimum path dimension, dmin, connectivity dimension, c, and the mole fraction branch content, φbr. These dimensions

  19. Experiment list: SRX214086 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available entiated || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacturer 1=none || chip antibody 2=none || chip antibody manuf...acturer 2=none http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-

  20. Experiment list: SRX122520 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Irf2 || treatment=LPS || time=30 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab65048 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-498 http://

  1. Experiment list: SRX122485 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Atf3 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody ...catalog number 1=sc-188 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Abcam || chip antibody catalog number 2=ab70005-100

  2. Experiment list: SRX122413 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalo...g number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http:/

  3. Experiment list: SRX122412 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalo...g number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http:/

  4. Experiment list: SRX214073 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ge=Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox2KE-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=none || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacture

  5. Experiment list: SRX214067 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fferentiated || cell line=F9 || chip antibody 1=Pou5f1/Oct4 || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody 2=none || chip antibody manufacturer 2=none http://dbarchive.bioscien

  6. Experiment list: SRX214075 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available age=Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox17EK-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=none || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacture

  7. Experiment list: SRX214071 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox2-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=none || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=

  8. Experiment list: SRX122523 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Irf2 || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab65048 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-498 http://

  9. Experiment list: SRX214085 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available entiated || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacturer 1=none || chip antibody 2=none || chip antibody manuf...acturer 2=none http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-

  10. Experiment list: SRX122414 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=30 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http://d

  11. Experiment list: SRX122522 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Irf2 || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab65048 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-498 http://

  12. Experiment list: SRX122416 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http://d

  13. Experiment list: SRX122417 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http://d

  14. Experiment list: SRX122406 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Irf1 || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog... number 1=ab52520 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-640 http:/

  15. Experiment list: SRX122521 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Irf2 || treatment=LPS || time=30 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab65048 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-498 http://

  16. Experiment list: SRX122566 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Stat2 || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog... number 1=ab53149 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-839 http:/

  17. Experiment list: SRX122415 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=30 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http://d

  18. Experiment list: SRX214074 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ge=Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox17EK-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=none || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacture

  19. Experiment list: SRX214072 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e=Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox2KE-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=none || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacture

  20. Experiment list: SRX122565 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Stat2 || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog... number 1=ab53149 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-839 http:/

  1. Experiment list: SRX214070 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available =Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox2-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=none || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacturer 2

  2. The unique branching patterns of Deinococcus glycogen branching enzymes are determined by their N-terminal domains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomo, M.; Kralj, S.; van der Maarel, M. J. E. C.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen branching enzymes (GBE) or 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzymes (EC 2.4.1.18) introduce alpha-1,6 branching points in alpha-glucans, e.g., glycogen. To identify structural features in GBEs that determine their branching pattern specificity, the Deinococcus geothermalis and Deinococcus

  3. Partial Order Reduction for Probabilistic Branching Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baier, Christel; d' Argenio, P.R.; Größer, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    In the past, partial order reduction has been used successfully to combat the state explosion problem in the context of model checking for non-probabilistic systems. For both linear time and branching time specifications, methods have been developed to apply partial order reduction in the context of

  4. Simple statistical model for branched aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    We propose a statistical model that can reproduce the size distribution of any branched aggregate, including amylopectin, dendrimers, molecular clusters of monoalcohols, and asphaltene nanoaggregates. It is based on the conditional probability for one molecule to form a new bond with a molecule...

  5. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  6. Origin of buds, branches, and sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that survivor trees in rural, managed forests rebuild broken crowns with new branches and foliage after ice storm injury (Shortle et al. 2014). Veteran trees in historic parks and landscapes show repeated cycles of crown loss and recovery (Fay 2002). Crown rebuilding or reiteration from sprouts is a physiological response with architectural...

  7. Academic Branch Libraries: Assessment and Collection Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Julie

    2009-01-01

    An ongoing project at Mercer University's Regional Academic Center Libraries illustrates how utilizing established assessment guidelines, stakeholder input, and a clear understanding of audience and curriculum needs may all be used to optimize a collection. Academic branch libraries often have clear collection development limitations in terms of…

  8. Headward growth and branching in subterranean channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrolli, Arshad; Ionkin, Nikolay; Panaitescu, Andreea

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the erosive growth of channels in a thin subsurface sedimentary layer driven by hydrodynamic drag toward understanding subterranean networks and their relation to river networks charged by ground water. Building on a model based on experimental observations of fluid-driven evolution of bed porosity, we focus on the characteristics of the channel growth and their bifurcations in a horizontal rectangular domain subject to various fluid source and sink distributions. We find that the erosion front between low- and high-porosity regions becomes unstable, giving rise to branched channel networks, depending on the spatial fluctuations of the fluid flow near the front and the degree to which the flow is above the erodibility threshold of the medium. Focusing on the growth of a network starting from a single channel, and by identifying the channel heads and their branch points, we find that the number of branches increases sublinearly and is affected by the source distribution. The mean angles between branches are found to be systematically lower than river networks in humid climates and depend on the domain geometry.

  9. Chips with everything

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    In March 1972, Sir Robin Saxby gave a talk to the Royal Television Society called 'TV and Chips' about a 'state of the art' integrated circuit, containing 50 resistors and 50 transistors. Today's 'state of the art' chips contain up to a billion transistors. This enormous leap forward illustrates how dramatically the semiconductor industry has evolved in the past 34 years. The next 10 years are predicted to bring times of turbulent change for the industry, as more and more digital devices are used around the world. In this talk, Sir Robin will discuss the history of the Microchip Industry in parallel with ARM's history, demonstrating how a small European start-up can become a world player in the IT sector. He will also present his vision of important applications and developments in the next 20 years that are likely to become even more pervasive than the mobile phone is today, and will provide anecdotes and learning points from his own experience at ARM. About ARM: Sir Robin and a group of designers from Acorn...

  10. The AFCRL Lunar amd Planetary Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2011-07-01

    The Lunar and Planetary research program led by Dr John (Jack) Salisbury in the 1960s at the United States Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (AFCRL) investigated the surface characteristics of Solar System bodies. The Branch was one of the first groups to measure the infrared spectra of likely surface materials in the laboratory under appropriate vacuum and temperature conditions. The spectral atlases created from the results were then compared to photometric and spectral measurements obtained from ground- and balloon-based telescopes to infer the mineral compositions and physical conditions of the regoliths of the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Starting from scratch, the Branch initially sponsored observations of other groups while its in-house facilities were being constructed. The earliest contracted efforts include the spatially-resolved mapping of the Moon in the first half of the 1960s by Richard W. Shorthill and John W. Saari of the Boeing Scientific Research Laboratories in Seattle. This effort ultimately produced isophotal and isothermal contour maps of the Moon during a lunation and time-resolved thermal images of the eclipsed Moon. The Branch also sponsored probe rocket-based experiments flown by Riccardo Giacconi and his group at American Science and Engineering Inc. that produced the first observations of X-ray stars in 1962 and later the first interferometric measurement of the ozone and C02 emission in the upper atmosphere. The Branch also made early use of balloon-based measurements. This was a singular set of experiments, as these observations are among the very few mid-infrared astronomical measurements obtained from a balloon platform. Notable results of the AFCRL balloon flights were the mid-infrared spectra of the spatially-resolved Moon obtained with the University of Denver mid-infrared spectrometer on the Branch's balloon-borne 61-cm telescope during a 1968 flight. These observations remain among the best available. Salisbury also funded

  11. Packaging commercial CMOS chips for lab on a chip integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta-Chaudhuri, Timir; Abshire, Pamela; Smela, Elisabeth

