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Sample records for prudent dietary pattern

  1. Western Dietary Pattern Increases, and Prudent Dietary Pattern Decreases, Risk of Incident Diverticulitis in a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strate, Lisa L; Keeley, Brieze R; Cao, Yin; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward L; Chan, Andrew T

    2017-04-01

    Dietary fiber is implicated as a risk factor for diverticulitis. Analyses of dietary patterns may provide information on risk beyond those of individual foods or nutrients. We examined whether major dietary patterns are associated with risk of incident diverticulitis. We performed a prospective cohort study of 46,295 men who were free of diverticulitis and known diverticulosis in 1986 (baseline) using data from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Each study participant completed a detailed medical and dietary questionnaire at baseline. We sent supplemental questionnaires to men reporting incident diverticulitis on biennial follow-up questionnaires. We assessed diet every 4 years using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Western (high in red meat, refined grains, and high-fat dairy) and prudent (high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Follow-up time accrued from the date of return of the baseline questionnaire in 1986 until a diagnosis of diverticulitis, diverticulosis or diverticular bleeding; death; or December 31, 2012. The primary end point was incident diverticulitis. During 894,468 person years of follow-up, we identified 1063 incident cases of diverticulitis. After adjustment for other risk factors, men in the highest quintile of Western dietary pattern score had a multivariate hazard ratio of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.20-1.99) for diverticulitis compared to men in the lowest quintile. High vs low prudent scores were associated with decreased risk of diverticulitis (multivariate hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.91). The association between dietary patterns and diverticulitis was predominantly attributable to intake of fiber and red meat. In a prospective cohort study of 46,295 men, a Western dietary pattern was associated with increased risk of diverticulitis, and a prudent pattern was associated with decreased risk. These data can guide dietary interventions for the prevention of

  2. Dietary cholesterol - the role of eggs in the prudent diet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eggs from the diet should be weighed against the effect of deprivation of these nutrients. Dietary cholesterol, serum cholesterol and CHD. Metabolic ward and controlled studies have demonstrated that an increase in dietary cholesterol as the only dietary variable, taken either as crystalline cholesterol, egg yolk or whole egg ...

  3. Adult height, dietary patterns, and healthy aging.

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    Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu

    2017-08-01

    Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality.Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations.Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations.Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P-trend height with a prudent dietary pattern in relation to healthy aging (P-interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification (P-interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake.Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Dietary patterns and changes in body weight in women.

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    Schulze, Matthias B; Fung, Teresa T; Manson, Joann E; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2006-08-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between adherence to dietary patterns and weight change in women. Women (51,670, 26 to 46 years old) in the Nurses' Health Study II were followed from 1991 to 1999. Dietary intake and body weight were ascertained in 1991, 1995, and 1999. A Western pattern, characterized by high intakes of red and processed meats, refined grains, sweets and desserts, and potatoes, and a prudent pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish, poultry, and salad dressing, were identified with principal component analysis, and associations between patterns and change in body weight were estimated. Women who increased their Western pattern score had greater weight gain (multivariate adjusted means, 4.55 kg for 1991 to 1995 and 2.86 kg for 1995 to 1999) than women who decreased their Western pattern score (2.70 and 1.37 kg for the two time periods), adjusting for baseline lifestyle and dietary confounders and changes in confounders over time (p < 0.001 for both time periods). Furthermore, among women who increased their prudent pattern score, weight gain was smaller (multivariate-adjusted means, 1.93 kg for 1991 to 1995 and 0.66 kg for 1995 to 1999) than among women who decreased their prudent pattern score (4.83 and 3.35 kg for the two time periods) (p < 0.001). The largest weight gain between 1991 and 1995 and between 1995 and 1999 was observed among women who decreased their prudent pattern score while increasing their Western pattern score (multivariate adjusted means, 6.80 and 4.99 kg), whereas it was smallest for the opposite change in patterns (0.87 and -0.64 kg) (p < 0.001). Adoption of a Western dietary pattern is associated with larger weight gain in women, whereas a prudent dietary pattern may facilitate weight maintenance.

  5. Ramadan major dietary patterns.

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    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest.

  6. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... nutrients. However, little is known about the development of dietary patterns in childhood both in relation to possible indicators and to obesity related outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this PhD thesis was to make exploratory analyses of dietary patterns in childhood using the method principal component...... analysis (PCA) and to investigate associations to possible indicators and outcomes related to growth and obesity. This was based on two observational cohort studies (SKOT I, SKOT II) and one intervention study (MoMS). The research showed that PCA is a suitable method for understanding some...

  7. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Dietary Consumption via the Dietary Pattern Method in a Chinese Rural Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Liu

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ that was developed to assess the overall dietary consumption via dietary pattern method in a rural population in southwest China.A total of 179 participants aged between 40 and 70 years old were included in this study. Participants administered FFQ at baseline (FFQ1 and one year later (FFQ2 to assess the reproducibility. Six 3-day 24-hour recalls (24HRs were completed between the administrations of two FFQs to determine the validity. Dietary patterns from three separate dietary sources were derived by using principle component factor analysis. Comparisons between dietary pattern scores were made by using Pearson or intraclass correlation coefficient, cross-classification analysis, weighted kappa (κ statistic and Bland-Altman analysis. The de-attenuated method was adopted to correct the monthly and seasonally variation and the partial correlation analysis was used correct the influence by total energy intake.Two major dietary factors, labeled as prudent pattern and processed food pattern, were identified. The prudent pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of wheat, rice, fresh vegetables, bean products, nuts, red meat, white meat and fresh eggs; and the processed food pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of pickled vegetables, preserved vegetables and salted meat. Between Two FFQs, intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.57 for prudent pattern and 0.55 for processed food pattern, partial Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.51 for the prudent pattern and 0.56 for the processed food pattern; weighted κ statistic ranged from 0.45 (for the prudent pattern to 0.56 (for the processed food pattern. Between FFQs and 24HRs, de-attenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.78 for the prudent pattern and from 0.55 to 0.61 for the processed food pattern; partial Pearson correlation coefficients ranged

  8. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

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    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1 prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver, which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2 traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3 Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg, which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4 snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix, which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04 in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight.

  9. Association between dietary patterns and plasma biomarkers of obesity and cardiovascular disease risk.

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    Fung, T T; Rimm, E B; Spiegelman, D; Rifai, N; Tofler, G H; Willett, W C; Hu, F B

    2001-01-01

    Although the effects of individual foods or nutrients on the development of diseases and their risk factors have been investigated in many studies, little attention has been given to the effect of overall dietary patterns. Our objective was to examine the associations of 2 major dietary patterns, Western and prudent, with biomarkers of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We used factor analysis to define major dietary patterns for a subsample of men (n = 466) from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study by using dietary information collected from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) in 1994. We calculated partial correlation coefficients between pattern scores and biomarker values adjusted for age, smoking status, energy and alcohol intake, physical activity, hours of television watching, and body mass index. We derived 2 major dietary patterns that were generally reproducible over time. The first pattern (prudent) was characterized by higher intakes of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and poultry. The second pattern (Western) was characterized by higher intakes of red meats, high-fat dairy products, and refined grains. Using pattern scores from 1994 and adjusting for potential confounders, we found significant positive correlations between the Western pattern and insulin, C-peptide, leptin, and homocysteine concentrations, and an inverse correlation with plasma folate concentrations. The prudent pattern was positively correlated with plasma folate and inversely correlated with insulin and homocysteine concentrations. Major dietary patterns are predictors of plasma biomarkers of CVD and obesity risk, suggesting that the effect of overall diet on CVD risk may be mediated through these biomarkers.

  10. Dietary patterns and socioeconomic position.

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    Mullie, P; Clarys, P; Hulens, M; Vansant, G

    2010-03-01

    To test a socioeconomic hypothesis on three dietary patterns and to describe the relation between three commonly used methods to determine dietary patterns, namely Healthy Eating Index, Mediterranean Diet Score and principal component analysis. Cross-sectional design in 1852 military men. Using mailed questionnaires, the food consumption frequency was recorded. The correlation coefficients between the three dietary patterns varied between 0.43 and 0.62. The highest correlation was found between Healthy Eating Index and Healthy Dietary Pattern (principal components analysis). Cohen's kappa coefficient of agreement varied between 0.10 and 0.20. After age-adjustment, education and income remained associated with the most healthy dietary pattern. Even when both socioeconomic indicators were used together in one model, higher income and education were associated with higher scores for Healthy Eating Index, Mediterranean Diet Score and Healthy Dietary Pattern. The least healthy quintiles of dietary pattern as measured by the three methods were associated with a clustering of unhealthy behaviors, that is, smoking, low physical activity, highest intake of total fat and saturated fatty acids, and low intakes of fruits and vegetables. The three dietary patterns used indicated that the most healthy patterns were associated with a higher socioeconomic position, while lower patterns were associated with several unhealthy behaviors.

  11. Stroke, food groups, and dietary patterns: a systematic review.

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    Sherzai, Ayesha; Heim, Lauren T; Boothby, Cassaundra; Sherzai, A Dean

    2012-08-01

    Stroke is the fourth leading cause of mortality in the United States, yet it is 80% preventable by addressing lifestyle factors including nutrition. Evaluating the impact of nutrition at the food group and dietary pattern level will provide greater insight into the role of nutrition in stroke. For this purpose, a review of the literature was conducted using the PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL Plus online databases. While fruits, vegetables, and soy demonstrated a protective effect, variable findings were observed for fish, animal products, and whole grains. Adherence to DASH, Mediterranean, and prudent dietary patterns reduced the risk of stroke, whereas the Western dietary pattern was associated with increased stroke risk. Low-fat diet was not found to have a protective effect. Additional epidemiological evidence is needed to elucidate the impact of specific dietary patterns and food groups on stroke. Future research should consider developing dietary recommendations for stroke prevention, which are based on clinical trials and have an emphasis on food groups and dietary patterns that are palatable to the general public. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  12. Dietary patterns are associated with general and central obesity in elderly living in a Brazilian city

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    Priscila Lucelia Moreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: dietary pattern evaluation is often used in order to determine wheter a diet is healthy, as well as to predict the onset of diseases. This study aimed to identify dietary patterns, and to examine their associations with general (body mass index and central (waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio obesity in community-living elderly in a Brazilian city. Methods: this cross-sectional study included 126 elderly subjects aged 60 or older (57.1% females and mean age 74.2 ± 6.46 years. Anthropometric variables, weight, height, waist (WC and hip (HC circumferences, were measured. Body mass index (BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR were calculated. Answers to a Food Frequency Questionnaire were interpreted by Principal Component Analysis in order to identify dietary patterns. Results: five dietary patterns were identified and named as prudent (fruit, vegetables and meat, sweets and fats (pastries, sugary foods, fatty foods, whole milk, typical Brazilian (fried eggs, cooked beans, beef, candy, string beans, fried cassava, Mediterranean (fruit, vegetables, olive oil and nuts and traditional meal (rice and beans. Moderate and high adherences to the Mediterranean pattern were protective factors to general and central obesity (WHR. High adherence to prudent was also protective to central obesity (WC. Conclusion: adherences to the dietary patterns prudent and Mediterranean were protective factors to general and central obesity in elderly.

  13. Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk in an Urban Mexican Adult Population.

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    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Tucker, Katherine L; Flores, Mario; Barquera, Simón; Salmerón, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns may predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk more accurately than does consumption of specific nutrients or foods. We evaluated the association between Mexican adults' dietary patterns and development of a >10% risk of 10-y CVD (using the Framingham risk score) over 7 y of follow-up. This prospective cohort study included 1196 men and women aged 20-80 y with a 10-y predicted risk questionnaire. Dietary intake was evaluated by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The relations between dietary patterns and predicted CVD were analyzed by using pooled logistic regression models. With the use of factor analysis, we identified 3 major dietary patterns in participants' dietary data. The "prudent" pattern was characterized by high positive loadings for the consumption of fresh fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. The "meat/fish" pattern showed positive loadings for the consumption of red meat, processed meat, eggs, fats, fish, and poultry. Finally, the "refined foods" pattern featured positive loadings for corn tortillas, refined grains, soft drinks, and alcohol. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared with participants in the lowest quintile of the prudent pattern, those in the highest quintile had a lower RR of 10-y CVD (RR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.79; P-trend = 0.006). In contrast, participants in the highest quintile of the refined-foods pattern had a greater risk of elevated 10-y CVD (RR: 2.98; 95% CI: 1.46, 6.10; P-trend = 0.020) than did those in the lowest quintile. Finally, the meat/fish dietary pattern was not significantly associated with 10-y CVD. Our data suggest that the prudent pattern is associated with a reduced risk of 10-y CVD, whereas the refined-foods pattern may increase 10-y CVD in Mexican adults. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Gestational Diabetes Risk: A Case-Control Study

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    Fatemeh Sedaghat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Maternal dietary patterns play an important role in the progress of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. The aim of the present study was to explore this association. Method. A total of 388 pregnant women (122 case and 266 control were included. Dietary intake were collected using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. GDM was diagnosed using a 100-gram, 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary pattern was identified by factor analysis. To investigate the relation between each of the independent variables with gestational diabetes, the odds ratio (OR was calculated. Results. Western dietary pattern was high in sweets, jams, mayonnaise, soft drinks, salty snacks, solid fat, high-fat dairy products, potatoes, organ meat, eggs, red meat, processed foods, tea, and coffee. The prudent dietary pattern was characterized by higher intake of liquid oils, legumes, nuts and seeds, fruits and dried fruits, fish and poultry whole, and refined grains. Western dietary pattern was associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus before and after adjustment for confounders (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.27–3.04, OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.04–2.27. However, no significant association was found for a prudent pattern. Conclusion. These findings suggest that the Western dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM.

  15. Major dietary patterns and risk of frailty in older adults: a prospective cohort study.

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    León-Muñoz, Luz M; García-Esquinas, Esther; López-García, Esther; Banegas, José R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2015-01-20

    There is emerging evidence of the role of certain nutrients as risk factors for frailty. However, people eat food, rather than nutrients, and no previous study has examined the association between dietary patterns empirically derived from food consumption and the risk of frailty in older adults. This is a prospective cohort study of 1,872 non-institutionalized individuals aged ≥60 years recruited between 2008 and 2010. At baseline, food consumption was obtained with a validated diet history and, by using factor analysis, two dietary patterns were identified: a 'prudent' pattern, characterized by high intake of olive oil and vegetables, and a 'Westernized' pattern, with a high intake of refined bread, whole dairy products, and red and processed meat, as well as low consumption of fruit and vegetables. Participants were followed-up until 2012 to assess incident frailty, defined as at least three of the five Fried criteria (exhaustion, weakness, low physical activity, slow walking speed, and unintentional weight loss). Over a 3.5-year follow-up, 96 cases of incident frailty were ascertained. The multivariate odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty among those in the first (lowest), second, and third tertile of adherence to the prudent dietary pattern were 1, 0.64 (0.37-1.12), and 0.40 (0.2-0.81), respectively; P-trend = 0.009. The corresponding values for the Westernized pattern were 1, 1.53 (0.85-2.75), and 1.61 (0.85-3.03); P-trend = 0.14. Moreover, a greater adherence to the Westernized pattern was associated with an increasing risk of slow walking speed and weight loss. In older adults, a prudent dietary pattern showed an inverse dose-response relationship with the risk of frailty while a Westernized pattern had a direct relationship with some of their components. Clinical trials should test whether a prudent pattern is effective in preventing or delaying frailty.

  16. The effect of under-reporting of energy intake on dietary patterns and on the associations between dietary patterns and self-reported chronic disease in women aged 50-69 years.

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    Markussen, Marianne S; Veierød, Marit B; Ursin, Giske; Andersen, Lene F

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether under-reporting of energy intake affects derived dietary patterns and the association between dietary patterns and self-reported chronic disease. Diets of 6204 women aged 50-69 years participating in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program were assessed using a 253-item FFQ. We identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis. According to the revised Goldberg cut-off method, women with a ratio of reported energy intake:estimated BMRdietary patterns and self-reported chronic diseases by log-binomial regression, and the results are presented as prevalence ratios (PR) and CI. 'Prudent', 'Western' and 'Continental' dietary patterns were identified among all reporters and plausible reporters. The PR expressing the associations between the 'Western' and 'Prudent' dietary pattern scores and self-reported chronic diseases were consistently highest among plausible reporters except for joint/muscle/skeletal disorders. The largest difference in PR among plausible v. all reporters was found for the association between the 'Prudent' pattern and diabetes (PR for highest v. lowest tertile: PRall reporters 2·16; 95 % CI 1·50, 3·13; P trenddietary pattern and disease. In studies of dietary patterns, investigators ought to consider reporting effect estimates both for all individuals and for plausible reporters.

  17. Stability-based validation of dietary patterns obtained by cluster analysis.

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    Sauvageot, Nicolas; Schritz, Anna; Leite, Sonia; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Stranges, Saverio; Zannad, Faiez; Streel, Sylvie; Hoge, Axelle; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Albert, Adelin; Guillaume, Michèle

    2017-01-14

    Cluster analysis is a data-driven method used to create clusters of individuals sharing similar dietary habits. However, this method requires specific choices from the user which have an influence on the results. Therefore, there is a need of an objective methodology helping researchers in their decisions during cluster analysis. The objective of this study was to use such a methodology based on stability of clustering solutions to select the most appropriate clustering method and number of clusters for describing dietary patterns in the NESCAV study (Nutrition, Environment and Cardiovascular Health), a large population-based cross-sectional study in the Greater Region (N = 2298). Clustering solutions were obtained with K-means, K-medians and Ward's method and a number of clusters varying from 2 to 6. Their stability was assessed with three indices: adjusted Rand index, Cramer's V and misclassification rate. The most stable solution was obtained with K-means method and a number of clusters equal to 3. The "Convenient" cluster characterized by the consumption of convenient foods was the most prevalent with 46% of the population having this dietary behaviour. In addition, a "Prudent" and a "Non-Prudent" patterns associated respectively with healthy and non-healthy dietary habits were adopted by 25% and 29% of the population. The "Convenient" and "Non-Prudent" clusters were associated with higher cardiovascular risk whereas the "Prudent" pattern was associated with a decreased cardiovascular risk. Associations with others factors showed that the choice of a specific dietary pattern is part of a wider lifestyle profile. This study is of interest for both researchers and public health professionals. From a methodological standpoint, we showed that using stability of clustering solutions could help researchers in their choices. From a public health perspective, this study showed the need of targeted health promotion campaigns describing the benefits of healthy

  18. Dietary patterns, meat intake, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women.

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    Fung, Teresa T; Schulze, Matthias; Manson, JoAnn E; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2004-11-08

    Although obesity is the most important risk factor for type 2 diabetes, evidence is emerging that certain foods and dietary factors may be associated with diabetes. To examine the association between major dietary patterns and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a cohort of women. We prospectively assessed the associations between major dietary patterns and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Dietary information was collected in 1984, 1986, 1990, and 1994 from 69,554 women aged 38 to 63 years without a history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer in 1984. We conducted factor analysis and identified 2 major dietary patterns: "prudent" and "Western." We then calculated pattern scores for each participant and examined prospectively the associations between dietary pattern scores and type 2 diabetes risks. The prudent pattern was characterized by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, legumes, fish, poultry, and whole grains, while the Western pattern included higher intakes of red and processed meats, sweets and desserts, french fries, and refined grains. During 14 years of follow-up, we identified 2699 incident cases of type 2 diabetes. After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed a relative risk for diabetes of 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-1.76, P for trend, dogs, and 1.43 (95% CI, 1.22-1.69) for processed meats. The Western pattern, especially a diet higher in processed meats, may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes in women.

  19. Dietary patterns and associated lifestyles in individuals with and without familial history of obesity: a cross-sectional study

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    Vohl Marie-Claude

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial history of obesity (FHO and certain dietary habits are risk factors for obesity. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were 1 to derive dietary patterns using factor analysis in a population of men and women with and without FHO; 2 to compare mean factor scores for each dietary pattern between individuals with and without FHO; and 3 to examine the association between these patterns and anthropometric, lifestyle and sociodemographic variables. Methods A total of 197 women and 129 men with a body mass index 2 were recruited. A positive FHO (FHO+ was defined as having at least one obese first-degree relative and a negative FHO (FHO- as no obese first-degree relative. Dietary data were collected from a food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was performed to derive dietary patterns. Mean factor scores were compared using general linear model among men and women according to FHO. Regression analyses were performed to study the relationship between anthropometric, lifestyle and sociodemographic variables, and each dietary pattern. Results Two dietary patterns were identified in both men and women : the Western pattern characterized by a higher consumption of red meats, poultry, processed meats, refined grains as well as desserts, and the Prudent pattern characterized by greater intakes of vegetables, fruits, non-hydrogenated fat, and fish and seafood. Similar Western and Prudent factor scores were observed in individual with and without FHO. In men with FHO+, the Western pattern is negatively associated with age and positively associated with physical activity, smoking, and personal income. In women with FHO-, the Prudent pattern is negatively associated with BMI and smoking and these pattern is positively associated with age and physical activity. Conclusion Two dietary patterns have been identified among men and women with and without FHO. Although that FHO does not seem to influence the adherence to dietary

  20. How dietary patterns could have a role in prevention, progression, or management of diabetes mellitus? Review on the current evidence

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    Zahra Maghsoudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the role of dietary patterns in prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of databases which were published in ISI, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, PubMed, Iran Medex, and MagIran was performed. "Diabetes" and "dietary pattern" were used as the keywords. Results: A total of 58 studies which aimed to focus on diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, dietary pattern, and other related key words were reviewed. More than 47,447 articles were found and 46,709 entries of the extracted studies were excluded on the basis of the title and abstracts. The major dietary patterns were: "Healthy," "Western," "Traditional," "Prudent," "Unhealthy," "Mediterranean," "Modern," and "Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension" (DASH diets. Comparison of the effects of different diets revealed that dietary patterns containing fiber-rich foods have a protective role in managing diabetes mellitus. "Healthy," "Mediterranean," "Prudent," and "DASH" dietary patterns were associated with lower risk of hyperglycemia. Conclusions: The adherence to the "Mediterranean," "Prudent," or "DASH" diets could control hyperglycemia. The higher intake of vegetables, fruits, nuts, whole grains, and lower intake of red meat could reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  1. How dietary patterns could have a role in prevention, progression, or management of diabetes mellitus? Review on the current evidence.

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    Maghsoudi, Zahra; Azadbakht, Leila

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the role of dietary patterns in prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review of databases which were published in ISI, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, PubMed, Iran Medex, and MagIran was performed. "Diabetes" and "dietary pattern" were used as the keywords. A total of 58 studies which aimed to focus on diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, dietary pattern, and other related key words were reviewed. More than 47,447 articles were found and 46,709 entries of the extracted studies were excluded on the basis of the title and abstracts. The major dietary patterns were: "Healthy", "Western", "Traditional", "Prudent", "Unhealthy", "Mediterranean", "Modern", and "Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension" (DASH) diets. Comparison of the effects of different diets revealed that dietary patterns containing fiber-rich foods have a protective role in managing diabetes mellitus. "Healthy", "Mediterranean", "Prudent", and "DASH" dietary patterns were associated with lower risk of hyperglycemia. The adherence to the Mediterranean, Prudent, or DASH diets could control hyperglycemia. The higher intake of vegetables, fruits, nuts, whole grains, and lower intake of red meat could reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. Dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C M; Lovegrove, J A; Griffin, B A

    2013-11-01

    Despite strong prospective epidemiology and mechanistic evidence for the benefits of certain micronutrients in preventing CVD, neutral and negative outcomes from secondary intervention trials have undermined the efficacy of supplemental nutrition in preventing CVD. In contrast, evidence for the positive impact of specific diets in CVD prevention, such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, has focused attention on the potential benefits of whole diets and specific dietary patterns. These patterns have been scored on the basis of current guidelines for the prevention of CVD, to provide a quantitative evaluation of the relationship between diet and disease. Using this approach, large prospective studies have reported reductions in CVD risk ranging from 10 to 60% in groups whose diets can be variously classified as ‘Healthy’, ‘Prudent’, Mediterranean’ or ‘DASH compliant’. Evaluation of the relationship between dietary score and risk biomarkers has also been informative with respect to underlying mechanisms. However, although this analysis may appear to validate whole-diet approaches to disease prevention, it must be remembered that the classification of dietary scores is based on current understanding of diet–disease relationships, which may be incomplete or erroneous. Of particular concern is the limited number of high-quality intervention studies of whole diets, which include disease endpoints as the primary outcome. The aims of this review are to highlight the limitations of dietary guidelines based on nutrient-specific data, and the persuasive evidence for the benefits of whole dietary patterns on CVD risk. It also makes a plea for more randomised controlled trials, which are designed to support food and whole dietary-based approaches for preventing CVD.

  3. Dietary Patterns and Human Reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vujkovic (Marijana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPart 1 of the thesis focuses on dietary patterns and fatty acid intake in couples undergoing IVF/ICSI fertility treatment. The studies described in Chapter 2, 3 and 4 are based on the FOod Lifestyle and Fertility Outcome study (FOLFO), a prospective cohort study examining the influence

  4. Association between yogurt consumption, dietary patterns, and cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Hubert; Thifault, Élisabeth; Garneau, Véronique; Tremblay, Angelo; Drapeau, Vicky; Pérusse, Louis; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2016-03-01

    To examine whether yogurt consumption is associated with a healthier dietary pattern and with a better cardio-metabolic risk profile among healthy individuals classified on the basis of their body mass index (BMI). A 91-item food frequency questionnaire, including data on yogurt consumption, was administered to 664 subjects from the INFOGENE study. After principal component analysis, two factors were retained, thus classified as the Prudent and Western dietary patterns. Yogurt was a significant contributor to the Prudent dietary pattern. Moreover, yogurt consumption was associated with lower body weight, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist circumference and tended to be associated with a lower BMI. Consumers had lower levels of fasting total cholesterol and insulin. Consumers of yogurt had a positive Prudent dietary pattern mean score, while the opposite trend was observed in non-consumers of yogurt. Overweight/obese individuals who were consumers of yogurts exhibited a more favorable cardio-metabolic profile characterized by lower plasma triglyceride and insulin levels than non-consumers within the same range of BMI. There was no difference in total yogurt consumption between normal-weight individuals and overweight/obese individuals. However, normal-weight subjects had more daily servings of high-fat yogurt and less daily servings of fat-free yogurt compared to overweight/obese individuals. Being a significant contributor to the Prudent dietary pattern, yogurt consumption may be associated with healthy eating. Also, yogurt consumption may be associated with lower anthropometric indicators and a more beneficial cardio-metabolic risk profile in overweight/obese individuals.

  5. Dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes in Japanese men and women: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanri, A; Shimazu, T; Takachi, R; Ishihara, J; Mizoue, T; Noda, M; Inoue, M; Tsugane, S

    2013-01-01

    Dietary patterns in Western populations have been linked to type 2 diabetes, but the association of distinctive dietary patterns of Japanese population remains unclear. We prospectively investigated the association between dietary patterns and risk of developing type 2 diabetes among Japanese adults. Participants were 27, 816 men and 36,889 women aged 45-74 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study and had no history of diabetes. Dietary patterns were derived by using principal component analysis of the consumption of 134 food and beverage items ascertained by a food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios of self-reported physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes over 5 year were estimated using logistic regression analysis. A total of 1194 new cases (692 men and 502 women) of type 2 diabetes were self-reported. We identified three dietary patterns: prudent, westernized and traditional Japanese patterns. Any dietary pattern was not significantly associated with type 2 diabetes risk after adjustment for covariates in both men and women. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for type 2 diabetes for the highest versus lowest quartile of each dietary pattern score in men and women, respectively, were 0.93 (0.74-1.16) and 0.90 (0.69-1.16) for the prudent pattern, 1.15 (0.90-1.46) and 0.81 (0.61-1.08) for the westernized pattern, and 0.97 (0.74-1.27) and 0.87 (0.66-1.15) for the traditional pattern. Although a small protective effect of the prudent dietary pattern cannot be excluded, dietary patterns may not be appreciably associated with type 2 diabetes risk in Japanese.

  6. Inuit dietary patterns in modern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions.......The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions....

  7. Association between healthy maternal dietary pattern and risk for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryggvadottir, E A; Medek, H; Birgisdottir, B E; Geirsson, R T; Gunnarsdottir, I

    2016-02-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with negative health effects for mother and child. The aim was to investigate the association between maternal dietary patterns and GDM. Prospective observational study including 168 pregnant women aged 18-40 years, recruited at routine 20-week ultrasound. All participants kept a 4-day weighed food record following recruitment (commencement: gestational weeks 19-24). Principal component analysis was used to extract dietary patterns from 29 food groups. A Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was constructed. All women underwent an oral glucose tolerance test in weeks 23-28. One clear dietary pattern (Eigenvalue 2.4) was extracted with positive factor loadings for seafood; eggs; vegetables; fruits and berries; vegetable oils; nuts and seeds; pasta; breakfast cereals; and coffee, tea and cocoa powder, and negative factor loadings for soft drinks and French fries. This pattern was labeled a prudent dietary pattern. Explained variance was 8.2%. The prevalence of GDM was 2.3% among women of normal weight before pregnancy (n=86) and 18.3% among overweight/obese women (n=82). The prudent dietary pattern was associated with lower risk of GDM (OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.98). When adjusting for age, parity, prepregnancy weight, energy intake, weekly weight gain and total metabolic equivalent of task the association remained (OR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.94). Similar results were found when only including overweight or obese women (OR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.75). Adhering to a prudent dietary pattern in pregnancy was clearly associated with lower risk of GDM, especially among women already at higher risk because of overweight/obesity before pregnancy.

  8. Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated to low risk of aggressive prostate cancer: MCC-Spain study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Adela; Boldo, Elena; Amiano, Pilar; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Aragonés, Nuria; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Peiró, Rosana; Jimenez-Moleón, Jose Juan; Alguacil, Juan; Tardón, Adonina; Cecchini, Lluís; Lope, Virginia; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Mengual, Lourdes; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz

    2017-08-22

    To explore the association of the previously described Western, Prudent and Mediterranean dietary patterns with prostate cancer risk by tumor aggressiveness and extension. MCC-Spain is a population-based multicase-control study, carried out in 7 Spanish provinces between September 2008 and December 2013. It collected anthropometric, epidemiologic and dietary information on 754 histologically confirmed incident cases of prostate cancer and 1277 controls aged 38 to 85 years. Three previously identified dietary patterns -Western, Prudent and Mediterranean- were reconstructed using MCC-Spain data. The association between each pattern and prostate cancer risk was assessed using logistic regression models with random province-specific intercepts. Risk according to tumor aggressiveness (Gleason score grade =6 vs >6) and extension (cT1-cT2a vs cT2b-cT4) was evaluated with multinomial regression models. High adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern -rich in fruits and vegetables, but also in fish, legumes and olive oil- was specifically associated to lower risk of prostate cancer with Gleason score >6: RRRQuartile3(Q3)vsQuartile1(Q1)=0.66; 95%CI:0.46-0.96 and RRRQuartile4(Q4)vsQuartile1=0.68;95%CI:0.46-1.01;p-trend=0.023) or with higher clinical stage (cT2b-T4: RRRQuartile4vsQuartile1=0.49; 95%CI:0.25-0.96; p-trend=0.024). This association was not observed with Prudent pattern, which combines vegetables and fruits with low fat dairy products, whole grains and juices. Western pattern did not show any association with prostate cancer risk. Nutritional recommendations for prostate cancer prevention should consider whole dietary patterns instead of individual foods. We found important differences between Mediterranean dietary pattern, which was associated to lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer, and Western and Prudent dietary patterns, that had no relationship with prostate cancer risk. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  9. Dietary patterns are associated with bone mineral density in an urban Mexican adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denova-Gutiérrez, E; Clark, P; Tucker, K L; Muñoz-Aguirre, P; Salmerón, J

    2016-10-01

    Several types of nutrients and foods affect bone mineral density (BMD). However, these nutrients occur together in food groups and dietary patterns, and the overall effects of dietary patterns are not yet well known. We evaluated the associations between dietary patterns and BMD among adults participating in the Health Workers Cohort Study. In a cross-sectional analysis, we examined 6915 Mexican adults aged 20-80 years. All participants completed a validated self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and had total, hip, and spine BMD measurements assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The FFQ included 116 foods, which were grouped into 22 categories and entered into a factor analysis to derive dietary patterns. Three dietary patterns emerged-a Prudent, a Refined foods, and a Dairy and fish pattern. After adjustment for potential confounders, those in the highest quintile of the Prudent pattern had lower odds (OR) of low spine BMD (OR = 0.80; 95 % CI 0.68, 0.94; P for trend = 0.031) compared to those in the lowest quintile. In contrast, participants in the highest quintile of the Refined foods pattern had greater odds of low total BMD (OR = 1.74; 95 % CI 1.10, 2.76; P for trend = 0.016) than those in the lowest quintile. Finally, participants in the highest quintile of the Dairy and fish dietary pattern had significantly lower likelihood of having low BMD. This study identified specific dietary patterns associated with BMD among a Mexican adult population and highlights the importance of promoting food-based prevention strategies for maintaining bone health.

  10. Dietary patterns and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality in Japanese men and women: The Japan public health center-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanri, Akiko; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Shimazu, Taichi; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis showed an inverse association of a prudent/healthy dietary pattern with all-cause mortality and no association of a western/unhealthy dietary pattern. However, the association of distinctive dietary patterns of Japanese population with mortality remains unclear. We prospectively investigated the association between dietary patterns and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality among Japanese adults. Participants were 36,737 men and 44,983 women aged 45-74 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (1995-1998) and who had no history of serious disease. Dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis of the consumption of 134 food and beverage items ascertained by a food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios of death from the second survey to December 2012 were estimated using cox proportional hazard regression analysis. A prudent dietary pattern, which was characterized by high intake of vegetables, fruit, soy products, potatoes, seaweed, mushrooms, and fish, was significantly associated with decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality for the highest versus lowest quartile of the prudent dietary pattern score were 0.82 (0.77 to 0.86) and 0.72 (0.64 to 0.79), respectively (P for trend <0.001 in both). A Westernized dietary pattern, characterized by high intake of meat, processed meat, bread, and dairy products, was also inversely associated with risk of all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality. A traditional Japanese dietary pattern was not associated with these risks. The prudent and Westernized dietary patterns were associated with a decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in Japanese adults.

  11. Dietary patterns and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality in Japanese men and women: The Japan public health center-based prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Nanri

    Full Text Available A meta-analysis showed an inverse association of a prudent/healthy dietary pattern with all-cause mortality and no association of a western/unhealthy dietary pattern. However, the association of distinctive dietary patterns of Japanese population with mortality remains unclear. We prospectively investigated the association between dietary patterns and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality among Japanese adults.Participants were 36,737 men and 44,983 women aged 45-74 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (1995-1998 and who had no history of serious disease. Dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis of the consumption of 134 food and beverage items ascertained by a food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios of death from the second survey to December 2012 were estimated using cox proportional hazard regression analysis.A prudent dietary pattern, which was characterized by high intake of vegetables, fruit, soy products, potatoes, seaweed, mushrooms, and fish, was significantly associated with decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality for the highest versus lowest quartile of the prudent dietary pattern score were 0.82 (0.77 to 0.86 and 0.72 (0.64 to 0.79, respectively (P for trend <0.001 in both. A Westernized dietary pattern, characterized by high intake of meat, processed meat, bread, and dairy products, was also inversely associated with risk of all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality. A traditional Japanese dietary pattern was not associated with these risks.The prudent and Westernized dietary patterns were associated with a decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in Japanese adults.

  12. Specific dietary patterns and concentrations of adiponectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihe Izadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the adipokines mostly secreted from adipose tissue is adiponectin. Adiponectin is well known as the anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and cardio-protective factor. Present study focused on the review the previous studies about relationship between adherence to healthy dietary pattern, independent of one or two special dietary components, and concentration of adiponectin. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed search engine from 2003 to July 2014 using the following key words: Healthy dietary pattern, mediterranean dietary pattern, dietary pattern, diet intervention and adiponectin and adipokines. Then, we recruited 10 articles to review in the present study. Results: Cohort studies that are examined this relationship among women showed the strong positive association in this regard. According to cross-sectional studies adherence to healthy dietary pattern like Mediterranian intervention with moderate weight loss had a positive association with concentration of adiponectin. Conclusion: It seems that adherents to the healthy dietary patterns have great levels of circulating adiponectin. However, it is not clear that whether the separate components of healthy dietary patterns like good sources of fats or protein or fibers mostly have important roles in these beneficial effects of such dietary patterns or not.

  13. Association between Dietary Pattern and Incidence of Cholesterolemia in Korean Adults: The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieul; Kim, Jihye

    2018-01-09

    We examined the gender-specific association between dietary pattern and risk of developing cholesterolemia based on the data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology study. A total of 7515 individuals aged 40-69 years participated in this study between 2005 and 2010. Dietary intake was assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Low HDL cholesterolemia was defined as a plasma HDL-C level 3.37 mmol/L. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the risk for incident cholesterolemia according to dietary pattern score. Four dietary patterns were derived by gender using factor analysis: prudent pattern; coffee, fat, and sweet pattern; whole grain (men) or white rice and noodle (women) pattern; and westernized pattern. A prudent pattern was inversely associated with risk of low HDL cholesterolemia in both men (Hazard ratio (HR) = 0.76, p for trend = 0.0098) and women (HR = 0.78, p for trend = 0.0324), whereas the coffee, fat, and sweet pattern was positively associated with risk of high LDL cholesterolemia in men only (HR = 1.26, p for trend = 0.0254) after adjustment for potential confounders. Specific dietary patterns were associated with risk of developing cholesterolemia suggesting gender differences.

  14. Association between Dietary Pattern and Incidence of Cholesterolemia in Korean Adults: The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieul Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the gender-specific association between dietary pattern and risk of developing cholesterolemia based on the data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology study. A total of 7515 individuals aged 40–69 years participated in this study between 2005 and 2010. Dietary intake was assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Low HDL cholesterolemia was defined as a plasma HDL-C level <1.04 mmol/L (men or <1.30 mmol/L (women, and high LDL cholesterolemia was defined as a plasma LDL-C level >3.37 mmol/L. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the risk for incident cholesterolemia according to dietary pattern score. Four dietary patterns were derived by gender using factor analysis: prudent pattern; coffee, fat, and sweet pattern; whole grain (men or white rice and noodle (women pattern; and westernized pattern. A prudent pattern was inversely associated with risk of low HDL cholesterolemia in both men (Hazard ratio (HR = 0.76, p for trend = 0.0098 and women (HR = 0.78, p for trend = 0.0324, whereas the coffee, fat, and sweet pattern was positively associated with risk of high LDL cholesterolemia in men only (HR = 1.26, p for trend = 0.0254 after adjustment for potential confounders. Specific dietary patterns were associated with risk of developing cholesterolemia suggesting gender differences.

  15. Maternal dietary patterns and preterm delivery: results from large prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Sengpiel, Verena; Haugen, Margareta; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Myhre, Ronny; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Jacobsson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether an association exists between maternal dietary patterns and risk of preterm delivery. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Norway, between 2002 and 2008. Participants 66 000 pregnant women (singletons, answered food frequency questionnaire, no missing information about parity or previously preterm delivery, pregnancy duration between 22+0 and 41+6 gestational weeks, no diabetes, first enrolment pregnancy). Main outcome measure Hazard ratio for preterm delivery according to level of adherence to three distinct dietary patterns interpreted as “prudent” (for example, vegetables, fruits, oils, water as beverage, whole grain cereals, fibre rich bread), “Western” (salty and sweet snacks, white bread, desserts, processed meat products), and “traditional” (potatoes, fish). Results After adjustment for covariates, high scores on the “prudent” pattern were associated with significantly reduced risk of preterm delivery hazard ratio for the highest versus the lowest third (0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 0.97). The prudent pattern was also associated with a significantly lower risk of late and spontaneous preterm delivery. No independent association with preterm delivery was found for the “Western” pattern. The “traditional” pattern was associated with reduced risk of preterm delivery for the highest versus the lowest third (hazard ratio 0.91, 0.83 to 0.99). Conclusion This study showed that women adhering to a “prudent” or a “traditional” dietary pattern during pregnancy were at lower risk of preterm delivery compared with other women. Although these findings cannot establish causality, they support dietary advice to pregnant women to eat a balanced diet including vegetables, fruit, whole grains, and fish and to drink water. Our results indicate that increasing the intake of foods associated with a prudent dietary pattern is more important than totally excluding processed food, fast food, junk food, and

  16. Consumers' dietary patterns and desires for change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Birgit

    1. The objective of this working paper is to analyse consumers' dietary patterns as reflected in shopping, meal patterns, eating habits, traditions, cooking and the content of the diet itself. These dietary patterns were analysed with regard to th connection to consumers' ways of life, family for...... relate to this type of information. Consumers can't take any more information than they get at the moment, but this could be focused more precisely on the things consumers to know....

