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Sample records for prudhoe bay unit

  1. Chemical Characterization of Atmospheric Particulate Matter from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsch, M.; Kirpes, R.; Moffett, C. E.; Sheesley, R. J.; Pratt, K.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is impacting the Arctic, leading to increasing temperatures and decreasing summer sea ice coverage which has allowed for increased oil and gas extraction activities. Prudhoe Bay is currently the second highest source of particulate matter from oil and gas extraction in the Arctic, and 3rd largest oil field in the United States. With drilling operations expected to increase due to the reduced sea ice coverage, these emissions, specifically contributions from black carbon and organic carbon, are expected to continue to increase over the coming decades. Given the complexity and evolving nature of atmospheric particles, as well as the logistical challenges associated with Arctic measurements, many uncertainties remain in our understanding of the impacts of increasing emissions in the Arctic. To investigate the size and chemistry of individual particles emitted from activities within the Prudhoe Bay oil fields in real-time, an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed 300 km northwest of Prudhoe Bay to Barrow, AK during August-September 2015 as well as inside the Prudhoe Bay oil fields at Oliktok Point, AK during August-September 2016. During the 2015 measurements, particle number concentrations increased 10 times when under the influence of Prudhoe Bay, primarily from sub-50 nm particles attributed to transported combustion emissions. ATOFMS also identified increased number fractions of soot and organic carbon-sulfate particles (0.2 - 1.5 μm in diameter) when comparing Prudhoe Bay influential periods to Arctic Ocean influential periods. During 2016 measurements, parallel size-resolved number concentration measurements allowed for near-source quantification of number and mass concentrations of particles from the various sources of combustion within the oil fields, including residual fuel, diesel fuel and biomass burning. These measurements represent the first single particle chemical characterization of oil and gas extraction

  2. Arctic cisco stable isotope data, Prudhoe Bay, August 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set documents the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of age-0 Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) captured in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in August 2009....

  3. Molecular and isotopic analyses of the hydrocarbon gases within gas hydrate-bearing rock units of the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area in northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valin, Zenon C.; Collett, Timothy S.

    1992-01-01

    Gas hydrates, which are crystalline substances of water molecules that encase gas molecules, have the potential for being a significant source of natural gas. World-wide estimates for the amount of gas contained in hydrates range from 1.1 x 105 to 2.7 x 108 trillion cubic feet. Gas hydrates exist in many Arctic regions, including the North Slope of Alaska. The two primary objectives of the U.S. Geological Survey Gas Hydrate Research Project are (1) to map the distribution of in-situ gas hydrates on the North Slope of Alaska, and (2) to evaluate the geologic parameters that control the distribution of these gas hydrates. To aid in this study, British Petroleum Exploration, ARCO Alaska, Exxon Company USA, and the Continental Oil Company allowed the U.S. Geological Survey to collect geochemical samples from drilling North Slope production wells. Molecular analysis of gaseous drill cutting and free-flowing gas samples from 10 production wells drilled in the Prudhoe Bay, Kuparuk River, and Milne Point oil fields indicates that methane is the primary hydrocarbon gas in the gas hydrate-bearing stratigraphic units. Isotopic data for several of these rock units indicate that the methane within the inferred gas hydrate occurences originated from both microbial and thermogenic processes.

  4. Pre-ABoVE: Geobotanical and Impact Map Collection for Prudhoe Bay Oilfield, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides a collection of maps of geoecological characteristics of areas within the Beechey Point quadrangle near Prudhoe Bay on the North slope of...

  5. Summer bird use of a barrier island near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The number and distribution of birds near a barrier island west of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, were recorded during the summer of 1972. Eiders fed and rested in the open...

  6. Thermal regime of permafrost at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenbruch, A.H.; Sass, J.H.; Marshall, B.V.; Moses, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Temperature measurements through permafrost in the oil field at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, combined with laboratory measurements of the thermal conductivity of drill cuttings permit an evaluation of in situ thermal properties and an understanding of the general factors that control the geothermal regime. A sharp contrast in temperature gradient at ~600 m represents a contrast in thermal conductivity caused by the downward change from interstitial ice to interstitial water at the base of permafrost under near steady-state conditions. Interpretation of the gradient contrast in terms of a simple model for the conductivity of an aggregate yields the mean ice content and thermal conductivities for the frozen and thawed sections (8.1 and 4.7 mcal/cm sec ?C, respectively). These results yield a heat flow of ~1.3 HFU which is similar to other values on the Alaskan Arctic Coast; the anomalously deep permafrost is a result of the anomalously high conductivity of the siliceous ice-rich sediments. Curvature in the upper 160 m of the temperature profiles represents a warming of ~1.8?C of the mean surface temperature, and a net accumulation of 5-6 kcal/cm 2 by the solid earth surface during the last 100 years or so. Rising sea level and thawing sea cliffs probably caused the shoreline to advance tens of kilometers in the last 20,000 years, inundating a portion of the continental shelf that is presently the target of intensive oil exploration. A simple conduction model suggests that this recently inundated region is underlain by near-melting ice-rich permafrost to depths of 300-500 m; its presence is important to seismic interpretations in oil exploration and to engineering considerations in oil production. With confirmation of the permafrost configuration by offshore drilling, heat-conduction models can yield reliable new information on the chronology of arctic shorelines.

  7. Reservoir description of Endicott Field, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrman, P.G.; Woidneck, R.K.; Soule, C.H.; Wu, J.L.

    1985-04-01

    Located about 2 mi offshore and several miles east of Prudhoe Bay, the Endicott field contains about 1.4 billion reservoir bbl of oil and 0.5 billion reservoir bbl of gas. Hydrocarbons occur within Mississippian fluvial sandstones of the Kekiktuk formation, which unconformably overlies the Neruokpuk Formation and grades upward into the Kayak and Itkilyariak formations. Stratigraphy is subdivided into three lithofacies that, from the base upward, reflect deposition in a swamp/lacustrine/flood plain environment (zone I), a braided stream system (zone 2), and a meandering stream system (zone 3). Sediment dispersal was from a northerly source. Endicott field structure defines a southwesterly plunging antiform that is bounded to the north, northeast, and southwest by major normal faults and is truncated to the northeast by the Lower Cretaceous Unconformity (LCU). Shales overlying the LCU and shales of the Kayak and Itkilyariak formations from the reservoir cap. Reservoir properties with the hydrocarbon column vary by zone with zones 3 and 2 typified by an average net/gross-porosity-water saturation-permeability of 37%-18%-22%-500 md and 88%-22%-13%-1100 md, respectively. In contrast, zone 1 quality is very poor. Reservoir sands are compositionally very mature and exhibit an enhanced pore network. Diagenetic minerals include quartz along with lesser kaolinite and carbonate. Gas is present from about 9500 ft (2850 m) to 9855 ft (2958 m), oil is down to 10,180-10,200 ft (3054-3060 m), and tar accumulations are down to 10,400 ft (3120 m) subsea. Average oil gravity is 23/sup 0/ API. Geochemical data indicate that the tar accumulations originated through a physical deasphaltine process. Cenozoic imbibition resulted in water overriding tar.

  8. Contributions of transported Prudhoe Bay oil field emissions to the aerosol population in Utqiagvik, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunsch, Matthew J.; Kirpes, Rachel M.; Kolesar, Katheryn R.; Barrett, Tate E.; China, Swarup; Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Laskin, Alexander; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Tuch, Thomas; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-01-01

    Loss of sea ice is opening the Arctic to increasing development involving oil and gas extraction and shipping. Given the significant impacts of absorbing aerosol and secondary aerosol precursors emitted within the rapidly warming Arctic region, it is necessary to characterize local anthropogenic aerosol sources and compare to natural conditions. From August to September 2015 in Utqiagvik (Barrow), AK, the chemical composition of individual atmospheric particles was measured by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (0.13–4 µm projected area diameter) and real-time single-particle mass spectrometry (0.2–1.5 µm vacuum aerodynamic diameter). During periods influenced by the Arctic Ocean (70 % of the study), our results show that fresh sea spray aerosol contributed ~20 %, by number, of particles between 0.13 and 0.4 µm, 40–70 % between 0.4 and 1 µm, and 80–100 % between 1 and 4 µm particles. In contrast, for periods influenced by emissions from Prudhoe Bay (10 % of the study), the third largest oil field in North America, there was a strong influence from submicron (0.13–1 µm) combustion-derived particles (20–50 % organic carbon, by number; 5–10% soot by number). While sea spray aerosol still comprised a large fraction of particles (90 % by number from 1 to 4 µm) detected under Prudhoe Bay influence, these particles were internally mixed with sulfate and nitrate indicative of aging processes during transport. In addition, the overall mode of the particle size number distribution shifted from 76 nm during Arctic Ocean influence to 27 nm during Prudhoe Bay influence, with particle concentrations increasing from 130 to 920 cm-3 due to transported particle emissions from the oil fields. The increased contributions of carbonaceous combustion products and partially aged sea spray aerosol should be considered in future Arctic atmospheric composition and climate simulations.

  9. Abundance and movements of caribou in the oilfield complex near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Cameron

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the distribution and movements of 141 radiocollared female caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti of the Central Arctic Herd during summer, 1980-1993. Numbers of caribou locations within each of 5 quadrats along the arctic coast were totalled separately for days during which insects were active and inactive, and numbers of east-west and west-east crossings of each quadrat mid-line were determined from sequential observations. Both abundance and lateral movements of radiocollared females in the quadrat encompassing the intensively-developed Prudhoe Bay oilfield complex were significantly lower than in other quadrats (P < 0.001 and P < 0.00001, respectively. Avoidance of, and fewer movements within, the complex by female caribou are ostensibly in response to the dense network of production and support facilities, roads, above-ground pipelines, and the associated vehicular and human activity. Impaired access to this area constitutes a functional loss of habitat.

  10. Contributions of transported Prudhoe Bay oil field emissions to the aerosol population in Utqiaġvik, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsch, Matthew J.; Kirpes, Rachel M.; Kolesar, Katheryn R.; Barrett, Tate E.; China, Swarup; Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Laskin, Alexander; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Tuch, Thomas; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-09-01

    Loss of sea ice is opening the Arctic to increasing development involving oil and gas extraction and shipping. Given the significant impacts of absorbing aerosol and secondary aerosol precursors emitted within the rapidly warming Arctic region, it is necessary to characterize local anthropogenic aerosol sources and compare to natural conditions. From August to September 2015 in Utqiaġvik (Barrow), AK, the chemical composition of individual atmospheric particles was measured by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (0.13-4 µm projected area diameter) and real-time single-particle mass spectrometry (0.2-1.5 µm vacuum aerodynamic diameter). During periods influenced by the Arctic Ocean (70 % of the study), our results show that fresh sea spray aerosol contributed ˜ 20 %, by number, of particles between 0.13 and 0.4 µm, 40-70 % between 0.4 and 1 µm, and 80-100 % between 1 and 4 µm particles. In contrast, for periods influenced by emissions from Prudhoe Bay (10 % of the study), the third largest oil field in North America, there was a strong influence from submicron (0.13-1 µm) combustion-derived particles (20-50 % organic carbon, by number; 5-10 % soot by number). While sea spray aerosol still comprised a large fraction of particles (90 % by number from 1 to 4 µm) detected under Prudhoe Bay influence, these particles were internally mixed with sulfate and nitrate indicative of aging processes during transport. In addition, the overall mode of the particle size number distribution shifted from 76 nm during Arctic Ocean influence to 27 nm during Prudhoe Bay influence, with particle concentrations increasing from 130 to 920 cm-3 due to transported particle emissions from the oil fields. The increased contributions of carbonaceous combustion products and partially aged sea spray aerosol should be considered in future Arctic atmospheric composition and climate simulations.

  11. Cumulative effects of climate change and ice-wedge degradation, Prudhoe Bay oilfield Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. A.; Kanevskiy, M. Z.; Shur, Y.; Raynolds, M. K.; Buchhorn, M.

    2016-12-01

    Development of Arctic oil & gas resources requires extensive networks of roads, pipelines and other forms of infrastructure. The Prudhoe Bay Oilfield is the largest Arctic oilfield in North America with a long, well-documented history. In a previous publication we analyzed the historical record of high-resolution aerial photos to document the long-term changes to infrastructure extent (1949-2010) for the entire oilfield, and an integrated-geoecological-historical-change-mapping (IGHCM) approach to document terrain changes within 22-km2 areas of the oilfield. We reported the recent widespread expansion of thermokarst, starting in about 1989. Here we examine the annual air-photo record to better pinpoint the years of major change. We also conducted detailed field studies of roadside changes using topographic surveys and soil, vegetation and ice-wedge coring studies. Both sites exhibit extensive ice-wedge degradation that is caused by a combination of a long-term warming trend a series of exceptionally warm summers, and infrastructure-related factors that melted the tops of ice wedges. Near-road thermokarst is enhanced by warmer soils associated with road dust, roadside flooding, near-road pipelines, communication cables, and altered snow regimes. These strongly affect roadside ecosystems and the infrastructure itself. Changes to ecosystems include altered hydrology with the drying of polygon centers and the formation of well-developed high-centered polygons occurs in some areas. Other areas develop extensive flooding and erosion of ice-wedge troughs. An unexpected result of flooding is the stabilization of ice-wedge degradation in some areas because the increased productivity of sedges in the flooded areas is producing large amounts of organic material that protects the tops of ice wedges from further degradation. The large increases in productivity in roadside areas also attract large flocks of waterfowl. Changes to the soils with the addition of thick layers of

  12. RESOURCE CHARACTERIZATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF NATURAL GAS-HYDRATE AND ASSOCIATED FREE-GAS ACCUMULATIONS IN THE PRUDHOE BAY - KUPARUK RIVER AREA ON THE NORTH SLOPE OF ALASKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hunter; Shirish Patil; Robert Casavant; Tim Collett

    2003-06-02

    Interim results are presented from the project designed to characterize, quantify, and determine the commercial feasibility of Alaska North Slope (ANS) gas-hydrate and associated free-gas resources in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU), Kuparuk River Unit (KRU), and Milne Point Unit (MPU) areas. This collaborative research will provide practical input to reservoir and economic models, determine the technical feasibility of gas hydrate production, and influence future exploration and field extension of this potential ANS resource. The large magnitude of unconventional in-place gas (40-100 TCF) and conventional ANS gas commercialization evaluation creates industry-DOE alignment to assess this potential resource. This region uniquely combines known gas hydrate presence and existing production infrastructure. Many technical, economical, environmental, and safety issues require resolution before enabling gas hydrate commercial production. Gas hydrate energy resource potential has been studied for nearly three decades. However, this knowledge has not been applied to practical ANS gas hydrate resource development. ANS gas hydrate and associated free gas reservoirs are being studied to determine reservoir extent, stratigraphy, structure, continuity, quality, variability, and geophysical and petrophysical property distribution. Phase 1 will characterize reservoirs, lead to recoverable reserve and commercial potential estimates, and define procedures for gas hydrate drilling, data acquisition, completion, and production. Phases 2 and 3 will integrate well, core, log, and long-term production test data from additional wells, if justified by results from prior phases. The project could lead to future ANS gas hydrate pilot development. This project will help solve technical and economic issues to enable government and industry to make informed decisions regarding future commercialization of unconventional gas-hydrate resources.

  13. Genetic relationships of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Prudhoe Bay region of Alaska: inference from microsatellite DNA, mitochondrial DNA, and field observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, M; Shideler, R; Hechtel, J; Strobeck, C; Paetkau, D

    1999-01-01

    Grizzly bears are abundant in the region of the Prudhoe Bay oil fields in northern Alaska. We used field observations and molecular genetic data to identify parent-offspring and sibling relationships among bears in this region. We determined genotypes at 14 microsatellite DNA loci and the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) for 36 bears. We identified 17 possible mother-offspring pairs and 8 possible father-offspring pairs. This includes verification of the relationships of 14 mother-offspring pairs identified from field observations. Three additional mother-offspring pairs and all eight father-offspring pairs were determined from genetic and age data. Relatedness coefficients based on numbers of shared alleles between individuals were as expected: approximately 0.50 for parent-offspring and sibling pairs and approximately 0.75 for a father-offspring pair resulting from a father-daughter mating. The level of genetic variation (mean number of alleles per locus = 6.6, mean heterozygosity = 70%) and allele frequencies in grizzly bears in the Prudhoe Bay region are similar to those in other parts of the species' range.

  14. k179ar.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity K-1-79-AR in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, Arctic Ocean from 07/23/1979 to 08/20/1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity K-1-79-AR in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, Arctic Ocean from 07/23/1979 to...

  15. Cumulative geoecological effects of 62 years of infrastructure and climate change in ice-rich permafrost landscapes, Prudhoe Bay Oilfield, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynolds, Martha K; Walker, Donald A; Ambrosius, Kenneth J; Brown, Jerry; Everett, Kaye R; Kanevskiy, Mikhail; Kofinas, Gary P; Romanovsky, Vladimir E; Shur, Yuri; Webber, Patrick J

    2014-04-01

    Many areas of the Arctic are simultaneously affected by rapid climate change and rapid industrial development. These areas are likely to increase in number and size as sea ice melts and abundant Arctic natural resources become more accessible. Documenting the changes that have already occurred is essential to inform management approaches to minimize the impacts of future activities. Here, we determine the cumulative geoecological effects of 62 years (1949-2011) of infrastructure- and climate-related changes in the Prudhoe Bay Oilfield, the oldest and most extensive industrial complex in the Arctic, and an area with extensive ice-rich permafrost that is extraordinarily sensitive to climate change. We demonstrate that thermokarst has recently affected broad areas of the entire region, and that a sudden increase in the area affected began shortly after 1990 corresponding to a rapid rise in regional summer air temperatures and related permafrost temperatures. We also present a conceptual model that describes how infrastructure-related factors, including road dust and roadside flooding are contributing to more extensive thermokarst in areas adjacent to roads and gravel pads. We mapped the historical infrastructure changes for the Alaska North Slope oilfields for 10 dates from the initial oil discovery in 1968-2011. By 2010, over 34% of the intensively mapped area was affected by oil development. In addition, between 1990 and 2001, coincident with strong atmospheric warming during the 1990s, 19% of the remaining natural landscapes (excluding areas covered by infrastructure, lakes and river floodplains) exhibited expansion of thermokarst features resulting in more abundant small ponds, greater microrelief, more active lakeshore erosion and increased landscape and habitat heterogeneity. This transition to a new geoecological regime will have impacts to wildlife habitat, local residents and industry. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Resource Characterization and Quantification of Natural Gas-Hydrate and Associated Free-Gas Accumulations in the Prudhoe Bay - Kuparuk River Area on the North Slope of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2008-12-31

    Natural gas hydrates have long been considered a nuisance by the petroleum industry. Hydrates have been hazards to drilling crews, with blowouts a common occurrence if not properly accounted for in drilling plans. In gas pipelines, hydrates have formed plugs if gas was not properly dehydrated. Removing these plugs has been an expensive and time-consuming process. Recently, however, due to the geologic evidence indicating that in situ hydrates could potentially be a vast energy resource of the future, research efforts have been undertaken to explore how natural gas from hydrates might be produced. This study investigates the relative permeability of methane and brine in hydrate-bearing Alaska North Slope core samples. In February 2007, core samples were taken from the Mt. Elbert site situated between the Prudhoe Bay and Kuparuk oil fields on the Alaska North Slope. Core plugs from those core samples have been used as a platform to form hydrates and perform unsteady-steady-state displacement relative permeability experiments. The absolute permeability of Mt. Elbert core samples determined by Omni Labs was also validated as part of this study. Data taken with experimental apparatuses at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, ConocoPhillips laboratories at the Bartlesville Technology Center, and at the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation's facilities in Anchorage, Alaska, provided the basis for this study. This study finds that many difficulties inhibit the ability to obtain relative permeability data in porous media-containing hydrates. Difficulties include handling unconsolidated cores during initial core preparation work, forming hydrates in the core in such a way that promotes flow of both brine and methane, and obtaining simultaneous two-phase flow of brine and methane necessary to quantify relative permeability using unsteady-steady-state displacement methods.

  17. SOHIO (Standard Oil Co. , Ohio) to sell Prudhoe gas to Northern Natural Gas Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-20

    Sohio has agreed to sell Vertical Bar3: 2 trillion cu ft of its Prudhoe Bay gas to Northern Natural Gas Co. for delivery at a rate of 170 million cu ft/day when the proposed Alaska Highway gas pipeline is completed. With the exception of approx. 4 trillion cu ft of Sohio's reserves committed to Columbia Gas System Inc., the agreement accounts for the sale of all the 26.5-27 trillion cu ft of Prudhoe Bay reserves. The contract, which is subject to approval of the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, allows Alaska to take its one-eighth royalty share of the gas in kind or cash. Columbia Gas is the only firm planning to purchase Prudhoe Bay gas that is not participating as an equity owner in the pipeline project. According to a Columbia spokesman, it is still uncertain whether the proposed gas pipeline will be built; and the fact that Columbia has not yet signed a final agreement with Sohio does not indicate any decreasing interest in Prudhoe Bay gas.

  18. Vegetation and Environmental Gradients of the Prudhoe Bay Region, Alaska,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Numerous taxonomists generously helped with the plant identifications. Dr. David Murray, University of Alaska Museum, and Dr. William Weber...Britton reviewed this work, and his comments are much appreciated. David Cate, CRREL, made numerous very helpful suggestions and has greatly helped the...111,, NOIA MNSCTAI 13.03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 031 03 03 91 I1i IfIN LITRCOT O 03 0O) O ) 3 0 0 ) O 03 0 ( 3 0 ( .5 0( 1 L IV[ P’WORTS 1 7 3

  19. GPU MrBayes V3.1: MrBayes on Graphics Processing Units for Protein Sequence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shuai; Stones, Rebecca J; Ren, Ming-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Gang; Xia, Hong-ju; Wu, Hao-Yang; Liu, Yang; Xie, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    We present a modified GPU (graphics processing unit) version of MrBayes, called ta(MC)(3) (GPU MrBayes V3.1), for Bayesian phylogenetic inference on protein data sets. Our main contributions are 1) utilizing 64-bit variables, thereby enabling ta(MC)(3) to process larger data sets than MrBayes; and 2) to use Kahan summation to improve accuracy, convergence rates, and consequently runtime. Versus the current fastest software, we achieve a speedup of up to around 2.5 (and up to around 90 vs. serial MrBayes), and more on multi-GPU hardware. GPU MrBayes V3.1 is available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/mrbayes-gpu/. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Sweetwater Marsh and South San Diego Bay Units: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Impact Statement: Volume I

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on San Diego Bay NWR (Sweetwater Marsh and South San Diego Bay Units) for the next 15...

  1. 78 FR 1246 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project; South San Diego Bay Unit and Sweetwater Marsh Unit of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... Sweetwater Marsh Unit of the San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge, California; Intent To Prepare an... restoration of estuarine and salt marsh (subtidal and intertidal wetlands) habitats within the western... Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge-Sweetwater Marsh Unit. We originally published a notice of intent on...

  2. Gateway National Recreation Area, Jamaica Bay Unit : Jamaica Bay Greenway Missing Links Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    Based on both a field site reconnaissance and workshop, this study developed a conceptual plan for the location and design of bicyle facilites to complete a "missing link" of the Jamaica Bay through the Rockaway region of Brooklyn and Queens in New Y...

  3. 75 FR 53266 - United States Army Restricted Area, Designated Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort Richardson, AK AGENCY: United States Army Corps of Engineers... status of a portion of Eagle River within the boundaries of Fort Richardson, Alaska as well as an adjacent portion of Eagle Bay in the Knik Arm. More specifically, the restricted area is to include all...

  4. Environmental Engineering and Ecological Baseline Investigations along the Yukon River-Prudhoe Bay Haul Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Interior, uplands with only modest chamissonis, Carex albonigra, Draba cana, D. ma- topographic relief support taiga in its various counii, Erigeron...vegetation, land- been found on dry bluffs and terraces formed by form, microrelief, and slope information similar the Sagavanirktok River include Carex ...to refine our distribution maps for Arenaria *Prepared by D.A. Walker and P.1. Webber 45 L .. il l Iii . .. . ... -.... .. OF- . . -T . . . Table 10

  5. Sensitivity of Plant Communities and Soil Flora to Seawater Spills, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    within the profile. A similar during the 1980 observation period: Saxifraga op- situation probably prevails, but to a lesser extent, positifolia on the dry...Cassiope tetragona and Saxifraga oppositifolia, regardless of differences in microrelief (Fig. 7a-d). species that are of moderate importance in the...ssp. !-41ndifolia Saxifraga cernua L. Saxaragafoliolosa R. Br. Saxifraga hirculus L. Saxifraga opposififolia L. ssp. opposiifolia Sedum rosea (L

  6. Pre-ABoVE: Remotely Sensed Active Layer Thickness, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, 1992-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Active layer thickness (ALT) is a critical parameter for monitoring the status of permafrost that is typically measured at specific locations using probing, in situ...

  7. 77 FR 26317 - Exemption of Material for Proposed Disposal Procedures for the Humboldt Bay Power Plant, Unit 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Bay Power Plant (HBPP) Unit 3 was shut down for annual refueling and to conduct seismic modifications... significantly increase the probability or consequences of accidents and there is no significant increase in... from further AEA and NRC licensing requirements will not significantly increase the probability or...

  8. Planning, Development, and Change in Bristol Bay: A High School Curriculum. Teacher Guide and Student Text. Unit V: Oil and Gas Development. Unit VI: Minerals and Mining. Unit VII: State Land Disposal. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Jerry; Willer, Cristy

    Written with the broad goal of involving high school students in Bristol Bay, Alaska, in the planning and design of their region's future, this combined teacher guide and student text contains the final three units of a seven-unit curriculum. Unit V looks at oil development in the Bering Sea, covering topics such as Alaska's dependence on oil,…

  9. Hierarchical Bayes Small Area Estimation under a Unit Level Model with Applications in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageena Nazir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To studied Bayesian aspect of small area estimation using Unit level model. In this paper we proposed and evaluated new prior distribution for the ratio of variance components in unit level model rather than uniform prior. To approximate the posterior moments of small area means, Laplace approximation method is applied. This choice of prior avoids the extreme skewness, usually present in the posterior distribution of variance components. This property leads to more accurate Laplace approximation. We apply the proposed model to the analysis of horticultural data and results from the model are compared with frequestist approach and with Bayesian model of uniform prior in terms of average relative bias, average squared relative bias and average absolute bias. The numerical results obtained highlighted the superiority of using the proposed prior over the uniform prior. Thus Bayes estimators (with new prior of small area means have good frequentist properties such as MSE and ARB as compared to other traditional methods viz., Direct, Synthetic and Composite estimators.

  10. Behavior and fate of spilled Prudhoe crude upon the Atigun River flood plain: Phase II, August 6-7 field assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Observations obtained during the August 6th - 7th field surveys are part of the continuing assessment of the fate and effects of spilled Prudhoe crude upon the...

  11. Guantanamo Bay Detainees: Facilities and Factors for Consideration If Detainees Were Brought to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    suitable for holding Guantánamo Bay detainees, nor did we address legal factors that are still being adjudicated such as detainee habeas corpus ...writ of habeas corpus allows a detained person to challenge the legality of his or her detention. In Boumediene v. Bush, 553 U.S. 723 (2008), the...Supreme Court found that the detainees at Guantánamo Bay have the habeas corpus privilege, and a number of habeas cases are ongoing in the federal courts

  12. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon, organochlorine pesticide, and trace element concentrations in six fox livers from the Prudhoe Bay Oilfield, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study was a portion of a multi-year assessment of contaminant concentrations from a variety of biotic and abiotic samples on the North Slope of Alaska. The...

  13. Fish impacts in the Atigun River from Prudhoe Bay crude oil: Investigations of Phase I and II

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes Phase I and II, Environmental Protection Agency funded damage assessment investigation on fish observation in the Atigun River associated with...

  14. 75 FR 15611 - Safety Zone; United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, San... United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety... Spectaculars is sponsoring the United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, which will include a fireworks...

  15. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Assess the Implementation of Family-Centred Care in Traditional Open Bay Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Motlaq, Mohammad A.; Abuidhail, Jamila; Salameh, Taghreed; Awwad, Wesam

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To develop an instrument to study family-centred care (FCC) in traditional open bay Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). Methods: The development process involved constructing instrument's items, establishing content validity by an expert panel and testing the instrument for validity and reliability with a convenience sample of 25…

  16. Characterizing exposure and potential impacts of contaminants on seabirds nesting at South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego National Wildlife Refuge (Salt Works, San Diego Bay)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2005, a two-year USFWS study (1261-1N74) was initiated to characterize contaminant exposure by seabirds that nest in colonies at the South Bay Salt Works, within...

  17. Natural stranding of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus Mitchill, 1815) in Scot's Bay, Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, from populations of concern in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, N D; Cormier, Y; Logan-Chesney, L M; Gibson, G; Wirgin, I; Dadswell, M J; Stokesbury, M J W

    2017-06-01

    Natural mortality of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) has been determined to be low (M = 0.07). Reported herein is the mortality by beach stranding of 11 Atlantic sturgeon in Scot's Bay, part of the inner Bay of Fundy in Nova Scotia, Canada on 22 June 2014. Genetic analyses, histological analysis and age determination were performed to determine origin, maturity stage and age of the stranded Atlantic sturgeon. Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analyses indicated that four of the Atlantic sturgeon (2 males and 2 females) were from the Saint John River, NB population, which was designated as threatened by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Seven Atlantic sturgeon (1 male, 5 females, 1 unknown) were from the Kennebec River, Maine population, that was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in the U. S. Ageing of A. oxyrinchus by pectoral fin spine analysis determined that the mean age of the individuals from the Saint John River ( [Formula: see text] years, sd = 5.0) and the Kennebec River ( [Formula: see text] years, sd = 3.5) were not significantly different. This is the first report of a stranding event of Atlantic sturgeon, and describes a source of natural mortality affecting populations of concern in both Canada and the U. S.

  18. Geographic Information System (GIS) representation of historical seagrass coverage in Perdido Bay from United States Geological Survey/National Wetlands Research Center (USGS/NWRC), 1979 (NODC Accession 0000605)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical seagrass coverage in Perdido Bay 1979 from United States Geological Survey/National Wetlands Research Center (USGS/NWRC).

  19. Histological characterization of Sticholecitha serpentis Prudhoe, 1949 (digenea, bieriidae, sticholecithinae, parasite of Bothrops moojeni Hoge, 1966 (serpentes, viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TB. Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphology of the species Sticholecitha serpentis Prudhoe, 1949 by means of histological procedures. Helminths were previously fixed in Railliet & Henry solution, uncompressed and were included in 2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate. Longitudinal and transverse serial sections with a 4-mum thickness were performed in a microtome (Leica RM 2165, stained with haematoxylin-eosin and then analyzed in a computerized image analysis system (Qwin Lite 2.5, Leica. Structures of systematic value, such as oral sucker, acetabulum, prepharynx, pharynx, esophagus, intestinal caeca, vitelline glands, ovary, uterus, cirrus pouch and testicles were described. Structures that were poorly visible in total preparations were also observed and described, such as efferent ducts, ejaculatory duct, prostate, seminal vesicle, seminal receptacle, Laurer’s channel, Mehlis’ gland, vitelline ducts, metraterm, genital atrium, digestive glands and excretory vesicle. We demonstrated that histological analysis can supply important data regarding the morphological characterization of S. serpentis and will be able to contribute to systematic studies of trematodes.

  20. Groundwater-quality data in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 1,850-square-mile North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer (NSF-SA) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April to August 2012, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NSF-SA study unit was the first study unit to be sampled as part of the second phase of the GAMA-PBP, which focuses on the shallow aquifer system.

  1. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Francisco Bay Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 620-square-mile San Francisco Bay study unit (SFBAY) was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples in SFBAY were collected from 79 wells in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. Forty-three of the wells sampled were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Thirty-six wells were sampled to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, chloride and bromide isotopes, and uranium and strontium isotopes), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14 isotopes, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, boron, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases (noble gases were analyzed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blank samples

  2. Application of geologic map information to water quality issues in the southern part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, Maryland and Virginia, eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartan, L.; Peper, J.D.; Bachman, L.J.; Horton, J. Wright

    1999-01-01

    Geologic map units contain much information about the mineralogy, chemistry, and physical attributes of the rocks mapped. This paper presents information from regional-scale geologic maps in Maryland and Virginia, which are in the southern part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed in the eastern United States. The geologic map information is discussed and analyzed in relation to water chemistry data from shallow wells and stream reaches in the area. Two environmental problems in the Chesapeake Bay watershed are used as test examples. The problems, high acidity and high nitrate concentrations in streams and rivers, tend to be mitigated by some rock and sediment types and not by others. Carbonate rocks (limestone, dolomite, and carbonate-cemented rocks) have the greatest capacity to neutralize acidic ground water and surface water in contact with them. Rocks and sediments having high carbon or sulfur contents (such as peat and black shale) potentially contribute the most toward denitrification of ground water and surface water in contact with them. Rocks and sediments that are composed mostly of quartz, feldspar, and light-colored clay (rocks such as granite and sandstone, sediments such as sand and gravel) tend not to alter the chemistry of waters that are in contact with them. The testing of relationships between regionally mapped geologic units and water chemistry is in a preliminary stage, and initial results are encouraging.Geologic map units contain much information about the mineralogy, chemistry, and physical attributes of the rocks mapped. This paper presents information from regional-scale geologic maps in Maryland and Virginia, which are in the southern part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed in the eastern United States. The geologic map information is discussed and analyzed in relation to water chemistry data from shallow wells and stream reaches in the area. Two environmental problems in the Chesapeake Bay watershed are used as test examples. The problems, high

  3. Mitochondrial DNA markers of loggerhead marine turtles (Caretta caretta (Testudines: Cheloniidae nesting at Kyparissia Bay, Greece, confirm the western Greece unit and regional structuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Carreras

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic markers have been widely used in marine turtles to assess population structuring and origin of individuals in common feeding grounds, which are key elements for understanding their ecology and for developing conservation strategies. However, these analyses are very sensitive to missing information, especially from abundant nesting sites. Kyparissia Bay (western Greece hosts the second largest Mediterranean nesting aggregation of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta, but the genetic profile of this nesting site has not, as yet, been described using the extended version of the historically used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA marker. This marker was genotyped for 36 individuals nesting at Kyparissia Bay and haplotype frequencies obtained were compared with published data from other Mediterranean nesting sites. The results confirmed the connection between Kyparissia and other western Greek nesting sites and the isolation of this western Greek group from other Mediterranean nesting areas. As a consequence of this isolation, this abundant group of nesting aggregations (almost 30% of the Mediterranean stock is not likely to significantly contribute to the recovery of other declining Mediterranean units.

  4. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012; California GAMA Priority Basin Project (ver. 1.1, February 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.

    2017-07-20

    Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit (NSF-SA) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is in Marin, Mendocino, Napa, Solano, and Sonoma Counties and included two physiographic study areas: the Valleys and Plains area and the surrounding Highlands area. The NSF-SA focused on groundwater resources used for domestic drinking water supply, which generally correspond to shallower parts of aquifer systems than that of groundwater resources used for public drinking water supply in the same area. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of drinking water.This study included three components: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the quality of the groundwater resources used for domestic supply for 2012; (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting water quality in those resources; and (3) a comparison between the groundwater resources used for domestic supply and those used for public supply.The status assessment was based on data collected from 71 sites sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project in 2012. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California State Water Resources Control Board Division of Drinking Water regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources that has concentrations of water-quality constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale and permits comparisons to other GAMA Priority Basin Project study areas.In the NSF-SA study unit as a whole, inorganic

  5. Investigation of Tidal Power, Cobscook Bay, Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    include Perry, Pembrook, Edmunds, Dennyville, Whiting and Trescott (See Figure 1). Located entirely in the United States at the mouth of the Bay of Fundy ...Quoddy Region because of the softer sediments in that area. Some are harvested within the bay itself, although to a much lesser extent. Lobsters are...earthquake of an intensity VIII occurring in the Bay of Fundy approximately 35 miles west of the site. Closer to the site an earthquake of intensity VII

  6. Traditional open-bay versus single-family room neonatal intensive care unit: a comparison of selected nutrition outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Erickson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Christina Erickson1, Kendra Kattelmann1, Jessica Remington1, Cuirong Ren2, Carol C Helseth3, Dennis C Stevens31Department of Health and Nutritional Sciences, 2Department of Plant Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USA; 3Sanford Children's Hospital, Sioux Falls, SD, USABackground: In contrast to the traditional open-bay–type design of the neonatal intensive care unit (tNICU, infants in developmentally appropriate NICU (dNICU are housed in individual rooms with greater control of light and noise. Previous reports have documented positive influence of the dNICU in cardiorespiratory status, physiologic stability, and weight gain of the infants. The objective of this study was to explore selected nutrition outcomes of infants in the dNICU versus tNICU.Method: A prospective cohort study was conducted on infants with birth weight of 1500 g or less cared for in dNICU (n = 42 or tNICU (n = 31. Differences between days to reach full parenteral nutrition, full enteral nutrition, or full bottling were determined using analysis of covariance controlling for gestational age, birth weight, and clinical risk index for babies (CRIB acuity score.Results: There were no differences between the two groups in days to reach full parenteral and bottle feeding. The infants in the dNICU took fewer days to reach full enteral nutrition (20.8 days, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 17, 24.6 (dNICU vs 23.3 days, 95% CI: 17.1, 29.6 (tNICU, P = 0.04 than those in the tNICU.Conclusions: Although the two groups of infants only differed in the days to reach full enteral feeding, it is important to remember that the lack of difference may be clinically significant. Clinically, the infants in the dNICU were younger (gestational age and sicker (CRIB acuity score than the infants in the tNICU. Consequently, the results of this study support the change to dNICU, as the private room model provides a supportive environment for growth as evidenced by similar

  7. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012; California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.

