Meysurova, A. F.; Notov, A. A.; Pungin, A. V.
Chlorophyll a and b contents in Hypogymnia physodes specimens collected from various economic areas and natural complexes of Tver Region were found to differ substantially using a spectrophotometric method, showing that the lichen photosynthetic system is highly adaptable. The chlorophyll b content was linked primarily to adaptation to specific environmental features in various plant communities. The chlorophyll a content changed to provide the necessary compensatory responses under technogenic stress. A total of 15 metals (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V, and Zn) were detected in H. physodes samples using inductively coupled plasma atomicemission spectroscopy (ICP AES). The most widespread of them were Fe, Al, and Ti. Significant correlations among the concentrations of these metals and the chlorophyll a content were revealed.
Makholm, M.M.; Bennett, J.P.
Emissions of mercury from a chlor-alkali plant in central Wisconsin have raised concern about possible effects on biota in the area. Samples of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes, which no longer grows in the area, were transplanted from a site in northeastern Wisconsin and positioned on plastic stands at varying distances up to 1250 m from the plant and sampled for Hg quarterly for one year to test the hypothesis that Hg would be taken up by the lichens and would decline with distance. Average tissue concentrations were elevated when first sampled at three months and continued to increase at the nearest sites until the study ended after one year. Average concentrations after a year of exposure ranged from 4418 ppb at 250 m from the plant to 403 ppb at 1250 m from the plant. The decrease over distance followed a negative exponential pattern. Background concentrations at a control site in northern Wisconsin averaged 155 ppb.
Latkowska, Ewa; Bober, Beata; Chrapusta, Ewelina; Adamski, Michal; Kaminski, Ariel; Bialczyk, Jan
Lichen species typically have a characteristic profile of secondary metabolites. Dense populations of Hypogymnia physodes growing frequently as epiphytes on tree branches have harmful effects on the host, likely due to their secondary compounds, which were undetected in tree tissues until now. The aim of the present study was to re-characterise the suite of secondary metabolites of H. physodes thalli and to estimate their translocation into spruce (Picea abies) bark. Thallus and bark extracts were compared using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The compounds were identified based on their UV, MS and MS/MS spectra as well as retention factors of their TLC analysis. In addition to the previously described secondary metabolites (protocetraric, physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic, and 2'-O-methylphysodic acids, atranorin and chloroatranorin) of H. physodes, further three were identified in its thalli: conphysodalic, 4-O-methylphysodic and α-alectoronic acids. Fragmentation patterns from the negative ionisation of each compound were proposed, some of which were described for the first time. Among all of the detected lichen substances, a few, e.g., physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic acids and atranorin, were present in the bark of spruce branches that were abundantly colonised by lichen. The newly identified compounds of H. physodes thalli may belong to its constant or accessory secondary metabolites. These compounds may be useful in the chemotaxonomic classification of this species. The presence of some lichen substances in spruce bark confirmed their ability to penetrate host tissues. These data suggest that H. physodes compounds may cause long-term effects on spruces in nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dibenzothiophene, and alkylated homologs in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes by gas chromatography using single quadrupole mass spectrometry and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Studabaker, William B; Puckett, Keith J; Percy, Kevin E; Landis, Matthew S
Development of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in northeastern Alberta, Canada has contributed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), which include alkyl PAHs and dibenzothiophenes, to the regional environment. A new analytical method was developed for quantification of PAHs and PACs in the epiphytic lichen bioindicator species Hypogymnia physodes for use in the development of receptor models for attribution of PAH and PAC concentrations to anthropogenic and natural emission sources. Milled lichens were extracted with cyclohexane, and extracts were cleaned on silica gel using automated solid phase extraction techniques. Quantitative analysis was performed by gas chromatography with selected ion monitoring (GC-SIM-MS) for PAHs, and by GC with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) for PACs. PACs were quantitated in groups using representative reference compounds as calibration standards. Analytical detection limits were ≤2.5ngg-1 for all individual compounds. Precision as measured by laboratory duplicates was variable; for individual analytes above 5ngg-1 the mean absolute difference between duplicates was typically PAH concentrations in lichen samples ranged from 12 to 482ngg-1. Total PACs in each sample varied from a fraction of total PAHs to more than four times total PAHs. Results of our analyses of H. physodes are compared with other studies using other species of lichens as PAH receptors and with passive monitoring data using polyurethane foam (PUF) samplers in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR). This study presents the first analytical methodology developed for the determination of PACs in an epiphytic lichen bioindicator species. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
GORDANA S. STOJANOVIĆ
Full Text Available The acetone soluble fraction of the methanol extracts of Parmeliaceae lichens: Hypogymnia physodes, Evernia prunastri and Parmelia sulcata, growing on the same host tree (Prunus domestica and at the same locality was analyzed for the first time by GC and GC–MS. The major identified components were olivetol (33.5 % of the H. physodes extract, atraric acid (30.1 and 30.3 % of the E. prunastri and P. sulcata extracts, respectively, orcinol (25.0 % of the E. prunastri extract, vitamin E (24.7 % of the P. sulcata extract and olivetonide (15.7 % of the H. physodes extract. Even though all the identified compounds are known, a number of them were found for the first time in the examined lichens, i.e., orcinol monomethyl ether (H. physodes, orcinol, atranol, lichesterol, ergosterol (H. physodes and P. sulcata, methyl haematommate, atraric acid, olivetol, vitamin E (H. physodes and P. sulcata and b-sitosterol (P. sulcata.
Mitrović, Tatjana; Stamenković, Slaviša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Tošić, Svetlana; Stanković, Milan; Radojević, Ivana; Stefanović, Olgica; Čomić, Ljiljana; Đačić, Dragana; Ćurčić, Milena; Marković, Snežana
The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells. PMID:21954369
Full Text Available The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+ bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells.