  17. Dietary Patterns and Survival of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANDERSON, AMY L.; HARRIS, TAMARA B.; TYLAVSKY, FRANCES A.; PERRY, SARA E.; HOUSTON, DENISE K.; HUE, TRISHA F.; STROTMEYER, ELSA S.; SAHYOUN, NADINE R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research has linked overall dietary patterns to survival in older adults. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the dietary patterns of a cohort of older adults, and to explore associations of these dietary patterns with survival over a 10-year period. A secondary goal was to evaluate participants’ quality of life and nutritional status according to their dietary patterns. Design The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study is a prospective cohort study of 3,075 older adults. In this study, all-cause mortality was assessed from baseline through Year 10. Food intake was estimated with a modified Block food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns of 2,582 participants with complete data were derived by cluster analysis. Results Six dietary pattern clusters were identified, including a Healthy Foods cluster, characterized by higher intake of low-fat dairy products, fruit, whole grains, poultry, fish, and vegetables. Both the High-Fat Dairy Products and Sweets and Desserts clusters had a 1.4-fold higher risk of mortality than the Healthy Foods cluster after adjusting for potential confounders. The Healthy Foods cluster also had significantly more years of healthy life and more favorable levels of selected nutritional biomarkers than the other clusters. Conclusions A dietary pattern consistent with current guidelines to consume relatively high amounts of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, poultry, fish, and low-fat dairy products may be associated with superior nutritional status, quality of life and survival in older adults. PMID:21185969

  18. Dietary patterns associated with anthropometric indicators of abdominal fat in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Ana Amélia Freitas; Sichieri, Rosely; Pereira, Rosângela Alves; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to identify dietary patterns and assess their association with abdominal fat. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Central West Region of Brazil with a probabilistic sample of 208 adults of both sexes. Data on food intake was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis (principal components) was conducted to identify dietary patterns. Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were used to assess abdominal fat. The association between dietary patterns and body fat distribution was examined using multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for confounders. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western, regional traditional, and prudent. A positive association was found between the Western pattern and WC (p = 0.04) and WHR (p = 0.001) and between the regional traditional pattern and WHR (p = 0.05) among women. A slight association was also found between the latter pattern and WC (p = 0.07) also among women. An association was found between the Western and regional traditional dietary patterns and a larger concentration of abdominal fat among women.

  19. Dietary patterns associated with anthropometric indicators of abdominal fat in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Freitas Vilela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify dietary patterns and assess their association with abdominal fat. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Central West Region of Brazil with a probabilistic sample of 208 adults of both sexes. Data on food intake was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis (principal components was conducted to identify dietary patterns. Waist circumference (WC and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR were used to assess abdominal fat. The association between dietary patterns and body fat distribution was examined using multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for confounders. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western, regional traditional, and prudent. A positive association was found between the Western pattern and WC (p = 0.04 and WHR (p = 0.001 and between the regional traditional pattern and WHR (p = 0.05 among women. A slight association was also found between the latter pattern and WC (p = 0.07 also among women. An association was found between the Western and regional traditional dietary patterns and a larger concentration of abdominal fat among women.

  20. Dietary patterns as predictors of body fat and BMI in women: a factor analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Larry A; Tucker, Jared M; Bailey, Bruce W; LeCheminant, James D

    2015-01-01

    To identify independent patterns of diet using factor analysis to determine the extent to which dietary patterns account for differences in body fat percentage (BF%) and body mass index (BMI). Also, to ascertain the extent to which the associations are influenced by age, education, menopause, energy intake, and physical activity. Study design was cross-sectional. Study setting was approximately 20 cities in the Mountain West. The study included 281 apparently healthy female nonsmokers. Diet was assessed using 7-day weighed food records, and foods were categorized using the American Diabetes and American Dietetic Associations Exchange Lists and expressed as servings per 1000 kcal. BF% was measured using the Bod Pod, and physical activity was estimated using accelerometers worn for 1 week. We used factor analysis, general linear models, and partial correlations. Three dietary patterns were identified: (1) Prudent Pattern, (2) Low-fat Milk, and (3) Meat. Higher consumption of the Prudent Pattern corresponded with significantly lower BF% (F = 8.5, p = .0038) and BMI (F = 4.4, p = .0363). The Low-fat Milk pattern was inversely related to BF% (F = 5.4, p = .0207) and BMI (F = 9.5, p = .0023). Higher intake of the Meat pattern was related to higher levels of BF% (F = 4.5, p = .0346) and BMI (F = 4.2, p = .0418). These findings support an association between dietary patterns and body composition. Dietary patterns reflect the complex interrelationships inherent in day-to-day eating and are strongly related to differences in BF% and BMI in women.

  1. Dietary Patterns After the Weaning and Lactation Period Associate with Celiac Disease Autoimmunity in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Monica; Beth, Sytske A; Voortman, Trudy; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; van Zelm, Menno C; Moll, Henriette A; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2018-02-23

    There have been many studies of associations between infant feeding practices and development of celiac disease during childhood, but few studies have focused on overall diets of young children following the weaning period. We aimed to examine the association between common dietary patterns in infants and the occurrence of celiac disease autoimmunity during childhood. We performed a prospective analysis of data from the Generation R Study that comprised 1997 children born from April 2002 through January 2006 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Food consumption around 1 year of age was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Dietary data were examined using a priori (based on existing guidelines) and a posteriori (Principal Component Analysis and Reduced Rank Regression) dietary pattern analyses. Five dietary patterns were compared. Celiac disease autoimmunity, determined based on serum concentration of transglutaminase-2 autoantibody (TG2A) below or above 7 U/mL, was evaluated at 6 years. Associations between dietary pattern adherence scores and celiac disease autoimmunity were examined using multivariable logistic regression models. Higher adherence to the a posteriori-derived prudent dietary pattern (high intake of vegetables, vegetable oils, pasta, and grains and low consumption of refined cereals and sweet beverages) at 1 year was significantly associated with lower odds of celiac disease autoimmunity at 6 years (odds ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54-0.84). No significant associations were found for other 4 dietary patterns. In a prospective study of dietary patterns of young children in the Netherlands, we associated a diet with high consumption of vegetables and grains, and low consumption of refined cereals and sweet beverages, with lower odds of celiac disease autoimmunity. Early-life dietary patterns might therefore be involved in the development of celiac disease during childhood. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Dietary patterns in men and women are simultaneously determinants of altered glucose metabolism and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsetmo, Lisa; Barr, Susan I; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Berger, Claudie; Kovacs, Christopher S; Josse, Robert G; Adachi, Jonathan D; Hanley, David A; Prior, Jerilynn C; Brown, Jacques P; Morin, Suzanne N; Davison, Kenneth S; Goltzman, David; Kreiger, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesized that diet would have direct effects on glucose metabolism with direct and indirect effects on bone metabolism in a cohort of Canadian adults. We assessed dietary patterns (Prudent [fruit, vegetables, whole grains, fish, and legumes] and Western [soft drinks, potato chips, French fries, meats, and desserts]) from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used fasting blood samples to measure glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), parathyroid hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (a bone formation marker), and serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTX; a bone resorption marker). We used multivariate regression models adjusted for confounders and including/excluding body mass index. In a secondary analysis, we examined relationships through structural equations models. The Prudent diet was associated with favorable effects on glucose metabolism (lower insulin and HOMA-IR) and bone metabolism (lower CTX in women; higher 25OHD and lower parathyroid hormone in men). The Western diet was associated with deleterious effects on glucose metabolism (higher glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR) and bone metabolism (higher bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and lower 25OHD in women; higher CTX in men). Body mass index adjustment moved point estimates toward the null, indicating partial mediation. The structural equation model confirmed the hypothesized linkage with strong effects of Prudent and Western diet on metabolic risk, and both direct and indirect effects of a Prudent diet on bone turnover. In summary, a Prudent diet was associated with lower metabolic risk with both primary and mediated effects on bone turnover, suggesting that it is a potential target for reducing fracture risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary pattern and risk of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Soodeh Razeghi; Toghae, Mansoureh; Jahromi, Mohammad Jamal Razeghi; Aloosh, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that nutrition might play a role in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, dietary patterns associated with MS risk are unknown. This study was conducted to compare the dietary patterns of patients with MS and healthy controls to find the relationship between dietary patterns and MS. Usual dietary intake of 75 women with relapsing/remitting MS (RRMS) and 75 healthy controls were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire consisting of 168 food items. To define major dietary patterns, we used factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of MS. Traditional pattern (high in low-fat dairy products, red meat, vegetable oil, onion, whole grain, soy, refined grains, organ meats, coffee, and legumes) was inversely related to the risk of MS [odds ratio (OR) = 0.15; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03-0.18; P = 0.028]. A similar inverse relationship was noted between MS risk and lacto-vegetarian (high in nuts, fruits, French fries, coffee, sweets and desserts, vegetables, and high-fat dairy products) and vegetarian (high in green leafy vegetables, hydrogenated fats, tomato, yellow vegetables, fruit juices, onion, and other vegetables) patterns (OR = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.12-0.82; P = 0.018 and OR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19-0.90; P = 0.026, respectively). In contrast, the prevalence of MS was higher in those who had high animal fat dietary pattern (high in animal fats, potato, meat products, sugars, and hydrogenated fats and low in whole grains) (OR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.63-2.94; P < 0.005). Our findings showed that the risk of RRMS can be affected by major dietary patterns.

  4. Associations between dietary pattern and lifestyle, anthropometry and other health indicators in the elderly participants of the EPIC-Italy cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Valeria; Sieri, Sabina; Masala, Giovanna; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Vineis, Paolo; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Galasso, Rocco; Salvini, Simonetta; Ceroti, Marco; Berrino, Franco; Fusconi, Elisabetta; Tumino, Rosario; Frasca, Graziella; Riboli, Elio; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Baibas, Nikolaos; Krogh, Vittorio

    2006-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that dietary behaviour is an important aetiological factor in various chronic diseases. We used principal component factor analysis to identify dietary patterns and to examine the associations of these patterns with health-related variables in a sample of elderly (> or =60 years) Italians participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Exploratory factor analysis was applied to the intake of food groups as estimated by semi-quantitative food questionnaires. Individual participants were assigned factor scores, indicating the extent to which their diet conformed to each of the four dietary patterns identified: prudent (cooked vegetables, pulses, cabbage, seed oil and fish); pasta & meat (pasta, tomato sauce, red meat, processed meat, bread and wine); olive oil & salad (raw vegetables, olive oil, soup and chicken); and sweet & dairy (sugar, cakes, ice cream, coffee and dairy). Highly educated people had high scores on prudent and low scores on pasta & meat. The pasta & meat and prudent patterns were strongly positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in men and women. Hyperlipidaemic men and women consumed more of the prudent and olive oil & salad patterns and less of the sweet & dairy pattern than those with normal lipids. The olive oil & salad was significantly higher and the pasta & meat and sweet & dairy patterns significantly lower in men and women who had dieted over the previous year, suggesting awareness of the health consequences of these patterns. Dietary pattern analysis provides a characterization of recurrent dietary behaviour in elderly people, and can be used to provide tangible dietary advice to elderly people.

  5. Associations between dietary patterns and gene expression profiles of healthy men and women: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Diet regulates gene expression profiles by several mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine gene expression in relation with dietary patterns. Methods Two hundred and fifty four participants from the greater Quebec City metropolitan area were recruited. Two hundred and ten participants completed the study protocol. Dietary patterns were derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by factor analysis. For 30 participants (in fasting state), RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and expression levels of 47,231 mRNA transcripts were assessed using the Illumina Human-6 v3 Expression BeadChips®. Microarray data was pre-processed with Flexarray software and analysed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results Two dietary patterns were identified. The Prudent dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, whole grain products and low intakes of refined grain products and the Western dietary pattern, by high intakes of refined grain products, desserts, sweets and processed meats. When individuals with high scores for the Prudent dietary pattern where compared to individuals with low scores, 2,083 transcripts were differentially expressed in men, 1,136 transcripts in women and 59 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. For the Western dietary pattern, 1,021 transcripts were differentially expressed in men with high versus low scores, 1,163 transcripts in women and 23 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. IPA reveals that genes differentially expressed for both patterns were present in networks related to the immune and/or inflammatory response, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion Gene expression profiles were different according to dietary patterns, which probably modulate the risk of chronic diseases. Trial Registration NCT: NCT01343342 PMID:23398686

  6. Associations between dietary patterns and gene expression profiles of healthy men and women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2013-02-12

    Diet regulates gene expression profiles by several mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine gene expression in relation with dietary patterns. Two hundred and fifty four participants from the greater Quebec City metropolitan area were recruited. Two hundred and ten participants completed the study protocol. Dietary patterns were derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by factor analysis. For 30 participants (in fasting state), RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and expression levels of 47,231 mRNA transcripts were assessed using the Illumina Human-6 v3 Expression BeadChips®. Microarray data was pre-processed with Flexarray software and analysed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Two dietary patterns were identified. The Prudent dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, whole grain products and low intakes of refined grain products and the Western dietary pattern, by high intakes of refined grain products, desserts, sweets and processed meats. When individuals with high scores for the Prudent dietary pattern where compared to individuals with low scores, 2,083 transcripts were differentially expressed in men, 1,136 transcripts in women and 59 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. For the Western dietary pattern, 1,021 transcripts were differentially expressed in men with high versus low scores, 1,163 transcripts in women and 23 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. IPA reveals that genes differentially expressed for both patterns were present in networks related to the immune and/or inflammatory response, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Gene expression profiles were different according to dietary patterns, which probably modulate the risk of chronic diseases. NCT: NCT01343342.

  7. Dietary patterns and risk of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract: a factor analysis in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Boffetta, Paolo; Correa, Pelayo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Acosta, Gisele; Mendilaharsu, María

    2013-01-01

    In the time period 1996-2004, we conducted a case-control study in Montevideo, Uruguay with the objective of exploring the role of foods and alcoholic beverages in the etiology of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). In brief, 563 male cases and 1099 male controls were frequency matched on age and residence using random sampling. All the participants were drawn from the 4 major public hospitals in Montevideo. We used exploratory factor analysis among controls. Through Scree plot test, the model retained 4 factors, which were labeled as prudent, starchy plants, Western, and drinker. These dietary patterns explained 34.8% of the total variance. Whereas the prudent pattern was inversely associated with UADT cancer [odds ratios (OR) for the upper tertile vs. the lowest one 0.52, 95% confidence intervals 0.32-0.76, P value for trend = 0.0005), the remaining patterns were significantly and positively associated with UADT cancers. We conclude that these patterns were similar among the oral and laryngeal cancers, both in the direction of the ORs and in the magnitude of the associations, suggesting that these cancer sites share the effect of dietary patterns in the etiology of cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract.

  8. Dietary patterns in internal migrants in a continental country: A population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto Ferreira Carioca

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the differences and similarities in dietary patterns among migrants and natives.A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in the city of São Paulo. The study population included internal migrants, defined as individuals born outside São Paulo city who had lived in the city for ten years or longer. The final population (n = 999 was divided into three groups: natives of São Paulo (n = 354, migrants from the Southeast (n = 349 and migrants from the Northeast (n = 296. Factor and principal component analysis was employed to derive dietary patterns. The standardized scores were compared among groups using linear regression.Differences in income per capita, years of education, self-reported race, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, nutritional status and prevalence of hypertension were found for place of birth. Three dietary patterns were identified: prudent (salad dressings, vegetables, natural flavorings, fruits, whole-grain bread, white cheeses and juices, traditional (rice, beans, bread/toast/crackers, butter/margarine, whole milk, coffee/teas, sugar, and modern (sodas, pastries/sandwiches/pizzas, yellow cheeses, pastas, sauces, alcoholic beverages, sweets, processed meats. Compared to natives, migrants from the Southeast had an inversely proportional adherence to the modern pattern whereas migrants from the Northeast had an inverse association with the prudent and modern patterns and a positive association with the traditional pattern.São Paulo natives and internal migrants from other regions of Brazil exhibited different dietary patterns. The results presented here add perspectives to be considered in the study of non-communicable diseases and its different incidences among migrants and natives.

  9. Dietary patterns and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes in a prospective cohort of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Christin; Schulze, Matthias B; Franco, Oscar H; van Dam, Rob M; Mantzoros, Christos S; Hu, Frank B

    2008-07-15

    The impact of overall dietary patterns that reflect actual eating behaviors on mortality caused by cardiovascular or other chronic diseases is largely unknown. We prospectively evaluated the relation between dietary patterns and risk of cardiovascular, cancer, and all-cause mortality among 72,113 women who were free of myocardial infarction, angina, coronary artery surgery, stroke, diabetes mellitus, or cancer and were followed up from 1984 to 2002. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis based on validated food frequency questionnaires administered every 2 to 4 years. Two major dietary patterns were identified: High prudent pattern scores represented high intakes of vegetables, fruit, legumes, fish, poultry, and whole grains, whereas high Western pattern scores reflected high intakes of red meat, processed meat, refined grains, french fries, and sweets/desserts. During 18 years of follow-up, 6011 deaths occurred, including 1154 cardiovascular deaths and 3139 cancer deaths. After multivariable adjustment, the prudent diet was associated with a 28% lower risk of cardiovascular mortality (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 40) and a 17% lower risk of all-cause mortality (95% CI, 10 to 24) when the highest quintile was compared with the lowest quintile. In contrast, the Western pattern was associated with a higher risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease (22%; 95% CI, 1 to 48), cancer (16%; 95% CI, 3 to 30), and all causes (21%; 95% CI, 12 to 32). Greater adherence to the prudent pattern may reduce the risk of cardiovascular and total mortality, whereas greater adherence to the Western pattern may increase the risk among initially healthy women.

  10. Interactions between traditional regional determinants and socio-economic status on dietary patterns in a sample of French men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Anne-Elisabeth; Dallongeville, Jean; Ducimetière, Pierre; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Schlienger, Jean-Louis; Arveiler, Dominique; Simon, Chantal

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the respective contributions of regional and socio-economic factors to dietary pattern. We used the data from the final MONICA (MONItoring of trends and determinants in Cardiovascular disease) population survey conducted in the three French centres in 1995-7 among a representative sample of 976 men aged 45-64 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-d record method. Dietary patterns were identified by a factor analysis, based on fifteen food items. An analysis of variance was then used to study their relationship with regional and socio-economic determinants. Two major dietary patterns were identified: a 'Western diet', characterized by high intakes of sugar and sweets, grains, butter, added fats, eggs, potatoes and cheese; a 'prudent diet', mainly distinguished by high intakes of fruit, vegetables, olive oil and fish and low intakes of alcohol, high-fat meat and potatoes. Strong associations were mostly observed with the 'prudent diet' pattern, with a significant relationship with region, educational and income-tax levels, leisure-time physical activity and smoking status. There was also a statistically significant interaction between region and educational level (P=0.05), and between region and income-tax level (P=0.03), indicating that the influence of socio-economic factors is different among regions. In conclusion, these results indicate large regional and socio-economic differences in the dietary patterns of this French male population. When considering the 'prudent diet' pattern, they also suggest that traditional regional influences may now be overcome by socio-economic determinants.

  11. Dietary patterns and the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, and neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Remón, Alexander; Kirwan, Richard; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramón

    2016-04-29

    Diet and lifestyle play a significant role in the development chronic diseases; however the full complexity of this relationship is not yet understood. Dietary pattern investigation, which reflects the complexity of dietary intake, has emerged as an alternative and complementary approach for examining the association between diet and chronic diseases. Literature on this association has largely focused on individual nutrients, with conflicting outcomes, but individuals consume a combination of foods from many groups that form dietary patterns. Our objective was to systematically review the current findings on the effects of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. In this review, we describe and discuss the relationships between dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean, the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension, Prudent, Seventh-day Adventists, and Western, with risk of obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, and neurodegenearive diseases. Evidence is increasing from both observational and clinical studies that plant-based dietary patterns, which are rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, are valuable in preventing various chronic diseases, whereas a diet high in red and processed meat, refined grains and added sugar seems to increase said risk. Dietary pattern analysis might be especially valuable to the development and evaluation of food-based dietary guidelines.

  12. Dietary patterns and survival of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Amy L; Harris, Tamara B; Tylavsky, Frances A; Perry, Sara E; Houston, Denise K; Hue, Trisha F; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has linked overall dietary patterns to survival in older adults. The objective of this study was to determine the dietary patterns of a cohort of older adults, and to explore associations of these dietary patterns with survival over a 10-year period. A secondary goal was to evaluate participants' quality of life and nutritional status according to their dietary patterns. The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study is a prospective cohort study of 3,075 older adults. In this study, all-cause mortality was assessed from baseline through Year 10. Food intake was estimated with a modified Block food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns of 2,582 participants with complete data were derived by cluster analysis. Six dietary pattern clusters were identified, including a Healthy Foods cluster, characterized by higher intake of low-fat dairy products, fruit, whole grains, poultry, fish, and vegetables. Both the High-Fat Dairy Products and Sweets and Desserts clusters had a 1.4-fold higher risk of mortality than the Healthy Foods cluster after adjusting for potential confounders. The Healthy Foods cluster also had significantly more years of healthy life and more favorable levels of selected nutritional biomarkers than the other clusters. A dietary pattern consistent with current guidelines to consume relatively high amounts of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, poultry, fish, and low-fat dairy products may be associated with superior nutritional status, quality of life and survival in older adults. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-07-23

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012-2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132-1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673-0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094-1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China.

  14. Metabolic Consequences of Changing Dietary Patterns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well known that the dietary patterns of populations in transition change, and that this change is associated with new patterns of health and disease. The contributions by international experts to this book provide a comprehensive and enlightening review of the changes that have occurred in the traditional diets of the.

  15. Association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in individuals with normal weight: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliga, Edyta; Kozieł, Dorota; Cieśla, Elżbieta; Głuszek, Stanisław

    2015-05-30

    The results of several papers have confirmed the existence of correlations between an unhealthy diet and the presence of metabolic syndrome. However, relationships between eating habits and metabolic obesity with normal weight have not yet been sufficiently studied. The aim of the study is to determine which dietary patterns are present in individuals with a normal BMI and to find out whether those patterns were connected with the risk of metabolic syndrome and its features. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 2479 subjects with a normal weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)), aged between 37-66. The study included the evaluation of eating habits, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure tests and the analysis of the collected fasting-blood samples, on the basis of which cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were determined. Dietary patterns were determined by means of factor analysis. In the group of individuals with a normal BMI, four dietary patterns were distinguished: "healthy", "fat, meat and alcohol", "prudent" and "coca cola, hard cheese and French fries". After controlling for potential confounders, subjects in the highest tertile of prudent dietary pattern scores had a lower odds ratio for the metabolic obesity normal weight) (odds ratio: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.53-0.89; p cholesterol (odds ratio: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.59-0.99; p cholesterol concentration and increased glucose concentration.

  16. Dietary patterns and cognition in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbatecola, Angela M; Russo, Marcello; Barbieri, Michelangela

    2017-10-14

    The current article reviews recently published evidence of the important role that specific dietary patterns may hold on preventing cognitive impairment and dementia over aging. Specific dietary patterns attributed to targeting cardiovascular risk factors may protect against the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease. Numerous epidemiological studies have strongly suggested that multinutrient approaches using the Mediterranean diet (Med diet), dietary approach to systolic hypertension (DASH) and the Mediterranean-DASH diet intervention for neurodegenerative delay (MIND) are associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment, MCI and Alzheimer's disease in older persons. This multinutrient approach seems to hold better outcomes than single nutrient intervention. There is only one randomized clinical trial (PREDIMED study) showing an improvement in cognitive performance over time in those undergoing a Med diet protocol. Nutrition is an essential and modifiable risk factor that plays a role on preventing and/or delaying the onset of dementia. There is sufficient evidence to hypothesize testing neuroprotective dietary patterns on cognition in randomized clinical trials in older persons. Healthy dietary patterns such as the Med diet, DASH and MIND deserve further attention in randomized clinical trials on cognitive performance outcomes.

  17. Coronary heart disease prevention: nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Tucker, Katherine L

    2011-08-17

    been a paradigm shift in nutritional epidemiology to examine associations between dietary patterns and health. Several epidemiological studies show that people following the Mediterranean style diet or the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet have lower risk of CHD and lower likelihood of developing hypertension. Studies using empirical or data driven dietary patterns have frequently identified two patterns - "Healthy or Prudent" and "Western". In general, the "Healthy", compared to the "Western" pattern has been associated with more favorable biological profiles, slower progression of atherosclerosis, and reduced incidence. Evidence on changes in dietary patterns and changes in CHD risk is still emerging. With the emergence of the concept of personalized nutrition, studies are increasingly considering the role of genetic factors in the modulation of the association between nutrients and CHD. More studies of genetic variation and dietary patterns in relation to CHD are needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Traditional Dietary Pattern Increases Risk of Prostate Cancer in Argentina: Results of a Multilevel Modeling and Bias Analysis from a Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niclis, Camila; Román, María D.; Osella, Alberto R.; Eynard, Aldo R.; Díaz, María del Pilar

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary habits play a role in prostate cancer (PC) occurrence. Argentinean cancer risk studies require additional attention because of the singular dietary pattern of this population. A case-control study (147 PC cases, 300 controls) was conducted in Córdoba (Argentina) throughout 2008–2013. A principal component factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. A mixed logistic regression model was applied, taking into account family history of cancer. Possible bias was evaluated by probabilistic bias analysis. Four dietary patterns were identified: Traditional (fatty red meats, offal, processed meat, starchy vegetables, added sugars and sweets, candies, fats, and vegetable oils), Prudent (nonstarchy vegetables, whole grains), Carbohydrate (sodas/juices and bakery products), and Cheese (cheeses). High adherence to the Traditional (OR 2.82, 95%CI: 1.569–5.099) and Carbohydrate Patterns (OR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.470–3.128) showed a promoting effect for PC, whereas the Prudent and Cheese Patterns were independent factors. PC occurrence was also associated with family history of PC. Bias adjusted ORs indicate that the validity of the present study is acceptable. High adherence to characteristic Argentinean dietary patterns was associated with increased PC risk. Our results incorporate original contributions to knowledge about scenarios in South American dietary patterns and PC occurrence. PMID:26649040

  19. Traditional Dietary Pattern Increases Risk of Prostate Cancer in Argentina: Results of a Multilevel Modeling and Bias Analysis from a Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Niclis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that dietary habits play a role in prostate cancer (PC occurrence. Argentinean cancer risk studies require additional attention because of the singular dietary pattern of this population. A case-control study (147 PC cases, 300 controls was conducted in Córdoba (Argentina throughout 2008–2013. A principal component factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. A mixed logistic regression model was applied, taking into account family history of cancer. Possible bias was evaluated by probabilistic bias analysis. Four dietary patterns were identified: Traditional (fatty red meats, offal, processed meat, starchy vegetables, added sugars and sweets, candies, fats, and vegetable oils, Prudent (nonstarchy vegetables, whole grains, Carbohydrate (sodas/juices and bakery products, and Cheese (cheeses. High adherence to the Traditional (OR 2.82, 95%CI: 1.569–5.099 and Carbohydrate Patterns (OR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.470–3.128 showed a promoting effect for PC, whereas the Prudent and Cheese Patterns were independent factors. PC occurrence was also associated with family history of PC. Bias adjusted ORs indicate that the validity of the present study is acceptable. High adherence to characteristic Argentinean dietary patterns was associated with increased PC risk. Our results incorporate original contributions to knowledge about scenarios in South American dietary patterns and PC occurrence.

  20. Traditional Dietary Pattern Increases Risk of Prostate Cancer in Argentina: Results of a Multilevel Modeling and Bias Analysis from a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niclis, Camila; Román, María D; Osella, Alberto R; Eynard, Aldo R; Díaz, María Del Pilar

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary habits play a role in prostate cancer (PC) occurrence. Argentinean cancer risk studies require additional attention because of the singular dietary pattern of this population. A case-control study (147 PC cases, 300 controls) was conducted in Córdoba (Argentina) throughout 2008-2013. A principal component factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. A mixed logistic regression model was applied, taking into account family history of cancer. Possible bias was evaluated by probabilistic bias analysis. Four dietary patterns were identified: Traditional (fatty red meats, offal, processed meat, starchy vegetables, added sugars and sweets, candies, fats, and vegetable oils), Prudent (nonstarchy vegetables, whole grains), Carbohydrate (sodas/juices and bakery products), and Cheese (cheeses). High adherence to the Traditional (OR 2.82, 95%CI: 1.569-5.099) and Carbohydrate Patterns (OR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.470-3.128) showed a promoting effect for PC, whereas the Prudent and Cheese Patterns were independent factors. PC occurrence was also associated with family history of PC. Bias adjusted ORs indicate that the validity of the present study is acceptable. High adherence to characteristic Argentinean dietary patterns was associated with increased PC risk. Our results incorporate original contributions to knowledge about scenarios in South American dietary patterns and PC occurrence.

  1. Traditional dietary pattern of South America is linked to breast cancer: an ongoing case-control study in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumas, Natalia; Niclis, Camila; Aballay, Laura R; Osella, Alberto R; Díaz, María del Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have shown the effect of dietary patterns on breast cancer risk, but none has been conducted in Argentina. The aim of this study was to extract dietary patterns from Food Frequency Questioner, to estimate their effect on breast cancer occurrence while taking into account aggregation factors (family history of breast cancer) and to explore the sensitivity of the estimates to changes in the assumptions. A principal component exploratory factor analysis was applied to identify dietary patterns, which were then included as covariates in a multilevel logistic regression. Family history of BC was considered as a clustering variable. A multiple probabilistic sensitivity analysis was also performed. The study included 100 cases and 294 controls. Four dietary patterns were identified. Traditional (fat meats, bakery products, and vegetable oil and mayonnaise) (OR III tertile vs I 3.13, 95% CI 2.58-3.78), Rural (processed meat) (OR III tertile vs I 2.02, 95% CI 1.21-3.37) and Starchy (refined grains) (OR III tertile vs I 1.82, 95 % CI 1.18-2.79) dietary patterns were positively associated with BC risk, whereas the Prudent pattern (fruit and non-starchy vegetables) (OR III tertile vs I 0.56, 95% CI 0.41-0.77) showed a protective effect. For Traditional pattern, the median bias-adjusted ORs (3.52) were higher than the conventional (2.76). While the Prudent pattern was associated with a reduced risk of BC, Traditional, Rural and Starchy patterns showed a promoting effect. Despite the threats to validity, the nature of associations was not strongly affected.

  2. Dietary patterns and adult asthma: population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakolis, I; Hooper, R; Thompson, R L; Shaheen, S O

    2010-05-01

    Epidemiological studies of diet and asthma have focused on relations with intakes of individual nutrients and foods and evidence has been conflicting. Few studies have examined associations with dietary patterns. We carried out a population-based case-control study of asthma in adults aged between 16 and 50 in South London, UK. Information about usual diet was obtained by food frequency questionnaire and we used principal components analysis to define five dietary patterns in controls. We used logistic and linear regression, controlling for confounders, to relate these patterns to asthma, asthma severity, rhinitis and chronic bronchitis in 599 cases and 854 controls. Overall, there was weak evidence that a 'vegetarian' dietary pattern was positively associated with asthma [adjusted odds ratio comparing top vs bottom quintile of pattern score 1.43 (95% CI: 0.93-2.20), P trend 0.075], and a 'traditional' pattern (meat and vegetables) was negatively associated [OR 0.68 (0.45-1.03), P trend 0.071]. These associations were stronger amongst nonsupplement users (P trend 0.030 and 0.001, respectively), and the association with the 'vegetarian' pattern was stronger amongst whites (P trend 0.008). No associations were observed with asthma severity. A 'prudent' dietary pattern (wholemeal bread, fish and vegetables) was positively associated with chronic bronchitis [OR 2.61 (1.13-6.05), P trend 0.025], especially amongst nonsupplement users (P trend 0.002). Overall there were no clear relations between dietary patterns and adult asthma; associations in nonsupplement users and whites require confirmation. The finding for chronic bronchitis was unexpected and also requires replication.

  3. Reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in two groups of adult Spanish women from different studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Adela; Lope, Virginia; Vioque, Jesús; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Abad, Soledad; Ederra, Maria; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in different samples extracted from similar populations. Dietary patterns were extracted by applying principal component analyses to the dietary information collected from a sample of 3550 women recruited from seven screening centres belonging to the Spanish breast cancer (BC) screening network (Determinants of Mammographic Density in Spain (DDM-Spain) study). The resulting patterns were compared with three dietary patterns obtained from a previous Spanish case-control study on female BC (Epidemiological study of the Spanish group for breast cancer research (GEICAM: grupo Español de investigación en cáncer de mama)) using the dietary intake data of 973 healthy participants. The level of agreement between patterns was determined using both the congruence coefficient (CC) between the pattern loadings (considering patterns with a CC≥0·85 as fairly similar) and the linear correlation between patterns scores (considering as fairly similar those patterns with a statistically significant correlation). The conclusions reached with both methods were compared. This is the first study exploring the reproducibility of data-driven patterns from two studies and the first using the CC to determine pattern similarity. We were able to reproduce the EpiGEICAM Western pattern in the DDM-Spain sample (CC=0·90). However, the reproducibility of the Prudent (CC=0·76) and Mediterranean (CC=0·77) patterns was not as good. The linear correlation between pattern scores was statistically significant in all cases, highlighting its arbitrariness for determining pattern similarity. We conclude that the reproducibility of widely prevalent dietary patterns is better than the reproducibility of more population-specific patterns. More methodological studies are needed to establish an objective measurement and threshold to determine pattern similarity.

  4. Applying multilevel model to the relationship of dietary patterns and colorectal cancer: an ongoing case-control study in Córdoba, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pou, Sonia Alejandra; Díaz, María del Pilar; Osella, Alberto Rubén

    2012-09-01

    Scientific literature has consistently shown the effects of certain diets on health but regional variations of dietary habits, and their relationship colorectal cancer (CRC) has been poorly studied in Argentina. Our aims were to identify dietary patterns and estimate their effect on CRC occurrence and to quantify the association between family history of CRC and CRC occurrence by applying multilevel models to estimate and interpret measures of variation. Principal components factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns that were then used in a multilevel logistic regression applied to an ongoing case-control data about dietary exposure and CRC occurrence taking into account familiar clustering. Three dietary patterns were identified: "Southern Cone pattern" (red meat, wine, and starchy vegetables), "High-sugar drinks pattern", and "Prudent pattern". The study considered 41 cases and 95 controls. There was a significant promoting effects on CRC of "Southern Cone" (OR 1.5, 95%CI 1.0-2.2) and "High-sugar drinks" (OR 3.8, 95%CI 2.0-7.1) patterns, whereas "Prudent pattern" (OR 0.3, 95%CI 0.2-0.4) showed a significant protective effect at third tertile level. BMI, use of NSAIDs, and to have medical insurance showed significant effects. Variance of the random effect of family history of CRC was highly significant. This novel approach for Argentina showed that Southern Cone and High-sugar drinks patterns were associated with a higher risk of CRC, whereas the Prudent pattern showed a protective effect. There was a significant clustering effect of family history of CRC.

  5. Association of Empirically Derived Dietary Patterns with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Comparison of PCA and RRR Methods.

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    Nicolas Sauvageot

    Full Text Available Principal component analysis is used to determine dietary behaviors of a population whereas reduced rank regression is used to construct disease-related dietary patterns. This study aimed to compare both types of DP and theirs associations with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF.Data were derived from the cross sectional NESCAV (Nutrition, Environment and Cardiovascular Health study, aiming to describe the cardiovascular health of the Greater region's population (Grand duchy of Luxembourg, Wallonia (Belgium, Lorraine (France. 2298 individuals were included for this study and dietary intake was assessed using a 134-item food frequency questionnaire.We found that CVRF-related patterns also reflect eating behaviours of the population. Comparing concordant food groups between both dietary pattern methods, a diet high in fruits, oleaginous and dried fruits, vegetables, olive oil, fats rich in omega 6 and tea and low in fried foods, lean and fatty meat, processed meat, ready meal, soft drink and beer was associated with lower prevalence of CVRF. In the opposite, a pattern characterized by high intakes of fried foods, meat, offal, beer, wine and aperitifs and spirits, and low intakes of cereals, sugar and sweets and soft drinks was associated with higher prevalence of CVRF.In sum, we found that a "Prudent" and "Animal protein and alcohol" patterns were both associated with CVRF and behaviourally meaningful. Moreover, the relationships of those dietary patterns with lifestyle characteristics support the theory that food choices are part of a larger pattern of healthy lifestyle.

  6. Dietary patterns and depressive symptoms over time: examining the relationships with socioeconomic position, health behaviours and cardiovascular risk.

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    Felice N Jacka

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recent research suggests that diet quality influences depression risk; however, a lack of experimental evidence leaves open the possibility that residual confounding explains the observed relationships. The aim of this study was to document the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between dietary patterns and symptoms of depression and to undertake a detailed examination of potential explanatory factors, particularly socioeconomic circumstances, in the diet-depression relationship. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Personality and Total Health (PATH Through Life Study, a longitudinal community study following three age cohorts (20+; 40+; 60+yrs from south-eastern Australia over three assessment periods (n=3663. Regression analyses evaluated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between dietary patterns, depressive symptoms, age, detailed measures of socioeconomic circumstances, other health behaviours, and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: The lowest tertile of prudent (healthy dietary pattern and the highest tertile of western (unhealthy dietary pattern were associated with an increased likelihood of depressive symptoms. However, these contemporaneous associations were explained by adjustment for detailed measures of socioeconomic circumstances and physical activity. In prospective analyses, lower scores on the healthy dietary pattern and higher scores on the unhealthy dietary pattern independently predicted increased depressive symptoms across time, before and after adjustment for potential confounders and baseline depressive symptoms, but only for those in the oldest cohort. Dietary patterns did not explain the relationship between socioeconomic position and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: The results of this study confirm that the relationship between habitual dietary intake and depressive symptoms is somewhat explained by socioeconomic circumstances and other health behaviours, but suggest that long

  7. Dietary Patterns Exhibit Sex-Specific Associations with Adiposity and Metabolic Risk in a Cross-Sectional Study in Urban Mexican Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perng, Wei; Fernandez, Carmen; Peterson, Karen E; Zhang, ZhenZhen; Cantoral, Alejandra; Sanchez, Brisa N; Solano-González, Maritsa; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Baylin, Ana

    2017-10-01

    Background: Studies in Western nations have shown associations of certain dietary patterns with obesity and metabolic risk in youth. Little is known about these relations in newly industrialized countries where obesity prevalence is surpassing those of developed countries. Objective: We sought to characterize dietary patterns in a cross-sectional study in 224 adolescents aged 8-14 y in Mexico and to investigate associations of the dietary patterns with adiposity and metabolic risk. Methods: We used principal components analysis to derive dietary patterns from food-frequency questionnaire data. By using linear regression models that accounted for mother's marital status, education, and smoking habits and child's age and physical activity, we examined associations of the dietary patterns with adiposity [body mass index z score, waist circumference, the sum and ratio of the subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses, blood pressure, serum fasting glucose and a C-peptide-based measure of insulin resistance (CP-IR), lipid profile, and a metabolic syndrome risk z score (MetS z score)]. Results: We identified a "prudent" dietary pattern characterized by high intakes of vegetables, fruit, fish, chicken, and legumes and a "transitioning" dietary pattern, which comprises processed meats, Mexican foods, and sweetened beverages. Each unit increase in the prudent pattern factor score corresponded with 0.33 ng/mL (95% CI: 0.09, 0.57 ng/mL) lower C-peptide, 0.08 units (95% CI: 0.02, 0.13 units) lower CP-IR, and a 0.14 unit (0.00, 0.27 unit) lower MetS z score in boys. In girls, the transitioning pattern corresponded with higher subscapular + triceps skinfold thickness (per 1-unit increase in the factor score: 2.46 mm; 95% CI: 0.10, 4.81 mm). These results did not change after accounting for pubertal status. Conclusions: A prudent dietary pattern was protective against metabolic risk in adolescent boys, whereas a transitioning dietary pattern corresponded with higher adiposity

  8. Gender Differences in the Association between Dietary Pattern and the Incidence of Hypertension in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SuJin Song

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and the risk of hypertension, using the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study data. A total of 5090 participants (2457 men and 2633 women aged 40–69 years without hypertension at baseline were selected. Dietary patterns were obtained using factor analysis based on 26 food groups, evaluated by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or the use of antihypertensive medication using the biennial measurements. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations between dietary patterns and hypertension. Four dietary patterns were extracted: coffee, fat, and sweets; prudent; whole grains and legumes; and traditional (men/Western (women. Women in the highest tertile of the whole grains and legumes pattern scores showed a lower risk of incident hypertension compared with those in the lowest tertile (hazard ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval = 0.59–1.00, p-trend = 0.048. Other dietary patterns were not associated with hypertension in either men or women. A diet rich in whole grains and legumes is inversely associated with the risk of hypertension in Korean women, suggesting a gender difference in the association between diet and hypertension.