    2017-07-20

    Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit (NSF-SA) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is in Marin, Mendocino, Napa, Solano, and Sonoma Counties and included two physiographic study areas: the Valleys and Plains area and the surrounding Highlands area. The NSF-SA focused on groundwater resources used for domestic drinking water supply, which generally correspond to shallower parts of aquifer systems than that of groundwater resources used for public drinking water supply in the same area. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of drinking water.This study included three components: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the quality of the groundwater resources used for domestic supply for 2012; (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting water quality in those resources; and (3) a comparison between the groundwater resources used for domestic supply and those used for public supply.The status assessment was based on data collected from 71 sites sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project in 2012. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California State Water Resources Control Board Division of Drinking Water regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources that has concentrations of water-quality constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale and permits comparisons to other GAMA Priority Basin Project study areas.In the NSF-SA study unit as a whole, inorganic

  8. 77 FR 75017 - Security Zone; On the Waters in Kailua Bay, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; On the Waters in Kailua Bay, Oahu, HI... United States and members of his official party visiting the Kailua Bay area on the eastern coast of Oahu... United States and his family members plan to visit near the Kailua Bay shoreline on Oahu, Hawaii. This...

  9. Forward Stagewise Naive Bayes

    OpenAIRE

    Vidaurre Henche, Diego; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga Múgica, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The naïve Bayes approach is a simple but often satisfactory method for supervised classification. In this paper, we focus on the naïve Bayes model and propose the application of regularization techniques to learn a naïve Bayes classifier. The main contribution of the paper is a stagewise version of the selective naïve Bayes, which can be considered a regularized version of the naïve Bayes model. We call it forward stagewise naïve Bayes. For comparison’s sake, we also introduce an explicitly r...

  10. Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

    1997-10-01

    This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

  11. 36 CFR 13.1150 - Is a permit required for a vessel in Glacier Bay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vessel in Glacier Bay? 13.1150 Section 13.1150 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Vessel Permits § 13.1150 Is a permit required for a vessel in Glacier Bay? A permit from...

  12. 36 CFR 13.1116 - Do I need a camping permit in Glacier Bay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Glacier Bay? 13.1116 Section 13.1116 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.1116 Do I need a camping permit in Glacier Bay? From May 1...

  13. 36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Glacier Bay National Preserve. 13.1109 Section 13.1109 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Administrative Provisions § 13.1109 Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National...

  14. Locally Weighted Naive Bayes

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Eibe; Hall, Mark; Pfahringer, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Despite its simplicity, the naive Bayes classifier has surprised machine learning researchers by exhibiting good performance on a variety of learning problems. Encouraged by these results, researchers have looked to overcome naive Bayes primary weakness - attribute independence - and improve the performance of the algorithm. This paper presents a locally weighted version of naive Bayes that relaxes the independence assumption by learning local models at prediction time. Experimental results s...

  15. Wakasa Bay Weather Forecast Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E Wakasa Bay Field Campaign was conducted over Wakasa Bay, Japan, in January and February, 2003. The Wakasa Bay Field Campaign includes joint research...

  16. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company...

  17. Control of hardwood regeneration in restored carolina bay depression wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Lee, J.; Barton, Christopher, D.; Blake, John, I.

    2012-06-01

    Carolina bays are depression wetlands located in the coastal plain region of the eastern United States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna. Previous bay restoration projects have identified flood-tolerant woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of desired herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. We restored 3 bays on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, by plugging drainage ditches, harvesting residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays, and monitoring the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change. We applied a foliar herbicide on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acerrubrum), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and water oak (Quercus nigra) sprouting, and we tested its effectiveness across a hydrologic gradient in each bay. Hardwood regeneration was partially controlled by flooding in bays that exhibited long growing season hydroperiods. The findings also indicated that herbicide application was an effective means for managing hardwood regeneration and re-sprouting in areas where hydrologic control was ineffective. Herbicide use had no effect on species richness in the emerging vegetation community. In late-season drawdown periods, or in bays where hydroperiods are short, more than one herbicide application may be necessary.

  18. Environmental effects of energy development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: a critique of the final legislative environmental impact statement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The coastal pla~n of Alaska is a center of oil development: Prudhoe Bay is the site of the largest field of economically recoverable oil in the United States. To the...

  19. Integrating naive Bayes and FOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Landwehr, Niels; Kersting, Kristian; De Raedt, Luc

    2007-01-01

    A novel relational learning approach that tightly integrates the naive Bayes learning scheme with the inductive logic programming rule-learner FOIL is presented. In contrast to previous combinations that have employed naive Bayes only for post-processing the rule sets, the presented approach employs the naive Bayes criterion to guide its search directly. The proposed technique is implemented in the NFOIL and TFOIL systems, which employ standard naive Bayes and tree augmented naive Bayes model...

  20. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  1. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  2. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  3. A reevaluation of the late quaternary sedimentation in todos os Santos Bay (BA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILHERME C. LESSA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Todos os Santos Bay is a large ( 1000 km², structurally controlled tidal bay in northeast Brazil. Three main drainage basins debouch into the bay, providing a mean freshwater discharge of 200 m³/s (prior to 1985, or less than 1% of the spring tidal discharge through the bay mouth. Based on the result of several sedimentological studies performed in the 1970's, five surface sedimentary facies were identified inside the bay, namely i transgressive siliciclastic marine sand facies; ii transgressive bay sand-mud facies; iii a transgressive carbonate marine sand facies; iv regressive bay-mud facies, and v regressive fluvial sand facies. The spatial distribution of these facies would follow, somewhat closely, the hydrodynamic-energy distribution inside the bay. Seismic profiles along the bay bottom indicate the existence of several paleochannels, 5-10 m deep, blanketed at least by three different sedimentary units. The topmost sedimentary unit, 5-20 m thick, appears to be associated with the regressive bay-mud facies, and assuming that it was laid down within the last 5000 years, sedimentation rates for the central and northeastern part of the bay would average at 2,4 mm/y.

  4. Bayes and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Norman; Neil, Martin; Berger, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Although the last forty years has seen considerable growth in the use of statistics in legal proceedings, it is primarily classical statistical methods rather than Bayesian methods that have been used. Yet the Bayesian approach avoids many of the problems of classical statistics and is also well suited to a broader range of problems. This paper reviews the potential and actual use of Bayes in the law and explains the main reasons for its lack of impact on legal practice. These include misconceptions by the legal community about Bayes' theorem, over-reliance on the use of the likelihood ratio and the lack of adoption of modern computational methods. We argue that Bayesian Networks (BNs), which automatically produce the necessary Bayesian calculations, provide an opportunity to address most concerns about using Bayes in the law.

  5. Evolving extended naive Bayes classifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Klawonn, Frank; Angelov, Plamen

    2006-01-01

    Naive Bayes classifiers are a very simple, but often effective tool for classification problems, although they are based on independence assumptions that do not hold in most cases. Extended naive Bayes classifiers also rely on independence assumptions, but break them down to artificial subclasses, in this way becoming more powerful than ordinary naive Bayes classifiers. Since the involved computations for Bayes classifiers are basically generalised mean value calculations, they easily render ...

  6. Bay breeze climatology at two sites along the Chesapeake bay from 1986-2010: Implications for surface ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Ryan M; Thompson, Anne M

    Hourly surface meteorological measurements were coupled with surface ozone (O3) mixing ratio measurements at Hampton, Virginia and Baltimore, Maryland, two sites along the Chesapeake Bay in the Mid-Atlantic United States, to examine the behavior of surface O3 during bay breeze events and quantify the impact of the bay breeze on local O3 pollution. Analyses were performed for the months of May through September for the years 1986 to 2010. The years were split into three groups to account for increasingly stringent environmental regulations that reduced regional emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx): 1986-1994, 1995-2002, and 2003-2010. Each day in the 25-year record was marked either as a bay breeze day, a non-bay breeze day, or a rainy/cloudy day based on the meteorological data. Mean eight hour (8-h) averaged surface O3 values during bay breeze events were 3 to 5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) higher at Hampton and Baltimore than on non-bay breeze days in all year periods. Anomalies from mean surface O3 were highest in the afternoon at both sites during bay breeze days in the 2003-2010 study period. In conjunction with an overall lowering of baseline O3 after the 1995-2002 period, the percentage of total exceedances of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 75 ppbv 8-h O3 standard that occurred on bay breeze days increased at Hampton for 2003-2010, while remaining steady at Baltimore. These results suggest that bay breeze circulations are becoming more important to causing exceedance events at particular sites in the region, and support the hypothesis of Martins et al. (2012) that highly localized meteorology increasingly drives air quality events at Hampton.

  7. Down by the Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Elizabeth; Tunks, Karyn; Hardman, Kacie

    2017-01-01

    The Pelican's Nest, located near Mobile Bay in the Gulf of Mexico, is a science center supported by a local educational foundation. Programs are geared toward marine wildlife and the coastal habitat with an emphasis on hands-on learning for students in grades K-6. The director of the science center conducts daily classroom labs and discovery trips…

  8. Lessons from monitoring water quality in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.; Schraga, T.S.; Lopez, C.B.; Labiosa, R.

    2003-01-01

    San Francisco Bay is the defining landscape feature of the place we call ‘The Bay Area,’ but most of us only experience the Bay as we view it from an airplane window or drive across one of its bridges. These views from afar suggest that the Bay is static and sterile, but this impression is deceptive. If you are one of the many thousands of students who have experienced the Bay through a school excursion with the Marine Science Institute or other educational programs, you observed its rich plankton soup under a microscope, sorted clams and worms and crustaceans from mud samples, and identified the gobies, sole, halibut, bat rays, sharks, sardines, and smelt caught with trawls. San Francisco Bay is much more than a landscape feature. It is a dynamic ecosystem, continually changing and teeming with life. The Bay once supported the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of the United States, but commercial fishing for shellfish, shrimp, sturgeon, shad, salmon, and striped bass ended many decades ago because of habitat loss, pollution, invasive species and over harvest.

  9. Biological baseline data Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Higley, D.L.; Holton, R.L.

    1975-04-01

    This report presents biological baseline information gathered during the research project, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies on Youngs Bay.'' Youngs Bay is a shallow embayment located on the south shore of the Columbia River, near Astoria, Oregon. Research on Youngs Bay was motivated by the proposed construction by Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation of an aluminum reduction plant at Warrenton, Oregon. The research was designed to provide biological baseline information on Youngs Bay in anticipation of potential harmful effects from plant effluents. The information collected concerns the kinds of animals found in the Youngs Bay area, and their distribution and seasonal patterns of abundance. In addition, information was collected on the feeding habits of selected fish species, and on the life history and behavioral characteristics of the most abundant benthic amphipod, Corophium salmonis. Sampling was conducted at approximately three-week intervals, using commonly accepted methods of animal collection. Relatively few stations were sampled for fish, because of the need to standardize conditions of capture. Data on fish capture are reported in terms of catch-per-unit effort by a particular sampling gear at a specific station. Methods used in sampling invertebrates were generally more quantitative, and allowed sampling at a greater variety of places, as well as a valid basis for the computation of densities. Checklists of invertebrate species and fish species were developed from these samples, and are referred to throughout the report. The invertebrate checklist is more specific taxonomically than are tables reporting invertebrate densities. This is because the methods employed in identification were more precise than those used in counts. 9 refs., 27 figs., 25 tabs.

  10. The Bay of Pigs: Revisiting Two Museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Museum of Playa Giron (the Bay of Pigs in the region of Cienega De Zapata, Cuba, celebrates the repulse of Brigade 2506 as the first reverse of US imperialism on the American continents. The equivalent Brigade 2506 Museum in Miami, dedicated to and maintained by the members of Brigade 2506, celebrates defeat at the Bay of Pigs as moral victory for the Cuban exiles. The forces were indeed implacable foes. Yet between the museums can be detected some curious similarities. Both present the common theme of the confrontation between forces of good and evil. Both celebrate the philosophy that dying for one’s country is the greatest good a citizen may achieve. Both museums fly the common Cuban flag. Both museums identify a common enemy: the United States of America. This article, by comparing the displays in the two museums, analyses some cultural elements of what, despite decades of separation, in some ways remains a common Cuban culture.

  11. 33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area. The water of Anaheim Bay Harbor between the east and west jetties at the United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach...

  12. Evaluating hydroperiod response in restored Carolina Bay Westlands using soil physicochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher D. Barton; Danielle M. Andrews; Randall K. Kolka

    2008-01-01

    Carolina bays are shallow depression wetlands found in the southeastern United States that have been severely altered by human activity. The need to restore these complex and diverse systems is well established, but our limited understanding of wetland hydrologic processes in these systems hinders our ability to assess the effectiveness of bay restoration efforts....

  13. 76 FR 80251 - Security Zone; On the Waters in Kailua Bay, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... [Docket No. USCG-2011-1142] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; On the Waters in Kailua Bay, Oahu, HI AGENCY... eastern coast of Oahu, Hawaii. Background and Purpose From December 21, 2011, through January 7, 2012, the President of the United States and his family members plan to visit near the Kailua Bay shoreline on Oahu...

  14. 78 FR 79312 - Security Zone; On the Waters in Kailua Bay, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; On the Waters in Kailua Bay, Oahu, HI... the eastern coast of Oahu, Hawaii. B. Basis and Purpose From December 20, 2013, through January 5, 2014, the President of the United States plans to visit the Kailua Bay area on Oahu, Hawaii. This...

  15. Bay Area Transit Agencies Propel Fuel Cell Buses Toward Commercialization (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration of the next generation of fuel cells buses. Several transit agencies in the San Francisco Bay Area are participating in demonstrating the largest single fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States.

  16. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available 3815 9 D A Lord Department of Oceanography University of Port Elizabeth P 0 Box 1600 PORT ELIZABETH 6000 N D Geldenhuys Department of Environment Affairs Private Bag X9005 CAPE TOWN 8000 Cover: Richards Bay from the air showing city... of major concern identified in the effluent are the large volume of byproduct calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) which would smother marine life, high concentrations of fluoride highly toxic to marine life, heavy metals, chlorinated organic material...

  17. 78 FR 27989 - Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos... Assessments (EAs) for three Oregon refuges--Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife... ``Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay final CCPs and FONSIs'' in the subject line of the message. U...

  18. 75 FR 73121 - Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos... prepare a comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) for the Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay... ``Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay CCP'' in the subject line of the message. Fax: Attn: Project...

  19. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  20. Petrographic Studies of Rocks from The Chesapeake Bay Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shock petrographic investigations were carried out on samples collected from drill cores from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure (USA). The late Eocene Chesapeake impact structure is, at 85 km diameter, currently the largest impact structure known in the United States, buried at shallow to moderate depths beneath ...

  1. Bayes multiple decision functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wensong; Peña, Edsel A

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. Such problems arise in many practical areas such as the biological and medical sciences, where the available dataset is from microarrays or other high-throughput technology and with the goal being to decide which among of many genes are relevant with respect to some phenotype of interest; in the engineering and reliability sciences; in astronomy; in education; and in business. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach to this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the quality of decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through a class of frailty-induced Archimedean copulas. In particular, non-Gaussian dependent data structure, which is typical with failure-time data, can be entertained. The numerical implementation of the determination of the Bayes optimal action is facilitated through sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The theory developed could also be extended to the problem of multiple hypotheses testing, multiple classification and prediction, and high-dimensional variable selection. The proposed procedure is illustrated for the simple versus simple hypotheses setting and for the composite hypotheses setting

  2. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the nation's estuaries have been environmentally stressed since the turn of the 20th century and will continue to be impacted in the future. Tampa Bay, one the Gulf of Mexico's largest estuaries, exemplifies the threats that our estuaries face (EPA Report 2001, Tampa Bay Estuary Program-Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (TBEP-CCMP)). More than 2 million people live in the Tampa Bay watershed, and the population constitutes to grow. Demand for freshwater resources, conversion of undeveloped areas to resident and industrial uses, increases in storm-water runoff, and increased air pollution from urban and industrial sources are some of the known human activities that impact Tampa Bay. Beginning on 2001, additional anthropogenic modifications began in Tampa Bat including construction of an underwater gas pipeline and a desalinization plant, expansion of existing ports, and increased freshwater withdrawal from three major tributaries to the bay. In January of 2001, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) and its partners identifies a critical need for participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in providing multidisciplinary expertise and a regional-scale, integrated science approach to address complex scientific research issue and critical scientific information gaps that are necessary for continued restoration and preservation of Tampa Bay. Tampa Bay stakeholders identified several critical science gaps for which USGS expertise was needed (Yates et al. 2001). These critical science gaps fall under four topical categories (or system components): 1) water and sediment quality, 2) hydrodynamics, 3) geology and geomorphology, and 4) ecosystem structure and function. Scientists and resource managers participating in Tampa Bay studies recognize that it is no longer sufficient to simply examine each of these estuarine system components individually, Rather, the interrelation among system components must be understood to develop conceptual and

  3. 33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. 165.1195 Section 165... Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. (a) Location. The Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) includes all navigable waters of the Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and the Humboldt Bay...

  4. Eutrophication in the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanowicz, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of using remote sensing to acquire fast reliable data on the nutrient problem in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem are discussed. Pollution effects to phytoplankton blooms during late summer and early fall months are also considered.

  5. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  6. Missisquoi Bay Phosphorus Model Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical memorandum provides results of an extended load reduction simulation. The memorandum serves as an addendum to the main Missisquoi Bay Phosphorus Mass Balance Model report prepared for the Lake Champlain Basin Program by LimnoTech in 2012

  7. Lavaca Bay 1985-1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples were collected from October 15, 1985 through June 12, 1987 in emergent marsh and non-vegetated habitats throughout the Lavaca Bay system to characterize...

  8. Constructing Puale Bay field camp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Puale bay is located on the Pacific side of the Alaskan Peninsula across Shelikof Strait from the southern end of Kodiak Island. The weather, although often mild, is...

  9. Art concepts of EVA retrieval of WESTAR/PALAPA satellites to Cargo bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Art concepts of EVA retrieval of WESTAR/PALAPA satellites to Cargo bay docking. Views include: astronuat approaching satellite using the manned manuevering unit (MMU) while the shuttle hovers above the earth (35276); Satellite sitting in open cargo bay (35277); Astronaut manipulating satellite in preparation for placing it in orbit. The satellite is in the grasp of the extended remote manipulator system's (RMS) end effector (35278); Astronaut using MMU to approach satellite in orbit while shuttle with open payload bay remains below (35279); Astronauts standing in foot restraints in the open payload bay. The satellite is suspended above them by the RMS and they appear to be repairing it (35280); Front view of shuttle in orbit with RMS extended placing satellite in orbit (35281); One astronaut stands in foot restraints in the payload bay under the satellite he is repairing. The other astronaut uses the MMU to work from above. The satellite is suspended by the RMS (35282).

  10. Chronic Sublethal Effects of San Francisco Bay Sediments on Nereis (Neanthes) arenaceodentata; Interpretative Guidance for a Growth End Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    experimentally. Once nereid eggs begin developing in the coelom , secretion of a separate tropic hormone initiates vitellogenesis (Baskin 1976). In N...Material Management in San Francisco Bay .............................. 2 Overview of Sediment Toxicity Test Development in the United States...Material in San Francisco Bay ......................... 3 Table 2. Milestones in Scientific Development of Sediment Toxicity Tests

  11. Evidence for mid-Holocene shift in depositional style in Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, David; Kelso, Kyle; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The Holocene stratigraphy of Mobile Bay, Alabama, was mapped using a combination of high-resolution seismic data and sediment cores to refine changes in the bay's evolution during this time. The base of the Holocene-era stratigraphy is an erosional surface formed during the last glacial maximum. Overlying Holocene deposits are primarily estuarine mud that has a finely laminated weak acoustic signature. One exception is a thin unit, R1, with varying reflection amplitude that can be traced throughout the southern part of the bay. The continuity of the unit throughout the southern part of the bay suggests a baywide change in sedimentation that was perhaps driven by rapid retreat of the bay-head delta in response to a sudden rise in sea level or an abrupt change in accommodation space due to basin geometry. Along the southern edge of the bay, the R1 unit increases in thickness and reflector amplitude towards Morgan Peninsula. The peninsula itself underwent a period of erosion and narrowing between 4,300 to 3,000 years before present, and the variation in reflector amplitude and the geometry of this part of the R1 unit appear to reflect a period of increased overwashing of the peninsula during this period. Average estuarine sedimentation rates decreased after the formation of the R1 unit, and the decrease coincides with a decline in the rate of sea-level rise. A similar change in depositional style at approximately the same time in neighboring Apalachicola Bay suggests a change that affected the northeastern Gulf of Mexico region and not just Mobile Bay.

  12. Crustal structure of Bristol Bay Region, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, A.K.; McLean, H.; Marlow, M.S.

    1985-04-01

    Bristol Bay lies along the northern side of the Alaska Peninsula and extends nearly 600 km southwest from the Nushagak lowlands on the Alaska mainland to near Unimak Island. The bay is underlain by a sediment-filled crustal downwarp known as the north Aleutian basin (formerly Bristol basin) that dips southeast toward the Alaska Peninsula and is filled with more than 6 km of strata, dominantly of Cenozoic age. The thickest parts of the basin lie just north of the Alaska Peninsula and, near Port Mollar, are in fault contact with older Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. These Mesozoic rocks form the southern structural boundary of the basin and extend as an accurate belt from at least Cook Inlet to Zhemchug Canyon (central Beringian margin). Offshore multichannel seismic-reflection, sonobuoy seismic-refraction, gravity, and magnetic data collected by the USGS in 1976 and 1982 indicate that the bedrock beneath the central and northern parts of the basin comprises layered, high-velocity, and highly magnetic rocks that are locally deformed. The deep bedrock horizons may be Mesozoic(.) sedimentary units that are underlain by igneous or metamorphic rocks and may correlate with similar rocks of mainland western Alaska and the Alaska Peninsula. Regional structural and geophysical trends for these deep horizons change from northeast-southwest to northwest-southeast beneath the inner Bering shelf and may indicate a major crustal suture along the northern basin edge.

  13. BOBMEX: The Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, G.S.; Gadgil, S.; Kumar, P.V.H.; Kalsi, S.R.; Madhusoodanan, P.; Murty, V.S.N.; Rao, C.V.K.P.; RameshBabu, V.; Rao, L.V.G.; Rao, R.R.; Ravichandran, M.; Reddy, K.G.; Rao, P.Sanjeeva; Sengupta, D.; Sikka, D.R.; Swain, J.; Vinayachandran, P.N.

    , ocean, and their interface to gain deeper insight into some of the processes that govern the variability of organized convection over the bay. Simultaneous time series observations were carried out in the northern and southern Bay of Bengal from ships...

  14. Humboldt Bay Benthic Habitats 2009 Aquatic Setting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  15. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  16. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  17. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  18. 77 FR 57107 - Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos... conservation plans and environmental assessments (Draft CCP/EAs) for three Oregon refuges-- Bandon Marsh... . Include ``Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay draft CCP and EA'' in the subject line of the message...

  19. 33 CFR 100.112 - Swim the Bay, Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Swim the Bay, Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI. 100.112 Section 100.112 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI. (a) Regulated area. All waters of the East Passage of Narragansett Bay...

  20. 77 FR 70891 - Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay..., CA in support of the Bay Bridge Construction Safety Zone from November 1, 2012 through July 31, 2013.... 1221 et seq.). CALTRANS will sponsor the Bay Bridge Construction Safety Zone on November 1, 2012...

  1. Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...

  2. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  3. Hierarchical mixtures of naive Bayes classifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Wiering, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Naive Bayes classifiers tend to perform very well on a large number of problem domains, although their representation power is quite limited compared to more sophisticated machine learning algorithms. In this pa- per we study combining multiple naive Bayes classifiers by using the hierar- chical mixtures of experts system. This system, which we call hierarchical mixtures of naive Bayes classifiers, is compared to a simple naive Bayes classifier and to using bagging and boosting for combining ...

  4. The Baltimore Engineers and the Chesapeake Bay, 1961-1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    the administrative ma- chinery and political decision-making underlying the restoration of the Chesapeake are very complex. Doz- ens of federal...The most plausible answer is that few officials or political leaders really perceived the Bay as a single unit until quite recently. Politically ...dredged material. Ruppia maritima (widgeongrass), grew in the shallow waters around the artificial island before the dredged material was dumped on

  5. Monterey Bay Geoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    B.C. (Dragomir et al. 1982) It was from these early studies of the earth’s shape and size that the study of the earth’s gravity began. Galileo Galilei ...feel the earth’s gravitational acceleration but not the centrifugal acceleration. The traditional unit of gravity is the gal, from Galileo , 1 gal - 1

  6. MrBayes tgMC³: a tight GPU implementation of MrBayes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ling

    Full Text Available MrBayes is model-based phylogenetic inference tool using Bayesian statistics. However, model-based assessment of phylogenetic trees adds to the computational burden of tree-searching, and so poses significant computational challenges. Graphics Processing Units (GPUs have been proposed as high performance, low cost acceleration platforms and several parallelized versions of the Metropolis Coupled Markov Chain Mote Carlo (MC(3 algorithm in MrBayes have been presented that can run on GPUs. However, some bottlenecks decrease the efficiency of these implementations. To address these bottlenecks, we propose a tight GPU MC(3 (tgMC(3 algorithm. tgMC(3 implements a different architecture from the one-to-one acceleration architecture employed in previously proposed methods. It merges multiply discrete GPU kernels according to the data dependency and hence decreases the number of kernels launched and the complexity of data transfer. We implemented tgMC(3 and made performance comparisons with an earlier proposed algorithm, nMC(3, and also with MrBayes MC(3 under serial and multiply concurrent CPU processes. All of the methods were benchmarked on the same computing node from DEGIMA. Experiments indicate that the tgMC(3 method outstrips nMC(3 (v1.0 with speedup factors from 2.1 to 2.7×. In addition, tgMC(3 outperforms the serial MrBayes MC(3 by a factor of 6 to 30× when using a single GTX480 card, whereas a speedup factor of around 51× can be achieved by using two GTX 480 cards on relatively long sequences. Moreover, tgMC(3 was compared with MrBayes accelerated by BEAGLE, and achieved speedup factors from 3.7 to 5.7×. The reported performance improvement of tgMC(3 is significant and appears to scale well with increasing dataset sizes. In addition, the strategy proposed in tgMC(3 could benefit the acceleration of other Bayesian-based phylogenetic analysis methods using GPUs.

  7. bayesPop: Probabilistic Population Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Ševčíková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe bayesPop, an R package for producing probabilistic population projections for all countries. This uses probabilistic projections of total fertility and life expectancy generated by Bayesian hierarchical models. It produces a sample from the joint posterior predictive distribution of future age- and sex-specific population counts, fertility rates and mortality rates, as well as future numbers of births and deaths. It provides graphical ways of summarizing this information, including trajectory plots and various kinds of probabilistic population pyramids. An expression language is introduced which allows the user to produce the predictive distribution of a wide variety of derived population quantities, such as the median age or the old age dependency ratio. The package produces aggregated projections for sets of countries, such as UN regions or trading blocs. The methodology has been used by the United Nations to produce their most recent official population projections for all countries, published in the World Population Prospects.

  8. Backscatter imagery in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1x1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The backscatter values are in relative 8-bit (0 –...

  9. Classification using Hierarchical Naive Bayes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Dyhre Nielsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Classification problems have a long history in the machine learning literature. One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing set of classifiers is the Naïve Bayes models. However, an inherent problem with these classifiers is the assumption that all attributes used to describe......, termed Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models. Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models extend the modeling flexibility of Naïve Bayes models by introducing latent variables to relax some of the independence statements in these models. We propose a simple algorithm for learning Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models...

  10. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; ; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  11. Guantánamo Bay: A Reflection on the Legal Status and Rights of "Unlawful Enemy Combatants"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, T.D.; van Sliedregt, E.

    2005-01-01

    The United States administration’s policy of detaining ‘unlawful enemy combatants’ at the United States military base in Guantánamo Bay falls short of international and domestic law standards. The problem in the authors’ view is not that the United States has decided to designate those captured on

  12. Guantánamo Bay: A Reflection On The Legal Status And Rights Of ‘Unlawful Enemy Combatants’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, T.D.; Van Sliedregt, Elies

    2005-01-01

    The United States administration’s policy of detaining ‘unlawful enemy combatants’ at the United States military base in Guantánamo Bay falls short of international and domestic law standards. The problem in the authors’ view is not that the United States has decided to designate those captured on

  13. Conowingo Reservoir Sedimentation and Chesapeake Bay: State of the Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerco, Carl F

    2016-05-01

    The Conowingo Reservoir is situated on the Susquehanna River, immediately upstream of Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States. Sedimentation in the reservoir provides an unintended benefit to the bay by preventing sediments, organic matter, and nutrients from entering the bay. The sediment storage capacity of the reservoir is nearly exhausted, however, and the resulting increase in loading of sediments and associated materials is a potential threat to Chesapeake Bay water quality. In response to this threat, the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed Assessment was conducted. The assessment indicates the reservoir is in a state of "dynamic equilibrium" in which sediment loads from the upstream watershed to the reservoir are balanced by sediments leaving the reservoir. Increased sediment loads are not a threat to bay water quality. Increased loads of associated organic matter and nutrients are, however, detrimental. Bottom-water dissolved oxygen declines of 0.1 to 0.2 g m are projected as a result of organic matter oxidation and enhanced eutrophication. The decline is small relative to normal variations but results in violations of standards enforced in a recently enacted total maximum daily load. Enhanced reductions in nutrient loads from the watershed are recommended to offset the decline in water quality caused by diminished retention in the reservoir. The assessment exposed several knowledge gaps that require additional investigation, including the potential for increased loading at flows below the threshold for reservoir scour and the nature and reactivity of organic matter and nutrients scoured from the reservoir bottom. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Shuttle bay telerobotics demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, W.; Cogeos, P.

    1987-01-01

    A demonstration of NASA's robotics capabilities should be a balanced agenda of servicing and assembly tasks combined with selected key technical experiments. The servicing tasks include refueling and module replacement. Refueling involves the mating of special fluid connectors while module replacement requires an array of robotic technologies such as special tools, the arm of a logistics tool, and the precision mating of orbital replacement units to guides. The assembly task involves the construction of a space station node and truss structure. The technological experiments will focus on a few important issues: the precision manipulation of the arms by a teleoperator, the additional use of several mono camera views in conjunction with the stereo system, the use of a general purpose end effector versus a caddy of tools, and the dynamics involved with using a robot with a stabilizer.

  15. Volcanism offshore of Vesuvius Volcano in Naples Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milia, A.; Mirabile, L.; Torrente, M.M.; Dvorak, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection data are used to identify structural features in Naples Bay near Vesuvius Volcano. Several buried seismic units with reflection-free interiors are probably volcanic deposits erupted during and since the formation of the breached crater of Monte Somma Volcano, which preceded the growth of Vesuvius. The presumed undersea volcanic deposits are limited in extent; thus, stratigraphie relationships cannot be established among them. Other features revealed by our data include (a) the warping of lowstand marine deposits by undersea cryptodomes located approximately 10 km from the summit of Vesuvius, (b) a succession of normal step faults that record seaward collapse of the volcano, and (c) a small undersea slump in the uppermost marine deposits of Naples Bay, which may be the result of nue??e ardentes that entered the sea during a major eruption of Vesuvius in 1631. Detection of these undersea features illustrates some capabilities of making detailed seismic reflection profiles across undersea volcanoes.

  16. Assessing the impacts of climate change on discharge and nutrient losses from a karstic agricultural sub-basin in the Upper Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The health of the Chesapeake Bay Basin ecosystem, which lies within the heavily populated Northeastern United States, relies on reducing nutrient loading to the Chesapeake Bay by the 2025 TMDL deadline and on into the future. Doing so requires evaluating the impact of current agricultural management...

  17. The Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, David S.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Gohn, Gregory S.; Horton, J. Wright

    2015-10-28

    About 35 million years ago, during late Eocene time, a 2-mile-wide asteroid or comet smashed into Earth in what is now the lower Chesapeake Bay in Virginia. The oceanic impact vaporized, melted, fractured, and (or) displaced the target rocks and sediments and sent billions of tons of water, sediments, and rocks into the air. Glassy particles of solidified melt rock rained down as far away as Texas and the Caribbean. Models suggest that even up to 50 miles away the velocity of the intensely hot air blast was greater than 1,500 miles per hour, and ground shaking was equivalent to an earthquake greater than magnitude 8.0 on the Richter scale. Large tsunamis affected most of the North Atlantic basin. The Chesapeake Bay impact structure is among the 20 largest known impact structures on Earth.

  18. Bayes reconstruction of missing teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporring, Jon; Jensen, Katrine Hommelhoff

    2008-01-01

     We propose a method for restoring the surface of tooth crowns in a 3D model of a human denture, so that the pose and anatomical features of the tooth will work well for chewing. This is achieved by including information about the position and anatomy of the other teeth in the mouth. Our system...... contains two major parts: A statistical model of a selection of tooth shapes and a reconstruction of missing data. We use a training set consisting of 3D scans of dental cast models obtained with a laser scanner, and we have build a model of the shape variability of the teeth, their neighbors...... regularization of the log-likelihood estimate based on differential geometrical properties of teeth surfaces, and we show general conditions under which this may be considered a Bayes prior.Finally we use Bayes method to propose the reconstruction of missing data, for e.g. finding the most probable shape...

  19. Influenza in Bristol Bay, 1919

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Gilson deValpine

    2015-01-01

    The 1918 influenza pandemic has been blamed for as many as 50 million deaths worldwide. Like all major disasters, the full story of the pandemic includes smaller, less noted episodes that have not attracted historical attention. The story of the 1919 wave of the influenza pandemic in Bristol Bay Alaska is one such lost episode. It is an important story because the most accessible accounts—the Congressional Record and t...

  20. Bayesian Population Projections for the United Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Adrian E; Alkema, Leontine; Gerland, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    The United Nations regularly publishes projections of the populations of all the world's countries broken down by age and sex. These projections are the de facto standard and are widely used by international organizations, governments and researchers. Like almost all other population projections, they are produced using the standard deterministic cohort-component projection method and do not yield statements of uncertainty. We describe a Bayesian method for producing probabilistic population projections for most countries that the United Nations could use. It has at its core Bayesian hierarchical models for the total fertility rate and life expectancy at birth. We illustrate the method and show how it can be extended to address concerns about the UN's current assumptions about the long-term distribution of fertility. The method is implemented in the R packages bayesTFR, bayesLife, bayesPop and bayesDem.

  1. Zooplankton Biomass Data from Prince William Sound, Icy Bay and Yakutat Bay, Alaska 2010-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes zooplankton biomass from Prince William Sound, Icy Bay and Yakutat Bay, Alaska. Zooplankton were sampled with a ring net (0.6 m diameter with...

  2. [Characteristics of Pahs pollution in sediments from Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Rong; Sun, Sheng-Li; Ke, Sheng

    2012-04-01

    Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay represented open coastal area and half-closed bay, respectively. This study discussed the differences of PAHs concentration levels, spatial distribution and sources in sediments from these three marine areas. The results showed that detected ratios of 15 PAHs were 100%, and major compounds were 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, especialy Phe, Fla, Pry and Bbf; Sigma PAHs concentration was Leizhou the outside, and the aquaculture > the non-aquaculture in Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay. It suggested that large-scale mariculture inside bay played an important role in PAHs pollution and might make it serious. Oil, fossil fuels and biomass burning were the dominant sources of PAHs in sediments from Leizhou coastal area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay.

  3. Linear dimension reduction and Bayes classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decell, H. P., Jr.; Odell, P. L.; Coberly, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    An explicit expression for a compression matrix T of smallest possible left dimension K consistent with preserving the n variate normal Bayes assignment of X to a given one of a finite number of populations and the K variate Bayes assignment of TX to that population was developed. The Bayes population assignment of X and TX were shown to be equivalent for a compression matrix T explicitly calculated as a function of the means and covariances of the given populations.

  4. 78 FR 45061 - Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Sister Bay due to a fireworks display and ski show. This... with the fireworks display and ski show in Sister Bay on August 31, 2013. DATES: This rule is effective...

  5. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay... of Sturgeon Bay due to a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. DATES: This rule is...

  6. Hardwood re-sprout control in hydrologically restored Carolina Bay depression wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Lee, Justin

    2009-06-01

    Carolina bays are isolated depression wetlands located in the upper coastal plain region of the eastern Unites States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches as a result of agricultural conversion. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna species. Previous bay restoration projects have identified woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. Three bays were hydrologically restored on the Savannah River Site, SC, by plugging drainage ditches. Residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays were harvested and the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change was monitored. A foliar herbicide approved for use in wetlands (Habitat® (Isopropylamine salt of Imazapyr)) was applied on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acer rubrum L.), sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), and water oak (Quercus nigra L.) sprouting. The effectiveness of the foliar herbicide was tested across a hydrologic gradient in an effort to better understand the relationship between depth and duration of flooding, the intensity of hardwood re-sprout pressure, and the need for hardwood management practices such as herbicide application.

  7. Detection of dechallenge in spontaneous reporting systems: a comparison of Bayes methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, A Bazila; Alias Balamurugan, S Appavu; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah

    2014-01-01

    Dechallenge is a response observed for the reduction or disappearance of adverse drug reactions (ADR) on withdrawal of a drug from a patient. Currently available algorithms to detect dechallenge have limitations. Hence, there is a need to compare available new methods. To detect dechallenge in Spontaneous Reporting Systems, data-mining algorithms like Naive Bayes and Improved Naive Bayes were applied for comparing the performance of the algorithms in terms of accuracy and error. Analyzing the factors of dechallenge like outcome and disease category will help medical practitioners and pharmaceutical industries to determine the reasons for dechallenge in order to take essential steps toward drug safety. Adverse drug reactions of the year 2011 and 2012 were downloaded from the United States Food and Drug Administration's database. The outcome of classification algorithms showed that Improved Naive Bayes algorithm outperformed Naive Bayes with accuracy of 90.11% and error of 9.8% in detecting the dechallenge. Detecting dechallenge for unknown samples are essential for proper prescription. To overcome the issues exposed by Naive Bayes algorithm, Improved Naive Bayes algorithm can be used to detect dechallenge in terms of higher accuracy and minimal error.