Op 27 november 1964 werd door de trawler HD4 uit Den Helder bij de ST 2 boei in de zuidelijke Noordzee (53°33'N 4°02'E) een geparasiteerde zeekarper, Spondyliosoma cantharus (Gmelin), gevangen op een diepte van 33 m. De parasiet bleek een wijfje te zijn van Anilocra physodes (L.), een tot de familie
Nannoni, Francesco; Santolini, Riccardo; Protano, Giuseppe
This paper presents the results of a biomonitoring study to evaluate the environmental impact of airborne emissions from a municipal solid waste landfill in central Italy. Concentrations of 11 heavy elements, as well as photosynthetic efficiency and cell membrane integrity were measured in Evernia prunastri lichens transplanted for 4months in 17 monitoring sites around the waste landfill. Heavy element contents were also determined in surface soils. Analytical data indicated that emissions from the landfill affected Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn concentrations in lichens transplanted within the landfill and along the fallout direction. In these sites moderate to severe accumulation of these heavy elements in lichens was coupled with an increase in cell membrane damage and decrease in photosynthetic efficiency. Nevertheless, results indicated that landfill emissions had no relevant impact on lichens, as heavy element accumulation and weak stress symptoms were detected only in lichen transplants from sites close to solid waste. The appropriate management of this landfill poses a low risk of environmental contamination by heavy elements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cansaran-Duman, Demet; Atakol, Orhan; Aras, Sümer
Lichens are widely used in biomonitoring studies of air pollution, either as bioindicators of air quality or as bioaccumulators of atmospheric deposition. Over the past decade, several molecular techniques have been developed to provide information on diversity, genotoxicology, genetic relationships, etc. The heavy metal contents of Evernia prunastri samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) method was used to describe the pattern of DNA band variation in the samples influenced by the environmental pollution. The study was designed to describe the level of pollution in an area contaminated with smoke and waste from an iron-steel factory, and to reveal the level of potential genotoxic agents around this source of pollution. The study also examined the suitability of the lichen samples for the detection of genotoxicity.
Full Text Available On the area involved in the influence of conteminations emitted by the aluminium works and electric power plant, the degree of atmospheric air pollution was evaluated on the basis of the behaviour of healthy thallus of the lichen Parmelia physodes, analysis of fluorine and sulphur content in this thallus and in the bark substrate and the F and SO2 concentrations in the air.
Osawa, T.; Kumon, H.; Reece, C.A.; Shibamoto, T. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))
Physodic acid, one of the main constituents of Hypogymnia enteromorpha, inhibited the mutagenicity of indirect mutagens, including benzo(a)pyrene and heterocyclic amines in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98. In contrast, it was not effective against direct mutagens such as 6-nitropiperonal and adriamycin. Its antimutagenicity was not associated with free-radical scavenging or antioxidative activities. Physodic acid seemed to inhibit the formation of reactive metabolites, such as N-hydroxy-Trp-P-2, by blocking the hepatic microsomal oxidation systems. Another component of H. enteromorpha, physodalic acid, also inhibited mutagenicity of a heterocyclic amine, Trp-P-2, in S. typhimurium TA 98, even though it was reportedly mutagenic in S. typhimurium TA 100.
Demková, Lenka; Bobul'ská, Lenka; Árvay, Július; Jezný, Tomáš; Ducsay, Ladislav
Three moss (Pleurozium spp., Polytrichum spp., and Rhytidiadelphus spp.) and two lichen (Hypogymnia physodes and Pseudevernia furfuracea) taxons covered in the bags were used to monitor air quality. Bags were exposed at the different distances from the tailing pond because of insufficient security and source of heavy metal pollution. Moss/lichen bags were exposed for six weeks at 0-, 50-, 100-, 150- and 200-m distances from Slovinky tailing pond, in the main wind direction (down the valley). Accumulation ability of heavy metals expressed by relative accumulation factor (RAF) increases in the order of Polytrichum spp.
Vilsholm, René Larsen; Wolseley, Pat; Søchting, Ulrik
Two surveys of the lichen and bryophyte flora growing on oak twigs from a Welsh and a Danish locality were compared with additional data on bark pH and % nitrogen in thalli of Hypogymnia physodes. Despite differences in climate and lichen flora, both sites showed a shift in the lichen communities...... showing a loss of nitrophobes in all sites and the appearance of nitrophiles in pasture sites in 2003. This study demonstrates that lichens on twigs can be used as an early warning system to detect a response to changes in land management and nitrogen deposition....
Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Bačkor, Martin; Stork, František; Hedbavny, Josef
Selected physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) and two lichens (Hypogymnia physodes and Xanthoria parietina) exposed to simulated acid rain (AR) over 3 months were studied. Pigments were depressed in all species being affected the most in Tillandsia. Amounts of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were elevated and soluble proteins decreased only in AR-exposed Hypogymnia. Free amino acids were slightly affected among species and only glutamate sharply decreased in AR-exposed Xanthoria. Slight increase in soluble phenols but decrease in flavonoids in almost all species suggests that the latter are not essential for tolerance to AR. Almost all phenolic acids in Tillandsia leaves decreased in response to AR and activities of selected enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, ascorbate- and guaiacol-peroxidase) were enhanced by AR. In lichens, considerable increase in metabolites (physodalic acid, atranorin and parietin) in response to AR was found but amount of ergosterol was unchanged. Macronutrients (K, Ca, Mg) decreased more pronouncedly in comparison with micronutrients in all species. Xanthoria showed higher tolerance in comparison with Hypogymnia, suggesting that could be useful for long-term biomonitoring.
Burkin, A A; Kononenko, G P
Secondary fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) in 22 lichen species of the families Parmeliaceae, Nephromataceae, Umbilicariaceae, Ramalinaceae, Cladoniaceae, Peltigeraceae, and Teloschistaceae were identified determined by enzyme immunoassay enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The following mycotoxins were identified found in these lichens in a broad concentration range with a frequency of 70-100%: sterigmatocystin (7-2090 ng/g), alternariol (20-6460 ng/g), and emodin (45-94500 ng/g). Mycophenolic acid frequently occurred in 19 lichen species; citrinin, in 17 species; diacetoxyscirpenol, in 11 species; cyclopiazonic acid, in 10 species; and zearalenone, in 9 species. PR toxin was regularly detected in three lichen species; deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, and ochratoxin A, in two species; and T-2 toxin and ergot alkaloids, in one species. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in only six species with a frequency of 2-42%, whereas roridin A was identified present in 10% of Hypogymnia physodes samples.
Parzych, Agnieszka; Astel, Aleksander; Zduńczyk, Anna; Surowiec, Tomasz
Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, nickel, copper, manganese, iron and lead accumulation properties of three epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.) were compared. An assessment of pollution of the municipal environment in Słupsk (Poland) according to macro- and trace elements was also done. Lichen samples were taken in Autumn 2013 from Betula pendula, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer platanoides, A. pseudoplatanus and Populus sp. trees. Sampling stations comprised of house development areas, green urban parks, vicinity of streets with heavy traffic and industrial enterprises. It was found that lichens represent diverse accumulation properties to pollutants according to the species. X. parietina indicated the highest bioaccumulation in relation to N, K, Mg, Zn and Fe, the thalli of H. physodes accumulated the largest amounts of Ni and Pb, while P. sulcata P and Cu. Manganese was accumulated in similar quantities by all species. Evidences acquired by the use of factor analysis proved that pollution in Słupsk municipal environment is a serious issue with three major sources domination: street dust, marine factor and residual oil combustion. The high-risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging algorithm. It was seen that the highest pollution occurs in the town centre, while the smallest happened on its outskirts and in urban parks.