  9. Mediterranean dietary pattern and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Camilla; Chiodini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The study of the relationship between the Mediterranean way of eating and the occurrence of diseases typical of the economically developed countries has been considered the starting point of nutritional epidemiology. From the Seven Countries Study in the 1950s to the recent European EPIC collaboration, the evaluation of the components of diet-affecting chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer has been crucially based on the analysis of foods and nutrients characterizing the Mediterranean dietary habits. This long research history has been marked by a consistency of data over time when either single nutrients/food groups or more complex dietary patterns have been analyzed: The Mediterranean way of eating is a protective tool from cardiovascular diseases and many cancers. Italy has been a natural point of observation, starting from cardiovascular disease in the mid-1950s and continuing with major cancers. In spite of unfavorable lifestyle changes in the Italian population mostly due to globalization of unhealthy habits (richer diet and lower levels of physical activity), those individuals still close to the Mediterranean style are significantly protected. The very recent Italian data derived from the observation of about 50,000 individuals, participating in the Italian cohorts of the EPIC study, confirm these findings and are consistent with results from other European populations and in some cases also from North American populations. Moreover, several dietary trials suggest that such a way of eating improves both the metabolic risk condition for chronic disease and the occurrence of those diseases. In conclusion, a way of eating inspired by a Mediterranean dietary pattern is not only based on evidence but is also a palatable style that has contributed to protection from the epidemic of chronic diseases.

  10. Dietary patterns as predictors of successful ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, A M; O'Dea, K; English, D R; Giles, G G; Flicker, L

    2014-03-01

    To examine associations between dietary patterns identified by factor analysis, and successful ageing. Prospective cohort study with diet measured in 1990-4, and successful ageing in 2003-7. Ordered logistic regression with outcome determined as dead/usual ageing/successful ageing was used to examine associations with quintile groups of dietary factor scores. Men and women (n=6308), without history of major illness at baseline, and aged >70 years at follow-up, or who had died before follow-up but would have been aged >70 at the commencement of follow-up, from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Frequencies of intake of 121 foods at baseline were collected in a food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry and other health and lifestyle data were collected. At follow-up, questionnaire data relating to mental health, physical function and medical history were used to define successful ageing. Four dietary factors were identified, characterized by higher loadings for (1) vegetables; (2) fruit, (3) feta, legumes, salad, olive oil, and inverse loadings for tea, margarine, cake, sweet biscuits and puddings; (4) meat, white bread, savoury pastry dishes and fried foods. In models excluding body size, the second factor 'Fruit' was positively associated with successful ageing (OR in top 20% vs lowest 20% of score 1.31, 95%CI (1.05-1.63), p trend across quintile groups 0.001); while the fourth factor 'Meat/fatty foods' was inversely associated (OR in top 20% vs lowest 20% of score 0.69, 95%CI (0.55-0.86), p trend across quintile groups 0.001). Factors 1 and 3 did not show significant associations with successful ageing. The association for 'Fruit' was little altered after adjustment for body size, while for 'Meat/fatty foods' the association was somewhat attenuated. A dietary pattern including plenty of fruit while limiting meat and fried foods may improve the likelihood of ageing successfully.

  11. The metabolic signature associated with the Western dietary pattern: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2013-12-11

    Metabolic profiles have been shown to be associated to obesity status and insulin sensitivity. Dietary intakes influence metabolic pathways and therefore, different dietary patterns may relate to modifications in metabolic signatures. The objective was to verify associations between dietary patterns and metabolic profiles composed of amino acids (AAs) and acylcarnitines (ACs). 210 participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area between September 2009 and December 2011. Dietary patterns had been previously derived using principal component analysis (PCA). The Prudent dietary pattern was characterised by higher intakes of vegetables, fruits, whole grain products, non-hydrogenated fat and lower intakes of refined grain products, whereas the Western dietary pattern was associated with higher intakes of refined grain products, desserts, sweets and processed meats. Targeted metabolites were quantified in 37 participants with the Biocrates Absolute IDQ p150 (Biocrates Life Sciences AG, Austria) mass spectrometry method (including 14 amino acids and 41 acylcarnitines). PCA analysis with metabolites including AAs and ACs revealed two main components explaining the most variance in overall data (13.8%). PC1 was composed mostly of medium- to long-chain ACs (C16:2, C14:2, C14:2-OH, C16, C14:1-OH, C14:1, C10:2, C5-DC/C6-OH, C12, C18:2, C10, C4:1-DC/C6, C8:1 and C2) whereas PC2 included certain AAs and short-chain ACs (xLeu, Met, Arg, Phe, Pro, Orn, His, C0, C3, C4 and C5). The Western dietary pattern correlated negatively with PC1 and positively with PC2 (r = -0.34, p = 0.05 and r = 0.38, p = 0.03, respectively), independently of age, sex and BMI. These findings suggest that the Western dietary pattern is associated with a specific metabolite signature characterized by increased levels of AAs including branched-chain AAs (BCAAs) and short-chain ACs.

  12. The metabolic signature associated with the Western dietary pattern: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic profiles have been shown to be associated to obesity status and insulin sensitivity. Dietary intakes influence metabolic pathways and therefore, different dietary patterns may relate to modifications in metabolic signatures. The objective was to verify associations between dietary patterns and metabolic profiles composed of amino acids (AAs) and acylcarnitines (ACs). Methods 210 participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area between September 2009 and December 2011. Dietary patterns had been previously derived using principal component analysis (PCA). The Prudent dietary pattern was characterised by higher intakes of vegetables, fruits, whole grain products, non-hydrogenated fat and lower intakes of refined grain products, whereas the Western dietary pattern was associated with higher intakes of refined grain products, desserts, sweets and processed meats. Targeted metabolites were quantified in 37 participants with the Biocrates Absolute IDQ p150 (Biocrates Life Sciences AG, Austria) mass spectrometry method (including 14 amino acids and 41 acylcarnitines). Results PCA analysis with metabolites including AAs and ACs revealed two main components explaining the most variance in overall data (13.8%). PC1 was composed mostly of medium- to long-chain ACs (C16:2, C14:2, C14:2-OH, C16, C14:1-OH, C14:1, C10:2, C5-DC/C6-OH, C12, C18:2, C10, C4:1-DC/C6, C8:1 and C2) whereas PC2 included certain AAs and short-chain ACs (xLeu, Met, Arg, Phe, Pro, Orn, His, C0, C3, C4 and C5). The Western dietary pattern correlated negatively with PC1 and positively with PC2 (r = −0.34, p = 0.05 and r = 0.38, p = 0.03, respectively), independently of age, sex and BMI. Conclusion These findings suggest that the Western dietary pattern is associated with a specific metabolite signature characterized by increased levels of AAs including branched-chain AAs (BCAAs) and short-chain ACs. Trial registration NCT01343342 PMID:24330454

  13. Dietary Pattern and Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Aekplakorn, W.; Satheannoppakao, W.; Putwatana, P.; Taneepanichskul, S.; Kessomboon, P.; Chongsuvivatwong, V.; Chariyalertsak, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30–59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, pro...

  14. Dietary pattern and asthma in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poongadan, Mohammed Noufal; Gupta, Nitesh; Kumar, Raj

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the association between food consumption pattern and asthma in Indian population. 125 asthma and corresponding age and sex matched healthy controls were recruited for the purpose of a study. A self- reported food-frequency questionnaire (NNR-Dietary Pattern in Asthma Questionnaire) comprising of 80 food and drink items, belonging to 15 groups, was developed based on routine dietary habits and ISAAC phase two and phase three questionnaires. There was no significant difference of gender, height, weight, BMI and socioeconomic status between asthma and control groups (p > 0.05). The consumption of fast food, salted snacks, fried snacks; nuts and dry fruits were significantly higher in asthmatics (p 0.05). On the contrary, consumption of cereals, milk and milk products, non-vegetarian food, fruits and fruit juice tends to be higher in healthy controls, though neither of them could reach a statistically significant (p > 0.05). Consumption of fast food, salted snacks, fried snacks, fats and oils nuts, dry fruits, carbonated drinks may be associated with asthma in India. Hence, it is imperative to reduce consumption and increase awareness of influence of fast food on asthma through public health policies.

  15. Maternal and child dietary patterns and their determinants in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaru, Bright I; Onyeka, Ifeoma N; Ndiokwelu, Chika; Esangbedo, Dorothy O; Ngwu, Elizabeth K; Okolo, Selina N

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the overall dietary patterns of a population is a key step in initiating appropriate nutritional interventions and policies. Studies characterising the dietary patterns of Nigerian mothers and children are lacking. Complete dietary data for 13,566 mothers and their 13,506 children were analysed from the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS), a nationally representative sample, to identify the overall maternal and child dietary patterns and to study the potential determinants of such dietary patterns. The 2008 NDHS included questions that inquired about the food items mothers and their children had consumed during the 24 h preceding the day of the interview. Factor analysis with the principal component procedure was used to construct the dietary patterns, and multiple multilevel logistic regression was used to investigate the determinants of the dietary patterns. Four ('mixed', 'traditional', 'staple foods and milk products' and 'beverages') and five ('mixed', 'selective', 'beverages and candies', 'gruels, grains and semi-solids' and 'infant formula and cereals') distinct dietary patterns were obtained for the mothers and children, respectively. The key determinants of both maternal and child dietary patterns were month of interview, religion, region of residence, maternal education, maternal occupation, wealth index and maternal body mass index. Marital status additionally predicted maternal patterns, while sex of the child, number of siblings, child's age, maternal age and place of residence additionally determined the child's patterns. This study has identified four and five different dietary patterns to characterise the dietary habits of Nigerian mothers and their children, respectively, and has shown the important socio-economic/demographic factors influencing the dietary patterns, which can guide appropriate nutritional interventions among Nigerian mothers and children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome risk factors among adolescents

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    Hyojee Joung

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Unbalanced diets and decreased physical activity have contributed to increased prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in adolescents. We have performed a systematic review and data analysis to examine the association between dietary pattern and metabolic syndrome risk factors in adolescents. Methods: We searched the PubMed and BioMedLib databases for appropriate articles published during the past 10 years and selected 6 articles. The studies reviewed applied factor analysis or cluster analysis to extract dietary patterns. For data analysis, we examined the association between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome risk factors using data of 3,168 adolescents (13 to 18 years obtained from 4 consecutive Korean Nutrition Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007 to 2009. Results: Our systematic review confirmed that western dietary patterns are positively associated with metabolic syndrome risk factors such as obesity and elevated triglycerides, while traditional dietary patterns were negatively associated. Data analysis found that the number of adolescents aged 16 to 18 years who had “Rice & Kimchi” dietary pattern decreased, while the number having western dietary patterns increased during the 1998 to 2009 time frame. There were no changes in the dietary patterns in adolescents aged 13 to 15 years. The risk of elevated serum triglycerides and reduced serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol was high in the “Rice & Kimchi” dietary pattern compared to the other dietary pattern groups.Conclusion: Because adolescents’ dietary patterns are changing continuously and have long-term effects, further studies on the dietary patterns of adolescents and their health effects into adulthood are necessary.

  17. 'Mediterranean' dietary pattern for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, K; Hartley, Louise; Flowers, N; Clarke, A; Hooper, Lee; Thorogood, M; Stranges, S

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Seven Countries study in the 1960s showed that populations in the Mediterranean region experienced lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality probably as a result of different dietary patterns. Later observational studies have confirmed the benefits of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern on CVD risk factors. Clinical trial evidence is limited, and is mostly in secondary prevention.\\ud \\ud Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of a Mediterranean dietary pattern ...

  18. Cross-Sectional Associations between Empirically-Derived Dietary Patterns and Indicators of Disease Risk among University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Stacy A; Mueller, Megan P; Bakun, Peter J; Choumenkovitch, Silvina F; Tucker, Katherine L; Economos, Christina D

    2015-12-24

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a unique period during which lifelong dietary habits are shaped. Dietary patterns (DPs) among young adults attending college have not been adequately described, and associations between DPs and indicators of disease risk are not well understood in this age group. Dietary data were collected from undergraduates participating in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS; 1998-2007) by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ; n = 1323). DPs were derived using principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Scree plots; eigenvalues; factor loadings; and previous studies were used to determine and label the DPs retained. Cross-sectional relationships between DP scores and anthropometric measures (percent body fat (PBF) and (BMI) and lipid biomarkers (total; HDL and LDL cholesterol; and triglycerides) were assessed with multivariable regression models; adjusted for demographics; physical activity; smoking; intention to gain/lose weight; and total energy intake. Effect modification by sex was tested. Three DPs were identified: Prudent; Western; and Alcohol. Greater adherence to the Prudent DP was associated with favorable anthropometric outcomes. The Alcohol DP was associated with a favorable lipid profile. Associations between the Western DP and blood lipids differed by sex; with unfavorable impact observed only among males. Our findings add to the literature linking DPs in young adults with measurable adiposity and cardiometabolic outcomes; suggesting that improving nutrition among college students could reduce chronic disease risk.

  19. Cross-Sectional Associations between Empirically-Derived Dietary Patterns and Indicators of Disease Risk among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy A. Blondin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a unique period during which lifelong dietary habits are shaped. Dietary patterns (DPs among young adults attending college have not been adequately described, and associations between DPs and indicators of disease risk are not well understood in this age group. Dietary data were collected from undergraduates participating in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS; 1998–2007 by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ; n = 1323. DPs were derived using principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Scree plots; eigenvalues; factor loadings; and previous studies were used to determine and label the DPs retained. Cross-sectional relationships between DP scores and anthropometric measures (percent body fat (PBF and (BMI and lipid biomarkers (total; HDL and LDL cholesterol; and triglycerides were assessed with multivariable regression models; adjusted for demographics; physical activity; smoking; intention to gain/lose weight; and total energy intake. Effect modification by sex was tested. Three DPs were identified: Prudent; Western; and Alcohol. Greater adherence to the Prudent DP was associated with favorable anthropometric outcomes. The Alcohol DP was associated with a favorable lipid profile. Associations between the Western DP and blood lipids differed by sex; with unfavorable impact observed only among males. Our findings add to the literature linking DPs in young adults with measurable adiposity and cardiometabolic outcomes; suggesting that improving nutrition among college students could reduce chronic disease risk.

  20. Dietary patterns and stroke: a systematic review and re-meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogianni, Meropi D; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2014-09-01

    The effect of diet on the development of stroke has recently achieved much interest by various research groups, but with inconclusive results. The aim of the present review was to systematically present and discuss the up to date available research regarding the relationship between adherence to dietary patterns and stroke. Studies included were observational and randomized clinical trials. Internet searches until May 31, 2014, retrieved 152 potentially relevant papers; of them, 34 were excluded on the basis that did not report data on humans, 3 were in language other than English, 2 were excluded because they had a cross-sectional design, 3 because they reported data on secondary prevention and 82 were excluded on the basis of irrelevant research. One article was a recent meta-analysis on Mediterranean diet, stroke, cognitive impairment and depression and was used as a basis for a re-meta-analysis with the additional papers published after the publication of the later meta-analysis. The existing evidence suggests that adherence to healthy dietary patterns (i.e., Mediterranean or DASH or plant based "prudent") was associated with reduced risk for stroke, whereas limited data exist supporting a detrimental effect of westernized dietary patterns. Moreover, the applied re-meta-analysis, based on a total sample of 195,875 participants enhanced the previously reported meta-analysis underlying a consistent, protective effect of higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet on stroke incidence (pooled relative risk 0.68, 95% CI 0.58, 0.79). Thus, a healthy dietary pattern exerts a beneficial effect on stroke incidence and mortality, adding a new direction toward stroke prevention on population level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary patterns of early childhood and maternal socioeconomic status in a unique prospective sample from a randomized controlled trial of Prenatal DHA Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Brandon H; Kerling, Elizabeth H; Thodosoff, Jocelynn M; Sullivan, Debra K; Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E

    2016-11-25

    Dietary habits established in early childhood and maternal socioeconomic status (SES) are important, complex, interrelated factors that influence a child's growth and development. The aim of this study was to define the major dietary patterns in a cohort of young US children, construct a maternal SES index, and evaluate their associations. The diets of 190 children from a randomized, controlled trial of prenatal supplementation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were recorded at 6-mo intervals from 2-4.5 years by 24-h dietary recall. Hierarchical cluster analysis of age-adjusted, average daily intake of 24 food and beverage groups was used to categorize diet. Unrotated factor analysis generated an SES score from maternal race, ethnicity, age, education, and neighborhood income. We identified two major dietary patterns: "Prudent" and "Western." The 85 (45%) children with a Prudent diet consumed more whole grains, fruit, yogurt and low-fat milk, green and non-starchy vegetables, and nuts and seeds. Conversely, those with a Western diet had greater intake of red meat, discretionary fat and condiments, sweet beverages, refined grains, French fries and potato chips, eggs, starchy vegetables, processed meats, chicken and seafood, and whole-fat milk. Compared to a Western diet, a Prudent diet was associated with one standard deviation higher maternal SES (95% CI: 0.80 to 1.30). We found two major dietary patterns of young US children and defined a single, continuous axis of maternal SES that differed strongly between groups. This is an important first step to investigate how child diet, SES, and prenatal DHA supplementation interact to influence health outcomes. NCT00266825 . Prospectively registered on December 15, 2005.

  2. Association between dietary patterns and low bone mineral density among adults aged 50 years and above: findings from the North West Adelaide Health Study (NWAHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Gill, Tiffany K; Adams, Robert; Shi, Zumin

    2016-10-01

    Studies on the association between dietary patterns and bone mineral density (BMD) have reported inconsistent findings. Data from the North West Adelaide Health Study, a population-based cohort study undertaken in Australia, were used to assess this association among adults aged 50 years and above. In this specific study, 1182 adults (545 males, 45·9 %) had dietary data collected using a FFQ and also had BMD measurements taken using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Factor analysis with principal component method was applied to ascertain dietary patterns. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified. Pattern 1 ('prudent pattern') was characterised by high intake of fruits, vegetables, sugar, nut-based milk, fish, legumes and high-fibre bread. In contrast, pattern 2 ('Western pattern') was characterised by high levels of processed and red meat, snacks, takeaway foods, jam, beer, soft drinks, white bread, poultry, potato with fat, high-fat dairy products and eggs. Compared with the study participants in the first tertile (T1, lowest consumption) of the prudent pattern, participants in the third tertile (T3) had a lower prevalence of low BMD (prevalence ratio (PR)=0·52; 95 % CI 0·33, 0·83) after adjusting for socio-demographic, lifestyle and behavioural characteristics, chronic conditions and energy intake. Participants in T3 of the Western pattern had a higher prevalence of low BMD (PR=1·68; 95 % CI 1·02, 2·77) compared with those in T1. In contrast to the Western diet, a dietary pattern characterised by high intake of fruits, vegetables and dairy products is positively associated with BMD.

  3. Socio-economic status and ethnicity are independently associated with dietary patterns: the HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise H. Dekker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet. Objective: We aimed to examine ethnic differences in dietary patterns and the role of socio-economic indicators on dietary patterns within a multi-ethnic population. Design: Cross-sectional multi-ethnic population-based study. Setting: Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Subjects: Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns among Dutch (n=1,254, South Asian Surinamese (n=425, and African Surinamese (n=784 participants. Levels of education and occupation were used to indicate SES. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between ethnicity and dietary pattern scores first and then between socio-economic indicators and dietary patterns within and between ethnic groups. Results: ‘Noodle/rice dishes and white meat’, ‘red meat, snacks, and sweets’ and ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ patterns were identified. Compared to the Dutch origin participants, Surinamese more closely adhered to the ‘noodle/rice dishes and white meat’ pattern which was characterized by foods consumed in a ‘traditional Surinamese diet’. Closer adherence to the other two patterns was observed among Dutch compared to Surinamese origin participants. Ethnic differences in dietary patterns persisted within strata of education and occupation. Surinamese showed greater adherence to a ‘traditional’ pattern independent of SES. Among Dutch participants, a clear socio-economic gradient in all dietary patterns was observed. Such a gradient was only present among Surinamese dietary oatterns to the ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ pattern. Conclusions: We found a selective change in the adherence to dietary patterns among Surinamese origin

  4. Socio-economic status and ethnicity are independently associated with dietary patterns: the HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Louise H.; Nicolaou, Mary; van Dam, Rob M.; de Vries, Jeanne H. M.; de Boer, Evelien J.; Brants, Henny A. M.; Beukers, Marja H.; Snijder, Marieke B.; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    Background Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES) or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet. Objective We aimed to examine ethnic differences in dietary patterns and the role of socio-economic indicators on dietary patterns within a multi-ethnic population. Design Cross-sectional multi-ethnic population-based study. Setting Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Subjects Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns among Dutch (n=1,254), South Asian Surinamese (n=425), and African Surinamese (n=784) participants. Levels of education and occupation were used to indicate SES. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between ethnicity and dietary pattern scores first and then between socio-economic indicators and dietary patterns within and between ethnic groups. Results ‘Noodle/rice dishes and white meat’, ‘red meat, snacks, and sweets’ and ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ patterns were identified. Compared to the Dutch origin participants, Surinamese more closely adhered to the ‘noodle/rice dishes and white meat’ pattern which was characterized by foods consumed in a ‘traditional Surinamese diet’. Closer adherence to the other two patterns was observed among Dutch compared to Surinamese origin participants. Ethnic differences in dietary patterns persisted within strata of education and occupation. Surinamese showed greater adherence to a ‘traditional’ pattern independent of SES. Among Dutch participants, a clear socio-economic gradient in all dietary patterns was observed. Such a gradient was only present among Surinamese dietary oatterns to the ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ pattern. Conclusions We found a selective change in the adherence to dietary patterns among Surinamese origin participants, presumably a move

  5. Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Stroke in Chinese Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.P.; He, Y.; Lai, J.Q.; Wang, D.; Zhang, J.; Fu, P.; Yang, X.G.; Qi, L.

    2011-01-01

    We recently featured Chinese dietary patterns that were associated with obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. In this study, we examined the association of those dietary patterns and risk of stroke among 26,276 Chinese adults aged >= 45 y by using data from the 2002 China

  6. Dietary pattern and breast cancer risk in Japanese women: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangah; Saito, Eiko; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Nanri, Akiko; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-05-28

    Evidence that diet is associated with breast cancer risk is inconsistent. Most of the studies have focused on risks associated with specific foods and nutrients, rather than overall diet. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in Japanese women. A total of 49 552 Japanese women were followed-up from 1995 to 1998 (5-year follow-up survey) until the end of 2012 for an average of 14·6 years. During 725 534 person-years of follow-up, 718 cases of breast cancer were identified. We identified three dietary patterns (prudent, westernised and traditional Japanese). The westernised dietary pattern was associated with a 32 % increase in breast cancer risk (hazard ratios (HR) 1·32; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·70; P trend=0·04). In particular, subjects with extreme intake of the westernised diet (quintile (Q) Q5_5th) had an 83 % increase in risk of breast cancer in contrast to those in the lowest Q1 (HR 1·83; 95 % CI 1·25, 2·68; P trend=0·01). In analyses stratified by menopausal status, postmenopausal subjects in the highest quintile of the westernised dietary pattern had a 29 % increased risk of breast cancer (HR 1·29; 95 % CI 0·99, 1·76; P trend=0·04). With regard to hormone receptor status, the westernised dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk of oestrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-positivetumours (HR 2·49; 95 % CI 1·40, 4·43; P trendwomen. A westernised dietary pattern is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in Japanese women.

  7. Acculturation and dietary patterns among residents of Surinamese origin in the Netherlands: the HELIUS dietary pattern study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturkenboom, Suzanne M.; Dekker, Louise H.; Lamkaddem, Majda; Schaap, Laura A.; de Vries, Jeanne H. M.; Stronks, Karien; Nicolaou, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Insight into the role of acculturation in dietary patterns is important to inform the development of nutrition programmes that target ethnic minority groups. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate how the adherence to dietary patterns within an ethnic minority population in the

  8. Acculturation and dietary patterns among residents of Surinamese origin in the Netherlands: the HELIUS dietary pattern study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturkenboom, M.; Dekker, L.H.; Lamkaddem, M.; Schaap, L.A.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Stronks, K.; Nicolaou, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Insight into the role of acculturation in dietary patterns is important to inform the development of nutrition programmes that target ethnic minority groups. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate how the adherence to dietary patterns within an ethnic minority population in the

  9. Acculturation and dietary patterns among residents of Surinamese origin in the Netherlands : the HELIUS dietary pattern study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturkenboom, Suzanne M; Dekker, Louise H; Lamkaddem, Majda; Schaap, Laura A; De Vries, Jeanne H M; Stronks, Karien; Nicolaou, Mary

    OBJECTIVE: Insight into the role of acculturation in dietary patterns is important to inform the development of nutrition programmes that target ethnic minority groups. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate how the adherence to dietary patterns within an ethnic minority population in the

  10. Dietary patterns associated with colon and rectal cancer: Results from the Dietary Patterns and Cancer (DIETSCAN) Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, L.B.; Balder, H.F.; Virtanen, M.J.; Rashidkhani, B.; Männistö, S.; Krogh, V.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Hartman, A.M.; Pietinen, P.; Tan, F.; Virtamo, J.; Wolk, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: An analysis of dietary patterns or combinations of foods may provide insight regarding the influence of diet on the risk of colon and rectal cancer. Objective: A primary aim of the Dietary Patterns and Cancer (DIETSCAN) Project was to develop and apply a common methodologic approach to

  11. Associations Between Social Vulnerabilities and Dietary Patterns in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iguacel, Isabel; Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.; Bammann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    -up by applying the K-means clustering algorithm based on a higher frequency of consumption of snacks and fast food (processed), sweet foods and drinks (sweet), and fruits and vegetables (healthy). Vulnerable groups were defined at baseline as follows: children whose parents lacked a social network, children from......Socio-economic inequalities in childhood can determine dietary patterns, and therefore future health. This study aimed to explore associations between social vulnerabilities and dietary patterns assessed at two time points, and to investigate the association between accumulation of vulnerabilities...... and dietary patterns. A total of 9301 children aged 2–9 years participated at baseline and 2-year follow-up examinations of the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS study. In all, three dietary patterns were identified at baseline and follow...

  12. Identification of dietary patterns using factor analysis in an epidemiological study in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce Maria Lobo Marchioni

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Diet and nutrition are environmental factors in health/disease relationships. From the epidemiological viewpoint, diet represents a complex set of highly correlated exposures. Our objective was to identify patterns of food intake in a group of individuals living in São Paulo, and to develop objective dietary measurements for epidemiological purposes. DESIGN AND LOCAL: Exploratory factor analysis of data in a case-control study in seven teaching hospitals in São Paulo. METHODS: The participants were 517 patients (260 oral cancer cases and 257 controls admitted to the study hospitals between November 1998 and March 2001. The weekly intake frequencies for dairy products, cereals, meat, processed meat, vegetables, pulses, fruits and sweets were assessed by means of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis, based on the intake of the eight food groups, using principal component analysis as an extraction method followed by varimax rotation. RESULTS: Factor analysis identified three patterns that accounted for 55% of the total variability within the sample. The first pattern ("prudent" was characterized by vegetable, fruit and meat intake; the second ("traditional" by cereals (mainly rice and pulses (mainly beans; and the third ("snacks" by dairy products and processed meat. CONCLUSION: This study identified food intake patterns through an a posteriori approach. Such analysis may be useful for nutritional intervention programs and, after computing scores for each individual according to the patterns identified, for establishing a relationship between diet and other epidemiological measurements of interest.

  13. Nutrient profiles of vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Nico S; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Sabate, Joan; Fraser, Gary E

    2013-12-01

    Differences in nutrient profiles between vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns reflect nutritional differences that can contribute to the development of disease. Our aim was to compare nutrient intakes between dietary patterns characterized by consumption or exclusion of meat and dairy products. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 71,751 subjects (mean age=59 years) from the Adventist Health Study 2. Data were collected between 2002 and 2007. Participants completed a 204-item validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns compared were nonvegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco vegetarian, lacto-ovo vegetarian, and strict vegetarian. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze differences in nutrient intakes by dietary patterns and was adjusted for age, sex, and race. Body mass index and other relevant demographic data were reported and compared by dietary pattern using χ(2) tests and analysis of variance. Many nutrient intakes varied significantly between dietary patterns. Nonvegetarians had the lowest intakes of plant proteins, fiber, beta carotene, and magnesium compared with those following vegetarian dietary patterns, and the highest intakes of saturated, trans, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic fatty acids. The lower tails of some nutrient distributions in strict vegetarians suggested inadequate intakes by a portion of the subjects. Energy intake was similar among dietary patterns at close to 2,000 kcal/day, with the exception of semi-vegetarians, who had an intake of 1,707 kcal/day. Mean body mass index was highest in nonvegetarians (mean=28.7 [standard deviation=6.4]) and lowest in strict vegetarians (mean=24.0 [standard deviation=4.8]). Nutrient profiles varied markedly among dietary patterns that were defined by meat and dairy intakes. These differences are of interest in the etiology of obesity and chronic diseases. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Zeinab; Jessri, Mahsa; Houshiar-Rad, Anahita; Mirzaei, Hamid-Reza; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2014-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Several studies have examined the role of single nutrients and food groups in breast cancer pathogenesis but fewer investigations have addressed the role of dietary patterns. Our main objective was to identify the relationship between major dietary patterns and breast cancer risk among Iranian women. Hospital-based case-control study. Shohada Teaching Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Overall, 100 female patients aged 30-65 years with breast cancer and 174 female hospital controls were included in the present study. Dietary intake was assessed using a valid and reliable semi-quantitative FFQ consisting of 168 food items. Two dietary patterns were identified explaining 24·31 % of dietary variation in the study population. The 'healthy' food pattern was characterized by the consumption of vegetables, fruits, low-fat dairy products, legumes, olive and vegetable oils, fish, condiments, organ meat, poultry, pickles, soya and whole grains; while the 'unhealthy' food pattern was characterized by the consumption of soft drinks, sugars, tea and coffee, French fries and potato chips, salt, sweets and desserts, hydrogenated fats, nuts, industrial juice, refined grains, and red and processed meat. Compared with the lowest tertile, women in the highest tertile of the 'healthy' dietary pattern score had 75 % decreased risk of breast cancer (OR = 0·25, 95 % CI 0·08, 0·78), whereas women in the highest tertile of the 'unhealthy' dietary pattern had a significantly increased breast cancer risk (OR = 7·78, 95 % CI 2·31, 26·22). A healthy dietary pattern may be negatively associated with breast cancer risk, while an unhealthy dietary pattern is likely to increase the risk among Iranian women.

  15. Dietary patterns and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollberding, Nicholas J; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Caces, Donne Bennett D; Smith, Sonali M; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Chiu, Brian C-H

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies examining the role of single foods or nutrients in the aetiology of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have produced inconsistent findings. Few studies have examined associations for dietary patterns, which may more accurately reflect patterns of consumption and the complexity of dietary intake. The objective of the present study was to examine whether dietary patterns identified by factor analysis were associated with NHL risk. Case-control. Population-based sample residing in Nebraska from 1999 to 2002. A total of 336 cases and 460 controls. Factor analysis identified two major dietary patterns: (i) a 'Meat, Fat and Sweets' dietary pattern characterized by high intakes of French fries, red meat, processed meat, pizza, salty snacks, sweets and desserts, and sweetened beverages; and (ii) a 'Fruit, Vegetables and Starch' dietary pattern characterized by high intakes of vegetables, fruit, fish, and cereals and starches. In multivariable logistic regression models, the 'Meat, Fat and Sweets' dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk of overall NHL (ORQ4 v. Q1 = 3·6, 95 % CI 1·9, 6·8; P trend = 0·0004), follicular lymphoma (ORQ4 v. Q1 = 3·1, 95 % CI 1·2, 8·0; P trend = 0·01), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ORQ4 v. Q1 = 3·2, 95 % CI 1·1, 9·0; P trend = 0·09) and marginal zone lymphoma (ORQ4 v. Q1 = 8·2, 95 % CI 1·3, 51·2; P trend = 0·05). No association with overall or subtype-specific risk was detected for the 'Fruit, Vegetables and Starch' dietary pattern. No evidence of heterogeneity was detected across strata of age, sex, BMI, smoking status or alcohol consumption. Our results suggest that a dietary pattern high in meats, fats and sweets may be associated with an increased risk of NHL.

  16. Dietary Patterns Associated with Weight Change in College Students

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Kelly Ann

    2007-01-01

    Background: Dietary patterns that include recommended servings of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dietary fiber, and dairy, combined with regular physical activity and frequent breakfast consumption are optimal choices for weight loss or weight maintenance over time. College students are at an increased risk for weight gain due to environmental and behavioral changes that are associated with decreased dietary quality and physical inactivity. Preventing weight gain in college students may h...

  17. Dietary Management of Obesity: Cornerstones of Healthy Eating Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smethers, Alissa D; Rolls, Barbara J

    2018-01-01

    Several dietary patterns, both macronutrient and food based, can lead to weight loss. A key strategy for weight management that can be applied across dietary patterns is to reduce energy density. Clinical trials show that reducing energy density is effective for weight loss and weight loss maintenance. A variety of practical strategies and tools can help facilitate successful weight management by reducing energy density, providing portion control, and improving diet quality. The flexibility of energy density gives patients options to tailor and personalize their dietary pattern to reduce energy intake for sustainable weight loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Is dietary pattern of schizophrenia patients different from healthy subjects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani Reza

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited findings about dietary patterns and food preferences among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The main objective of this study was therefore to compare the nutritional pattern of schizophrenia patients with that of matched healthy subjects. Methods The dietary pattern of 30 hospitalized 16–67 years old schizophrenic patients (11 female was compared with that of 30 healthy age and sex matched individuals as control group. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height and body mass index (BMI, semi-quantitative food frequency (FFQ, medical and food history questionnaires were also collected and FFQs were then scored using Food Guide Pyramid to obtain the dietary scores. Percent body fat (%BF was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Results Female patients had more %BF and lower dietary pattern scores than that of their controls (32 ± 3.6 vs 27.7 ± 4.6 percent and 43.2 ± 11.9 vs 54.5 ± 10.7 points; respectively, p Conclusion Schizophrenia patients have poor nutritional patterns. In particular, female patients have more percent body fat and lower dietary pattern scores compared with their healthy controls. All patients used to consume more fats and sweet drinks frequently. The findings of this study suggest that schizophrenia patients need specific medical nutrition therapies through limiting dietary fats and sugars intakes and weight control. Whether obesity is the consequence of disease, dietary preference or medications used remains to be cleared.

  19. Sociodemographic characteristics determine dietary pattern adherence during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade; Freitas Vilela, Ana Amélia; de Oliveira, Alessandra Silva Dias; Cabral, Maria; de Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes; Kac, Gilberto; Sichieri, Rosely

    2016-05-01

    Sociodemographic factors may affect adherence to specific dietary patterns during pregnancy. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy and associated factors among Brazilian pregnant women. A cross-sectional analysis. Dietary intake was evaluated with a semi-quantitative FFQ during the first postpartum week; the time frame included the second and third gestational trimesters. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy. Sociodemographic data were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Multiple linear regressions were applied to test the associations between the sociodemographic factors and dietary patterns. Mesquita, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2011. Postpartum women (n 327) who were 18-45 years of age and Mesquita residents. Three different dietary patterns were identified: 'healthy' (mainly comprising legumes, vegetables and fruits), 'mixed' (mainly comprising candy, butter and margarine, and snacks) and 'traditional' (mainly comprising beans and rice). Women with a higher monthly per capita family income (β=0·0006; 95% CI 0·0001, 0·001; P=0·011) and women of older age (β=0·021; 95% CI -0·001, 0·042; P=0·058) were more likely to adhere to the 'healthy' dietary pattern. Women with higher parity were less likely to adhere to the 'healthy' pattern (β=-0·097; 95% CI -0·184, -0·009; P=0·030) and were more likely to adhere to the 'traditional' pattern (β=0·098; 95% CI 0·021, 0·175; P=0·012). Although not statistically significant, older women were less likely to adhere to the 'mixed' (β=-0·017; 95% CI -0·037, 0·003; P=0·075) and 'traditional' (β=-0·018; 95% CI -0·037, 0·001; P=0·061) dietary patterns. Monthly per capita family income, parity and maternal age were factors associated with adherence to a healthy diet during pregnancy.

  20. Nutrient dietary patterns and gastric cancer risk in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuccio, Paola; Edefonti, Valeria; Bravi, Francesca; Ferraroni, Monica; Pelucchi, Claudio; Negri, Eva; Decarli, Adriano; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2009-11-01

    There have been several studies on diet and gastric cancer, but only a few investigations have considered the role of dietary patterns. We investigated gastric cancer risk in relation to dietary patterns in a case-control study conducted in northern Italy between 1997 and 2007, including 230 patients with incident, histologically confirmed gastric cancer and 547 frequency-matched controls, admitted to the same hospitals as cases, with acute nonneoplastic conditions. Dietary habits were investigated through a validated food frequency questionnaire including 78 foods and beverages. We identified a posteriori dietary patterns on a selected set of 28 micro- and macro-nutrients through an exploratory principal component factor analysis. We estimated the odds ratios (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using conditional logistic regression models on quartiles of factor scores. We identified four major dietary patterns, named "animal products", "vitamins and fiber", "vegetable unsaturated fatty acids", and "starch-rich". We observed a positive association between gastric cancer risk and the "animal products" (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.34-3.40, for the highest versus the lowest score quartile) and the "starch-rich" (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.01-2.77) dietary patterns. The "vitamins and fiber" pattern (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.37-0.99) was inversely associated with gastric cancer, whereas no significant association emerged with the "vegetable unsaturated fatty acids" pattern (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.56-1.42). Our analysis suggests a protective effect against gastric cancer risk of dietary patterns rich in fruits and vegetables, and a positive association of dietary patterns rich in meats and animal fats and starchy foods.

  1. Dietary patterns of female university students with nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawson, Cynthia; Bell, Rhonda; Downs, Shauna; Farmer, Anna; Olstad, Dana; Willows, Noreen

    2013-01-01

    Dietary patterns were examined in a convenience sample of 36 female University of Alberta students, all of whom had completed at least one nutrition course. Data from a validated food frequency questionnaire were used to determine if students had a dietary pattern similar to that recommended in Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide (EWCFG) or by the Traditional Healthy Mediterranean Diet Pyramid (THMDP), as measured using a Mediterranean Diet Quality Index Score. No student consumed the THMDP minimum number of portions of legumes, seeds, and nuts, of olive oil, or of whole grains. The majority did not meet the minimum EWCFG recommendations for any food group. The results suggest that nutrition education alone may be insufficient to ensure optimal dietary patterns among female university students. The methodology reported in this study is novel in assessing whether dietary patterns resemble the THMDP or the EWCFG.

  2. Estimating the Distribution of Dietary Consumption Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-02-01

    In the United States the preferred method of obtaining dietary intake data is the 24-hour dietary recall, yet the measure of most interest is usual or long-term average daily intake, which is impossible to measure. Thus, usual dietary intake is assessed with considerable measurement error. We were interested in estimating the population distribution of the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), a multi-component dietary quality index involving ratios of interrelated dietary components to energy, among children aged 2-8 in the United States, using a national survey and incorporating survey weights. We developed a highly nonlinear, multivariate zero-inflated data model with measurement error to address this question. Standard nonlinear mixed model software such as SAS NLMIXED cannot handle this problem. We found that taking a Bayesian approach, and using MCMC, resolved the computational issues and doing so enabled us to provide a realistic distribution estimate for the HEI-2005 total score. While our computation and thinking in solving this problem was Bayesian, we relied on the well-known close relationship between Bayesian posterior means and maximum likelihood, the latter not computationally feasible, and thus were able to develop standard errors using balanced repeated replication, a survey-sampling approach.