  8. Shifting shoals and shattered rocks : How man has transformed the floor of west-central San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, John L.; Wong, Florence L.; Carlson, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    San Francisco Bay, one of the world's finest natural harbors and a major center for maritime trade, is referred to as the 'Gateway to the Pacific Rim.' The bay is an urbanized estuary that is considered by many to be the major estuary in the United States most modified by man's activities. The population around the estuary has grown rapidly since the 1850's and now exceeds 7 million people. The San Francisco Bay area's economy ranks as one of the largest in the world, larger even than that of many countries. More than 10 million tourists are estimated to visit the bay region each year. The bay area's population and associated development have increasingly changed the estuary and its environment. San Francisco Bay and the contiguous Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta encompass roughly 1,600 square miles (4,100 km2) and are the outlet of a major watershed that drains more than 40 percent of the land area of the State of California. This watershed provides drinking water for 20 million people (two thirds of the State's population) and irrigates 4.5 million acres of farmland and ranchland. During the past several decades, much has been done to clean up the environment and waters of San Francisco Bay. Conservationist groups have even bought many areas on the margins of the bay with the intention of restoring them to a condition more like the natural marshes they once were. However, many of the major manmade changes to the bay's environment occurred so long ago that the nature of them has been forgotten. In addition, many changes continue to occur today, such as the introduction of exotic species and the loss of commercial and sport fisheries because of declining fish populations. The economy and population of the nine counties that surround the bay continue to grow and put increasing pressure on the bay, both direct and indirect. Therefore, there are mixed signals for the future health and welfare of San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay estuary consists of three

  9. Investigation of Tidal Power, Cobscook Bay, Maine. Environmental Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    Nevertheless, some worms are harvested in Cobscook Bay . Lobsters are also found in Cobscook Bay , although not in sufficient numbers to support a...ring-billed gull, sanderling, black-bellied plover, semipalmated plover, least sandpiper and dowitcher. Cobscook Bay (and Bay of Fundy in general...tidal power development in the upper Bay of Fundy . Circulation between Cobscook Bay and the Gulf of Maine will be reduced resulting in decreased

  10. Influence of soil physicochemical properties on hydrology and restoration response in Carolina Bay wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, C. D.; Andrews, D.M.; Kolka, R.K.

    2006-04-01

    Carolina Bays are shallow depression wetlands found in the southeast US that have been severely altered by human activity. The need to restore these complex and diverse systems is well established, but our understanding of basic wetland hydrological processes is limited, hence our ability to predict the need for and/or assess the effectiveness of bay restorations is hindered. Differing physicochemical properties of soils within bay interiors may control bay hydrology. However, previous efforts to establish relationships between soil characteristics and bay hydrology have been inconclusive and the question still remains as to why some bays are ponded throughout the year while others, within a similar landscape unit, are predominantly dry. An assessment of soil and hydrologic characteristics was initiated in restored and unrestored control bays to determine if a relationship exists. Soil morphology was described and permanent monitoring wells were installed at each site. Soil samples were collected by horizon to a depth of 2 meters at the topographic center of each site, and then analyzed. After three years, multiple regression analysis (stepwise backward and forward) was used to establish relationships between the soil physicochemical characteristics and bay hydroperiod in the undisturbed sites. Results from surface soils indicated that exchangeable acidity (EA) was the best single predictor of hydrology. The best double predictor was EA and total N and EA, total N and total C as the best triple predictor. A significant relationship (r2 = 0.96) between hydroperiod and clay content in the argillic horizon (Bt) was also observed. Subsequently, this relationship was utilized to predict hydrologic response using pre-restoration hydroperiod data. The model accurately identified sites that did not need hydrologic restoration (too wet), and effectively showed sites that responded well to restoration activities.

  11. Comprehensive characterization report on Winter Quarters Bay, McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B.; White, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    Winter Quarters Bay is a small embayment located adjacent to the United States largest base in Antarctica, McMurdo Station. McMurdo Station, which is managed by the National Science Foundation`s Office of Polar Programs, was constructed in 1955, has been in constant use since that time, and has a population of about 1,000 persons during the summer and about 250 people for the winter. The bay offers shelter for ships and an ice dock is used during January and February to off load fuel and cargo. During earlier times, trash from the McMurdo Station was piled on the steep shoreline of the bay, doused with several thousand gallons of fuel and ignited. That practice has ceased and the site has been regraded to cover the waste. The bottom of the bay is littered with drums, equipment, tanks, tires, all sorts of metal objects, cables, etc., especially the southeastern side where dumping took place. The sediments are gravel in some places yet fine and fluid at other sites with coarse particles intermixed. The original benthic community is not well recorded but significant ecological changes have occurred. Sediments are contaminated with PCBs, metals, and hydrocarbon fuels. This report summarizes available information on Winter Quarters Bay and was originally intended to be used by workshop participants to become familiar with the bay prior to becoming updated with unpublished data by various Antarctic investigators. The proposed workshop was to assist the National Science Foundation in determining whether and how the bay should be remediated and to develop an integrated research plan if additional data were needed. However, plans changed, the workshop was never conducted, but the briefing report was prepared. Most of this report reviews and summarizes other published data. The only new data are those from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory`s investigation into the distribution of organic contaminants in the bay and sediment toxicity testing.

  12. [Values of marine ecosystem services in Sanggou Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-hui; Lü, Ji-bin; Ye, Shu-feng; Zhu, Ming-yuan

    2007-11-01

    A valuation study was conducted in Sanggou Bay, a typical and intensive coastal aquaculture area in China Yellow Sea. The results showed that the total value of ecosystem services (VES) in Sanggou Bay was 6.07 x 10(8) Yen in 2003, with an average unit VES being 4.24 x 10(6) Yen x km(-2). Within the total VES, the provision services, regulation services, and culture services accounted for 51.29%, 17.34%, and 31.37%, respectively. Among the eight primary and secondary services valuated in Sanggou Bay, food provision services held the highest value (50.45%), followed by tourism and entertainment services (29.89%) and climate regulation services (9.18%). Harmful organism and disease control services have the lowest value (0.0017%). The aquaculture activities had greater contributions to the local social economy, environmental regulation, and social culture. Aquaculture activities, especially macro-algae farming, are of significance in maintaining and enhancing the ecosystem services.

  13. Efficient implementation of MrBayes on multi-GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jie; Xia, Hongju; Zhou, Jianfu; Liu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Gang

    2013-06-01

    MrBayes, using Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMCMC or (MC)(3)), is a popular program for Bayesian inference. As a leading method of using DNA data to infer phylogeny, the (MC)(3) Bayesian algorithm and its improved and parallel versions are now not fast enough for biologists to analyze massive real-world DNA data. Recently, graphics processor unit (GPU) has shown its power as a coprocessor (or rather, an accelerator) in many fields. This article describes an efficient implementation a(MC)(3) (aMCMCMC) for MrBayes (MC)(3) on compute unified device architecture. By dynamically adjusting the task granularity to adapt to input data size and hardware configuration, it makes full use of GPU cores with different data sets. An adaptive method is also developed to split and combine DNA sequences to make full use of a large number of GPU cards. Furthermore, a new "node-by-node" task scheduling strategy is developed to improve concurrency, and several optimizing methods are used to reduce extra overhead. Experimental results show that a(MC)(3) achieves up to 63× speedup over serial MrBayes on a single machine with one GPU card, and up to 170× speedup with four GPU cards, and up to 478× speedup with a 32-node GPU cluster. a(MC)(3) is dramatically faster than all the previous (MC)(3) algorithms and scales well to large GPU clusters.

  14. Breastfeeding Practices of Japanese Mothers in the South Bay Area of Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Hiroko

    A study investigated the attitudes of Japanese breastfeeding mothers in the South Bay area in Los Angeles. The sample consisted of 20 Japanese mothers over the age of 18 who were born in Japan, who recently came to the United States, and whose youngest child has been breastfed for at least 6 months. Subjects were interviewed in their native…

  15. Galveston Bay Area : Land Barrier preliminary design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berchum, E.C.; de Vries, P.A.L.; de Kort, R.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    The Galveston Bay Area is under significant risk from hurricane induced flooding. Ever since Hurricane Ike caused billions of damage back in 2008, the option of closing off the Galveston Bay from the Gulf of Mexico was investigated. This report, commissioned by Texas A&M University in Galveston,

  16. Unique thermal record in False Bay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grundlingh, ML

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade False Bay has assumed a prime position in terms of research in to large South African bays. This is manifested by investigations that cover flow conditions modelling, thermal structure, management, biology and nutrients, geology...

  17. Hierarchical mixtures of naive Bayes classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Naive Bayes classifiers tend to perform very well on a large number of problem domains, although their representation power is quite limited compared to more sophisticated machine learning algorithms. In this pa- per we study combining multiple naive Bayes classifiers by using the hierar- chical

  18. Traditional Fisheries of Antongil Bay, Madagascar | Doukakis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar's marine fisheries provide revenue and sustenance for the island nation. Antongil Bay, the largest shallow-water bay along Madagascar's eastern coast, harbors significant marine resources and is heavily utilized by traditional, artisanal (shark-fin) and industrial fisheries. Mean hourly catch rates are just under 1 ...

  19. Continuous resistivity profiling data from Great South Bay, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Kroeger, K.D.; Crusius, John; Worley, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York was conducted to assess the importance of submarine groundwater discharge as a potential nonpoint source of nitrogen delivery to Great South Bay. Over 200 kilometers of continuous resistivity profiling data were collected to image the fresh-saline groundwater interface in sediments beneath the bay. In addition, groundwater sampling was performed at sites (1) along the north shore of Great South Bay, particularly in Patchogue Bay, that were representative of the developed Long Island shoreline, and (2) at sites on and adjacent to Fire Island, a 50-kilometer-long barrier island on the south side of Great South Bay. Other field activities included sediment coring, stationary electrical resistivity profiling, and surveys of in situ pore water conductivity. Results of continuous resistivity profiling surveys are described in this report. The onshore and offshore shallow hydrostratigraphy of the Great South Bay shorelines, particularly the presence and nature of submarine confining units, appears to exert primary control on the dimensions and chemistry of the submarine groundwater flow and discharge zones. Sediment coring has shown that the confining units commonly consist of drowned and buried peat layers likely deposited in salt marshes. Low-salinity groundwater extends from 10 to 100 meters offshore along much of the north and south shores of Great South Bay based on continuous resistivity profiling data, especially off the mouths of tidal creeks and beneath shallow flats to the north of Fire Island adjacent to modern salt marshes. Human modifications of much of the shoreline and nearshore areas along the north shore of the bay, including filling of salt marshes, construction of bulkheads and piers, and dredging of navigation channels, has substantially altered the natural hydrogeology of the bay's shorelines by truncating confining units and increasing

  20. Recent Results from Daya Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment observed electron antineutrino disappearance associated with $\\theta_{13}$ with a significance better than $5\\sigma$ in 2012. The final two of eight antineutrino detectors were installed in the summer of 2012. Including the 404 days of data collected with the full detector configuration resulted in a 3.6 times increase of statistics over the previous result with the 6-AD configuration. With improvements of the systematic uncertainties and better estimation of backgrounds, Daya Bay has measured $\\sin^22\\theta_{13} = 0.084\\pm0.005$ and $|\\Delta m^2_{ee}|=2.42^{+0.10}_{-0.11}\\times 10^{-3}$~eV$^2$. This is the most precise measurement of $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}$ to date and the most precise measurement of of $|\\Delta m^2_{ee}|$ via electron antineutrino disappearance. Several other analysis results are presented, including an independent measurement of $\\theta_{13}$ using inverse-beta decays associated with neutron capture on hydrogen, a measurement of reactor antineutrino fl...

  1. Reproductive health of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in Chesapeake Bay Tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Vicki; Pinkney, A.E.; Uphoff, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Yellow perch live in creeks, rivers, ponds, lakes, and estuaries across the central and eastern United States and Canada. In Chesapeake Bay, they tolerate salinities up to one-third that of seawater. The adults reside in the brackish waters of the bay’s tributaries and migrate upstream to spawn. Yellow perch are eagerly sought by recreational fishermen for their excellent taste and, because their late winter spawning runs are the earliest of the year, they are regarded as a harbinger of spring. Yellow perch also support a small but valuable, tightly regulated commercial fishery in the part of Chesapeake Bay that lies in Maryland.

  2. 19 CFR 7.11 - Guantanamo Bay Naval Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guantanamo Bay Naval Station. 7.11 Section 7.11... TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH INSULAR POSSESSIONS AND GUANTANAMO BAY NAVAL STATION § 7.11 Guantanamo Bay Naval Station. Articles of foreign origin may enter the area (both land and water) of the Guantanamo Bay...

  3. An Evaluation of Sea Ice Deformation and Its Spatial Characteristics from the Regional Arctic System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    ANWR, was not included in the act. Upon discovery of oil in Prudhoe Bay in 1968, the U.S. government began plans to build an oil pipeline from Prudhoe...J.A. Richter-Menge, 2010: Influences of the ocean surface mixed layer and thermohaline stratification on Arctic sea ice in the central Canada Basin

  4. Development, implementation, and validation of a modeling system for the San Francisco Bay and Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D.; Zhang, Hongchun; Zhang, Yinglong J.; Ateljevich, Eli; Chai, Fei; Davis, Curtiss O.; Dugdale, Richard; Wilkerson, Frances

    2017-07-01

    A three-dimensional numerical modeling system for the San Francisco Bay is presented. The system is based on an unstructured grid numerical model known as Semi-implicit Cross-scale Hydroscience Integrated System Model (SCHISM). The lateral boundary condition is provided by a regional coastal ocean model. The surface forcing is provided by a regional atmospheric model. The SCHISM results from a decadal hindcast run are compared with available tide gauge data, as well as a collection of temperature and salinity profiles. An examination of the observed climatological annual mean salinities at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) stations shows the highest salinities to be in the open ocean and the lowest well north (upstream) of the Central Bay, a pattern that does not change substantially with season. The corresponding mean SCHISM salinities reproduced the observed variations with location quite well, though with a fresh bias. The lowest values within the Bay occur during spring and the highest values during autumn, mirroring the seasonal variations in river discharge. The corresponding observed mean temperatures within the Bay were 2 to 3° C cooler in the Central Bay than to either the north or south. This observed pattern of a cooler Central Bay was not particularly well reproduced in the SCHISM results, which also showed a cold bias. Examination of the seasonal means revealed that the cool Central Bay pattern is found only during summer in the SCHISM results. The persistent cold and fresh biases in the model control run were nearly eliminated in a sensitivity run with modifications to the surface heat flux and river discharge. The surface atmospheric forcing and the heat flux at the western boundary are found to be the two major terms in a SCHISM-based heat budget analysis of the mean seasonal temperature cycle for the Central Bay. In the Central Bay salt budget, freshwater discharged by rivers into upstream portions of the Bay to the north balanced by the

  5. THz identification and Bayes modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolnikov, Andre

    2017-05-01

    THz Identification is a developing technology. Sensing in the THz range potentially gives opportunity for short range radar sensing because THz waves can better penetrate through obscured atmosphere, such as fog, than visible light. The lower scattering of THz as opposed to the visible light results also in significantly better imaging than in IR spectrum. A much higher contrast can be achieved in medical trans-illumination applications than with X-rays or visible light. The same THz radiation qualities produce better tomographical images from hard surfaces, e.g. ceramics. This effect comes from the delay in time of reflected THz pulses detection. For special or commercial applications alike, the industrial quality control of defects is facilitated with a lower cost. The effectiveness of THz wave measurements is increased with computational methods. One of them is Bayes modeling. Examples of this kind of mathematical modeling are considered.

  6. A pollution history of Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, E.D.; Hodge, V.; Koide, M.; Griffin, J.; Gamble, E.; Bricker, O.P.; Matisoff, G.; Holdren, G.R.; Braun, R.

    1978-01-01

    Present day anthropogenic fluxes of some heavy metals to central Chesapeake Bay appear to be intermediate to those of the southern California coastal region and those of Narragansett Bay. The natural fluxes, however, are in general higher. On the bases of Pb-210 and Pu-239 + 240 geochronologies and of the time changes in interstitial water compositions, there is a mixing of the upper 30 or so centimeters of the sediments in the mid-Chesapeake Bay area through bioturbation by burrowing mollusks and polychaetes. Coal, coke and charcoal levels reach one percent or more by dry weight in the deposits, primarily as a consequence of coal mining operations. ?? 1978.

  7. Understanding nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and implications for management and restoration: the Eastern Shore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.

    2015-03-12

    The Eastern Shore includes only a small part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but contributes disproportionately large loads of the excess nitrogen and phosphorus that have contributed to ecological and economic degradation of the bay in recent decades. Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States and a vital ecological and economic resource. The bay and its tributaries have been degraded in recent decades by excessive nitrogen and phosphorus in the water column, however, which cause harmful algal blooms and decreased water clarity, submerged aquatic vegetation, and dissolved oxygen. The disproportionately large nitrogen and phosphorus yields from the Eastern Shore to Chesapeake Bay are attributable to human land-use practices as well as natural hydrogeologic and soil conditions. Applications of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds to the Eastern Shore from human activities are intensive. More than 90 percent of nitrogen and phosphorus reaching the land in the Eastern Shore is applied as part of inorganic fertilizers or manure, or (for nitrogen) fixed directly from the atmosphere in cropland. Also, hydrogeologic and soil conditions promote the movement of these compounds from application areas on the landscape to groundwater and (or) surface waters, and the proximity of much of the Eastern Shore to tidal waters limits opportunities for natural removal of these compounds in the landscape. The Eastern Shore only includes 7 percent of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but receives nearly twice as much nitrogen and phosphorus applications (per area) as the remainder of the watershed and yields greater nitrogen and phosphorus, on average, to the bay. Nitrogen and phosphorus commonly occur in streams at concentrations that may adversely affect aquatic ecosystems and have increased in recent decades.

  8. Northeast Guanabara Bay and coastal plain Holocene sedimentary evolution (Brazil: A contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Coutinho Abuchacra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentological and radiocarbon investigations are part of an ongoing research on the Bay-head delta of northeast Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro State. Sediment accumulation indicates that the Holocene infill of the bay-head delta started around 8.2 kyr BP and was not in pace with the eustatic sea-level rise. Sediment accumulation was faster during the transgressive phase (0.56 cm.yr-1. However, during the regressive phase, progradation driven by base-level fall was predominant over vertical sediment accumulation (0.02 cm.yr-1. Based on coring, three sedimentary units were defined: fluvial sands (U1, estuarine deposits (U2 and fluvial mud (U3.

  9. System designed for issuing landslide alerts in the San Francisco Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, D.

    1987-01-01

    A system for forecasting landslides during major storms has been developed for the San Francisco Bay area by the U.S Geological Survey and was successfully tested during heavy storms in the bay area during February 1986. Based on the forecasts provided by the USGS, the National Weather Service (NWS) included landslide warnings in its regular weather forecasts or in special weather statements transmitted to local radio and television stations and other news media. USGS scientists said the landslide forecasting and warning system for the San Francisco Bay area can be used as a prototype in developing similar systems for other parts of the Nation susceptible to landsliding. Studies show damage from landslides in the United States averages an estimated $1.5 billion per year. 

  10. Optimization on Emergency Resources Transportation Network Based on Bayes Risk Function: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changfeng Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to coordinate the complex relationship between supplies distribution and path selection, some influential factors must be taken into account such as the insufficient remaining capacity of the road and uncertainty of travel time during supplies distribution and transportation. After the structure of emergency logistics network is analyzed, the travel time Bayes risk function of path and the total loss Bayes risk function of the disaster area are proposed. With the emergency supplies total transportation unit loss as the goal, an emergency logistics network optimization model under crowded conditions is established by the Bayes decision theory and solved by the improved ant colony algorithm. Then, a case of the model is validated to prove that the emergency logistics network optimization model is effective in congested conditions.

  11. Holocene tephrochronology of the Cold Bay area, southwest Alaska Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, E.C.; Fournelle, J.H.; Miller, T.P.; Mickelson, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    The major-element glass geochemistry of 92 tephra samples from the southwest Alaska Peninsula provides the basis for establishing a Holocene tephrochronology for the region. Electron microprobe analysis has been combined with field descriptions of samples, stratigraphic relationships between tephra samples and sample localities, and glass shard micro-morphology to correlate these sampled distal tephra units throughout the area of Cold Bay and adjacent Morzhovoi Bay. Radiocarbon dating provides age constraints on correlated horizons. Previous research had clearly delineated only one horizon in the region, the so-called 'Funk/Fisher' ash, dating to between 8425 ± 350 and 9130 ± 140 14C yr BP. In addition to constraining the bimodal andesitic and dacitic glass chemistry of that horizon, this study has recognized six additional tephra layers in the area. Two horizons pre-date the Funk/Fisher ash and four are younger than it. A tephra containing dacitic and andesitic components was identified in the vicinity of Morzhovoi Bay, with a minimum age of 9300 ± 80 14C yr BP and a maximum age of 10,200 ± 75 14C yr BP. A rhyolitic horizon composed of cm-sized, rounded pumice clasts was identified in the vicinity of Cold Bay; it has been correlated to the ca 9500 BP eruption of Roundtop volcano on Unimak Island. The four younger tephra beds date to between 6070 ± 340 and 3600 ± 140 14C yr BP. The oldest of the four is rhyodacitic, followed by a mixed rhyodacitic-andesitic horizon, another rhyodacitic horizon, and finally an andesitic layer. Comparison of all the correlated horizons to proximal samples collected on Unimak Island provides conclusive geochemical evidence that the ca 9100 BP Caldera-forming eruption of Fisher volcano is the source of the Funk/Fisher ash. Correlation between the rhyodacitic tephra horizons and proximal samples from Fisher volcano suggests that Fisher Caldera is the source of one of the rhyodacitic tephra horizons that post-dates the Funk

  12. 78 FR 14185 - Safety Zone; MODU KULLUK; Kiliuda Bay, Kodiak Island, AK to Captains Bay, Unalaska Island, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; MODU KULLUK; Kiliuda Bay, Kodiak Island, AK to Captains Bay, Unalaska Island, AK AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY... in Kiliuda Bay, Kodiak Island, Alaska with planned towed transit into Captains Bay, Unalaska Island...

  13. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  14. Description of gravity cores from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Donald L.; John L. Chin,; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-06-27

    Seventy-two gravity cores were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1990, 1991, and 2000 from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, California. The gravity cores collected within San Pablo Bay contain bioturbated laminated silts and sandy clays, whole and broken bivalve shells (mostly mussels), fossil tube structures, and fine-grained plant or wood fragments. Gravity cores from the channel wall of Carquinez Strait east of San Pablo Bay consist of sand and clay layers, whole and broken bivalve shells (less than in San Pablo Bay), trace fossil tubes, and minute fragments of plant material.

  15. FL BAY SPECTROUT-POPULATION STATUS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  16. Watermass structure in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sastry, J.S.; Rao, D.P.; Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Suryanarayana, A.; Babu, M.T.

    The distributions of temperature, salinity thermosteric anomaly, density flux function and stability along 88 degrees E in the Bay of Bengal are presented. The surface salinities showed strong gradients both horizontally and vertically in northern...

  17. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  18. Underwater Video Sites in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico were mapped and characterized using visual interpretation...

  19. San Antonio Bay 1986-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The effect of salinity on utilization of shallow-water nursery habitats by aquatic fauna was assessed in San Antonio Bay, Texas. Overall, 272 samples were collected...

  20. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  1. Bay Scallop Spawning, Survival, Growth Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bay Scallops are selected and cultured according to criteria of growth and survival. Morphological attributes have also been selected to assess heretibility....

  2. Mesozoic anomalies in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Nair, R.R.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Krishna, K.S.; Subrahmanyam, V.; D'Cruz, M.; Subrahmanyam, C.; Paul, J.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Sekhar, D.V.C.

    The analysis of 8200 line km of total magnetic intensity data in the Bay of Bengal, northeastern Indian Ocean, revealed the presence of approximately N30~'E-trending seafloor spreading type magnetic anomalies. These anomalies resemble the Mesozoic...

  3. Hydrogeomorphic Regions in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Generalized lithology (rock type) and physiography based on geologic formations were used to characterize hydrgeomorphic regions (HGMR) within the Chesapeake Bay...

  4. 2002 Willapa Bay LiDAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA contracted with Spencer B. Gross, Inc. (SBG) to obtain airborne LiDAR of Willapa Bay, Washington during low tide conditions. The LiDAR data was processed to...

  5. Corpus ChristiEast Matagorda Bay 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of habitat utilization were compared among transplanted and natural Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Halls Lake area of Chocolate Bay in the Galveston...

  6. 2004 Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata document describes the collection and processing of Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data over an area along the coast of Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron,...

  7. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  8. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  9. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  10. Wastewater Out Front in Bay Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clean Water Act programs administered by EPA and the delegated states have played a central role in the success of the wastewater sector in effectively meeting nutrient limits in the Chesapeake Bay “pollution diet” a decade early.

  11. Biscayne Bay Florida Bottlenose Dolphin Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of small vessel based studies of bottlenose dolphins that reside within Biscayne Bay, Florida, adjacent estuaries and nearshore...

  12. South Bay Salt Ponds : Initial stewardship plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will operate and maintain the South Bay Salt Ponds under this Initial Stewardship...

  13. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Master Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, located in the city of Virginia Beach, Virginia, comprises 4,608 acres of barrier beach, fresh and brackish marsh, small...

  14. Historical methyl mercury in San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — San Francisco Bay, California is considered a mercury-impaired watershed. Elevated concentrations of mercury are found in water and sediment as well as fish and...

  15. Naive Bayes Image Classification: beyond Nearest Neighbors

    OpenAIRE

    Timofte, Radu; Tuytelaars, Tinne; Van Gool, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Timofte R., Tuytelaars T., Van Gool L., ''Naive bayes image classification: beyond nearest neighbors'', 11th Asian conference on computer vision - ACCV 2012, 13 pp., November 5-9, 2012, Daejeon, Korea.

  16. Saginaw Bay Restoration Assessment Degree Flowlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This represents the flowline network in Sagina Bay Restoration Assessment (SBRA). It is attributed with the number of disconnections between the reach and the...

  17. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  18. The surface heat budget of Hudson Bay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danielson, E.W

    1969-01-01

    ... which information the heat budget calculations are based. These data include surface air and sea temperatures, ice concentration, cloudiness, wind, atmospheric moisture, ice and water movement, and heat storage amounts within Hudson Bay waters...

  19. Differential productivity of Bristol Bay spawning grounds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bristol Bay escapement surveys covering a period of several years show that, irrespective of fluctuations in total numbers on a system, certain grounds display a...

  20. 77 FR 2972 - Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.; Notice of..., 2347-049, 2373-010 Midwest Hydro, LLC Midwest Hydraulic Company, Inc Project No. 10805-054 Midwest...

  1. Map showing thickness of young bay mud, southern San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sandra D.; Nichols, Donald R.; Wright, Nancy A.; Atwater, Brian

    1978-01-01

    Soft water-saturated estuarine deposits less than 10,000 years old underlie the southern part of San Francisco bay and the present and former marshlands that border the bay. Known locally as bay mud or as young bay mud, these deposits, and the estuarine environment that produces them, are of major importance in making decision on land use and development in the San Francisco Bay area. Knowledge of the distribution, thickness, and physical properties of young bay mud is critical to the feasibility, design, and maintenance of structures built on it. Fore this reason, numerous attempts have been made in the past to map or describe these characteristics (Mitchell, 1963; Goldman, 1969; McDonald and Nichols, 1974). The accompanying map of bay-mud thickness significantly revises part of an earlier compilation by Kahle and Goldman (1969) and includes new data from approximately 2400 boreholes, most of which have been drilled during the past 15 years. It also incorporates information on historic margins of San Francisco Bay and its tidal marshes (Nichols and Wright, 1971). Although this map was compelled mostly from data gathered during foundation investigations and construction projects, it is mostly from data gathered during foundation investigations and construction projects, it is not a substitute for such studies. Rather, the map provides regional information for land-use planning, seismic zonation, and design of foundation investigations.

  2. BOOK REVIEW OF "CHESAPEAKE BAY BLUES: SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND THE STRUGGLE TO SAVE THE BAY"

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a book review of "Chesapeake Bay Blues: Science, Politics, and the Struggle to Save the Bay". This book is very well written and provides an easily understandable description of the political challenges faced by those proposing new or more stringent environmental regulat...

  3. Influenza in Bristol Bay, 1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gilson deValpine

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The 1918 influenza pandemic has been blamed for as many as 50 million deaths worldwide. Like all major disasters, the full story of the pandemic includes smaller, less noted episodes that have not attracted historical attention. The story of the 1919 wave of the influenza pandemic in Bristol Bay Alaska is one such lost episode. It is an important story because the most accessible accounts—the Congressional Record and the Coast Guard Report—are inconsistent with reports made by employees, health care workers, and volunteers at the site of the disaster. Salmon fishing industry supervisors and medical officers recorded their efforts to save the region’s Native Alaskans in private company reports. The federal Bureau of Education physician retained wireless transmission, reports, and letters of events. The Coast Guard summarized its work in its Annual Report of 1920. The independent Bureau of Fisheries report to the Department of Commerce reveals the Coast Guard report at striking odds with others and reconciles only one account. This article explores the historical oversight, and attempts to tell the story of the 1919 wave of the pandemic which devastated the Native Alaskan population in this very remote place.

  4. Bayes Syndrome and Imaging Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, Ivan Hernandez; Izquierdo-Gomez, Maria Manuela; Niebla, Javier Garcia; Laynez-Cerdeña, Ignacio; Garcia-Gonzalez, Martin Jesus; Barragan-Acea, Antonio; Iribarren-Sarriá, Jose Luis; Jimenez-Rivera, Juan Jose; Lacalzada-Almeida, Juan

    2017-07-13

    Interatrial block (IAB) is due to disruption in the Bachmann region (BR). According to whether interatrial electrical conduction is delayed or completely blocked through the BR, it can be classified as IAB of first, second or third degree. On the surface electrocardiogram, a P wave ≥ 120 ms (partial IAB) is observed or associated to the prolongation of the P wave with a biphasic (positive / negative) morphology in the inferior leads (advanced IAB). Bayes syndrome is defined as an advanced IAB associated with atrial arrhythmia, more specifically atrial fibrillation. The purpose of this review is to describe the latest evidence about an entity considered an anatomical and electrical substrate with its own name, which may be a predictor of supraventricular arrhythmia and cardioembolic cerebrovascular accidents, as well as the role of new imaging techniques, such as echocardiographic strain and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, in characterizing atrial alterations associated with this syndrome and generally in the study of anatomy and atrial function. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Multi-GPGPU Tsunami simulation at Toyama-bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, Shoichi; Ueda, Yuki

    2017-07-01

    Accelerated multi General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) calculation for Tsunami run-up simulation was achieved at the wide area (whole Toyama-bay in Japan) by faster computation technique. Toyama-bay has active-faults at the sea-bed. It has a high possibility to occur earthquakes and Tsunami waves in the case of the huge earthquake, that's why to predict the area of Tsunami run-up is important for decreasing damages to residents by the disaster. However it is very hard task to achieve the simulation by the computer resources problem. A several meter's order of the high resolution calculation is required for the running-up Tsunami simulation because artificial structures on the ground such as roads, buildings, and houses are very small. On the other hand the huge area simulation is also required. In the Toyama-bay case the area is 42 [km] × 15 [km]. When 5 [m] × 5 [m] size computational cells are used for the simulation, over 26,000,000 computational cells are generated. To calculate the simulation, a normal CPU desktop computer took about 10 hours for the calculation. An improvement of calculation time is important problem for the immediate prediction system of Tsunami running-up, as a result it will contribute to protect a lot of residents around the coastal region. The study tried to decrease this calculation time by using multi GPGPU system which is equipped with six NVIDIA TESLA K20xs, InfiniBand network connection between computer nodes by MVAPICH library. As a result 5.16 times faster calculation was achieved on six GPUs than one GPU case and it was 86% parallel efficiency to the linear speed up.

  6. Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science - Tampa Bay Study - Historical and Prehistorical Record of Tampa Bay Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Terry

    2005-01-01

    To study how Tampa Bay, Florida, has changed over time, the prehistorical conditions and natural variations in the bay environment are being evaluated. These variations can be tracked by examining the sediments that have accumulated in and around the bay. The prehistorical record, which pre-dates settlers' arrival in the Tampa Bay area around 1850, provides a baseline with which to compare and evaluate the magnitude and effects of sea-level, climate, biological, geochemical, and man-made changes. These data also are valuable for planning and conducting projects aimed at restoring wetlands and other estuarine habitats to their original state. In addition, the data provide a basis for judging efforts to improve the health of the bay.

  7. 76 FR 23193 - Traffic Separation Schemes: In the Approaches to Portland, ME; Boston, MA; Narragansett Bay, RI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Portland, ME; Boston, MA; Narragansett Bay, RI and Buzzards Bay, MA; Chesapeake Bay, VA, and Cape Fear... Portland, ME; in the approaches to Boston, MA; in the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI and Buzzards Bay... Portland, ME; Boston, MA; Narragansett Bay, RI and Buzzards Bay, MA; Chesapeake Bay, VA; and Cape Fear...

  8. The curious case of eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica stock status in Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Pine III

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Apalachicola Bay, Florida, eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica industry has annually produced about 10% of the U.S. oyster harvest. Today's simple individual-operator, hand-tonging, small-vessel fishery is remarkably similar to the one that began in the 1800s. Unprecedented attention is currently being given to the status of oyster resources in Apalachicola Bay because this fishery has become central to the decision making related to multistate water disputes in the southeastern United States, as well as millions of dollars in funding for restoration programs related to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The oyster fishery collapsed in 2012, leading to large economic losses and community concerns over the current and future status of oyster resources, ecosystem health, and local economic opportunities. We used best available data to assess what mechanism(s may have led to the collapse of the Apalachicola Bay oyster fishery. We then assessed the efficacy of alternative management strategies (e.g., restoration, fishery closure to accelerate oyster population recovery. Our results suggest that the Apalachicola Bay oyster population is not overfished in the sense that recruitment has been limited by harvest, but that the 2012 collapse was driven by lower-than-average numbers and/or poor survival of juvenile oysters in the years preceding the collapse. This reduction in recruitment not only reduced the biomass of oysters available to harvest, but from a population resilience perspective, likely reduced the amount of dead shell material available as larval settlement area. Although the Apalachicola Bay oyster fishery has proven resilient over its >150-year history to periods of instability, this fishery now seems to be at a crossroads in terms of continued existence and possibly risks an irreversible collapse. How to use the restoration funds available, and which restoration and management practices to follow, are choices that will determine the

  9. Satellite Remote Sensing of Chlorophyll-a Concentrations in the Galveston Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Zheng, G.; Gao, H.; Roelke, D.

    2014-12-01

    Galveston Bay (Texas) is characterized by the unique and complex mixing of waters allowing the bay to produce more seafood than any bay in the United States with the exception of Chesapeake Bay (Maryland). The concentration of Chlorophyll-a plays a key role in ecosystem productivity. Since field measurements are complicated and expensive, satellite remote sensing provides an opportunity to observe real-time variations of Chlorophyll-a at a large spatial scale. However, because of the notable influences caused by the absorption and scattering of other substances (such as total suspended solids, dissolved organic matters and tripton), the use of ocean color remote sensing images to estimate Chlorophyll-a in coastal waters is usually limited. In order to monitor the variation of Chlorophyll-a with high accuracy (and at a high temporal resolution), an algorithm was developed using Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance data, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images, and in-situ measurements. This approach mainly contains two steps. First, based on the relatively high spatial resolution of Landsat images (30m), an exponential regression relationship was found between the Landsat reflectance ratio (i.e., band 3/band 4) and the in-situ measured Chlorophyll-a concentrations (R2 = 0.81) during the two-year sampling period (2005- 2006). By using an automatic outlier detection technique for quality control, a Landsat Chlorophyll-a concentration product from 2000- 2011 was generated. Second, in order to improve the temporal resolution over the bay area, an 8-day MODIS product at 500 m spatial resolution from 2000 to 2013 was created. Landsat results from the first step were employed to calibrate the parameters used in NASA's existing operational product algorithm. This way, the MODIS product from this study can best represent the phytoplankton productivity in Galveston Bay. Using the remotely sensed Chlorophyll-a product, further comparisons were

  10. Evaluation of older bay mud sediment from Richmond Harbor, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-09-01

    The older, bay mud (OBM) unit predates modem man and could act as a barrier to the downward transport of contaminants from the younger bay mud (YBM) because of its hard-packed consistency. However, its chemical and biological nature have not been well characterized. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted three independent studies of OBM sediment in January 1993, January 1994, and October 1994. These studies evaluated potential chemical contamination and biological effects of OBM that could occur as a result of dredging and disposal activities. These evaluations were performed by conducting chemical analysis, solid-phase toxicity tests, suspended- particulate-phase (SPP) toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests on the OBM sediment. If the sediment chemistry and toxicity results showed no or minimal contamination and toxicological responses, then either the OBM could be left exposed in Richmond Harbor after dredging the YBM without leaving a source of contamination, or if the project depths necessitate, the OBM would be acceptable for disposal at an appropriate disposal site.

  11. Radium isotopes in the Ulsan Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Seong [Department of Oceanography, Chungnam National University, Gung-dong 220, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: leejs728@nfrda.re.kr; Kim, Kee Hyun [Department of Oceanography, Chungnam National University, Gung-dong 220, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Duck Soo [Department of Oceanography, Chungnam National University, Gung-dong 220, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    In order to estimate the fluxes of Ra isotopes, we measured {sup 224}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 228}Ra activities in the Ulsan Bay mixing zone. The convex upwards curvature of the plot of Ra isotope activities versus salinity for the mixing zone suggests that Ra isotopes are supplied from particles entering the mixing zone from both the river and bottom sediments. This addition increases the estuarine flux of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra to the outer sea by factors of 15 and 95 over the flux attributable to Ra dissolved in the riverine water alone. In order to estimate the residence time of the water in Ulsan Bay, we applied a mass balance model to the distribution of {sup 224}Ra and {sup 226}Ra activities in the Ulsan Bay mixing zone with the inflow from the Taehwa River. The obtained residence times of the waters in the Ulsan Bay were estimated to be 6.8-11.4 d. The waters in the upper part of the estuary have long residence times whereas those in the lower part, in contact with the open sea, have shorter residence times. The mean residence time of the water in the Ulsan Bay was estimated to be 9.1 d.

  12. Fishery Management Program Progress Report: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing summary of fishery biologist's visit to Back Bay to remove carp from impoundments at Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge.