    2014-05-21

    Combining integrated circuitry with microfluidics enables lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices to perform sensing, freeing them from benchtop equipment. However, this integration is challenging with small chips, as is briefly reviewed with reference to key metrics for package comparison. In this paper we present a simple packaging method for including mm-sized, foundry-fabricated dies containing complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuits within LOCs. The chip is embedded in an epoxy handle wafer to yield a level, large-area surface, allowing subsequent photolithographic post-processing and microfluidic integration. Electrical connection off-chip is provided by thin film metal traces passivated with parylene-C. The parylene is patterned to selectively expose the active sensing area of the chip, allowing direct interaction with a fluidic environment. The method accommodates any die size and automatically levels the die and handle wafer surfaces. Functionality was demonstrated by packaging two different types of CMOS sensor ICs, a bioamplifier chip with an array of surface electrodes connected to internal amplifiers for recording extracellular electrical signals and a capacitance sensor chip for monitoring cell adhesion and viability. Cells were cultured on the surface of both types of chips, and data were acquired using a PC. Long term culture (weeks) showed the packaging materials to be biocompatible. Package lifetime was demonstrated by exposure to fluids over a longer duration (months), and the package was robust enough to allow repeated sterilization and re-use. The ease of fabrication and good performance of this packaging method should allow wide adoption, thereby spurring advances in miniaturized sensing systems.

  12. Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule. PMID:24714065

  13. The Prune Belly Syndrome in a Female Foetus with Urorectal Septum Malformation Sequence: A Case Report on a Rare Entity with an Unusual Association

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, Dibyajyoti; Kusre, Giriraj; Dutta, Hemonta Kumar; Sarma, Adity

    2013-01-01

    The prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly which is characterized by the triad of an absent or a deficient development of the abdominal muscle, bilateral cryptorchidism and an anomalous urinary tract. In its full form, this condition occurs only in males. However, a similar condition occurs in females in the absence of cryptorchidism. On the other hand, the urorectal septum malformation sequence is a lethal congenital malformation which is characterized by the development of a phal...

  14. Trunk kinematics and low back pain during pruning among vineyard workers-A field study at the Chateau Larose-Trintaudon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguier, Romain; Madeleine, Pascal; Rose-Dulcina, Kévin; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of low back disorders is dramatically high in viticulture. Field measurements that objectively quantify work exposure can provide information on the relationship between the adopted trunk postures and low back pain. The purposes of the present study were three-fold (1) to carry out a kinematics analysis of vineyard-workers' pruning activity by extracting the duration of bending and rotation of the trunk, (2) to question separately the relationship between the duration of forward bending or trunk rotation with low back pain intensity and pressure pain sensitivity and (3) to question the relationship between the combined duration of forward bending and trunk rotation on low back pain intensity and pressure pain sensitivity. Fifteen vineyard-workers were asked to perform pruning activity for 12 minutes with a wireless triaxial accelerometer placed on their trunk. Kinematic analysis of the trunk showed that vineyard-workers spent more than 50% of the time with the trunk flexed greater than 30° and more than 20% with the trunk rotated greater than 10°. These results show that pruning activity lead to the adoption of forward bended and rotated trunk postures that could significantly increase the risk of work related musculoskeletal disorders in the low back. However, this result was mitigated by the observation of an absence of significant association between the duration of forward bending and trunk rotation with low back pain intensity or pressure pain sensitivity. Even if prospective field measurements and studies assessing the effects of low back pain confounders are needed, this field study provides new genuine information on trunk kinematics during pruning activity.

  15. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and yield of Pachyrhizus Erosus (L) urban cultivars and Pachyrhizus Ahipa (WEDD) parodi landraces as affected by flower pruning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellanos, J.Z.; Zapata, F.; Badillo, V.

    1997-01-01

    biomass without N fertiliser application. In some climatic regions P. erosus is reproductively pruned in order to obtain economic yields, but little is known about how the pruning influences the capacity of these tuber legumes to fix nitrogen. Two experiments were carried out to investigate the effect...... as reference crops. In the second experiment N-15 isotopic dilution methodology was used to determine N-2 fixation in the same cultivars as in Experiment 1, using the same reference crops, but tuber legumes were only grown with pruning of flowers. In the first experiment the amounts of nitrogen fixed ranged...... to 151 kg N ha(-1) and their N concentration ranged from 32 to 35 g kg(-1). In the second experiment the % N derived from the atmosphere (Ndfa) was estimated to range from 55 to 69% for P. ahipa and from 68 to 77% for P. erosus, while the amount of N fixed ranged from 74 to 95 kg N ha(-1) and from 172...

  16. Whole-Teflon microfluidic chips

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kangning Ren; Wen Dai; Jianhua Zhou; Jing Su; Hongkai Wu

    2011-01-01

    ... them. In this work, we present a convenient strategy for fabricating whole-Teflon microfluidic chips with integrated valves that show outstanding inertness to various chemicals and extreme resistance against all solvents...

  17. S-Chip Technical Assistance

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The page will provide access to reports and other published products designed to assist states with complicated S-Chip technical issues. The reports and products...

  18. 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    González, Miguel; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Martínez, Rodrigo; Minuesa, Carmen; Molina, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Ramos, Alfonso; WBPA15

    2016-01-01

    This volume gathers papers originally presented at the 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications (WBPA15), which was held from 7 to 10 April 2015 in Badajoz, Spain (http://branching.unex.es/wbpa15/index.htm). The papers address a broad range of theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory. Further, they amply demonstrate that the theoretical research in this area remains vital and topical, as well as the relevance of branching concepts in the development of theoretical approaches to solving new problems in applied fields such as Epidemiology, Biology, Genetics, and, of course, Population Dynamics. The topics covered can broadly be classified into the following areas: 1. Coalescent Branching Processes 2. Branching Random Walks 3. Population Growth Models in Varying and Random Environments 4. Size/Density/Resource-Dependent Branching Models 5. Age-Dependent Branching Models 6. Special Branching Models 7. Applications in Epidemiology 8. Applications in Biology and Genetics Offer...

  19. Clinical considerations of the glandular branch of the lacrimal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluckman, Matthew; Fan, Jerry; Balsiger, Heather; Scott, Gabriel; Gest, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The lacrimal artery is classically described as a branch of the ophthalmic artery supplied by the internal carotid. In this study, 25 orbits were dissected to identify variations in glandular branching and to compare them to previously published accounts. The glandular branching patterns of the lacrimal artery fall into two categories, those that branch (56%) and those that do not branch (44%). We found the medial and lateral glandular branches to be equal in diameter with a divergence of 2.67-40.58 mm proximal to the gland parenchyma. The long glandular branches run alongside the superolateral aspect of the orbit. The lateral branch runs lateral to the lateral rectus muscle. The medial branch runs superomedial to the lateral rectus muscle and lateral to the superior rectus muscle. In relation to the lacrimal gland, the medial branch enters the superior aspect of the gland parenchyma and the lateral branch enters its inferior aspect. The average branch lengths were 17.88 mm (medial) and 13.51 mm (lateral) as measured with a Mitutoyo Absolute 1/100 mm caliper. We could not confirm the existence of a third branch supplying the lacrimal gland, as posited by other authors. The key finding in this study is that the lacrimal gland is predominantly supplied by two significant arterial branches, both of which must be identified during procedures involving the lateral orbit. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. ATLAS calibration delay chip study

    CERN Document Server

    Massol, N

    2003-01-01

    The delay chip is an ASIC developed to precisely adjust signals within the range of 0-24ns in steps of 1ns. In this note, we report the study of the characteristics of this chip like the linearity and the jitter. We describe the influence of temperature and supply voltage on its behavior. Finally, we study its dependency due to the variations in process on a whole production.