  3. Consumption of processed food dietary patterns in four African populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michelle D; Dalal, Shona; Sewram, Vikash; Diamond, Megan B; Adebamowo, Sally N; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O; Adebamowo, Clement; Chiwanga, Faraja S; Njelekela, Marina; Laurence, Carien; Volmink, Jimmy; Bajunirwe, Francis; Nankya-Mutyoba, Joan; Guwatudde, David; Reid, Todd G; Willett, Walter C; Adami, Hans-Olov; Fung, Teresa T

    2018-02-01

    To identify predominant dietary patterns in four African populations and examine their association with obesity. Cross-sectional study. Setting/Subjects We used data from the Africa/Harvard School of Public Health Partnership for Cohort Research and Training (PaCT) pilot study established to investigate the feasibility of a multi-country longitudinal study of non-communicable chronic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. We applied principal component analysis to dietary intake data collected from an FFQ developed for PaCT to ascertain dietary patterns in Tanzania, South Africa, and peri-urban and rural Uganda. The sample consisted of 444 women and 294 men. We identified two dietary patterns: the Mixed Diet pattern characterized by high intakes of unprocessed foods such as vegetables and fresh fish, but also cold cuts and refined grains; and the Processed Diet pattern characterized by high intakes of salad dressing, cold cuts and sweets. Women in the highest tertile of the Processed Diet pattern score were 3·00 times more likely to be overweight (95 % CI 1·66, 5·45; prevalence=74 %) and 4·24 times more likely to be obese (95 % CI 2·23, 8·05; prevalence=44 %) than women in this pattern's lowest tertile (both PProcessed Diet pattern. The Processed Diet pattern was associated with obesity.

  4. Dietary patterns and survival in older Dutch women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waijers, Patricia M C M; Ocké, Marga C; Rossum, Caroline T M van; Peeters, Petra H M; Bamia, Christina; Chloptsios, Yiannis; Schouw, Yvonne T van der; Slimani, Nadia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The need to gain insight into prevailing eating patterns and their health effects is evident. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify dietary patterns and their relation to total mortality in older Dutch women. DESIGN: A principal component analysis of 22 food groups was used to identify

  5. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; van Assema, P.; Kremers, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance examining energy

  6. The association between dietary patterns, diabetes and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipnall, Joanna F; Pasco, Julie A; Meyer, Denny; Berk, Michael; Williams, Lana J; Dodd, Seetal; Jacka, Felice N

    2015-03-15

    Type 2 diabetes and depression are commonly comorbid high-prevalence chronic disorders. Diet is a key diabetes risk factor and recent research has highlighted the relevance of diet as a possible risk for factor common mental disorders. This study aimed to investigate the interrelationship among dietary patterns, diabetes and depression. Data were integrated from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (2009-2010) for adults aged 18+ (n=4588, Mean age=43yr). Depressive symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and diabetes status determined via self-report, usage of diabetic medication and/or fasting glucose levels ≥126mg/dL and a glycated hemoglobin level ≥6.5% (48mmol/mol). A 24-h dietary recall interview was given to determine intakes. Multiple logistic regression was employed, with depression the outcome, and dietary patterns and diabetes the predictors. Covariates included gender, age, marital status, education, race, adult food insecurity level, ratio of family income to poverty, and serum C-reactive protein. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five dietary patterns (healthy; unhealthy; sweets; 'Mexican' style; breakfast) explaining 39.8% of the total variance. The healthy dietary pattern was associated with reduced odds of depression for those with diabetes (OR 0.68, 95% CI [0.52, 0.88], p=0.006) and those without diabetes (OR 0.79, 95% CI [0.64, 0.97], p=0.029) (interaction p=0.048). The relationship between the sweets dietary pattern and depression was fully explained by diabetes status. In this study, a healthy dietary pattern was associated with a reduced likelihood of depressive symptoms, especially for those with Type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary patterns associated with metabolic syndrome, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh-Taskar, Priya R; O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Yang, Su-Jau; Liu, Yan; Gustat, Jeanette; Berenson, Gerald S

    2009-12-01

    To examine the association between dietary patterns (DP) and risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS); and to identify differences in DP by socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors. Dietary intake (from an FFQ), anthropometric/biochemical parameters and sociodemographic/lifestyle information (from a self-reported questionnaire) were evaluated, using a cross-sectional design. Statistical methods included principal component factor analysis, analysis of covariance and linear regression. All analyses were covariate-adjusted. The Bogalusa Heart Study (1995-1996), USA. Young adults (19-39 years; n 995; 61 % females/39 % males; 80 % whites/20 % blacks) from a semi-rural southern US community were examined. The 'Western Dietary Pattern' (WDP) consisted of refined grains, French fries, high-fat dairy foods, cheese dishes, red meats, processed meats, eggs, snacks, sweets/desserts, sweetened beverages and condiments. The 'Prudent Dietary Pattern' (PDP) consisted of whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, 100 % fruit juices, low-fat dairy products, poultry, clear soups and low-fat salad dressings. The DP explained 31 % of the dietary intake variance. Waist circumference (P = 0.02), triceps skinfold (P = 0.01), plasma insulin (P = 0.03), serum TAG (P = 0.05), and the occurrence of MetS (P = 0.03) were all inversely associated with PDP. Insulin sensitivity (P 12 years of education consumed more servings from PDP than their counterparts (P < 0.0001). Current smokers consumed more servings from WDP than current non-smokers (P < 0.0001). Physically very active young adults consumed fewer servings from WDP than their sedentary counterparts (P = 0.02). More studies are warranted to confirm these findings in other populations.

  8. Dietary patterns, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index and plasma sex hormone concentrations in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Teresa T; Hu, Frank B; Barbieri, Robert L; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E

    2007-08-15

    To evaluate the association between overall diet and sex hormones concentrations, we collected blood from 578 postmenopausal women ages 43 and 69 years in 1989 or 1990. Food intake was measured in 1990 via a food frequency questionnaire. We calculated the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. The cross-sectional association between diet and estrogens, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were evaluated with linear regression and adjusted for energy and other potential confounders. We found a higher AHEI score was associated with lower concentrations of estradiol, free estradiol, and higher concentrations of SHBG. The prudent pattern, with higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, was not associated with any sex hormones. The Western pattern, which represents higher intakes of red and processed meats, refined grains, sweets and desserts, was associated with a higher level of estradiol and lower concentrations of SHBG. Further adjustment for BMI attenuated these results except for free estradiol (5th vs. 1st quintile = 0.09 vs. 0.11 pg/mL, p for trend = 0.03). In addition, the AHEI was inversely associated with estradiol among those with BMI > 25, and Western pattern with SHBG among those with BMI < 25. In conclusion, we observed inverse associations between the AHEI score and several estrogens, and it was positively associated with plasma levels of SHBG. In contrast, the Western pattern was positively associated with estrogen levels and inversely with SHBG. However, these associations appeared to be largely accounted for by BMI.

  9. Dietary pattern and metabolic syndrome in thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aekplakorn, W; Satheannoppakao, W; Putwatana, P; Taneepanichskul, S; Kessomboon, P; Chongsuvivatwong, V; Chariyalertsak, S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30-59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, processed meat, and fried food. The second, healthy pattern, equated to a high intake of beans, vegetables, wheat, and dairy products. The third, high carbohydrate pattern, had a high intake of glutinous rice, fermented fish, chili paste, and bamboo shoots. Respondents with a healthy pattern were more likely to be female, higher educated, and urban residents. The carbohydrate pattern was more common in the northeast and rural areas. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of carbohydrate pattern was associated with MetS (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI 1.31, 2.55 in men and 1.60; 95% CI 1.24, 2.08 in women), particularly among those with a low level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Conclusion. The carbohydrate pattern with low level of LTPA increased the odds of MetS.

  10. Dietary Pattern and Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Aekplakorn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30–59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, processed meat, and fried food. The second, healthy pattern, equated to a high intake of beans, vegetables, wheat, and dairy products. The third, high carbohydrate pattern, had a high intake of glutinous rice, fermented fish, chili paste, and bamboo shoots. Respondents with a healthy pattern were more likely to be female, higher educated, and urban residents. The carbohydrate pattern was more common in the northeast and rural areas. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of carbohydrate pattern was associated with MetS (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI 1.31, 2.55 in men and 1.60; 95% CI 1.24, 2.08 in women, particularly among those with a low level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA. Conclusion. The carbohydrate pattern with low level of LTPA increased the odds of MetS.

  11. Objective assessment of dietary patterns by use of metabolic phenotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Posma, Joram M; Gibson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accurate monitoring of changes in dietary patterns in response to food policy implementation is challenging. Metabolic profiling allows simultaneous measurement of hundreds of metabolites in urine, the concentrations of which can be affected by food intake. We hypothesised that metabo......BACKGROUND: Accurate monitoring of changes in dietary patterns in response to food policy implementation is challenging. Metabolic profiling allows simultaneous measurement of hundreds of metabolites in urine, the concentrations of which can be affected by food intake. We hypothesised...... that metabolic profiles of urine samples developed under controlled feeding conditions reflect dietary intake and can be used to model and classify dietary patterns of free-living populations. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, crossover trial, we recruited healthy volunteers (aged 21-65 years, BMI 20......-35 kg/m(2)) from a database of a clinical research unit in the UK. We developed four dietary interventions with a stepwise variance in concordance with the WHO healthy eating guidelines that aim to prevent non-communicable diseases (increase fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and dietary fibre; decrease...

  12. Empirically derived dietary patterns in relation to psychological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Mahdieh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat; Majdzadeh, Reza; Afshar, Hamidreza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-02-01

    Psychological disorders are highly prevalent worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between major dietary patterns and prevalence of psychological disorders in a large sample of Iranian adults. A cross-sectional study was done to identify dietary patterns derived from factor analysis. Dietary data were collected through the use of a validated dish-based semi-quantitative FFQ. Psychological health was examined by use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the General Health Questionnaire. The study was conducted in Isfahan, Iran, within the framework of the Study on Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health and Nutrition (SEPAHAN). Iranian adults (n 3846) aged 20-55 years. After adjustment for potential confounders, greater adherence to the lacto-vegetarian dietary pattern was protectively associated with depression in women (OR=0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·91). Normal-weight participants in the top quintile of this dietary pattern tended to have decreased odds of anxiety compared with those in the bottom quintile (OR=0·61; 95 % CI 0·38, 1·00). In addition, the traditional dietary pattern was associated with increased odds of depression (OR=1·42; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·99) and anxiety (OR=1·56; 95 % CI 1·00, 2·42) in women. Normal-weight participants in the highest quintile of the traditional dietary pattern had greater odds for anxiety (OR=1·89; 95 % CI 1·12, 3·08) compared with those in the lowest quintile. The Western dietary pattern was associated with increased odds of depression in men (OR=1·73; 95 % CI 1·07, 2·81) and anxiety in normal-weight participants (OR=2·05; 95 % CI 1·22, 3·46). There was a significant increasing trend in the odds of psychological distress across increasing quintiles of the fast food dietary pattern in women (P-trend=0·02). Recommendation to increase the intake of fruits, citrus fruits, vegetables, tomato and low-fat dairy products and to reduce the intakes of snacks, high-fat dairy

  13. Association between sociodemographics factors and dietary patterns during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Trindade De Castro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between socio-demographic factors and dietary patterns in pregnancy. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with baseline data from a cohort of 421 postpartum women aged 18 and 45 years resident in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Dietary intake was evaluated with a validated food frequency questionnaire at 15 days following delivery, having as time frame the second and third pregnancy trimesters. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis for principal components analysis. The association between socio-demographic factors and the identified dietary patterns was assessed with multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Two dietary patterns were identified: i healthy: fruits; green vegetables; vegetables; fish; roots, corn and potato; milk and dairy and herbal tea mate, and negatively loadings for alcohol and coffee and ii mixed: rice; bean; flour and pasta; breads; cake and cookies; soda and juice; sugar and sweets; fatty foods; meats; chicken; and eggs. The linear regression showed that the income (β=0.0002; 95%CI: 0.0002-0.0004 and schooling (β=0.0491; 95%CI: 0.0264-0.0718 were positively associated with healthy pattern, and parity (β=-0.1044; 95%CI: -0.1665- -0.0423 and skin color (β=-0.3102; 95%CI: -0.5256- -0.0947 were negatively associated. Skin color (β=0.1647; 95%CI: 0.0378- 0.2916 and marital status (β=0.1065; 95%CI: 0.0062- 0.2067 were positively associated with mixed pattern and income (β=-0.0001; 95%CI:-0.0002- -0.0001 and schooling (β=-0.0281; 95%CI: -0.0417- -0.0146 were negatively associated. CONCLUSION: Socio-demographic factors such as income, schooling, skin color, marital status and parity were associated with dietary patterns in this sample of postpartum women residents in Rio de Janeiro.

  14. Stress, emotional eating behaviour and dietary patterns in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nathalie; Sioen, Isabelle; Braet, Caroline; Eiben, Gabriele; Hebestreit, Antje; Huybrechts, Inge; Vanaelst, Barbara; Vyncke, Krishna; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-12-01

    Psychological stress has been suggested to change dietary pattern towards more unhealthy choices and as such to contribute to overweight. Emotional eating behaviour could be an underlying mediating mechanism. The interrelationship between stress, emotional eating behaviour and dietary patterns has only rarely been examined in young children. Nevertheless, research in children is pivotal as the foundations of dietary habits are established starting from childhood and may track into adulthood. In 437 children (5-12years) of the ChiBS study, stress was measured by questionnaires on stressful events, emotions (happy, angry, sad, anxious) and problems (emotional, peer, conduct and hyperactivity). Data were collected on children's emotional eating behaviour and also on dietary patterns: frequency of fatty foods, sweet foods, snacks (fat and sweet), fruit and vegetables. Stressful events, negative emotions and problems were positively associated with emotional eating. Positive associations were observed between problems and both sweet and fatty foods consumption. Negative associations were observed between events and fruit and vegetables consumption. Overall, stress was associated with emotional eating and a more unhealthy dietary pattern and could thus contribute to the development of overweight, also in children. Nevertheless, emotional eating behaviour was not observed to mediate the stress-diet relation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk in an Urban Mexican Adult Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Tucker, Katherine L; Flores, Mario; Barquera, Simón; Salmerón, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    .... Dietary intake was evaluated by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The relations between dietary patterns and predicted CVD were analyzed by using pooled logistic regression models...

  16. Foods, Nutrients, and Dietary Patterns: Interconnections and Implications for Dietary Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsell, Linda C; Neale, Elizabeth P; Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2016-05-01

    Dietary guidelines provide evidence-based statements on food choices to meet nutritional requirements and reduce the risk of prevailing chronic disease. They involve a substantial amount of research translation, and their implementation has important health consequences. Foods, however, are complex combinations of nutrients and other compounds that act synergistically within the food and across food combinations. In addition, the evidence base underpinning dietary guidelines accesses research that reflects different study designs, with inherent strengths and limitations. We propose a systematic approach for the review of evidence that begins with research on dietary patterns. This research will identify the combinations of foods that best protect, or appear deleterious to, health. Next, we suggest that evidence be sought from research that focuses on the effects of individual foods. Finally, nutrient-based research should be considered to explain the mechanisms by which these foods and dietary patterns exert their effects, take into account the effects of ingredients added to the food supply, and enable assessments of dietary sufficiency. The consideration of individual nutrients and food components (e.g., upper limits for saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium) provides important benchmarks for evaluating overall diet quality. The concepts of core and discretionary foods (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor foods, respectively) enable distinctions between foods, and this has implications for the relation between food policy and food manufacturing. In summary, evidence supporting healthy dietary patterns provides the foundation for the development of dietary guidelines. Further reference to individual foods and nutrients follows from the foundation of healthy dietary patterns. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Dietary patterns and markers of systemic inflammation among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Kimiagar, Masoud; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Azadbakht, Leila; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C

    2007-04-01

    Few studies have examined the contribution of major dietary patterns to markers of systemic inflammation. This study was conducted to evaluate the association of major dietary patterns with markers of systemic inflammation among Iranian women. In a cross-sectional study of 486 healthy women aged 40-60 y, we assessed usual dietary intakes by means of an FFQ. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Anthropometric measurements were made and blood samples from fasting were taken for measuring inflammatory markers. The healthy pattern (high in fruits, vegetables, tomato, poultry, legumes, tea, fruit juices, and whole grains) was inversely related to plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) (beta = -0.09, P sweets and desserts, pizza, potato, eggs, hydrogenated fats, and soft drinks) was positively related to CRP (beta = 0.08, P < 0.001), serum amyloid A (SAA) (beta = 0.11, P < 0.05), IL-6 (beta = 0.09, P < 0.001), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (beta = 0.05, P < 0.05), and sVCAM-1 concentrations (beta = 0.07, P < 0.05). However, after additional control for BMI and WC, the associations remained significant only for SAA (beta = 0.06, P < 0.05) and IL-6 (beta = 0.07, P < 0.001). The traditional dietary pattern (high in refined grains, potato, tea, whole grains, hydrogenated fats, legumes, and casserole) was positively associated with the plasma IL-6 concentration (beta = 0.04, P < 0.05) when we controlled for confounders including BMI and WC. The findings suggest an independent association between major dietary patterns and plasma concentrations of markers of inflammation.

  18. Identification of dietary patterns of adolescents attending public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinéia de Pinho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents attending public municipal schools in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to test the association between these patterns and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status of the adolescents. METHODS: this was an analytical, cross-sectional study with randomized sample of 474 adolescents of both genders, between 11 and 17 years of age, attending municipal public schools in the urban area of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. The parents provided demographic and economic data. The nutritional status (body mass index - BMI of the adolescents was determined at school, and their dietary habits were assessed though the administration of the Food Frequency Questionnaire for Adolescents (FFQA. Based on 26 categories extracted from FFQA, dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis (PCA and associated to anthropometric and socioeconomic factors using multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: the three dietary patterns identified, "junk food," "healthy," and "traditional", explained 23.26%, 6.90%, and 5.24% of data variability, respectively. Adolescents with per capita family income exceeding half a minimum wage were more likely to consume the "junk food" pattern (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.07-2.56, and overweight adolescents had lower chances of eating the "healthy" food pattern (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.35-0.91. CONCLUSIONS: deviations from the "healthy" patterns were not associated to low income, but rather to bad eating habits in the studied population. Overweight adolescents did not adhere to the "healthy" dietary pattern, emphasizing the need for nutritional education among them.

  19. Identification of dietary patterns of adolescents attending public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Lucinéia de; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2014-01-01

    to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents attending public municipal schools in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to test the association between these patterns and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status of the adolescents. this was an analytical, cross-sectional study with randomized sample of 474 adolescents of both genders, between 11 and 17 years of age, attending municipal public schools in the urban area of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. The parents provided demographic and economic data. The nutritional status (body mass index - BMI) of the adolescents was determined at school, and their dietary habits were assessed though the administration of the Food Frequency Questionnaire for Adolescents (FFQA). Based on 26 categories extracted from FFQA, dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis (PCA) and associated to anthropometric and socioeconomic factors using multiple regression analysis. the three dietary patterns identified, "junk food," "healthy," and "traditional", explained 23.26%, 6.90%, and 5.24% of data variability, respectively. Adolescents with per capita family income exceeding half a minimum wage were more likely to consume the "junk food" pattern (OR=1.66; 95% CI=1.07-2.56), and overweight adolescents had lower chances of eating the "healthy" food pattern (OR=0.56, 95% CI=0.35-0.91). deviations from the "healthy" patterns were not associated to low income, but rather to bad eating habits in the studied population. Overweight adolescents did not adhere to the "healthy" dietary pattern, emphasizing the need for nutritional education among them. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. A traditional Korean dietary pattern and metabolic syndrome abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Joung, H

    2012-05-01

    Using national data, we explored the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic abnormalities to address how the traditional Korean diet, high in carbohydrate and low in animal fat with plenty of plant foods, has influenced metabolic abnormalities in the adult population. We examined cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and the risk of metabolic abnormalities in 4,730 subjects aged 20 years or more using both health and dietary data from the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination survey. Three evident dietary patterns were derived by cluster analysis: 'Traditional' (50.3% of total population), 'Meat and Alcohol, (15.8%) and 'Korean Healthy' (33.9%). The 'Traditional' group was characterised by high consumptions of rice and kimchi, while the 'Korean healthy' group ate a modified Korean-style diet with various foods such as noodles, bread, eggs and milk, and the 'Meat and Alcohol' group had high consumptions of processed meat and alcohol. Compared with the 'Traditional' pattern, the 'Meat and Alcohol' pattern was associated with a 33% increased risk of having elevated blood glucose, a 21% increased risk of having elevated serum triglycerides and a 21% increased risk of having elevated blood pressure. However, the 'Traditional' pattern showed a 23% increased risk of having low high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol compared with the other two patterns by logistics analysis. Fifty percent of the Korean adult population continues to follow a traditional dietary pattern, having beneficial effects with respect to some metabolic abnormalities. However, the high prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol, attributable to a high-carbohydrate diet, should be considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A review of dietary influences on cardiovascular health: part 2: dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradling, Clare; Hamid, Mash; Taheri, Shahrad; Thomas, G Neil

    2014-01-01

    Dietary recommendations are key to cardiovascular disease (CVD) management. The underpinning evidence is generally based on data generated from single nutrient or food types. However, food is not consumed in such a manner, and components may interact synergistically or antagonistically depending on the dietary composition. Analyses of dietary patterns have attempted to address these important issues. The aim of this review is to present the current evidence on three major dietary patterns and their relationship with CVD. The most widely reported is the Mediterranean diet, which is characterised by abundant use of olive oil, and plant-based foods, moderate consumption of fish, dairy products, alcohol with meals, and a relatively low intake of red meat. The strongest evidence of causality has been established for the Mediterranean diet and unlike other dietary patterns has been shown to significantly reduce major CVD events. The Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH), emphasising fruit, vegetables and low fat dairy products, has successfully been shown to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. However, its true effects on CVD under freeliving conditions have yet to be fully explored. The available evidence is encouraging for CVD prevention, but long-term effectiveness is unclear. Very low-carbohydrate diets appear to exert their favourable effect on CVD risk factors via weight loss. However, longterm effectiveness and safety remains unclear. The available evidence supports the role of the DASH and Mediterranean diets in the prevention of CVD.

  2. Dietary patterns and mortality in Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Heitmann, B L; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of dietary patterns emerged recently as a possible approach to examining diet-disease relation. We analysed the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality associated with dietary patterns in men and women, while taking a number of potential confounding variables into account. Data...... with frequent intake of wholemeal bread, fruits and vegetables, whereas the Western was characterized by frequent intakes of meat products, potatoes, white bread, butter and lard. Among participants with complete information on all variables, 398 men and 231 women died during follow-up. The healthy food index...

  3. Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drugs can no longer cure infections and killer epidemics run rampant. The Alliance for the Prudent Use ... Vol. 32 No. 3: Public health threat agent: Salmonella APUA Highlights APUA Mailing List "Antibiotics are uniquely ...

  4. A Lebanese dietary pattern promotes better diet quality among older adults: findings from a national cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Itani, Leila; Chamieh, Marie Claire; Mehio-Sibai, Abla; Naja, Farah

    2016-04-19

    Proper nutrition is critical for healthy aging and maintaining functional independence. Limited research has been done on the assessment of dietary patterns of older adults and their association with diet quality indices. This study was conducted to identify, characterize, and evaluate the dietary patterns and diet quality of older adults in Lebanon, a middle-income country undergoing nutrition transition. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults aged >50 years (n = 525). Socio-demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle variables were collected through interviews, and dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Five commonly used diet quality indices (DQIs) were calculated, including the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), the alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMed), the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) style diet score, and the Lebanese Mediterranean Diet index. Dietary patterns (DPs) were derived using exploratory factor analysis. Associations of identified DPs with energy, energy-adjusted nutrients, and DQIs were evaluated by Pearson's correlations. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine correlates of DPs. Three DPs were derived: Lebanese, Western, and High Protein/Alcohol patterns. The Lebanese pattern had highest correlations with fiber, folate, vitamin C, and all five DQIs. The Western was positively associated with energy and sodium and was inversely correlated with fiber, most vitamins, and a number of DQIs, namely AHEI, aMED, and DASH-style diet score. Highest correlations with intakes of proteins and fat were observed for the High Protein/Alcohol pattern. The Lebanese pattern was associated with female gender, education, nonsmoking and physical activity, whereas the Western pattern was associated with adverse health behaviors, including smoking, skipping breakfast, and physical inactivity

  5. The identification of major dietary patterns in Karaj adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The eating habits of adolescents are of concerns about public health, because of the direct relationship between diet and the incidence of obesity and other chronic diseases in adults. Identifying dietary patterns can be used as a prognostic factor in the relationship between diet and chronic disease risk. Materials and Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional study on 140 healthy adolescents 13-19 years of middle schools and high schools in Karaj. Samples were selected by multistage cluster sampling method from 5 districts in Karaj. Validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. Food items were categorized into 25 food groups based on similarity. Results: Using principal component analysis three major dietary patterns were identified ehich among subjects had the highest dispersion justifying 30.25 percent of the total variance of consumption. Mediterranean-like pattern showed high loadings on nuts, fruits and vegetables, fish, chicken, olives, sweetmeat and pickles. The second pattern, called unhealthy pattern specified with a high intake of mayonnaise, refined cereals, boiled potatoes, red meat and processed meat, high fat dairy products, viscera. The third pattern (traditional had high loading for solid fats, dairy scab, legumes and whole grains. Conclusion: Mediterranean-like pattern with explained 14.14% of the variance of the maximum percentage to be allocated. These patterns can be used to identify the appropriate educational steps taken to promote sufficient nutrition.

  6. Dietary patterns among 13-y-old Portuguese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Joana; Teixeira, Joana; Gaio, A Rita; Lopes, Carla; Ramos, Elisabete

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns in 13-y-old adolescents and to evaluate their association with socioeconomic and behavioral factors. Data from 1489 adolescents born in 1990 and enrolled in schools of Porto, Portugal, in 2003-2004 (EPITeen study) were analyzed, after excluding those without information on the food frequency questionnaire and the outliers. The questionnaire items were grouped into 14 food groups and dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis (k-means). Their association with participants' characteristics was computed using multinomial logistic regression. Four dietary patterns were identified. The pattern healthier (16.1%) was characterized by the highest consumption of seafood, soup, vegetables/legumes, fruit, and added fats. The dairy products pattern (29.7%) showed the highest consumption of dairies. The pattern fast food and sweets (14.2%) presented the highest intake of fast food, sweets and pastry, soft drinks and coffee or tea. The lower intake pattern (40%) was characterized by a lower consumption of the majority of food groups. A higher odds of belonging to the fast food and sweets pattern, compared with the lower intake pattern was found among adolescents spending more time watching TV on the weekends (>360 min: odds ratio [OR], 2.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-3.57) and among those consuming four to seven fried meals per week (OR, 3.96; 95% CI, 2.27-6.90). Adolescents with highly educated parents were less likely to belong to the fast food and sweets group. Unhealthier behaviors and lower socioeconomic position were the main factors associated with the unhealthier dietary pattern (fast food and sweets). This information should be considered in the development of health-promotion interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prospective Associations between Dietary Patterns and Cognitive Performance during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaradi, Anett; Foster, Jonathan K.; Hickling, Siobhan; Li, Jianghong; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Jacques, Angela; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to investigate prospective associations between dietary patterns and cognitive performance during adolescence. Methods: Participants were sourced from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study that includes 2868 children born between 1989 and 1992 in Perth, Western Australia. When the children were…

  8. Dietary patterns and mental health after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rius-Ottenheim, Nathaly; Kromhout, Daan; Sijtsma, Femke P. C.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Giltay, Erik J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diet has been associated with better mental health in general populations, but less is known on this association in patients with a history of coronary heart disease. The objective of this study is to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and mental health in

  9. Dietary Patterns and Glucose Tolerance Abnormalities in Chinese Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Ma, G.; Zhai, F.; Li, Y.; Hu, Y.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Yang, X.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of the dietary pattern with the presence of newly diagnosed glucose tolerance abnormalities among Chinese adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 20,210 adults aged 45–69 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were included.

  10. Dietary pattern, haemoglobin and haematocrit status of pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pregnancy is a normal physiologic process that increases a woman's vulnerability to nutritional problems particularly anaemia. This study examined the dietary pattern, haemoglobin and haematocrit status of pregnant women in Ogbaru Local Government Area (LGA) of Anambra State, Nigeria. Methods: Three ...

  11. Designing Fuzzy Algorithms to Develop Healthy Dietary Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Golaleh; Ejtahed, Hanieh-Sadat; Sarsharzadeh, Mohammad Mahdi; Nazeri, Pantea; Mirmiran, Parvin

    2013-01-01

    Background Fuzzy logic, a mathematical approach, defines the percentage of desirability for recommended amount of food groups and describes the range of intakes, from deficiency to excess. Objectives The purpose of this research was to find the best fuzzy dietary pattern that constraints energy and nutrients by the iterative algorithm. Materials and Methods An index is derived that reflects how closely the diet of an individual meets all the nutrient requirements set by the dietary reference intake. Fuzzy pyramid pattern was applied for the energy levels from 1000 to 4000 Kcal which estimated the range of recommended servings for seven food groups including fruits, vegetables, grains, meats, milk, oils, fat and added sugar. Results The optimum (lower attention – upper attention) recommended servings per day for fruits, vegetables, grain, meat, dairy, and oils of the 2000 kcal diet were 4.06 (3.75-4.25), 6.69 (6.25-7.00), 5.69 (5.75-6.25), 4.94 (4.5-5.2), 2.75(2.50-3.00), and 2.56 (2.5-2.75), respectively. The fuzzy pattern met most recommended nutrient intake levels except for potassium and vitamin E, which were estimated at 98% and 69% of the dietary reference intake, respectively. Conclusions Using fuzzy logic provides an elegant mathematical solution for finding the optimum point of food groups in dietary pattern. PMID:24454416

  12. Dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome among type 2 diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is raising worldwide; however, the role of diet in the origin of metabolic syndrome is not understood well. This study identifies major dietary patterns among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with and without metabolic syndrome; and its association with metabolic syndrome ...

  13. Dietary patterns and dental caries in nursery school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary patterns and dental caries in nursery school children in Nairobi, Kenya. E. M. Ngatia, J. K. Imungi, J. W. G Muita, P. M. Ng'ang'a. Abstract. (East African Medical Journal, 2001: 78 (12): 673-677). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  14. Dietary patterns and changes in frailty status: the Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, S.C.M. (Sandra C. M.); E.A.L. de Jonge (Ester); R.G. Voortman (Trudy); J.C.J. Steenweg-de Graaff (Jolien); Franco, O.H. (Oscar H.); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); Rivadeneira, F. (Fernando); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica); J.D. Schoufour (Josje)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To determine the associations between a priori and a posteriori derived dietary patterns and a general state of health, measured as the accumulation of deficits in a frailty index. Methods: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis embedded in the population-based Rotterdam

  15. Nutritional Status and Dietary Pattern of Male Athletes in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Notwithstanding, risky behaviours that limit or impair athletic performance are widely prevalent among athletes; these include excessive ... information on the nutritional status and dietary pattern of athletes in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a cross ..... chronic muscle fatigue since it is needed to fuel the muscle during ...

  16. Dietary pattern, lifestyle and nutritional status of hypertensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inappropriate eating habits and sedentary lifestyle predispose to hypertension. This study assessed dietary pattern, lifestyle and nutritional status of hypertensive outpatients attending Cardiology Clinic of University College Hospital, Ibadan. This research was descriptive and cross-sectional, including 92 hypertensive ...

  17. Identification of dietary patterns of adolescents attending public schools

    OpenAIRE

    Lucinéia PINHO; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Botelho,Ana Cristina de Carvalho; Caldeira,Antônio Prates

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents attending public municipal schools in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to test the association between these patterns and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status of the adolescents. METHODS: this was an analytical, cross-sectional study with randomized sample of 474 adolescents of both genders, between 11 and 17 years of age, attending municipal public schools in the urban area of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. The parents p...

  18. Dietary patterns related to attainment in school: the importance of early eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, L; Sabates, R; Sorhaindo, A; Rogers, I; Herrick, D; Northstone, K; Emmett, P

    2008-08-01

    To empirically test the impact of dietary intake at several time points in childhood on children's school attainment and to investigate whether any differences in school attainment between children who ate packed lunches or school meals was due to who these children were, their pre-school dietary patterns, or to what they ate at school. Using longitudinal data available in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), multivariate linear regression was used to assess the relative importance of diet at different ages for school attainment. Three indicators of school attainment were used: at ages 4-5 entry assessments to school, at ages 6-7 Key Stage 1 national tests and at ages 10-11 Key Stage 2 national tests. These outcome variables were measured in levels as well as in changes from the previous educational stage. The key finding at age 3 was that "junk food" dietary pattern had a negative association with the level of school attainment. A weak association remained after controlling for the impact of other dietary patterns at age 3, dietary patterns at ages 4 and 7 and other confounding factors. The authors did not find evidence that eating packed lunches or eating school meals affected children's attainment, once the impact of junk food dietary pattern at age 3 was accounted for in the model. Early eating patterns have implications for attainment that appear to persist over time, regardless of subsequent changes in diet.

  19. Dietary patterns, insulin sensitivity and inflammation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A L; Harris, T B; Tylavsky, F A; Perry, S E; Houston, D K; Lee, J S; Kanaya, A M; Sahyoun, N R

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have linked dietary patterns to insulin sensitivity and systemic inflammation, which affect risk of multiple chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary patterns of a cohort of older adults, and to examine relationships of dietary patterns with markers of insulin sensitivity and systemic inflammation. The Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study is a prospective cohort study of 3075 older adults. In Health ABC, multiple indicators of glucose metabolism and systemic inflammation were assessed. Food intake was estimated with a modified Block food frequency questionnaire. In this study, dietary patterns of 1751 participants with complete data were derived by cluster analysis. Six clusters were identified, including a 'healthy foods' cluster, characterized by higher intake of low-fat dairy products, fruit, whole grains, poultry, fish and vegetables. In the main analysis, the 'healthy foods' cluster had significantly lower fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance values than the 'breakfast cereal' and 'high-fat dairy products' clusters, and lower fasting glucose than the 'high-fat dairy products' cluster (P≤0.05). No differences were found in 2-h glucose. With respect to inflammation, the 'healthy foods' cluster had lower interleukin-6 than the 'sweets and desserts' and 'high-fat dairy products' clusters, and no differences were seen in C-reactive protein or tumor necrosis factor-α. A dietary pattern high in low-fat dairy products, fruit, whole grains, poultry, fish and vegetables may be associated with greater insulin sensitivity and lower systemic inflammation in older adults.

  20. Confounding by dietary pattern of the inverse association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiology of dietary components and disease risk limits interpretability due to potential residual confounding by correlated dietary components. Dietary pattern analyses by factor analysis or partial least squares may overcome the limitation. To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as ...

  1. Generalizability of dietary patterns of the inverse association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiology of dietary components and disease risk limits interpretability due to potential residual confounding by correlated dietary components. Dietary pattern analyses by factor analysis or partial least squares may overcome this limitation. To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as ...

  2. Confounding by dietary patterns of the inverse association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiology of dietary components and disease risk limits interpretability due to potential residual confounding by correlated dietary components. Dietary pattern analyses by factor analysis or partial least squares may overcome this limitation. To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as ...

  3. Differences in dietary pattern between obese and eutrophic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balthazar Emilia A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive consumption of energy is a decisive factor of obesity, but a simple quantitative assessment of consumption between obese and eutrophic individuals not always explains the problem, raising questions about the importance of the qualitative aspects of food. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in nutrient composition and meal patterns between eutrophic and obese schoolchildren. Methods The diet of 83 children (42 obese and 41 eutrophic, aged between 7 and 11 years of age, was assessed by two non-consecutive dietary recalls. After the software analysis of macro and micronutrients composition, the different types and amount of legumes, fruits and vegetables were analyzed to verify the dietary patterns. Results No differences were verified in energy consumption between the groups (eutrophic = 1934.2 ± 672.7 kcal, obese = 1835.8 ± 621.2 kcal. In general, children showed consumption within the recommended ranges of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. The average consumption of fiber was higher in the eutrophic group (20.7 g when compared to the obese group (14.8 g. The dietary fiber was strongly correlated with the number of servings of beans (r = 0.77, when compared to fruits (r = 0.44 and leafy vegetables (r = 0.13. It was also observed that the higher the consumption of fiber and beans, the lower the proportion of dietary fat (r = -0.22 in the diet. Generally, there was a low consumption of fiber (20.7 g = eutrophic group/14.8 g = obese group, beans (1.1 portions in the eutrophic and obese groups, fruits (0.7 portions eutrophic group and 0.6 obese group and vegetables (1.3 eutrophic group and 1.1 obese group. Conclusions It is concluded that the obesity was more related to a dietary pattern of low intake of dietary fiber than excessive energy consumption and macronutrients imbalance.

  4. Socio-economic status and ethnicity are independently associated with dietary patterns: the HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Louise H.; Nicolaou, Mary; van Dam, Rob M.; de Vries, Jeanne H. M.; de Boer, Evelien J.; Brants, Henny A. M.; Beukers, Marja H.; Snijder, Marieke B.; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    Background: Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES) or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet.

  5. Dietary Patterns and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ying Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have examined the associations between dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer risk, but the findings have been inconclusive. Herein, we conducted this meta-analysis to assess the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of pancreatic cancer. MEDLINE (provided by the National Library of Medicine and EBSCO (Elton B. Stephens Company databases were searched for relevant articles published up to May 2016 that identified common dietary patterns. Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria and were finally included in this meta-analysis. A reduced risk of pancreatic cancer was shown for the highest compared with the lowest categories of healthy patterns (odds ratio, OR = 0.86; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.77–0.95; p = 0.004 and light–moderate drinking patterns (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83–0.98; p = 0.02. There was evidence of an increased risk for pancreatic cancer in the highest compared with the lowest categories of western-type pattern (OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.06–1.45; p = 0.008 and heavy drinking pattern (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.10–1.48; p = 0.002. The results of this meta-analysis demonstrate that healthy and light–moderate drinking patterns may decrease the risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas western-type and heavy drinking patterns may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  6. The Dietary Patterns Methods Project: synthesis of findings across cohorts and relevance to dietary guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Subar, Amy F; George, Stephanie M; Harmon, Brook E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Boushey, Carol J; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Reedy, Jill

    2015-03-01

    The Dietary Patterns Methods Project (DPMP) was initiated in 2012 to strengthen research evidence on dietary indices, dietary patterns, and health for upcoming revisions of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, given that the lack of consistent methodology has impeded development of consistent and reliable conclusions. DPMP investigators developed research questions and a standardized approach to index-based dietary analysis. This article presents a synthesis of findings across the cohorts. Standardized analyses were conducted in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, the Multiethnic Cohort, and the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores were examined across cohorts for correlations between pairs of indices; concordant classifications into index score quintiles; associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality with the use of Cox proportional hazards models; and dietary intake of foods and nutrients corresponding to index quintiles. Across all cohorts in women and men, there was a high degree of correlation and consistent classifications between index pairs. Higher diet quality (top quintile) was significantly and consistently associated with an 11-28% reduced risk of death due to all causes, CVD, and cancer compared with the lowest quintile, independent of known confounders. This was true for all diet index-mortality associations, with the exception of AHEI-2010 and cancer mortality in WHI-OS women. In all cohorts, survival benefit was greater with a higher-quality diet, and relatively small intake differences distinguished the index quintiles. The reductions in mortality risk started at relatively lower levels of diet quality. Higher scores on each of the indices, signifying higher diet quality, were associated with marked reductions in mortality. Thus

  7. The Dietary Patterns Methods Project: Synthesis of Findings across Cohorts and Relevance to Dietary Guidance1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Subar, Amy F; George, Stephanie M; Harmon, Brook E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Boushey, Carol J; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Reedy, Jill

    2015-01-01

    The Dietary Patterns Methods Project (DPMP) was initiated in 2012 to strengthen research evidence on dietary indices, dietary patterns, and health for upcoming revisions of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, given that the lack of consistent methodology has impeded development of consistent and reliable conclusions. DPMP investigators developed research questions and a standardized approach to index-based dietary analysis. This article presents a synthesis of findings across the cohorts. Standardized analyses were conducted in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, the Multiethnic Cohort, and the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores were examined across cohorts for correlations between pairs of indices; concordant classifications into index score quintiles; associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality with the use of Cox proportional hazards models; and dietary intake of foods and nutrients corresponding to index quintiles. Across all cohorts in women and men, there was a high degree of correlation and consistent classifications between index pairs. Higher diet quality (top quintile) was significantly and consistently associated with an 11–28% reduced risk of death due to all causes, CVD, and cancer compared with the lowest quintile, independent of known confounders. This was true for all diet index–mortality associations, with the exception of AHEI-2010 and cancer mortality in WHI-OS women. In all cohorts, survival benefit was greater with a higher-quality diet, and relatively small intake differences distinguished the index quintiles. The reductions in mortality risk started at relatively lower levels of diet quality. Higher scores on each of the indices, signifying higher diet quality, were associated with marked reductions in mortality

  8. Dietary patterns and the risk of CVD and all-cause mortality in older British men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atkins, Janice L; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard W; Lennon, Lucy T; Papacosta, Olia; Wannamethee, S. Goya

    2016-01-01

    .... Baseline FFQ data were used to generate thirty-four food groups. Principal component analysis identified dietary patterns that were categorised into quartiles, with higher quartiles representing higher adherence to the dietary pattern...