  13. Parameter Identification by Bayes Decision and Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulczycki, P.; Schiøler, Henrik

    1994-01-01

    The problem of parameter identification by Bayes point estimation using neural networks is investigated.......The problem of parameter identification by Bayes point estimation using neural networks is investigated....

  14. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund: Projects and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) projects listed here are part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  15. Benthic grab data from October 1999 in Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve and the NOAA Office for Coastal Management worked together to map benthic habitats within Apalachicola Bay,...

  16. Sediment grab data from October 1999 in Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve and the NOAA Office for Coastal Management worked together to map benthic habitats within Apalachicola Bay,...

  17. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration, Phase II at Ravenswood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Phase II Construction at Ravenswood, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  18. Phytoplankton and nutrients studies in Magu bay, Speke gulf, Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chemical parameters were studied in Magu Bay, Lake Victoria, in May 2001. Investigations on the influence of Simiyu River on the biological and physical characteristics of the Bay were carried out. Surface and bottom currents flowed in the ...

  19. Biology and subsistence hunting of geese at Chagvan Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Chagvan Bay and Nanvak Bay are known to be important staging and/or stopover areas for large numbers of Pacific Brant (Branta bernicola) and Emperor Geese (Chen...

  20. 1999 RoxAnn Data Points from Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve and the NOAA Office for Coastal Management worked together to map benthic habitats within Apalachicola Bay,...

  1. Technical Support Documents Used to Develop the Chesapeake Bay TMDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chesapeake Bay TMDL development was supported by several technical documents for water quality standards and allocation methodologies specific to the Chesapeake Bay. This page provides the technical support documents.

  2. Development of a management plan for coast live oak forests affected by sudden oak death in East Bay Regional Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice A. McPherson; Joshua O’Neill; Gregory Biging; Maggi Kelly; David L. Wood

    2015-01-01

    The East Bay Regional Park District maintains the largest urban park system in the United States, comprising over 45 000 ha, and more than 1900 km of trails, with extensive forests bordering residential areas. Sudden oak death (SOD), caused by the introduced oomycete Phytophthora ramorum, was first detected in a district park in 2001. Both...

  3. 12th North American Caribou Workshop, 2-5 November 2008, Happy Valley – Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Egil Haugerud (editor in chief

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 12th NACW was arranged at Happy Valley - Goose Bay 4-6 November 2008 with the theme "Integrating Understanding across Ecotypes". Approximately 140 people attended from Canada, United States, Norway, and Greenland. The 12th NACW included more than 70 oral and poster presentations.

  4. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  5. Mapping Oyster Reef Habitats in Mobile Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Oyster reefs around the world are declining rapidly, and although they haven t received as much attention as coral reefs, they are just as important to their local ecosystems and economies. Oyster reefs provide habitats for many species of fish, invertebrates, and crustaceans, as well as the next generations of oysters. Oysters are also harvested from many of these reefs and are an important segment of many local economies, including that of Mobile Bay, where oysters rank in the top five commercial marine species both by landed weight and by dollar value. Although the remaining Mobile Bay oyster reefs are some of the least degraded in the world, projected climate change could have dramatic effects on the health of these important ecosystems. The viability of oyster reefs depends on water depth and temperature, appropriate pH and salinity levels, and the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water. Projected increases in sea level, changes in precipitation and runoff patterns, and changes in pH resulting from increases in the amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in the oceans could all affect the viability of oyster reefs in the future. Human activities such as dredging and unsustainable harvesting practices are also adversely impacting the oyster reefs. Fortunately, several projects are already under way to help rebuild or support existing or previously existing oyster reefs. The success of these projects will depend on the local effects of climate change on the current and potential habitats and man s ability to recognize and halt unsustainable harvesting practices. As the extent and health of the reefs changes, it will have impacts on the Mobile Bay ecosystem and economy, changing the resources available to the people who live there and to the rest of the country, since Mobile Bay is an important national source of seafood. This project identified potential climate change impacts on the oyster reefs of Mobile Bay, including the possible addition of newly viable

  6. Lost lake - restoration of a Carolina bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlin, H.G.; McLendon, J.P. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology; Wike, L.D. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Dietsch, B.M. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Carolina bays are shallow wetland depressions found only on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although these isolated interstream wetlands support many types of communities, they share the common features of having a sandy margin, a fluctuating water level, an elliptical shape, and a northwest to southeast orientation. Lost Lake, an 11.3 hectare Carolina bay, was ditched and drained for agricultural production before establishment of the Savannah River Site in 1950. Later it received overflow from a seepage basin containing a variety of chemicals, primarily solvents and some heavy metals. In 1990 a plan was developed for the restoration of Lost Lake, and restoration activities were complete by mid-1991. Lost Lake is the first known project designed for the restoration and recovery of a Carolina bay. The bay was divided into eight soil treatment zones, allowing four treatments in duplicate. Each of the eight zones was planted with eight species of native wetland plants. Recolonization of the bay by amphibians and reptiles is being evaluated by using drift fences with pitfall traps and coverboard arrays in each of the treatment zones. Additional drift fences in five upland habitats were also established. Hoop turtle traps, funnel minnow traps, and dip nets were utilized for aquatic sampling. The presence of 43 species common to the region has been documented at Lost Lake. More than one-third of these species show evidence of breeding populations being established. Three species found prior to the restoration activity and a number of species common to undisturbed Carolina bays were not encountered. Colonization by additional species is anticipated as the wetland undergoes further succession.

  7. Unmanned aircraft system measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer over Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Knuth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In September 2009, a series of long-range unmanned aircraft system (UAS flights collected basic atmospheric data over the Terra Nova Bay polynya in Antarctica. Air temperature, wind, pressure, relative humidity, radiation, skin temperature, GPS, and operational aircraft data were collected and quality controlled for scientific use. The data have been submitted to the United States Antarctic Program Data Coordination Center (USAP-DCC for free access (doi:10.1594/USAP/0739464.

  8. A late Holocene palaeoenvironmental record from Altona Bay, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, C.A.; Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp; Bartholdy, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    . The sedimentary sequence covers the last c. 4700 years, containing both (mangrove) peat and fine-grained clastic sediment units. Comparison with regional Holocene sea level data demonstrates a gradual marine flooding of a mangrove environment around 3500 cal BP was presumably related to a regional late Holocene...... of the bay and have caused a major hiatus and the recent deposition of sediments immediately overlying the c. 2500 year old peat....

  9. Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay shallow aquifer, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2018-02-23

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  10. 77 FR 14276 - Regulated Navigation Area; Little Bay Bridge Construction, Little Bay, Portsmouth, NH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA) on the navigable waters of Little Bay in the Piscataqua River under and surrounding the Little Bay and General Sullivan Bridges in order to facilitate construction of the Little Bay Bridge between Newington, NH and Dover, NH. This temporary interim rule is necessary to provide for the safety of life on the navigable waters during bridge construction operations that could pose an imminent hazard to vessels operating in the area. This rule implements certain safety measures, including speed restrictions and the temporary suspension of vessel traffic during construction operations.

  11. Moose censuses in Bristol Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During last February and March, censuses were made in Units 9 and 17. I asked Dick and Ken to summarize the results of those censuses, and their responses to me are...

  12. Holocene evolution of Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Twichell, David C.

    2011-01-01

    A program of geophysical mapping and vibracoring was conducted in 2007 to better understand the geologic evolution of Apalachicola Bay and its response to sea-level rise. A detailed geologic history could help better understand how this bay may respond to both short-term (for example, storm surge) and long-term sea-level rise. The results of this study were published (Osterman and others, 2009) as part of a special issue of Geo-Marine Letters that documents early results from the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project.

  13. An Empirical Bayes Approach to Spatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C. N.; Kostal, H.

    1983-01-01

    Multi-channel LANDSAT data are collected in several passes over agricultural areas during the growing season. How empirical Bayes modeling can be used to develop crop identification and discrimination techniques that account for spatial correlation in such data is considered. The approach models the unobservable parameters and the data separately, hoping to take advantage of the fact that the bulk of spatial correlation lies in the parameter process. The problem is then framed in terms of estimating posterior probabilities of crop types for each spatial area. Some empirical Bayes spatial estimation methods are used to estimate the logits of these probabilities.

  14. Chondrichthyan occurrence and abundance trends in False Bay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercial fishing in False Bay, South Africa, began in the 1600s. Today chondrichthyans are regularly taken in fisheries throughout the bay. Using a combination of catch, survey and life history data, the occurrence and long-term changes in populations of chondrichthyans in False Bay are described. Analyses of time ...

  15. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given. ...

  16. 33 CFR 162.150 - Maumee Bay and River, Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maumee Bay and River, Ohio. 162... (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.150 Maumee Bay and River, Ohio. (a) In Maumee Bay (lakeward of Maumee River Lighted Buoy 49(L/L No. 770)), no vessel greater than...

  17. Naïve Bayes classification in R

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2016-01-01

    Naïve Bayes classification is a kind of simple probabilistic classification methods based on Bayes’ theorem with the assumption of independence between features. The model is trained on training dataset to make predictions by predict() function. This article introduces two functions naiveBayes() and train() for the performance of Naïve Bayes classification.

  18. Naive Bayes and Text Classification I - Introduction and Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Raschka, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Naive Bayes classifiers, a family of classifiers that are based on the popular Bayes' probability theorem, are known for creating simple yet well performing models, especially in the fields of document classification and disease prediction. In this article, we will look at the main concepts of naive Bayes classification in the context of document categorization.

  19. Preterm Admissions in a Special Care Baby Unit: The Nnewi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ugochukwu EF, Ezechukwu CC, Agbata CC, Ezumba I. Preterm Admissions in a. Special Care Baby Unit: The Nnewi Experience. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics. 2002;29:75. A review of all preterm admissions into the Special Care Bay Unit' of the. Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, over a ...

  20. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Regulated area. All navigable waters of Great South Bay, NY within a 100 yard radius of each... the Fire Island Lighthouse Dock in approximate position 40°38′01″ N 073°13′07″ W, northerly through.... (1) No person or vessel may enter, transit, or remain within 100 yards of any swimmer or safety craft...

  1. Susceptibilities of Human Cytomegalovirus Clinical Isolates to BAY38-4766, BAY43-9695, and Ganciclovir

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSharry, James J.; McDonough, Ann; Olson, Betty; Hallenberger, Sabine; Reefschlaeger, Juergen; Bender, Wolfgang; Drusano, George L.

    2001-01-01

    BAY38-4766 and BAY43-9695 are nonnucleosidic compounds with activities against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Two phenotypic assays were used to determine the drug susceptibilities of 36 HCMV clinical isolates to the BAY compounds and ganciclovir. Using either assay, both BAY compounds at a concentration of approximately 1 μM inhibited the replication of all 36 HCMV clinical isolates, including 11 ganciclovir-resistant clinical isolates, by 50%. PMID:11557492

  2. Bayes factors for the linear ballistic accumulator model of decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nathan J; Brown, Scott D

    2017-04-28

    Evidence accumulation models of decision-making have led to advances in several different areas of psychology. These models provide a way to integrate response time and accuracy data, and to describe performance in terms of latent cognitive processes. Testing important psychological hypotheses using cognitive models requires a method to make inferences about different versions of the models which assume different parameters to cause observed effects. The task of model-based inference using noisy data is difficult, and has proven especially problematic with current model selection methods based on parameter estimation. We provide a method for computing Bayes factors through Monte-Carlo integration for the linear ballistic accumulator (LBA; Brown and Heathcote, 2008), a widely used evidence accumulation model. Bayes factors are used frequently for inference with simpler statistical models, and they do not require parameter estimation. In order to overcome the computational burden of estimating Bayes factors via brute force integration, we exploit general purpose graphical processing units; we provide free code for this. This approach allows estimation of Bayes factors via Monte-Carlo integration within a practical time frame. We demonstrate the method using both simulated and real data. We investigate the stability of the Monte-Carlo approximation, and the LBA's inferential properties, in simulation studies.

  3. Interactions between finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Ronald H; Smith, Ruth E; Fisher, E Brian

    2014-11-15

    Interactions between open-net pen finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay in Nova Scotia, Canada, were investigated using fishermen's participatory research in annual lobster trap surveys over seven years. Fishermen recorded lobster catches during the last two weeks of May from 2007 to 2013. Catches for each trap haul were recorded separately for ovigerous and market-sized lobsters. Catch trends within the bay were compared to regional trends. Results of correlation analyses indicated that ovigerous catch trends were strongly affected by the fish farm's feeding/fallow periods. There was no significant correlation between trends for bay and LFA lobster landings. Patterns of lobster catch per unit effort extending over considerable distance in Port Mouton Bay appear to be influenced by proximity to the fish farm regardless of year-to-year variation in water temperatures and weather conditions. Odours and habitat changes surrounding open-net pen finfish operations are potential factors affecting lobster displacement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Geology and geomorphology--Drakes Bay and Vicinity Bay Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Drakes Bay and Vicinity map area, California. The polygon shapefile is included in...

  5. Pärnu Bay Golf Club = Pärnu Bay Golf Club / Arhitekt11

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    Pärnu Bay Golf Club, arhitektid Jürgen Lepper, Anto Savi, Margus Soonets, Janar Toomesso (Arhitekt11), sisearhitektid Liina Vaino, Kaari Metslang, Hannelore Kääramees (Arhitekt11). Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali aastapreemia nominent 2016

  6. Gravity cores from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data release contains information on gravity cores that were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the area of San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait,...

  7. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund Points, SF Bay CA, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund is a competitive grant program that is helping implement TMDLs to improve water quality, protect wetlands, and...

  8. Contaminants in redhead ducks wintering in Baffin Bay and Redfish Bay, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A sample of 39 redhead ducks was collected from Redfish and Baffin Bays on the Texas Coast during the winter of 1988-1989 to obtain baseline information on...

  9. Florida Bay Science Program: a Synthesis of Research on Florida Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, John; Nuttle, William

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the progress made toward the objectives established in the Strategic Plan revised in 1997 for the agencies cooperating in the program. These objectives are expressed as five questions that organized the research on the Florida Bay ecosystem: Ecosystem History What was the Florida Bay ecosystem like 50, 100, and 150 years ago? Question 1—Physical Processes How and at what rates do storms, changing freshwater flows, sea level rise, and local evaporatio...

  10. Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalles, J.F. (Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE (USA)); Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.; Leversee, G.J.; Knox, J.N. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Much of the research to date on the Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant and elsewhere has focused on certain species or on environmental features. Different levels of detail exist for different groups of organisms and reflect the diverse interests of previous investigators. This report summarizes aspects of research to date and presents data from numerous studies. 70 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Bathymetry (2011) for Coral Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution depth surface for Coral Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). The...

  12. Madreporaria from the Bay of Batavia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umbgrove, J.H.F.

    1939-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In the Bay of Batavia there are patch-reefs and cays in different stadia of development. Some are small reefs still rather deep below sea level, other reefs bear a small sand cay. On the larger coral sand islands vegetation has developed ; moreover shingle ramparts and a moat have come

  13. Bathymetry (2011) for Fish Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution depth surface for Fish Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). The...

  14. PEMANFATAN TEOREMA BAYES DALAM PENENTUAN PENYAKIT THT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Winiarti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dalam konsep pelacakan dalam mencari solusi dengan pendekatan artificial inteligent, ada berbagai metode  yang dapat diterapkan untuk mengatasi masalah ketidakpastian saat proses pelacakan terjadi. Salah satunya adalah teorema bayes. Adanya ketidakpastian pada proses pelacakan dapat terjadi karena adanya perubahan pengetahuan yang ada di dalam sistem. Untuk itu diperlukan adanya suatu metode untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut. Dalam penelitian ini telah diterapkan suatu metode untuk mengatasi ketidakpastian dengan teorema Bayes pada kasus pelacakan untuk mendiagnosa penyakit pada THT (Telinga,Hidung dan Tenggorokan.  Subjek pada penelitian ini adalah proses pelacakan untuk menentukan penyakit THT dengan model penalaran forward chaining dan metode kepastiannya menggunakan teorema bayes dengan cara menghitung nilai probabilitas suatu penyakit dan membandingkan probabilitas setiap gejalanya. Model pengembangan perangkat lunak yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Waterfall. Metode Waterfall diawali dengan analisis data, perancangan sistem, pengkodean menggunakan Visual Basic 6.0, pengujian sistem dengan black box test dan alfa test. Dari penelitian yang dilakukan menghasilkan sebuah perangkat lunak yaitu  yang mampu menentukan penyakit pada THT dengan menerapkan metode bayes untuk mengatasi ketidakpastian. Hasil uji coba sistem menujukkan bahwa aplikasi ini layak dan dapat digunakan.

  15. Morphological features in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.

    the NW-SE trending long profiles spaced at 30 nautical miles aided to improve the bathymetry chart of the Bay of Bengal. The echograms show some important geo-morphological features of the seafloor. One such feature is the "Swatch of no ground" which...

  16. Chesapeake Bay Program Water Quality Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chesapeake Information Management System (CIMS), designed in 1996, is an integrated, accessible information management system for the Chesapeake Bay Region. CIMS is an organized, distributed library of information and software tools designed to increase basin-wide public access to Chesapeake Bay information. The information delivered by CIMS includes technical and public information, educational material, environmental indicators, policy documents, and scientific data. Through the use of relational databases, web-based programming, and web-based GIS a large number of Internet resources have been established. These resources include multiple distributed on-line databases, on-demand graphing and mapping of environmental data, and geographic searching tools for environmental information. Baseline monitoring data, summarized data and environmental indicators that document ecosystem status and trends, confirm linkages between water quality, habitat quality and abundance, and the distribution and integrity of biological populations are also available. One of the major features of the CIMS network is the Chesapeake Bay Program's Data Hub, providing users access to a suite of long- term water quality and living resources databases. Chesapeake Bay mainstem and tidal tributary water quality, benthic macroinvertebrates, toxics, plankton, and fluorescence data can be obtained for a network of over 800 monitoring stations.

  17. Saginaw Bay, MI LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME:(NRCS) Saginaw Bay, MI LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G11PD01254 Woolpert Order...

  18. (IMPS) at Makoba Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daisy Ouya

    sedimentation pond, in that order. Water from the reservoir flows through the pond system by gravity. In the late 18th Century a powerful cyclone hit. Unguja Island. As a result, the estuarine sediments in the Bay have remained blackish in colour, sticky,.

  19. Summary report on Bristol Bay murre mortality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — At least 86,000 common murres died in Bristol Bay, Alaska during a brief period in late April of this year. Evidence suggests that it was a catastrophic event of...

  20. Projected Commercial Maritime Activity in the Western Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-01

    Unimak Island 29 10 Minimum Ship Requirements by Arctic Ship Class for Various 35 Ice Control Zones 11 Components of the PVIS Subsystems 49 LIST OF...1978 to 2000 6 Projected Oil Production Regions and When Major Production 21 VBegins 7 March Ice I-formation for Prudhoe Bay to Unimak Island Ship 30...Route September Ice Informetion for Prudhoe Bay to Unimak Island 31 Ship Route 9 Ice Class Designation 36 10 Requirements for Ice Class and Tonnage Size

  1. Comparison of Ecological Impacts of Postulated Oil Spills at Selected Alaskan Locations. Volume 1. Introduction, Summary, Methodology, Evaluation and Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    Graham Kami’s hak Bay Unimak Pass Port Möller 1 Kvichak Bay St. Matthew Island Nome Cape Blossom Offshore Prudhoe Onshore Prudhoe Umiat...Crossing, the cases found to have the greatest impact involved Port Graham, Valdez Narrows, Drift River, and Unimak Pass. The highest impact score...Valdez Narrows, Port Graham, Unimak Pass, Yukon River Crossing, and Drift River dominated the list of high impact scores in those cases where

  2. An empirical Bayes approach for the Poisson life distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavos, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    A smooth empirical Bayes estimator is derived for the intensity parameter (hazard rate) in the Poisson distribution as used in life testing. The reliability function is also estimated either by using the empirical Bayes estimate of the parameter, or by obtaining the expectation of the reliability function. The behavior of the empirical Bayes procedure is studied through Monte Carlo simulation in which estimates of mean-squared errors of the empirical Bayes estimators are compared with those of conventional estimators such as minimum variance unbiased or maximum likelihood. Results indicate a significant reduction in mean-squared error of the empirical Bayes estimators over the conventional variety.

  3. Chesapeake Bay Watershed - Protecting the Chesapeake Bay and its rivers through science, restoration, and partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay, the Nation's largest estuary, has been degraded due to the impact of human-population increase, which has doubled since 1950, resulting in degraded water quality, loss of habitat, and declines in populations of biological communities. Since the mid-1980s, the Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP), a multi-agency partnership which includes the Department of Interior (DOI), has worked to restore the Bay ecosystem. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has the critical role of providing unbiased scientific information that is utilized to document and understand ecosystem change to help assess the effectiveness of restoration strategies in the Bay and its watershed. The USGS revised its Chesapeake Bay science plan for 2006-2011 to address the collective needs of the CBP, DOI, and USGS with a mission to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Bay ecosystem. The USGS science themes for this mission are: Causes and consequences of land-use change; Impact of climate change and associated hazards; Factors affecting water quality and quantity; Ability of habitat to support fish and bird populations; and Synthesis and forecasting to improve ecosystem assessment, conservation, and restoration.

  4. Responses of upland herpetofauna to the restoration of Carolina Bays and thinning of forested Bay Margins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledvina, Joseph A.

    2008-05-01

    Research on the effects of wetland restoration on reptiles and amphibians is becoming more common, but almost all of these studies have observed the colonization of recently disturbed habitats that were completely dry at the time of restoration. In a similar manner, investigations herpetofaunal responses to forest management have focused on clearcuts, and less intensive stand manipulations are not as well studied. To evaluate community and population responses of reptiles and amphibians to hydrology restoration and canopy removal in the interior of previously degraded Carolina bays, I monitored herpetofauna in the uplands adjacent to six historically degraded Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for four years after restoration. To evaluate the effects of forest thinning on upland herpetofauna, forests were thinned in the margins of three of these bays. I used repeated measures ANOVA to compare species richness and diversity and the abundance of selected species and guilds between these bays and with those at three reference bays that were not historically drained and three control bays that remained degraded. I also used Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) to look for community-level patterns based treatments.

  5. Tuberculosis infection after humanitarian assistance, Guantanamo Bay, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortepeter, M G; Krauss, M R

    2001-02-01

    Upon redeployment to Fort Lewis, Washington, from Operation Sea Signal in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, 5% of a military police unit was identified as positive for purified protein derivative (PPD). A case-control study was conducted to document the number of converters and to identify risk factors among the soldiers for PPD conversion while in Cuba. Forty-six of the soldiers (3.7% of the unit) met the criteria for PPD conversion as a result of deployment. Forty-four converters and 84 controls completed surveys. Logistic regression showed that statistically significant independent risk factors for PPD conversion included working around coughing migrants (odds ratio [OR] = 6.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2-20.4) and birthplace outside the United States (OR = 4.89, CI = 1.3-18.5). Contact in the psychiatric hospital (OR = 0.22, CI = 0.05-0.90) and contact with migrants with known tuberculosis (OR = 0.16, CI = 0.05-0.54) appeared to be protective factors, possibly because known tuberculosis patients and hospitalized patients most likely would be on treatment and rendered noninfectious. With the U.S. military's involvement in humanitarian and refugee operations in countries highly endemic for tuberculosis, service members are at increased risk of acquiring tuberculosis infection. Detection of tuberculosis infection and appropriate treatment should become a higher priority within the U.S. military.

  6. Muscle categorization using PDF estimation and Naive Bayes classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Tameem M; Smith, Benn E; Stashuk, Daniel W

    2012-01-01

    The structure of motor unit potentials (MUPs) and their times of occurrence provide information about the motor units (MUs) that created them. As such, electromyographic (EMG) data can be used to categorize muscles as normal or suffering from a neuromuscular disease. Using pattern discovery (PD) allows clinicians to understand the rationale underlying a certain muscle characterization; i.e. it is transparent. Discretization is required in PD, which leads to some loss in accuracy. In this work, characterization techniques that are based on estimating probability density functions (PDFs) for each muscle category are implemented. Characterization probabilities of each motor unit potential train (MUPT) are obtained from these PDFs and then Bayes rule is used to aggregate the MUPT characterization probabilities to calculate muscle level probabilities. Even though this technique is not as transparent as PD, its accuracy is higher than the discrete PD. Ultimately, the goal is to use a technique that is based on both PDFs and PD and make it as transparent and as efficient as possible, but first it was necessary to thoroughly assess how accurate a fully continuous approach can be. Using gaussian PDF estimation achieved improvements in muscle categorization accuracy over PD and further improvements resulted from using feature value histograms to choose more representative PDFs; for instance, using log-normal distribution to represent skewed histograms.

  7. POTENTIAL HAZARDS OF SEDIMENT IN KENDARI BAY, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Adi Kristanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kendari bay is located in front of Kendari city. There are two harbors in the inner part of bay which very important to support economic activities such as shipping and passenger transportation. The result of coastal characteristic mapping and physical oceanography survey show various coastal morphology, vegetation, weathering processes, sedimentation, currents, and water depth and sea floor morphology. Kendari bay is an enclosed bay; the area is wide in the inner part and narrow in mouth of bay (outlet, the morphology look like a bottle’s neck. Numerous mouth rivers are concentrate around the bay. The rivers load material from land since erosion on land is intensive enough. There is indication that sediment supplies from land trough river mouth not equivalent with outlet capacity. Sediment load is trapped in the inner bay caused the outlet morphology. So high sediment rate play an important role in the process of shallow of water depth in Kendari bay. This condition make the Kendari bay is a prone area of sediment hazard due to height rate of sedimentary process. Therefore, to anticipate the hazards, precaution should be taken related to the Kendari bay as the center of activities in southeast of Sulawesi. The further survey is needed such as marine geotechnique and on land environmental to collect data, which can be used as database for development planning. Key words: Potential hazard, sediment, Kendari Bay Teluk

  8. Hierarchical Naive Bayes for genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malovini, Alberto; Barbarini, Nicola; Bellazzi, Riccardo; de Michelis, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Genome Wide Association Studies represent powerful approaches that aim at disentangling the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying complex traits. The usual "one-SNP-at-the-time" testing strategy cannot capture the multi-factorial nature of this kind of disorders. We propose a Hierarchical Naïve Bayes classification model for taking into account associations in SNPs data characterized by Linkage Disequilibrium. Validation shows that our model reaches classification performances superior to those obtained by the standard Naïve Bayes classifier for simulated and real datasets. In the Hierarchical Naïve Bayes implemented, the SNPs mapping to the same region of Linkage Disequilibrium are considered as "details" or "replicates" of the locus, each contributing to the overall effect of the region on the phenotype. A latent variable for each block, which models the "population" of correlated SNPs, can be then used to summarize the available information. The classification is thus performed relying on the latent variables conditional probability distributions and on the SNPs data available. The developed methodology has been tested on simulated datasets, each composed by 300 cases, 300 controls and a variable number of SNPs. Our approach has been also applied to two real datasets on the genetic bases of Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes generated by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. The approach proposed in this paper, called Hierarchical Naïve Bayes, allows dealing with classification of examples for which genetic information of structurally correlated SNPs are available. It improves the Naïve Bayes performances by properly handling the within-loci variability.

  9. Lithostratigraphy, microlithofacies, and conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies of the Wahoo Limestone (Carboniferous), eastern Sadlerochit Mountains, Northeast Brooks Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhardt, A.P.; Harris, A.G.; Watts, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    The lithostratigraphy, microlithofacies, and conodonts are described in a key section of the Wahoo Limestone (Middle Carboniferous); this unit forms a hydrocarbon reservoir at Prudhoe Bay. The Wahoo was deposited in a range of environments on the inner part of a high-energy carbonate ramp. Microfacies and conodont biofacies used together refine paleoenvironmental interpretations. Only 24 conodont species distributed among 14 genera were recognized in a section that spans about 10 million years. Significant conodont collections from the Wahoo across the Northeast Brooks Range are described in an appendix.

  10. Source identification of heavy metal contamination using metal association and Pb isotopes in Ulsan Bay sediments, East Sea, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jung Sun; Choi, Man Sik; Song, Yun Ho; Um, In Kwon; Kim, Jae Gon

    2014-11-15

    To determine the characteristics of metal pollution sources in Ulsan Bay, East Sea, 39 surface and nine core sediments were collected within the bay and offshore area, and analyzed for metals and stable lead (Pb) isotopes. Most surface sediments (>95% from 48 sites) had high copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and Pb concentrations that were as much as 1.3 times higher than background values. The primary source of metal contamination came from activities related to nonferrous metal refineries near Onsan Harbor, and the next largest source was from shipbuilding companies located at the mouth of the Taehwa River. Three different anthropogenic sources and background sediments could be identified as end-members using Pb isotopes. Isotopic ratios for the anthropogenic Pb revealed that the sources were imported ores from Australia, Peru, and the United States. In addition, Pb isotopes of anthropogenic Pb discharged from Ulsan Bay toward offshore could be determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Design, Development, and Integration of A Space Shuttle Orbiter Bay 13 Payload Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Susan H.; Phillips, Michael W.; Upton, Lanny (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Bay 13 of the Space Shuttle Orbiter has been limited to small sidewall mounted payloads and ballast. In order to efficiently utilize this space, a concept was developed for a cross-bay cargo carrier to mount Orbital Replacement Units (ORU's) for delivery to the International Space Station and provide additional opportunities for science payloads, while meeting the Orbiter ballast requirements. The Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure (MPESS) Carrie (LMC) was developed and tested by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the Boeing Company. The Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure (MPESS), which was developed for the Spacelab program was modified, removing the keel structure and relocating the sill trunnions to fit in Bay 13. Without the keel fitting, the LMC required a new and innovative concept for transferring Y loads into the Orbiter structure. Since there is no keel fitting available in the Bay 13 location, the design had to utilize the longeron bridge T-rail to distribute the Y loads. This concept has not previously been used in designing Shuttle payloads. A concept was developed to protect for Launch-On-Need ORU's, while providing opportunities for science payloads. Categories of potential ORU's were defined, and Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads of similar mass properties were provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Four GAS payloads were manifest as the baseline configuration, preserving the capability to swap up to two ORU's for the corresponding science payloads, after installation into the Orbiter cargo bay at the pad, prior to closeout. Multiple configurations were considered for the analytical integration, to protect for all defined combinations of ORU's and GAS payloads. The first physical integration of the LMC war performed by Goddard Space Flight Center and Kennedy Space Center at an off-line facility at Kennedy Space Center. This paper will discuss the design challenges, structural testing, analytical and physical

  12. First System-Wide Estimates of Air-Water Exchange of Carbon Dioxide in the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, R.; Herrmann, M.; Menendez, A.; Goldberger, S.

    2016-12-01

    Estuaries are estimated to play an uncertain but potentially important role in the global carbon cycle via the evasion of CO2 to the atmosphere. Global estimates are uncertain due to limited data availability and the extreme heterogeneity of coastal systems. Notably, the air-water CO2 flux for the largest estuary in the United States, the Chesapeake Bay, is yet unknown. Here we provide the first system-level CO2 gas exchange estimates for the main stem of the Chesapeake Bay using pH and alkalinity data from the Chesapeake Bay Program. Errors are propagated based on errors in pH measurement and alkalinity-salinity relationships. Estimates are made at monthly resolution from 1985 to 2013 for eight segments of the Bay. We find the main stem to be a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere, outgassing from 1.9 to 2.6 mol m-2 yr-1 over the study period, with the range encompassing a variety of quality control procedures. Outgassing is greatest in the fall and winter and in the oligohaline and polyhaline portions of the Bay.

  13. Cluster information of non-sampled area in small area estimation of poverty indicators using Empirical Bayes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara, Vinny Yuliani; Sadik, Kusman; Kurnia, Anang

    2017-03-01

    Survey is one of data collection method which sampling of individual units from a population. However, national survey only provides limited information which impacts on low precision in small area level. In fact, when the area is not selected as sample unit, estimation cannot be made. Therefore, small area estimation method is required to solve this problem. One of model-based estimation methods is empirical Bayes which has been widely used to estimate parameter in small area, even in non-sampled area. Yet, problems occur when this method is used to estimate parameter of non-sampled area which is solely based on synthetic model which ignore the area effects. This paper proposed an approach to cluster area effects of auxiliary variable by assuming that there are similar among particular area. Direct estimates in several sub-districts in regency and city of Bogor are zero because no household which are under poverty in the sample that selected from these sub-districts. Empirical Bayes method is used to get the estimates are not zero. Empirical Bayes method on FGT poverty measures both Molina & Rao and information clusters have the same estimates in the sub-districts selected as samples, but have different estimates on non-sampled sub-districts. Empirical Bayes methods with information cluster has smaller coefficient of variation. Empirical Bayes method with cluster information is better than empirical Bayes methods without cluster information on non-sampled sub-districts in regency and city of Bogor in terms of coefficient of variation.

  14. Water renewal in Montevideo's bay: a two compartments model for tritium kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Antola, Roberto, E-mail: rsuarez@ucu.edu.uy [Universidad Catolica del Uruguay (UCU), Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2013-07-01

    During field work about dynamics and renewal of water in Montevideo's Bay, 100 Ci of tritiated water were evenly distributed in the north-east region of the bay, by a continuous injection of a solution, during 5 hours, from a 200 litres tank, using a peristaltic pump. The whole bay was divided in 20 concentration cells, taking into account available bathymetric charts and corrections from field data obtained in situ. Tritium concentrations (activities per unit volume) and other relevant parameters (temperature, electrical conductivity, etc.) were measured in vertical profiles during three weeks, in the mid-point of each cell, first twice a day and the on a daily basis. Remnant total tritium activity was estimated from cells volumes and midpoint cells activity concentrations. Consistency checks were done. A one compartment model was used to estimate a global renewal time of circa 29 hours. However, the details of the measured tritium kinetics, a careful consideration of bathymetric data, water movements in a tidal environment (measured with drogues, fluorescent tracers and current meters), as well as the results of computer fluid dynamics modelling (in depth averaged) suggests that the bay can be meaningfully divided in two main compartments: a North-East and a South-West compartment. The purpose of this paper is threefold: (1) to describe the construction of a two compartments model for water renewal in Montevideo's Bay, (2) to apply experimental data of tritium kinetics to estimate the parameters of the model, and (3) to discuss the validity of the model and its practical applicability. The meaning of the renewal time of each compartment and its relation with the measured tritium kinetics in each cell is discussed. The perturbations in water circulation and renewal produced by civil works already done or the perturbations that could be expected due to civil works to be done, in relation with Montevideo's harbour, is discussed. The tracer model

  15. Air- and stream-water-temperature trends in the Chesapeake Bay region, 1960-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastram, John D.; Rice, Karen C.

    2015-12-14

    Water temperature is a basic, but important, measure of the condition of all aquatic environments, including the flowing waters in the streams that drain our landscape and the receiving waters of those streams. Climatic conditions have a strong influence on water temperature, which is therefore naturally variable both in time and across the landscape. Changes to natural water-temperature regimes, however, can result in a myriad of effects on aquatic organisms, water quality, circulation patterns, recreation, industry, and utility operations. For example, most species of fish, insects, and other organisms, as well as aquatic vegetation, are highly dependent on water temperature. Warming waters can result in shifts in floral and faunal species distributions, including invasive species and pathogens previously unable to inhabit the once cooler streams. Many chemical processes are temperature dependent, with reactions occurring faster in warmer conditions, leading to degraded water quality as contaminants are released into waterways at greater rates. Circulation patterns in receiving waters, such as bays and estuaries, can change as a result of warmer inflows from streams, thereby affecting organisms in those receiving waters. Changes in abundance of some aquatic species and (or) degradation of water quality can reduce the recreational value of water bodies as waters are perceived as less desirable for water-related activities or as sportfish become less available for anglers. Finally, increasing water temperatures can affect industry and utilities as the thermal capacity is reduced, making the water less effective for cooling purposes.Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States. Eutrophication, the enrichment of a water body with excess nutrients, has plagued the bay for decades and has led to extensive restoration efforts throughout the bay watershed. The warming of stream water can exacerbate eutrophication through increased release of nutrients from

  16. Hydrodynamic modeling and feasibility study of harnessing tidal power at the Bay of Fundy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jen

    Due to rising fuel costs and environmental concerns, energy generation from alternative power source has become one of the most important issues in energy policy. Tidal power is one of the alternative energy sources. The tidal range at the Bay of Fundy is the largest in the world (approximately 16 meters). It represents a prime location for harnessing tidal power using the daily rising and ebbing tide. In this study, a two dimensional finite element model has been developed and applied to simulate the tidal responses, including water level and flow velocity, in the Bay of Fundy region. The simulation results are used to choose the suitable location for energy development and to predict possible energy generated from different types of generation methods. Fluid motion is assumed to be governed by the shallow water equation since the wave length associated with tide is much longer than the water depth in the Bay of Fundy. By using a real time series of water elevation at the entrance of the bay, the computer model finds tidal response for each node in the study area, which is then verified by the observation record from several tidal gauge stations inside the bay. This study shows that the at-site cost of the energy for barrage type tidal power plants is around 0.065 to 0.097 per kWh at the recommended Shepody Bay, Cumberland Basin, and Cobequid Bay. The cost of energy for the current turbine type tidal power plants is 0.13/kWh to 0.24/kWh at the area with highest current velocity. Compared with the recent bill of the local power company, the at-site unit cost of energy from the barrage type of tidal power plant is feasible, but the environmental concerns of channel blocking by barrage present a formidable constraint. For the current turbine type of tidal power plant, even the most suitable sites are not financially feasible under current technology, but this type of power generation may become feasible as oil prices continue to increase and more efficient turbines

  17. Ocean acidification buffering effects of seagrass in Tampa Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Moyer, Ryan P.; Moore, Christopher; Tomasko, David A.; Smiley, Nathan A.; Torres-Garcia, Legna; Powell, Christina E.; Chappel, Amanda R.; Bociu, Ioana; Smiley, Nathan; Torres-Garcia, Legna M.; Powell, Christina E.; Chappel, Amanda R.; Bociu, Ioana

    2016-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has identified ocean acidification as a critical threat to marine and estuarine species in ocean and coastal ecosystems around the world. However, seagrasses are projected to benefit from elevated atmospheric pCO2, are capable of increasing seawater pH and carbonate mineral saturation states through photosynthesis, and may help buffer against the chemical impacts of ocean acidification. Additionally, dissolution of carbonate sediments may also provide a mechanism for buffering seawater pH. Long-term water quality monitoring data from the Environmental Protection Commission of Hillsborough County indicates that seawater pH has risen since the 1980‘s as seagrass beds have continued to recover since that time. We examined the role of seagrass beds in maintaining and elevating pH and carbonate mineral saturation state in northern and southern Tampa Bay where the percent of carbonate sediments is low (40%), respectively. Basic water quality and carbonate system parameters (including pH, total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, partial pressure of CO2, and carbonate mineral saturation state) were measured over diurnal time periods along transects (50-100 m) including dense and sparse Thalassia testudinum. seagrass beds, deep edge seagrass, and adjacent bare sand bottom. Seagrass density and productivity, sediment composition and hydrodynamic parameters were also measured, concurrently. Results indicate that seagrass beds locally elevate pH by up to 0.5 pH unit and double carbonate mineral saturation states relative to bare sand habitats. Thus, seagrass beds in Tampa Bay may provide refuge for marine organisms from the impacts of ocean acidification.