  1. Tunable on chip optofluidic laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakal, Avraham; Vannahme, Christoph; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    On chip tunable laser is demonstrated by realizing a microfluidic droplet array. The periodicity is controlled by the pressure applied to two separate inlets, allowing to tune the lasing frequency over a broad spectral range.......On chip tunable laser is demonstrated by realizing a microfluidic droplet array. The periodicity is controlled by the pressure applied to two separate inlets, allowing to tune the lasing frequency over a broad spectral range....

  2. Microfluidic Chips for Semen Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerink, L.I.; Sprenkels, A.J.; Oosterhuis, G.J.E.; Vermes, I.; van den Berg, A.

    2012-01-01

    The gold standard of semen analysis is still an manual method, which is time-consuming, labour intensive and needs thorough quality control. Microfluidics can also offer advantages for this application. Therefore a first step in the development of a microfluidic chip has been made, which enables the man the semen analysis at home. In this article recent efforts to determine the concentration and motility using a microfluidic chip are summarized. PMID:27683417

  3. Analysis Methods of Magnesium Chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmann, Sven; Ditze, André; Scharf, Christiane

    2015-11-01

    The quality of recycled magnesium from chips depends strongly on their exposure to inorganic and organic impurities that are added during the production processes. Different kinds of magnesium chips from these processes were analyzed by several methods. In addition, the accuracy and effectiveness of the methods are discussed. The results show that the chips belong either to the AZ91, AZ31, AM50/60, or AJ62 alloy. Some kinds of chips show deviations from the above-mentioned normations. Different impurities result mainly from transition metals and lime. The water and oil content does not exceed 25%, and the chip size is not more than 4 mm in the diameter. The sieve analysis shows good results for oily and wet chips. The determination of oil and water shows better results for the application of a Soxhlet compared with the addition of lime and vacuum distillation. The most accurate values for the determination of water and oil are obtained by drying at 110°C (for water) and washing with acetone (for oil) by hand.

  4. Frequência e intensidade de poda em pomar jovem de laranjeiras 'Valência' sob manejo orgânico Frequency and intensity of pruning young 'Valencia' orange trees in orchards under organic culture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Santarosa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da frequência e intensidade de poda sobre a produção e qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira 'Valência', enxertada sobre Poncirus trifoliata, em pomar jovem, sob sistema de manejo orgânico. O plantio foi realizado em agosto de 2001, em espaçamento de 5,0x2,5m, em Montenegro, Rio Grande do Sul (RS. Os tratamentos testados foram: A - Testemunha (sem poda; B - Poda anual de 15%; C - Poda bienal de 15%; D - Poda bienal de 30%; e E - Poda trienal de 30% do volume da copa. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, sendo quatro repetições e quatro plantas por parcela. Nas safras de 2006, 2007 e 2008, foram avaliados: número, massa total de frutos e massa média dos frutos, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT e relação SST/AT do suco dos frutos. Em pomares jovens, com menos de sete anos de idade, durante três safras consecutivas, verificou-se que as podas de frutificação não alteram a produção acumulada, nem a qualidade físico-química dos frutos, mas reduzem a produção no ano subsequente à execução da poda.This study evaluated the influence of frequency and intensity of pruning on young orchards, with organic management system, on the yield and fruit quality of 'Valencia' oranges. The trees were budded on Poncirus trifoliata rootstock and implanted in August, 2001, in Montenegro-RS. The pruning tested was: A - control, without pruning; B - annual pruning of 15%; C - biennial pruning of 15%; D - biennial pruning of 30% and E - three-year 30% pruning of the canopy volume. The experiment had a randomized complete-block design, with four-trees plots and four replications. The total fruit mass production was registered and the average weight fruit in the crops 2006, 2007 and 2008 was determined. The fruit quality, total soluble solids (TSS, total acids concentration (TTA and ratio (TSS/TTA were assessed. In orchards with fewer than seven years old

  5. STUDY OF CHIP IGNITION AND CHIP MORPHOLOGY AFTER MILLING OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Zagórski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the impact of specified technological parameters of milling (vc, fz, ap on time to ignition. Stages leading to chip ignition were analysed. Metallographic images of magnesium chip were presented. No significant difference was observed in time to ignition in different chip fractions. Moreover, the surface of chips was free of products of ignition and signs of strong oxidation.

  6. Masquerading bundle branch block: a variety of right bundle branch block with left anterior fascicular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizari, Marcelo V; Baranchuk, Adrian; Chiale, Pablo A

    2013-01-01

    The so-called 'masquerading' type of right bundle branch block is caused by the simultaneous presence of a high-degree left anterior fascicular block often accompanied with severe left ventricular enlargement and/or fibrotic block in the anterolateral wall of the left ventricle. These conditions tend to reorient the terminal electrical forces of the QRS complex towards the left and upwards, in such a way that the characteristic slurred S wave in lead I becomes smaller or even disappears. In many cases of standard masquerading right bundle branch block, a small Q wave in lead I is present due to the initial forces of the left anterior fascicular block, which are oriented rightwards and inferiorly. However, in some cases, the Q wave in lead I also vanishes, and the mimicking of a left bundle branch block becomes perfect in standard leads. This is commonly associated with an inferior myocardial infarction or severe inferior fibrosis in cardiomyopathies. The typical QRS changes of right bundle branch block may eventually be concealed even in the right precordial leads; under such circumstances, the ECG diagnosis may be mistaken and the right bundle branch block totally missed. The masquerading right bundle branch block carries a poor prognosis, since it always implies the presence of a severe underlying heart disease.

  7. Time series modeling with pruned multi-layer perceptron and 2-stage damped least-squares method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyant, Cyril; Tamas, Wani; Paoli, Christophe; Balu, Aurélia; Muselli, Marc; Nivet, Marie-Laure; Notton, Gilles

    2014-03-01

    A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) defines a family of artificial neural networks often used in TS modeling and forecasting. Because of its "black box" aspect, many researchers refuse to use it. Moreover, the optimization (often based on the exhaustive approach where "all" configurations are tested) and learning phases of this artificial intelligence tool (often based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm; LMA) are weaknesses of this approach (exhaustively and local minima). These two tasks must be repeated depending on the knowledge of each new problem studied, making the process, long, laborious and not systematically robust. In this paper a pruning process is proposed. This method allows, during the training phase, to carry out an inputs selecting method activating (or not) inter-nodes connections in order to verify if forecasting is improved. We propose to use iteratively the popular damped least-squares method to activate inputs and neurons. A first pass is applied to 10% of the learning sample to determine weights significantly different from 0 and delete other. Then a classical batch process based on LMA is used with the new MLP. The validation is done using 25 measured meteorological TS and cross-comparing the prediction results of the classical LMA and the 2-stage LMA.

  8. Improved Pruning algorithms and Divide-and-Conquer strategies for Dead-End Elimination, with application to protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Ivelin; Lilien, Ryan H; Donald, Bruce R

    2006-07-15

    Structure-based protein redesign can help engineer proteins with desired novel function. Improving computational efficiency while still maintaining the accuracy of the design predictions has been a major goal for protein design algorithms. The combinatorial nature of protein design results both from allowing residue mutations and from the incorporation of protein side-chain flexibility. Under the assumption that a single conformation can model protein folding and binding, the goal of many algorithms is the identification of the Global Minimum Energy Conformation (GMEC). A dominant theorem for the identification of the GMEC is Dead-End Elimination (DEE). DEE-based algorithms have proven capable of eliminating the majority of candidate conformations, while guaranteeing that only rotamers not belonging to the GMEC are pruned. However, when the protein design process incorporates rotameric energy minimization, DEE is no longer provably-accurate. Hence, with energy minimization, the minimized-DEE (MinDEE) criterion must be used instead. In this paper, we present provably-accurate improvements to both the DEE and MinDEE criteria. We show that our novel enhancements result in a speedup of up to a factor of more than 1000 when applied in redesign for three different proteins: Gramicidin Synthetase A, plastocyanin, and protein G. Contact authors for source code.