  9. Dietary protein is associated with musculoskeletal health independently of dietary pattern: the Framingham Third Generation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Kelsey M; Sahni, Shivani; Kiel, Douglas P; Tucker, Katherine L; Dufour, Alyssa B; Hannan, Marian T

    2017-03-01

    Background: Above-average dietary protein, as a single nutrient, improves musculoskeletal health. Evaluating the link between dietary protein and musculoskeletal health from a whole-diet perspective is important, as dietary guidelines focus on dietary patterns.Objective: We examined the prospective association of novel dietary protein food clusters (derived from established dietary pattern techniques) with appendicular lean mass (ALM), quadriceps strength (QS), and bone mineral density (BMD) in 2986 men and women, aged 19-72 y, from the Framingham Third Generation Study.Design: Total protein intake was estimated by food-frequency questionnaire in 2002-2005. A cluster analysis was used to classify participants into mutually exclusive groups, which were determined by using the percentage of contribution of food intake to overall protein intake. General linear modeling was used to 1) estimate the association between protein intake (grams per day) and BMD, ALM, appendicular lean mass normalized for height (ALM/ht2), and QS (2008-2011) and to 2) calculate adjusted least-squares mean outcomes across quartiles of protein (grams per day) and protein food clusters.Results: The mean ± SD age of subjects was 40 ± 9 y; 82% of participants met the Recommended Daily Allowance (0.8 g · kg body weight-1 · d-1). The following 6 dietary protein food clusters were identified: fast food and full-fat dairy, fish, red meat, chicken, low-fat milk, and legumes. BMD was not different across quartiles of protein intake (P-trend range = 0.32-0.82); but significant positive trends were observed for ALM, ALM/ht2 (P protein intake (quartile 1) had significantly lower ALM, ALM/ht2, and QS than did those in the higher quartiles of intake (quartiles 2-4; (P ranges = 0.0001-0.003, 0.0007-0.003, and 0.009-0.05, respectively). However, there were no associations between protein clusters and any musculoskeletal outcome in adjusted models.Conclusions: In a protein-replete cohort of adults, dietary

  10. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez; Katherine L. Tucker; Jorge Salmerón; Mario Flores; Simón Barquera

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To examine the validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population. Materials and methods. A 140-item SFFQ and two 24-hour dietary recalls (24DRs) were administered. Foods were categorized into 29 food groups used to derive dietary patterns via factor analy­sis. Pearson and intraclass correlations coefficients between dietary pattern scores identified from the SFFQ and 24DRs were assessed. Results. Pattern ...

  11. Sociodemographic factors are associated with dietary patterns in Mexican schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Chávez, Claudia Gabriela; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Rivera, Juan A; Monterrubio-Flores, Eric; Tucker, Katherine L

    2017-12-01

    Childhood obesity has increased rapidly in Mexico, along with changes in the food environment. However, little is known about the dietary patterns (DP) of Mexican children. We aimed to characterize the DP of schoolchildren and to analyse their associations with sociodemographic factors. Cross-sectional analysis. Dietary and sociodemographic information was obtained, including a single 24 h recall, socio-economic status (SES), geographic region, area of residence and ethnicity. DP were defined with cluster analysis (using k-means). Multinomial logistic regression models, adjusted for the survey design, were used to assess associations between DP and sociodemographic variables. 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2012). Schoolchildren (n 2751) aged 5-11 years who participated in ENSANUT-2012. Four DP were identified: 'Traditional', 'Industrialized', 'Varied' and 'Modern'. Reported energy intake (mean (sd)) was lowest in the 'Traditional' and highest in the 'Industrialized' DP (7037 (3707) kJ/d (1682 (886) kcal/d) v. 8427 (3753) kJ/d (2014 (897) kcal/d), respectively, Psociodemographic variables. Non-indigenous children were significantly more likely to consume a 'Modern' than a 'Traditional' DP. Children with higher SES were more likely to have an 'Industrialized' pattern. It is necessary to consider dietary characteristics in the different sociodemographic strata when dietary interventions are designed.

  12. Dietary patterns during high school and risk of colorectal adenoma in a cohort of middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Malik, Vasanti S; Fung, Teresa T; Pischon, Tobias; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward; Wu, Kana

    2014-05-15

    Adolescent diet may be etiologically relevant for later risk of colorectal adenoma, a precursor of colorectal cancer. We aimed to examine associations between adolescent dietary patterns (derived using factor analysis) and risk of colorectal adenoma in middle adulthood. We analyzed data from 17,221 women participating in the Nurses' Health Study II, who had completed a validated high school (HS) food frequency questionnaire in 1998 when they were 34-51 years old, and had subsequently undergone at least one lower bowel endoscopy. Between 1998 and 2007, 1,299 women were diagnosed with at least one colorectal adenoma. In multivariable models adjusted for adult dietary patterns, a higher "prudent" pattern during HS, characterized by high consumption of vegetables, fruit and fish was associated with a statistically significantly lower risk of rectal (odds ratio [OR] highest vs. lowest quintile, 0.45, 95% CI 0.27-0.75, p-trend = 0.005), but not colon adenomas. A higher "Western" pattern during HS, characterized by high consumption of desserts and sweets, snack foods and red and processed meat, was significantly associated with rectal (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.12-2.85, p-trend = 0.005) and advanced (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.07-2.33, p-trend = 0.08), but not associated with colon or non-advanced adenomas. This study suggests that overall eating patterns during high school may influence later risk of rectal and advanced adenoma, independent of adult diet. Our results support the hypothesis that diet during early life may influence colorectal carcinogenesis. © 2013 UICC.

  13. Patterns of adolescent physical activity and dietary behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Gorely Trish; Biddle Stuart JH; Atkin Andrew J; Pearson Natalie; Edwardson Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The potential synergistic effects of multiple dietary and physical activity behaviours on the risk of chronic conditions and health outcomes is a key issue for public health. This study examined the prevalence and clustering patterns of multiple health behaviours among a sample of adolescents in the UK. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 176 adolescents aged 12–16 years (49% boys). Adolescents wore accelerometers for seven days and completed a questionnaire assessing fruit,...

  14. Mediterranean dietary pattern and depression: the PREDIMED randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    S?nchez-Villegas, Almudena; Mart?nez-Gonz?lez, Miguel Angel; Estruch, Ram?n; Salas-Salvad?, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Covas, Maria Isabel; Ar?s, Fernando; Romaguera, Dora; G?mez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, Jos?; Pint?, Xavier; Mart?nez, Jose Alfredo; Lamuela-Ravent?s, Rosa Mar?a; Ros, Emilio; Gea, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A few observational studies have found an inverse association between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and the risk of depression. Randomized trials with an intervention based on this dietary pattern could provide the most definitive answer to the findings reported by observational studies. The aim of this study was to compare in a randomized trial the effects of two Mediterranean diets versus a low-fat diet on depression risk after at least 3 years of intervention. METHOD...

  15. Political economy of prudent budgetary policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2010-01-01

    The principles of tax smoothing and public debt management with stochastic shocks to future national income are extended for prudence. A prudent government deliberately underestimates future national income and the tax base, especially if the variance and persistence of shocks hitting the tax base

  16. Dietary Patterns and Birth Weight—a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte K.R. Kjøllesdal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Being born with low birth weight (LBW is recognized as a disadvantage due to risk of early growth retardation, fast catch up growth, infectious disease, developmental delay, and death during infancy and childhood, as well as development of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs later in life. LBW is an indicator of fetal response to a limiting intrauterine environment, which may imply developmental changes in organs and tissue. Numerous studies have explored the effect of maternal intake of various nutrients and specific food items on birth weight (BW. Taking into account that people have diets consisting of many different food items, extraction of dietary patterns has emerged as a common way to describe diets and explore the effects on health outcomes. The present article aims to review studies investigating the associations between dietary patterns derived from a posteriori analysis and BW, or being small for gestational age (SGA. A PubMed search was conducted with the Mesh terms “pregnancy” OR “fetal growth retardation” OR “fetal development” OR “infant, small for gestational age” OR “birth weight” OR “infant, birth weight, low” AND “diet” OR “food habits”. Final number of articles included was seven, all which assessed diet by use of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Five studies explored dietary patterns using principal component analyses (PCA, while one study used cluster analyses and one study logistic regression. The studies reported between one and seven dietary patterns. Those patterns positively associated with BW were labeled “nutrient dense”, “protein rich”, “health conscious”, and “Mediterranean”. Those negatively associated with BW were labeled “Western”, “processed”, “vegetarian”, “transitional”, and “wheat products”. The dietary patterns “Western” and “wheat products” were also associated with higher risk of SGA babies, whereas a

  17. Dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrigen Kr. Deka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents are considered to be a nutritionally vulnerable segment of the population. There is a greater need to look into the nutritional status of adolescents but unfortunately, precise estimates of their dietary intake, dietary practices as well as nutritional deficiencies have been the least explored area. The general objective for conducting this study was to assess the dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents in schools and colleges in the urban areas of Jhansi district in Uttar Pradesh. The study sample consisted of 400 school children in the age group of 10-19 years. Food consumption of the subjects was assessed using a 3-day food intake recall method. Results: Mean age of the adolescents was 14.16 years. More than half of the children studied had malnutrition (53.5%. Mean intake of calorie, protein, fat, iron, and vitamins A and C were lower than the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs. The habitual dietary pattern indicated poor consumption of milk, liver, and leafy vegetables. In comparison to boys (31.5%, more girls (46% were underweight. On seeing the association, nutritional status of these adolescents within the normal limits were found to be significantly higher in those from nuclear families (P < 0.001, those with better educated parents (P < 0.000, and those from families of higher socioeconomic status (P < 0.000. Conclusion: Overall, among the participants, there were both macro- and micronutrients deficiencies. Therefore, there is a need to encourage people to adopt small family norms, and a need for the sensitization of both adolescents and their parents through health and nutrition education (HNE to improve the health and nutritional status of the adolescents.

  18. Dietary patterns derived with multiple methods from food diaries and breast cancer risk in the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, G.K.; Stephen, AM; Dahm, C.C.; Key, T.J.; Cairns, B.J.; Burley, V.J.; Cade, J.E.; Greenwood, D.C.; Keogh, R.H.; Bhaniani, A.; McTaggert, A.; Lentjes, M.A.H.; Mishra, G.; Brunner, E.J.; Khaw, K.T.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives:In spite of several studies relating dietary patterns to breast cancer risk, evidence so far remains inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate associations of dietary patterns derived with three different methods with breast cancer risk.Subjects/Methods:The Mediterranean

  19. Monosodium glutamate intake, dietary patterns and asthma in Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumin Shi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence shows that diet is related to asthma. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the association between monosodium glutamate (MSG intake, overall dietary patterns and asthma. METHODS: Data from 1486 Chinese men and women who participated in the Jiangsu Nutrition Study (JIN were analyzed. In this study, MSG intake and dietary patterns were quantitatively assessed in 2002. Information on asthma history was collected during followed-up in 2007. RESULTS: Of the sample, 1.4% reported ever having asthma. MSG intake was not positively associated with asthma. There was a significant positive association between 'traditional' (high loadings on rice, wheat flour, and vegetable food pattern and asthma. No association between 'macho' (rich in meat and alcohol, 'sweet tooth' (high loadings on cake, milk, and yoghurt 'vegetable rich' (high loadings on whole grain, fruit, and vegetable food patterns and asthma was found. Smoking and overweight were not associated with asthma in the sample. CONCLUSION: While a 'Traditional' food pattern was positively associated with asthma among Chinese adults, there was no significant association between MSG intake and asthma.

  20. Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlich, Michael J.; Singh, Pramil N.; Sabaté, Joan; Fan, Jing; Sveen, Lars; Bennett, Hannelore; Knutsen, Synnove F.; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Butler, Terry L.; Herring, R. Patti; Fraser, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Colorectal cancers are a leading cause of cancer mortality, and their primary prevention by diet is highly desirable. The relationship of vegetarian dietary patterns to colorectal cancer risk is not well established. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and incident colorectal cancers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) is a large, prospective, North American cohort trial including 96 354 Seventh-Day Adventist men and women recruited between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007. Follow-up varied by state and was indicated by the cancer registry linkage dates. Of these participants, an analytic sample of 77 659 remained after exclusions. Analysis was conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. The analysis was conducted between June 1, 2014, and October 20, 2014. EXPOSURES Diet was assessed at baseline by a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 4 vegetarian dietary patterns (vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, pescovegetarian, and semivegetarian) and a nonvegetarian dietary pattern. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The relationship between dietary patterns and incident cancers of the colon and rectum; colorectal cancer cases were identified primarily by state cancer registry linkages. RESULTS During a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 380 cases of colon cancer and 110 cases of rectal cancer were documented. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64–0.95) for all colorectal cancers, 0.81 (95%CI, 0.65–1.00) for colon cancer, and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.47–1.06) for rectal cancer. The adjusted HR for colorectal cancer in vegans was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.59–1.19); in lacto-ovo vegetarians, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65–1.02); in pescovegetarians, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.40–0.82); and in semivegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.62–1.37) compared with

  1. Vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in Adventist Health Study 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlich, Michael J; Singh, Pramil N; Sabaté, Joan; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Knutsen, Synnove; Beeson, W Lawrence; Fraser, Gary E

    2013-07-08

    Some evidence suggests vegetarian dietary patterns may be associated with reduced mortality, but the relationship is not well established. To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality. Prospective cohort study; mortality analysis by Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2), a large North American cohort. A total of 96,469 Seventh-day Adventist men and women recruited between 2002 and 2007, from which an analytic sample of 73,308 participants remained after exclusions. Diet was assessed at baseline by a quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 5 dietary patterns: nonvegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, and vegan. The relationship between vegetarian dietary patterns and all-cause and cause-specific mortality; deaths through 2009 were identified from the National Death Index. There were 2570 deaths among 73,308 participants during a mean follow-up time of 5.79 years. The mortality rate was 6.05 (95% CI, 5.82-6.29) deaths per 1000 person-years. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80-0.97). The adjusted HR for all-cause mortality in vegans was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.73-1.01); in lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 0.91 (95% CI, 0.82-1.00); in pesco-vegetarians, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69-0.94); and in semi-vegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.75-1.13) compared with nonvegetarians. Significant associations with vegetarian diets were detected for cardiovascular mortality, noncardiovascular noncancer mortality, renal mortality, and endocrine mortality. Associations in men were larger and more often significant than were those in women. Vegetarian diets are associated with lower all-cause mortality and with some reductions in cause-specific mortality. Results appeared to be more robust in males. These favorable associations should be considered

  2. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination–Korean version was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The “MFDF” dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the “WNC” dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44–0.94. The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults.

  3. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-05-29

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination-Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The "MFDF" dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the "WNC" dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults.

  4. Patterns of dietary supplement usage in demographically diverse older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishiyama, Shirley S; Leahy, Marjorie J; Zitzelberger, Tracy A; Guariglia, Robin; Zajdel, Daniel P; Calvert, James F; Kaye, Jeffrey A; Oken, Barry S

    2005-01-01

    To analyze dietary supplement usage data from 494 older adults, aged 65 to 101 years. Community dwellers living independently of institutionalized care. All dietary supplements, including botanicals, were recorded to aid in assessing the health status of older adults. 1) 224 individuals enrolled in a study that follows the health of persons 85 years and older (oldest-old) in Klamath County, a non-metropolitan area in southern Oregon; 2) 134 participants of oldest-old age living in the metropolitan Portland area, enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of GBE biloba extract (GBE) for dementia prevention; and 3) 136 participants, ages 65-85 years (young-old), also of the Portland area, enrolled in a study of the effects of yoga and exercise on cognition. Data verified from labels, not from self-report. Of the participants, 70.6% used dietary supplements. Women took supplements more often than men, and usage decreased with age. A greater percentage, 67.4%, of the non-metropolitan oldest-old took supplements, compared to 56.7% of the metropolitan oldest-old. The greatest usage, 89.7%, was in the metropolitan young-olds. All of these percentages exceed those for comparable age groups in national representative surveys. Dietary supplement usage by older adults in these studies in Oregon exceeded that in other reports and may reflect high interest in complementary and alternative medicine. This report confirms the results of other studies showing that elderly adults, particularly women, use dietary supplements more than other segments of the US population. Researchers and clinicians should be aware of this pattern and potential conflicts with research design or treatment regimen intended for older people.

  5. Association between dietary pattern and cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents: a systematic review

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    Naruna Pereira Rocha

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: There was a positive association between “unhealthy” dietary patterns and cardiometabolic alterations in children and adolescents. Some unconfirmed associations may be related to the difficulty of assessing food consumption. Nevertheless, studies involving dietary patterns and their association with risk factors should be performed in children and adolescents, aiming at interventions and early changes in dietary habits considered to be inadequate.

  6. Mediterranean dietary pattern and risk of breast cancer.

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    Elisabeth Couto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Mediterranean diet has a recognized beneficial effect on health and longevity, with a protective influence on several cancers. However, its association with breast cancer risk remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern influences breast cancer risk. DESIGN: The Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort study includes 49,258 women aged 30 to 49 years at recruitment in 1991-1992. Consumption of foods and beverages was measured at enrollment using a food frequency questionnaire. A Mediterranean diet score was constructed based on the consumption of alcohol, vegetables, fruits, legumes, cereals, fish, the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat, and dairy and meat products. Relative risks (RR for breast cancer and specific tumor characteristics (invasiveness, histological type, estrogen/progesterone receptor status, malignancy grade and stage associated with this score were estimated using Cox regression controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: 1,278 incident breast cancers were diagnosed. Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was not statistically significantly associated with reduced risk of breast cancer overall, or with specific breast tumor characteristics. A RR (95% confidence interval for breast cancer associated with a two-point increment in the Mediterranean diet score was 1.08 (1.00-1.15 in all women, and 1.10 (1.01-1.21 and 1.02 (0.91-1.15 in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. When alcohol was excluded from the Mediterranean diet score, results became not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern did not decrease breast cancer risk in this cohort of relatively young women.

  7. Dietary patterns as risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

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    Elwira Przybylik-Mazurek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional factors are known to be important in the development of different metabolic diseases. The history of nodular or diffuse goiter is closely related to risk of thyroid carcinoma. On account of the function of the thyroid gland, many studies focus on iodine intake.The aim of the study was to assess whether dietary patterns could be risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.Material/Methods:The case-control study was based on a questionnaire, which included information about dietary patterns and was carried out on 284 patients comprising 30 males (mean age 58.4±13.7 years, and 254 females (mean age 52.1±13.8 years, as well as 345 randomly selected controls: 58 males (mean age 60.2±12 years and 287 females (mean age 53.4±14.3 years randomly selected from the Population Register and adjusted by age and gender to the group of TC. The main groups of nutritional products, i.e. starchy foods, meat, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and beverages, were analyzed.Results:Consumption of vegetables, fruits, saltwater fish and cottage cheese was significantly lower in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma than in controls, quite the contrary to starchy foods, especially white bread.Conclusions:Dietary patterns appear to modify the risk of thyroid carcinoma. A diet rich in vegetables and fruit, as well as saltwater fish (a source of iodine and low-fat meat, could be an important protective factor.

  8. Dietary and physical activity patterns: examining fathers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snethen, Julia A; Broome, Marion E; Kelber, Sheryl; Leicht, Sandra; Joachim, Jackie; Goretzke, Maribeth

    2008-07-01

    Obesity adversely affects children, yet limited information is available on the familial environmental influence of fathers. The purpose of this study was to examine fathers' influences on their children's eating and activity patterns. Participants for this mixed methods study was a convenience sample of 51 multi-ethnic fathers of children 8-12 years of age, who completed surveys addressing dietary and physical activity behaviors. An association was found between fathers' and children's weight status. Half the children snacked without parental guidance. Nurses need to assist children and their families to develop effective weight management strategies.

  9. No association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan

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    Sugawara Norio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of the associations between diet and depression have primarily focused on single nutrients or foods. Recently, dietary patterns representing a combination of foods have attracted more interest than individual nutrient. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan. Methods We examined the association between dietary patterns and the risk of depression among 791 Japanese community-dwelling individuals. Diet was assessed with a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ. Dietary patterns from 52 predefined food groups [energy-adjusted food (g/d] were extracted by principal component analysis. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D with a cut-off point of 16 was used to assess the prevalence of depression. Results A total of 97 subjects (12.3% were classified as having depression. Four dietary patterns were identified: “Healthy”, “Western”, “Bread and confectionery”, and “Alcohol and accompanying” dietary patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, the dietary patterns were not related to the risk of depression. Conclusions The present study failed to find associations between dietary patterns and the risk of depression. However, the interpretation of our results was hampered by the lack of certain data, including employment physical activity and longitudinal observations. Potential associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were not completely ruled out. Future research exploring dietary patterns and depressive symptoms is warranted.

  10. Dietary Patterns of Korean Adults and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal compon...

  11. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and health-risk factors in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Say Jin; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Juyoung; Park, Chan; Lee, Lilha; Erickson, Kent L; Jung, In-Kyung

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to identify dietary patterns in Korean men and to determine the associations among dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and health-risk factors. Using baseline data from the Korean Health and Genome Study, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and associations between these dietary patterns and health-risk factors were analyzed. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) the "animal-food" pattern (greater intake of meats, fish, and dairy products), 2) the "rice-vegetable" pattern (greater intake of rice, tofu, kimchi, soybean paste, vegetables, and seaweed), and 3) the "noodle-bread" pattern (greater intake of instant noodles, Chinese noodles, and bread). The animal-food pattern (preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive correlation with obesity and hypercholesterolemia, whereas the rice-vegetable pattern (preferred by older people with lower income and educational levels) was positively associated with hypertension. The noodle-bread pattern (also preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive association with abdominal obesity and hypercholesterolemia. This study identifies three unique dietary patterns in Korean men, which are independently associated with certain health-risk factors. The rice-vegetable dietary pattern, modified for a low sodium intake, might be a healthy dietary pattern for Korean men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 'Mediterranean' dietary pattern for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Karen; Hartley, Louise; Flowers, Nadine; Clarke, Aileen; Hooper, Lee; Thorogood, Margaret; Stranges, Saverio

    2013-08-12

    The Seven Countries study in the 1960s showed that populations in the Mediterranean region experienced lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality probably as a result of different dietary patterns. Later observational studies have confirmed the benefits of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern on CVD risk factors. Clinical trial evidence is limited, and is mostly in secondary prevention. To determine the effectiveness of a Mediterranean dietary pattern for the primary prevention of CVD. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 9 of 12, September 2012); MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to October week 1 2012); EMBASE (Ovid, 1980 to 2012 week 41); ISI Web of Science (1970 to 16 October 2012); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Health Technology Assessment Database and Health Economics Evaluations Database (Issue 3 of 12, September 2012). We searched trial registers and reference lists of reviews and applied no language restrictions. We selected randomised controlled trials in healthy adults and adults at high risk of CVD. A Mediterranean dietary pattern was defined as comprising at least two of the following components: (1) high monounsaturated/saturated fat ratio, (2) low to moderate red wine consumption, (3) high consumption of legumes, (4) high consumption of grains and cereals, (5) high consumption of fruits and vegetables, (6) low consumption of meat and meat products and increased consumption of fish, and (7) moderate consumption of milk and dairy products. The comparison group received either no intervention or minimal intervention. Outcomes included clinical events and CVD risk factors. Two review authors independently extracted data and contacted chief investigators to request additional relevant information. We included 11 trials (15 papers) (52,044 participants randomised). Trials were heterogeneous in the participants recruited, in the number of dietary components and

  13. Identifying biomarkers of dietary patterns by using metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playdon, Mary C; Moore, Steven C; Derkach, Andriy; Reedy, Jill; Subar, Amy F; Sampson, Joshua N; Albanes, Demetrius; Gu, Fangyi; Kontto, Jukka; Lassale, Camille; Liao, Linda M; Männistö, Satu; Mondul, Alison M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Irwin, Melinda L; Mayne, Susan T; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael

    2017-02-01

    Healthy dietary patterns that conform to national dietary guidelines are related to lower chronic disease incidence and longer life span. However, the precise mechanisms involved are unclear. Identifying biomarkers of dietary patterns may provide tools to validate diet quality measurement and determine underlying metabolic pathways influenced by diet quality. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation of 4 diet quality indexes [the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010, the Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED), the WHO Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and the Baltic Sea Diet (BSD)] with serum metabolites. We evaluated dietary patterns and metabolites in male Finnish smokers (n = 1336) from 5 nested case-control studies within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. Participants completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire and provided a fasting serum sample before study randomization (1985-1988). Metabolites were measured with the use of mass spectrometry. We analyzed cross-sectional partial correlations of 1316 metabolites with 4 diet quality indexes, adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking, energy intake, education, and physical activity. We pooled estimates across studies with the use of fixed-effects meta-analysis with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, and conducted metabolic pathway analyses. The HEI-2010, aMED, HDI, and BSD were associated with 23, 46, 23, and 33 metabolites, respectively (17, 21, 11, and 10 metabolites, respectively, were chemically identified; r-range: -0.30 to 0.20; P = 6 × 10-15 to 8 × 10-6). Food-based diet indexes (HEI-2010, aMED, and BSD) were associated with metabolites correlated with most components used to score adherence (e.g., fruit, vegetables, whole grains, fish, and unsaturated fat). HDI correlated with metabolites related to polyunsaturated fat and fiber components, but not other macro- or micronutrients (e.g., percentages of protein and cholesterol). The

  14. Dietary patterns and asthma prevalence, incidence and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, R; Moreira, A; Padrão, P; Teixeira, V H; Carvalho, P; Delgado, L; Lopes, C; Severo, M; Moreira, P

    2015-11-01

    The increased asthma prevalence in westernized societies has been suggested to be related to environment exposures and lifestyle changes, particularly diet. We aimed to explore the association between dietary patterns and asthma prevalence, incidence and control in a nationally representative population. Data from 32,644 adults, 53% female, from the 4th Portuguese National Health Survey were analysed. Prevalence of asthma was 5.3%; 'current asthma', defined by asthma symptoms within previous year, 3.5%; 'current medicated asthma' defined by use of asthma medication within previous year, 3.0%; 'current severe asthma' defined by emergency visit because of asthma within previous year, 1.4%; and 'incident asthma', 0.2%. Dietary patterns (DP) were identified by latent trait models based on dietary intake. Unconditional logistic regression models were performed to analyse association between DP and asthma. Age, gender, education, family income, proxy reporting information, smoking, body mass index and physical activity level were analysed as confounders. Two of the five identified DP were associated with asthma: 'high fat, sugar and salt' DP (positively correlated with pastry, chocolate and sweet desserts, candies, salty snacks, chips, fruit juices, soft drinks and alcoholic beverages consumption at snacks) was associated with asthma prevalence (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.24) and current severe asthma (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.48), while 'fish, fruit and vegetables' DP (positively correlated with fish, vegetables and fruit intake at meals) was negatively associated with current (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.73, 0.98), and current medicated asthma (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.72, 0.98), after adjustment for confounders. Our results suggest a protective association between 'fish, vegetables and fruit' DP and current asthma and current medicated asthma, and a detrimental association between 'high fat, sugar and salt' DP and severe asthma prevalence, further supporting the rational

  15. [Dietary intake patterns in the school health program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Manzanilla, L; de Pablo González, R; Romero Alvira, D; Martínez García, E; García Pérez, M A

    1992-03-01

    To investigate dietary intake patterns among school-students. An observational prospective study. A dietary survey was used to establish how many times habitual foods were eaten each week. SITE. The population of the northern half of the city of Soria. (North Soria Health Centre). All the school-children aged 6 and 7 (74 boys and 57 girls in both the private and public sectors) took part in the programme. The intake of foodstuffs was stratified as greatest in quartiles. The consumers of sweet "junk" foods also ate significantly more savory "junk" food (p = 0.00009). We found and inverse consumption relationship between savory "junk" foods and an intake of greens and root-crops (p = 0.03) and of pasta and rice (p = 0.008). The lower consumption of greens and fruits was linked to a lower consumption of fish (p = 0.023), to a lower consumption of meat (p = 0.037) and of meat products (p = 0.008). Lower consumption of eggs was linked to a greater consumption of meat (p = 0.016) and fish (p = 0.029). The consumption of savory "junk" foods and meat products can replace nutrients of a high biological value which are found in greens and root-crops. New studies to deepen the taxonomical analysis of the school diet are required. These should identify eating patterns which could endanger health in adult life.

  16. Patterns of adolescent physical activity and dietary behaviours

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    Gorely Trish

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential synergistic effects of multiple dietary and physical activity behaviours on the risk of chronic conditions and health outcomes is a key issue for public health. This study examined the prevalence and clustering patterns of multiple health behaviours among a sample of adolescents in the UK. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 176 adolescents aged 12–16 years (49% boys. Adolescents wore accelerometers for seven days and completed a questionnaire assessing fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption. The prevalence of adolescents meeting the physical activity (≥ 60 minutes moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/day, fruit and vegetable (≥ 5 portions of FV per day and breakfast recommendations (eating breakfast on ≥ 5 days per week, and clustering patterns of these health behaviours are described. Results Boys were more active than girls (p Conclusion Many adolescents fail to meet multiple diet and physical activity recommendations, highlighting that physical activity and dietary behaviours do not occur in isolation. Future research should investigate how best to achieve multiple health behaviour change in adolescent boys and girls.

  17. Dietary patterns by cluster analysis in pregnant women: relationship with nutrient intakes and dietary patterns in 7-year-old offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-Vilela, Ana Amélia; Smith, Andrew D A C; Kac, Gilberto; Pearson, Rebecca M; Heron, Jon; Emond, Alan; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade; Emmett, Pauline M

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about how dietary patterns of mothers and their children track over time. The objectives of this study are to obtain dietary patterns in pregnancy using cluster analysis, to examine women's mean nutrient intakes in each cluster and to compare the dietary patterns of mothers to those of their children. Pregnant women (n = 12 195) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children reported their frequency of consumption of 47 foods and food groups. These data were used to obtain dietary patterns during pregnancy by cluster analysis. The absolute and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes were compared between clusters. Women's dietary patterns were compared with previously derived clusters of their children at 7 years of age. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to evaluate relationships comparing maternal and offspring clusters. Three maternal clusters were identified: 'fruit and vegetables', 'meat and potatoes' and 'white bread and coffee'. After energy adjustment women in the 'fruit and vegetables' cluster had the highest mean nutrient intakes. Mothers in the 'fruit and vegetables' cluster were more likely than mothers in 'meat and potatoes' (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.00; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.69-2.36) or 'white bread and coffee' (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.87-2.53) clusters to have children in a 'plant-based' cluster. However the majority of children were in clusters unrelated to their mother dietary pattern. Three distinct dietary patterns were obtained in pregnancy; the 'fruit and vegetables' pattern being the most nutrient dense. Mothers' dietary patterns were associated with but did not dominate offspring dietary patterns. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Dietary Patterns in Children Aged 2-4 years and Its Impact on Dietary Adequacy

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    Zeida Alejo Cruz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the study of nutritional status in children is essential since this stage is characterized by rapid growth and development and acquisition of eating habits that will last for a lifetime. Objective: to determine the dietary patterns in children aged 2-4 years from the doctor’s offices 8 and 9 of the José Luis Chaviano University Teaching Polyclinic in Cienfuegos and their impact on the nutritional status and dietary adequacy. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in a universe of 87 patients from the doctor’s offices 8 and 9 of the José Luis Chaviano University Teaching Polyclinic in Cienfuegos, who underwent a nutritional assessment using anthropometric variables: weight for height and height for age. A survey of eating behaviors and another of 24 hours dietary recall were administered and processed through the CERES program. Results: all patients showed normal height, 82.75 % of children were classified as eutrophic, 4.60 % were obese and 3.45 % malnourished. Fried foods and bad eating habits in relation to consumption of vegetables predominated in the diet; most of the children received an excess of the recommended nutrients. Conclusion: there are deficiencies in eating behaviours. Diet is a matter of concern due to the high intake of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates; iron intake was critical in most children.

  19. Dietary patterns and prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in Iranian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayyatzadeh, S S; Esmaillzadeh, A; Saneei, P; Keshteli, A H; Adibi, P

    2016-12-01

    Although several dietary factors have been reported to alleviate or aggravate the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), no information is available linking habitual dietary patterns to irritable bowel syndrome. This study was undertaken to assess the association between dietary patterns and the risk of IBS among Iranian adults. In this cross-sectional study, data on 3846 Iranian adults working in 50 different health centers were examined. Dietary intake of study participants was assessed using a 106-item self-administered Dish-based Semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (DS-FFQ) which was designed and validated specifically for Iranian adults. To identify major dietary patterns based on the 39 food groups, we used principal component analysis. A modified Persian version of the Rome III questionnaire was used for assessment of IBS. We identified four major dietary patterns: (i) 'fast food', (ii) 'traditional', (iii) 'lacto-vegetarian', and (iv) 'western' dietary pattern. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that those in the highest quartile of 'fast food' dietary pattern were tended to have higher risk of IBS than those in the lowest quartile (OR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.75, ptrend = 0.05). An inverse association was also found between 'lacto-vegetarian' dietary pattern and risk of IBS; such that even after adjustment for potential confounders, those in top quartile of this dietary pattern were 24% less likely to have IBS (0.76; 0.59, 0.98; ptrend = 0.02). No overall significant associations were observed between 'traditional' and 'western' dietary patterns and risk of IBS, either before or after adjustment for covariates. We found that 'lacto-vegetarian' dietary pattern was associated with reduced risk, while 'fast food' dietary pattern was associated with a greater risk of IBS in Iranian adults. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Dietary patterns and lifestyle : Their determinants and associations with chronic disease burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, HP

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated in a Dutch cohort dietary patterns and other lifestyle habits in relation with disease burden. Our aim was to define the healthiest dietary pattern in the Netherlands and provide insight in the lifestyle factors that are associated with this pattern. Quality Adjusted

  1. Dietary Patterns and Serum Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase in Japanese Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Background Although specific foods and nutrients have been examined as potential determinants of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) concentrations, the relationship between dietary patterns and GGT remains unknown. The present cross-sectional study aimed to determine relationships between dietary patterns and GGT concentrations, and the effects of lifestyle factors on GGT. Methods Relationships between dietary patterns and GGT were analyzed in 9803 Japanese individuals (3723 men and 6080 ...

  2. Associations between dietary patterns at 6 and 15 months of age and sociodemographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, L G; Brazionis, L; Golley, R K; Mittinty, M N; Northstone, K; Emmett, P; McNaughton, S A; Campbell, K J; Lynch, J W

    2012-06-01

    Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) have previously shown that dietary patterns are observable by 3 years. However, it is not clear when dietary patterns emerge. We aimed to describe dietary patterns in early life and their associations with maternal and infant sociodemographic characteristics. Principal component analysis was applied to diet questionnaires of ALSPAC participants at 6 months (n = 7052) and 15 months (n = 5610) to extract dietary patterns. The sociodemographic factors associated with dietary patterns were investigated using regression analyses. Four dietary patterns were extracted at both 6 and 15 months. A traditional-style pattern characterized by home-prepared meats, vegetables and desserts, a second pattern characterized by ready-prepared baby foods and a third pattern characterized by discretionary foods such as biscuits, sweets and crisps were identified at both ages. At 6 months, the fourth pattern was characterized predominantly by breastfeeding and at 15 months, by contemporary-style foods including herbs, legumes, nuts, raw fruit and vegetables. Higher maternal age and education, number of siblings and lower body mass index (BMI) was associated with higher scores on the breastfeeding or meat, vegetables and desserts patterns, whereas higher discretionary food pattern scores were associated with younger maternal age, lower education, higher BMI and more siblings. Associations between sociodemographic factors and the ready-prepared baby food pattern scores were inconsistent across ages. Dietary patterns emerge from infancy and are associated with sociodemographic characteristics.

  3. O Trabalho Plurativo em Presidente Prudente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Mauro Guirro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, vêm ocorrendo mudanças no campo brasileiro, principalmente nas  propriedades localizadas próximas a malha urbana da cidade. Esse processo se verifica com mais intensidade em cidades como Campinas, Sorocaba, Jundiaí entre outras cidades próximas aos grandes centros urbanos. Em Presidente Prudente, esse processo dá sinais de existência em resposta à crise pela qual vem passando, sobretudo a pequena agricultura. Está-se diante da intensificação das mudanças de funções do trabalho inserido na lavra agrária.

  4. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Louise B.B.; M?lgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Carlsen, Emma M.; Bro, Rasmus; Pipper, Christian B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is important to increase the awareness of indicators associated with adverse infant dietary patterns to be able to prevent or to improve dietary patterns early on.Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between a wide range of possible family and child indicators and adherence to dietary patterns for infants aged 9 months.Design: The two dietary patterns ‘Family Food’ and ‘Health-Conscious Food’ were displayed by principal component analysis, and ass...

  5. Dietary Patterns and Insomnia Symptoms in Chinese Adults: The China Kadoorie Biobank

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    Canqing Yu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Limited attention has been paid to the effect of dietary patterns on sleep problems. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data of 481,242 adults aged 30–79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank. A laptop-based questionnaire was administered to collect information on food intakes and insomnia symptoms. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios of each insomnia symptom according to quartiles of each dietary pattern, with adjustment for potential confounders. Two major dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. The traditional northern dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of wheat and other staple food, whereas the modern dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of meat, poultry, fish, eggs, fresh fruit, and dairy products. Both dietary patterns were associated with a decreased prevalence of insomnia symptoms (p for trend < 0.001; after adjustment for potential confounders, individuals who had the highest quartile score of traditional northern dietary pattern were 12%–19% less likely to have insomnia symptoms compared to those in the lowest quartile (odds ratio: 0.81–0.88, and the corresponding values for the modern dietary pattern were 0.89–1.01. Furthermore, interactions of these two dietary patterns on insomnia symptoms were observed. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between diet and insomnia.

  6. Dietary patterns and benign breast diseases: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiznobeyk, Zeinab; Sheikhi Mobarakeh, Zahra; Qorbani, Mostafa; Koohdani, Fariba; Sotoudeh, Gity; Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Khosravi, Shahla; Doostan, Farideh

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have investigated the relation between benign breast diseases (BBD) and food intake. However, dietary patterns of these patients have not been taken into consideration up to now. The aim of this study is to determine the association between dietary patterns and BBD. In this case-control study, ninety-six patients with BBD and seventy controls were selected from women attending the Iranian Center for Breast Cancer affiliated with Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research. Demographic, physical activity and semi-quantitative FFQ were completed. The main dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis. Two major dietary patterns emerged: Healthy dietary pattern including fish, poultry, eggs, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, legumes, nuts and seeds, whole grains, oil and mayonnaise, olives, fruits; and Unhealthy dietary pattern including red meats, organ and processed meats, high-fat dairy products, refined grains, sweets and desserts, animal and solid fats. After adjustment for age, BMI and energy intake, the participants in the highest tertile of Healthy dietary pattern (OR 0·44; 95 % CI 0·20, 0·99) were less likely to have BBD compared with those in the first tertile. After adjustment for other confounding variables, this relationship still remained close to significant level. However, higher consumption of Unhealthy dietary pattern was not associated with the risk of BBD. In conclusion, Healthy dietary pattern might be inversely associated with the risk of BBD; however, this result should be interpreted with caution. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  7. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern among Balearic Islands adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Elisa; Llull, Rosa; Del Mar Bibiloni, Maria; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the prevalence of the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) in Balearic Islands adolescents, and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors that might determine adherence to the MDP. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands between 2007 and 2008. A random sample (n 1231) of the adolescent population (12-17 years old) was interviewed. Dietary questionnaires and a general questionnaire incorporating questions related to socio-economic status, parental education level and lifestyle factors were used. Dietary habits were assessed by means of two 24 h recalls and a quantitative FFQ. Adherence to the MDP was defined according to a score constructed considering the consumption of nine MDP characteristic components: high MUFA:SFA ratio, moderate ethanol consumption, high legumes, cereals and roots, fruits, vegetables and fish consumption, and low consumption of meat and milk. Then, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health status variables that could determine a higher or ower adherence were assessed. The mean adherence was 57.9 (sd 8.9) % and the median adherence was 57.3 %. Half of the Balearic Islands adolescents (50.5 %) showed an adherence to the MDP comprised between 52.7 and 62.8 %. By multivariate analyses, a high maternal level of education, increased physical activity, reduced alcohol intake and abstinence from smoking were independent associations of better adherence to the MDP. The promotion of not only the MDP but also the Mediterranean lifestyle, including greater physical activity, should be reinforced among the Balearic younger generations.