  18. A seasonal comparison of surface sediment characteristics in Chincoteague Bay, Maryland and Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Alisha M.; Marot, Marci E.; Wheaton, Cathryn J.; Bernier, Julie C.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2016-02-03

    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center conducted a seasonal collection of surficial sediments from Chincoteague Bay and Tom's Cove, between Assateague Island and the Delmarva Peninsula in late March/early April 2014 and October 2014. The sampling efforts were part of a larger U.S. Geological Survey study to assess the effects of storm events on sediment distribution in back-barrier environments of the United States. By sampling during the spring and fall, a more complete understanding of seasonal variability in the area can help determine baseline conditions. The objective of this study was to characterize the sediments of Chincoteague Bay in order to create baseline conditions to incorporate with the hydrodynamic and sediment transport models used to evaluate pre- and post-storm change and compare with future field measurements.

  19. Abnormalities and diseases observed in commercial fish catches from Biscayne Bay, Florida. [Mugil cephalus, Micropogon undulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, R.H.; Kandrashoff, W.

    1988-10-01

    Many of the most productive fishing grounds in the United States are estuaries and bays which are located near population and industrial centers, and therefore subjected to pollution. Observations made on 17 fish species from commercial catches harvested in north Biscayne Bay, Florida, an urban area, showed high numbers of individuals suffering from abnormalities and diseases. Seven groups of disorders most frequently affected bottom feeders. Fin and integumental hemorrhages occurred in all individuals in 26 of 43 catches of Mugil cephalus (striped mullet), and in all individuals in 24 of 30 catches of Micropogon undulatus (Atlantic croaker). Disorders occurring consistently in a location exposed to pollutants, but uncommon in other areas of the species' range, point to environmental stress as a probable cause.

  20. Urban Noise Modelling in Boka Kotorska Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Nikolić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traffic is the most significant noise source in urban areas. The village of Kamenari in Boka Kotorska Bay is a site where, in a relatively small area, road traffic and sea (ferry traffic take place at the same time. Due to the specificity of the location, i.e. very rare synergy of sound effects of road and sea traffic in the urban area, as well as the expressed need for assessment of noise level in a simple and quick way, a research was conducted, using empirical methods and statistical analysis methods, which led to the creation of acoustic model for the assessment of equivalent noise level (Leq. The developed model for noise assessment in the Village of Kamenari in Boka Kotorska Bay quite realistically provides data on possible noise levels at the observed site, with very little deviations in relation to empirically obtained values.

  1. Pockmarks in Passamaquoddy Bay, New Brunswick, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Laura; Legere, Christine; Hughes Clark, J.E.; Kelley, J.T.; Barnhardt, Walter; Andrews, Brian; Belknap, D.F.

    2016-01-01

    Pockmarks are seafloor depressions associated with fluid escape (Judd & Hovland 2007). They proliferate in the muddy seafloors of coastal Gulf of Maine and Bay of Fundy, where they are associated with shallow natural gas likely of biogenic origin (Ussler et al. 2003; Rogers et al. 2006; Wildish et al. 2008). In North America, shallow-water pockmark fields are not reported south of Long Island Sound, despite the abundance of gassy, muddy estuaries. The absence of pockmarks south of the limit of North American glaciation suggests that local and regional heterogeneities, possibly related to glacial or sea-level history or bedrock geology, influence pockmark field distribution. In shallow-water embayments, such as Passamaquoddy Bay, New Brunswick, pockmarks can be large (>200 m diameter) and number in the thousands.

  2. Thatcher Bay, Washington, Nearshore Restoration Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breems, Joel; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Grossman, Eric E.; Elliott, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The San Juan Archipelago, located at the confluence of the Puget Sound, the Straits of Juan de Fuca in Washington State, and the Straits of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada, provides essential nearshore habitat for diverse salmonid, forage fish, and bird populations. With 408 miles of coastline, the San Juan Islands provide a significant portion of the available nearshore habitat for the greater Puget Sound and are an essential part of the regional efforts to restore Puget Sound (Puget Sound Shared Strategy 2005). The nearshore areas of the San Juan Islands provide a critical link between the terrestrial and marine environments. For this reason the focus on restoration and conservation of nearshore habitat in the San Juan Islands is of paramount importance. Wood-waste was a common by-product of historical lumber-milling operations. To date, relatively little attention has been given to the impact of historical lumber-milling operations in the San Juan Archipelago. Thatcher Bay, on Blakely Island, located near the east edge of the archipelago, is presented here as a case study on the restoration potential for a wood-waste contaminated nearshore area. Case study components include (1) a brief discussion of the history of milling operations. (2) an estimate of the location and amount of the current distribution of wood-waste at the site, (3) a preliminary examination of the impacts of wood-waste on benthic flora and fauna at the site, and (4) the presentation of several restoration alternatives for the site. The history of milling activity in Thatcher Bay began in 1879 with the construction of a mill in the southeastern part of the bay. Milling activity continued for more than 60 years, until the mill closed in 1942. Currently, the primary evidence of the historical milling operations is the presence of approximately 5,000 yd3 of wood-waste contaminated sediments. The distribution and thickness of residual wood-waste at the site was determined by using sediment

  3. MSL-1 reservicing in OPF Bay 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    KSC payloads processing employees work to reservice the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) Spacelab module in the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia's payload bay for the STS-94 mission in Orbiter Processing Facility 1. That mission is now scheduled to lift off in early July. This was the first time that this type of payload was reserviced without removing it from the payload bay. This new procedure pioneers processing efforts for quick relaunch turnaround times for future payloads. The Spacelab module was scheduled to fly again with the full complement of STS-83 experiments after that mission was cut short due to a faulty fuel cell. During the scheduled 16-day STS-94 mission, the experiments will be used to test some of the hardware, facilities and procedures that are planned for use on the International Space Station while the flight crew conducts combustion, protein crystal growth and materials processing experiments.

  4. New and Improved Results from Daya Bay

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Despite the great progress achieved in the last decades, neutrinos remain among the least understood fundamental particles to have been experimentally observed. The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment consists of eight identically designed detectors placed underground at different baselines from three groups of nuclear reactors in China, a configuration that is ideally suited for studying the properties of these elusive particles. In this talk I will review the improved results released last summer by the Daya Bay collaboration. These results include (i) a precision measurement of the θ13 mixing angle and the effective mass splitting in the electron antineutrino disappearance channel with a dataset comprising more than 2.5 million antineutrino interactions, (ii) a high-statistics measurement of the absolute flux and spectrum of reactor-produced electron antineutrinos, and (iii) a search for light sterile neutrino mixing performed with more than three times the statistics of the previous result. I w...

  5. Stratification on the Skagit Bay Tidal Flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    shore Skagit Bay a Camano Island -1 0 1 -2-1012 0.5 -0.5 1 -1 C ro ss -s ho re (k m ) Alongshore (km) 0 b 1 0 -1 Bed level (m ) 18 2.2 Modeled...shadowed by Camano Island, which forms the southern border of the tidal flats (Fig. 2-3c). Saline water has propagated onshore and a roughly

  6. Bechevin Bay, Alaska, Inlet Stability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Krenitzin. Bechevin Inlet, Bechevin Bay, and Isanotski Strait form an inlet system which * separates Unimak Island from the Alaska Peninsula. This...from the North Pacific must travel around Unimak Island through Unimak Pass. This route is 100-150 miles longer than the route through the Bechevin...period was semidiurnal, while the tidal flow at Unimak Pass (not too far southwest from the study area) was, interestingly, diurnal. Second, the phase

  7. IRST infrared background analysis of bay environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwering, PBW

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available environment. Some sensor management approaches for application in IRST systems is discussed. Keywords: Infrared backgrounds, coastal bay analysis, small surface target contrasts, IRST application. 1. INTRODUCTION More and more, coastal... in environments with highly cluttered backgrounds as well as rapidly varying atmospheric conditions. Threat contrasts may be low and varying in littoral environments, and the amount of background clutter can be severe. Electro-optical sensors, used for detection...

  8. Distribution of Seagrasses in Inner Ambon Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Irawan, Andri; Nganro, Noorsalam R

    2016-01-01

    Excessive sedimentation in Inner Ambon Bay (IAB) is alleged to cause the degradation of seagrass ve-getation in the area. To get a clearer picture about the matter, we conducted a field study in October 2010 - January 2011 to describe the distribution and density of seagrass at several locations in IAB with different conditions of sedimentation levels. Data were collected using transects perpendicular to the coastline along the seagrass vegetation. The results showed that there were six speci...

  9. Experimental enhancement of pickleweed, Suisun Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A. Keith; Van Vuren, Dirk H.; Tsao, Danika C.; Yee, Julie L.

    2015-01-01

    As mitigation for habitat impacted by the expansion of a pier on Suisun Bay, California, two vehicle parking lots (0.36 ha and 0.13 ha) were restored by being excavated, graded, and contoured using dredged sediments to the topography or elevation of nearby wetlands. We asked if pickleweed (Sarcocornia pacifica L, [Amaranthaceae]) colonization could be enhanced by experimental manipulation on these new wetlands. Pickleweed dominates ecologically important communities at adjacent San Francisco Bay, but is not typically dominant at Suisun Bay probably because of widely fluctuating water salinity and is outcompeted by other brackish water plants. Experimental treatments (1.0-m2 plots) included mulching with pickleweed cuttings in either the fall or the spring, tilling in the fall, or applying organic enrichments in the fall. Control plots received no treatment. Pickleweed colonization was most enhanced at treatment plots that were mulched with pickleweed in the fall. Since exotic vegetation can colonize bare sites within the early phases of restoration and reduce habitat quality, we concluded that mulching was most effective in the fall by reducing invasive plant cover while facilitating native plant colonization.

  10. An overview of San Francisco Bay PORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ralph T.; McKinnie, David; English, Chad; Smith, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    The Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) provides observations of tides, tidal currents, and meteorological conditions in real-time. The San Francisco Bay PORTS (SFPORTS) is a decision support system to facilitate safe and efficient maritime commerce. In addition to real-time observations, SFPORTS includes a nowcast numerical model forming a San Francisco Bay marine nowcast system. SFPORTS data and nowcast numerical model results are made available to users through the World Wide Web (WWW). A brief overview of SFPORTS is presented, from the data flow originated at instrument sensors to final results delivered to end users on the WWW. A user-friendly interface for SFPORTS has been designed and implemented. Appropriate field data analysis, nowcast procedures, design and generation of graphics for WWW display of field data and nowcast results are presented and discussed. Furthermore, SFPORTS is designed to support hazardous materials spill prevention and response, and to serve as resources to scientists studying the health of San Francisco Bay ecosystem. The success (or failure) of the SFPORTS to serve the intended user community is determined by the effectiveness of the user interface.

  11. Operational modal identification using variational Bayes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binbin; Der Kiureghian, Armen

    2017-05-01

    Operational modal analysis is the primary tool for modal parameter identification in civil engineering. Bayesian statistics offers an ideal framework for analyzing uncertainties associated with the identified modal parameters. However, the exact Bayesian formulation is usually intractable due to the high computational demand in obtaining the posterior distributions of modal parameters. In this paper, the variational Bayes method is employed to provide an approximate solution. Unlike the Laplace approximation and Monte Carlo sampling, the variational Bayes approach provides a gradient-free algorithm to analytically approximate the posterior distributions. Working with the state-space representation of a dynamical system, the variational Bayes approach for identification of modal parameters is derived by ignoring statistical correlation between latent variables and the model parameters. In this approach, the joint distribution of the state-transition and observation matrices as well as the joint distribution of the process noise and measurement error are firstly calculated analytically using conjugate priors. The distribution of modal parameters is extracted from these obtained joint distributions using a first-order Taylor series expansion. A robust implementation of the method is discussed by using square-root filtering and Cholesky decomposition. The proposed approach is illustrated by its application to an example mass-spring system and the One Rincon Hill Tower in San Francisco.

  12. Tidal power from the Bay of Fundy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Walsum, W.

    1998-10-01

    The potential for tidal power development in New Brunswick`s Bay of Fundy was discussed. Alternative methods of tidal plant operation, suitable for the site conditions of the head of the Bay (where there are two continuous basins), were described. Tidal power is strongly influenced by site conditions. A simple mathematical model has shown that for the location at the head of the Bay, a linked-basins plant could produce 5 per cent more energy with only 53 per cent of the power generating machinery that would be required for a conventional paired basins scheme. The challenge is to find an economical, environmentally friendly way of extracting power and energy from the tides. An early study series from 1966 to 1988 has shown that tidal power can be economical, yet nothing has materialized beyond an 18 MW pilot plant at Annapolis because of environmental concerns. In 1977, this single basin tidal power plant was found to increase the tidal range at Boston by 30 cm. It was suggested that a `tidal fence` may be an ecologically acceptable solution to this problem. Attention was drawn to the need to draft a master plan for the development of Fundy`s tidal power potential, making sure that early development does not jeopardize optimum development of the total resource. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Organic Matter Remineralization Predominates Phosphorus Cycling in the Mid-Bay Sediments in the Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunendra, Joshi R.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Burdige, David J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Sparks, Donald L.; Jaisi, Deb P.

    2015-05-19

    The Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the US, suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and non–point source nutrient sources. Restoration of the bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs and hydrological conditions, and complex interacting factors including climate forcing. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics enables one to identify the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment- water interface and aid to better constrain mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between the sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ18Op) in concert with sediment chemistry, XRD, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on the sediment retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the meso-haline portion of the mid-bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedback effect on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Isotope data indicate that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-bay sediments. We interpret that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any bottom-water and/or pore-water P derived from other sources or biogeochemical processes and exceeded saturation with respect to authigenic P precipitation. It is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway against remobilization (coupled Fe-P cycling) pathway in the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results are expected to have significant implications for the current understanding of P cycling and benthic-pelagic coupling in the bay, particularly on the

  14. Grand Bay-Banks Lake Stewardship Partnership - Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    soils that are typically found beneath the wetlands. The Carolina bays are generally oval- shaped depressions and vary in size from one to several...layer of quartz sand, overlain by argillaceous, slightly phosphatic, dolomitic limestone. Small blue clasts of clay are common throughout the...McConnell and Hacke (1993) speculated that the circular shaped wetland areas called bays in the northern part of their study area (Grand Bay and Banks Lake

  15. Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Strategy for Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    used to model and evaluate the behavior of sediment placed within Mobile Bay. SEDIMENT TRANSPORT WITHIN MOBILE BAY: A sediment budget for Mobile...benthic invertebrates in the pit basin while not adversely impacting the pit with regards to fish utilization or recreational fishing. 2) A second...were seasonally occupied by fishery resource assemblages typical of greater Mobile Bay. Species composition included several taxa that exemplify

  16. Variational Assimilation of Glider Data in Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    gliders and ten Slocum gliders were deployed in the Monterey Bay region, collecting temperature and salinity profiles (Ramp et al., 2008). Since the... Glider Data in the Monterey Bay 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 0601153N 6. AUTHOR(S) Chudong Pan, Max...observed by gliders in the Monterey Bay in August 2003 are assimilated into NCOM model in the framework of a 3dVar scheme with a hybrid background error

  17. The orbiter Discovery rolls from OPF bay 1 to bay 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    KSC employees chaperone the transfer of the orbiter Discovery from Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) bay 1 to OPF bay 3 where ongoing payload and ground processing assessments will be completed. Managers will then determine when to roll the orbiter to the Vehicle Assembly Building for stacking with the external tank and solid rocket boosters, and when to roll out to Launch Pad 39A. Discovery is scheduled to launch Oct. 5 at 9:30 p.m. EDT on mission STS-92, which will be the 100th flight in the Shuttle program.

  18. Index for Assessing Water Trophic Status in Semi-Enclosed Cuban Bays. Case Study: Cienfuegos Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Seisdedo, Mabel; Arencibia, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the coastal environmental management by developing a new trophic status index of the water (TSIW). The index is tailored to semi-enclosed bays with estuarine characteristic like the Cienfuegos bay in Cuba. We also propose pressure indicators related to exporting and assimilation capacities as a tool to assess the vulnerability of the system to eutrophication. The TSIW is based on response indicators to eutrophication processes showing correspondence with the predefined pressure indicators and previous reports on water quality. Thus, the proposed trophic status index is a reliable scientific tool to measure the current stage of the water quality and to establish a baseline for further studies.

  19. Delineation of marsh types from Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, to Perdido Bay, Alabama, in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Michael G. Brasher,; Jenneke M. Visser,; Michael K. Mitchell,; Bart M. Ballard,; Mark W. Parr,; Barry C. Wilson,

    2015-07-23

    Coastal zone managers and researchers often require detailed information regarding emergent marsh vegetation types (that is, fresh, intermediate, brackish, and saline) for modeling habitat capacities and needs of marsh dependent taxa (such as waterfowl and alligator). Detailed information on the extent and distribution of emergent marsh vegetation types throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico coast has been historically unavailable. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Gulf Coast Joint Venture, the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Ducks Unlimited, Inc., and the Texas A&M University-Kingsville, produced a classification of emergent marsh vegetation types from Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, to Perdido Bay, Alabama.

  20. MODELING THE 1958 LITUYA BAY MEGA-TSUNAMI, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Mader

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lituya Bay, Alaska is a T-Shaped bay, 7 miles long and up to 2 miles wide. The two arms at the head of the bay, Gilbert and Crillon Inlets, are part of a trench along the Fairweather Fault. On July 8, 1958, an 7.5 Magnitude earthquake occurred along the Fairweather fault with an epicenter near Lituya Bay.A mega-tsunami wave was generated that washed out trees to a maximum altitude of 520 meters at the entrance of Gilbert Inlet. Much of the rest of the shoreline of the Bay was denuded by the tsunami from 30 to 200 meters altitude.In the previous study it was determined that if the 520 meter high run-up was 50 to 100 meters thick, the observed inundation in the rest of Lituya Bay could be numerically reproduced. It was also concluded that further studies would require full Navier-Stokes modeling similar to those required for asteroid generated tsunami waves.During the Summer of 2000, Hermann Fritz conducted experiments that reproduced the Lituya Bay 1958 event. The laboratory experiments indicated that the 1958 Lituya Bay 524 meter run-up on the spur ridge of Gilbert Inlet could be caused by a landslide impact.The Lituya Bay impact landslide generated tsunami was modeled with the full Navier- Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE with includes the effect of gravity.

  1. Coastal Habitat Restoration and Hydrodynamics in Panguil Bay, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxas, P. G.; Gorospe, J. G.

    2007-03-01

    Hydrobiological studies indicate the deterioration of the coastal ecosystems in Panguil Bay, Philippines despite interventions that started more than a decade ago. Mangrove ecosystems that filter land run offs and act as pollutant sinks are converted to fishponds that discharge toxic materials into the bay. Monsoon winds continue to erode mangrove-dominated coastlines. Water movements, nutrient transport and influx of freshwater from rivers and saline waters from the sea are altered by proliferating fishing structures and boats that use sea lanes for navigation. The reduction of current velocities increased siltation rates that caused shallowing of the bay. Failure in interventions to restore ecosystems is partly attributed to use of methods that failed to consider the bay's hydrodynamics. But sustaining the bay is a must because it is a major source of fishery resources hence strategies to arrest its further deterioration and to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystems based on the bay's hydrodynamics are explored. Timing, selection of appropriate species, and use of encasements are considered relative to the water dynamics of the bay. Zoning and regulation of barrier structures are implemented in some parts of the bay. Bioremediating agricultural run offs and discharges from fishponds, boats, and factories that accumulate in the inner part of the bay remains a challenge.

  2. PENERAPAN ALGORITMA NAIVE BAYES UNTUK MENGKLASIFIKASI DATA NASABAH ASURANSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustami Bustami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining adalah teknik yang memanfaatkan data dalam jumlah yang besar untuk memperoleh informasi berharga yang sebelumnya tidak diketahui dan dapat dimanfaatkan untuk pengambilan keputusan penting. Pada penelitian ini, penulis berusaha menambang data (data mining nasabah sebuah perusahaan asuransi untuk mengetahui lancar, kurang lancar atau tidak lancarnya nasabah tersebut. Data yang ada dianalisis menggunakan algoritma Naive Bayes. Naive Bayes merupakan salah satu meode pada probabilistic reasoning. Algoritma Naive Bayes bertujuan untuk melakukan klasifikasi data pada kelas tertentu, kemudian pola tersebut dapat digunakan untuk memperkirakan nasabah yang bergabung, sehingga perusahaan bisa mengambil keputusan menerima atau menolak calon nasabah tersebut. Kata Kunci : data mining, asuransi, klasifikasi, algoritma Naive Bayes

  3. A summer monsoon pump to keep the Bay of Bengal salty

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shankar, D.; Vernekar, S.; Sandeep, K.K.; Amol, P.; Neema, C.P.; Chatterjee, A.

    The Bay of Bengal receives a large influx of freshwater from precipitation and river discharge. Outflow of excess freshwater and inflow of saltier water is required to prevent the bay from freshening. Relatively fresh water flows out of the bay...

  4. Sediment depositional environment in some bays in Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajamanickam, G.V.; Gujar, A.R.

    minerals data show a positive correlation with mean grain size in Kalbadevi Bay but negative correlation in Ratnagiri Bay, whereas they show an unharmonic relationship with sorting. Considering similar hydraulic conditions in all the bays, the existence...

  5. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  6. On watermass mixing ratios and regenerated silicon in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.P.; Sarma, V.V.; Rao, V.S.; Sudhakar, U.; Gupta, G.V.M.

    Regeneration of silicon on mixing in the Bay of Bengal have been computed from six water masses [Bay of Bengal low saline water (BBLS), Bay of Bengal subsurface water (BBSS), northern southeast high salinity water (NSEHS), north Indian intermediate...

  7. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  8. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  9. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  10. Analysis of modern and Pleistocene hydrologic exchange between Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) and the Saginaw Lowlands area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoaglund, J. R.; Kolak, J.J.; Long, D.T.; Larson, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Two numerical models, one simulating present groundwater flow conditions and one simulating ice-induced hydraulic loading from the Port Huron ice advance, were used to characterize both modern and Pleistocene groundwater exchange between the Michigan Basin and near-surface water systems of Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) and the surrounding Saginaw Lowlands area. These models were further used to constrain the origin of saline, isotopically light groundwater, and porewater from the study area. Output from the groundwater-flow model indicates that, at present conditions, head in the Marshall aquifer beneath Saginaw Bay exceeds the modern lake elevation by as much as 21 m. Despite this potential for flow, simulated groundwater discharge through the Saginaw Bay floor constitutes only 0.028 m3 s-1 (???1 cfs). Bedrock lithology appears to regulate the rate of groundwater discharge, as the portion of the Saginaw Bay floor underlain by the Michigan confining unit exhibits an order of magnitude lower flux than the portion underlain by the Saginaw aquifer. The calculated shoreline discharge of groundwater to Saginaw Bay is also relatively small (1.13 m3 s-1 or ???40 cfs) because of low gradients across the Saginaw Lowlands area and the low hydraulic conductivities of lodgement tills and glacial-lake clays surrounding the bay. In contrast to the present groundwater flow conditions, the Port Huron ice-induced hydraulic-loading model generates a groundwater-flow reversal that is localized to the region of a Pleistocene ice sheet and proglacial lake. This area of reversed vertical gradient is largely commensurate with the distribution of isotopically light groundwater presently found in the study area. Mixing scenarios, constrained by chloride concentrations and ??18O values in porewater samples, demonstrate that a mixing event involving subglacial recharge could have produced the groundwater chemistry currently observed in the Saginaw Lowlands area. The combination of models and

  11. Under the Golden Gate bridge: views of the sea floor near the entrance to San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Barnard, Patrick L.; Chin, John L.; Hanes, Daniel; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Iampietro, Pat J.; Gardner, James V.

    2006-01-01

    San Francisco Bay in Northern California is one of the largest and most altered estuaries within the United States. The sea floor within the bay as well as at its entrance is constantly changing due to strong tidal currents, aggregate mining, dredge disposal, and the creation of new land using artificial fill. Understanding this dynamic sea floor is critical for addressing local environmental issues, which include defining pollution transport pathways, deciphering tectonics, and identifying benthic habitats. Mapping commercial interests such as safe ship navigation and dredge disposal is also significantly aided by such understanding. Over the past decade, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB) in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACOE) and the Center for Integrative Coastal Observation, Research and Education (CICORE) have partnered to map central San Francisco Bay and its entrance under the Golden Gate Bridge using multibeam echosounders. These sonar systems can continuously map to produce 100 percent coverage of the sea floor at meter-scale resolution and thus produce an unprecedented view of the floor of the bay. This poster shows views of the sea floor in west-central San Francisco Bay around Alcatraz and Angel Islands, underneath the Golden Gate Bridge, and through its entrance from the Pacific Ocean. The sea floor is portrayed as a shaded relief surface generated from the multibeam data color-coded for depth from light blues for the shallowest values to purples for the deepest. The land regions are portrayed by USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). The water depths have a 4x vertical exaggeration while the land areas have a 2x vertical exaggeration.

  12. Management case study: Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Gerold; Greening, Holly; Yates, Kimberly K.; Wolanski, Eric; McLusky, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, is a shallow, subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of seagrasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds. Over the past three decades, nitrogen controls involving sources such as wastewater treatment plants, stormwater conveyance systems, fertilizer manufacturing and shipping operations, and power plants have been undertaken to meet these and other management objectives. Cumulatively, these controls have resulted in a 60% reduction in annual total nitrogen (TN) loads relative to earlier worse-case (latter 1970s) conditions. As a result, annual water-clarity and chlorophyll a targets are currently met in most years, and seagrass cover measured in 2008 was the highest recorded since 1950. Factors that have contributed to the observed improvements in Tampa Bay over the past several decades include the following: (1) Development of numeric, science-based water-quality targets to meet a long-term goal of restoring seagrass acreage to 1950s levels. Empirical and mechanistic models found that annual average chlorophyll a concentrations were a primary manageable factor affecting light attenuation. The models also quantified relationships between TN loads, chlorophyll a concentrations, light attenuation, and fluctuations in seagrass cover. The availability of long-term monitoring data, and a systematic process for using the data to evaluate the effectiveness of management actions, has allowed managers to track progress and

  13. Land subsidence and relative sea-level rise in the southern Chesapeake Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Jack; Pope, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The southern Chesapeake Bay region is experiencing land subsidence and rising water levels due to global sea-level rise; land subsidence and rising water levels combine to cause relative sea-level rise. Land subsidence has been observed since the 1940s in the southern Chesapeake Bay region at rates of 1.1 to 4.8 millimeters per year (mm/yr), and subsidence continues today. This land subsidence helps explain why the region has the highest rates of sea-level rise on the Atlantic Coast of the United States. Data indicate that land subsidence has been responsible for more than half the relative sea-level rise measured in the region. Land subsidence increases the risk of flooding in low-lying areas, which in turn has important economic, environmental, and human health consequences for the heavily populated and ecologically important southern Chesapeake Bay region. The aquifer system in the region has been compacted by extensive groundwater pumping in the region at rates of 1.5- to 3.7-mm/yr; this compaction accounts for more than half of observed land subsidence in the region. Glacial isostatic adjustment, or the flexing of the Earth’s crust in response to glacier formation and melting, also likely contributes to land subsidence in the region.

  14. [Molecular genetic diversity of phytoplankton rbcL gene in Jiaozhou Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjian; Yang, Guanpin; Guan, Xiaojing

    2004-09-01

    The variants of a 500 base pair fragment of RubisCo large subunit gene (rbcL) from the phytoplanktonic DNA of Jiaozhou Bay surface seawater were amplified by using polymerase chain reaction and cloned. Twenty-eight clones were randomly selected and sequenced, which were further used to determine the molecular genetic diversity of the phytoplankton of Jiaozhou Bay surface seawater. Systematic analysis showed that the clones representing cryptophyta counted for 28.6%, Stramenopiles 32.1%, Haptophyta 28.6%, Rhodophyta 3.6% and Chlorophyta 7.1%. The sequences from Cryptophyta, Stramenopiles, Haptophyta and Rhodophyta belonged to type D of Form I rbcL and Chlorophyta to type B, indicating that the dominant phytoplankton were those represented by type D rbcL. The genetic diversity index and the reversely translated amino acid sequence diversity of Jiaozhou Bay phytoplankton were 2.85 and 0.20, which were determined by the abundances of operational taxonomy units and the reversely translated amino acid sequences respectively.

  15. Commencement Bay Study. Volume IV. Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-31

    AD-AI12 555 DAMES AND MOORE SEATTLE WA* FIG 8/1 COMMENCEMENT BAY STUDY. VOLUME IV. INVERTEBRATES .(U)DEC 81 W M BAYLOCK, J P HOUGHTON DACW67-80-C-OIDI...December 1981 Volume IV, Invertebrates 6. PERFORMINO ORG. REPORT NUMBER 682-021-05 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUmaER(S) DACW67-80-C-0101 S. PERFORMING... Invertebrates Air Quality, Birds Is. KEY WORDS (Continue an reverse old. It necomemy w red ty a b eek mireber) Salmonids Wetlands Noise Aesthetics Marine Fish

  16. Bathymetry and acoustic backscatter: Estero Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Stephen R.; Finlayson, David P.; Dartnell, Peter; Johnson, Samuel Y.

    2013-01-01

    Between July 30 and August 9, 2012, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC), acquired bathymetry and acoustic-backscatter data from Estero Bay, San Luis Obispo, California, under PCMSC Field Activity ID S-05-12-SC. The survey was done using the R/V Parke Snavely outfitted with a multibeam sonar for swath mapping and highly accurate position and orientation equipment for georeferencing. This report provides these data in a number of different formats, as well as a summary of the mapping mission, maps of bathymetry and backscatter, and Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata.

  17. Minimum relative entropy, Bayes and Kapur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Allan D.

    2011-04-01

    The focus of this paper is to illustrate important philosophies on inversion and the similarly and differences between Bayesian and minimum relative entropy (MRE) methods. The development of each approach is illustrated through the general-discrete linear inverse. MRE differs from both Bayes and classical statistical methods in that knowledge of moments are used as ‘data’ rather than sample values. MRE like Bayes, presumes knowledge of a prior probability distribution and produces the posterior pdf itself. MRE attempts to produce this pdf based on the information provided by new moments. It will use moments of the prior distribution only if new data on these moments is not available. It is important to note that MRE makes a strong statement that the imposed constraints are exact and complete. In this way, MRE is maximally uncommitted with respect to unknown information. In general, since input data are known only to within a certain accuracy, it is important that any inversion method should allow for errors in the measured data. The MRE approach can accommodate such uncertainty and in new work described here, previous results are modified to include a Gaussian prior. A variety of MRE solutions are reproduced under a number of assumed moments and these include second-order central moments. Various solutions of Jacobs & van der Geest were repeated and clarified. Menke's weighted minimum length solution was shown to have a basis in information theory, and the classic least-squares estimate is shown as a solution to MRE under the conditions of more data than unknowns and where we utilize the observed data and their associated noise. An example inverse problem involving a gravity survey over a layered and faulted zone is shown. In all cases the inverse results match quite closely the actual density profile, at least in the upper portions of the profile. The similar results to Bayes presented in are a reflection of the fact that the MRE posterior pdf, and its mean

  18. Intertidal sediments and benthic animals of Roebuck Bay, Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, M.; Piersma, T.; Pearson, G.; Lavaleye, M.

    1999-01-01

    Roebuck Bay near Broome (NW Australia) is with itsextensive tidal flats one of the foremost internationallyimportant sites for shorebirds in the Asia-Pacificflyway system. It is home to 150,000 shorebirds (or‘waders’) in the nonbreeding season, which suggeststhat the intertidal flats of the bay have

  19. Summer survival of Phytophthora ramorum in California bay laurel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth J. Fichtner; David M. Rizzo; Shannon C. Lynch; Jennifer Davidson; Gerri Buckles; Jennifer Parker

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death manifests as non-lethal foliar lesions on bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), which support sporulation and survival of Phytophthora ramorum in forest ecosystems. Infected bay laurel leaves are more likely to abscise than uninfected leaves, resulting in an accumulation of inoculum at the forest floor. The pathogen survives the dry...

  20. 33 CFR 117.795 - Jamaica Bay and Connecting Waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jamaica Bay and Connecting Waterways. 117.795 Section 117.795 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.795 Jamaica Bay and...

  1. St Helena Bay (southern Benguela) then and now: muted climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the abiotic and biotic components. St Helena Bay in the 1950s showed similarities to 2000–2010 in terms of wind patterns, hydrology and phytoplankton. Upwelling, oxygen and nutrient concentrations in subthermocline water displayed pronounced decadal-scale variability. Primary production in St Helena Bay is variable ...

  2. Flood Risk Mitigation for the Jamaica Bay Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, J.L.; De Boer, R.; Evers, G.A.; Kruis, M.C.; Van der Valk, K.

    2014-01-01

    Project Jamaica Bay is a response to superstorm Sandy, occurring in October, 2012. The storm was a disaster for New York City, causing around 50 billion US dollars of damage. Research shows that 75% of the expected annual dam-age in New York occurs around the Jamaica Bay area. Another problem that

  3. An overview of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment discovered an unexpectedly large neutrino oscillation related to the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ in 2012. This finding paved the way to the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments. In this article, we review the history, featured design, and scientific results of Daya Bay. Prospects of the experiment are also described.

  4. An overview of the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Jun; Luk, Kam-Biu

    2016-01-01

    The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment discovered an unexpectedly large neutrino oscillation related to the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ in 2012. This finding paved the way to the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments. In this article, we review the history, featured design, and scientific results of Daya Bay. Prospects of the experiment are also described.

  5. Modelling of hydrodynamic circulation in Benoa Bay, Bali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ningsih, Nining Sari; Muchamad, Al Azhar

    2013-01-01

    A simulation of water level, velocity, salinity, and temperature in the Bay of Benoa has been carried out using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic Estuarine and Coastal Ocean Model incorporating a main characteristic of southward transport of the Indonesian throughflow at the offshore area of the bay...

  6. eBay's Business Format: An example of Participatory Democracy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, I analyzed the eBay business model and compared the user agreements and texts among eBay, Sothebys, PayPal and Paisa Pay. Further, an analysis of Indian jurisprudence on online auctioneer liability and the subsequent legislation was performed to determine the impact of the business model on a developing ...

  7. A support system for predicting eBay end prices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. van Heijst (Dennis); R. Potharst (Rob); M.C. van Wezel (Michiel)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn this report a support system for predicting end prices on eBay is proposed. The end price predictions are based on the item descriptions found in the item listings of eBay, and on some numerical item features. The system uses text mining and boosting algorithms from the field of

  8. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa, which border the San Francisco Bay. The area also... proceed along the San Francisco, San Mateo, and Santa Cruz County shoreline (across the Quadrangles of San... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false San Francisco Bay. 9.157...

  9. 33 CFR 80.110 - Casco Bay, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Casco Bay, ME. 80.110 Section 80.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.110 Casco Bay, ME. (a) A line drawn from the...

  10. Characteristic mixing triangles in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

    Temperature-salinity structures in the inner part of Bay of Bengal showed complete mixing processes in the upper bay, less than about 600 m can be characterisEd. by a mixing triangle constitutEd. by three characteristic water properties. In outer...

  11. 33 CFR 334.80 - Narragansett Bay, RI; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Narragansett Bay, RI; restricted..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.80 Narragansett Bay, RI; restricted... regulations in this section shall be enforced by the Commander U.S. Naval Base, Newport, RI, and such agencies...

  12. Using naive Bayes classifier for classification of convective rainfall ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... based on 'naiveBayes classifier' is applied. This is a simple probabilistic classifier based on applying 'Bayes' theoremwith strong (naive) independent assumptions. For a 9-month period, the ability of SEVIRI to classifythe rainfall intensity in the convective clouds is evaluated using weather radar over the northern Algeria.

  13. Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris at Lutembe Bay, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lutembe bay is a sheltered shallow bay on the northern shores of Lake Victoria near. Entebbe International Airport with scattered mud islands often covered by water hyacinth. It has many Palaearctic migrants, particularly huge congregations of gulls and terns. Interesting species such as Caspian Tern Sterna caspia, ...

  14. Upwelling features near Sri Lanka in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShreeRam, P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    The Bay of Bengal is a semi-enclosed tropical ocean basin that is highly influenced by monsoons and receives large volume of freshwater from both river discharge and rainfall. Over the Bay of Bengal two distinct wind systems prevail during the year...

  15. 33 CFR 110.193 - Tampa Bay, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tampa Bay, Fla. 110.193 Section 110.193 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.193 Tampa Bay, Fla. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Explosives...

  16. 33 CFR 110.193a - St. Joseph Bay, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Joseph Bay, Fla. 110.193a Section 110.193a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.193a St. Joseph Bay, Fla. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...

  17. Dynamics of macrozoobenthos assemblages in the Fubao Bay of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two-year-long investigation on the dynamics of the structure and biodiversity of macrozoobenthos was conducted in the Fubao Bay of Dianchi Lake, Southwest China. A high level of organic pollution has been detected in this Bay for the last 10 years. In all, 31 benthic taxa belonging to eight families and 20 genera were ...