  9. Dielectric response of branched copper phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamam, Khalil J.; Al-Amar, Mohammad M.; Mezei, Gellert; Guda, Ramakrishna; Burns, Clement A.

    2017-09-01

    The dielectric constant of pressed pellets and thin films of branched copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) was investigated as a function of frequency from 0.1 kHz to 1 MHz and temperature from 20 °C to 100 °C. Surface morphology was studied using a scanning electron microscope. The high-frequency values of the dielectric constant of pellets and thin films are ~3.5 and ~5.8, respectively. The response was only weakly dependent on frequency and temperature. The branched structure of the CuPc molecules helped to cancel out the effects of low-frequency polarization mechanisms. A planar delocalized charge system with two-dimensional localization was found using time-resolved photoluminescence measurements.

  10. Branching time, indeterminism and tense logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the historical and philosophical background of the introduction of the notion of branching time in philosophical logic as it is revealed in the hitherto unpublished mail-correspondence between Saul Kripke and A.N. Prior in the late 1950s. The paper reveals that the idea...... was first suggested by Saul Kripke in a letter to A.N. Prior, dated September 3, 1958, and it is shown how the elaboration of the idea in the course of the correspondence was intimately intervowen with considerations of how to represent indeterminism and of the adequacy of tensed logic in light of special...... relativity. The correspondence underpins the point that Prior’s later development of branching time may be understood as a crucial part of his attempt at the formulating a conceptual framework integrating basic human notions of time and free choice....

  11. Branched standard spines of 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetti, Riccardo

    1997-01-01

    This book provides a unified combinatorial realization of the categroies of (closed, oriented) 3-manifolds, combed 3-manifolds, framed 3-manifolds and spin 3-manifolds. In all four cases the objects of the realization are finite enhanced graphs, and only finitely many local moves have to be taken into account. These realizations are based on the notion of branched standard spine, introduced in the book as a combination of the notion of branched surface with that of standard spine. The book is intended for readers interested in low-dimensional topology, and some familiarity with the basics is assumed. A list of questions, some of which concerning relations with the theory of quantum invariants, is enclosed.

  12. Photovoltaic Program Branch annual report, FY 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, K A [ed.

    1990-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Photovoltaic (PV) Program Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30, 1989. The branch is responsible for managing the subcontracted portion of SERI's PV Advanced Research and Development Project. In fiscal year (FY) 1989, this included nearly 50 subcontracts, with a total annualized funding of approximately $13.1 million. Approximately two-thirds of the subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of nearly $4 million. The six technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontracted program: Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, New Ideas, and University Participation. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1989, and future research directions. Each report will be cataloged individually.

  13. COELIAC TRUNK BRANCHING PATTERN AND VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Jose Thomson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anatomical variations involving the visceral arteries are common. However, variations in coeliac trunk are usually asymptomatic, they may become important in patients undergoing diagnostic angiography for gastrointestinal bleeding or prior to an operative procedure. This study was useful for knowing the possible morphological variations before an upper abdominal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a descriptive study done by cadaveric dissection, conducted on thirty cadavers. The coeliac trunk being examined for its origin, branching pattern, distribution, and variations. Results were statistically analysed and compared with the previous studies. RESULTS In our study, 60% of the coeliac trunk shows variations and 40% have normal branching pattern. A complete absence of coeliac trunk was observed in one case. In the present study the Right inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6% and left inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 3 cases (9.9%. Both inferior phrenic arteries are arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6%. The common hepatomesenteric trunk and gastro splenic trunk was found in 1 case (3.3%. Hepatosplenic trunk was found in 2 cases (6.6%. In another 2 cases (6.6% gastric and hepatic artery originate from coeliac trunk but splenic artery has a separate origin from abdominal aorta. An absent trunk was also found in 1 case (3.3%. In 5 cases (16.7% showed trifurcation with variation in the branching pattern. CONCLUSION The branching pattern and extreme degree variability in coeliac trunk as brought out in the observations of the present study make it obvious that the present study almost falls in description with previous studies.

  14. Multiple-Block Ahead Branch Predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Seznec, André; Jourdan, Stéphan; Sainrat, Pascal; Michaud, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    A basic rule in computer architecture is that a processor cannot execute an application faster than it fetches its instructions. To overcome the instruction fetch bottleneck shown in wide-dispatch «brainiac» processors, this paper presents a novel cost-effective mechanism called the multiple-block ahead branch predictor that predicts in an efficient way addresses of multiple basic blocks in a single cycle. Moreover and unlike the previous multiple predictor schemes, the multiple-block ahead b...

  15. Chip seal design and specifications : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Chip seals or seal coats, are a pavement preservation method constructed using a layer of asphalt binder that is covered by a uniformly graded aggregate. The benefits of chip seal include: sealing surface cracks, keeping water from penetrating the su...

  16. Fabrication and characterization of branched carbon nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharali Malik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have atomically smooth surfaces and tend not to form covalent bonds with composite matrix materials. Thus, it is the magnitude of the CNT/fiber interfacial strength that limits the amount of nanomechanical interlocking when using conventional CNTs to improve the structural behavior of composite materials through reinforcement. This arises from two well-known, long standing problems in this research field: (a inhomogeneous dispersion of the filler, which can lead to aggregation and (b insufficient reinforcement arising from bonding interactions between the filler and the matrix. These dispersion and reinforcement issues could be addressed by using branched multiwalled carbon nanotubes (b-MWCNTs as it is known that branched fibers can greatly enhance interfacial bonding and dispersability. Therefore, the use of b-MWCNTs would lead to improved mechanical performance and, in the case of conductive composites, improved electrical performance if the CNT filler was better dispersed and connected. This will provide major benefits to the existing commercial application of CNT-reinforced composites in electrostatic discharge materials (ESD: There would be also potential usage for energy conversion, e.g., in supercapacitors, solar cells and Li-ion batteries. However, the limited availability of b-MWCNTs has, to date, restricted their use in such technological applications. Herein, we report an inexpensive and simple method to fabricate large amounts of branched-MWCNTs, which opens the door to a multitude of possible applications.

  17. Teores de carboidratos em pessegueiros submetidos a diferentes intensidades de poda verde em clima tropical Levels of carbohydrates in peaches submitted to different intensity of green pruning in tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rehder da Cunha Borba

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar a partição de assimilados entre a copa e raízes de pessegueiro, duas intensidades de poda verde, após a colheita dos frutos, foram efetuadas em pessegueiros 'Ouromel-2', na região de Piracicaba-SP: poda leve e poda de renovação (poda drástica. Os teores de carboidratos nas raízes e parte aérea foram determinados em vários estágios fenológicos da planta ao longo do ciclo. Verificou-se que existe uma fase de consumo de carboidratos, que vai deste a poda de dormência (poda seca até a maturação dos frutos e uma fase de acúmulo, que vai desde a maturação dos frutos até a queda das folhas. Plantas que sofreram poda leve apresentaram, de maneira geral, maiores teores de carboidratos ao longo do ciclo do que plantas que sofreram poda de renovação, apresentando, assim, maior potencial de produção.With the objective to verify the photosynthate partitioning in roots and canopy of peache trees, two intensity of green pruning: light pruning and renovation pruning (heavy pruning. After fruit harvest were evaluated in 'Ouromel-2' peach in Piracicaba-SP. The carbohydrates levels of roots and canopy were evaluated in several phonological stages of the tree during the crop cycle. It was verified that there is a phase of consumption of carbohydrates, from dormant pruning to the ripening of fruits, and a phase of accumulation of carbohydrates, from the ripening of fruits to the falling of the leaves. In general, plants lightly pruned showed higher levels of carbohydrates during the crop cycle if compared to heavily pruned plants, showing then, higher potential of production.