  8. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Dietary Patterns of Preadolescents Attending Schools in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepper, Martha J.; Chai, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and dietary patterns of preadolescents attending schools in the Midwest. Methods: A total of 506 students (11.2 ± 1.3 years) from four public and private schools in Nebraska completed a validated 41-item Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess their dietary intake.…

  9. Dietary patterns and mental health after myocardial infarction.

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    Nathaly Rius-Ottenheim

    Full Text Available Diet has been associated with better mental health in general populations, but less is known on this association in patients with a history of coronary heart disease. The objective of this study is to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and mental health in elderly patients with a history of myocardial infarction.Data were drawn from the final assessment of the Alpha Omega cohort that monitored patients with a history of myocardial infarction (age range 60-80 years. 2171 patients with complete data for diet and mental health were included in this study. Diet was assessed with the 203-item Food Frequency Questionnaire, and subsequently categorized into two scores: the Dutch Healthy Nutrient and Food Score (DHNaFS and the Dutch Undesirable Nutrient and Food Score (DUNaFS. Depressive symptoms, assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, and dispositional optimism, assessed with the 4-item questionnaire (4Q, were cross-sectionally analyzed in relation to dietary patterns using linear regression analysis.Patients were on average 72.2 years old and 79.5% were male. The DHNaFS score was associated with less depressive symptoms and higher dispositional optimism (β = -0.108; P<0.001; and β = 0.074; P<0.001, whereas no associations were found with the DUNaFS score. Particularly, consumption of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fish, and low fat-dairy were associated with less depressive symptoms and higher optimism. Similar associations were found when analyzing the association between average DHNaFS score over the preceding 41 months with depression β = -0.085; P<0.001 and higher dispositional optimism (β = 0.084; P<0.001.A healthy dietary pattern, in particular a higher consumption of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, fish and low-fat dairy, was associated with less depressive symptoms and higher optimism. However, given the cross-sectional nature of our analyses, our findings may also be explained by more

  10. Dietary patterns and mental health after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius-Ottenheim, Nathaly; Kromhout, Daan; Sijtsma, Femke P C; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Giltay, Erik J

    2017-01-01

    Diet has been associated with better mental health in general populations, but less is known on this association in patients with a history of coronary heart disease. The objective of this study is to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and mental health in elderly patients with a history of myocardial infarction. Data were drawn from the final assessment of the Alpha Omega cohort that monitored patients with a history of myocardial infarction (age range 60-80 years). 2171 patients with complete data for diet and mental health were included in this study. Diet was assessed with the 203-item Food Frequency Questionnaire, and subsequently categorized into two scores: the Dutch Healthy Nutrient and Food Score (DHNaFS) and the Dutch Undesirable Nutrient and Food Score (DUNaFS). Depressive symptoms, assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), and dispositional optimism, assessed with the 4-item questionnaire (4Q), were cross-sectionally analyzed in relation to dietary patterns using linear regression analysis. Patients were on average 72.2 years old and 79.5% were male. The DHNaFS score was associated with less depressive symptoms and higher dispositional optimism (β = -0.108; P<0.001; and β = 0.074; P<0.001), whereas no associations were found with the DUNaFS score. Particularly, consumption of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fish, and low fat-dairy were associated with less depressive symptoms and higher optimism. Similar associations were found when analyzing the association between average DHNaFS score over the preceding 41 months with depression β = -0.085; P<0.001) and higher dispositional optimism (β = 0.084; P<0.001). A healthy dietary pattern, in particular a higher consumption of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, fish and low-fat dairy, was associated with less depressive symptoms and higher optimism. However, given the cross-sectional nature of our analyses, our findings may also be explained by more optimistic

  11. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  12. A Study on the Relationship between Dietary Patterns and Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

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    O. Sadeghi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Although several dietary factors have been reported to alleviate or ag-gravate the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, no information is available linking dietary patterns to irritable bowel syndrome. Objective: This study was undertaken to assess the association between dietary patterns and the risk of irritable bowel syndrome among Ira-nian adults. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data on 3846 Iranian general adults working in 50 different health centers were examined. Dietary intake of the participants was assessed using a 106-item self-administered Dish-based Semi-quantitative Food Frequency Question-naire (DS-FFQ which was designed and validated specifically for Iranian adults. A modified Persian version of the Rome III questionnaire was used for assessment of FGIDs, including IBS, which was defined according to ROME III criteria. To identify major dietary patterns based on the 39 food groups, we used principal component analysis. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1 “fast food” dietary pattern; 2 “tradi-tional” dietary pattern; 3 “lacto-vegetarian” dietary pattern; 4 “western” dietary pattern. Af-ter adjustment for potential confounders, we found that those in the highest quartile of “fast food” dietary pattern tended to have higher risk of IBS than those in the lowest quartile (1.32; 0.99, 1.75, Ptrend=0.05. An inverse association was found between “lacto-vegetarian” die-tary pattern and risk of IBS; such that even after adjustment for potential confounders, those in top quartile of this dietary pattern were 24% less likely to have IBS (0.76; 0.59, 0.98; Ptrend=0.02. No overall significant associations were observed between “traditional” and “western” dietary patterns and risk of IBS, either before or after adjustment for covariates. Conclusion: We found that “lacto-vegetarian” dietary pattern was associated with reduced risk , while

  13. Trends in dietary patterns of Latin American populations

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    Bermudez Odilia I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to characterize the level and magnitude of changes in food consumption patterns in Latin American populations as they undergo demographic and developmental transitions because of the effects of such changes on the development and progression of chronic diseases. This paper examines trends in food intake across regions in Latin America. Although trends in apparent food consumption differ in magnitude and timing, the overall patterns of change are remarkably consistent. Intakes of total fat, animal products, and sugar are increasing, even while there have been rapid declines in the intake of cereals, fruit, and some vegetables. The costs of the increased prevalence of chronic disease associated with these dietary changes are already affecting health systems still coping with malnutrition and infectious disease. Because this pattern of change is predictable, it is important to learn from the experiences gained in countries that are more advanced in the transition. Efforts to educate the population on the importance of a healthy diet and to issue policies to improve the availability of a healthy food supply can help to reduce the rapid escalation of obesity and chronic diseases.

  14. Empirically Derived Dietary Patterns and Health-Related Quality of Life in the SUN Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Cristina; Henriquez, Patricia; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena

    2013-01-01

    Objective The analysis of dietary patterns has become a valuable tool to examine diet-disease relationships but little is known about their effects on quality of life. Our aim was to ascertain the association between major dietary patterns and mental and physical quality of life after 4 years of follow-up. Materials and Methods This analysis included 11,128 participants from the “Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra” (SUN) cohort. Dietary habits were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Quality of life was measured with the validated Spanish version of the SF-36 Health Survey. Results Two major dietary patterns were identified, the ‘Western’ dietary pattern (rich in red meats, processed pastries and fast-food) and the “Mediterranean” dietary pattern (high in fruits, vegetables and olive oil). After controlling for confounders, the Western dietary pattern was associated with quality of life in all domains. The magnitude of these differences between the subjects in the highest (quintile 5) and the lowest quintile of adherence to the Western pattern ranged from −0.8 (for mental health) to −3.5 (for vitality). On the contrary, the Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with better quality of life domains: differences ranged from +1.3 (for physical functioning) to +3.4 (for vitality) when comparing extreme quintiles of adherence. Additional sensitivity analyses did not change the reported differences. Conclusions Whereas baseline adherence to a Western dietary pattern was inversely associated with self-perceived quality of life after 4 years of follow-up, baseline adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was directly associated with better scores in quality of life four years later in the SUN Project. PMID:23658694

  15. Empirically derived dietary patterns and health-related quality of life in the SUN project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ruano

    Full Text Available The analysis of dietary patterns has become a valuable tool to examine diet-disease relationships but little is known about their effects on quality of life. Our aim was to ascertain the association between major dietary patterns and mental and physical quality of life after 4 years of follow-up.This analysis included 11,128 participants from the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN cohort. Dietary habits were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Quality of life was measured with the validated Spanish version of the SF-36 Health Survey.Two major dietary patterns were identified, the 'Western' dietary pattern (rich in red meats, processed pastries and fast-food and the "Mediterranean" dietary pattern (high in fruits, vegetables and olive oil. After controlling for confounders, the Western dietary pattern was associated with quality of life in all domains. The magnitude of these differences between the subjects in the highest (quintile 5 and the lowest quintile of adherence to the Western pattern ranged from -0.8 (for mental health to -3.5 (for vitality. On the contrary, the Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with better quality of life domains: differences ranged from +1.3 (for physical functioning to +3.4 (for vitality when comparing extreme quintiles of adherence. Additional sensitivity analyses did not change the reported differences.Whereas baseline adherence to a Western dietary pattern was inversely associated with self-perceived quality of life after 4 years of follow-up, baseline adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was directly associated with better scores in quality of life four years later in the SUN Project.

  16. Dietary patterns as compared with physical activity in relation to metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y; Li, Y; Lai, J; Wang, D; Zhang, J; Fu, P; Yang, X; Qi, L

    2013-10-01

    To examine the nationally-representative dietary patterns and their joint effects with physical activity on the likelihood of metabolic syndrome (MS) among 20,827 Chinese adults. CNNHS was a nationally representative cross-sectional observational study. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement definition. The "Green Water" dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of rice and vegetables and moderate intakes in animal foods was related to the lowest prevalence of MS (15.9%). Compared to the "Green Water" dietary pattern, the "Yellow Earth" dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of refined cereal products, tubers, cooking salt and salted vegetable was associated with a significantly elevated odds of MS (odds ratio 1.66, 95%CI: 1.40-1.96), after adjustment of age, sex, socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors. The "Western/new affluence" dietary pattern characterized by higher consumption of beef/lamb, fruit, eggs, poultry and seafood also significantly associated with MS (odds ratio: 1.37, 95%CI: 1.13-1.67). Physical activity showed significant interactions with the dietary patterns in relation to MS risk (P for interaction = 0.008). In the joint analysis, participants with the combination of sedentary activity with the "Yellow Earth" dietary pattern or the "Western/new affluence" dietary pattern both had more than three times (95%CI: 2.8-6.1) higher odds of MS than those with active activity and the "Green Water" dietary pattern. Our findings from the large Chinese national representative data indicate that dietary patterns affect the likelihood of MS. Combining healthy dietary pattern with active lifestyle may benefit more in prevention of MS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between Dietary Patterns and the Indicators of Obesity among Chinese: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Long; Zheng, Pei-Fen; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Si, Cai-Juan; Yu, Xiao-Long; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Lun; Liao, Dan

    2015-01-01

    No previous study has investigated dietary pattern in association with obesity risk in a middle-aged Chinese population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of obesity in the city of Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang Province, east China. In this cross-sectional study of 2560 subjects aged 45–60 years, dietary intakes were evaluated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). All anthropometric measurements were ob...

  18. Dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition are associated with the risk for diabetes and dyslipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Su Jin; Lee, Jung Eun; Paik, Hee-Young; Park, Min Sun; Song, Yoon Ju

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted on dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition in Asian populations. We examined the cross-sectional associations in dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition, including the glycemic index (GI) with dyslipidemia and diabetes among the Korean adult population. We analyzed 9,725 subjects (3,795 men and 5,930 women, ≥ 20 years) from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary information was collected using single 24-...

  19. Dietary Patterns are Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Xia; Ge Meng; Qing Zhang; Li Liu; Hongmei Wu; Hongbin Shi; Xue Bao; Qian Su; Yeqing Gu; Liyun Fang; Fei Yu; Huijun Yang; Bin Yu; Shaomei Sun; Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that food consumption was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but no study has yet investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns in Tianjin, China. The final cross-sectional study population comprised 10407 participants. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed via food frequency questionnaire...

  20. Prospective Associations Between Socio-economic Status and Dietary Patterns in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenandez-Alviraa, Juan Miguel; Börnhorst, Claudia; Bammann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Exploring changes in children's diet over time and the relationship between these changes and socio-economic status (SES) may help to understand the impact of social inequalities on dietary patterns. The aim of the present study was to describe dietary patterns by applying a cluster analysis...... from a lower socio-economic background presenting persistently unhealthier dietary profiles. This finding reflects the need for healthy eating interventions specifically targeting children from lower socio-economic backgrounds....

  1. Dietary Patterns and Body Mass Index in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E. Whitney; Must, Aviva; Anderson, Sarah E.; Curtin, Carol; Scampini, Renee; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether dietary patterns (juice and sweetened non-dairy beverages, fruits, vegetables, fruits and vegetables, snack foods, and kid's meals) and associations between dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) differed between 53 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 58 typically developing children, ages 3-11, multivariate…

  2. Dietary patterns in relation to quality-adjusted life years in the EPIC-NL cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, Heidi P.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; May, Anne M.; Struijk, Ellen A.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; de Wit, G. Ardine; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Hoekstra, Jeljer; Peeters, Petra H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dietary patterns have been associated with the incidence or mortality of individual non-communicable diseases, but their association with disease burden has received little attention. Objective. The aim of our study was to relate dietary patterns to health expectancy using

  3. Dietary Patterns in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

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    Hae Dong Woo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of diet in the behavior of children has been controversial, but the association of several nutritional factors with childhood behavioral disorders has been continually suggested. We conducted a case-control study to identify dietary patterns associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The study included 192 elementary school students aged seven to 12 years. Three non-consecutive 24-h recall (HR interviews were employed to assess dietary intake, and 32 predefined food groups were considered in a principal components analysis (PCA. PCA identified four major dietary patterns: the “traditional” pattern, the “seaweed-egg” pattern, the “traditional-healthy” pattern, and the “snack” pattern. The traditional-healthy pattern is characterized by a diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates as well as high intakes of fatty acids and minerals. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR of ADHD for the highest tertile of the traditional-healthy pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12–0.79. The score of the snack pattern was positively associated with the risk of ADHD, but a significant association was observed only in the second tertile. A significant association between ADHD and the dietary pattern score was not found for the other two dietary patterns. In conclusion, the traditional-healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower odds having ADHD.

  4. Dietary patterns in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Dong Woo; Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi; Seo, Ju-Hee; Choe, Byeong Moo; Park, Jae Hong; Kang, Je-Wook; Yoo, Jae-Ho; Chueh, Hee Won; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Min Jung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-04-14

    The role of diet in the behavior of children has been controversial, but the association of several nutritional factors with childhood behavioral disorders has been continually suggested. We conducted a case-control study to identify dietary patterns associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study included 192 elementary school students aged seven to 12 years. Three non-consecutive 24-h recall (HR) interviews were employed to assess dietary intake, and 32 predefined food groups were considered in a principal components analysis (PCA). PCA identified four major dietary patterns: the "traditional" pattern, the "seaweed-egg" pattern, the "traditional-healthy" pattern, and the "snack" pattern. The traditional-healthy pattern is characterized by a diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates as well as high intakes of fatty acids and minerals. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of ADHD for the highest tertile of the traditional-healthy pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12-0.79). The score of the snack pattern was positively associated with the risk of ADHD, but a significant association was observed only in the second tertile. A significant association between ADHD and the dietary pattern score was not found for the other two dietary patterns. In conclusion, the traditional-healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower odds having ADHD.

  5. What do review papers conclude about food and dietary patterns?

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    Elisabet Wirfält

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrients and other bioactive constituents of foods may interact with each other and the surrounding food matrix in complex ways. Therefore, associations between single nutrients and chronic disease may be difficult to identify and interpret, but when dietary patterns (DPs are examined the combination of many food factors will be considered. An explorative literature search of published review articles was conducted to obtain a fuller understanding of current DPs in epidemiological research, to discuss pros and cons of DPs in nutrition research, and to identify results of studies linking DPs to chronic disease risk in adults. Randomized feeding trials providing the experimental diets to study participants have repeatedly demonstrated that diets based on current dietary recommendations are associated with important health benefits. Systematic reviews of feeding trials and prospective population studies of DPs and chronic disease risk reach similar conclusions regardless of the methodology used to construct DPs. However, to date only a few review articles of DP studies have followed a systematic process using independent reviewers with strict inclusion, exclusion, and study quality criteria. Diets with plenty of plants foods, fish, and seafood that preferably include vegetable oils and low-fat dairy products are associated with a lower risk of most chronic diseases. In contrast, Western-type DPs with food products low in essential nutrients and high in energy, like sugar-sweetened beverages, sweets, refined cereals and solid fats (e.g. butter, and high in red and processed meats, are associated with adverse health effects. An emphasis on high-quality original research, and systematic reviews following a structured process to objectively select and judge studies, is needed in order to enforce a strong future knowledge base regarding DPs and chronic disease.

  6. Country-Specific Dietary Patterns and Associations with Socioeconomic Status in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.; Bammann, Karin; Pala, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    patterns with an additive SES indicator.Subjects/Methods:Children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries were recruited in 2007-2008. Principal component analysis was applied to identify dietary country-specific patterns. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess their association with SES......Background/objectives:Children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) may be at higher risk of unhealthy eating. We described country-specific dietary patterns among children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS study and assessed the association of dietary....... Results:Two to four dietary patterns were identified in the participating regions. The existence of a 'processed' pattern was found in the eight regions. Also, a 'healthy' pattern was identified in seven of the eight regions. In addition, region-specific patterns were identified, reflecting the existing...

  7. Association between dietary and beverage consumption patterns in the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Villegas, A; Toledo, E; Bes-Rastrollo, M; Martín-Moreno, J M; Tortosa, A; Martínez-González, M A

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the dietary patterns of a Mediterranean cohort and relate them to the observed patterns of beverage consumption. Prospective cohort study. Dietary habits were assessed with a semi-quantitative FFQ validated in Spain. A principal components factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns and to classify subjects according to their adherence to these patterns. The association between adherence to each dietary pattern and beverage consumption was assessed cross-sectionally. In a longitudinal analysis (2-year follow-up), the relationship between adherence to the baseline dietary patterns and the likelihood of changing alcohol consumption was ascertained. The SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) study is conducted in Spain. In total, 15 073 university graduates were included in the analyses. Two major dietary patterns were identified. We labelled them as 'Western dietary pattern' (WDP) and 'Mediterranean dietary pattern' (MDP). Higher adherence to the WDP was associated with higher consumption of carbonated beverages and whole-fat milk (P for trend <0.001), while higher adherence to the MDP was associated with higher consumption of decaffeinated coffee, orange juice, other natural juices, diet carbonated drinks, low-fat milk and bottled water (P for trend <0.001). Participants with higher adherence to the WDP were less likely to decrease their alcohol consumption during follow-up (OR between extreme quintiles = 0.68; 95 % CI 0.56, 0.84). By contrast, participants with higher adherence to the MDP were less likely to increase their alcohol consumption (OR = 0.66, 95 % CI 0.46, 0.95). In this cohort of university graduates, a healthier dietary pattern was associated with a healthier pattern of beverage consumption.

  8. A posteriori dietary patterns are related to risk of type 2 diabetes: findings from a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Claire T; Cardwell, Christopher R; Woodside, Jayne V; Young, Ian S; Hunter, Steven J; McKinley, Michelle C

    2014-11-01

    Our review and meta-analysis examined the association between a posteriori-derived dietary patterns (DPs) and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for articles published up to July 2012 and data were extracted by two independent reviewers. Overall, 19 cross-sectional, 12 prospective cohort, and two nested case-control studies were eligible for inclusion. Results from cross-sectional studies reported an inconsistent association between DPs and measures of insulin resistance and/or glucose abnormalities, or prevalence of type 2 diabetes. A meta-analysis was carried out on nine prospective cohort studies that had examined DPs derived by principle component/factor analysis and incidence of type 2 diabetes risk (totaling 309,430 participants and 16,644 incident cases). Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios were combined using a random-effects meta-analysis. Two broad DPs (Healthy/Prudent and Unhealthy/Western) were identified based on food factor loadings published in original studies. Pooled results indicated a 15% lower type 2 diabetes risk for those in the highest category of Healthy/Prudent pattern compared with those in the lowest category (95% CI 0.80 to 0.91; Pdiabetes (95% CI 1.32 to 1.52; Pdiabetes even when other lifestyle factors are controlled for. Thus, greater adherence to a DP characterized by high intakes of fruit, vegetables, and complex carbohydrate and low intakes of refined carbohydrate, processed meat, and fried food may be one strategy that could have a positive influence on the global public health burden of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Major Dietary Patterns in Relation to General and Central Obesity among Chinese Adults

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    Canqing Yu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited evidence exists for the association between diet pattern and obesity phenotypes among Chinese adults. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data from 474,192 adults aged 30–79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank baseline survey. Food consumption was collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis combined with cluster analysis. After being adjusted for potential confounders, individuals following a traditional southern dietary pattern had the lowest body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC; the Western/new affluence dietary pattern had the highest BMI; and the traditional northern dietary pattern had the highest WC. Compared to the traditional southern dietary pattern in multivariable adjusted logistic models, individuals following a Western/new affluence dietary pattern had a significantly increased risk of general obesity (prevalence ratio (PR: 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.03–1.08 and central obesity (PR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.06–1.08. The corresponding risks for the traditional northern dietary pattern were 1.05 (1.02–1.09 and 1.17 (1.25–1.18, respectively. In addition, the associations were modified by lifestyle behaviors, and the combined effects with alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and physical activity were analyzed. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-obesity relationships.

  10. Western and Mediterranean dietary patterns among Balearic Islands' adolescents: socio-economic and lifestyle determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Martínez, Elisa; Llull, Rosa; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2012-04-01

    To assess prevailing food patterns among Balearic Islands' adolescents, and socio-economic and lifestyle determinants. Cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out (2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, a Mediterranean region. Dietary assessment was based on a 145-item semi-quantitative FFQ and two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. Anthropometric measurements and questions related to socio-economic, lifestyle, physical activity and body image were assessed. Data obtained from a representative sample of all inhabitants living in the Balearic Islands aged 12-17 years. A random sample (n 1231) of the adolescent population (12-17 years old) was interviewed. Factor analysis identified two major dietary food patterns: 'Western' and 'Mediterranean'. The 'Western' dietary pattern was higher among boys than girls, associated with spending ≥4 h/d on media screen time, but less prevalent among those adolescents who desired a thinner body and those girls who desired to remain the same weight. The 'Mediterranean' dietary pattern was mainly followed by girls, and also boys who spent Balearic Islands' adolescents: 'Western' and 'Mediterranean', but girls are more 'Mediterranean' than boys. This evidence supports that the food pattern of Balearic Islands' adolescents is in a transitional state characterised by the loss of the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern towards a Western dietary pattern. Low parental socio-economic status, much leisure-time on sedentary behaviours such as media screen time and body image are factors associated with the 'Western' dietary pattern.

  11. Major dietary patterns in relation to stunting among children in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfarjani, Fatemeh; Roustaee, Roshanak; Mohammadi-Nasrabadi, Fatemeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    To the best of our knowledge, no information is available to link major dietary patterns to stunting during childhood, although dietary patterns are associated with chronic diseases. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between major dietary patterns and stunting in the first grade pupils of Tehran in 2009. In this case-control study, 86 stunted children (defined as height-for-age of less than the 5th percentile of CDC2000 cutoff points) were enrolled from among 3,147 first grade pupils of Tehran, selected using a multistage cluster random-sampling method. Participants for the control group (n=308) were selected randomly from non-stunted children (height-for-age more than the 5th percentile of CDC2000 cutoff points), after matching for age, sex, and area of residence. Dietary data were collected using two 24-hour dietary recalls through face-to-face interview with mothers. Factor analysis was used for identifying major dietary patterns. Mean consumption of dairy products (308 +/- 167 vs 382 +/- 232 g/day, p sweets and desserts, poultry, dairy, fruits, legumes, and visceral meats. No significant relationships were found between traditional and mixed dietary patterns and stunting. Individuals in the third quartile of carbohydrate-protein dietary pattern were less likely to be stunted compared to those in the bottom quartile (OR: 0.31, 95% CI 0.13-0.78, p sweets, and desserts) might be associated with reduced odds of being stunted among children.

  12. Major Dietary Patterns in Relation to Stunting among Children in Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfarjani, Fatemeh; Roustaee, Roshanak; Mohammadi-Nasrabadi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, no information is available to link major dietary patterns to stunting during childhood, although dietary patterns are associated with chronic diseases. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between major dietary patterns and stunting in the first grade pupils of Tehran in 2009. In this case-control study, 86 stunted children (defined as height-for-age of less than the 5th percentile of CDC2000 cutoff points) were enrolled from among 3,147 first grade pupils of Tehran, selected using a multistage cluster random-sampling method. Participants for the control group (n=308) were selected randomly from non-stunted children (height-for-age more than the 5th percentile of CDC2000 cutoff points), after matching for age, sex, and area of residence. Dietary data were collected using two 24-hour dietary recalls through face-to-face interview with mothers. Factor analysis was used for identifying major dietary patterns. Mean consumption of dairy products (308±167 vs 382±232 g/day, psweets and desserts, poultry, dairy, fruits, legumes, and visceral meats. No significant relationships were found between traditional and mixed dietary patterns and stunting. Individuals in the third quartile of carbohydrate-protein dietary pattern were less likely to be stunted compared to those in the bottom quartile (OR: 0.31, 95% CI 0.13-0.78, psweets, and desserts) might be associated with reduced odds of being stunted among children. PMID:23930338

  13. Cross-sectional association of dietary patterns with insulin resistance phenotypes among adults without diabets in the Framingham Offspring Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several studies have linked dietary patterns which derived by cluster analysis with metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are key metabolic abnormalities which drive the metabolic syndrome. However, whether dietary patterns identified by cluster analysis are also associated wi...

  14. Relationship between dietary pattern and cognitive function in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Mari; Yoshii, Hidenori; Mita, Tomoya; Sanke, Haruna; Yokota, Ayako; Yamashiro, Keiko; Inagaki, Noriko; Gosho, Masahiko; Ohmura, Chie; Kudo, Kayo; Watada, Hirotaka; Onuma, Tomio

    2015-08-01

    To analyse the relationships between dietary patterns and cognitive function in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with T2DM completed a 3-day dietary record and Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. The study included 73 patients and identified five dietary patterns, one of which was characterized by high loading for vegetables and fish. A higher consumption of vegetables and fish was significantly associated with improved MMSE score (unadjusted model, model adjusted for age and sex, and model adjusted for age, sex, education, diabetic nephropathy and alcohol consumption), and decreased prevalence of suspected mild dementia (unadjusted model, model adjusted for age and sex). A high score in the vegetables and fish dietary pattern was associated with high MMSE score and low prevalence of suspected mild dementia in elderly patients with T2DM. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. A rice-based traditional dietary pattern is associated with obesity in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Jo, Inho; Joung, Hyojee

    2012-02-01

    Dietary patterns are critical in the prevention of chronic disease. The relationship between specific dietary patterns and obesity has not been evaluated in a Korean adult population. This study examined whether specific dietary patterns are associated with obesity using survey data of the largest, nationally representative, general Korean population. The cross-sectional study was comprised of 10,089 Korean adults (19 years or older) who participated in the second and third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted in 2001 and 2005, respectively. Dietary data were assessed by 24-hour recall method. Obesity was defined as body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) ≥25, which is the cutoff point for adults in the Asian and Pacific regions. Four dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis (white rice and kimchi pattern; high-fat, sweets, and coffee pattern; meat and alcohol pattern; and grains, vegetables, and fish pattern). Each dietary pattern explained 8.6%, 6.7%, 5.7%, and 5.7% of the variation in food intake, respectively. The white rice and kimchi pattern (P for trend=0.0039) and the high-fat, sweets, and coffee pattern (P for trend=0.0054) were positively associated with obesity after adjustments for age, sex, energy intake, alcohol intake, smoking status, physical activity, and chronic diseases. No significant association was found among the meat and alcohol pattern; the grains, vegetables, and fish pattern; and obesity. Specific dietary patterns, which include the white rice and kimchi and high-fat, sweets, and coffee patterns, may be independently associated with obesity in Korean adults. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dental indicators of ancient dietary patterns: dental analysis in archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, R

    2014-05-01

    What can the study of ancient teeth tell us about the dietary habits of our ancestors? Diet plays a prominent role in the organisation and evolution of human cultures and an increasingly diverse array of analytical techniques are available to help reconstruct diet in ancient populations. Dental palaeopathology is particularly important as it can provide direct evidence of the type of diet an individual consumed during life. Heavy occlusal tooth wear is the most frequent condition recognisable and an examination of both macro and microscopic patterns of wear can establish the differences between the hard fibrous diet typical of a hunter-gatherer, and a diet primarily consisting of softer plant foods consumed by an agriculturist. The distributions of trace elements and stable isotopes in food webs make it possible to use them as natural tracers of foodstuffs. Through a consideration of photosynthetic pathways, the ratios of the different stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen can determine which specific groups of plants and animals were dominant in the food chains of various populations - a fact that has been used to trace the spread of agriculture in ancient civilisations.

  17. Dietary pattern of schoolgoing adolescents in urban Baroda, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecha, P V; Patel, Sangita V; Baxi, R K; Mazumdar, V S; Shobha, Misra; Mehta, K G; Mansi, Diwanji; Ekta, Modi

    2013-12-01

    Diet plays a very important role in growth and development of adolescents, during which the development of healthy eating habits is of supreme importance. There is a dual burden of undernutrition and overnutrition in this age-group. The study assessed the food habits, food preferences, and dietary pattern of schoolgoing urban adolescents in Baroda, India. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in this study. A quantitative survey was carried out using a pre-tested self-administered structured questionnaire among 1,440 students from class 6 to 12 in 7 English medium and 23 Gujarati medium schools. Focus group discussions, 5 each with adolescent boys and girls, were held, along with 5 focus group discussions with teachers of Gujarati and English medium schools. Nearly 80% of adolescents had consumed regular food, like dal, rice, chapati, and vegetables, including green leafy vegetables. Nearly 50% of them had consumed chocolates, and about one-third consumed fast foods. Nearly 60% of adolescents had their breakfast daily while the remaining missed taking breakfast daily. Nearly one-third of adolescents were missing a meal once or twice a week. A large majority had consumed regular foods. However, more than half of them had consumed chocolates, soft drinks, and over one-third had taken fast foods.

  18. Dietary patterns are associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; García-Guerra, Armando; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2011-09-01

    In Mexico, about one third of school-age population is overweight or obese and the diet is one of the main determinants. The purpose of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of Mexican school-age children and to determine their association with the risk of overweight/obesity. This study included 8252 school-age children who participated in the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2006). Dietary data were collected using a 7-day Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Foods were classified into 25 groups and dietary patterns were defined by cluster analysis. Body Mass Index and prevalence of overweight/obesity were calculated. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and overweight/obesity. Five dietary patterns were identified: Rural dietary pattern (high intake of tortilla and legumes), sweet cereal and corn dishes pattern (high intake of sugary cereals, tortilla, and maize products); diverse pattern (intake of several food groups); western pattern (high intake of sweetened beverages, fried snacks, industrial snack cakes, and sugary cereals), and whole milk and sweet pattern (high intake of whole milk and sweets). We found that children with sweet cereal and corn dishes and western dietary patterns showed an association with overweight and obesity (prevalence ratio 1.29 and 1.35, respectively, using as reference the rural dietary pattern). Patterns characterized by high intakes of sugary cereals, sweetened beverages, industrial snack, cakes, whole milk, and sweets were associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity among in Mexican school-age children.

  19. Dietary patterns in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Louise R.; Northstone, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children that used empirically derived dietary patterns were reviewed. The relationships of dietary patterns with socioeconomic background and childhood development were examined. Diet was assessed using food frequency questionnaires and food records. Three statistical methods were used: principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression. Throughout childhood, children and parents have similar dietary patterns. The “health-conscious” and “traditional” patterns were associated with high intakes of fruits and/or vegetables and better nutrient profiles than the “processed” patterns. There was evidence of tracking in childhood diet, with the “health-conscious” patterns tracking most strongly, followed by the “processed” pattern. An “energy-dense, low-fiber, high-fat” dietary pattern was extracted using reduced rank regression; high scores on this pattern were associated with increasing adiposity. Maternal education was a strong determinant of pattern score or cluster membership; low educational attainment was associated with higher scores on processed, energy-dense patterns in both parents and children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has provided unique insights into the value of empirically derived dietary patterns and has demonstrated that they are a useful tool in nutritional epidemiology. PMID:26395343

  20. Association between dietary pattern and cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Naruna Pereira; Milagres, Luana Cupertino; Longo, Giana Zarbato; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Novaes, Juliana Farias de

    To evaluate the association between dietary patterns and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. This article followed the recommendations of PRISMA, which aims to guide review publications in the health area. The article search strategy included searches in the electronic databases MEDLINE via PubMed, Scopus, and LILACS. There was no date limitation for publications. The descriptors were used in English according to MeSH and in Portuguese according to DeCS. Only articles on dietary patterns extracted by the a posteriori methodology were included. The question to be answered was: how much can an "unhealthy" dietary pattern influence biochemical and inflammatory markers in this population? The studies showed an association between dietary patterns and cardiometabolic alterations. The patterns were characterized as unhealthy when associated to the consumption of ultraprocessed products, poor in fiber and rich in sodium, fat, and refined carbohydrates. Despite the associations, in several studies, the strength of this association for some risk markers was reduced or lost after adjusting for confounding variables. There was a positive association between "unhealthy" dietary patterns and cardiometabolic alterations in children and adolescents. Some unconfirmed associations may be related to the difficulty of assessing food consumption. Nevertheless, studies involving dietary patterns and their association with risk factors should be performed in children and adolescents, aiming at interventions and early changes in dietary habits considered to be inadequate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  1. Modest validity and fair reproducibility of dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funtikova, Anna N; Benítez-Arciniega, Alejandra A; Fitó, Montserrat; Schröder, Helmut

    2015-03-01

    Cluster analysis is widely used to analyze dietary patterns. We aimed to analyze the validity and reproducibility of the dietary patterns defined by cluster analysis derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We hypothesized that the dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis have fair to modest reproducibility and validity. Dietary data were collected from 107 individuals from population-based survey, by an FFQ at baseline (FFQ1) and after 1 year (FFQ2), and by twelve 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HDR). Repeatability and validity were measured by comparing clusters obtained by the FFQ1 and FFQ2 and by the FFQ2 and 24-HDR (reference method), respectively. Cluster analysis identified a "fruits & vegetables" and a "meat" pattern in each dietary data source. Cluster membership was concordant for 66.7% of participants in FFQ1 and FFQ2 (reproducibility), and for 67.0% in FFQ2 and 24-HDR (validity). Spearman correlation analysis showed reasonable reproducibility, especially in the "fruits & vegetables" pattern, and lower validity also especially in the "fruits & vegetables" pattern. κ statistic revealed a fair validity and reproducibility of clusters. Our findings indicate a reasonable reproducibility and fair to modest validity of dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Common dietary patterns and risk of breast cancer: analysis from the United Kingdom Women's Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, Janet E; Taylor, E Faye; Burley, Victoria J; Greenwood, Darren C

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between diet and breast cancer is uncertain. We assessed the relationship of 4 common dietary patterns to the risk of breast cancer using the UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS). A total of 35,372 women aged between 35 to 69 yr were recruited from 1995 to 1998. The UKWCS was selected to have a wide range of dietary intakes; 28% were self-reported vegetarian. Diet was assessed at baseline by a 217-item food frequency questionnaire. Four dietary patterns were defined based on a hierarchy of consumption of fish and meat to reflect commonly consumed dietary patterns. Hazards ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox regression adjusted for known confounders. Subjects were followed up for a mean of 9 yr, and 330 premenopausal and 453 postmenopausal women developed invasive breast cancer. In postmenopausal women, there was a strong inverse association between the fish eating dietary pattern 0.60 (95% CI = 0.38-0.96) but not for a vegetarian pattern 0.85 (95% CI = 0.58-1.25) compared to red meat eaters. There were no statistically significant associations with dietary pattern and risk of premenopausal breast cancer. A fish eating dietary pattern that excludes meat from the diet may confer some benefit with regard to risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

  3. Dietary patterns and serum gamma-glutamyl transferase in Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanri, Hinako; Hara, Megumi; Nishida, Yuichiro; Shimanoe, Chisato; Nakamura, Kazuyo; Higaki, Yasuki; Imaizumi, Takeshi; Taguchi, Naoto; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Horita, Mikako; Shinchi, Koichi; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2015-01-01

    Although specific foods and nutrients have been examined as potential determinants of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) concentrations, the relationship between dietary patterns and GGT remains unknown. The present cross-sectional study aimed to determine relationships between dietary patterns and GGT concentrations, and the effects of lifestyle factors on GGT. Relationships between dietary patterns and GGT were analyzed in 9803 Japanese individuals (3723 men and 6080 women age 40-69 years) without a history of liver diseases or elevated serum aminotransferase. We examined major dietary patterns by factor analysis of 46 items determined from a validated, short food frequency questionnaire. We defined dietary patterns as healthy, Western, seafood, bread, and dessert. The healthy pattern was inversely related to GGT in men (odds ratio [OR] for highest vs lowest quartile, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.92; P dessert patterns (OR 0.63; 95% CI, 0.50-0.80 and OR 0.53; 95% CI, 0.41-0.68, respectively; P dessert pattern and body mass index or smoking habit in women (P = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively, for interaction). Dietary patterns may be important determinants of GGT, and their possible clinical implications warrant further investigation.

  4. [Evaluation of dietary pattern and nutritional status of residents in southeast coastal area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Na; Shen, Minghao; Huang, Yixiang; Lu, Lijuan; Zheng, Shangpin; Chen, Kai

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the dietary pattern and nutritional status of urban residents in southeast coastal area. A dietary survey concerning 1332 persons aged 18 and over was carried out with dietary inquiry and 24-hour recall methods from August to December in 2009. The intakes of cereal, meat, eggs, seafood were enough. The consumption of milk and dairy products, vegetables, fruits was insufficient while the amount of oil was too high. Among them, the intake of milk and dairy products was only 1/3 of suggested values in Dietary Guideline and Balanced Diet Pagoda for Chinese Residents. The intakes of protein, retinol, iron and selenium were sufficient, while those of calcium, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid were too less than the dietary reference intakes (DRIs). The dietary pattern of urban residents in Ningbo was not reasonable. Nutrition education should be strengthened to guide residents for planning reasonable and balanced diets.

  5. Identifying dietary patterns and associated health-related lifestyle factors in the adult Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    2014-01-01

    , potatoes and gravy, and cake and biscuits; a 'health-conscious' pattern correlated with coarse bread, fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy, nuts, water and tea; and a 'fast food' pattern correlated with pizza, hamburger/spring rolls, crisps, rice and pasta, sugar-sweetened soft drinks and sweets......Background/objectives:To identify and describe dietary patterns in Danish adults and to examine which demographic and health-related lifestyle factors are associated with dietary patterns.Subjects/methods:Data derived from the Danish national survey of diet and physical activity collected in 2003....... The 'traditional' pattern was positively associated with male gender and age, whereas the 'health-conscious' pattern was positively associated with being female, increasing age and educational level. The 'fast food' pattern was inversely associated with age and smoking.Conclusions:Three distinct dietary patterns...