Full Text Available In the long-term absence of major disturbances ecosystems enter a state of retrogression, which involves declining soil fertility and consequently a reduction in decomposition rates. Recent studies have looked at how plant traits such as specific leaf mass and amounts of secondary compounds respond to declining soil fertility during retrogression, but there are no comparable studies for lichen traits despite increasing recognition of the role that lichens can play in ecosystem processes. We studied a group of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden differing greatly in fire history, and collectively representing a retrogressive chronosequence, spanning 5000 years. We used this system to explore how specific thallus mass (STM and carbon based secondary compounds (CBSCs change in three common epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia phsyodes, Melanohalea olivacea and Parmelia sulcata as soil fertility declines during this retrogression. We found that STMs of lichens increased sharply during retrogression, and for all species soil N to P ratio (which increased during retrogression was a strong predictor of STM. When expressed per unit area, medullary CBSCs in all species and cortical CBSCs in P. sulcata increased during retrogression. Meanwhile, when expressed per unit mass, only cortical CBSCs in H. physodes responded to retrogression, and in the opposite direction. Given that lichen functional traits are likely to be important in driving ecological processes that drive nutrient and carbon cycling in the way that plant functional traits are, the changes that they undergo during retrogression could potentially be significant for the functioning of the ecosystem.
Asplund, Johan; Sandling, Aron; Wardle, David A.
In the long-term absence of major disturbances ecosystems enter a state of retrogression, which involves declining soil fertility and consequently a reduction in decomposition rates. Recent studies have looked at how plant traits such as specific leaf mass and amounts of secondary compounds respond to declining soil fertility during retrogression, but there are no comparable studies for lichen traits despite increasing recognition of the role that lichens can play in ecosystem processes. We studied a group of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden differing greatly in fire history, and collectively representing a retrogressive chronosequence, spanning 5000 years. We used this system to explore how specific thallus mass (STM) and carbon based secondary compounds (CBSCs) change in three common epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia phsyodes, Melanohalea olivacea and Parmelia sulcata) as soil fertility declines during this retrogression. We found that STMs of lichens increased sharply during retrogression, and for all species soil N to P ratio (which increased during retrogression) was a strong predictor of STM. When expressed per unit area, medullary CBSCs in all species and cortical CBSCs in P. sulcata increased during retrogression. Meanwhile, when expressed per unit mass, only cortical CBSCs in H. physodes responded to retrogression, and in the opposite direction. Given that lichen functional traits are likely to be important in driving ecological processes that drive nutrient and carbon cycling in the way that plant functional traits are, the changes that they undergo during retrogression could potentially be significant for the functioning of the ecosystem. PMID:23145078
Full Text Available Four lichen species: Hypogymnia physodes, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Parmelia saxatilis, and Platismatia glauca were collected from two sites (S. Poland with a different air pollution level: "Kamienica valley" (less polluted and "Kopa" (more polluted. The thalli were compared with respect to their: net photosynthetic rate (PN, fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, Fm, Fm/Fo, chlorophyll a+b content, and phaeophytinization quotient (O.D.435/O.D.415. PN intensity, chlorophyll a+b and O.D.435/O.D.415 were reduced only in Pa furfuracea collected from Kopa, which is in agreement with the Hawksworth-Rose scale of sensitivity of lichens to air pollution. Fluorescence parameters were significantly lowered in all lichens coming from the more polluted site (except of Fv/Fm and Fm/F0 in P. saxatilis. Parameters based on chlorophyll fluorescence measurements enable to reveal the very early signs of decreased photosynthetical capacity of the thalli, caused by air pollution, before changes in the other photosynthetic parameters become mesurable.
Vartti, V.P.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Klemola, S.; Ilus, E.; Mattila, J. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)
The aim of the study was to clarify how Cs-137 is accumulated in different biota species in Finnish terrestrial environment. The study was carried out in three different areas. The Maenttae area was one of the areas in Finland with the highest contamination by the Chernobyl fallout. The other areas (Loviisa and Olkiluoto) represent the environs of the Finnish NPPs located in the South and West coast of Finland, respectively (Fig. 1). The sampling was carried out in 2000 in Loviisa, in 2001 in Olkiluoto and in 2003 in Maenttae. Altogether over 120 samples from over 50 species were taken including soil profiles, mushrooms, lichens, mosses, ferns, twigs, needles, leaves and berries. All the samples were dried and homogenized and Cs-137 was measured with HPGe gamma spectrometers. The highest Cs-137 concentrations and Tagg values were found in mushrooms. The Cs-137 concentrations in needles, twigs and ferns were clearly lower than in mushrooms. The activity concentration of Cs-137 in lichens, mosses and leaves were at the same level as in needles and ferns. The concentrations of Cs-137 in berries Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Vaccinium myrtillus and Empetrum nigrum varied from 160 to 1200 Bq/kg d.w. In other berries the concentrations were very low. The best indicator species seemed to be mushrooms. The results of Hypogymnia physodes sampled in Loviisa in 2000 showed that Cs-137 concentrations can vary greatly within a small area. (LN)
Gaigysh Irina Sergeevna
Full Text Available The main characteristics of epiphytic lichen cover on pine trunks depending on the area of natural pine forest in Kostomuksha (north Karelia were analysed. The town of Kostomuksha was built so that to provide the conservation of forest sites. 56 fragments with the area of 0.04 - 6.13 ha were studied. The average area of fragment is 0.62 ha, with 49 fragments (88% having the area less than 1 ha. Biodiversity and lichen cover were studied in the each fragment with using framework 10x20 cm. 1792 sample plots were made on 448 trees. The total lichens cover varies from 0 to 85%,averaging 10%. 25 species of lichens were found. The number of species in the sample plots varies from 0 to 9. Dominant species found are Hypogymnia physodes, Parmeliopsis ambigua, P. hyperopta, Imshaugia aleurites, Cladonia. Species Alectoria sarmentosa, Cladonia macilenta, Pseudevernia fufruraceae, Bryoria fremontii were less common. It was shown that the main parameters of lichen cover are closely related to the size of the area left in the city forest fragments. The maximum values of species diversity and cover of lichens were found in the fragments of more 1-2 hectares.