  18. Preserving the pulmonary vagus nerve branches during thoracoscopic esophagectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, Teus J.; Ruurda, Jelle P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/257561021; Luyer, Misha D P; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; van der Horst, Sylvia; Bleys, Ronald L A W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/134440455; van Hillegersberg, Richard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110706242

    Background: Pulmonary vagus branches are transected as part of a transthoracic esophagectomy and lymphadenectomy for cancer. This may contribute to the development of postoperative pulmonary complications. Studies in which sparing of the pulmonary vagus nerve branches during thoracoscopic

  19. Asymmetric Branching in Biological Resource Distribution Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummer, Alexander Byers

    There is a remarkable relationship between an organism's metabolic rate (resting power consumption) and the organism's mass. It may be a universal law of nature that an organism's resting metabolic rate is proportional to its mass to the power of 3/4. This relationship, known as Kleiber's Law, appears to be valid for both plants and animals. This law is important because it implies that larger organisms are more efficient than smaller organisms, and knowledge regarding metabolic rates are essential to a multitude of other fields in ecology and biology. This includes modeling the interactions of many species across multiple trophic levels, distributions of species abundances across large spatial landscapes, and even medical diagnostics for respiratory and cardiovascular pathologies. Previous models of vascular networks that seek to identify the origin of metabolic scaling have all been based on the unrealistic assumption of perfectly symmetric branching. In this dissertation I will present a theory of asymmetric branching in self-similar vascular networks (published by Brummer et al. in [9]). The theory shows that there can exist a suite of vascular forms that result in the often observed 3/4 metabolic scaling exponent of Kleiber's Law. Furthermore, the theory makes predictions regarding major morphological features related to vascular branching patterns and their relationships to metabolic scaling. These predictions are suggestive of evolutionary convergence in vascular branching. To test these predictions, I will present an analysis of real mammalian and plant vascular data that shows: (i) broad patterns in vascular networks across entire animal kingdoms and (ii) within these patterns, plant and mammalian vascular networks can be uniquely distinguished from one another (publication in preparation by Brummer et al.). I will also present results from a computational study in support of point (i). Namely, that asymmetric branching may be the optimal strategy to

  20. Efficient and effective pruning strategies for health data de-identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasser, Fabian; Kohlmayer, Florian; Kuhn, Klaus A

    2016-04-30

    Privacy must be protected when sensitive biomedical data is shared, e.g. for research purposes. Data de-identification is an important safeguard, where datasets are transformed to meet two conflicting objectives: minimizing re-identification risks while maximizing data quality. Typically, de-identification methods search a solution space of possible data transformations to find a good solution to a given de-identification problem. In this process, parts of the search space must be excluded to maintain scalability. The set of transformations which are solution candidates is typically narrowed down by storing the results obtained during the search process and then using them to predict properties of the output of other transformations in terms of privacy (first objective) and data quality (second objective). However, due to the exponential growth of the size of the search space, previous implementations of this method are not well-suited when datasets contain many attributes which need to be protected. As this is often the case with biomedical research data, e.g. as a result of longitudinal collection, we have developed a novel method. Our approach combines the mathematical concept of antichains with a data structure inspired by prefix trees to represent properties of a large number of data transformations while requiring only a minimal amount of information to be stored. To analyze the improvements which can be achieved by adopting our method, we have integrated it into an existing algorithm and we have also implemented a simple best-first branch and bound search (BFS) algorithm as a first step towards methods which fully exploit our approach. We have evaluated these implementations with several real-world datasets and the k-anonymity privacy model. When integrated into existing de-identification algorithms for low-dimensional data, our approach reduced memory requirements by up to one order of magnitude and execution times by up to 25 %. This allowed us to increase

  1. A chip of fiber optical trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Heming; Hu, Huizhu; Zhang, Lei; Ge, Xiaojia; Shen, Yu

    2016-10-01

    A chip of fiber optical trap paves the way to realize the miniaturization and portability of devices based on dual beam optical trap, without loss of stability. We have designed two types of chip of fiber optical trap according to our theoretical simulation. The first one integrates dual beam optical trap with microfluidic chip, called a chip of semi-sealing fiber optical trap. It is generally used in chemical, biological, medical and other high-throughput experiments. The second one is a chip of full-sealing fiber optical trap. It is used to measure precisely the coefficient of viscosity or the Brownian movement of micro-object's in liquid. This paper focuses on the chip of fiber optical trap. We present two types of chips of fiber optical trap and detail their designs, fabrication and validation. The chip of semi-sealing fiber optical trap is integrated with optical fiber and microfluidic chip made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). We have achieved the micro-sized alignment of optical paths and the trapping of micro-sized particles in the chip of semi-sealing fiber optical trap. In addition, it is easy to fabrication and clean. The chip of full-sealing fiber optical trap was based on a cubic micro-cavity made by a rectangular capillary tube and sealed by PDMS. We have achieved micro-sized alignment accuracy, high trapping efficiency and better trapping stability in the chip of full-sealing fiber optical trap as well.

  2. A case of 'Masquerading' bundle branch block: a forgotten concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Dinesh; Namboodiri, Narayanan; Tharakan, Jaganmohan A

    2014-01-01

    'Masquerading' bundle branch block (right bundle branch block in the precordial leads with left bundle branch block in frontal leads and left axis deviation) is seen most commonly with coronary artery disease and hypertension. No definite explanation is available so far for these changes. We are presenting a case of rare congenital intranuclear inclusion myopathy with congestive heart failure and 'Masquerading' bundle branch block in ECG. Copyright © 2013 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Editor's Choice - Effect of Branch Stent Choice on Branch-related Outcomes in Complex Aortic Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastracci, T M; Carrell, T; Constantinou, J; Dias, N; Martin-Gonzalez, T; Katsargyris, A; Modarai, B; Resch, T; Verhoeven, E L G; Burnell, M; Haulon, S

    2016-04-01

    The use of branched stent grafts for the treatment of thoracoabdominal aneurysms [TAAA] is increasing, but mating stent graft choice has not been studied. This study combined experience of five high volume centres to assess a preferred mating stent. Data from five centres were retrospectively combined. Patients were included if they underwent stent graft for treatment of TAAA that used only branches to mate with visceral and renal vessels. All patients with fenestrations in their device were excluded. Perioperative details, reintervention, occlusion, and death were recorded. Outcome of occlusion or reintervention, as well as a composite outcome of any death, occlusion, or reintervention was planned using a per-patient, and per-branch analysis. In 235 included patients, there were 940 vessels available for placement of mating stent. The average age of included patients was 70 years (SD 7.9), and 179 of the 235 were male. Medical comorbidities included diabetes in 29/234 (12.4%), current smoker in 81/233 (34.8%), and COPD in 77/234 (32.9%). The primary stent deployed was self-expanding in 556 branches, balloon expandable in 231 branches, and was unknown in 92 branches. After a mean of 20.7 months (SD 25) follow-up, there have been 44 incidents of occlusion or reintervention, of which 40 culprit stents are known. Where the stent placed is known, the event rate in renal branches (35/437, 8%) is higher than that of visceral branches (8/443, 1.8%). There is no difference in occlusion or reintervention between self-expanding and balloon expandable stents (HR 0.95, p = .91) but there is a statistically significant difference between renal and visceral artery occlusions (HR 3.51, p = 0.001). There appears to be no difference in occlusion or reintervention rate for branch vessels mated with balloon expandable compared with self-expanding stents. Renal events appear to outnumber visceral events in this population. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Vascular Surgery

  4. 46 CFR 111.75-5 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 111.75-5 Section 111.75-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Lighting Circuits and Protection § 111.75-5 Lighting branch circuits. (a) Loads. A lighting distribution panel must not supply branch circuits rated at over 30 amperes. (b) Connected Load...