  6. Identification of dietary patterns and their relationships with general and oral health in the very old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Yusuke; Arai, Yasumichi; Takayama, Michiyo; Hirata, Takumi; Kawasaki, Midori; Abe, Yukiko; Iinuma, Toshimitsu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirose, Nobuyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian populations aged >=85 years and their associated factors. Thus, we aimed to (1) identify these dietary patterns and (2) clarify the relationships between the dietary pattern and health outcomes in a community-dwelling very old population. The Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health study is an observational cohort study comprising 512 Japanese subjects (women, n=288; men, n=224; age, 87.8±2.2 years). Dietary patterns were assessed by principal component analysis using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. Barthel index, Mini-Mental State Examination, and oral health status [maximum occlusal force (MOF), denture use, and dentulous / edentulous state] were also measured. Two dietary patterns were identified. The first factor component "traditional Japanese" was characterized by a high consumption of vegetables, seaweed, legumes, and fish. The second factor component "noodles and confectioneries" was characterized by a high consumption of noodles, confectioneries, and non-alcoholic beverages. Multivariable analysis showed that the "traditional Japanese" dietary pattern was inversely associated with dentulous state (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.34-0.82), the lowest tertile of MOF (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.42-0.99), and denture use (OR: 2.42; 95% CI: 1.26- 4.63) even after adjustment for potential confounders. Furthermore, the "noodles and confectioneries" dietary pattern was inversely associated with the lowest tertile of MOF (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.40-0.94). However, there were no significant associations between these dietary patterns and disability or cognitive function. We identified two dietary patterns in the very old population, which were associated with oral health status.

  7. Identifying Major Dietary Patterns Among the Elderly in Tehran Health Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Previous studies on diet have primarily focused on individual nutrients or foods. Recently, the analysis of dietary patterns has emerged as a possible approach for examining food consumption. A literature review revealed no studies of dietary patterns in elderly Iranians. Objectives Our objective was to identify the major dietary intake patterns among the elderly in the health homes located in Zone 5 of Tehran city, Iran. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study (descriptive, 368 elderly people (≥ 60 years old were randomly selected. Their usual dietary intake during the past year was assessed using a 168-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Major food patterns were derived using factor analysis after the classification of food items into 26 groups. Results Four major dietary patterns were identified in the studied population: 1 healthy pattern, characterized by a higher intake of vegetables, tomato and tomato sauce, vegetable oil, olive, and fruits; 2 unhealthy pattern, characterized by a higher intake of red meat, fast food, snacks, sugar, honey and jam, soft drinks, and high-fat dairy products; 3. traditional pattern characterized by intake of whole grains, hydrogenated oil and animal fat, beans, salt, and pickles; and 4 protein-rich pattern, characterized by intake of chicken and poultry, fish, grains, and organ meats. These four major dietary patterns explained 16.3%, 7.5%, 6.7%, and 5.7% of the total variance, respectively. Conclusions Four major dietary patterns were identified in the present studied population that can be used to provide tangible dietary advice for the elderly.

  8. The Association between Acculturation and Dietary Patterns of South Asian Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Lesser, Iris A.; Gasevic, Danijela; Lear, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary acculturation, specifically the adoption of western dietary habits, may result in adverse health effects such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the role of acculturation in dietary patterns as well as awareness and knowledge of healthy nutrition among South Asian immigrants. This is an especially important population to target as South Asians have higher prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which may be magnified with immi...

  9. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilin Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1 a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2 an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3 a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.87–5.30. The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships.

  10. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-09-21

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87-5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships.

  11. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87–5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships. PMID:26402695

  12. Dietary pattern and its association with the prevalence of obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors among Chinese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwen Shang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association of dietary pattern with chronic diseases has been investigated widely in western countries. However, information is quite limited among children in China. Our study is aimed to identify the dietary patterns of Chinese children and examine their association with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: A total of 5267 children were selected using multistage random sampling from 30 primary schools of 5 provincial capital cities in China. Dietary intake was derived from 24 hour dietary recall for three consecutive days. Anthropometric measurements, glucose and lipid profiles were obtained. Factor analysis combined with cluster analysis was used for identifying major dietary patterns. The associations of dietary patterns with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors were examined by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Three mutually exclusive dietary patterns were identified, which were labeled as the healthy dietary pattern, the transitive dietary pattern, and the Western dietary pattern. Compared with children of the healthy dietary pattern, the multiple-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval (CI of obesity were 1.11 (0.89-1.38 for children with the transitive dietary pattern and 1.80 (1.15-2.81 for children with the Western dietary pattern, which was 1.31 (95%CI 1.09-1.56 and 1.71 (95%CI: 1.13-2.56, respectively, for abdominal obesity. The Western dietary pattern was associated with significantly higher concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<.001, triglycerides (P<.001, systolic blood pressure (P = 0.0435 and fasting glucose (P = 0.0082 and a lower concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.0023, as compared with the healthy dietary pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The Western dietary pattern characterized by red meat, eggs, refined grain and products, was positively associated with odds of obesity, the levels of plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein

  13. Dietary patterns on weekdays and weekend days in 4–14-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothausen, Berit Worm; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Andersen, L. F.

    2013-01-01

    National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity 2003–8, where a total of 784 children aged 4–14 years completed a 7 d pre-coded food record. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns in the age groups 4–6, 7–10 and 11–14 years. Consistently, two dietary patterns, labelled......Little is known about dietary patterns on weekdays and weekend days in children, and the aim of the present study was to investigate 4–14-year-old children's dietary patterns specifically on weekdays (Monday–Thursday) and weekend days (Saturday–Sunday). Dietary data were derived from the Danish...... ‘processed’ and ‘health conscious’, emerged on both weekdays and weekend days. Factor scores from corresponding dietary patterns were significantly correlated between weekdays and weekend days with the exception of the ‘health conscious’ pattern in the 7–10-year-olds. Within each age group, children...

  14. Confounding by dietary patterns of the inverse association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Fumiaki; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Dallal, Gerard E; Meigs, James B; Jacques, Paul F

    2009-07-01

    The ability to interpret epidemiologic observations is limited because of potential residual confounding by correlated dietary components. Dietary pattern analyses by factor analysis or partial least squares may overcome the limitation. To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as standard risk factors and selected nutrients, the authors modeled the longitudinal association between alcohol consumption and 7-year risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in 2,879 healthy adults enrolled in the Framingham Offspring Study (1991-2001) by Cox proportional hazard models. After adjustment for standard risk factors, consumers of > or =9.0 drinks/week had a significantly lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with abstainers (hazard ratio = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27, 0.81). Adjustment for selected nutrients had little effect on the hazard ratio, whereas adjustment for dietary pattern variables by factor analysis significantly shifted the hazard ratio away from null (hazard ratio = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.64) by 40.0% (95% CI: 16.8, 57.0; P = 0.002). Dietary pattern variables by partial least squares showed similar results. Therefore, the observed inverse association, consistent with past studies, was confounded by dietary patterns, and this confounding was not captured by individual nutrient adjustment. The data suggest that alcohol intake, not dietary patterns associated with alcohol intake, is responsible for the observed inverse association with type 2 diabetes mellitus risk.

  15. Rural-Urban Differences of Dietary Patterns, Overweight, and Bone Mineral Status in Chinese Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available China is an urban and rural social model country. In the past three decades, the developing speed of rural areas has been much slower than urban areas, which may lead to the differences in dietary patterns. This study aimed to investigate the disparities of dietary structures from urban and rural children, and to analyze the effects of different dietary patterns on their adverse outcome. Among 1590 students, aged 11 years to 17 years, from primary and middle schools, a cross-sectional study was conducted. There were three dietary patterns recognized: Westernization structure, meat diet structure, and Western and Chinese structure. Compared with rural students, more urban students were in the highest categories of the whole dietary patterns (p < 0.001. Overweight/obesity and central adiposity were more prevailing among urban students, while rural students had a more prevailing risk of bone fracture (p < 0.05. Through the adjustment for all confounding factors, the Westernization structure could increase the risk of overweight/obesity and central adiposity, the meat structure could increase the risk of elevated blood pressure/hypertension, while the risk of low bone mineral quality could be reduced by the Chinese and Western structure. In conclusion, a rural-urban disparity in dietary patterns was found in our study, and different dietary patterns were associated with the risk of some adverse outcomes. Therefore, there were different prevalences of the adverse outcomes between rural and urban students.

  16. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Almendros, Sara; Obrador, Biel; Bach-Faig, Anna; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-12-30

    Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can thus not only influence human health but also the environment. The aim of the study was to analyze the sustainability of the MDP in the context of the Spanish population in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural land use, energy consumption and water consumption. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the current Spanish diet with the Mediterranean Diet and in comparison with the western dietary pattern, exemplified by the U.S.A. food pattern, in terms of their corresponding environmental footprints. The environmental footprints of the dietary patterns studied were calculated from the dietary make-up of each dietary pattern, and specific environmental footprints of each food group. The dietary compositions were obtained from different sources, including food balance sheets and household consumption surveys. The specific environmental footprints of food groups were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. The adherence of the Spanish population to the MDP has a marked impact on all the environmental footprints studied. Increasing adherence to the MDP pattern in Spain will reduce greenhouse gas emissions (72%), land use (58%) and energy consumption (52%), and to a lower extent water consumption (33%). On the other hand, the adherence to a western dietary pattern implies an increase in all these descriptors of between 12% and 72%. The MDP is presented as not only a cultural model but also as a healthy and environmentally-friendly model, adherence to which, in Spain would

  17. Dietary patterns and nutritional assessment in middle-aged and elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomoko; Tanisawa, Kumpei; Kawakami, Ryoko; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Dietary patterns are studied to determine the relationship between diet and health. However, little is known about whether various dietary patterns fulfill adequate nutrient intake. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between major dietary patterns and nutritional intakes in middle-aged and elderly men. Furthermore, we examined the associations between dietary patterns and micronutrients status by using the reference values from the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese 2010 (DRIs-J 2010).Methods A total of 229 middle-aged and elderly men (age range, 40-79 years) participated in this study. The dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis of 52 food and beverage items via a validated brief diet history questionnaire. Overall, micronutrient intake status was quantified using a dietary reference intakes score (DRIs-score) for 21 micronutrients (based on the DRIs-J 2010). The association of the nutrient intake and the DRIs-score with each factor score was evaluated using Spearman's correlation coefficient.Results Three dietary patterns were identified: "side dish", "evening drink", and "snack". The "side dish" pattern was characterized by a high intake of vegetables, fruits, seaweeds, mushrooms, and potatoes, and low intake of rice. Spearman's correlation showed that the "side dish" pattern correlated with each of the 21 micronutrients, and positively correlated with the DRIs-score (ρ=0.782, P<0.001).Conclusions The "side dish" pattern was positively related with the DRIs-score, calculated from the DRIs-J 2010. The result suggested the "side dish" pattern may provide a favorable nutrient balance in middle-aged and elderly men.

  18. Dietary patterns of Pakistani adults and their associations with sociodemographic, anthropometric and life-style factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Nilofer F; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth; Cordeiro, Lorraine; Jafar, Tazeen H; Cohen, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    Dietary pattern analysis is an epidemiological method designed to consider the complexity of food preferences and diet patterns of populations. Few studies from South Asia have used this methodology to describe population food intake. Our objective was to identify dietary patterns and understand their associations with sociodemographic, anthropometric and life-style factors among low-income Pakistani urban adults. Dietary information was collected by a thirty-three-item FFQ and dietary patterns were derived by principal component analyses in 5491 subjects enrolled in the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) study. Three dietary patterns were identified: a fat and sweet pattern characterised by fried snacks/foods, desserts, organ meats, bakery products, Pakistani bread and food purchased from outside the home; a fruit and vegetable pattern including fruits, juices, raw and cooked vegetables, lean meat and low-fat milk; and a seafood and yogurt pattern identified by prawns, fish, potatoes and yogurt. The fat and sweet pattern scores were low among older subjects, those with high BMI and waist circumference but high among females and physically active participants. The fruit and vegetable pattern was associated with younger age, high BMI, education and non-tobacco use. The seafood and yogurt pattern was associated with high BMI, increased physical activity and non-tobacco use. In conclusion, distinct dietary patterns exist for the Pakistani population that may be related to some of the population characteristics and thus may have importance in suggesting dietary and life-style interventions in the prevention of chronic diseases.

  19. Dietary Patterns and Feeding Problems of Turkish Children with Intellectual Disabilities and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, Kubra; Ilik, Senay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether dietary patterns and feeding problems differ among children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and typically developing children (TDC) in Turkey. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 220 (112 children with ID and 108 TDC) 7-12 aged children in Konya, Turkey. We assessed usual dietary intakes by a…

  20. Dietary patterns and health in the elderly : a north - south comparison in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, P.P.C.W.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to gain more insight into the role of dietary intake as a determinant of different aspects of health, e.g. cognitive function, functional status, self-rated health and mortality. Dietary patterns, obtained from cluster analysis or a healthy diet indicator (HDI),

  1. Dietary Patterns and Colorectal Adenomas in Lynch Syndrome The GEOLynch Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, Akke; Vasen, Hans F. A.; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Kampman, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) have a high risk of developing colorectal cancer due to mutations in mismatch repair genes. Because dietary factors, alone and in combination, influence sporadic colorectal carcinogenesis, the association of dietary patterns with colorectal adenomas in

  2. Diversity of dietary patterns observed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimani, N.; Fahey, M.; Welch, A.A.; Wirfalt, E.; Stripp, C.; Bergstrom, E.; Linseisen, J.; Schulze, M.B.; Bamia, C.; Chloptsios, Y.; Veglia, F.; Panico, S.; Bueno de Mesquita, B.; Ocké, M.C.; Brustadt, M.; Lund, E.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Barcos, A.; Berglund, G.; Winkvist, A.; Mulligan, A.; Appleby, P.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Kesse, E.; Ferrari, P.; Staveren, van W.A.; Riboli, E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the diversity in dietary patterns existing across centres/regions participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Design and setting: Single 24-hour dietary recall measurements were obtained by means of standardised face-to-face

  3. Mediterranean dietary pattern and depression: the PREDIMED randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A few observational studies have found an inverse association between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and the risk of depression. Randomized trials with an intervention based on this dietary pattern could provide the most definitive answer to the findings reported by observational studies. The aim of this study was to compare in a randomized trial the effects of two Mediterranean diets versus a low-fat diet on depression risk after at least 3 years of intervention. Methods This was a multicenter, randomized, primary prevention field trial of cardiovascular disease (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED Study)) based on community-dwelling men aged 55 to 80 years and women aged 60 to 80 years at high risk of cardiovascular disease (51% of them had type 2 diabetes; DM2) attending primary care centers affiliated with 11 Spanish teaching hospitals. Primary analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Cox regression models were used to assess the relationship between the nutritional intervention groups and the incidence of depression. Results We identified 224 new cases of depression during follow-up. There was an inverse association with depression for participants assigned to a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts (multivariate hazard ratio (HR) 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55 to 1.10) compared with participants assigned to the control group, although this was not significant. However, when the analysis was restricted to participants with DM2, the magnitude of the effect of the intervention with the Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts did reach statistical significance (multivariate HR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.98). Conclusions The result suggest that a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts could exert a beneficial effect on the risk of depression in patients with DM2. Trial registration This trial has been registered in the Current Controlled Trials with the number ISRCTN 35739639 PMID:24229349

  4. [Dietary patterns in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá Travé, T; Diez Bayona, V; Yoldi Petri, M E; Aguilera Albesa, S

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the dietary patterns in a group of patients diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and under treatment with extended-release methylphenidate (MPH-ER). A nutrition survey (food intake recall for three consecutive days) was carried out on 100 patients diagnosed with ADHD and under treatment with MPH-ER, and in 150 healthy children (control group). Calorie and nutrient intake, as well as nutrition status, were evaluated and compared in both groups. The mean MPH-ER dose was 1.02 mg/kg/day. Nutritional status in the ADHD group was significantly lower (P < .05) than in control group. The consumption of cereals, meat, pulses and fruits in the control group was significantly higher (P < .05) than in ADHD group. Calorie intake in the mid-morning snack, lunch and afternoon snack was significantly higher (P < .05) in the control group. Calorie intake at supper was significantly higher (P < .05) in the ADHD group. Total calorie intake, as well as protein, carbohydrates, fat, fibre, calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, selenium and phosphorous, thiamine, niacin, vitamin B6 and folate intake in the control group was significantly higher than in ADHD group. Treatment with MPH-ER substantially modifies the percentage distribution of calorie intake of the different meals. The daily calorie and nutrients intake in patients under treatment with MPH-ER is, generally, lower than in the healthy population of a similar age. Nutrition education should be provided, along with multimodal treatment, to the patients and/or their families. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Anthropometric characteristics, somatotype and dietary patterns in youth soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Hernández-Camacho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the morphological characteristics, fat mass, somatotype and dietary patterns of youth soccer players from an amateur Spanish team. Method: Height, weight, diameters, circumferences and skinfolds from sixteen youth soccer players were measured. Body fat percentage and somatotype were calculated. They completed the Kidmed questionnaire to analyze dietary patterns. Descriptive statistics (mean ± standard deviation were used. Results: The global body fat percentage was 9.16 ± 2.12 and the somatotype (2.56-3.73-2.77. The sum of the six skinfolds was 62.6 ± 2.7 mm. The sum of the eight skinfolds was 80.7 ± 3.1 mm. 75% of athletes consumed a fruit daily, 18.75% took a second fruit each day. 43.75% of players took vegetables once a day, 18.75% ate vegetables more than once a day. Conclusion: Body fat percentage, the sum of the six skinfolds, the sum of the eight skinfolds and somatotype results are in agreement with previous studies where youth non-professional soccer players were analyzed. Other studies have obtained lower values in body fat percentage or in sum of six skinfolds due to they have evaluated professional soccer players. Anthropometric measures would be important to prescribed personalized diet and training plans. Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar las características morfológicas, la masa grasa, el somatotipo y los patrones alimentarios de jugadores de fútbol jóvenes de un equipo amateur. Método: Se midieron la altura, el peso, los diámetros corporales, las circunferencias y los pliegues cutáneos de 16 jugadores. Se calcularon el porcentaje de grasa corporal y el somatotipo. Se administró el cuestionario Kidmed con objeto de conocer el patrón alimentario. Se utilizaron métodos estadísticos descriptivos (media ± desviación estándar. Resultados: El porcentaje global de grasa corporal fue 9.16 ± 2.12 y el somatotipo (2.56-3.73-2.77. El sumatorio de 6 pliegues fue 62.6 ± 2.7 mm y el

  6. Exploring dietary guidelines based on ecological and nutritional values: A comparison of six dietary patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dooren, C.; Marinussen, M.; Blonk, B.; Aiking, H.; Vellinga, P.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the synergies between nutritionally healthy and ecologically sustainable diets. The aim was to explore the possibilities for future integrated dietary guidelines that support consumers to make informed dietary choices based on both ecological and

  7. THE DIETARY PATTERNS AND THE RISK OF BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Radkevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition in the early stages of life cause hypomotilinemia and shape the epigenome, and does not change the genetic code. Increasing the frequency of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDS in the world associated with influence of external factors, including poor diet and obesity .Purpose. A comparative study of dietary patterns in countries with similar social conditions but with different frequency of breast cancer.Materials and methods. Data on incidence of breast cancer in 160 countries is selected from the database GLOBOCAN 2008. Levels of consumption of food and nutrients (53 species for each country selected from the FAO database for 1990–2005 and 2003–2005 years. The power structure of countries were represented in the form of a total daily level of consumption (DLC (g/person/day, and also in the form of blocks of products with common source of origin (g/person/day: animal products, grains, vegetables”, “fruit drinks”, “alcoholic beverages”; “nutrients of animal products” (%: energy, protein, fat; “full of nutrients” (%: carbohydrates, proteins, fats; energy (kcal/person/day, proteins and fats (g/person/day. Determined the percent contribution of each block in the structure of food in the total daily consumption of food and nutrients (DLC. In the comparative analysis used as a predictor of the metabolic syndrome: body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and blood cholesterol (NF ≥ 50 mmol/l.Results. Under similar social and geographical conditions in countries with a high incidence of breast cancer part of the power Structure were represented: 36% of “animal products”, 37% “of grain and vegetables,” 14% “fruits and beverages”, 13% “alcoholic beverages”. In the Mediterranean countries with a low incidence of breast cancer: 28% of “animal products”, 55% “grain & vegetables 11% fruits & drink”, 5% “alcoholic beverages”. In countries with a high incidence of breast cancer

  8. Current Evidence on the Association of Dietary Patterns and Bone Health: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassagh, Elham Z; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition is an important modifiable factor that affects bone health. Diet is a complex mixture of nutrients and foods that correlate or interact with each other. Dietary pattern approaches take into account contributions from various aspects of diet. Findings from dietary pattern studies could complement those from single-nutrient and food studies on bone health. In this study we aimed to conduct a scoping review of the literature that assessed the impact of dietary patterns (derived with the use of both a priori and data-driven approaches) on bone outcomes, including bone mineral status, bone biomarkers, osteoporosis, and fracture risk. We retrieved 49 human studies up to June 2016 from the PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL databases. Most of these studies used a data-driven method, especially factor analysis, to derive dietary patterns. Several studies examined adherence to a variety of the a priori dietary indexes, including the Mediterranean diet score, the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI). The bone mineral density (BMD) diet score was developed to measure adherence to a dietary pattern beneficial to bone mineral density. Findings revealed a beneficial impact of higher adherence to a "healthy" dietary pattern derived using a data-driven method, the Mediterranean diet, HEI, AHEI, Dietary Diversity Score, Diet Quality Index-International, BMD Diet Score, Healthy Diet Indicator, and Korean Diet Score, on bone. In contrast, the "Western" dietary pattern and those featuring some aspects of an unhealthy diet were associated inversely with bone health. In both a priori and data-driven dietary pattern studies, a dietary pattern that emphasized the intake of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, poultry and fish, nuts and legumes, and low-fat dairy products and de-emphasized the intake of soft drinks, fried foods, meat and processed products, sweets and desserts, and refined grains showed a beneficial impact on bone health. Overall

  9. Dietary patterns differently associate with inflammation and gut microbiota in overweight and obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Chun Kong

    Full Text Available Associations between dietary patterns, metabolic and inflammatory markers and gut microbiota are yet to be elucidated.We aimed to characterize dietary patterns in overweight and obese subjects and evaluate the different dietary patterns in relation to metabolic and inflammatory variables as well as gut microbiota.Dietary patterns, plasma and adipose tissue markers, and gut microbiota were evaluated in a group of 45 overweight and obese subjects (6 men and 39 women. A group of 14 lean subjects were also evaluated as a reference group.Three clusters of dietary patterns were identified in overweight/obese subjects. Cluster 1 had the least healthy eating behavior (highest consumption of potatoes, confectionary and sugary drinks, and the lowest consumption of fruits that was associated also with low consumption of yogurt, and water. This dietary pattern was associated with the highest LDL cholesterol, plasma soluble CD14 (p = 0.01 a marker of systemic inflammation but the lowest accumulation of CD163+ macrophages with anti-inflammatory profile in adipose tissue (p = 0.05. Cluster 3 had the healthiest eating behavior (lower consumption of confectionary and sugary drinks, and highest consumption of fruits but also yogurts and soups. Subjects in this Cluster had the lowest inflammatory markers (sCD14 and the highest anti-inflammatory adipose tissue CD163+ macrophages. Dietary intakes, insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory markers (plasma IL6 in Cluster 3 were close to those of lean subjects. Cluster 2 was in-between clusters 1 and 3 in terms of healthfulness. The 7 gut microbiota groups measured by qPCR were similar across the clusters. However, the healthiest dietary cluster had the highest microbial gene richness, as evaluated by quantitative metagenomics.A healthier dietary pattern was associated with lower inflammatory markers as well as greater gut microbiota richness in overweight and obese subjects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01314690.

  10. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Blood Pressure in a Clinical Sample of Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndanuko, Rhoda N; Tapsell, Linda C; Charlton, Karen E; Neale, Elizabeth P; Batterham, Marijka J

    2017-02-01

    Dietary pattern analysis provides important evidence revealing diet-disease relationships. It may be especially useful in areas less well researched, such as diet and hypertension in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to identify the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure (BP) in a sample of overweight adults volunteering for a clinical trial for weight loss. This cross-sectional analysis used baseline data from the HealthTrack study, a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Dietary intake was evaluated with 4-day food records. Participants were 328 adults recruited from the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia, between May 2014 and April 2015. Resting BP and 24-hour urine sodium and potassium were measured. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis from 21 food groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the association between the extracted dietary patterns and BP. The participants' mean age was 43.6±8.0 years, mean body mass index was 32.4±4.2, and mean systolic BP/diastolic BP was 124.9±14.5/73.3±9.9 mm Hg. Six major dietary patterns were identified: "nuts, seeds, fruit, and fish," "milk and meat," "breads, cereals, and snacks," "cereal-based products, fats, and oils," "alcohol, eggs, and legumes," and "savoury sauces, condiments, and meat." The "nuts, seeds, fruit, and fish" dietary pattern was significantly and inversely associated with systolic BP (F [7,320]=15.248; Pnuts, seeds, fruit, and fish was inversely associated with blood pressure in this clinical sample. The findings suggest that current dietary guidelines are relevant to an overweight clinical population and support the value of dietary pattern analysis when exploring the diet-disease relationship. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A longitudinal investigation of nutrition and dietary patterns in children of mothers with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Abigail; Naumann, Ulrike; Northstone, Kate; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2013-07-01

    To investigate dietary patterns and nutritional intake in children of mothers with eating disorders. Mothers (N = 9423) from a longitudinal general population birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, completed Food Frequency Questionnaires on their children at 3, 4, 7, and 9 years of age. Macronutrient intake was estimated, and dietary patterns were obtained using principal components analysis. Linear regression and mixed-effects models were used to assess dietary patterns and nutritional intake among children of women with lifetime anorexia nervosa (AN, n = 140), bulimia nervosa (BN, n = 170), or AN+BN (n = 71), compared with children of women without eating disorders (unexposed women, n = 9037). Children in the maternal AN and BN groups had higher scores on the "health conscious/vegetarian" dietary pattern compared with unexposed children. Less adherence to the "traditional" dietary pattern was observed in children of exposed mothers, with more pronounced differences in early childhood. Children of women with AN and BN had higher intake of energy and children of women with BN had higher intake of carbohydrates and starch and lower intake of fat, compared with children in the unexposed group. Maternal eating disorders are associated with altered offspring dietary patterns and macronutrient intake. Longitudinal changes in patterns of diet in children of women with eating disorders may increase the risk of weight gain or disordered eating later in life. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between screen time and dietary patterns and overweight/obesity among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Matias de PINHO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The association between screen time and dietary patterns and overweight/obesity among adolescents was analysed in this study. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 963 Brazilian adolescents, aged between 11 and 14 years were evaluated. Body mass index was used to assess overweight/obesity. Dietary patterns and screen time were assessed using qualitative questionnaires. Principal component analysis was used to obtain dietary patterns. Confounder variables were: type of school (public or private, sexual maturation, mother’s weight and mother’s education. The Chi-square test was used for the crude analysis; for the adjusted analysis was used Poisson regression with sample weighting. Results Overweight/obesity prevalence was 29.8% and statistically higher among boys (34.7%. Higher screen time prevalence was 39.1%. The dietary patterns obtained were: obesogenic; coffee and dairy products; traditional Brazilian meal; fruit and vegetables; bread and chocolate milk. The dietary pattern that more closely represented student food consumption was the obesogenic pattern. Screen time was not significantly associated with overweight/obesity. The obesogenic pattern (in both sexes, the coffee and dairy products pattern, and the bread and chocolate milk pattern (only in girls, were inversely associated with overweight/obesity. In this study, dietary patterns influenced overweight/obesity, although in some cases, in an inverse way from what expected. Conclusion A high prevalence of overweight/obesity and a high proportion of screen time activities among the adolescents were observed. Our results indicate a high consumption of unhealthy dietary pattern among adolescents.

  13. Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy Are Associated with Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dayeon; Lee, Kyung Won; Song, Won O

    2015-11-12

    Maternal dietary patterns before and during pregnancy play important roles in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We aimed to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy that are associated with GDM risk in pregnant U.S. women. From a 24 h dietary recall of 253 pregnant women (16-41 years) included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012, food items were aggregated into 28 food groups based on Food Patterns Equivalents Database. Three dietary patterns were identified by reduced rank regression with responses including prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), dietary fiber, and ratio of poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acid: "high refined grains, fats, oils and fruit juice", "high nuts, seeds, fat and soybean; low milk and cheese", and "high added sugar and organ meats; low fruits, vegetables and seafood". GDM was diagnosed using fasting plasma glucose levels ≥5.1 mmol/L for gestation dietary patterns during pregnancy are associated with risk of GDM after controlling for potential confounders. The observed connection between a high consumption of refined grains, fat, added sugars and low intake of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy with higher odds for GDM, are consistent with general health benefits of healthy diets, but warrants further research to understand underlying pathophysiology of GDM associated with dietary behaviors during pregnancy.

  14. Instant noodle intake and dietary patterns are associated with distinct cardiometabolic risk factors in Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shin, Hyun Joon; Cho, Eunyoung; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Fung, Teresa T; Rimm, Eric; Rosner, Bernard; Manson, JoAnn E; Wheelan, Kevin; Hu, Frank B

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of instant noodles is relatively high in Asian populations. It is unclear whether a higher intake of instant noodles is associated with cardiometabolic risk independent of overall dietary patterns...

  15. Associations between dietary patterns and semen quality in men undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujkovic, M.; de Vries, Jeanne H. M.; Dohle, G. R.; Bonsel, G. J.; Lindemans, J.; Macklon, N. S.; van der Spek, P. J.; Steegers, E. A. P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R. P. M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study investigates whether dietary patterns, substantiated by biomarkers, are associated with semen quality. METHODS In 161 men of subfertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment in a tertiary referral clinic in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, we assessed nutrient intakes

  16. Associations between dietary patterns and semen quality in men undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujkovic, M.; de Vries, J. H.; Dohle, G. R.; Bonsel, G. J.; Lindemans, J.; Macklon, N. S.; van der Spek, P. J.; Steegers, E. A. P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R. P. M.

    This study investigates whether dietary patterns, substantiated by biomarkers, are associated with semen quality. In 161 men of subfertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment in a tertiary referral clinic in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, we assessed nutrient intakes and performed

  17. Associations between dietary patterns and semen quality in men undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujkovic, M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Dohle, G.R.; Bonsel, G.J.; Lindemans, J.; Macklon, N.S.; Spek, van der P.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigates whether dietary patterns, substantiated by biomarkers, are associated with semen quality. METHODS: In 161 men of subfertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment in a tertiary referral clinic in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, we assessed nutrient

  18. Retrospective lifetime dietary patterns predict cognitive performance in community-dwelling older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Diane E; Nettelbeck, Ted; Wilson, Carlene; Danthiir, Vanessa

    2014-07-28

    Dietary intake is a modifiable exposure that may have an impact on cognitive outcomes in older age. The long-term aetiology of cognitive decline and dementia, however, suggests that the relevance of dietary intake extends across the lifetime. In the present study, we tested whether retrospective dietary patterns from the life periods of childhood, early adulthood, adulthood and middle age predicted cognitive performance in a cognitively healthy sample of 352 older Australian adults >65 years. Participants completed the Lifetime Diet Questionnaire and a battery of cognitive tests designed to comprehensively assess multiple cognitive domains. In separate regression models, lifetime dietary patterns were the predictors of cognitive factor scores representing ten constructs derived by confirmatory factor analysis of the cognitive test battery. All regression models were progressively adjusted for the potential confounders of current diet, age, sex, years of education, English as native language, smoking history, income level, apoE ɛ4 status, physical activity, other past dietary patterns and health-related variables. In the adjusted models, lifetime dietary patterns predicted cognitive performance in this sample of older adults. In models additionally adjusted for intake from the other life periods and mechanistic health-related variables, dietary patterns from the childhood period alone reached significance. Higher consumption of the 'coffee and high-sugar, high-fat extras' pattern predicted poorer performance on simple/choice reaction time, working memory, retrieval fluency, short-term memory and reasoning. The 'vegetable and non-processed' pattern negatively predicted simple/choice reaction time, and the 'traditional Australian' pattern positively predicted perceptual speed and retrieval fluency. Identifying early-life dietary antecedents of older-age cognitive performance contributes to formulating strategies for delaying or preventing cognitive decline.

  19. Dietary pattern, inflammation and cognitive decline: The Whitehall II prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Mio; Shipley, Martin; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Brunner, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background & aims Low-grade inflammation appears to play an etiological role in cognitive decline. However the association between an inflammatory dietary pattern and cognitive decline has not been investigated. We aimed to investigate dietary patterns associated with inflammation and whether such diet is associated with cognitive decline. Methods We analyzed 5083 participants (28.7% women) from the Whitehall II cohort study. Diet and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed in 1991?1...

  20. Dietary patterns associated with anthropometric indicators of abdominal fat in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Vilela,Ana Amélia Freitas; Sichieri,Rosely; Pereira,Rosângela Alves; Cunha,Diana Barbosa; Rodrigues,Paulo Rogério Melo; Gonçalves-Silva,Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira,Márcia Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify dietary patterns and assess their association with abdominal fat. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Central West Region of Brazil with a probabilistic sample of 208 adults of both sexes. Data on food intake was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis (principal components) was conducted to identify dietary patterns. Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were used to assess abdominal fat. The association between ...

  1. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Fetal Growth: A Large Prospective Cohort Study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Min-Shan Lu; Qiao-Zhu Chen; Jian-Rong He; Xue-Ling Wei; Jin-Hua Lu; Sheng-Hui Li; Xing-Xuan Wen; Fan-Fan Chan; Nian-Nian Chen; Lan Qiu; Wei-Bi Mai; Rui-Fang Zhang; Cui-Yue Hu; Hui-Min Xia; Xiu Qiu

    2016-01-01

    There was limited evidence revealing the association of Chinese maternal dietary patterns with fetal growth. We aimed to examine the relationship of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy to neonatal birth weight and birth weight for gestational age in a Chinese population. A total of 6954 mother-child pairs were included from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cluster analysis was used to...

  2. Maternal Dietary Patterns during Third Trimester in Association with Birthweight Characteristics and Early Infant Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Poon, Anna K; Edwina Yeung; Nansi Boghossian; Paul S. Albert; Cuilin Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Our analysis examined the impact of maternal dietary patterns and lifestyle factors on markers of fetal growth, specifically birthweight and size for gestational age (small- (SGA) or large-for-gestational age (LGA)). The Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a prospective cohort study, surveyed pregnant women during their 3rd trimester, of which a subgroup (n = 893) completed a food frequency questionnaire. Maternal dietary patterns were evaluated by diet scores (Alternative Healthy Eating Index...

  3. Effect of energy under-reporting on secular trends of dietary patterns in a mediterranean population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N Funtikova

    Full Text Available Diet is an important factor in the prevention of chronic diseases. Analysis of secular trends of dietary patterns can be biased by energy under-reporting. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to analyse the impact of energy under-reporting on dietary patterns and secular trends in dietary patterns defined by cluster analysis.Two cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted in Spain, in 2000 and 2005, with 3058 and 6352 participants, respectively, aged 25 to 74 years. Validated questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Cluster analysis was run separately for all participants, plausible energy reporters (PER, and energy under-reporters (EUR to define dietary patterns.Three clusters, "healthy", "mixed" and "western", were identified for both surveys. The "mixed" cluster was the predominant cluster in both surveys. Excluding EUR reduced the proportion of the "mixed" cluster up to 6.40% in the 2000 survey; this caused secular trend increase in the prevalence of the "mixed" pattern. Cross-classification analysis of all participants and PER' data showed substantial agreement in cluster assignments: 68.7% in 2000 and 84.4% in 2005. Excluding EUR did not cause meaningful (≥ 15% changes in the "healthy" pattern. It provoked changes in consumption of some food groups in the "mixed" and "western" patterns: mainly decreases of unhealthy foods within the 2000 and increases of unhealthy foods within the 2005 surveys. Secular trend effects of EUR were similar to those within the 2005 survey. Excluding EUR reversed the direction of secular trends in consumption of several food groups in PER in the "mixed" and "western" patterns.EUR affected distribution of participants between dietary patterns within and between surveys, secular trends in food group consumption and amount of food consumed in all, but not in the "healthy" pattern. Our findings emphasize threats from energy under-reporting in dietary data analysis.

  4. Dietary Patterns and Long-Term Survival: A Retrospective Study of Healthy Primary Care Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nilay S; Leonard, David; Finley, Carrie E; Rodriguez, Fatima; Sarraju, Ashish; Barlow, Carolyn E; DeFina, Laura F; Willis, Benjamin L; Haskell, William L; Maron, David J

    2017-08-30

    Dietary patterns are related to mortality in selected populations with comorbidities. We studied whether dietary patterns are associated with long-term survival in a middle-aged, healthy population. In this observational cohort study at the Cooper Clinic preventive medicine center (Dallas, Tex), a volunteer sample of 11,376 men and women with no history of myocardial infarction or stroke completed a baseline dietary assessment between 1987 and 1999 and were observed for an average of 18 years. Proportional hazard regressions, including a tree-augmented model, were used to assess the association of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern, Mediterranean dietary pattern, and individual dietary components with mortality. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. The secondary outcome was cardiovascular mortality. Mean baseline age was 47 years. Each quintile increase in the DASH diet score was associated with a 6% lower adjusted risk for all-cause mortality (P Mediterranean diet was not independently associated with all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. Solid fats and added sugars were the most predictive of mortality. Individuals who consumed >34% of their daily calories as solid fats had the highest risk for all-cause mortality. The DASH dietary pattern was associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality over approximately 2 decades of follow-up in a middle-aged, generally healthy population. Added solid fat and added sugar intake were the most predictive of all-cause mortality. These results suggest that promotion of a healthy dietary pattern should begin in middle age, before the development of comorbid risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prudent sperm use by leaf-cutter ant queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Baer, Boris; Dreier, Stéphanie Agnès Jeanine

    2009-01-01

    In many species, females store sperm between copulation and egg fertilization, but the consequences of sperm storage and patterns of sperm use for female life history and reproductive success have not been investigated in great detail. In hymenopteran insect societies (ants, bees, wasps), reprodu......In many species, females store sperm between copulation and egg fertilization, but the consequences of sperm storage and patterns of sperm use for female life history and reproductive success have not been investigated in great detail. In hymenopteran insect societies (ants, bees, wasps......), reproduction is usually monopolized by one or relatively few queens, who mate only during a brief period early in life and store sperm for later use. The queens of some ants are particularly long-lived and have the potential to produce millions of offspring during their life. To do so, queens store many sperm...... cells, and this sperm must remain viable throughout the years of storage. Queens should also be under strong selection to use stored sperm prudently when fertilizing eggs. We used the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica to investigate the dynamics of sperm use during egg fertilization. We show that queens...

  6. Less healthy dietary pattern is associated with smoking in Korean men according to nationally representative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sang-Yeon; Lee, Ju Hyun; Park, Sang Shin; Seo, Ah-Ram; Ahn, Hong-Yup; Bae, Woo Kyung; Lee, Yong Joo; Yim, Eunji

    2013-06-01

    The relationship between smoking and nutrient intake has been widely investigated in several countries. However, Korea presents a population with a smoking rate of approximately 50% and dietary consumption of unique foods. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dietary patterns with smoking in Korean men using a nationally representative sample. The study subjects were comprised of 4,851 Korean men over 19 yr of age who participated in the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary data were assessed by the 24-hr recall method. The smoking group comprised 2,136 men (46.6%). Five dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis: 'sugar & fat', 'vegetables & seafood', 'meat & drinks', 'grains & eggs', and 'potatoes, fruits and dairy products.' Current smokers showed a more significant 'sugar & fat' pattern (P = 0.001) while significantly less of the 'vegetables & seafood' and 'potatoes, fruits and dairy products' patterns (P = 0.011, P Korean male smokers showed less healthy dietary patterns than nonsmokers. Thus, the result of this study underlines the need for health professionals to also provide advice on dietary patterns when counseling patients on smoking cessation.