Shaun A. WATMOUGH
Full Text Available During the past 15 years, there has been a dramatic increase in the amount of reactive nitrogen (N in the atmosphere, leading to concerns that chronic elevated N deposition may result in negative effects on natural ecosystems. This study examines the response of jack pine (Pinus banksiana plots to N air concentrations within the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR in northern Alberta, which has experienced elevated N emissions since the 1990s. Air concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ammonia, and nitric acid at the study plots are generally low although NO2 is strongly correlated with sulphur dioxide indicating an exposure gradient associated with industrial emissions. Nitrogen concentrations in P. banksiana foliage and two lichen indicator species (Hypogymnia physodes and Evernia mesomorpha were significantly correlated with annual NO2 exposure. Relationships between NO2 (or N exposure and other aspects of N cycling were less evident. Nitrogen content and carbon to nitrogen ratio in the forest floor and soil or potential net N mineralization rates were not correlated with N exposure. Nitrification was negligible suggesting efficient ecosystem immobilization of current N deposition. Based on the response of foliage to N exposure, sites closest to industrial activity appear to be in the early stages of N saturation.
Bennett, James P.
The importance of organic chemistry in the classification of lichens is well established, but inorganic chemistry has been largely overlooked. Six lichen species were studied over a period of 23 years that were growing in 11 protected areas of the northern Great Lakes ecoregion, which were not greatly influenced by anthropogenic particulates or gaseous air pollutants. The elemental data from these studies were aggregated in order to test the hypothesis that differences among species in tissue element concentrations were large enough to discriminate between taxa faithfully. Concentrations of 16 chemical elements that were found in tissue samples from Cladonia rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta were analyzed statistically using multivariate discriminant functions and CART analyses, as well as t-tests. Genera and species were clearly separated in element space, and elemental discriminant functions were able to classify 91-100 of the samples correctly into species. At the broadest level, a Zn concentration of 51 ppm in tissues of four of the lichen species effectively discriminated foliose from fruticose species. Similarly, a S concentration of 680 ppm discriminated C. rangiferina and E. mesomorpha, and a Ca concentration of 10 436 ppm discriminated H. physodes from P. sulcata. For the three parmelioid species, a Ca concentration >32 837 ppm discriminated Punctelia rudecta from the other two species, while a Zn concentration of 56 ppm discriminated Parmelia sulcata from F. flaventior. Foliose species also had higher concentrations than did fruticose species of all elements except Na. Elemental signatures for each of the six species were developed using standardized means. Twenty-four mechanisms explaining the differences among species are summarized. Finally, the relationships of four species based on element concentrations, using additive-trees clustering of a Euclidean
Full Text Available Air quality and anthropogenic air pollutants are usually investigated by passive biomonitoring which utilizes native species. Active biomonitoring, instead, refers to the use of transplants or bags in areas lacking native species. In Finland, the standardized moss bag technique SFS 5794 is commonly applied in active monitoring but there is still need for simpler and labor-saving sample material even on international scale. This article focuses on a preliminary comparison of the usability and collection efficiency of bags made of moss Sphagnum papillosum, lichen Hypogymnia physodes, and filter fabric (Filtrete™ in active biomonitoring of air pollutants around an industrial site in Harjavalta, SW Finland. The samples are analyzed with magnetic (i.e. magnetic susceptibility, isothermal remanent magnetization, hysteresis loop and hysteresis parameters methods highly suitable as a first-step tool for pollution studies. The results show that the highest magnetic susceptibility of each sample material is measured close to the industrial site. Furthermore, moss bags accumulate more magnetic material than lichen bags which, on the contrary, perform better at further distances. Filter fabric bags are tested only at 1 km sites indicating a good accumulation capability near the source. Pseudo-single-domain (PSD magnetite is identified as the main magnetic mineral in all sample materials and good correlations are found between different bag types. To conclude, all three materials effectively accumulate air pollutants and are suitable for air quality studies. The results of this article provide a base for later studies which are needed in order to fully determine a new, efficient, and easy sample material for active monitoring.
Full Text Available E00681 Oakmoss oil (Yugoslavia) Essential oil Ethyl everninate, Methyl beta-orcinol... carboxylate, Methyl beta-orcinol carboxylate, Orcinol [CPD:C00727], Ethyl hemmatomate, Ethyl orsellinate, Atranol, Chloroatrinol Eve...rnia prunastri [TAX:87257] the lichen Usneaceae Evernia prunastri (Oakmoss), collec...ted from oak trees Obtained by solvent extraction (Absolute) Major component: Ethyl eve
Full Text Available The performance of two epiphytic lichen species (Evernia prunastri (L. Ach. and Parmelia sulcata Taylor as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in natural areas around the city of Niš (southeastern Serbia were evaluated. The concentration of 19 heavy metals in lichen samples was measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. For the majority of the elements the concentrations found in Parmelia sulcata Taylor were higher than in Evernia prunastri (L. Ach. In addition, interspecific differences in heavy metal accumulation between Evernia prunastri (L. Ach. and Parmelia sulcata Taylor are observed. Parmelia sulcata Taylor showed a tendency to accumulate Fe, Mn, Ni and Ti while Evernia prunastri (L. Ach. preferentially concentrated Cu on both locations. A clear distinction between lithogenic (Mn-Cu-Ti and atmospheric elements (Ni-Co-Cr-Ag-Pb-Hg was achieved by cluster analysis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41018, br. OI 171025, br. 172017 and br. III41017
Uter, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Erich; Lessmann, Holger; Schnuch, Axel
Evernia prunastri (oak moss) and Evernia furfuracea (tree moss) are lichens from which natural extracts are obtained. To identify possible subgroups of E. furfuracea-sensitized patients according to whether these are allergic to lichen components or to contaminants. A retrospective analysis was performed of surveillance data collected by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (www.ivkd.org) in 2003-2010 with oak moss absolute (1% pet.), tree moss absolute (1% pet.), and colophonium (colophony, 20% pet.). In total, 3030 patients had been tested with all three allergens. Positive reactions to E. furfuracea were observed in 6.37%, to E. prunastri in 5.71%, and to colophonium in 4.82%. Concordance between positive reactions to E. prunastri and E. furfuracea was good only in patients not co-sensitized to colophonium (Cohen's κ = 0.681, 95% confidence interval 0.615-0.746). Moreover, E. furfuracea-sensitized patients showed (strong or extreme) concomitant reactions to colophonium significantly more often if not co-sensitized to E. prunastri. Two subgroups of E. furfuracea-sensitized patients are identifiable: (i) those with sensitization to (oxidized) resin acids, as indicated by positive patch test reactions also to colophonium, and (ii) those non-sensitized to resin acids, but sensitized to common constituents of E. prunastri and E. furfuracea. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Heydorn, Siri; Menné, Torkil
Oak moss absolute is one of the eight ingredients of the fragrance mix (FM) used for diagnosing perfume allergy. Oak moss absolute is an extract prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri growing on oak trees. It has been shown that the oak moss patch test material from one producer contained resin...
Olech, M.; Kajfosz, J.; Szymczyk, S.; Wodniecki, P.