  5. 46 CFR 169.690 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 169.690 Section 169.690... Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.690 Lighting branch circuits. Each lighting branch circuit must meet the requirements of § 111.75-5 of this chapter...

  6. Dendrimers and methods of preparing same through proportionate branching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yihua (Bruce); Yue, Xuyi

    2015-09-15

    The present invention provides for monodispersed dendrimers having a core, branches and periphery ends, wherein the number of branches increases exponentially from the core to the periphery end and the length of the branches increases exponentially from the periphery end to the core, thereby providing for attachment of chemical species at the periphery ends without exhibiting steric hindrance.

  7. Weighted Branching Simulation Distance for Parametric Weighted Kripke Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foshammer, Louise; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mariegaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns branching simulation for weighted Kripke structures with parametric weights. Concretely, we consider a weighted extension of branching simulation where a single transitions can be matched by a sequence of transitions while preserving the branching behavior. We relax this notion...

  8. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments to FY 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Charles

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains a collection of fiscal year 1992 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA LeRC. Highlights from the branch's major work areas--Aeroelasticity, Vibration Control, Dynamic Systems, and Computational Structural Methods are included in the report as well as a listing of the fiscal year 1992 branch publications.

  9. Lab-on-a-Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Labs on chips are manufactured in many shapes and sizes and can be used for numerous applications, from medical tests to water quality monitoring to detecting the signatures of life on other planets. The eight holes on this chip are actually ports that can be filled with fluids or chemicals. Tiny valves control the chemical processes by mixing fluids that move in the tiny channels that look like lines, connecting the ports. Scientists at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama designed this chip to grow biological crystals on the International Space Station. Through this research, they discovered that this technology is ideally suited for solving the challenges of the Vision for Space Exploration. For example, thousands of chips the size of dimes could be loaded on a Martian rover looking for biosignatures of past or present life. Other types of chips could be placed in handheld devices used to monitor microbes in water or to quickly conduct medical tests on astronauts. (NASA/MSFC/D.Stoffer)

  10. Capillary-Driven Microfluidic Chips for Miniaturized Immunoassays: Efficient Fabrication and Sealing of Chips Using a "Chip-Olate" Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Yuksel; Delamarche, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    The fabrication of silicon-based microfluidic chips is invaluable in supporting the development of many microfluidic concepts for research in the life sciences and in vitro diagnostic applications such as the realization of miniaturized immunoassays using capillary-driven chips. While being extremely abundant, the literature covering microfluidic chip fabrication and assay development might not have addressed properly the challenge of fabricating microfluidic chips on a wafer level or the need for dicing wafers to release chips that need then to be further processed, cleaned, rinsed, and dried one by one. Here, we describe the "chip-olate" process wherein microfluidic structures are formed on a silicon wafer, followed by partial dicing, cleaning, and drying steps. Then, integration of reagents (if any) can be done, followed by lamination of a sealing cover. Breaking by hand the partially diced wafer yields individual chips ready for use.

  11. Baseline left bundle branch block with right bundle branch escape complexes in a patient with coronary artery disease, presents like an alternating bundle branch block: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimaraj, Arvind; Abusin, Salaheldin; Margeta, Bosko

    2008-01-01

    Alternating bundle branch block (ABBB) is a less commonly encountered phenomenon with the advent of re-perfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction. ECGs simulating the appearance of an ABBB need to be carefully analysed. We present an ECG showing a baseline Left Bundle Branch Block(LBBB) progressing to a high grade AV block with escape complexes having a Right Bundle Branch Block (RBBB) morphology. Such an ECG can be mistaken for an ABBB if not analysed carefully. PMID:19116014

  12. Cyanogen in NGC 1851 Red Giant Branch and Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars: Quadrimodal Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, S. W.; Yong, D.; Wylie-de Boer, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 has raised much interest since Hubble Space Telescope photometry revealed that it hosts a double subgiant branch. Here we report on our homogeneous study into the cyanogen (CN) band strengths in the red giant branch (RGB) population (17 stars) and asymptotic...... giant branch (AGB) population (21 stars) using AAOmega/2dF spectra with R ~ 3000. We discover that NGC 1851 hosts a quadrimodal distribution of CN band strengths in its RGB and AGB populations. This result supports the merger formation scenario proposed for this cluster, such that the CN quadrimodality...... found that the four CN peaks may be paired—the two CN-weaker populations being associated with low Ba and the two CN-stronger populations with high Ba. If true, then s-process abundances would be a good diagnostic for disentangling the two original clusters in the merger scenario. More observations...

  13. Optical lattice on an atom chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallego, D.; Hofferberth, S.; Schumm, Thorsten

    2009-01-01

    Optical dipole traps and atom chips are two very powerful tools for the quantum manipulation of neutral atoms. We demonstrate that both methods can be combined by creating an optical lattice potential on an atom chip. A red-detuned laser beam is retroreflected using the atom chip surface as a high......-quality mirror, generating a vertical array of purely optical oblate traps. We transfer thermal atoms from the chip into the lattice and observe cooling into the two-dimensional regime. Using a chip-generated Bose-Einstein condensate, we demonstrate coherent Bloch oscillations in the lattice....

  14. Branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase mutant of Staphylococcus carnosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis by a mutant strain of Staphylococcus carnosus deficient in branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (IlvE) activity was analysed. This mutant was unable to produce the appropriate branched-chain alpha-ketoacid precursors for branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis from th...

  15. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  16. Organization and targets of the European Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldi, R.

    1997-12-01

    After a short historical review of the formation, objectives and organization of the International Geothermal Association (IGA), this paper describes the functions, goals and activities of the IGA European Branch. In particular, the paper illustrates the plan of action established for the periods 1993-`95 and 1996-`98, and the issues dealt with by the European Forum as of August 1996. The last section of the paper outlines the main problems to be faced in the near future in order to facilitate the aggregation of efforts, the amalgamation of promotional initiatives and the coordination of the basic activities needed for the consolidation and growth of the geothermal community in Europe. (orig.)

  17. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  18. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  19. Anomaly matching on the Higgs branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Tachikawa, Yuji; Zafrir, Gabi

    2017-12-01

    We point out that we can almost always determine by the anomaly matching the full anomaly polynomial of a supersymmetric theory in 2d, 4d or 6d if we assume that its Higgs branch is the one-instanton moduli space of some group G. This method not only provides by far the simplest method to compute the central charges of known theories of this class, e.g. 4d E 6,7,8 theories of Minahan and Nemeschansky or the 6d E-string theory, but also gives us new pieces of information about unknown theories of this class.

  20. Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion following Dental Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Tevfik Oğurel; Zafer Onaran; Reyhan Oğurel; Nurgül Örnek; Nesrin Büyüktortop Gökçınar; Kemal Örnek

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To describe a case of branch retinal artery occlusion following dental extraction and to point out the ophthalmic complications of dental procedures to ophthalmologists and dentists. Case. A 51-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with painless sudden visual loss in her left eye after tooth extraction two days ago. In her left eye the best corrected visual acuity was 6/30 and fundus examination revealed peripapillary flame-shaped hemorrhages and pale retina in the upper temporal arc...