  18. 33 CFR 117.779 - Eastchester Bay (Arm of).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eastchester Bay (Arm of). 117.779 Section 117.779 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.779 Eastchester Bay (Arm of). The draw...

  19. 46 CFR 7.110 - Mamala Bay, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mamala Bay, HI. 7.110 Section 7.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Hawaii § 7.110 Mamala Bay, HI. A line drawn from Barbers Point Light to Diamond Head Light. Pacific Coast ...

  20. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight line...

  1. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn from...

  2. Green Bay: Spatial patterns in water quality and landscape correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a high-resolution survey along the nearshore (369 km) in Green Bay using towed electronic instrumentation at approximately the 15 m depth contour, with additional transects of the bay that were oriented cross-contour (49 km). Electronic sensor data provided an effic...

  3. Optimasi Naive Bayes Dengan Pemilihan Fitur Dan Pembobotan Gain Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Guna Adi Socrates

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Naïve Bayes merupakan salah satu metode data mining yang umum digunakan dalam klasifikasi dokumen berbasis text. Kelebihan dari metode ini adalah algoritma yang sederhana dengan  kompleksitas  perhitungan  yang  rendah.  Akan  tetapi,  pada  metode  Naïve  Bayes terdapat kelemahan dimana sifat independensi dari fitur Naïve Bayes tidak dapat selalu diterapkan sehingga akan berpengaruh pada tingkat akurasi perhitungan. Maka dari itu, metode Naïve Bayes perlu dioptimasi dengan cara pemberian bobot mengunakan Gain Ratio. Namun, pemberian bobot pada Naïve Bayes menimbulkan permasalahan pada penghitungan probabilitas setiap    dokumen, dimana fitur  yang tidak  merepresentasikan kelas  yang diuji banyak muncul sehingga terjadi kesalahan klasifikasi. Oleh karena itu, pembobotan Naïve Bayes   masih   belum   optimal.   Paper   ini mengusulkan  optimasi  metode   Naïve   Bayes mengunakan pembobotan Gain Ratio yang ditambahkan dengan metode pemilihan fitur pada kasus klasifikasi teks. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa optimasi metode Naïve Bayes menggunakan pemilihan fitur dan pembobotan menghasilkan akurasi sebesar 94%.

  4. Preterm Admissions in a Special Care Baby Unit: The Nnewi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of all preterm admissions into the Special Care Bay Unit of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, over a period of 29 months (May 1998 October 2000) was carried out. Out of a total of 699 neonatal admissions, 133 (19 percent) were preterms with gestational ages ranging from 24 to ...

  5. Heavy sediment influx during early Holocene: Inference from clay mineral studies in a core from the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, N.P.C.; Rao, K.M.

    depositional origin on the eastern Nile cone 3 . Chlorite and kaolinite also have been used as valuable indicators of continental sources and differe n- tial depositional si tes in the eastern Atlantic sediments off North America 4 . The Bay of Bengal covers..., Montmorillonite. Figure 2. X - ray diffractograms of selected subsamples. the basis of clay mineral distribution and M/I ratio the core is divided into two units, each with distinct clay mineral assemblages and source. The demarcation...

  6. Ľudské práva v zadržiavacom stredisku Guantánamo Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Praskačová, Henrieta

    2011-01-01

    The bachelor thesis is concerned with the policy of the administration of G.W. Bush connected with American Guantánamo Bay Detention Camp after the events of September 11, 2001. The thesis describes a violation of detainees' human rights in this detention facility and, using this example, it shows a conflict between state's commitments and national interests in the theories of international relations. The thesis also presents the main international obligations of The United States of America ...

  7. The Holocene History of Nares Strait: Transition from Glacial Bay to Arctic-Atlantic Throughflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennings, Anne; Sheldon, Christina; Cronin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    . As low-salinity, nutrient-rich Arctic Water began to enter Baffin Bay, it contributed to the Baffin and Labrador currents flowing southward. This enhanced freshwater inflow must have influenced the sea ice regime and likely is responsible for poor calcium carbonate preservation that characterizes...... retreat. A transitional unit with high ice-rafted debris content records the opening of Nares Strait at approximately 9,000 cal BP. High productivity in Hall Basin between 9,000 and 6,000 cal BP reflects reduced sea ice cover and duration as well as throughflow of nutrient-rich Pacific Water. The later...

  8. Medical ethics at Guantanamo Bay and Abu Ghraib: the problem of dual loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter A

    2006-01-01

    Although knowledge of torture and physical and psychological abuse was widespread at both the Guantanamo Bay detention facility and Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq, and known to medical personnel, there was no official report before the January 2004 Army investigation of military health personnel reporting abuse, degradation or signs of torture. Military medical personnel are placed in a position of a "dual loyalty" conflict. They have to balance the medical needs of their patients, who happen to be detainees, with their military duty to their employer. The United States military medical system failed to protect detainee's human rights, violated the basic principles of medical ethics and ignored the basic tenets of medical professionalism.

  9. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the early implementation experience for the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, the largest fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States. The ZEBA Demonstration group includes five participating transit agencies: AC Transit (lead transit agency), Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA), Golden Gate Transit (GGT), San Mateo County Transit District (SamTrans), and San Francisco Municipal Railway (Muni). The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service.

  10. Hydrodynamics and water quality models applied to Sepetiba Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Cynara de L. da N.; Rosman, Paulo C. C.; Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco; Carlos do Nascimento Monteiro, Teófilo

    2006-10-01

    A coupled hydrodynamic and water quality model is used to simulate the pollution in Sepetiba Bay due to sewage effluent. Sepetiba Bay has a complicated geometry and bottom topography, and is located on the Brazilian coast near Rio de Janeiro. In the simulation, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) are used as indicators for the presence of organic matter in the body of water, and as parameters for evaluating the environmental pollution of the eastern part of Sepetiba Bay. Effluent sources in the model are taken from DO and BOD field measurements. The simulation results are consistent with field observations and demonstrate that the model has been correctly calibrated. The model is suitable for evaluating the environmental impact of sewage effluent on Sepetiba Bay from river inflows, assessing the feasibility of different treatment schemes, and developing specific monitoring activities. This approach has general applicability for environmental assessment of complicated coastal bays.

  11. Study on bayes discriminant analysis of EEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan; He, DanDan; Qin, Fang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we have done Bayes Discriminant analysis to EEG data of experiment objects which are recorded impersonally come up with a relatively accurate method used in feature extraction and classification decisions. In accordance with the strength of α wave, the head electrodes are divided into four species. In use of part of 21 electrodes EEG data of 63 people, we have done Bayes Discriminant analysis to EEG data of six objects. Results In use of part of EEG data of 63 people, we have done Bayes Discriminant analysis, the electrode classification accuracy rates is 64.4%. Bayes Discriminant has higher prediction accuracy, EEG features (mainly αwave) extract more accurate. Bayes Discriminant would be better applied to the feature extraction and classification decisions of EEG data.

  12. 76 FR 70480 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... restore * * * coastal wetlands * * * to benefit the native fish, wildlife, and plant species supported... restoration is being provided by the Poseidon Resources Carlsbad Desalination Project, in order to implement... requirement for the desalination project. On November 15, 2007, the California Coastal Commission approved a...

  13. HOOPER BAY HOUSING ANALYSIS AND ENERGY FEASIBILITY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEA LION CORPORATION; COLD CLIMATE HOUSING RESEARCH CENTER; SOLUTIONS FOR HEALTHY BREATHING; WHITNEY CONSTRUCTION

    2012-12-30

    Sea Lion applied for and received a grant from the Department of Energy (DOE) towards this end titled Energy Efficiency Development and Deployment in Indian Country. The initial objectives of the Hooper Bay Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study were to demonstrate a 30% reduction in residential/commercial energy usage and identify the economic benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures to the Tribe through: (1) partnering with Whitney Construction and Solutions for Healthy Breathing in the training and hire of 2 local energy assessors to conduct energy audits of 9 representative housing models and 2 commercial units in the community. These homes are representative of 52 homes constructed across different eras. (2) partnering with Cold Climate Housing Research Center to document current electrical and heating energy consumption and analyze data for a final feasibility report (3) assessing the economics of electricity & heating fuel usage; (4) projecting energy savings or fossil fuel reduction by modeling of improvement scenarios and cost feasibility The following two objectives will be completed after the publication of this report: (5) the development of materials lists for energy efficiency improvements (6) identifying financing options for the follow-up energy efficiency implementation phase.

  14. Master Agreement Between Bay de Noc Community College Governing Board and Bay de Noc Community College Faculty Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay de Noc Community Coll., Escanaba, MI.

    This agreement between the Bay de Noc Community College Governing Board and the Bay de Noc Community College Faculty Association covers the period from 1973-75. Contents cover recognition, rights, and guarantees; faculty, personnel, and division procedures; appointments, promotions, reductions, and related matters; leaves and absences; grievance…

  15. A Comparative Study of Bayes Net, Naive Bayes and Averaged One-Dependence Estimators for Osteoporosis Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waleska Simões, Priscyla; Mazzuchello, Leandro Luiz; Toniazzo de Abreu, Larissa Letieli; Garcia, Diego; dos Passos, Maitê Gabriel; Venson, Ramon; Bisognin Ceretta, Luciane; Veiga Silva, Ana Carolina; da Rosa, Maria Inês; Martins, Paulo João

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the accuracy of the Bayesian classifiers: Bayes Net, Naive Bayes and Averaged One-Dependence Estimator, to support diagnoses of osteopenia and osteoporosis. All classifiers showed good results, thus, given data, it is possible to produce a reasonably accurate estimate of the diagnosis.

  16. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the San Francisco Bay region were acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. Each covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.Upper Left: The color infrared composite uses bands in the visible and reflected infrared. Vegetation is red, urban areas are gray; sediment in the bays shows up as lighter shades of blue. Thanks to the 15 meter (50-foot) spatial resolution, shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen.Upper right: A composite of bands in the short wave infrared displays differences in soils and rocks in the mountainous areas. Even though these regions appear entirely vegetated in the visible, enough surface shows through openings in the vegetation to allow the ground to be imaged.Lower left: This composite of multispectral thermal bands shows differences in urban materials in varying colors. Separation of materials is due to differences in thermal emission properties, analogous to colors in the visible.Lower right: This is a color coded temperature image of water temperature, derived from the thermal bands. Warm waters are in white and yellow, colder waters are blue. Suisun Bay in the upper right is fed directly from the cold Sacramento River. As the water flows through San Pablo and San Francisco Bays on the way to the Pacific, the waters warm up.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for

  17. Plio-Pleistocene magnetostratigraphy of northern Bohai Bay and its implications for tectonic events since ca. 2.0 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinmian; Yuan, Guibang; Yang, Jilong; Xin, Houtian; Yi, Liang; Deng, Chenglong

    2017-11-01

    The sediments of Bohai Bay Basin in North China have recorded the processes of basin filling and structural evolution, which may have resulted from the destruction of the North China Craton during the late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic. However, the absence of a reliable chronostratigraphic framework for the sedimentary sequences in the basin has prevented a comprehensive understanding of these processes. In this study, we combine paleomagnetic and sedimentary analyses of the sediments from two new boreholes (NY05 and TZ02) from northern Bohai Bay to provide new insights into the sedimentary history and regional tectonic processes since the Pliocene. The main findings are as follows: (1) Magnetite and hematite are the main carriers of the characteristic remanent magnetization. (2) The boreholes record the Brunhes and Gauss normal chrons, and the Matuyama reversed chron. (3) Subsidence-related differences in the depths of the Matuyama/Brunhes (M/B) and Gauss/Matuyama (G/M) boundaries, sediment accumulation rates, and the sedimentary environments of the different tectonic units, enable us to identify that tectonic movements started in the Olduvai normal subchron and the development of the WNW-orientated tectonic features were intensified. (4) In the Huanghua depression, comparative analysis of subsidence-related differences between western and northern Bohai Bay indicates that the subsidence of the northern Bohai Bay may have been superimposed on the WNW-orientated tectonic activity and faulting associated with the collision between the Indian and the Eurasian Plates, in the context of localized subsidence.

  18. Paleozoic stratigraphy and petroleum reservoir potential in the Hudson Bay Basin, Northern Canada; re-evaluation of offshore well data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Kezhen; Dietrich, James; Dewing, Keith [Geological Survey of Canada, 3303 33St. NW, Calgary, AB, T2L 2A7 (Canada)], email: khu@nrcan.gc.ca; Zhang, Shunxin [Canada-Nunavut Geoscience Office, PO Box 2319, 626 Tumit Plaza, Iqaluit, NU, X0A 0H0 (Canada); Asselin, Esther (Geological Survey of Canada (Canada))

    2011-07-01

    The Paleozoic Hudson Bay Basin underlies Hudson Bay and neighbouring land areas in northern Manitoba, Ontario and southern Nunavut. Upper Ordovician to Devonian strata, unconformably overlain by erosional remnants of Mesozoic strata, are part of the sedimentary succession. New stratigraphic correlations for the five offshore wells drilled in the Hudson Bay Basin give an understanding of basin depositional and erosional features, which include a major unconformity in Lower Devonian strata and a Lower Devonian evaporite section whose thickness is highly variable. Petrophysical analyses of the five wells, combined with core data, give valuable information on lithology and porosity, permeability, and water saturation in Paleozoic strata. The petrophysical data shows that many limestone, dolomite and sandstone units are sufficiently porous and permeable to form good quality reservoirs, and possible hydrocarbon-bearing zones are identified in some intervals. This new stratigraphic and reservoir framework will provide a basis for future studies on the Hudson Bay basin and the surrounding Hudson platform as a possible site for petroleum reservoirs.

  19. Evidence for hydraulic fracturing at Gale crater, Mars: Implications for burial depth of the Yellowknife Bay formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Tess E.; Milliken, Ralph E.

    2017-06-01

    NASA's Curiosity rover identified a formerly habitable environment within strata informally known as the Yellowknife Bay formation. The stratigraphic relationship, and thus depositional age, of these rocks relative to other geologic units in Gale crater is not clear from orbital data alone. If part of lower Aeolis Mons (informally known as Mount Sharp), the Yellowknife Bay rocks have been deeply buried and exhumed prior to 3.2-3.3 Ga. If part of younger alluvial fan deposits, however, they likely have never experienced more than ∼100 m of burial. Knowledge of burial history can thus constrain the stratigraphic placement of Yellowknife Bay and the habitable environment preserved therein. The mechanics of natural hydraulic fractures observed in mudstone at YKB allow us to evaluate its burial history and imply a minimum burial depth of 1.2 km. This is consistent with burial by the entirety of lower Mount Sharp and a depositional age of ∼ 3.6- 3.8 Ga, providing observation-based evidence that Mount Sharp was once much more laterally extensive than its present form. Rocks of the Yellowknife Bay formation thus represent the oldest strata that Curiosity will encounter during its journey in Gale crater, and any additional habitable environments discovered along Curiosity's future path represent conditions at younger times.

  20. Integrating science and resource management in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Greening, Holly; Morrison, Gerold

    2011-01-01

    Tampa Bay is recognized internationally for its remarkable progress towards recovery since it was pronounced "dead" in the late 1970s. Due to significant efforts by local governments, industries and private citizens throughout the watershed, water clarity in Tampa Bay is now equal to what it was in 1950, when population in the watershed was less than one-quarter of what it is today. Seagrass extent has increased by more than 8,000 acres since the mid-1980s, and fish and wildlife populations are increasing. Central to this successful turn-around has been the Tampa Bay resource management community's long-term commitment to development and implementation of strong science-based management strategies. Research institutions and agencies, including Eckerd College, the Florida Wildlife Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Mote Marine Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Southwest Florida Water Management District, University of South Florida, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Survey, local and State governments, and private companies contribute significantly to the scientific basis of our understanding of Tampa Bay's structure and ecological function. Resource management agencies, including the Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council's Agency on Bay Management, the Southwest Florida Water Management District's Surface Water Improvement and Management Program, and the Tampa Bay Estuary Program, depend upon this scientific basis to develop and implement regional adaptive management programs. The importance of integrating science with management has become fully recognized by scientists and managers throughout the region, State and Nation. Scientific studies conducted in Tampa Bay over the past 10–15 years are increasingly diverse and complex, and resource management programs reflect our increased knowledge of geology, hydrology and hydrodynamics, ecology and restoration techniques. However, a synthesis of this

  1. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, San Francisco Bay Area, Calif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The cities of San Francisco and the East Bay are highlighted in this computer-generated perspective viewed from west of the Golden Gate. San Francisco occupies the peninsula jutting into the picture from the right. Golden Gate Park is the long rectangle near its left end and the Presidiois the green area at its tip, from which Golden Gate Bridge crosses to Marin. Treasure Island is the bright spot above San Francisco and Alcatraz Island is the small smudge below and to the left. Across the bay from San Francisco lie Berkeley (left) and Oakland (right). Mount Diablo, a landmark visible for many miles, rises in the distance at the upper right.This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 5 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 3, 2, and 1 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.The Landsat Thematic Mapper image used here came from an on-line mosaic of Landsat images for the continental United States (http://mapus.jpl.nasa.gov), a part of NASA's Digital Earth effort.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission

  2. Storm surge propagation in Galveston Bay during Hurricane Ike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, João L.; Li, Chunyan

    2010-09-01

    We studied Hurricane Ike's storm surge along the Texas-Louisiana coast using the fully nonlinear Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM, by Chen et al., 2003) with a high-resolution unstructured mesh. The model was validated with USGS surge data collected during Hurricane Ike. This study focused on 1) how the surge wave propagates into and within Galveston Bay and 2) the importance of the bay's barrier system. Ike's coastal surge propagated alongshore due east towards Louisiana, partly because of Bolivar Peninsula, which, together with Galveston Island, provided a barrier protecting the bay. In the upper bay, a west-east oscillation of water surface gradient of about 0.08 m/km was found and studied. We then varied Bolivar Peninsula's topography for different simulations, examining the role of barrier islands on surge propagation into the bay. Results suggest that when the Peninsula's height (or volume) was reduced to about 45% of the original, with two breaches, the bay was exposed to dangerously high water levels almost as much as those if the Peninsula was leveled to just 0.05 m above the Mean Sea Level, underlining the nonlinear nature of this bay-barrier system.

  3. Deep Borehole Instrumentation Along San Francisco Bay Bridges - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L.; Kasameyer, P.; Turpin, C.; Long, L.; Hollfelder, J.; McEvilly, T.; Clymer, R.; Uhrhammer, R.

    2000-03-01

    This is a progress report on the Bay Bridges downhole network. Between 2 and 8 instruments have been spaced along the Dumbarton, San Mateo, Bay, and San Rafael bridges in San Francisco Bay, California. The instruments will provide multiple use data that is important to geotechnical, structural engineering, and seismological studies. The holes are between 100 and 1000 ft deep and were drilled by Caltrans. There are twenty-one sensor packages at fifteen sites. The downhole instrument package contains a three component HS-1 seismometer and three orthogonal Wilcox 731 accelerometers, and is capable of recording a micro g from local M = 1.0 earthquakes to 0.5 g strong ground motion form large Bay Area earthquakes. Preliminary results on phasing across the Bay Bridge, up and down hole wave amplification at Yerba Buena Island, and sensor orientation analysis are presented. Events recorded and located during 1999 are presented. Also, a senior thesis on the deep structure of the San Francisco Bay beneath the Bay Bridge is presented as an addendum.

  4. Preparing Informal Bay Area Educators for Climate Education Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Bay Area Climate Literacy Impact Collaborative (Bay-CLIC) joins informal science educators from over 30 environmental education organizations with the common goal of increasing climate literacy and action. Over this past year, the collaborative has been gathering existing tools and resources that will allow informal educators in the Bay Area to communicate on climate change with confidence. Bay-CLIC's work plans to bring climate science to life by equipping educators with climate data that resonates best with local audiences, which is data that is place-based and personal. Bay-CLIC is also researching effective sustainability campaigns focused on behavior change that can be crafted to fit our unique regional context and rolled out across multiple Bay-CLIC member organizations. This session will focus on sharing our findings from our six month information gathering phase. The overarching discussion will focus on the needs that Bay Area educators identified as necessary to address in order for them to provide the best quality climate education programming. We will also discuss the data we gathered on what local educators are already using in their work and share out on how this diverse array of informal educators will be implementing our research into their programs.

  5. 36 CFR 13.1132 - What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? 13.1132 Section 13.1132 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1132 What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? Three types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay non-wilderness...

  6. 77 FR 56549 - Safety Zone; Blue Angels at Kaneohe Bay Air Show, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... [Docket Number USCG-2012-0739] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Blue Angels at Kaneohe Bay Air Show, Oahu, HI... Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. This safety zone encompasses a small area of the Kane'ohe Bay Naval [[Page 56550... capabilities, over Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii during a 3-day period. Taking into account the hazards associated...

  7. Bayes and empirical Bayes estimators of abundance and density from spatial capture-recapture data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Dorazio

    Full Text Available In capture-recapture and mark-resight surveys, movements of individuals both within and between sampling periods can alter the susceptibility of individuals to detection over the region of sampling. In these circumstances spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR models, which incorporate the observed locations of individuals, allow population density and abundance to be estimated while accounting for differences in detectability of individuals. In this paper I propose two Bayesian SECR models, one for the analysis of recaptures observed in trapping arrays and another for the analysis of recaptures observed in area searches. In formulating these models I used distinct submodels to specify the distribution of individual home-range centers and the observable recaptures associated with these individuals. This separation of ecological and observational processes allowed me to derive a formal connection between Bayes and empirical Bayes estimators of population abundance that has not been established previously. I showed that this connection applies to every Poisson point-process model of SECR data and provides theoretical support for a previously proposed estimator of abundance based on recaptures in trapping arrays. To illustrate results of both classical and Bayesian methods of analysis, I compared Bayes and empirical Bayes esimates of abundance and density using recaptures from simulated and real populations of animals. Real populations included two iconic datasets: recaptures of tigers detected in camera-trap surveys and recaptures of lizards detected in area-search surveys. In the datasets I analyzed, classical and Bayesian methods provided similar - and often identical - inferences, which is not surprising given the sample sizes and the noninformative priors used in the analyses.

  8. Spatiotemporal appraisal of TBT contamination and imposex along a tropical bay (Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artifon, Vanda; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    A spatiotemporal evaluation of butyltin contamination was performed between 2010 and 2012 along Todos os Santos Bay (Northeast Brazil) using surface sediments, bivalve tissues (Anomalocardia brasiliana and Mytella guyanensis), and imposex occurrence (Stramonita rustica). The spatial study detected high tributyltin (TBT) levels (maximum values of 262 ng Sn g (-1) - 21,833 ng Sn g(-1) of total organic carbon - for surface sediments and 421 ng Sn g(-1) for bivalve tissues) in the innermost part of the bay. The TBT levels detected in M. guyanensis tissues might cause human health risk since local population consumes these organisms. These high concentrations observed in the bivalves might result in ingestions higher than the safe limits established by European Food Safety Authority (250 ng TBT kg(-1) day(-1)). Considering the temporal evaluation, no difference (p > 0.05) was observed between TBT concentrations in sediments obtained during the two sampling campaigns (2010/2011 and 2012). However, the increasing predominance of TBT metabolites (butyltin degradation index (BDI) >1) in more recent sediments indicates further degradation of old TBT inputs. In spite of that, recent inputs are still evident at this region. Nevertheless, a reduction of imposex parameters in S. rustica over the last decade suggests an overall decline in the TBT contamination, at least in the outermost and possible less impacted region of the bay. The TBT contamination is probably reducing due to the national and international legislative restrictions on the use of TBT as antifouling biocide. The contamination levels, however, are still relevant especially in the inner part of Todos os Santos Bay since they are above those that are likely to cause toxicity to the biota.

  9. Draft Detailed Project Report and Draft Environmental Assessment. Neah Bay Navigation Improvements, Neah Bay, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    WashinQton coastal waters. Order Carnivora Suborder Fissipedia sea otter Ehnydra lutris river otter Lutra canadensis SubcZrder Pinnipedia northern fur seal...Executive Order (EO) 11988. The requirements of EO 11988 are presented in more detail in the EA. o Preserve the wetlands in the study area in conformance with...Tribal fishermen will continue to commute from their homes in Neah Bay to Port Angeles (150 miles round trip), living there temporarily, in order to

  10. Implementation of the "Non-Local Bayes" (NL-Bayes Image Denoising Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lebrun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a detailed implementation of the Non-Local Bayes (NL-Bayes image denoising algorithm. In a nutshell, NL-Bayes is an improved variant of NL-means. In the NL-means algorithm, each patch is replaced by a weighted mean of the most similar patches present in a neighborhood. Images being mostly self-similar, such instances of similar patches are generally found, and averaging them increases the SNR. The NL-Bayes strategy improves on NL-means by evaluating for each group of similar patches a Gaussian vector model. To each patch is therefore associated a mean (which would be the result of NL-means, but also a covariance matrix estimating the variability of the patch group. This permits to compute an optimal (in the sense of Bayesian minimal mean square error estimate of each noisy patch in the group, by a simple matrix inversion. The implementation proceeds in two identical iterations, but the second iteration uses the denoised image of the first iteration to estimate better the mean and covariance of the patch Gaussian models. A discussion of the algorithm shows that it is close in spirit to several state of the art algorithms (TSID, BM3D, BM3D-SAPCA, and that its structure is actually close to BM3D. Thorough experimental comparison made in this paper also shows that the algorithm achieves the best state of the art on color images in terms of PSNR and image quality. On grey level images, it reaches a performance similar to the more complex BM3D-SAPCA (no color version is available for this last algorithm.

  11. Bay Ridge Gardens - Mixed-Humid Affordable Multifamily Housing Deep Energy Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.; Moore, M.; Thompson, M.

    2013-08-01

    Under this project, Newport Partners (as part of the BA-PIRC research team) evaluated the installation, measured performance, and cost-effectiveness of efficiency upgrade measures for a tenant-in-place DER at the Bay Ridge multifamily (MF) development in Annapolis, Maryland. The design and construction phase of the Bay Ridge project was completed in August 2012. This report summarizes system commissioning, short-term test results, utility bill data analysis, and analysis of real-time data collected over a one-year period after the retrofit was complete. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a 'base scope' retrofit which was estimated to achieve a 30%+ savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on 186 apartments, and a 'DER scope' which was estimated to achieve 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on a 12-unit building. The base scope was applied to the entire apartment complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. A wide range of efficiency measures was applied to pursue this savings target for the DER building, including improvements/replacements of mechanical equipment and distribution systems, appliances, lighting and lighting controls, the building envelope, hot water conservation measures, and resident education. The results of this research build upon the current body of knowledge of multifamily retrofits. Towards this end, the research team has collected and generated data on the selection of measures, their estimated performance, their measured performance, and risk factors and their impact on potential measures.

  12. Tampa Bay Study Data and Information Management System (DIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, N. T.; Johnston, J. B.; Yates, K.; Smith, K. E.

    2005-05-01

    Providing easy access to data and information is an essential component of both science and management. The Tampa Bay Data and Information Management System (DIMS) catalogs and publicizes data and products which are generated through the Tampa Bay Integrated Science Study. The publicly accessible interface consists of a Web site (http://gulfsci.usgs.gov), a digital library, and an interactive map server (IMS). The Tampa Bay Study Web site contains information from scientists involved in the study, and is also the portal site for the digital library and IMS. Study information is highlighted on the Web site according to the estuarine component: geology and geomorphology, water and sediment quality, ecosystem structure and function, and hydrodynamics. The Tampa Bay Digital Library is a web-based clearinghouse for digital products on Tampa Bay, including documents, maps, spatial and tabular data sets, presentations, etc. New developments to the digital library include new search features, 150 new products over the past year, and partnerships to expand the offering of science products. The IMS is a Web-based geographic information system (GIS) used to store, analyze and display data pertaining to Tampa Bay. Upgrades to the IMS have improved performance and speed, as well as increased the number of data sets available for mapping. The Tampa Bay DIMS is a dynamic entity and will continue to evolve with the study. Beginning in 2005, the Tampa Bay Integrated Coastal Model will have a more prominent presence within the DIMS. The Web site will feature model projects and plans; the digital library will host model products and data sets; the IMS will display spatial model data sets and analyses. These tools will be used to increase communication of USGS efforts in Tampa Bay to the public, local managers, and scientists.

  13. The Holocene History of Placentia Bay, Newfoundland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Reynisson, Njall

    2013-01-01

    have been analyzed using several climate proxies, including benthic foraminifera, diatoms, IP25, dinoflagellate cysts and XRF. Together, these cores provide high-resolution records of the changes in climatic conditions over the last ca. 13,000 years in the southern Labrador Sea. After the Younger Dryas...... ended, the beginning of the warmer early Holocene was recorded by an increase in productivity-linked foraminiferal and diatom assemblages, as well as a drop in the presence of the sea-ice indicator IP25 in core 14G (Pearce et al., 2012). Variability in atmospheric circulation during the Holocene...... from analyses of core 10G indicate that the core contains a full Holocene record of climatic conditions in Placentia Bay inferred from foraminiferal and diatom assemblage analyses, which are expected to align with results from previous studies using the cores from the 2007 Akademik Ioffe cruise. Jessen...

  14. Benthic fluxes in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Douglas E.; Fuller, C.; Harmon, D.; Hartman, Blayne; Korosec, M.; Miller, L.G.; Rea, R.; Warren, S.; Berelson, W.; Hager, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of benthic fluxes have been made on four occasions between February 1980 and February 1981 at a channel station and a shoal station in South San Francisco Bay, using in situ flux chambers. On each occasion replicate measurements of easily measured substances such as radon, oxygen, ammonia, and silica showed a variability (??1??) of 30% or more over distances of a few meters to tens of meters, presumably due to spatial heterogeneity in the benthic community. Fluxes of radon were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because of greater macrofaunal irrigation at the former, but showed little seasonal variability at either station. At both stations fluxes of oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and silica were largest following the spring bloom. Fluxes measured during different seasons ranged over factors of 2-3, 3, 4-5, and 3-10 (respectively), due to variations in phytoplankton productivity and temperature. Fluxes of oxygen and carbon dioxide were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because the net phytoplankton productivity is greater there and the organic matter produced must be rapidly incorporated in the sediment column. Fluxes of silica were greater at the shoal station, probably because of the greater irrigation rates there. N + N (nitrate + nitrite) fluxes were variable in magnitude and in sign. Phosphate fluxes were too small to measure accurately. Alkalinity fluxes were similar at the two stations and are attributed primarily to carbonate dissolution at the shoal station and to sulfate reduction at the channel station. The estimated average fluxes into South Bay, based on results from these two stations over the course of a year, are (in mmol m-2 d-1): O2 = -27 ?? 6; TCO2 = 23 ?? 6; Alkalinity = 9 ?? 2; N + N = -0.3 ?? 0.5; NH3 = 1.4 ?? 0.2; PO4 = 0.1 ?? 0.4; Si = 5.6 ?? 1.1. These fluxes are comparable in magnitude to those in other temperate estuaries with similar productivity, although the seasonal

  15. Evaluating Bay Area Methane Emission Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Marc [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jeong, Seongeun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    As a regulatory agency, evaluating and improving estimates of methane (CH4) emissions from the San Francisco Bay Area is an area of interest to the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD). Currently, regional, state, and federal agencies generally estimate methane emissions using bottom-up inventory methods that rely on a combination of activity data, emission factors, biogeochemical models and other information. Recent atmospheric top-down measurement estimates of methane emissions for the US as a whole (e.g., Miller et al., 2013) and in California (e.g., Jeong et al., 2013; Peischl et al., 2013) have shown inventories underestimate total methane emissions by ~ 50% in many areas of California, including the SF Bay Area (Fairley and Fischer, 2015). The goal of this research is to provide information to help improve methane emission estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area. The research effort builds upon our previous work that produced methane emission maps for each of the major source sectors as part of the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project (http://calgem.lbl.gov/prior_emission.html; Jeong et al., 2012; Jeong et al., 2013; Jeong et al., 2014). Working with BAAQMD, we evaluate the existing inventory in light of recently published literature and revise the CALGEM CH4 emission maps to provide better specificity for BAAQMD. We also suggest further research that will improve emission estimates. To accomplish the goals, we reviewed the current BAAQMD inventory, and compared its method with those from the state inventory from the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the CALGEM inventory, and recent published literature. We also updated activity data (e.g., livestock statistics) to reflect recent changes and to better represent spatial information. Then, we produced spatially explicit CH4 emission estimates on the 1-km modeling grid used by BAAQMD. We present the detailed activity data, methods and derived emission maps by sector

  16. Evaluating Manifest Monotonicity Using Bayes Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijmstra, Jesper; Hoijtink, Herbert; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2015-12-01

    The assumption of latent monotonicity in item response theory models for dichotomous data cannot be evaluated directly, but observable consequences such as manifest monotonicity facilitate the assessment of latent monotonicity in real data. Standard methods for evaluating manifest monotonicity typically produce a test statistic that is geared toward falsification, which can only provide indirect support in favor of manifest monotonicity. We propose the use of Bayes factors to quantify the degree of support available in the data in favor of manifest monotonicity or against manifest monotonicity. Through the use of informative hypotheses, this procedure can also be used to determine the support for manifest monotonicity over substantively or statistically relevant alternatives to manifest monotonicity, rendering the procedure highly flexible. The performance of the procedure is evaluated using a simulation study, and the application of the procedure is illustrated using empirical data.

  17. Bay street looks at the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaseosa, O.

    1976-04-01

    The glamour is off frontier plays and the action is among junior and intermediate producers. That's the consensus of Bay Street analysts specializing in the oil sector. The mood of the investor is one of caution. He is only paying for current earnings and dividends. Disenchantment with the majors stems from a number of factors. The rapidly escalating cost, and limited success of frontier exploration plays, lack of government policy north of 60, the high visibility, and strictures on marketing expansion. But on the positive side, regulatory approval of a Mackenzie Valley Pipeline will enable investors to ascribe specific value to Mackenzie Delta/Beaufort Sea reserves. Without regulatory approval of a pipeline these are considered speculative, despite the fact that they represent very real replacement of depleting conventional reserves. The views of several analysts are presented on other stocks in Canada and on American markets. (MCW)

  18. Lightning phenomenology in the Tampa Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, D. W.; Uman, M. A.; Wilcox, C. E., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A commercial lightning-locating system (LLS) was employed in the study of lightning phenomenology in the Tampa Bay area of Florida. The LLS output included the time, location, number of strokes per flash, and initial peak magnetic field value of first strokes for lightning ground flashes lowering negative charge. Attention is given to the design and the operation of the LLS, and the experimental results. Measured properties of each of 111 storms are given in a number of tables. It was observed that the apparent motion associated with the lightning activity in storm systems was not due to the motion of the individual single-peak and multiple-peak storms but rather to the successive growth of new storms near previously active storms.

  19. Defining a data management strategy for USGS Chesapeake Bay studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, Cassandra

    2013-01-01

    The mission of U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Chesapeake Bay studies is to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Collective USGS efforts in the Chesapeake Bay watershed began in the 1980s, and by the mid-1990s the USGS adopted the watershed as one of its national place-based study areas. Great focus and effort by the USGS have been directed toward Chesapeake Bay studies for almost three decades. The USGS plays a key role in using “ecosystem-based adaptive management, which will provide science to improve the efficiency and accountability of Chesapeake Bay Program activities” (Phillips, 2011). Each year USGS Chesapeake Bay studies produce published research, monitoring data, and models addressing aspects of bay restoration such as, but not limited to, fish health, water quality, land-cover change, and habitat loss. The USGS is responsible for collaborating and sharing this information with other Federal agencies and partners as described under the President’s Executive Order 13508—Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed signed by President Obama in 2009. Historically, the USGS Chesapeake Bay studies have relied on national USGS databases to store only major nationally available sources of data such as streamflow and water-quality data collected through local monitoring programs and projects, leaving a multitude of other important project data out of the data management process. This practice has led to inefficient methods of finding Chesapeake Bay studies data and underutilization of data resources. Data management by definition is “the business functions that develop and execute plans, policies, practices and projects that acquire, control, protect, deliver and enhance the value of data and information.” (Mosley, 2008a). In other words, data management is a way to preserve, integrate, and share data to address the needs of the Chesapeake Bay studies to better

  20. Tidal pumping - missing factor in glacial bays evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczucinski, Witold; Moskalik, Mateusz; Dominiczak, Aleksander

    2017-04-01

    Most of the glaciers worldwide are subjected to rapid retreat. It is particularly well visible in Svalbard, where tidewater glaciers after the termination of the Little Ice Age often resulted in formation of new glacial bays. These bays are specific environments, characterised by high sediment accumulation rates, seasonal formation of sea-ice cover and common presence of icebergs. They are usually separated from the rest of the fjord by shallow (e.g. submerged moraine) or narrow passages. Although hostile, these bays also host unique ecosystems, with particular importance as feeding grounds for seals and sea birds. Among factors considered in development of such environments the role of tides is usually neglected or assumed as constant. Here we would like to stress the increasing role of tides in development of glacial bays ecosystems, as well as for import and burial of organic carbon in the bays. We present a model of tide development and results on present day conditions from Brepolen bay in Hornsund (southern Spitsbergen). On the basis of ADCP and CTD surveys we present the modern conditions and water exchange rates between the glacial bay and the fjord. Analysis of archival satellite images, aerial photographs and historical maps was used to map the change in glacial bay area. Finally simple modeling allow to identify a linear increase in tidal pumping magnitude (water exchange due to tides) with increasing glacial bay area due to glaciers retreat. We discuss it in context of potential consequences for bay oceanography, ecology and sedimentation. With fast glacier retreat and rapid grow of glacial bays one may expect the following effects of increasing tidal pumping: enhanced water exchange with the central part of the fjord, increasing salinity, facilitating colonisation by new species (e.g. import of juvenile forms of benthic species), increased input of marine organic carbon into setting suitable for its burial (high sediment accumulation rate in glacial

  1. Roebuck Bay and the Town of Broome, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Roebuck Bay (18.0S, 122.0E) is a prominent bay on the arid northwest coast of Western Australia and the town of Broome is one of the few prominent towns along this very sparsley settled coast. The large gray area extending back from the shoreline of the bay is the Roebuck Plains slowly being filled with sediment by local streams draining the Great Sandy Desert. The irregular bare patches on the desert to the south are burn scars from brush fires.