The fluorine content in epiphytic lichens (Physcia adscendens, Physconia grisea, Parmelia sulcata and Evernia prunastri) and the moss Orthotrichum obtusifolium growing near an aluminum plant is presented. Analyses of lichen samples show the correlation between the distribution of the emitted fluorine and the distance from the source of emission; the most visible effects are in the direction of the prevailing winds. The more resistant lichen species accumulate greater amounts of fluorine than the less resistant ones.
Reddy, R Gajendra; Veeraval, Lenin; Maitra, Swati; Chollet-Krugler, Marylène; Tomasi, Sophie; Dévéhat, Françoise Lohézic-Le; Boustie, Joël; Chakravarty, Sumana
Natural products from lichens are widely investigated for their biological properties, yet their potential as central nervous system (CNS) therapeutic agents is less explored. The present study investigated the neuroactive properties of selected lichen compounds (atranorin, perlatolic acid, physodic acid and usnic acid), for their neurotrophic, neurogenic and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activities. Neurotrophic activity (neurite outgrowth) was determined using murine neuroblastoma Neuro2A cells. A MTT assay was performed to assess the cytotoxicity of compounds at optimum neurotrophic activity. Neuro2A cells treated with neurotrophic lichen compounds were used for RT-PCR to evaluate the induction of genes that code for the neurotrophic markers BDNF and NGF. Immunoblotting was used to assess acetyl H3 and H4 levels, the epigenetic markers associated with neurotrophic and/or neurogenic activity. The neurogenic property of the compounds was determined using murine hippocampal primary cultures. AChE inhibition activity was performed using a modified Ellman's esterase method. Lichen compounds atranorin, perlatolic acid, physodic acid and (+)-usnic acid showed neurotrophic activity in a preliminary cell-based screening based on Neuro2A neurite outgrowth. Except for usnic acid, no cytotoxic effects were observed for the two depsides (atranorin and perlatolic acid) and the alkyl depsidone (physodic acid). Perlatolic acid appears to be promising, as it also exhibited AChE inhibition activity and potent proneurogenic activity. The neurotrophic lichen compounds (atranorin, perlatolic acid, physodic acid) modulated the gene expression of BDNF and NGF. In addition, perlatolic acid showed increased protein levels of acetyl H3 and H4 in Neuro2A cells. These lichen depsides and depsidones showed neuroactive properties in vitro (Neuro2A cells) and ex vivo (primary neural stem or progenitor cells), suggesting their potential to treat CNS disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Gmb
Bernard, Guillaume; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra
In addition to pure synthetic fragrance materials several natural extracts are still in use in the perfume industry. Among them oak moss absolute, prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Arch., is considered a major contact sensitizer and is therefore included in the fragrance mix used...... for diagnosing perfume allergy. The process of preparing oak moss absolute has changed during recent years and, even though several potential sensitizers have been identified from former benzene extracts, its present constituents and their allergenic status are not clear. In the study reported here, we applied...
Ayrault, S.; Clochiatti, R.; Carrot, F.; Daudin, L.; Bennett, J.P.
A trace element deposition biomonitoring experiment with transplants of the fruticose lichen Evernia prunastri was developed, aimed at monitoring the effects of different exposure parameters (exposure orientation and direct rain) and to the elements Ti, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, Sb and Pb. Accumulations were observed for most of the elements, confirming the ability of Evernia transplants for atmospheric metal deposition monitoring. The accumulation trends were mainly affected by the exposure orientation and slightly less so by the protection from rain. The zonation of the trace elements inside the thallus was also studied. It was concluded that trace element concentrations were not homogeneous in Evernia, thus imposing some cautions on the sampling approach. A nuclear microprobe analysis of an E. prunastri transplanted thallus in thin cross-sections concluded that the trace elements were mainly concentrated on the cortex of the thallus, except Zn, Ca and K which were also present in the internal layers. The size of the particles deposited or entrapped on the cortex surface averaged 7????m. A list of key parameters to ensure the comparability of surveys aiming at observing temporal or spatial deposition variation is presented. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Bovine mastitis a major disease that is commonly associated with bacterial infection. The common treatment is with antibiotics administered intramammary into infected quarters of the udder. The excessive use of antibiotics leads to multidrug resistance and associated risks for human health. In this context, the search for alternative drugs based on plants has become a priority in livestock medicine. These products have a low manufacturing cost and no reports of antimicrobial resistance to these have been documented. In this context, the main objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effect of extracts and products of several indigenous, or acclimatized plants on pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis. A total of eleven plant alcoholic extracts and eight plant-derived products were tested against 32 microorganisms isolated from milk. The obtained results have shown an inhibition of bacterial growth for all tested plants, with better results for Evernia prunastri, Artemisia absinthium, and Lavandula angustifolia. Moreover, E. prunastri, Populus nigra, and L. angustifolia presented small averages of minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations. Among the plant-derived products, three out of eight have shown a strong anti-microbial effect comparable with the effect of florfenicol and enrofloxacin, and better than individual plant extracts possibly due to synergism. These results suggest an important anti-microbial effect of these products on pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis with a possible applicability in this disease.
Oleksiy V. Bidzilya
Full Text Available A new highly specialized Catatinagma Rebel, 1903 species is described from Turkmenistan. Both sexes have completely reduced hindwings and strongly reduced forewings. The adults are active in February, jumping amongst Carex physodes M. Bieb. and being associated with rodent burrows. The new species is similar to Metanarsia trisignella Bidzilya, 2008, in the male genitalia. Both species are placed here provisionally in Catatinagma Rebel, 1903, and their position within Apatetrini is briefly discussed. The adult and the genitalia of both sexes are illustrated, and the behaviour of the new species is described.
Paoli, Luca; Loppi, Stefano
The suitability of a set of ecophysiological parameters, to be used as early warning indicator to detect signs of a worsening environment around geothermal power plants, was tested by comparison with the diversity of epiphytic lichens, a well-established indicator of geothermal air pollution. Samples of the lichen Evernia prunastri were transplanted around a geothermal power plant at Larderello (Tuscany, Italy) and at a control site, and integrity of cell membranes, concentration of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids, chlorophyll integrity and variations in pH of thalli were measured. The results showed that cell membrane damage, expressed by changes in electrical conductivity, could be used to detect early (exposure periods as short as 1 month) deleterious effects of geothermal air pollution.
Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H; Bernois, Armand
BACKGROUND: Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. OBJECTIVES: To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new oak...... moss', with reduced contents of the major allergens atranol and chloroatranol. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: The two preparations were compared in randomized double-blinded repeated open application tests and serial dilution patch tests in 30 oak moss-sensitive volunteers and 30 non-allergic control...... subjects. RESULTS: In both test models, new oak moss elicited significantly less allergic contact dermatitis in oak moss-sensitive subjects than classic oak moss. The control subjects did not react to either of the preparations. CONCLUSIONS: New oak moss is still a fragrance allergen, but elicits less...
Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Heydorn, Siri; Menné, Torkil
Oak moss absolute is one of the eight ingredients of the fragrance mix (FM) used for diagnosing perfume allergy. Oak moss absolute is an extract prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri growing on oak trees. It has been shown that the oak moss patch test material from one producer contained resin...... acids which are ingredients of another lichen, tree moss. Resin acids, e.g. abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid, are also the main allergens in colophonium. The aim of the study was to assess whether the contamination of oak moss absolute and thus the FM with resin acids had affected their diagnostic...... value so that they, instead of indicating fragrance allergy, had become indicators of allergy to resin acids and thus colophonium. Two studies were undertaken. First the relationship between patch test reactions to FM, oak moss absolute, both with contents of resin acids, and colophonium were assessed...
Melissa Barrera Tomas
Full Text Available Compound usnic acid (1, isolated from lichen Evernia prunastri (Cajamarca-Peru and the synthesis and characterization of its acyl-hydrazone (2, from the condensation reaction between usnic acid and isoniazid in an ethanol solution under reflux, giving an overall yield of 95%, were evaluated. Both compounds were evaluated and compared with isoniazid according to its anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity based on the tetrazolium microplate assay (TEMA. Compound 1 had MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration value of 16.0 μg/mL in each test of H37Rv (susceptible type, TB DM 97 (resistant wild type and MDR DM 1098 (multi drug resistances type strains. In similar tests, compound 2 MIC values were 2.0, 64.0 and 64.0 μg/mL respectively.
Full Text Available Nineteen species of lichenicolous fungi collected in 129 localities in Poland in the years 1968 and 1970-2003 are reported in the paper. They are as follows: Athelia arachnoidea (Berk. Jülich, Tremella cladoniae Diederich et M.S. Chrst., T. hypogymniae Diederich et M.S. Chris., T. lichecola Diederich, Clypeococcum hypocenomycis D. Hawksw., Polycoccum superficiale D. Hawksw. et Miądlikowska, Nectria lecanodes Ces., Pronectria erythrinella (Nyl. Lowen, Cortocifraga fuckelii (Rehm D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., C. peltigerae (Nyl. D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., Libertiella malmedyensis Speg. et Roum., Lichenoconium erodens M.S. Christ. et D. Hawksw., L. lecanorae (Jaap D. Hawksw., L. pyxidatae (Oudem. Petrak et Sydow, Vouauxiella lichenicola (Lindsay Petrak et Sydow, Bispora christiansenii D. Hawksw., Illosporium carneum Fr., Karsteniomyces peltigerae (P. Karst. D. Hawksw. and Taeniolella beschiana Diederich.
Kirschbaum, A.; Klee, R.
Studies with lichen explants and with naturally occurring lichens, conducted in the Lower Main region in West Germany within the framework of an air hydgienic and meteorologic model study of that region, are described. Parmelia physodes explants from oak trees growing in nonpolluted areas were exposed in polluted areas, such as in an industrial area, an airport, a petroleum refinery, and near a large chemical plant. The degree of air pollution in the exposure site was evaluated by the degree of the lichen damage in seven grades. The large-scale average distribution of air pollution in the survey area was studied by surveying the natural occurrence of lichen species on 10 apple trees in area units of 6.25 sq km each. The lichen explant and lichen survey methods compared by the study of naturally occurring lichens were near the exposure site of lichen explants.
Romestand, B; Voss-Foucart, M F; Jeuniaux, C; Trillès, J P
The free amino-acid composition of the sera of 4 species of Isopods Cymothoidae (Meinertia oestroides, Meinertia parallela, Emetha audouini, Anilocra physodes) are very similar, and present the same characteristics, both quantitatively and qualitatively, as those of free marine Isopods of the family Sphaeromatidae and Idoteidae. Five amino acids are preponderant (serin, prolin, glycin, alanin and taurin). The total concentration is relatively high (154.6-356.4 mg/100 ml) with respect to Decapods. In the parasites studied so far, the free amino-acid pattern (except prolin) is rather like that of the Teleost Fishes, whether they are potential hosts of Cymothoidae or not. The free amino-acid concentration of the blood of the Fishes does not seem to be impaired by the Cymothoidae parasitism.
Nardelli, Andrea; Drieghe, Jacques; Claes, Lieve; Boey, Lies; Goossens, An
Together with preservative agents, fragrance components are the most important sensitizing culprits in cosmetic products. To identify the nature of the fragrance ingredients responsible for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from specific cosmetic products. Between 2000 and 2009, positive patch test reactions or positive usage tests with the patients' own cosmetic products, were recorded using a standardised form. Of the 806 cosmetic records, corresponding to 485 patient files, 344 concerned reactions to fragrance ingredients that according to the label were present ('Presence Confirmed' [PC n = 301]) or suspected to be present ('Presence Not Confirmed' [PNC n = 376]) in the causal cosmetic products used, which belonged to 15 different categories, toilet waters/fine perfumes being the most frequent. Geraniol in fragrance mix I (FM I) and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC) in FM II were the most frequent PC, and together with hydroxycitronellal and Evernia prunastri (oak moss) the most frequent PNC ingredients in the causal cosmetic products. Limonene was the most frequent PC confirmed fragrance allergen. This study not only underlines the usefulness of fragrance-ingredient labelling in order to identify the causal allergen(s) present in specific cosmetic products, but may also provide information on trends in the actual use of sensitizing fragrance ingredients in them. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D
Fragrance ingredients are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The EU Cosmetics Directive states that 26 specific fragrance ingredients, known to cause allergic contact dermatitis, must be declared on the ingredient lists of cosmetic products. To investigate frequencies of sensitization to the 26 individual fragrances and evaluate their importance as screening markers of fragrance allergy. This was a retrospective study based on data from the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte. Eczema patients (n = 1508) were patch tested (January 2008 to July 2010) with the 26 fragrance ingredients. Sensitization to the 26 fragrances was identified in 115 (7.6%) subjects. The most frequent allergens were Evernia furfuracea (n = 50), Evernia prunastri (n = 31), and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (n = 24). Including fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II and Myroxylon pereirae, 196 (13.0%) had a fragrance allergy. Testing with the 26 fragrances additionally identified 23 subjects who would otherwise have gone undetected. The majority (75.7%) of positive reactions to the 26 fragrances were of clinical relevance. Sensitization to the 26 individual fragrance ingredients was identified in 7.6% of the subjects patch tested. Most reactions were of clinical relevance. Fragrance-allergic subjects would be missed if testing with the individual fragrance ingredients was not performed. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Paoli, Luca; Pisani, Tommaso; Guttová, Anna; Sardella, Giovanni; Loppi, Stefano
The lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. has been exposed for 3 months in and around an industrial area of Mediterranean Italy for monitoring physiological (photosynthetic efficiency, membrane lipids peroxidation and cell membrane integrity) and chemical (bioaccumulation of the heavy metals Cr, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) effects and investigate the consistency with the environmental quality status depicted by the diversity of epiphytic lichens (index of lichen diversity (ILD)). The results showed that thalli transplanted close to the industrial area exhibited early stress symptoms, as revealed by the increase in electrical conductivity indicating a damage endured by lichen cell membranes. The electrical conductivity was inversely correlated with the diversity of epiphytic lichens recorded at the same sites. The ILD negatively correlated also with membrane lipid peroxidation and the rate of accumulation of Pb, V and Zn. Reciprocal correlations found among trace elements pinpointed vehicular traffic and metal processing in the industrial area as main sources. The damage endured by cell membranes was the best physiological indicator consistent with the air quality status depicted by the diversity of epiphytic lichens. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fernández-Moriano, Carlos; Divakar, Pradeep Kumar; Crespo, Ana; Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar
Lichens species produce unique secondary metabolites that attract increasing pharmacological interest, including their redox modulatory activities. Current work evaluated for the first time the in vitro cytoprotective properties, based on the antioxidant activities, of the Parmeliaceae lichens Evernia prunastri and Usnea ghattensis and the mechanism of action of their major phenolic constituents: the evernic and usnic acids, respectively. In two models of central nervous system-like cells (U373-MG and SH-SY5Y cell lines), exogenous H2O2 induced oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity. We first assessed their radical scavenging capacities (ORAC and DPPH tests) and the phenolic content of the extracts. At the optimal concentrations, pretreatments with evernic acid displayed significant protection against H2O2-induced cytotoxic damage in both models. It reversed the alterations in oxidative stress markers (including ROS generation, glutathione system and lipid peroxidation levels) and cellular apoptosis (caspase-3 activity). Such effects were in part mediated by a notable enhancement of the expression of intracellular phase-II antioxidant enzymes; a plausible involvement of the Nrf2 cytoprotective pathway is suggested. Usnic acid exerted similar effects, to some extent more moderate. Results suggest that lichen polyketides evernic and usnic acids merit further research as promising antioxidant candidates in the therapy of oxidative stress-related diseases, including the neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blasco, María; Domeño, Celia; Nerín, Cristina
The air quality in the Aragón valley, in the central Pyrenees, has been assessed by evaluation of lichen biodiversity and mapped by elaboration of the Index of Air Purity (IAP) based on observations of the presence and abundance of eight kinds of lichen with different sensitivity to air pollution. The IAP values obtained have been compared with quantitative analytical measures of 16 PAHs in the lichen Evernia prunastri, because this species was associated with a wide range of traffic exposure and levels of urbanization. Analyses of PAHs were carried out by the DSASE method followed by an SPE clean-up step and GC-MS analysis. The concentration of total PAHs found in lichen samples from the Aragón valley ranged from 692 to 6420 ng g(-1) and the PAHs profile showed predominance of compounds with three aromatic rings. The influence of the road traffic in the area has been shown because values over the median concentration of PAHs (>1092 ng g(-1)), percentage of combustion PAHs (>50%), and equivalent toxicity (>169) were found in lichens collected at places exposed to the influence of traffic. The combination of both methods suggests IAP as a general method for evaluating the air pollution referenced to PAHs because it can be correlated with the content of combustion PAHs and poor lichen biodiversity can be partly explained by the air pollution caused by specific PAHs.
Full Text Available Candida albicans is a commensal coloniser of the human gastrointestinal tract and an opportunistic pathogen, especially thanks to its capacity to form biofilms. This lifestyle is frequently involved in infections and increases the yeast resistance to antimicrobials and immune defenses. In this context, 38 lichen acetone extracts have been prepared and evaluated for their activity against C. albicans planktonic and sessile cells. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of extracts (MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method. Anti-biofilm activity was evaluated using tetrazolium salt (XTT assay as the ability to inhibit the maturation phase (anti-maturation or to eradicate a preformed 24 h old biofilm (anti-biofilm. While none of the extracts were active against planktonic cells, biofilm maturation was limited by 11 of the tested extracts. Seven extracts displayed both anti-maturation and anti-biofilm activities (half maximal inhibitory concentrations IC50_mat and IC50_biof ≤ 100 µg/mL; Evernia prunastri and Ramalina fastigiata were the most promising lichens (IC50_mat < 4 µg/mL and IC50_biof < 10 µg/mL. Chemical profiles of the active extracts performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC have been analyzed. Depsides, which were present in large amounts in the most active extracts, could be involved in anti-biofilm activities. This work confirmed that lichens represent a reservoir of compounds with anti-biofilm potential.
Costa, Giulia Burle; de Felix, Marthiellen R L; Simioni, Carmen; Ramlov, Fernanda; Oliveira, Eva Regina; Pereira, Débora T; Maraschin, Marcelo; Chow, Fungyi; Horta, Paulo Antunes; Lalau, Cristina Moreira; da Costa, Cristina H; Matias, William Gerson; Bouzon, Zenilda L; Schmidt, Éder C
The effects of the heavy metals copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) on Sargassum cymosum were evaluated by determining uptake capacity, growth rates, photosynthetic efficiency, contents of photosynthetic pigments and phenolic compounds, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging capacity, and morphological and cellular changes. S. cymosum was cultivated with Cu and Pb separately and combined at concentrations of 10, 25, and 50 μM for 7 days in laboratory-controlled conditions. Seaweeds under Cu treatment showed the highest biosorption capacity, and growth rates were significantly reduced compared to the control. The photosynthesis/irradiance curves showed alterations in kinetic patterns in the metal-treated samples. Specifically, Cu treatment alone inhibited electron transport rate (ETR) response, while Pb alone induced it. However, samples treated with both Cu and Pb (Cu + Pb) showed inhibition in ETR. The total amount of pigments increased relative to control. Light microscopy showed an increase in phenolic compounds, with physodes migrating towards cortical cells. Scanning electronic microscopy revealed alterations in the typical rough surface of thallus, when compared with control, especially for Pb treatments. Based on these results, it could be concluded that Cu and Pb are stress factors for S. cymosum, promoting alterations in seaweed metabolism and stimulating protective mechanisms against oxidative stress. However, the high bioaccumulation capacity of both heavy metals indicates a possible application for S. cymosum as a biosorbent agent for contaminated wastewater when metals are in low concentrations.