  1. Power system transient stability analysis based on branch potential characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Huan; Wang, Zengping

    2017-09-01

    Branch potential function is proposed based on the power system network preserving model. The concept of thermodynamics-entropy, is introduced to describe spatial distribution characteristics of the branch potential energy. Branch potential energy was analysed in time and space domain., with transient stability index proposed accordingly. The larger disturbance energy line fault injected to grid is, the larger branch energy entropy will be, and the more energy accumulated on key branches is, the more prone to lose stability the system will be. Simulation results on IEEE system proved its feasibility.

  2. Solid state silicon based condenser microphone for hearing aid, has transducer chip and IC chip between intermediate chip and openings on both sides of intermediate chip, to allow sound towards diaphragm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    NOVELTY - A silicon transducer chip (1) has parallel backplate and movable diaphragm (12) and forms an electrical capacitor. The chip and electronic circuit chip (3) are provided on either sides of intermediate chip (2). The chip (2) has openings (4,10) between two sides of the chip, to allow sound...... towards diaphragm. Surface of the chip (2) has electrical conductors (14) to connect chip with IC chip (3). USE - For use in miniature electroacoustic devices such as hearing aid. ADVANTAGE - Since sound inlet is covered by filter, dust, moisture and other impurities do not obstruct interior and sound...

  3. Flow fraction in charged rectangular microchannel to optimally design hydrodynamic filtration chip for cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Myung-Suk; Jeong, Sohyun; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Tae Seok

    2015-11-01

    Among the passive separations, hydrodynamic filtration (HDF) can perform the fractionation of cells or particles by selective extraction of streamlines controlled by the flow fraction at each branch. Only the stream near the sidewall enters the branches as the focusing, with the amount of fluid leaving the main channel being determined by the flow distribution related to the hydraulic flow resistances. Its understanding is important, but in-depth consideration has not been treated until now. The virtual boundary of the fluid layer should be first specified, and the parabolic velocity profile starts to form from the steady state flow with high Péclet numbers. We computed the 3-dimensional flow profile at the rectangular cross-section with any aspect ratios, by considering electrokinetic transport coupled with the Poisson-Boltzmann and Navier-Stokes equations. The chip was designed with the parameters rigorously determined by the complete analysis of laminar flow for flow fraction and complicated networks of main and multi-branched channels for cell sorting into the finite number of subpopulations. For potential applications to the precise sorting, our designed microfluidic chip can be validated by applying model cells consisting of heterogeneous subpopulations. Supported by the KIST Institutional Program (No. 2E25382).

  4. Influência da poda de renovação e controle da ferrugem nas reservas de carboidratos e produção de pessegueiro precoce Influence of the renewal pruning and control of the rust in the carbohydrate reserves and production of precocious peach tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Campos de Araujo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou verificar a influência da poda de renovação e controle da ferrugem nas reservas de carboidratos não-estruturados em ramos e raízes do pessegueiro cultivar Flordaprince, bem como o possível efeito na produção e qualidade dos frutos. O trabalho foi conduzido no Departamento de Produção Vegetal da ESALQ-USP, em Piracicaba. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em sete blocos ao acaso, constando de três tratamentos, sendo cada parcela constituída de quatro plantas. O tratamento 1 consistiu na realização da poda de renovação que foi executada 45 dias após a colheita, no mês de outubro de 2003. No tratamento 2, não se realizou a poda de renovação, e foi feito o controle da ferrugem. No tratamento 3, não foi realizada a poda de renovação, tampouco o controle da ferrugem, ocasionando desfolha antecipada. Os dados foram submetidos às análises de variância e à comparação das médias, pelo teste de Tukey. O espaçamento utilizado foi de 3,0 por 1,2 m, correspondendo a 2.777 plantas ha-1. As plantas foram conduzidas em sistema de líder central e receberam as práticas culturais normalmente utilizadas. Foram coletadas amostras de raízes e ramos que foram secos, moídos e submetidos à análise de laboratório para verificação dos teores de carboidratos não-estruturados. Ocorre flutuação na concentração de carboidratos solúveis nas raízes e nos ramos de acordo com a época da coleta, sendo que os teores de carboidratos solúveis nas raízes são sempre superiores àqueles encontrados nos ramos. O tratamento 2 apresentou maior produção de frutos e maior número de frutos por planta. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos nos aspectos qualitativos dos frutos, como diâmetro, comprimento, coloração e teor de sólidos solúveis.This work aimed to verify the influence of the renewal pruning and control of the rust in the reserves of non structured carbohydrates in branches and cultivar peach tree

  5. Programmable synaptic chip for electronic neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moopenn, A.; Langenbacher, H.; Thakoor, A. P.; Khanna, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    A binary synaptic matrix chip has been developed for electronic neural networks. The matrix chip contains a programmable 32X32 array of 'long channel' NMOSFET binary connection elements implemented in a 3-micron bulk CMOS process. Since the neurons are kept off-chip, the synaptic chip serves as a 'cascadable' building block for a multi-chip synaptic network as large as 512X512 in size. As an alternative to the programmable NMOSFET (long channel) connection elements, tailored thin film resistors are deposited, in series with FET switches, on some CMOS test chips, to obtain the weak synaptic connections. Although deposition and patterning of the resistors require additional processing steps, they promise substantial savings in silicon area. The performance of synaptic chip in a 32-neuron breadboard system in an associative memory test application is discussed.

  6. Experiment list: SRX122556 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available chip antibody=Stat1 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip anti...body catalog number 1=sc-346 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Bethyl || chip antibody catalog number 2=A302-7

  7. Experiment list: SRX122465 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6 || chip antibody=Relb || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Bethyl || chip anti...body catalog number 1=A302-183A || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2

  8. Experiment list: SRX122555 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available chip antibody=Stat1 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip anti...body catalog number 1=sc-346 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Bethyl || chip antibody catalog number 2=A302-7

  9. Persistence-Based Branch Misprediction Bounds for WCET Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Branch prediction is an important feature of pipelined processors to achieve high performance. However, it can lead to overly pessimistic worst-case execution time (WCET) bounds when being modeled too conservatively. This paper presents bounds on the number of branch mispredictions for local...... linear programming formulations of the WCET problem. An evaluation on a number of benchmarks shows that with these bounds, dynamic branch prediction does not necessarily lead to higher WCET bounds than static prediction schemes....... dynamic branch predictors. To handle interferences between branch instructions we use the notion of persistence, a concept that is also found in cache analyses. The bounds apply to branches in general, not only to branches that close a loop. Furthermore, the bounds can be easily integrated into integer...