  2. The Neoglacial landscape and human history of Glacier Bay, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, southeast Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, C.; Streveler, G.; Post, A.; Monteith, D.; Howell, W.

    2009-01-01

    The Neoglacial landscape of the Huna Tlingit homeland in Glacier Bay is recreated through new interpretations of the lower Bay's fjordal geomorphology, late Quaternary geology and its ethnographic landscape. Geological interpretation is enhanced by 38 radiocarbon dates compiled from published and unpublished sources, as well as 15 newly dated samples. Neoglacial changes in ice positions, outwash and lake extents are reconstructed for c. 5500?????"200 cal. yr ago, and portrayed as a set of three landscapes at 1600?????"1000, 500?????"300 and 300?????"200 cal. yr ago. This history reveals episodic ice advance towards the Bay mouth, transforming it from a fjordal seascape into a terrestrial environment dominated by glacier outwash sediments and ice-marginal lake features. This extensive outwash plain was building in lower Glacier Bay by at least 1600 cal. yr ago, and had filled the lower bay by 500 cal. yr ago. The geologic landscape evokes the human-described landscape found in the ethnographic literature. Neoglacial climate and landscape dynamism created difficult but endurable environmental conditions for the Huna Tlingit people living there. Choosing to cope with environmental hardship was perhaps preferable to the more severely deteriorating conditions outside of the Bay as well as conflicts with competing groups. The central portion of the outwash plain persisted until it was overridden by ice moving into Icy Strait between AD 1724?????"1794. This final ice advance was very abrupt after a prolonged still-stand, evicting the Huna Tlingit from their Glacier Bay homeland. ?? 2009 SAGE Publications.

  3. Deposition, erosion, and bathymetric change in South San Francisco Bay: 1858-1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Higgins, Shawn A.; Ingraca, Melissa K.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Smith, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Since the California Gold Rush of 1849, sediment deposition, erosion, and the bathymetry of South San Francisco Bay have been altered by both natural processes and human activities. Historical hydrographic surveys can be used to assess how this system has evolved over the past 150 years. The National Ocean Service (NOS) (formerly the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey (USCGS), collected five hydrographic surveys of South San Francisco Bay from 1858 to 1983. Analysis of these surveys enables us to reconstruct the surface of the bay floor for each time period and quantify spatial and temporal changes in deposition, erosion, and bathymetry. The creation of accurate bathymetric models involves many steps. Sounding data was obtained from the original USCGS and NOS hydrographic sheets and were supplemented with hand drawn depth contours. Shorelines and marsh areas were obtained from topographic sheets. The digitized soundings and shorelines were entered into a Geographic Information System (GIS), and georeferenced to a common horizontal datum. Using surface modeling software, bathymetric grids with a horizontal resolution of 50 m were developed for each of the five hydrographic surveys. Prior to conducting analyses of sediment deposition and erosion, we converted all of the grids to a common vertical datum and made adjustments to correct for land subsidence that occurred from 1934 to 1967. Deposition and erosion that occurred during consecutive periods was then computed by differencing the corrected grids. From these maps of deposition and erosion, we calculated volumes and rates of net sediment change in the bay. South San Francisco Bay has lost approximately 90 x 106 m3 of sediment from 1858 to 1983; however within this timeframe there have been periods of both deposition and erosion. During the most recent period, from 1956 to 1983, sediment loss approached 3 x 106 m3/yr. One of the most striking changes that occurred from 1858 to 1983 was the conversion of more

  4. Holocene tephrochronology of the Cold Bay area, southwest Alaska Peninsula*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Eric C.; Fournelle, John H.; Miller, Thomas P.; Mickelson, David M.

    2002-11-01

    The major-element glass geochemistry of 92 tephra samples from the southwest Alaska Peninsula provides the basis for establishing a Holocene tephrochronology for the region. Electron microprobe analysis has been combined with field descriptions of samples, stratigraphic relationships between tephra samples and sample localities, and glass shard micro-morphology to correlate these sampled distal tephra units throughout the area of Cold Bay and adjacent Morzhovoi Bay. Radiocarbon dating provides age constraints on correlated horizons. Previous research had clearly delineated only one horizon in the region, the so-called 'Funk/Fisher' ash, dating to between 8425±350 and 9130±140 14C yr BP. In addition to constraining the bimodal andesitic and dacitic glass chemistry of that horizon, this study has recognized six additional tephra layers in the area. Two horizons pre-date the Funk/Fisher ash and four are younger than it. A tephra containing dacitic and andesitic components was identified in the vicinity of Morzhovoi Bay, with a minimum age of 9300±80 14C yr BP and a maximum age of 10,200±75 14C yr BP. A rhyolitic horizon composed of cm-sized, rounded pumice clasts was identified in the vicinity of Cold Bay; it has been correlated to the ca 9500 BP eruption of Roundtop volcano on Unimak Island. The four younger tephra beds date to between 6070±340 and 3600±140 14C yr BP. The oldest of the four is rhyodacitic, followed by a mixed rhyodacitic-andesitic horizon, another rhyodacitic horizon, and finally an andesitic layer. Comparison of all the correlated horizons to proximal samples collected on Unimak Island provides conclusive geochemical evidence that the ca 9100 BP Caldera-forming eruption of Fisher volcano is the source of the Funk/Fisher ash. Correlation between the rhyodacitic tephra horizons and proximal samples from Fisher volcano suggests that Fisher Caldera is the source of one of the rhyodacitic tephra horizons that post-dates the Funk/Fisher ash

  5. Modeling the hydrodynamic responses to land reclamation in different regions of a semi-enclosed bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Chui, T. F. M.

    2016-12-01

    Water area in bays has been reclaimed to meet the increasing land demand for development. Numbers of studies have examined the hydrodynamic impacts induced by land reclamations in semi-enclosed bays such as San Francisco Bay in the U.S., Tokyo Bay in Japan, and Jiaozhou Bay in China. However, they have not compared the impacts of land reclamations taken place in different regions. The Deep Bay in China was selected as a case study to evaluate and compare the hydrodynamic responses to land reclamations that narrows the bay mouth and that causes water surface loss inside of the bay. A numerical model was employed to simulate the hydrodynamics throughout the bay and to examine the differences in impacts through scenario experiments. The model was validated using the observations of water elevation, currents, and salinity. To indicate the changes in hydrodynamics, tidal prism, current field, tidal energy flux, and water age were computed. Simulation results show that narrowing the bay mouth length by 30% with ??% loss of its original water surface area would increase the total energy flux entering the bay by 26 %, while 14% loss of its original water surface area in middle bay would decrease the total energy entering the bay by 23%. The two regions of reclamations have both resulted in substantial but different changes in current field, the spatial distribution of tidal energy flux and water age. For example, the reclamation at bay mouth has increased the current velocity and tidal energy flux at the bay mouth while that inside of the bay has streamlined the current field and increased the velocity in the inner bay. The water age throughout the bay has been reduced by 5.1% and 13.7% respectively in the two scenarios, increasing the water exchange ability of the bay with the adjacent sea. This study is beneficial to other semi-enclosed bays considering land reclamations, facilitating quick and preliminary estimations of hydrodynamic impacts for planning and management.

  6. Hydrodynamic and transport responses to land reclamation in different areas of semi-enclosed subtropical bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Chui, Ting Fong May

    2017-07-01

    Many coastal areas worldwide have been reclaimed to meet the increasing land demand. Understanding the effects of land reclamation on the hydrodynamics and transport processes of a semi-enclosed bay is therefore of significance. From a case study of Deep Bay (DB) in China and referring to idealized bay models, the effects of two types of land reclamation, one that narrows the bay mouth and another that reduces the water area inside the bay, were examined in this study. Simulation results of idealized models show that the current velocity at the bay mouth and the incoming tidal energy flux are negatively correlated with the width of bay mouth, as the tidal prism remains almost constant when the bay mouth width reduces. The bay mouth width reduction would also increase the tidal energy dissipation inside of the bay due to friction increase. In DB, a 30% reduction in the mouth width increased the bay mouth current velocity by up to 5% and the total incoming energy flux by 18%. The narrowed bay mouth also substantially changed the bay's vertical structure of salinity, increasing the stratification strength by 1.7×10-4 s-2. For reductions in the water surface area in the head of the bay, results from idealized bay simulations show that the current velocity throughout the bay, the incoming tidal energy flux, and salinity at the inner bay all decrease with water area reduction. Reclaiming 14% of area in DB, the current velocity reduced by 9% at the bay mouth, but increased in the middle and inner parts. The incoming tidal energy flux also increased as the coastline became more streamlined after reclamation, and the salinity at inner bay decreased. Both reclamation types have substantially altered the water and salt transport processes and increased the water exchange ability of the bay with the adjacent sea.

  7. Flow and geochemistry of groundwater beneath a back-barrier lagoon: The subterranean estuary at Chincoteague Bay, Maryland, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratton, J.F.; Böhlke, J.K.; Krantz, D.E.; Tobias, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand large-scale interactions between fresh and saline groundwater beneath an Atlantic coastal estuary, an offshore drilling and sampling study was performed in a large barrier-bounded lagoon, Chincoteague Bay, Maryland, USA. Groundwater that was significantly fresher than overlying bay water was found in shallow plumes up to 8??m thick extending more than 1700??m offshore. Groundwater saltier than bay surface water was found locally beneath the lagoon and the barrier island, indicating recharge by saline water concentrated by evaporation prior to infiltration. Steep salinity and nutrient gradients occur within a few meters of the sediment surface in most locations studied, with buried peats and estuarine muds acting as confining units. Groundwater ages were generally more than 50??years in both fresh and brackish waters as deep as 23??m below the bay bottom. Water chemistry and isotopic data indicate that freshened plumes beneath the estuary are mixtures of water originally recharged on land and varying amounts of estuarine surface water that circulated through the bay floor, possibly at some distance from the sampling location. Ammonium is the dominant fixed nitrogen species in saline groundwater beneath the estuary at the locations sampled. Isotopic and dissolved-gas data from one location indicate that denitrification within the subsurface flow system removed terrestrial nitrate from fresh groundwater prior to discharge along the western side of the estuary. Similar situations, with one or more shallow semi-confined flow systems where groundwater geochemistry is strongly influenced by circulation of surface estuary water through organic-rich sediments, may be common on the Atlantic margin and elsewhere.

  8. Integration of bed characteristics, geochemical tracers, current measurements, and numerical modeling for assessing the provenance of beach sand in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Foxgrover, Amy C.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hein, James R.; McGann, Mary; Mizell, Kira; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Takesue, Renee K.; Wong, Florence L.; Woodrow, Donald L.; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Over 150 million m3 of sand-sized sediment has disappeared from the central region of the San Francisco Bay Coastal System during the last half century. This enormous loss may reflect numerous anthropogenic influences, such as watershed damming, bay-fill development, aggregate mining, and dredging. The reduction in Bay sediment also appears to be linked to a reduction in sediment supply and recent widespread erosion of adjacent beaches, wetlands, and submarine environments. A unique, multi-faceted provenance study was performed to definitively establish the primary sources, sinks, and transport pathways of beach-sized sand in the region, thereby identifying the activities and processes that directly limit supply to the outer coast. This integrative program is based on comprehensive surficial sediment sampling of the San Francisco Bay Coastal System, including the seabed, Bay floor, area beaches, adjacent rock units, and major drainages. Analyses of sample morphometrics and biological composition (e.g., Foraminifera) were then integrated with a suite of tracers including 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopes, rare earth elements, semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction mineralogy, and heavy minerals, and with process-based numerical modeling, in situ current measurements, and bedform asymmetry to robustly determine the provenance of beach-sized sand in the region.

  9. Sources and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in sediments from Masan Bay, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sook Hyeon; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Matsuda, Muneaki; Giesy, John P; Wakimoto, Tadaaki

    2002-02-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/DFs) were measured in sediments collected from Masan Bay, Korea. Almost all tetra- through octachlorinated PCDDs/DFs were identified, including the 17 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/DFs. Total concentrations of PCDDs/DFs in sediments ranged from 102 to 6,493 pg/g dry weight. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TeCDD) equivalents (TEQs) in sediments estimated based on I-TEFs were in the range of 1 to 76 pg/g dry weight. Total concentrations of PCDDs/DFs in Masan Bay sediments were comparable to those reported for the Rhine and Humber Rivers on the North Sea, the Housatonic River in the United States, and some rivers and lakes in Japan and the United Kingdom. A spatial gradient of total concentrations of PCDDs/DFs decreased toward the open sea. Two of the 11 sampling sites near the coastal zone contained relatively great concentrations, suggesting the presence of point sources. The homologue composition of PCDFs in sediments from two highly contaminated locations in Masan Bay was correlated with that of commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) preparations, such as Kanechlors 300, 400, or 500. The wide range of PCDD isomers and greater concentrations of PCDDs than of PCDFs at certain locations suggest that, in addition to technical PCB preparations such as Kanechlors, other sources, like solid waste incineration, uncontrolled trash burning, and pentachlorophenol, have contributed to the contamination.

  10. Aerial reconnaissance of emperor geese and associated waterbirds on the Bristol Bay coastal fringe, Northern Alaska Peninsula, between Kvichak Bay and Port Moller, 25 April 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A aerial reconnaissance was conducted along the Bristol Bay coast of the northern Alaska Peninsula, between Kvichak Bay and Port Moller on 25 April 1986, prior to...

  11. Soccer science and the Bayes community: exploring the cognitive implications of modern scientific communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrager, Jeff; Billman, Dorrit; Convertino, Gregorio; Massar, J P; Pirolli, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Science is a form of distributed analysis involving both individual work that produces new knowledge and collaborative work to exchange information with the larger community. There are many particular ways in which individual and community can interact in science, and it is difficult to assess how efficient these are, and what the best way might be to support them. This paper reports on a series of experiments in this area and a prototype implementation using a research platform called CACHE. CACHE both supports experimentation with different structures of interaction between individual and community cognition and serves as a prototype for computational support for those structures. We particularly focus on CACHE-BC, the Bayes community version of CACHE, within which the community can break up analytical tasks into "mind-sized" units and use provenance tracking to keep track of the relationship between these units. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. Narrative report : Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Calendar year 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1976 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  13. San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge Climate Adaptation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Future climate change is expected to cause dramatic changes in the physical and biological environment of the San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge). To...

  14. 33 CFR 110.145 - Narragansett Bay, R.I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mooring piles or stakes will not be allowed. (ii) Anchorage X-1, Naval explosives and ammunition handling anchorage. The waters of Narragansett Bay northeasterly of Gould Island within a circle having a radius of...

  15. Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer Brightness Temperatures, Wakasa Bay, Japan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes calibrated brightness temperatures measured over Wakasa Bay in the Sea of Japan in January and February 2003. The MIR was carried on a...

  16. Bayes' theorem: A paradigm research tool in biomedical sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... 1Department of Industrial Mathematics and Applied Statistics, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria. ... Bayes' theorem in biomedical research using examples. ..... educate prospective mothers aged 20 years or less. The.

  17. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Fur Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Fur Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The furbearer management program directly supports the...

  18. 2013 East Bay Seismic Experiment (EBSE) -- Implosion Data, Hayward, Calif

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In August 2013, the California State University, East Bay (CSUEB) in Hayward, California imploded a 13-story building (Warren Hall) that was deemed unsafe because of...

  19. Faults--Drakes Bay and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data of faults for the geologic and geomorphologic map of the Drakes Bay and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is...

  20. San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on San Pablo Bay NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  1. Searching for θ13 at Daya Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giedt, Joel [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Napolitano, James [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-08

    An experiment has been carried out by the Daya Bay Collaboration to measure the neutrino mixing angle θ13. In addition, the grant has supported research into lattice field theory beyond the standard model.

  2. Circulation and geostrophic transport in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.P.; Murty, V.S.N.

    Utilising the hydrographic data collected during the early northeast monsoon of 1983 and southwest monsoon of 1984, the circulation of waters of the Bay of Bengal and the associated volume transport have been studied in the upper 1000 m...

  3. Salt balance and mixing in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Basic fields of temperature salinity, density and currents in the Bay of Bengal are investigated using data archieved at the National Oceanographic Data Centre (NODC) Washington, D.C. and the Indian National Oceanographic Data Centre (INODC...

  4. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Reddy, G.V.; Araligidad, N.; Shenoy, Shrikant

    of Bengal, such as occurrence time, characteristics, stability, inter-annual variability and generating mechanisms. Spatially organized temperature inversion occurs in the coastal waters of the western and northeastern Bay during winter (November...

  5. Delaware Bay, Delaware Sediment Distribution 2003 to 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 38 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2003 to 2004 along the middle to lower Delaware Bay Coast. The bottom sediment map...

  6. Microplastic contamination in the San Francisco Bay, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Rebecca; Mason, Sherri A; Stanek, Shavonne K; Willis-Norton, Ellen; Wren, Ian F; Box, Carolynn

    2016-08-15

    Despite widespread detection of microplastic pollution in marine environments, data describing microplastic abundance in urban estuaries and microplastic discharge via treated municipal wastewater are limited. This study presents information on abundance, distribution, and composition of microplastic at nine sites in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Also presented are characterizations of microplastic in final effluent from eight wastewater treatment plants, employing varying treatment technologies, that discharge to the Bay. With an average microplastic abundance of 700,000particles/km(2), Bay surface water appears to have higher microplastic levels than other urban waterbodies sampled in North America. Moreover, treated wastewater from facilities that discharge into the Bay contains considerable microplastic contamination. Facilities employing tertiary filtration did not show lower levels of contamination than those using secondary treatment. As textile-derived fibers were more abundant in wastewater, higher levels of fragments in surface water suggest additional pathways of microplastic pollution, such as stormwater runoff. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Isopachs--Salt Point to Drakes Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the sediment-thickness map of the Salt Point to Drakes Bay, California, region. The raster data file is included in...

  8. Macrofouling community structure in Kanayama Bay, Kii Peninsula (Japan)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; Harada, E.

    An investigation on the macrofouling community in Kanayama Bay, Kill Peninsula, Japan was undertaken from June 1994 to May 1995 by exposing fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) panels at subsurface and bottom (2.2 m) depths. The composition and abundance...

  9. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Atlas Area Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the boundary of the Green Bay, WI Atlas Area. It represents the outside edge of all the block groups included in the EnviroAtlas Area....

  10. Nestucca Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Nestucca Bay National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  11. AMMR Air and Brightness Temperature Data, Wakasa Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Wakasa Bay Field Campaign was conducted in January and February 2003 to validate rainfall algorithms developed for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer -...

  12. Backscatter A [8101]--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Drakes bay and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  13. Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore Half Moon Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as two...

  14. Backscatter C [7125]--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Drakes bay and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  15. Backscatter B [7125]--Offshore Half Moon Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as two...

  16. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Side Scan Imagery: Area B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High resolution sonar data were collected over ultra-shallow areas of the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  17. Grand Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Grand Bay NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  18. Possible effects of Bay fill on air quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Baylands Subcommittee is seeking background information on the effects and ramifications of developing those parts of San Francisco Bay that lie in Santa Clara...

  19. 2002 NOAA Lidar: Willapa Bay, WA Mudflat (WA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA contracted with Spencer B. Gross, Inc. (SBG) to obtain airborne Lidar of Willapa Bay, Washington during low tide conditions. The Lidar data was processed to...

  20. Data supporting study of Ecosystem Metabolism in Pensacola Bay estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These files house the data collected during 2013 in lower Pensacola Bay. The data were used to estimate aquatic primary production and respiration. This dataset is...

  1. Environmental Contaminants Evaluation of St. Andrew Bay, Florida: Volume 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Between 1985 and 1997, a general survey of St. Andrew Bay, Florida, was conducted to measure chemical contaminant concentrations in the sediments and selected biota....

  2. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  3. Physical oceanography of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Murty, V.S.N.; Suryanarayana, A.

    Physical oceanography of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea is reviewed for the first time. All available information for over 50 years is consolidated in this review. To begin with, information on peripheral or related aspects of climate...

  4. Tampa Bay Topographic/Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In this joint demonstration project for the Tampa Bay region, NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have merged NOAA bathymetric...

  5. Annual Narrative Oyster Bay National Wildlife Refuge 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Oyster Bay National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  6. APR-2 Dual-frequency Airborne Radar Observations, Wakasa Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In January and February 2003, the Airborne Second Generation Precipitation Radar (APR-2) collected data in the Wakasa Bay AMSR-E validation campaign over the sea of...

  7. Species List for Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a species list of fish, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles that are either common to the Back Bay area or have ranges that extend into this region. This list...

  8. San Francisco Bay, California 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1-second San Francisco Bay, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This...

  9. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting seabirds (alcids, pelagic birds), gulls, terns, diving birds, and raptors in the Bristol Bay...

  10. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and...

  11. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Critical Habitats, Wildlife Refuges, National Park lands, and other management areas in the Bristol Bay Subarea....

  12. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and coastal areas of...

  13. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: HABITATS (Habitats Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and coastal...

  14. 2004 Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan Coastline LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata document describes the collection and processing of Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data over an area along the coast of Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron,...

  15. The Voisey's Bay mine/mill project: project description report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    ...). The project referred to is the proposed development of a nickel-copper-cobalt mine and mill complex, including associated infrastructure, in the area of the Voisey's Bay discovery on the north coast of Labrador...

  16. Nekton-habitat associations in Yaquina Bay, Oregon - March 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a 3-year field study to determine the relative nekton usage of 4 intertidal habitats (eelgrass [Zostera marina], mud shrimp [Upogebia pugettensis], ghost shrimp [Neotrypaea californiensis], and unvegetated sand) in Yaquina Bay, Oregon. Nekton samples were collected u...

  17. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - San Francisco Bay Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the San Francisco Bay...

  18. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Kachemak Bay Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Kachemak Bay system in...

  19. Primary production in the Bay of Bengal during August 1977

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devassy, V.P.; Bhattathiri, P.M.A.; Radhakrishna, K.

    Primary production, chlorophyll @ia@@, phaeophytin, phytoplankton and particulate organic carbon (POC) were studied at 14 stations in the Bay of Bengal during August 1977. Column primary production, chlorophyll @ia@@, and phaeopigments varied from 0...

  20. Birds and mammals recorded at Ugashik Bay and Cinder River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 26 September through 19 October 1985, biologists with the Division of Research, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, were present at Ugashik Bay, along the NE side...

  1. Folds--Offshore of Half Moon Bay Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area, California. The vector data file is...

  2. Field guide to fishes of the chesapeake bay

    CERN Document Server

    Murdy, Edward O.

    2013-01-01

    The only comprehensive field guide to the Chesapeake’s fishes, this book is an indispensable resource for both anglers and students of the Bay. Vivid illustrations by Val Kells complement the expertise of researchers Edward O. Murdy and John A. Musick. They describe fishes that inhabit waters ranging from low-salinity estuaries to the point where the Bay meets the Atlantic Ocean. Key features of this field guide include• full-color illustrations of more than 200 species• text that is presented adjacent to illustrations for easy reference• detailed descriptions of physical characteristics, range, occurrence in the Bay, reproduction, diet, and statistics from fisheries research• spot illustrations that highlight critical features of certain fish• illustrations of juveniles when they look different from adults• appendices that include identification keys Formatted as a compact field guide for students, scientists, researchers, and fishermen, Field Guide to Fishes of the Chesapeake Bay should be a ...

  3. Faults--Offshore of Half Moon Bay Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area, California. The vector data file is...

  4. Environmental Assessment: Impoundment Rehabilitation on Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to rehabilitate the wetland impoundments of Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. The environmental assessment describes the...

  5. Distribution of nutrients in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Distribution of phosphates and nitrates in relation to some physico-chemical features of the western Bay of Bengal during August-September 1976 indicated marked regional variations. The mixed surface layer which was associated with high oxygen...

  6. Characteristics of nearshore waters in Binge Bay, Karwar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    Environmental parameters to delineate characteristics of nearshore waters were studied over one year in Binge Bay. Existence of low temperature, high saline, low dissolved oxygen and high nutrient water during August-October at the bottom...

  7. Vehicular regulations announced for Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an announcement pertaining to regulations published in the Federal Register concerning the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. The regulations all...

  8. Neah Bay, Washington Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Neah Bay, Washington Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  9. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, and seabirds in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...

  10. Shallow-water Benthic Habitats in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico were mapped and characterized using visual interpretation...

  11. Narrative report : Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Calendar year 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Back Bay NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  12. Narrative report : Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Calendar year 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Back Bay NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  13. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...

  14. Folds--Drakes Bay and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data of folds for the geologic and geomorphologic map of the Drakes Bay and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is...

  15. Distribution of particulate carbohydrate species in the Bay of Bengal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ; particulate carbohydrates; particulate uronic acids; organic matter, Bay of Bengal. ... Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Marine Corrosion and Material Research Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula 403 004, ...

  16. South Bay Salt Ponds Restoration Project : Final Data Acquisition Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides the Data Acquisition Plan for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project. The purpose of the Data Acquisition Plan is to guide the collection...

  17. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Croplands Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Cropland Management Plan focuses on the production of supplemental grain and browse foods to maintain wildlife populations at...

  18. Marsh and Water Management Plan: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Marsh and Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of...

  19. DDT residues in sediments from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    in the sediments from the Bay of Bengal. Peterson grab and hydrographic winch was used to collect the sediment samples. Each sample was extracted and cleaned. Residues were detected by electron capture gas chromatography. A range variation in the concentration...

  20. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — One of the most important functions of the southern Monterey Bay coastal system is its role as a habitat for a unique flora and fauna. The beaches are habitat for...

  1. Summer distribution of pelagic birds in Bristol Bay, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bristol Bay and its islands, the embayments, lagoons, and other estuaries along the north side of the Alaska Peninsula, and the nesting cliffs on the north shore,...

  2. Monosaccharide composition of suspended particles from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Sankaran, P.D.; Wagh, A.B.

    Neutral carbohydrates were determined as alditol acetates by capillary gas chromatography in the hydrolysates of suspended particulate samples (40) collected from 8 depths (approx 1 to 1,000 m) at 5 stations of the Bay of Bengal. Eight individual...

  3. Seafloor character--Offshore of Half Moon Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map of the Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area, California. The raster data file is included in...

  4. Narrative Report : San Francisco Bay NWR Complex : Fiscal Year 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1974. The report begins with a general...

  5. Quarterly refuge narrative report : Cold Bay Game Management [1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Cold Bay Game Management outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  6. Recent Results from the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The Daya Bay neutrino experiment has recently updated the oscillation analysis results with 621 days of data in 2015, which has 3.6 times more statistics than the previous publication in 2014. The relative $\\bar{\

  7. AFSC/ABL: Auke Bay Climatology 1959-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data set includes available climatological and related physical environmental records for Auke Bay, Auke Creek and Auke Lake beginning in 1959. Daily high and low...

  8. Migratory Bird Disease Contingency Plan: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1938 to provide habitat and protection for migratory birds. Management objectives have since been expanded to...

  9. Massachusetts Bay - Internal wave packets digitized from SAR imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This feature class contains internal wave packets digitized from SAR imagery at 1:350,000 scale in Massachusetts Bay. Internal waves are nonsinusoidal waves that...

  10. Eureka Littoral Cell CRSMP Humboldt Bay Shoreline Types 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In 2011 Aldaron Laird walked and kayaked the entire shoreline of Humboldt Bay mapping the shoreline conditions onto 11x17 laminated fieldmaps at a scale of 1' = 200'...

  11. Island Bay Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the back-end data file for the Island Bay Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use (see...

  12. Vertical distribution of planktonic copepods in Tokyo Bay in summer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Itoh, Hiroshi; Tachibana, Aiko; Nomura, Hideaki; Tanaka, Yuji; Furota, Toshio; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    ... in the inner part of Tokyo Bay, central Japan. Acartia sinjiensis showed a peak of the population density in the surface water, which was influenced by river discharge, and Paracalanus parvus s.l...

  13. Evaluation of Contaminant Residues in Delaware Bay Bald Eagle Nestlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagle (Naliacetus leucocephalus) nesting attempts have steadily increased over the past decade in the Delaware Bay and River drainage basin; however, nesting...

  14. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  15. Long-term morphologic evolution of the Hangzhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, W.; Zhijun, D.; Hualiang, X.

    2013-12-01

    Estuaries are the most productive ecosystems of coastal zones in the world, which are significant to mankind as places of navigation, recreation and commerce as well as extensive and diverse habitats for wildlife. However, most estuary environments in the world had occurred greatly changes in recent decades. These estuaries have suffered from impacts of forcing factors including wave climate, mean sea level change and storm surge, especial to the intensive human activities such as training wall construction, channel dredging, sand mining and dam constructions. Thus, there have been increasing concerns about estuary environment changes under effects of different factors. Riverine loads into the Changjiang Estuary have declined dramatically with the construction of Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003. The morphological evolution of the Hangzhou bay that located the southern proximity of the Yangtze estuary starts to attract increasing attentions due to most material of the Hangzhou bay received from Yangtze estuary. In this paper, historical bathymetric charts were digitized and analyzed within a GIS to provide quantitative estimate of changes in volumes in different regions below 0 m elevation. The results show that Hangzhou bay has experienced a major loss in estuarine volume of about 15% with annual mean sediment deposition rate of 80 million m3/a during the last 75 years. However, there is a large-scale spatial adjustment in Hangzhou bay: Bathymetric changes of the Hangzhou bay can be rapidly shifted within the range of 8-10 classes. Volume of the Jinshanzui upstream of the Hangzhou bay has obviously decreased in the last 75 years, especially during 2003-2008. However, Volume of the southern Hangzhou bay has experienced slowly decrease with minor deposition. The northern Hangzhou bay had largely volume changes with rapidly decrease during 1931-1981, and drastically increase since 2003. Further analysis of the bathymetric data relating to possible factors indicates

  16. Bayes' theorem: A paradigm research tool in biomedical sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... P B P E B P C P E C. = +. (4). For computing P(B/E) and P(C/E) using Bayes' rule denominator would be exactly the same as above, the numerator would be P(B) P(E/B) and P(C) P(E/C), respectively. A proof and more formal development of. Bayes' rule can be found in most probability texts. (Rosner, 1990).

  17. An Oceanographic and Climatological Atlas of Bristol Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    have a profound the bay North Pacific water which has just entered effect on regional oceanographic phenomena. An the Bering Sea through Unimak Pass... Unimak circulation in outer Bristol Bay consists of a Island, much of the coastal current is entrained typically unclosed counterclockwise gyre open to...Peninsula and become more face currents. cyclonic and rotary offshore. National Ocean Sea level changes on either side of Unimak Survey current tables

  18. Environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana De Oliveira Fistarol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g. virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms, or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g. vibrios. Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift towards flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.

  19. PENERAPAN NAIVE BAYES PADA INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM DENGAN DISKRITISASI VARIABEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Trisna Wirawan

    2015-07-01

    Pada penelitian ini akan dibahas mengenai penerapan naive bayes classifier dengan menggunakan pemilihan atribut berdasarkan pada korelasi serta preprocessing data dengan diskritisasi dengan menggunakan metode mean/standar deviasi untuk atribut kontinu dengan menggunakan 3-interval dan 5-interval. Hasil percobaan menunjukan bahwa penerapan naive bayes pada klasifikasi data yang telah melewati proses diskritisasi mampu memberikan akurasi hingga 89% dengan running time rata-rata adalah 31 detik.

  20. Potential climate-change impacts on the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, R.; Pyke, C.; Adams, M.; Breitburg, D.; Hershner, C.; Kemp, M.; Howarth, R.; Mulholland, M.; Paolisso, M.; Secor, D.; Sellner, K.; Wardrop, D.; Wood, R.

    2008-12-01

    We review current understanding of the potential impact of climate change on the Chesapeake Bay. Scenarios for carbon dioxide emissions indicate that by the end of the 21st century the Bay region will experience significant changes in climate forcings with respect to historic conditions, including increases in carbon dioxide concentrations, sea level, and water temperature of 50-160 percent, 0.7-1.6 m, and 2-6 K, respectively. Also likely are increases in precipitation amount (particularly in the winter and spring), precipitation intensity, intensity of tropical and extratropical cyclones (though their frequency may decrease), and sea-level variability. The greatest uncertainty is associated with changes in annual streamflow, though it is likely that winter and spring flows will increase. Climate change alone will cause the Bay to function very differently in the future. Likely changes include: (1) an increase in coastal flooding and submergence of estuarine wetlands; (2) an increase in salinity variability on many time scales; (3) an increase in harmful algae; (4) an increase in hypoxia; (5) a reduction of eelgrass, the dominant submerged aquatic vegetation in the Bay; and (6) altered interactions among trophic levels, with warm-water fish and shellfish species ultimately being favored in the Bay. The magnitude of these changes is sensitive to the carbon dioxide emission trajectory, so that actions taken now to reduce carbon dioxide emissions will reduce climate impacts on the Bay. Research needs include improved precipitation and streamflow projections for the Bay watershed and whole-system monitoring and modeling (supplemented by process studies) that can capture the likely non-linear responses of the Chesapeake Bay system to climate variability and change.

  1. Evaluation of effects of changes in canal management and precipitation patterns on salinity in Biscayne Bay, Florida, using an integrated surface-water/groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Melinda A.; Swain, Eric D.; Wang, John D.; Dixon, Joann

    2012-01-01

    Biscayne National Park, located in Biscayne Bay in southeast Florida, is one of the largest marine parks in the country and sustains a large natural marine fishery where numerous threatened and endangered species reproduce. In recent years, the bay has experienced hypersaline conditions (salinity greater than 35 practical salinity units) of increasing magnitude and duration. Hypersalinity events were particularly pronounced during April to August 2004 in nearshore areas along the southern and middle parts of the bay. Prolonged hypersaline conditions can cause degradation of water quality and permanent damage to, or loss of, brackish nursery habitats for multiple species of fish and crustaceans as well as damage to certain types of seagrasses that are not tolerant of extreme changes in salinity. To evaluate the factors that contribute to hypersalinity events and to test the effects of possible changes in precipitation patterns and canal flows into Biscayne Bay on salinity in the bay, the U.S. Geological Survey constructed a coupled surface-water/groundwater numerical flow model. The model is designed to account for freshwater flows into Biscayne Bay through the canal system, leakage of salty bay water into the underlying Biscayne aquifer, discharge of fresh and salty groundwater from the Biscayne aquifer into the bay, direct effects of precipitation on bay salinity, indirect effects of precipitation on recharge to the Biscayne aquifer, direct effects of evapotranspiration (ET) on bay salinity, indirect effects of ET on recharge to the Biscayne aquifer, and maintenance of mass balance of both water and solute. The model was constructed using the Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density Dependent System (FTLOADDS) simulator, version 3.3, which couples the two-dimensional, surface-water flow and solute-transport simulator SWIFT2D with the density-dependent, groundwater flow an solute-transport simulator SEAWAT. The model was calibrated by a trial

  2. Measurement of suspension loads and determination of suspension reliability for a store in the F-111 weapons bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, S.D.; Paez, T.L.

    1977-01-01

    The dynamic store suspension environment in an open bay of the F-111 aircraft is under investigation. This experimental study was prompted by the uncertainties relative to the loads on the store suspension system which result from the severe aerodynamic environment in the open bay. Because of the complex flow field which exists, the loads on the swaybraces, vertical chocks, horizontal chocks, and lugs are not amenable to accurate analytical predictions. In an effort to verify that a store is capable of withstanding the loads experienced during carriage to the performance limits of the aircraft, an experimental buildup program was undertaken and is currently in progress. This paper discusses the design of the unit which is being used to measure the random loads on the suspension system during open-door carriage and the methods used to establish the reliability of the store suspension system. A numerical example shows that the suspension system of the store under consideration is highly reliable.

  3. Unscaled Bayes factors for multiple hypothesis testing in microarray experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, Francesco; Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Racugno, Walter

    2015-12-01

    Multiple hypothesis testing collects a series of techniques usually based on p-values as a summary of the available evidence from many statistical tests. In hypothesis testing, under a Bayesian perspective, the evidence for a specified hypothesis against an alternative, conditionally on data, is given by the Bayes factor. In this study, we approach multiple hypothesis testing based on both Bayes factors and p-values, regarding multiple hypothesis testing as a multiple model selection problem. To obtain the Bayes factors we assume default priors that are typically improper. In this case, the Bayes factor is usually undetermined due to the ratio of prior pseudo-constants. We show that ignoring prior pseudo-constants leads to unscaled Bayes factor which do not invalidate the inferential procedure in multiple hypothesis testing, because they are used within a comparative scheme. In fact, using partial information from the p-values, we are able to approximate the sampling null distribution of the unscaled Bayes factor and use it within Efron's multiple testing procedure. The simulation study suggests that under normal sampling model and even with small sample sizes, our approach provides false positive and false negative proportions that are less than other common multiple hypothesis testing approaches based only on p-values. The proposed procedure is illustrated in two simulation studies, and the advantages of its use are showed in the analysis of two microarray experiments. © The Author(s) 2011.

  4. 76 FR 31851 - Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier; South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier...-0417 Safety Zone; Put-In-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier, South Bass Island; Put-In-Bay, OH. (a...

  5. San Francisco Bay Area Baseline Trash Loading Summary Results, San Francisco Bay Area CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Area stormwater permit sets trash control guidelines for discharges through the storm drain system. The permit covers Alameda, Contra Costa,...

  6. 78 FR 27126 - East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force... approximations obtained using a commercial mapping program which utilizes Simple Cylindrical projection with a...

  7. Lisburne Group (Mississippian and Pennsylvanian), potential major hydrocarbon objective of Arctic Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kenneth J.; Jordan, Clifton F.