Golubev, A V; Golubeva, V N; Krylov, N G; Kuznetsova, V F; Mavrin, S V; Aleinikov, A Yu; Hoppes, W G; Surano, K A
Lichens are widely used to assess the atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and radionuclides. However, few studies are available in publications on using lichens to qualitatively assess the atmospheric pollution levels. The paper presents research results applying epiphytic lichens as bio-monitors of quantitative atmospheric contamination with uranium. The observations were conducted during 2.5 years in the natural environment. Two experimental sites were used: one in the vicinity of a uranium contamination source, the other one - at a sufficient distance away to represent the background conditions. Air and lichens were sampled at both sites monthly. Epiphytic lichens Hypogimnia physodes were used as bio-indicators. Lichen samples were taken from various trees at about 1.5m from the ground. Air was sampled with filters at sampling stations. The uranium content in lichen and air samples as well as isotopic mass ratios (235)U/(238)U were measured by mass-spectrometer technique after uranium pre-extraction. Measured content of uranium were 1.45 mgkg(-1) in lichen at 2.09 E-04 microgm(-3) in air and 0.106 mgkg(-1) in lichen at 1.13 E-05 microgm(-3) in air. The relationship of the uranium content in atmosphere and that in lichens was determined, C(AIR)=exp(1.1 x C(LICHEN)-12). The possibility of separate identification of natural and man-made uranium in lichens was demonstrated in principle.
Bennike, N H; Oturai, N B; Müller, S; Kirkeby, C S; Jørgensen, C; Christensen, A B; Zachariae, C; Johansen, J D
More than 25% of the adult European population suffers from contact allergy, with fragrance substances recognized as one of the main causes. Since 2005, 26 fragrance contact allergens have been mandatory to label in cosmetic products within the EU if present at 10 ppm or above in leave-on and 100 ppm or above in wash-off cosmetics. To examine exposure, based on ingredient labelling, to the 26 fragrances in a sample of 5588 fragranced cosmetic products. The investigated products were identified through a novel, non-profit smartphone application (app), designed to provide information to consumers about chemical substances in cosmetic products. Products registered through the app between December 2015 and October 2016 were label checked according to International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients (INCI) for the presence of the 26 fragrance substances or the wording 'fragrance/parfum/aroma'. The largest product categories investigated were 'cream, lotion and oil' (n = 1192), 'shampoo and conditioner' (n = 968) and 'deodorants' (n = 632). Among cosmetic products labelled to contain at least one of the 26 fragrances, 85.5% and 73.9% contained at least two and at least three of the 26 fragrances, respectively. Linalool (49.5%) and limonene (48.5%) were labelled most often among all investigated products. Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC/Lyral® ) was found in 13.5% of deodorants. Six of the 26 fragrance substances were labelled on less than one per cent of all products, including the natural extracts Evernia furfuracea (tree moss) and Evernia prunastri (oak moss). A total of 329 (5.9%) products had one or more of the 26 fragrance substances labelled but did not have 'parfum/fragrance/aroma' listed on the label. Consumers are widely exposed to, often multiple, well-established fragrance contact allergens through various cosmetic products intended for daily use. Several fragrance substances that are common causes of contact allergy were rarely
Paoli, Luca; Winkler, Aldo; Guttová, Anna; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Grassi, Alice; Lackovičová, Anna; Senko, Dušan; Loppi, Stefano
The content of selected elements (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Ti, V and Zn) was measured in samples of the lichen Evernia prunastri exposed for 30, 90 and 180 days around a cement mill, limestone and basalt quarries and urban and agricultural areas in SW Slovakia. Lichens transplanted around the investigated quarries and the cement mill rapidly (30 days) reflected the deposition of dust-associated elements, namely Ca (at the cement mill and the limestone quarry) and Fe, Ti and V (around the cement mill and the basalt quarry), and their content remained significantly higher throughout the whole period (30-180 days) with respect to the surrounding environment. Airborne pollutants (such as S) progressively increased in the study area from 30 to 180 days. The magnetic properties of lichen transplants exposed for 180 days have been characterized and compared with those of native lichens (Xanthoria parietina) and neighbouring bark, soil and rock samples, in order to test the suitability of native and transplanted samples as air pollution magnetic biomonitors. The magnetic mineralogy was homogeneous in all samples, with the exception of the samples from the basalt quarry. The transplants showed excellent correlations between the saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs) and the content of Fe. Native samples had a similar magnetic signature, but the values of the concentration-dependent magnetic parameters were up to two orders of magnitude higher, reflecting higher concentrations of magnetic particles. The concentrations of As, Ca and Cr in lichens correlated with Mrs values after neglecting the samples from the basalt quarry, which showed distinct magnetic properties, suggesting the cement mill as a likely source. Conversely, Ti and Mn were mostly (but not exclusively) associated with dust from the basalt quarry. It is suggested that the natural geological characteristics of the substrate may strongly affect the magnetic properties of lichen thalli
Ndhlala, A R; Finnie, J F; Van Staden, J
Imbiza ephuzwato is a traditional herbal tonic made from a mixture of extracts of roots, bulbs, rhizomes and leaves of 21 medicinal plants and is used in traditional medicine as a multipurpose remedy. To compile and investigate the bioactivity and mutagenic effects of extracts of the 21 plant species used in the preparation of Imbiza ephuzwato herbal tonic. The 21 plant species used to make Imbiza ephuzwato herbal mixture were each investigated for their pharmacological properties. Petroleum ether (PE), dichloromethane (DCM), 80% ethanol (EtOH) and water extracts of the 21 plants were evaluated against two gram-positive, two gram-negative bacteria and a fungus Candida albicans. The extracts were also evaluated for their inhibitory effects against cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and -2) and acetylcholinesterase AChE enzymes. Mutagenic effects of the water extracts were evaluated using the Ames test. Gunnera perpensa and Rubia cordifolia were the only plant species used to manufacture Imbiza ephuzwato that had water extracts which showed good antibacterial activity. The extracts of G. perpensa (EtOH), Hypericum aethiopicum (DCM) and Urginea physodes (EtOH) showed the best antifungal activity. The water extracts of H. aethiopicum, G. perpensa, Drimia robusta, Vitellariopsis marginata, Scadoxus puniceus and Momordica balsamina showed percentage inhibition of COX-1 that was over 70%. For COX-2 enzyme, the water extracts of G. perpensa, Cyrtanthus obliquus, M. balsamina and Tetradenia riparia exhibited inhibitory activity above 70%. Water extracts of G. perpensa, C. obliquus, V. marginata, Asclepias fruticosa and Watsonia densiflora showed good AChE inhibitory activity (>80%). The Ames test results revealed that all the water extracts of the 21 plant species used to make Imbiza ephuzwato were non-mutagenic towards the Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain for the assay with and without S9 metabolic activation. In contrast, Imbiza ephuzwato showed mutagenic effects after exposure to S