  10. Strawberry yield submitted to different root pruning intensities of transplants Produtividade do morangueiro submetido a diferentes intensidades de poda do sistema radicular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Cocco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the growth of plants and the precocity of strawberry production under different root pruning intensities at planting time. Bare roots plants with 12 millimeters crown diameter produced in nurseries from the Patagonia region, Argentina were used. The planting was carried out on May 12th 2010 into experimental plots with non-fumigated soil. The treatments consisted of three cultivars (Camarosa, Florida Festival and Camino Real and three pruning intensities (1/3, 2/3 and no pruning on the total root length of the plants. The experimental design used was a randomized block design in a 3x3 factorial arrangement with three replications and 12 plants per plot and density of 11.1 plants m-2. Mature fruits were harvested from July 15th to December 14th 2010 and the production of fresh fruit was determined. There was no significative interaction between cultivars and pruning intensity. 'Camarosa' and 'Florida Festival' plants showed precocity and had the most abundant and heavier fruits during the precocity period. The different root pruning intensities did not affect the assessed variables. It was concluded that, in order to facilitate strawberry planting of the cultivars Camarosa, Florida Festival and Camino Real root pruning is possible, with no damages on plant growth and development, precocity and early fruit production.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o crescimento de plantas e a precocidade de produção do morangueiro submetido a diferentes intensidades de poda do sistema radicular, no momento do plantio. Foram utilizadas mudas de raízes nuas produzidas em viveiros, na região da Patagônia Argentina, com diâmetro médio da coroa de 12 milímetros. O plantio foi realizado em 12 de maio de 2010, em parcelas experimentais, em solo não fumigado. Os tratamentos abrangeram três cultivares (Camarosa, Florida Festival e Camino Real e três intensidades de poda (1/3, 2/3 e sem poda sobre o comprimento total de ra

  11. Chip-excluding in Lathe Cutting 1st. Report : Chip Form Geometry I

    OpenAIRE

    小尾, 誠; 岩里, 茂; 丹沢, 常正

    1981-01-01

    The cfficiency of chip-excluding in lathe cutting is very often determined by chip forms. So, the relation between the chip form and cutting conditions must be explained from the point of view of not only practical experiences but also theoretical studies. Here in the paper, the basic equation for chip forms has been derived analytically and the chip forms are simulated on the basis of an assumption that the chip is formed by certain herahedrons which are piled. By this study the following re...

  12. Branching dynamics of viral information spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, José Luis; Moro, Esteban

    2011-10-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking, or marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants’ decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real viral marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31 000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris branching process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the “tipping point” and can be used for prediction and management of viral information spreading processes.

  13. Synthesis of branched naphthoquinones from castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Olímpio da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The naphthoquinones are cyclic aromatic α,β-dienonas with a basic framework derived from naphthalene. They are also found in many higher plants, algae, fungi and as the product of the  metabolism  of some  bacteria  having large biologica activity described in the literature such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anticancer and trypanocidal [1-3]. Castor oil is an abundant raw material in Brazil of great versatility and, it is present in biodiesel production, surfactants, cosmetics and others. Considering the importance of naphthoquinones and, the availability of the ricinoleic acid from castor oil, the aim of this study was the preparation of new branched naphthoquinones in order to test their trypanocidal activity. Castor oil was submitted to saponification with sodium hydroxide, ethanol and water under reflux for 6 h. We then carried out an acid hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid and the formed ricinoleic acid was extracted with ethyl acetate. Following, through Kochi-Anderson addition reaction it was performed the alkylation of a naphthoquinone 1 and 2, using ammonium persulfate, silver nitrate, acetonitrile and water, under heating at 70-80 ° C during 3 h, to give the branched naphthoquinones 4 and 5 (scheme 1. The naphthoquinone 3 will be similarly submitted to this procedure. The naphthoquinones 4 and 5 were purified by column chromatography on sílica gel using hexane as the eluent. The compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry and 1H and 13CNMR spectroscopy.

  14. Fixman compensating potential for general branched molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Abhinandan, E-mail: Abhi.Jain@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Kandel, Saugat; Wagner, Jeffrey; Larsen, Adrien; Vaidehi, Nagarajan, E-mail: nvaidehi@coh.org [Division of Immunology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, California 91010 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    The technique of constraining high frequency modes of molecular motion is an effective way to increase simulation time scale and improve conformational sampling in molecular dynamics simulations. However, it has been shown that constraints on higher frequency modes such as bond lengths and bond angles stiffen the molecular model, thereby introducing systematic biases in the statistical behavior of the simulations. Fixman proposed a compensating potential to remove such biases in the thermodynamic and kinetic properties calculated from dynamics simulations. Previous implementations of the Fixman potential have been limited to only short serial chain systems. In this paper, we present a spatial operator algebra based algorithm to calculate the Fixman potential and its gradient within constrained dynamics simulations for branched topology molecules of any size. Our numerical studies on molecules of increasing complexity validate our algorithm by demonstrating recovery of the dihedral angle probability distribution function for systems that range in complexity from serial chains to protein molecules. We observe that the Fixman compensating potential recovers the free energy surface of a serial chain polymer, thus annulling the biases caused by constraining the bond lengths and bond angles. The inclusion of Fixman potential entails only a modest increase in the computational cost in these simulations. We believe that this work represents the first instance where the Fixman potential has been used for general branched systems, and establishes the viability for its use in constrained dynamics simulations of proteins and other macromolecules.

  15. Space division multiplexing chip-to-chip quantum key distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacco, Davide; Ding, Yunhong; Dalgaard, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    nodes of the quantum keys to their respective destinations. In this paper we present an experimental demonstration of a photonic integrated silicon chip quantum key distribution protocols based on space division multiplexing (SDM), through multicore fiber technology. Parallel and independent quantum...... keys are obtained, which are useful in crypto-systems and future quantum network....

  16. A chip-to-chip nanoliter microfluidic dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianbin; Zhou, Ying; Qiu, Haiwei; Huang, Huang; Sun, Changhong; Xi, Jianzhong; Huang, Yanyi

    2009-07-07

    A high-throughput microfluidic device is developed to handle liquid dispensation in nanoliter range. The dispenser system shows no cross-contamination between the microwells, indicating its great potential in large-scale screening experiments. An array of 115 nl PCR reactions, as well as the single channel addressable chip demonstrate the high flexibility and wide applications of this novel system.

  17. 75 FR 30046 - Medicaid and CHIP Programs; Meeting of the CHIP Working Group-June 14, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Administration Medicaid and CHIP Programs; Meeting of the CHIP Working Group-- June 14, 2010 AGENCY: Centers for... the second meeting of the Medicaid, Children's Health Insurance Program (``CHIP''), and Employer-Sponsored Coverage Coordination Working Group ] (referred to as the ``CHIP Working Group''). The CHIP...

  18. 75 FR 16149 - Medicaid and CHIP Programs; Meeting of the CHIP Working Group-April 26, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Administration Medicaid and CHIP Programs; Meeting of the CHIP Working Group-- April 26, 2010 AGENCIES: Centers... announces the first meeting of the Medicaid, Children's Health Insurance Program (``CHIP''), and Employer-Sponsored Coverage Coordination Working Group (referred to as the ``CHIP Working Group''). The CHIP Working...

  19. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Henriksen, Anders Dahl

    2014-01-01

    We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches...... of the differential sensor geometry. The sensor surfaces are functionalized with wild type (WT) and mutant type (MT) capture probes, differing by a single base insertion (a single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP). Complementary biotinylated targets in suspension couple streptavidin magnetic beads to the sensor surface....... The beads are magnetized by the field arising from the bias current passed through the sensors. We demonstrate the first on-chip measurements of the melting of DNA hybrids upon a ramping of the temperature. This overcomes the limitation of using a single washing condition at constant temperature. Moreover...

  20. Discontinuous conduction in mouse bundle branches is caused by bundle-branch architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Toon A. B.; van Rijen, Harold V. M.; van Kempen, Marjan J. A.; Miquerol, Lucile; Opthof, Tobias; Gros, Daniel; Vos, Marc A.; Jongsma, Habo J.; de Bakker, Jacques M. T.

    2005-01-01

    Background - Recordings of the electrical activity of mouse bundle branches ( BBs) suggest reduced conduction velocity ( CV) in the midseptal compared with the proximal part of the BB. The present study was performed to elucidate the mechanism responsible for this slowing of conduction. Methods and