    1977-01-01

    The Lisburne Group, a thick carbonate-rock unit of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian age, is one of the most widespread potential reservoir-rock units in northern Alaska. A comprehensive review of the Lisburne in the subsurface of the eastern Arctic Slope indicates attractive reservoir characteristics in a favorable source and migration setting where numerous trapping mechanisms appear to be available. Evaluation of this group as a potential exploration objective is particularly timely because of impending offshore sales in the Beaufort Sea and current exploration programs under way in the Prudhoe Bay area and the Naval Petroleum Reserve. Dolomite and sandstone have been identified as reservoir rocks. Oolitic grainstone is a common rock type, but observations indicate little reservoir potential owing to complete void filling by calcite cement. The most important reservoir rock as judged by thickness, areal extent, and predictability is microsucrosic (10 to 30µ) dolomite of intertidal to supratidal origin. It is present throughout the Lisburne and is most abundant near the middle of the sequence. Northward it decreases in thickness from 1,000 ft (300 m) to less than 100 ft (30 m). Porosity of the dolomite as determined in selected wells averages between 10 and 15% and attains a maximum of slightly more than 25%. Net thickness of reservoir rocks (i.e., rocks with greater than 5% porosity) ranges in these wells from 40 to 390 ft (40 to 120 m). Oil shows are common, and drill-stem tests have yielded as much as 1,600 bbl/day of oil and 22 MMcf/day of gas in the Lisburne pool of the Prudhoe Bay field and as much as 2,057 bbl/day of salt water outside the field area. The occurrence of dolomite over such a large area makes its presence in the offshore Beaufort Sea and adjacent Naval Petroleum Reserve 4 fairly certain. The presence of sandstone as thick as 140 ft (40 m) in the middle and upper part of the Lisburne in two coastal wells suggests that larger areas of sandstone

  8. Tidal stream energy in the Bay of Fundy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagerman, G. [Virginia Tech Advanced Research Inst., VA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is now exploring tidal in-stream energy conversion (TISEC) as a future energy supply option in collaboration with Nova Scotia Power Inc. (NSPI). In addition to providing a power density higher than wind and solar energy, tidal power provides the same benefits as other indigenous renewable energy options. NSPI owns and operates the only tidal power plant in North America, and its renewable portfolio standard requires it to meet targets with commercial TISEC projects in 2015-2020. This presentation outlined plans for a tidal energy project to be located in the Minas Passage area in the Bay of Fundy. An outline of earth-moon-sun tidal forces was provided, as well as details of estuary influences and harmonic constants. The DFO WebTide prediction model was used to assess the suitability of the site. Turbine output over a full range of tidal stream velocities was assessed. Various conversion technologies were simulated. Results indicated that the passage is large enough to provide an average of 120 MW using monopile-based technology, as well as an average of 980 MW in deep water using submerged technology. Physical resources were estimated at 1010 MW per year. Environmental extraction limits are 15 per cent of physical resource, meaning that average extraction will be limited to 150 MW. Fully submersible solutions were investigated. Cost estimations were provided. It was concluded that TISEC promises to be one of the most environmentally benign energy supply options available in the region. Research is needed to examine the impact of ice and offshore procedures to raise and lower submerged units for inspection and maintenance. Numerical modelling of turbine array effects on near-field and far-field circulation are also needed. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Soundscape Ecology of Hawaiian Spinner Dolphin Resting Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenehan, Heather Leigh

    Sound is a key sensory modality for Hawaiian spinner dolphins. Like many other marine animals, these dolphins rely on sound and their acoustic environment for many aspects of their daily lives, making it is essential to understand soundscape in areas that are critical to their survival. Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest during the day in shallow coastal areas and forage offshore at night. In my dissertation I focus on the soundscape of the bays where Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest taking a soundscape ecology approach. I primarily relied on passive acoustic monitoring using four DSG-Ocean acoustic loggers in four Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting bays on the Kona Coast of Hawai'i Island. 30-second recordings were made every four minutes in each of the bays for 20 to 27 months between January 8, 2011 and March 30, 2013. I also utilized concomitant vessel-based visual surveys in the four bays to provide context for these recordings. In my first chapter I used the contributions of the dolphins to the soundscape to monitor presence in the bays and found the degree of presence varied greatly from less than 40% to nearly 90% of days monitored with dolphins present. Having established these bays as important to the animals, in my second chapter I explored the many components of their resting bay soundscape and evaluated the influence of natural and human events on the soundscape. I characterized the overall soundscape in each of the four bays, used the tsunami event of March 2011 to approximate a natural soundscape and identified all loud daytime outliers. Overall, sound levels were consistently louder at night and quieter during the daytime due to the sounds from snapping shrimp. In fact, peak Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting time co-occurs with the quietest part of the day. However, I also found that humans drastically alter this daytime soundscape with sound from offshore aquaculture, vessel sound and military mid-frequency active sonar. During one recorded mid

  10. Recipient Capacity of Tvaeren, a Baltic Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnedal, P.O.; Bergstroem, S.O.W.

    1966-07-15

    The research station at Studsvik is situated on the Baltic coast and includes several reactors and laboratories, a waste disposal plant serving both the station and waste producers outside Studsvik. A storage plant for irradiated fuel from power reactors has also been built. A total of 850 people are employed. The waste disposal plant was designed for a personnel of 900 using foreign information to correlate waste amounts to personnel. After a delay production has increased at a rate very close to the one expected. The composition of the waste is varied and difficult to predict. Minor amounts of fission products, active corrosion products, and fissile materials have been detected. Most of the waste activity is released to a strait leading into the Bay. Large volumes of water with very low specific activity are released immediately off the coast. Hydrological and dispersion data for the bay are quoted from a paper presented at the symposium mentioned below. The Baltic has brackish water. Both the chemistry and the biology are quite different from those of marine or fresh water recipients. A short description is given of the fauna and flora and important food webs are discussed. The different ways in which man is exposed to radioactivity in waste releases are dependent upon biological accumulation in living organisms and adsorption to dead materials. Fish consumption is the type of exposure which is likely to be the most critical, though it is possible that the exposure from sunbathing and fishing-gear handling could reach similar significance if conservative calculations are used. Accumulation factors from water to fish are given for iron, cobalt,and zinc . Permissible releases have been calculated using relevant accumulation factors. Fission products and corrosion products seem to be of similar significance with regard to possible human exposure. Permission to release liquid waste is granted by water courts in Sweden and operations inspected by special authorities

  11. Chesapeake Bay Study. Supplement A. Problem Identification. Supplement B. Public Involvement. Supplement C. The Chesapeake Bay Hydraulic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    ORGANISMS Algae Mollusca (Shellfish) Pisces ( Fish ) (Cont.) (Cont.) Blue-Green Alga Northern puffer Diatom (4 general) ** Coot clam Oyster toadfish...Chesapeake Bay Estuary A-10 The Biota of Chesapeake Bay A-15 Aquatic Plants A-15 Fish and Wildlife A- 16 Important Plant and Animal Organisms A-18 Plant and...Erosion Problems A-92 Fish and Wildlife A-92 Electric Power A-97 Power Requirements and Generating Facilities A-97 Market Sectors A-97 Cooling Water

  12. THE RESPONSE OF MONTEREY BAY TO THE 2010 CHILEAN EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence C. Breaker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary frequencies contained in the arrival sequence produced by the tsunami from the Chilean earthquake of 2010 in Monterey Bay were extracted to determine the seiche modes that were produced. Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA and Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD were employed to extract the primary frequencies of interest. The wave train from the Chilean tsunami lasted for at least four days due to multipath arrivals that may not have included reflections from outside the bay but most likely did include secondary undulations, and energy trapping in the form of edge waves, inside the bay. The SSA decomposition resolved oscillations with periods of 52-57, 34-35, 26-27, and 21-22 minutes, all frequencies that have been predicted and/or observed in previous studies. The EEMD decomposition detected oscillations with periods of 50-55 and 21-22 minutes. Periods in the range of 50-57 minutes varied due to measurement uncertainties but almost certainly correspond to the first longitudinal mode of oscillation for Monterey Bay, periods of 34-35 minutes correspond to the first transverse mode of oscillation that assumes a nodal line across the entrance of the bay, a period of 26- 27 minutes, although previously observed, may not represent a fundamental oscillation, and a period of 21-22 minutes has been predicted and observed previously. A period of ~37 minutes, close to the period of 34-35 minutes, was generated by the Great Alaskan Earthquake of 1964 in Monterey Bay and most likely represents the same mode of oscillation. The tsunamis associated with the Great Alaskan Earthquake and the Chilean Earthquake both entered Monterey Bay but initially arrived outside the bay from opposite directions. Unlike the Great Alaskan Earthquake, however, which excited only one resonant mode inside the bay, the Chilean Earthquake excited several modes suggesting that the asymmetric shape of the entrance to Monterey Bay was an important factor and that the

  13. Highlights from the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With an understanding of the energy response of the anti-neutrino detectors, the Daya Bay collaboration presents new results using gadolinium-neutron capture: sin2 2θ13 = 0.108 ± 0.028 and |Δmee2| = 2.55−0.18+0.21 × 10−3 eV2 with only the distortion information of the neutrino energy spectrum shape, and sin2 2θ13 = 0.090−0.009+0.008 and |Δmee2| = 2.59−0.20+0.19 10−3 eV2 with both the shape and event rate information. It is also demonstrated that a clean inverse beta decay sample can be extracted using hydrogen-neutron capture, which is now being used for neutrino oscillation measurement. The supernova online trigger is designed and implemented, which can provide about 100% efficiency for all SN1987A-scale supernova bursts within the Milky Way.

  14. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Nearshore phytoplankton of Hammond Bay, Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles L.; Manny, Bruce A.

    1983-01-01

    To predict the effects of increased nutrient loading on nearshore phytoplankton populations in northern Lake Huron, we collected phytoplankton from a small, nearshore water intake at Hammond Bay four times per week from August 1973 to July 1975. Phytoplankton density, taxonomic composition, and biomass in the nearshore waters followed predictable, seasonal fluctuations during each of two 12-month periods. The density of total phytoplankton was high (450600 cells/mL) in June and low (60 to 210 cells/mL) from January to April each year. The mean annual composition of the phytoplankton assemblage by number for the study period was 33% cryptomonads, 24% diatoms, 16% chrysophytes, 16% blue-green algae, and 10% green algae. Phytoplankton biomass was low through each year (range, 0.09 to 0.66 g/m3), resembling values previously reported from Lake Superior. Pennate diatoms contributed 60 to 80% of the total biomass from December to April and in July. Phytoflagellates consisting of chrysophytes and cryptomonads accounted for 35% of the biomass throughout the 2-year study.

  16. Groupthink, Bay of Pigs, and Watergate Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven

    1998-02-01

    Irving Janis's concept of groupthink can be seen in the context of our on-again-off-again love affair with groups. Group decisions have often been seen as offering the benefits of collective wisdom, but may also lead to disastrous consequences. Groupthink then focuses on the negative effects of erroneous group decisions. Two major examples of groupthink are reexamined and compared: the disastrous Bay of Pigs decision by the elite advisory group of President Kennedy, and the advisory groups of President Nixon, which led to the Watergate disaster and at unsuccessful attempts to cover up. In both, it is suggested there was a "runaway norm," escalation and polarization with the norm being to exceed other members of the group in taking more extreme and unrestrained actions against an "enemy." While Janis seems to suggest that groupthink will ultimately lead the group to fail in its ultimate endeavors, we need to consider the frightening possibility that in the case of the Nixon group, the group actions came close to being successful. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  17. Recent Results from the Daya Bay Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z. Y.; Daya Bay Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment was designed to precisely measure the neutrino oscillation parameter θ 13 via the relative comparison of neutrino rates and spectra at different baselines. Eight identically designed detectors were deployed in two near experimental halls and a far hall. Six 2.9 GWth nuclear power reactors served as intense {\\bar ν _e} sources. Since Dec. 2011, the experiment has been running stably. The latest neutrino oscillation results were based on 1230 days of data. Analysis using a three-flavor oscillation model yielded sin22θ 13 = 0.0841 ± 0.0027(stat.) ± 0.0019(syst.), and effective neutrino mass-squared difference ≤ft| {Δ mee^2} \\right| = ≤ft( {2.50 +/- 0.06≤ft( {stat.} \\right) +/- 0.06≤ft( {syst.} \\right)} \\right) × {10 - 3}e{V^2}. Besides, results from the absolute measurement of reactor {\\bar ν _e} flux and energy spectrum, and a search for a light sterile neutrino are also presented.

  18. Richness and diversity of bacterioplankton species along an estuarine gradient in Moreton Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Ian; Fuhrman, Jed A

    2004-06-01

    Bacterioplankton community diversity was investigated in the subtropical Brisbane River-Moreton Bay estuary, Australia (27 degrees 25 minutes S, 153 degrees 5 minutes E). Bacterial communities were studied using automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), which amplifies 16S-23S ribosomal DNA internally transcribed spacer regions from mixed-community DNA and detects the separated products on a fragment analyzer. Samples were collected from eight sites throughout the estuary and east to the East Australian Current (Coral Sea). Bacterioplankton communities had the highest operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness, as measured by ARISA at eastern bay stations (S [total richness] = 84 to 85 OTU) and the lowest richness in the Coral Sea (S = 39 to 59 OTU). Richness correlated positively with bacterial abundance; however, there were no strong correlations between diversity and salinity, NO(3)(-) and PO(4)(3-) concentrations, or chlorophyll a concentration. Bacterioplankton communities at the riverine stations were different from communities in the bay or Coral Sea. The main differences in OTU richness between stations were in taxa that each represented 0.1% (the detection limit) to 0.5% of the total amplified DNA, i.e., the "tail" of the distribution. We found that some bacterioplankton taxa are specific to distinct environments while others have a ubiquitous distribution from river to sea. Bacterioplankton richness and diversity patterns in the estuary are potentially a consequence of greater niche availability, mixing of local and adjacent environment communities, or intermediate disturbance. Furthermore, these results contrast with previous reports of spatially homogeneous bacterioplankton communities in other coastal waters.

  19. The Dynamics, Ecological Variability and Estimated Carbon Stocks of Mangroves in Mahajamba Bay, Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor G. Jones

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves are found throughout the tropics, providing critical ecosystem goods and services to coastal communities and supporting rich biodiversity. Globally, mangroves are being rapidly degraded and deforested at rates exceeding loss in many tropical inland forests. Madagascar contains around 2% of the global distribution, >20% of which has been deforested since 1990, primarily from over-harvest for forest products and conversion for agriculture and aquaculture. While historically not prominent, mangrove loss in Madagascar’s Mahajamba Bay is increasing. Here, we focus on Mahajamba Bay, presenting long-term dynamics calculated using United States Geological Survey (USGS national-level mangrove maps contextualized with socio-economic research and ground observations, and the results of contemporary (circa 2011 mapping of dominant mangrove types. The analysis of the USGS data indicated 1050 hectares (3.8% lost from 2000 to 2010, which socio-economic research suggests is increasingly driven by commercial timber extraction. Contemporary mapping results permitted stratified sampling based on spectrally distinct and ecologically meaningful mangrove types, allowing for the first-ever vegetation carbon stock estimates for Mahajamba Bay. The overall mean carbon stock across all mangrove classes was estimated to be 100.97 ± 10.49 Mg C ha−1. High stature closed-canopy mangroves had the highest average carbon stock estimate (i.e., 166.82 ± 15.28 Mg C ha−1. These estimates are comparable to other published values in Madagascar and elsewhere in the Western Indian Ocean and demonstrate the ecological variability of Mahajamba Bay’s mangroves and their value towards climate change mitigation.

  20. Isolation and characterization of mycobacteria from striped bass Morone saxatilis from the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; Kaattari, I.; Gauthier, D.; Vogelbein, W.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis of Chesapeake Bay, USA, was first diagnosed in 1997 based on the presence of granulomatous inflammation and acid-fast bacteria in skin and spleen. To confirm histopathology, bacteriological detection and identification of mycobacteria were begun using splenic tissue from fish with and without skin ulcerations. On the basis of initial studies using a variety of selective and nonselective media, decontamination, homogenization and incubation conditions, a simple and quantitative recovery method using aseptic necropsy of splenic tissue was developed. Optimal recovery was obtained by spread-plating homogenates on Middlebrook 7H10 agar with incubation for 3 mo at 23??C. Mycobacteria were recovered from 76% (n = 149/196) of fish examined. Mycobacterial densities exceeded 104 colony forming units??g tissue-1 in 38% of samples (n = 63/168) that were examined using a quantitative approach. The most frequently recovered mycobacterium, present in 57% (n = 109/192) of characterized samples, was the recently named new species Mycobacterium shottsii. Polyinfections of M. shottsii and other mycobacteria were observed in 25% of samples (n = 47/192) with densities of M. shottsii usually 1 or more orders of magnitude higher than co-isolate(s). Other mycobacteria recovered included isolates that, based on phenotypic traits, resembled M. interjectum, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai and M. triplex. M. marinum, commonly associated with fish mycobacteriosis and human disease, was recovered infrequently (3%, n = 6/192). The presence of multiple mycobacterial types occurring at high densities suggests that a variety of mycobacteria could be causative agents of mycobacteriosis in striped bass from the Chesapeake Bay. Striped bass is the major recreational fish species in the Chesapeake Bay, and the significance of the current epizootic to human health and the potential adverse effects on fish stocks are not known.

  1. Habitat Mapping and Classification of the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve using AISA Hyperspectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, K.

    2012-12-01

    Habitat mapping and classification provides essential information for land use planning and ecosystem research, monitoring and management. At the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (GRDNERR), Mississippi, habitat characterization of the Grand Bay watershed will also be used to develop a decision-support tool for the NERR's managers and state and local partners. Grand Bay NERR habitat units were identified using a combination of remotely sensed imagery, aerial photography and elevation data. Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Applications (AISA) hyperspectral data, acquired 5 and 6 May 2010, was analyzed and classified using ENVI v4.8 and v5.0 software. The AISA system was configured to return 63 bands of digital imagery data with a spectral range of 400 to 970 nm (VNIR), spectral resolution (bandwidth) at 8.76 nm, and 1 m spatial resolution. Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) and Inverse Minimum Noise Fraction were applied to the data prior to using Spectral Angle Mapper ([SAM] supervised) and ISODATA (unsupervised) classification techniques. The resulting class image was exported to ArcGIS 10.0 and visually inspected and compared with the original imagery as well as auxiliary datasets to assist in the attribution of habitat characteristics to the spectral classes, including: National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) aerial photography, Jackson County, MS, 2010; USFWS National Wetlands Inventory, 2007; an existing GRDNERR habitat map (2004), SAV (2009) and salt panne (2002-2003) GIS produced by GRDNERR; and USACE lidar topo-bathymetry, 2005. A field survey to validate the map's accuracy will take place during the 2012 summer season. ENVI's Random Sample generator was used to generate GIS points for a ground-truth survey. The broad range of coastal estuarine habitats and geomorphological features- many of which are transitional and vulnerable to environmental stressors- that have been identified within the GRDNERR point to the value of the Reserve for

  2. Probabilistic estimation of numbers and costs of future landslides in the San Francisco Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.; Coe, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We used historical records of damaging landslides triggered by rainstorms and a newly developed Probabilistic Landslide Assessment Cost Estimation System (PLACES) to estimate the numbers and direct costs of future landslides in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region. Historical records of damaging landslides in the region are incomplete. Therefore, our estimates of numbers and costs of future landslides are minimal estimates. The estimated mean annual number of future damaging landslides for the entire 10-county region is about 65. Santa Cruz County has the highest estimated mean annual number of damaging future landslides (about 18), whereas Napa, San Francisco, and Solano Counties have the lowest estimated mean numbers of damaging landslides (about 1 each). The estimated mean annual cost of future landslides in the entire region is about US $14.80 million (year 2000 $). The estimated mean annual cost is highest for San Mateo County ($3.24 million) and lowest for Solano County ($0.18 million). The annual per capita cost for the entire region will be about $2.10. Santa Cruz County will have the highest annual per capita cost at $8.45, whereas San Francisco County will have the lowest per capita cost at $0.31. Normalising costs by dividing by the percentage of land area with slopes equal to or greater than 17% indicates that San Francisco County will have the highest cost per square km ($7,101), whereas Santa Clara County will have the lowest cost per square km ($229). These results indicate that the San Francisco Bay region has one of the highest levels of landslide risk in the United States. Compared with landslide cost estimates from the rest of the world, the risk level in the Bay region seems high, but not exceptionally high.

  3. A Compelling Solution to Guantanamo Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    using federal habeas corpus challenges.12 The administration also determined that aliens held outside the territorial borders of the United States...prison at Norfolk, Virginia when it was discovered he held dual United States and Saudi citizenship.32 Hamdi’s father filed a habeas corpus petition in...Congress must suspend the right to habeas corpus .41 Justice Scalia, known as a conservative jurist and one who is opposed to judicial activism, argued

  4. Turnley Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facilities at this unit include cattle working pens, hydraulic squeeze chute and electronic scale, a maintenance building, and four hay storage sheds. There is one...

  5. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  6. Assessing marsh response from sea‐level rise applying local site conditions: Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) is located on Humboldt Bay in northern California. Humboldt Bay NWR was established in 1971 and consists of a mosaic...

  7. Abundance patterns of macrofauna and infauna in nursery habitats of Christmas Bay, Texas: July 1984 through June 1985.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between July 1984 and June 1985, monthly samples were collected from marsh, seagrass, and nonvegetated habitats in Christmas Bay and West Bay in the Galveston Bay...

  8. A comparison of levels of bat flight and foraging activity at 10 meters and 30 meters above drained Carolina bays and reference bays, prior to bay restoration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Michael, A.; Ford, W., Mark; Edwards, John, W.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2001-08-01

    A technical report of a monitoring study of bat flight and foraging activity above drained and undrained Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. In order to determine if the vegetational community type or structure of the forest community surrounding the bays affected bat activity levels, bat activity was monitored over 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine/mixed hardwood communities and 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine monocultures. Bat activity was monitored using time expansion bat detectors. Calls were recorded to Sony Professional tape recorders (Sony WMD3). Detectors positioned at 10 m heights were linked directly to the tape recorders. Time expansion radiomicrophones were used to monitor activity at 30 m heights. The radiomicrophones were attached to 2-m diameter helium balloons and suspended approximately 30 m above the forest floor. Calls detected by the radiomicrophones were transmitted via a FM narrowband frequency to a scanner on the ground.

  9. Proceedings of the Fourth Glacier Bay Science Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, John F.; Gende, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    Foreword Glacier Bay was established as a National Monument in 1925, in part to protect its unique character and natural beauty, but also to create a natural laboratory to examine evolution of the glacial landscape. Today, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve is still a place of profound natural beauty and dynamic landscapes. It also remains a focal point for scientific research and includes continuing observations begun decades ago of glacial processes and terrestrial ecosystems. In recent years, research has focused on glacial-marine interactions and ecosystem processes that occur below the surface of the bay. In October 2004, Glacier Bay National Park convened the fourth in a series of science symposiums to provide an opportunity for researchers, managers, interpreters, educators, students and the general public to share knowledge about Glacier Bay. The Fourth Glacier Bay Science Symposium was held in Juneau, Alaska, rather than at the Park, reflecting a desire to maximize attendance and communication among a growing and diverse number of stakeholders interested in science in the park. More than 400 people attended the symposium. Participants provided 46 oral presentations and 41 posters covering a wide array of disciplines including geology, glaciology, oceanography, wildlife and fisheries biology, terrestrial and marine ecology, socio-cultural research and management issues. A panel discussion focused on the importance of connectivity in Glacier Bay research, and keynote speakers (Gary Davis and Terry Chapin) spoke of long-term monitoring and ecological processes. These proceedings include 56 papers from the symposium. A summary of the Glacier Bay Science Plan-itself a subject of a meeting during the symposium and the result of ongoing discussions between scientists and resource managers-also is provided. We hope these proceedings illustrate the diversity of completed and ongoing scientific studies, conducted within the Park. To this end, we invited all

  10. Reconnaissance geologic map of the Kuskokwim Bay region, southwest Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Mohadjer, Solmaz; Coonrad, Warren L.

    2013-01-01

    The rocks of the map area range from Proterozoic age metamorphic rocks of the Kanektok metamorphic complex (Kilbuck terrane) to Quaternary age mafic volcanic rocks of Nunivak Island. The map area encompasses much of the type area of the Togiak-Tikchik Complex. The geologic maps used to construct this compilation were, for the most part, reconnaissance studies done in the time period from the 1950s to 1990s. Pioneering work in the map area by J.M. Hoare and W.L. Coonrad forms the basis for much of this map, either directly or as the stepping off point for later studies compiled here. Physiographically, the map area ranges from glaciated mountains, as much as 1,500 m high, in the Ahklun Mountains to the coastal lowlands of northern Bristol Bay and the Kuskokwim River delta. The mountains and the finger lakes (drowned fiords) on the east have been strongly affected by Pleistocene and Holocene glaciation. Within the map area are a number of major faults. The Togiak-Tikchik Fault and its extension to the northeast, the Holitna Fault, are considered extensions of the Denali fault system of central Alaska. Other sub-parallel faults include the Golden Gate, Sawpit, Goodnews, and East Kulukak Faults. Northwest-trending strike-slip faults crosscut and offset northeast-trending fault systems. Rocks of the area are assigned to a number of distinctive lithologic packages. Most distinctive among these packages are the high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Kanektok metamorphic complex or Kilbuck terrane, composed of a high-grade metamorphic orthogneiss core surrounded by greenschist and amphibolite facies schist, gneiss, and rare marble and quartzite. These rocks have yielded radiometric ages strongly suggestive of a 2.05 Ga emplacement age. Poorly known Paleozoic rocks, including Ordovician to Devonian and Permian limestone, are found east of the Kanektok metamorphic complex. A Triassic(?) ophiolite complex is on the southeast side of Kuskokwim Bay; otherwise only minor Triassic

  11. Diversity of cyanobacterial biomarker genes from the stromatolites of Shark Bay, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garby, Tamsyn J; Walter, Malcolm R; Larkum, Anthony W D; Neilan, Brett A

    2013-05-01

    Families of closely related chemical compounds, which are relatively resistant to degradation, are often used as biomarkers to help trace the evolutionary history of early groups of organisms and the environments in which they lived. Biomarkers derived from hopanoid variations are particularly useful in determining bacterial community compositions. 2-Methylhopananoids have been thought to be diagnostic for cyanobacteria, and 2-methylhopanes in the geological record are taken as evidence for the presence of cyanobacteria-containing communities at the time of sediment deposition. Recently, however, doubt has been cast on the validity of 2-methylhopanes as cyanobacterial biomarkers, since non-cyanobacterial species have been shown to produce significant amounts of 2-methylhopanoids. This study examines the diversity of hpnP, the hopanoid biosynthesis gene coding for the enzyme that methylates hopanoids at the C2 position. Genomic DNA isolated from stromatolite-associated pustular and smooth microbial mat samples from Shark Bay, Western Australia, was analysed for bacterial diversity, and used to construct an hpnP clone library. A total of 117 partial hpnP clones were sequenced, representing 12 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Phylogenetic analysis showed that 11 of these OTUs, representing 115 sequences, cluster within the cyanobacterial clade. We conclude that the dominant types of microorganisms with the detected capability of producing 2-methylhopanoids within pustular and smooth microbial mats in Shark Bay are cyanobacteria. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Climate Change and Conservation Planning in California: The San Francisco Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branciforte, R.; Weiss, S. B.; Schaefer, N.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change threatens California's vast and unique biodiversity. The Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals is a comprehensive regional biodiversity assessment of the 9 counties surrounding San Francisco Bay, and is designing conservation land networks that will serve to protect, manage, and restore that biodiversity. Conservation goals for vegetation, rare plants, mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates are set, and those goals are met using the optimization algorithm MARXAN. Climate change issues are being considered in the assessment and network design in several ways. The high spatial variability at mesoclimatic and topoclimatic scales in California creates high local biodiversity, and provides some degree of local resiliency to macroclimatic change. Mesoclimatic variability from 800 m scale PRISM climatic norms is used to assess "mesoclimate spaces" in distinct mountain ranges, so that high mesoclimatic variability, especially local extremes that likely support range limits of species and potential climatic refugia, can be captured in the network. Quantitative measures of network resiliency to climate change include the spatial range of key temperature and precipitation variables within planning units. Topoclimatic variability provides a finer-grained spatial patterning. Downscaling to the topoclimatic scale (10-50 m scale) includes modeling solar radiation across DEMs for predicting maximum temperature differentials, and topographic position indices for modeling minimum temperature differentials. PRISM data are also used to differentiate grasslands into distinct warm and cool types. The overall conservation strategy includes local and regional connectivity so that range shifts can be accommodated.

  13. Bay Ridge Gardens - Mixed Humid Affordable Multifamily Housing Deep Energy Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, James [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Moore, Mike [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Thompson, Margo [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Under this project, Newport Partners (as part of the BA-PIRC research team) evaluated the installation, measured performance, and cost effectiveness of efficiency upgrade measures for a tenant-in-place deep energy retrofit (DER) at the Bay Ridge multifamily development in Annapolis, Maryland. This report summarizes system commissioning, short-term test results, utility bill data analysis, and analysis of real-time data collected over a one-year period after the retrofit was complete. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a "base scope" retrofit which was estimated to achieve a 30%+ savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on 186 apartments, and a "DER scope" which was estimated to achieve 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on a 12-unit building. A wide range of efficiency measures was applied to pursue this savings target for the DER building, including improvements/replacements of mechanical equipment and distribution systems, appliances, lighting and lighting controls, the building envelope, hot water conservation measures, and resident education. The results of this research build upon the current body of knowledge of multifamily retrofits. Towards this end, the research team has collected and generated data on the selection of measures, their estimated performance, their measured performance, and risk factors and their impact on potential measures.

  14. Documenting ice in the Bay of Fundy, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, R. [Resource Manage Inc., Halifax, NS (Canada); Baddour, E. [National Research Council of Canada, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Inst. for Ocean Technology

    2006-03-15

    This paper examined the distribution of sea ice in targeted tidal energy sites in the Bay of Fundy. The Bay of Fundy in Nova Scotia is considered to be the most energetic tidal power site in North America. The study showed that the Minas Passage, the Minas Channel, Cape Enrage, Shepody Bay, the Cumberland Basin, and Cobequid Bay all periodically experience 30 per cent ice cover that is at least 15 cm thick in floes of approximately 100 meters in length. The ice floes typically move under the influence of tidal currents and sustained winds exceeding 50 mph. During severe winters, some sites experience 70 per cent cover, with ice greater than 30 cm thick. Approximately 90 per cent of the harvestable tidal current energy sites in the Bay of Fundy and New Brunswick experience sea ice capable of impacting marine operations. It was concluded that tidal current harvesting devices in these sites should be designed to tolerate severe sea-ice conditions in order to harvest the global resources of this alternative energy source. Additional research is needed to further characterize tidal currents in the presence of ice. 24 refs., 13 figs.

  15. A Bayes factor meta-analysis of Bem's ESP claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N; Morey, Richard D

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, statisticians and psychologists have provided the critique that p-values do not capture the evidence afforded by data and are, consequently, ill suited for analysis in scientific endeavors. The issue is particular salient in the assessment of the recent evidence provided for ESP by Bem (2011) in the mainstream Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Wagenmakers, Wetzels, Borsboom, and van der Maas (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 426-432, 2011) have provided an alternative Bayes factor assessment of Bem's data, but their assessment was limited to examining each experiment in isolation. We show here that the variant of the Bayes factor employed by Wagenmakers et al. is inappropriate for making assessments across multiple experiments, and cannot be used to gain an accurate assessment of the total evidence in Bem's data. We develop a meta-analytic Bayes factor that describes how researchers should update their prior beliefs about the odds of hypotheses in light of data across several experiments. We find that the evidence that people can feel the future with neutral and erotic stimuli to be slight, with Bayes factors of 3.23 and 1.57, respectively. There is some evidence, however, for the hypothesis that people can feel the future with emotionally valenced nonerotic stimuli, with a Bayes factor of about 40. Although this value is certainly noteworthy, we believe it is orders of magnitude lower than what is required to overcome appropriate skepticism of ESP.

  16. Causal Bayes Model of Mathematical Competence in Kindergarten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar Tepeš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper authors define mathematical competences in the kindergarten. The basic objective was to measure the mathematical competences or mathematical knowledge, skills and abilities in mathematical education. Mathematical competences were grouped in the following areas: Arithmetic and Geometry. Statistical set consisted of 59 children, 65 to 85 months of age, from the Kindergarten Milan Sachs from Zagreb. The authors describe 13 variables for measuring mathematical competences. Five measuring variables were described for the geometry, and eight measuring variables for the arithmetic. Measuring variables are tasks which children solved with the evaluated results. By measuring mathematical competences the authors make causal Bayes model using free software Tetrad 5.2.1-3. Software makes many causal Bayes models and authors as experts chose the model of the mathematical competences in the kindergarten. Causal Bayes model describes five levels for mathematical competences. At the end of the modeling authors use Bayes estimator. In the results, authors describe by causal Bayes model of mathematical competences, causal effect mathematical competences or how intervention on some competences cause other competences. Authors measure mathematical competences with their expectation as random variables. When expectation of competences was greater, competences improved. Mathematical competences can be improved with intervention on causal competences. Levels of mathematical competences and the result of intervention on mathematical competences can help mathematical teachers.

  17. Phytoplankton and nutrient dynamics in Winyah Bay, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneillo, G. E.; Brooks, S. S.; Brown, S. L.; Woodford, K. M.; Wright, C. R.

    2016-02-01

    Winyah Bay is a coastal plain estuary located in South Carolina that has been classified for a moderate risk of Eutrophication by NOAA. Winyah Bay receives freshwater input from four rivers, the Waccamaw, Sampit, Black, and Pee Dee Rivers. The Waccamaw, Sampit and Black River are blackwater systems that discharge elevated amounts of colored dissolved organic matter. During the summer and fall of 2015, bioassay experiments were performed to simultaneously examine both light and nutrient (nitrogen & phosphate) limitation throughout Winyah Bay. Sampling stations near the mouth of the Waccamaw and Sampit Rivers showed that phytoplankton were light limited in the late summer instead of nutrient limited. These stations were located in the industrialized area of the bay and typically had the highest nutrient concentrations and highest turbidity, with Secchi depths typically less than 0.5 meters. Results indicated that phytoplankton may be nitrogen limited near the mouth of Winyah Bay, where nutrient concentrations and turbidity were observed to be lower than locations further upstream. There was also an observed dissolved oxygen and pH gradient during the summer of 2015. Dissolved oxygen levels less than 4.0 mg/L were routinely observed near the industrialized head of the estuary and corresponded with lower pH values.

  18. A model for the geomorphology of the Carolina Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Geometrical analysis of the Carolina Bays using Google Earth in combination with LiDAR data makes it possible to postulate that the bays formed as the result of impacts, rather than from eolian and lacustrine processes. The Carolina Bays are elliptical conic sections with width-to-length ratios averaging 0.58 that are radially oriented toward the Great Lakes region. The radial distribution of ejecta is one characteristic of impacts, and the width-to-length ratios of the ellipses correspond to cones inclined at approximately 35°, which is consistent with ballistic trajectories from the point of convergence. These observations, and the fact that these geomorphological features occur only on unconsolidated soil close to the water table, make it plausible to propose that the Carolina Bays are the remodeled remains of oblique conical craters formed on ground liquefied by the seismic shock waves of secondary impacts of glacier ice boulders ejected by an extraterrestrial impact on the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Mathematical analysis using ballistic equations and scaling laws relating yield energy to crater size provide clues about the magnitude of the extraterrestrial event. An experimental model elucidates the remodeling mechanisms and provides an explanation for the morphology and the diverse dates of the bays.

  19. Bayes factor of model selection validates FLMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, D W; Cohen, M M; Campbell, C S; Rodriguez, T

    2001-03-01

    The fuzzy logical model of perception (FLMP; Massaro, 1998) has been extremely successful at describing performance across a wide range of ecological domains as well as for a broad spectrum of individuals. An important issue is whether this descriptive ability is theoretically informative or whether it simply reflects the model's ability to describe a wider range of possible outcomes. Previous tests and contrasts of this model with others have been adjudicated on the basis of both a root mean square deviation (RMSD) for goodness-of-fit and an observed RMSD relative to a benchmark RMSD if the model was indeed correct. We extend the model evaluation by another technique called Bayes factor (Kass & Raftery, 1995; Myung & Pitt, 1997). The FLMP maintains its significant descriptive advantage with this new criterion. In a series of simulations, the RMSD also accurately recovers the correct model under actual experimental conditions. When additional variability was added to the results, the models continued to be recoverable. In addition to its descriptive accuracy, RMSD should not be ignored in model testing because it can be justified theoretically and provides a direct and meaningful index of goodness-of-fit. We also make the case for the necessity of free parameters in model testing. Finally, using Newton's law of universal gravitation as an analogy, we argue that it might not be valid to expect a model's fit to be invariant across the whole range of possible parameter values for the model. We advocate that model selection should be analogous to perceptual judgment, which is characterized by the optimal use of multiple sources of information (e.g., the FLMP). Conclusions about models should be based on several selection criteria.

  20. Paleoenvironmental Implications of Clay Minerals at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Thomas F.; Blake, David F.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity spent approx 150 sols at Yellowknife Bay (YKB) studying a section of fluvio-lacustrine sedimentary rocks (with potential indications of volcanic influence), informally known as the Yellowknife Bay formation. YKB lies in a distal region of the Peace Vallis alluvial fan, which extends from the northern rim of Gale Crater toward the dune field at the base of Mt Sharp. Sedimentological and stratigraphic observations are consistent with the Yellowknife Bay formation being part of a distal fan deposit, which could be as young as middle Hesperian to even early Amazonian in age (approx. 3.5 to 2.5 Ga). The Yellowknife Bay formation hosts a unit of mudstone called the Sheepbed member. Curiosity obtained powdered rock samples from two drill holes in the Sheepbed Member, named John Klein and Cumberland, and delivered them to instruments in Curiosity. Data from CheMin, a combined X-ray diffraction (XRD)/X-ray fluorescence instrument (XRF), has allowed detailed mineralogical analysis of mudstone powders revealing a clay mineral component of approx. 20 wt.% in each sample. The clay minerals are important indicators of paleoenvironmental conditions and sensitive recorders of post-depositional alteration processes. The XRD pattern of John Klein reveals a 02l band consistent with a trioctahedral phyllosilicate. A broad peak at approx. 10A with a slight inflexion at approx. 12A indicates the presence of 2:1 type clay minerals in the John Klein sample. The trioctahedral nature of the clay minerals, breadth of the basal reflection, and presence of a minor component with larger basal spacing suggests that John Klein contains a trioctahedral smectite (probably saponite), whose interlayer is largely collapsed because of the low-humidity conditions. The XRD patterns show no evidence of corrensite (mixed-layer chlorite/smectite) or chlorite, which are typical diagenetic products of trioctahedral smectites when subjected to burial and