  7. The Relationship between Dietary Patterns and Metabolic Health in a Representative Sample of Adult Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lucinda K.; Edwards, Suzanne; Grieger, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies assessing dietary intake and its relationship to metabolic phenotype are emerging, but limited. The aims of the study are to identify dietary patterns in Australian adults, and to determine whether these dietary patterns are associated with metabolic phenotype and obesity. Cross-sectional data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 Australian Health Survey was analysed. Subjects included adults aged 45 years and over (n = 2415). Metabolic phenotype was determined according to criteria used to define metabolic syndrome (0–2 abnormalities vs. 3–7 abnormalities), and additionally categorized for obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 vs. BMI patterns were derived using factor analysis. Multivariable models were used to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic phenotype, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, socio-economic indexes for areas, physical activity and daily energy intake. Twenty percent of the population was metabolically unhealthy and obese. In the fully adjusted model, for every one standard deviation increase in the Healthy dietary pattern, the odds of having a more metabolically healthy profile increased by 16% (odds ratio (OR) 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.29). Poor metabolic profile and obesity are prevalent in Australian adults and a healthier dietary pattern plays a role in a metabolic and BMI phenotypes. Nutritional strategies addressing metabolic syndrome criteria and targeting obesity are recommended in order to improve metabolic phenotype and potential disease burden. PMID:26251918

  8. Associations between dietary patterns and kidney function indicators in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Jhang, Huei-Ru; Chang, Wen-Tsan; Lin, Chia-Huei; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Huang, Meng-Chuan

    2014-02-01

    Dietary patterns link to risks for chronic diseases. Few studies explore relationships between dietary patterns and kidney function in adult type 2 diabetes in Asian. Diabetic patients (n = 635) were selected from a cohort participating in a diabetic control study in Taiwan. Three dietary patterns, high fat (meats, processed meats, seafood, fatty foods, eggs), vegetable and fish (light- or dark- colored vegetables, pond and marine fish) and traditional Chinese-snack (soy/gluten products, rice, noodles, root vegetables, nuts), were generated using factor analysis. Urinary albumin to creatinine (ACR), creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) served as clinical indicators of kidney function. After adjusting for confounders, tertile scores of vegetable and fish dietary patterns correlated significantly (p-trend = 0.032) and dose-responsively with multivariable-adjusted means of decreased creatinine and marginally with increased eGFR (p- trend = 0.065). Traditional Chinese-snack dietary pattern was marginally associated with creatinine (p-trend = 0.065) and eGFR (p-trend = 0.064). High fat dietary patterns did not correlate with any kidney function indicator. Healthy diets such as frequent intake of fish and vegetable may be related to indicators of better kidney function in type 2 diabetes. Further prospective studies with larger sample sizes and use of sensitive indicators for studying early renal function decline are needed to confirm this association. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. A perspective on vegetarian dietary patterns and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Joan; Wien, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    The vegetarian dietary pattern is traditionally a plant-based diet that includes fruits, vegetables, cereals, legumes, nuts, vegetable oils, soya, and possibly dairy products and/or eggs. Vegetarians and other populations who follow a plant-based dietary pattern enjoy longevity. Specifically, vegetarian dietary patterns have been associated with a lower risk for developing IHD, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, specific cancers, lower all-cause mortality and reduction in cause-specific mortality. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the USA is approximately 20 % and is currently increasing in developing countries in line with the obesity epidemic. The health care costs associated with the MetS are on a magnitude of 1.6 overall compared with healthy individuals, which makes it an important public health problem. Current evidence from several cross-sectional and case-control studies shows an association between consumption of a vegetarian dietary pattern and a reduced prevalence or risk of developing the MetS. There is a need for further research to be conducted, particularly prospective cohort studies to evaluate the effect of vegetarian dietary patterns on reducing the incidence of the MetS and, clinical trials should be designed to explore vegetarian dietary patterns for the reversal of the MetS in high-risk populations. This research could contribute to reduce the societal and economic burdens associated with the disorder.

  10. Promoting prudent antimicrobial use in the veterinary field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær

    2013-01-01

    of prudent antimicrobial use in all sectors. Promoting prudent use has been a major concern of international organisations such as the WHO, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for years. The term ‘prudent’ implies both responsible use and continuing...... to reduce use, a strategy that may not always be appropriate in the clinical setting. In contrast, ‘responsible’ implies appropriate use whether or not this results in an overall reduction. Both prudent use and responsible use imply veterinary prescription of antimicrobials only when based on proper...

  11. Dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy Chinese women: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei

    2016-05-01

    Little is known of the relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in China. We therefore designed a 3-year longitudinal study to evaluate the impacts of dietary patterns on changes in these factors among Chinese women. A total of 1,028 subjects who received health examination in 2011 and 2014 were recruited. Three major dietary patterns ("vegetable pattern", "meat pattern", and "animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern") were derived by principal component analysis based on validated food frequency questionnaires. Cardiovascular risk factors were standardized to create within-cohort z-scores and the changes in them were calculated as the differences between 2011 and 2014. Relationships between dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using general linear model. After adjustment for potential confounders, changes in total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose decreased across the tertiles of vegetable pattern (p for trend = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). While, changes in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased across the tertiles of animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern (p for trend = 0.02, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). The findings suggest that vegetable pattern was beneficially related to cardiovascular risk factors, whereas animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern was detrimental related to these factors among apparently healthy Chinese women.

  12. Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary patterns and risk of sudden cardiac death in postmenopausal women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoia, Monica L; Triche, Elizabeth W; Michaud, Dominique S; Baylin, Ana; Hogan, Joseph W; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley F; Van Horn, Linda; Waring, Molly E; Li, Wenjun; Shikany, James M; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets are characterized by higher intake of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and unsaturated fatty acids. All of these foods and nutrients may affect cholesterol, inflammation, the development of atherosclerosis, and, therefore, risk of cardiac death. Objective: Our objective was to examine the association between the Mediterranean and DASH dietary patterns and risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in women. Design: We used a prospective cohort of 93,122 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative study between 1993 and 1998 and followed for an average of 10.5 y. Women completed a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) twice during follow-up. We scored their diets according to how closely the reported diet resembled each dietary pattern. SCD was defined as death that occurred within 1 h of symptom onset. Results: A higher Mediterranean diet score was associated with lower risk of SCD (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.94) when women in the highest quintile were compared with women in the lowest quintile after adjustment for age, total energy, race, income, smoking, and physical activity. After adjustment for potential mediators, the association was similar (HR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.99). A higher DASH diet score was not associated with risk of SCD. However, sodium intake, which is a crucial component of the DASH dietary pattern, was not well characterized by the FFQ. Conclusion: The Mediterranean dietary pattern may be associated with lower risk of SCD in women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611. PMID:24351877

  13. Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary patterns and risk of sudden cardiac death in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoia, Monica L; Triche, Elizabeth W; Michaud, Dominique S; Baylin, Ana; Hogan, Joseph W; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley F; Van Horn, Linda; Waring, Molly E; Li, Wenjun; Shikany, James M; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-02-01

    The Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets are characterized by higher intake of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and unsaturated fatty acids. All of these foods and nutrients may affect cholesterol, inflammation, the development of atherosclerosis, and, therefore, risk of cardiac death. Our objective was to examine the association between the Mediterranean and DASH dietary patterns and risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in women. We used a prospective cohort of 93,122 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative study between 1993 and 1998 and followed for an average of 10.5 y. Women completed a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) twice during follow-up. We scored their diets according to how closely the reported diet resembled each dietary pattern. SCD was defined as death that occurred within 1 h of symptom onset. A higher Mediterranean diet score was associated with lower risk of SCD (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.94) when women in the highest quintile were compared with women in the lowest quintile after adjustment for age, total energy, race, income, smoking, and physical activity. After adjustment for potential mediators, the association was similar (HR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.99). A higher DASH diet score was not associated with risk of SCD. However, sodium intake, which is a crucial component of the DASH dietary pattern, was not well characterized by the FFQ. The Mediterranean dietary pattern may be associated with lower risk of SCD in women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611.

  14. Nutrients, food groups, dietary patterns, and risk of pancreatic cancer in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue-Choi, Maki; Flood, Andrew; Robien, Kim; Anderson, Kristin

    2011-04-01

    Identifying modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer is important because of its poor prognosis. Previous findings on diet are inconsistent. Associations between intake of nutrients, food groups, dietary patterns, and pancreatic cancer risk were examined among 34,642 postmenopausal women in the Iowa Women's Health Study (IWHS). No significant associations were observed between intake of nutrients and food groups or dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that fruits, vegetables, and red meat are associated with risk of pancreatic cancer. Dietary intake, assessed in multiple aspects in a large prospective cohort study, was not associated with pancreatic cancer.

  15. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population. Materials and methods. A 140-item SFFQ and two 24-hour dietary recalls (24DRs were administered. Foods were categorized into 29 food groups used to derive dietary patterns via factor analy­sis. Pearson and intraclass correlations coefficients between dietary pattern scores identified from the SFFQ and 24DRs were assessed. Results. Pattern 1 was high in snacks, fast food, soft drinks, processed meats and refined grains; pattern 2 was high in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, and dairy products; and pattern 3 was high in legumes, eggs, sweetened foods and sugars. Pearson correlation oefficients between the SFFQ and the 24DRs for these patterns were 0.66 (P<0.001, 0.41 (P<0.001 and 0.29 (P=0.193 respectively. Conclusions. Our data indicate reasonable validity of the SFFQ, using fac­tor analysis, to derive major dietary patterns in comparison with two 24DR.

  16. Dietary Patterns in Relation to Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in Poland: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In several populations the associations between diet and the risk of metabolic syndrome have not been fully examined yet. The aim of the study is to identify the main dietary patterns among Polish adults and the evaluation of the relationships of these patterns with metabolic syndrome and its components. The study was conducted on a group of 7997 participants, aged between 37 and 66 years old. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Three dietary patterns were identified and designated as: “Healthy”, “Westernized” and “Traditional-carbohydrate”. In the adjusted model, a higher score in the “Westernized” pattern aligns with a higher risk of abnormal glucose concentration (ptrend = 0.000, but with a lower risk of abnormal High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol HDL-cholesterol concentration (ptrend = 0.024. Higher scores in the “Traditional-carbohydrate” pattern were connected with the risk of abdominal obesity (ptrend = 0.001 and increased triglycerides concentration (ptrend = 0.050. Our results suggest that adherence to the “Traditional-carbohydrate” dietary pattern, characterized by higher intakes of refined grains, potatoes, sugar and sweets is associated with a higher risk of abdominal obesity and triglyceridemia. A “Westernized” dietary pattern on the other hand, is related to hyperglycemia. The study results can be used for community-based health promotion and intervention programs to prevent or better manage chronic diseases.

  17. Dietary Patterns in Relation to Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in Poland: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliga, Edyta; Kozieł, Dorota; Cieśla, Elżbieta; Rębak, Dorota; Głuszek, Stanisław

    2017-12-17

    In several populations the associations between diet and the risk of metabolic syndrome have not been fully examined yet. The aim of the study is to identify the main dietary patterns among Polish adults and the evaluation of the relationships of these patterns with metabolic syndrome and its components. The study was conducted on a group of 7997 participants, aged between 37 and 66 years old. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Three dietary patterns were identified and designated as: "Healthy", "Westernized" and "Traditional-carbohydrate". In the adjusted model, a higher score in the "Westernized" pattern aligns with a higher risk of abnormal glucose concentration ( p trend = 0.000), but with a lower risk of abnormal High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol HDL-cholesterol concentration ( p trend = 0.024). Higher scores in the "Traditional-carbohydrate" pattern were connected with the risk of abdominal obesity ( p trend = 0.001) and increased triglycerides concentration ( p trend = 0.050). Our results suggest that adherence to the "Traditional-carbohydrate" dietary pattern, characterized by higher intakes of refined grains, potatoes, sugar and sweets is associated with a higher risk of abdominal obesity and triglyceridemia. A "Westernized" dietary pattern on the other hand, is related to hyperglycemia. The study results can be used for community-based health promotion and intervention programs to prevent or better manage chronic diseases.

  18. Nutrient-Derived Dietary Patterns and Their Association With Metabolic Syndrome in a Japanese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahari, Tirani; Uemura, Hirokazu; Katsuura-Kamano, Sakurako; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Nakamoto, Mariko; Miki, Keisuke; Ishizu, Masashi; Arisawa, Kokichi

    2017-11-18

    Nutrients have been proposed to be related to metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aims of this study were to identify dietary patterns that correlated with several nutrients using reduced rank regression (RRR) and to examine the association between extracted dietary patterns and prevalence of MetS in a Japanese population. The study population comprised 1,092 Japanese men and women (35-69 years old) who had participated in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study in Tokushima Prefecture. Dietary patterns were derived with RRR using 46 food items as predictors and six established nutrients (potassium, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin C, insoluble dietary fiber, and carotene) as response variables. Associations between extracted dietary patterns and MetS were then examined with logistic regression models. Among the six dietary patterns, dietary pattern 1 (DP1) explained the largest proportion (60.1%) of variance in the six nutrients. Therefore, only DP1 was selected for further analysis. DP1 was characterized by high intake frequency of vegetables, fruits, fish and small fish, natto (fermented soybeans), and deep-fried tofu. After adjustment for potential confounders, significant inverse associations were found between DP1 score and MetS (odds ratio [OR] for each quartile: 1.00, 0.58, 0.60, 0.52; Ptrend = 0.02); DP1 and high blood pressure (Ptrend = 0.0002); and DP1 and high blood glucose (Ptrend = 0.02). A dietary pattern characterized by high intake of vegetables, fruits, fish and small fish, natto, and deep-fried tofu was associated with reduced prevalence of MetS in a Japanese population.

  19. Dietary patterns and household food insecurity in rural populations of Kilosa district, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Edward Ntwenya

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the relationship between dietary pattern and household food insecurity. The objective of the present analysis was to describe the food consumption patterns and to relate these with the prevalence of food insecurity in the context of a rural community.Three hundred and seven (307 randomly selected households in Kilosa district participated in the study. Data were collected during the rainy season (February-May and post harvest season (September-October in the year 2011. Food consumption pattern was determined using a 24-h dietary recall method. Food insecurity data were based on the 30 day recall experience to food insecurity in the household. Factor analysis method using Principal Components extraction function was used to derive the dietary patterns and correlation analysis was used to establish the existing relationship between household food insecurity and dietary patterns factor score.Four food consumption patterns namely (I Meat and milk; (II Pulses, legumes, nuts and cooking oils; (III fish (and other sea foods, roots and tubers; (IV Cereals, vegetables and fruits consumption patterns were identified during harvest season. Dietary patterns identified during the rainy season were as follows: (I Fruits, cooking oils, fats, roots and tubers (II Eggs, meat, milk and milk products (III Fish, other sea foods, vegetables, roots and tubers and (IV Pulses, legumes, nuts, cereals and vegetables. Household food insecurity was 80% and 69% during rainy and harvest-seasons, respectively (P = 0.01. Household food insecurity access scale score was negatively correlated with the factor scores on household dietary diversity.Food consumption patterns and food insecurity varied by seasons with worst scenarios most prevalent during the rainy season. The risk for inadequate dietary diversity was higher among food insecure households compared to food secure households. Effort geared at alleviating household food insecurity could

  20. Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease–Related Risks in Chinese Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eSun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractStudies of Western populations demonstrate a relationship between dietary patterns and cardiovascular-related risk factors. Simiar research regarding Chinese populations is limited. This study explored the dietary patterns of Chinese older adults and their association with cardiovascular-related risk factors, including hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected using a 34-item Chinese food frequency questionnaire from 750 randomly selected older adults aged 50–88 who participated in the study in 2012. Factor analysis revealed four dietary patterns: a ‘traditional food pattern’, consisting of vegetable, fruit, rice, pork and fish; a ‘fast and processed food pattern’ consisting of fast or processed food products, sugar and confectionery; a ‘soybean, grain and flour food pattern’; and a ‘dairy, animal liver and other animal food pattern’. These patterns explained 17.48%, 9.52%, 5.51% and 4.80% of the variances in food intake, respectively. This study suggests that specific dietary patterns are evident in Chinese older adults. Moderate intake of ‘traditional Chinese food’ is associated with decreased blood pressure and cholesterol level. A dietary pattern rich in soybeans, grains, potatoes and flour is associated with reduced metabolic factors including reduced triglycerides, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and waist–hip ratio, and a high level of dairy, animal liver and other animal intake food pattern is associated with increased level of Body Mass Index. In conclusion, this study revealed identifiable dietary patterns among Chinese older adults that are significantly related to blood pressure and metabolic biomarkers. Further study using prospective cohort or intervention study should be used to confirm the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure and metabolic factors.

  1. A prospective cohort study of dietary patterns of non-western migrants in the Netherlands in relation to risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: HELIUS-Dietary Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.H.; Snijder, M.B.; Beukers, M.H.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Brants, H.A.M.; Boer, de E.J.; Dam, van R.M.; Stronks, K.; Nicolaou, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background - In Western countries the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is often higher in non-Western migrants as compared to the host population. Diet is an important modifiable determinant of CVD. Increasingly, dietary patterns rather than single nutrients are the focus of research in an

  2. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise B.B. Andersen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is important to increase the awareness of indicators associated with adverse infant dietary patterns to be able to prevent or to improve dietary patterns early on. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between a wide range of possible family and child indicators and adherence to dietary patterns for infants aged 9 months. Design: The two dietary patterns ‘Family Food’ and ‘Health-Conscious Food’ were displayed by principal component analysis, and associations with possible indicators were analysed by multiple linear regressions in a pooled sample (n=374 of two comparable observational cohorts, SKOT I and SKOT II. These cohorts comprised infants with mainly non-obese mothers versus infants with obese mothers, respectively. Results: A lower Family Food score indicates a higher intake of liquid baby food, as this pattern shows transition from baby food towards the family's food. Infants, who were younger at diet registration and had higher body mass index (BMI z-scores at 9 months, had lower Family Food pattern scores. A lower Family Food pattern score was also observed for infants with immigrant/descendant parents, parents who shared cooking responsibilities and fathers in the labour market compared to being a student, A lower Health-Conscious Food pattern score indicates a less healthy diet. A lower infant Health-Conscious Food pattern score was associated with a higher maternal BMI, a greater number of children in the household, a higher BMI z-score at 9 months, and a higher infant age at diet registration. Conclusions: Associations between infant dietary patterns and maternal, paternal, household, and child characteristics were identified. This may improve the possibility of identifying infants with an increased risk of developing unfavourable dietary patterns and potentially enable an early targeted preventive support.

  3. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Louise B B; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Carlsen, Emma M; Bro, Rasmus; Pipper, Christian B

    2015-01-01

    It is important to increase the awareness of indicators associated with adverse infant dietary patterns to be able to prevent or to improve dietary patterns early on. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between a wide range of possible family and child indicators and adherence to dietary patterns for infants aged 9 months. The two dietary patterns 'Family Food' and 'Health-Conscious Food' were displayed by principal component analysis, and associations with possible indicators were analysed by multiple linear regressions in a pooled sample (n=374) of two comparable observational cohorts, SKOT I and SKOT II. These cohorts comprised infants with mainly non-obese mothers versus infants with obese mothers, respectively. A lower Family Food score indicates a higher intake of liquid baby food, as this pattern shows transition from baby food towards the family's food. Infants, who were younger at diet registration and had higher body mass index (BMI) z-scores at 9 months, had lower Family Food pattern scores. A lower Family Food pattern score was also observed for infants with immigrant/descendant parents, parents who shared cooking responsibilities and fathers in the labour market compared to being a student, A lower Health-Conscious Food pattern score indicates a less healthy diet. A lower infant Health-Conscious Food pattern score was associated with a higher maternal BMI, a greater number of children in the household, a higher BMI z-score at 9 months, and a higher infant age at diet registration. Associations between infant dietary patterns and maternal, paternal, household, and child characteristics were identified. This may improve the possibility of identifying infants with an increased risk of developing unfavourable dietary patterns and potentially enable an early targeted preventive support.

  4. South Asian dietary patterns and their association with risk factors for the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño-Diaz, S D; Khokhar, S

    2013-04-01

    Certain dietary patterns have been associated with higher risk of noncommunicable diseases, with South Asians identified as a high-risk group. The present study aimed to identify the association between dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome (MS) in South Asians living in the UK. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis from 15 different food groups using an ethnic-specific food frequency questionnaire. MS risk factors, including obesity and hypertension, were measured, whereas existing conditions of dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia were self-reported. Participants (n = 100) were divided into quartiles based on dietary factor scores and the link between dietary patterns and risk factors was investigated. Three different patterns were derived, which together explained 46% of the total diet variation; eastern pattern, mixed pattern and western pattern. An inverse correlation was found between the eastern pattern and education P = 0.05). A direct correlation was found between the western pattern and physical activity (P = 0.05) and the overall risk of MS (P = 0.05). Body composition was altered as residence time in the UK increased, with a reduction in muscle mass (29-26%) and an increase in body fat (31-37%). Diagnosis criteria for MS were found in 20% of the participants. Dietary acculturation, including a reduction in vegetarianism, an increased intake of caffeinated drinks and altered meal patterns, may be associated with the higher prevalence of MS in migrant South Asians in the UK. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. Maternal Dietary Patterns during Third Trimester in Association with Birthweight Characteristics and Early Infant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Poon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our analysis examined the impact of maternal dietary patterns and lifestyle factors on markers of fetal growth, specifically birthweight and size for gestational age (small- (SGA or large-for-gestational age (LGA. The Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a prospective cohort study, surveyed pregnant women during their 3rd trimester, of which a subgroup (n=893 completed a food frequency questionnaire. Maternal dietary patterns were evaluated by diet scores (Alternative Healthy Eating Index for Pregnancy and alternate Mediterranean diet and by carbohydrate quality (glycemic index and glycemic load. Poisson regression with robust standard errors was used to examine the relative risk of SGA and separately LGA, with dietary patterns and other lifestyle factors. Linear regression was used to determine the association of birthweight and early infant growth with better dietary patterns. Relative risk of SGA and LGA was not associated with dietary patterns. Birthweight and infant growth were not associated with maternal diet. Smoking, however, increased the risk of delivering an SGA infant (RR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.58–5.39, while higher prepregnancy BMI increased the risk of delivering an LGA infant (RR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.03–1.09. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether deficiencies in more specific maternal dietary nutrients play a role in fetal growth.

  6. Prospective Associations between Dietary Patterns and Body Composition Changes in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Alvira, Juan Miguel; Bammann, Karin; Eiben, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    pattern or changing from a processed pattern to a sweet pattern presented the most unfavourable changes in fat mass and abdominal fat. These findings support the need to promote overall healthy dietary habits in obesity prevention and health promotion programmes targeting children.......Objective: To describe dietary patterns by applying cluster analysis and to describe the cluster memberships of European children over time and their association with body composition changes. Design: The analyses included k-means clustering based on the similarities between the relative...... frequencies of consumption of forty-three food items and regression models were fitted to assess the association between dietary patterns and body composition changes. Setting: Primary schools and pre-schools of selected regions in Italy, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Hungary, Germany and Spain. Subjects...

  7. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B B; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is important to increase the awareness of indicators associated with adverse infant dietary patterns to be able to prevent or to improve dietary patterns early on. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between a wide range of possible family and child......-score at 9 months, and a higher infant age at diet registration. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between infant dietary patterns and maternal, paternal, household, and child characteristics were identified. This may improve the possibility of identifying infants with an increased risk of developing unfavourable...... responsibilities and fathers in the labour market compared to being a student, A lower Health-Conscious Food pattern score indicates a less healthy diet. A lower infant Health-Conscious Food pattern score was associated with a higher maternal BMI, a greater number of children in the household, a higher BMI z...

  8. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fankun Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296 and non-ADHD (n = 296 aged 6–14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006. Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014. Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003. In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children.

  9. Identifying Dietary Patterns Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Korean Adults Using Reduced Rank Regression

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    Dayeon Shin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays a crucial role in cognitive function. Few studies have examined the relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive functions of older adults in the Korean population. This study aimed to identify the effect of dietary patterns on the risk of mild cognitive impairment. A total of 239 participants, including 88 men and 151 women, aged 65 years and older were selected from health centers in the district of Seoul, Gyeonggi province, and Incheon, in Korea. Dietary patterns were determined using Reduced Rank Regression (RRR methods with responses regarding vitamin B6, vitamin C, and iron intakes, based on both a one-day 24-h recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Cognitive function was assessed using the Korean-Mini Mental State Examination (K-MMSE. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between dietary pattern score and the risk of mild cognitive impairment. A total of 20 (8% out of the 239 participants had mild cognitive impairment. Three dietary patterns were identified: seafood and vegetables, high meat, and bread, ham, and alcohol. Among the three dietary patterns, the older adult population who adhered to the seafood and vegetables pattern, characterized by high intake of seafood, vegetables, fruits, bread, snacks, soy products, beans, chicken, pork, ham, egg, and milk had a decreased risk of mild cognitive impairment compared to those who did not (adjusted odds ratios 0.06, 95% confidence interval 0.01–0.72 after controlling for gender, supplementation, education, history of dementia, physical activity, body mass index (BMI, and duration of sleep. The other two dietary patterns were not significantly associated with the risk of mild cognitive impairment. In conclusion, high consumption of fruits, vegetables, seafood, and protein foods was significantly associated with reduced mild cognitive impairment in older Korean adults. These results can contribute to the establishment of

  10. Dietary pattern and asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv N

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nan Lv,1 Lan Xiao,1 Jun Ma1,2 1Palo Alto Medical Foundation Research Institute, 2Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Background: The literature on the relationship between diet and asthma has largely focused on individual nutrients, with conflicting results. People consume a combination of foods from various groups that form a dietary pattern. Studying the role of dietary patterns in asthma is an emerging area of research. The purpose of this study was to systematically review dietary patterns and asthma outcomes in adults and children, to review maternal diet and child asthma, and to conduct a meta-analysis on the association between asthma prevalence and dietary patterns in adults. Methods: We searched Medline, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge up to January 2014. Two researchers independently reviewed studies meeting the inclusion criteria using the American Dietetic Association quality criteria. A linear mixed model was used to derive the pooled effect size (95% confidence interval for each of three dietary pattern categories (healthy, unhealthy, and neutral. Results: Thirty-one studies were identified (16 cross-sectional, one case-control, 13 cohort, and one randomized controlled trial, including 12 in adults, 13 in children, five in pregnant woman–child pairs, and one in both children and pregnant woman–child pairs. Six of the 12 adult studies reported significant associations between dietary patterns and asthma outcomes (eg, ever asthma and forced expiratory volume in one second. Seven of ten studies examining the Mediterranean diet showed protective effects on child asthma and/or wheeze. Four of the six studies in mother-child pairs showed that maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy were not associated with child asthma or wheeze. The meta-analysis including six adult studies, the primary outcome of which was the prevalence of current or ever asthma, showed no association with healthy

  11. Comparable Dietary Patterns Describe Dietary Behavior across Ethnic Groups in the Netherlands, but Different Elements in the Diet Are Associated with Glycated Hemoglobin and Fasting Glucose Concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Louise H.; van Dam, Rob M.; Snijder, Marieke B.; Peters, Ron J. G.; Dekker, Jacqueline M.; de Vries, Jeanne H. M.; de Boer, Evelien J.; Schulze, Matthias B.; Stronks, Karien; Nicolaou, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority populations in Western societies suffer from a disproportionate burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Insight into the role of dietary patterns in T2D may assist public health nutrition efforts in addressing these health disparities. We explored the association between dietary patterns

  12. Low-calorie- and calorie-sweetened beverages: diet quality, food intake, and purchase patterns of US household consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Mendez, Michelle A; Ng, Shu Wen; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the diet quality of consumers of low-calorie-sweetened (LCS) and calorie-sweetened (CS) beverages. The objective was to examine the dietary quality and adherence to dietary purchasing and consumption patterns of beverage consumers from 2000 to 2010. We analyzed purchases for 140,352 households from the Homescan longitudinal data set 2000-2010 and dietary intake from NHANES 2003-2010 (n = 34,393). We defined mutually exclusive consumer profiles as main exposures: LCS beverages, CS beverages, LCS & CS beverages, and non/low consumers. As main outcomes, we explored dietary quality by using total energy and macronutrients (kcal/d). We performed factor analyses and applied factor scores to derive dietary patterns as secondary outcomes. Using multivariable linear (NHANES) and random-effects (Homescan) models, we investigated the associations between beverage profiles and dietary patterns. We found "prudent" and "breakfast" patterns in Homescan and NHANES, "ready-to-eat meals/fast-food" and "prudent/snacks/LCS desserts" patterns in Homescan, and "protein/potatoes" and "CS desserts/sweeteners" patterns in NHANES. In both data sets, compared with non/low consumers, both CS- and LCS-beverage consumers had a significantly higher total energy from foods, higher energy from total and SFAs, and lower probability of adherence to prudent and breakfast patterns. In Homescan, LCS-beverage consumers had a higher probability of adherence to 2 distinct patterns: a prudent/snacks/LCS dessert pattern and a ready-to-eat meals/fast-food purchasing pattern. Our findings suggest that overall dietary quality is lower in LCS-, CS-, and LCS & CS-beverage consumers relative to non/low consumers. Our study highlights the importance of targeting foods that are linked with sweetened beverages (either LCS or CS) in intervention and policy efforts that aim to improve nutrition in the United States.

  13. Objective assessment of dietary patterns by use of metabolic phenotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Posma, Joram M; Gibson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    fats, sugars, and salt). Participants attended four inpatient stays (72 h each, separated by at least 5 days), during which they were given one dietary intervention. The order of diets was randomly assigned across study visits. Randomisation was done by an independent investigator, with the use...

  14. A combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat dietary pattern is associated with more depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Esther; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B.; Schene, Aart H.; Lok, Anja; Vries, de Jeanne H.; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Nicolaou, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify a high-sugar (HS) dietary pattern, a high-saturated-fat (HF) dietary pattern and a combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat (HSHF) dietary pattern and to explore if these dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms. Design: We used data from the HELIUS (Healthy

  15. Dietary patterns and non-communicable disease risk in Indian adults: secondary analysis of Indian Migration Study data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward Jm; Green, Rosemary; Agrawal, Sutapa; Aleksandrowicz, Lukasz; Bowen, Liza; Kinra, Sanjay; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Haines, Andy; Dangour, Alan D

    2017-08-01

    Undernutrition and non-communicable disease (NCD) are important public health issues in India, yet their relationship with dietary patterns is poorly understood. The current study identified distinct dietary patterns and their association with micronutrient undernutrition (Ca, Fe, Zn) and NCD risk factors (underweight, obesity, waist:hip ratio, hypertension, total:HDL cholesterol, diabetes). Data were from the cross-sectional Indian Migration Study, including semi-quantitative FFQ. Distinct dietary patterns were identified using finite mixture modelling; associations with NCD risk factors were assessed using mixed-effects logistic regression models. India. Migrant factory workers, their rural-dwelling siblings and urban non-migrants. Participants (7067 adults) resided mainly in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. Five distinct, regionally distributed, dietary patterns were identified, with rice-based patterns in the south and wheat-based patterns in the north-west. A rice-based pattern characterised by low energy consumption and dietary diversity ('Rice & low diversity') was consumed predominantly by adults with little formal education in rural settings, while a rice-based pattern with high fruit consumption ('Rice & fruit') was consumed by more educated adults in urban settings. Dietary patterns met WHO macronutrient recommendations, but some had low micronutrient contents. Dietary pattern membership was associated with several NCD risk factors. Five distinct dietary patterns were identified, supporting sub-national assessments of the implications of dietary patterns for various health, food system or environment outcomes.

  16. Nutritional quality of dietary patterns of children: are there differences inside and outside school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Diva Aliete Dos Santos; Castro, Michelle Alessandra; Fisberg, Mauro; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    To describe the dietary patterns of children inside and outside school and investigate their associations with sociodemographic factors and nutritional status. This was a multicenter cross-sectional study in which children of both sexes, aged 1-6 years, attending private and public daycare centers and preschools in Brazil, were evaluated (n=2979). Demographic, socioeconomic and dietary data (weighed food records and estimated food records) were collected. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis from 36 food groups. Four dietary patterns were identified inside school, and three outside. Inside school, the "traditional" pattern was associated to low income and presented high nutritional quality. The "dual" pattern was associated with low income and with high intake of added sugar and glycemic load. The "snack" pattern was associated with children enrolled at private schools and with high intake of added sugar and glycemic load. The "bread and butter" pattern was associated with high intake of added sugar and trans fat. Outside school, the "traditional" pattern was associated with high intake of saturated fat, trans fats, sodium, and total fiber. The "bread and butter" pattern was associated with high intake of trans fats and glycemic load, whereas the "snack" pattern was associated with overweight, private schools, high income, and high intake of trans fats, sodium, and total fiber. There are differences in the nutritional quality of dietary patterns inside and outside school, and heterogeneity in adherence to these patterns were observed across regions and socioeconomic classes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. A Western Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Poor Academic Performance in Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaradi, Anett; Li, Jianghong; Hickling, Siobhan; Foster, Jonathan K.; Jacques, Angela; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and academic performance among 14-year-old adolescents. Study participants were from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. A food frequency questionnaire was administered when the adolescents were 14 years old, and from the dietary data, a ‘Healthy’ and a ‘Western’ dietary pattern were identified by factor analysis. The Western Australian Literacy and Numeracy Assessment (WALNA) results from grade nine (age 14) were linked to the Raine Study data by The Western Australian Data Linkage Branch. Associations between the dietary patterns and the WALNA (mathematics, reading and writing scores) were assessed using multivariate linear regression models adjusting for family and socioeconomic characteristics. Complete data on dietary patterns, academic performance and covariates were available for individuals across the different analyses as follows: n = 779 for mathematics, n = 741 for reading and n = 470 for writing. Following adjustment, significant negative associations between the ‘Western’ dietary pattern and test scores for mathematics (β = −13.14; 95% CI: −24.57; −1.76); p = 0.024) and reading (β = −19.16; 95% CI: −29.85; −8.47; p ≤ 0.001) were observed. A similar trend was found with respect to writing (β = −17.28; 95% CI: −35.74; 1.18; p = 0.066). ANOVA showed significant trends in estimated means of academic scores across quartiles for both the Western and Healthy patterns. Higher scores for the ‘Western’ dietary pattern are associated with poorer academic performance in adolescence. PMID:25898417

  18. A Western Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Poor Academic Performance in Australian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett Nyaradi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and academic performance among 14-year-old adolescents. Study participants were from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study. A food frequency questionnaire was administered when the adolescents were 14 years old, and from the dietary data, a ‘Healthy’ and a ‘Western’ dietary pattern were identified by factor analysis. The Western Australian Literacy and Numeracy Assessment (WALNA results from grade nine (age 14 were linked to the Raine Study data by The Western Australian Data Linkage Branch. Associations between the dietary patterns and the WALNA (mathematics, reading and writing scores were assessed using multivariate linear regression models adjusting for family and socioeconomic characteristics. Complete data on dietary patterns, academic performance and covariates were available for individuals across the different analyses as follows: n = 779 for mathematics, n = 741 for reading and n = 470 for writing. Following adjustment, significant negative associations between the ‘Western’ dietary pattern and test scores for mathematics (β = −13.14; 95% CI: −24.57; −1.76; p = 0.024 and reading (β = −19.16; 95% CI: −29.85; −8.47; p ≤ 0.001 were observed. A similar trend was found with respect to writing (β = −17.28; 95% CI: −35.74; 1.18; p = 0.066. ANOVA showed significant trends in estimated means of academic scores across quartiles for both the Western and Healthy patterns. Higher scores for the ‘Western’ dietary pattern are associated with poorer academic performance in adolescence.

  19. A fruit and dairy dietary pattern is associated with a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soyoung; Song, Yoonju; Lee, Kye Heui; Lee, Hong Soo; Lee, Myoungsook; Jee, Sun Ha; Joung, Hyojee

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between adherence to different dietary patterns and the presence of metabolic syndrome and its components among Korean adults. The sample consisted of 406 Korean adults aged 22 to 78 years recruited from hospitals. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria issued by the Adult Treatment Panel III, with the exception of central obesity, which was defined according to the Asian-Pacific criteria. Dietary information was obtained by means of a 24-hour recall and a 3-day food record, and factor analysis was used to define dietary patterns. Factor analysis identified 4 major dietary patterns, which explained 28.8% of the total variance, based on the percentage of total daily energy intake from each food group: Korean traditional, alcohol and meats, sweets and fast foods, and fruit and dairy. After controlling for all potential confounders, we found that the Korean traditional dietary pattern was not associated with individual components of the metabolic syndrome but was significantly associated with increased odds of having metabolic syndrome. The fruit and dairy pattern was significantly associated with decreased odds of impaired blood glucose, hypertriglyceridemia, and metabolic syndrome. Our findings suggest that the fruit and dairy pattern is associated with reduced risk of having metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary patterns and heritability of food choice in a UK female twin cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teucher, Birgit; Skinner, Jane; Skidmore, Paula M L; Cassidy, Aedin; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Hooper, Lee; Roe, Mark A; Foxall, Robert; Oyston, Sarah L; Cherkas, Lynn F; Perks, Ursula C; Spector, Tim D; MacGregor, Alex J

    2007-10-01

    To examine the contribution of genetic factors to food choice, we determined dietary patterns from food frequency questionnaires in 3262 UK female twins aged 18 to 79 years. Five distinct dietary patterns were identified (fruit and vegetable, high alcohol, traditional English, dieting, low meat) that accounted for 22% of the total variance. These patterns are similar to those found in other singleton Western populations, and were related to body mass index, smoking status, physical activity and deprivation scores. Older subjects had higher scores on the fruit and vegetable and traditional English patterns, while lower social deprivation was associated with higher scores for fruit and vegetable, and lower scores for traditional English patterns. All 5 patterns were heritable, with estimates ranging from 41% to 48%. Among individual dietary components, a strongly heritable component was identified for garlic (46%), coffee (41%), fruit and vegetable sources (49%), and red meat (39%). Our results indicate that genetic factors have an important influence in determining food choice and dietary habits in Western populations. The relatively high heritability of specific dietary components implicates taste perception as a possible target for future genetic studies.

  1. INSIGHT responsive parenting intervention is associated with healthier patterns of dietary exposures in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Emily E; Paul, Ian M; Birch, Leann L; Savage, Jennifer S

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether a responsive parenting (RP) intervention affects infant dietary patterns. Primiparous mother-newborn dyads (n = 291) were randomized to the Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) RP intervention or control. Curricula were delivered at nurse home visits at ages 3, 16, 28, and 40 weeks. RP group feeding guidance advised responsive feeding, delayed introduction of solids, repeated exposure to novel foods, and age-appropriate portion sizes. Latent class analysis identified patterns of dietary exposure at 9 months. Class membership at 9 months was used to predict BMI percentile at 2 years. Five dietary patterns were identified: "Breastfed, Fruits and Vegetables," "Breastfed, Low Variety," "Formula, Fruits and Vegetables," "Formula, Low Variety," and "Formula, High Energy Density." Over 60% of infants had patterns low in fruits and vegetables or high in energy-dense foods. RP group infants were less likely than control to be in the "Formula, Low Variety" class (OR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.23-0.71) or "Formula, High Energy Density" class (OR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.12-0.61) relative to the "Formula, Fruits and Vegetables" class. Dietary pattern at 9 months was significantly associated with BMI percentile at 2 years. While a majority of infants consumed diets low in fruits and vegetables, the INSIGHT RP intervention was associated with healthier dietary patterns. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  2. Healthy dietary patterns and risk of breast cancer by molecular subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirko, Kelly A; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Beck, Andrew H; Tamimi, Rulla M; Eliassen, A Heather

    2016-02-01

    We examined associations between dietary quality indices and breast cancer risk by molecular subtype among 100,643 women in the prospective Nurses' Health Study (NHS) cohort, followed from 1984 to 2006. Dietary quality scores for the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED), and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary patterns were calculated from semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires collected every 2-4 years. Breast cancer molecular subtypes were defined according to estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2), cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), and epidermal growth factor receptor status from immunostained tumor microarrays in combination with histologic grade. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age and breast cancer risk factors, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Competing risk analyses were used to assess heterogeneity by subtype. We did not observe any significant associations between the AHEI or aMED dietary patterns and risk of breast cancer by molecular subtype. However, a significantly reduced risk of HER2-type breast cancer was observed among women in 5th versus 1st quintile of the DASH dietary pattern [n = 134 cases, Q5 vs. Q1 HR (95 % CI) = 0.44 (0.25-0.77)], and the inverse trend across quintiles was significant (p trend = 0.02). We did not observe any heterogeneity in associations between AHEI (p het = 0.25), aMED (p het = 0.71), and DASH (p het = 0.12) dietary patterns and breast cancer by subtype. Adherence to the AHEI, aMED, and DASH dietary patterns was not strongly associated with breast cancer molecular subtypes.

  3. Using Two Different Approaches to Assess Dietary Patterns: Hypothesis-Driven and Data-Driven Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágatha Nogueira Previdelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of dietary patterns to assess dietary intake has become increasingly common in nutritional epidemiology studies due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the diet. Currently, two main approaches have been widely used to assess dietary patterns: data-driven and hypothesis-driven analysis. Since the methods explore different angles of dietary intake, using both approaches simultaneously might yield complementary and useful information; thus, we aimed to use both approaches to gain knowledge of adolescents’ dietary patterns. Food intake from a cross-sectional survey with 295 adolescents was assessed by 24 h dietary recall (24HR. In hypothesis-driven analysis, based on the American National Cancer Institute method, the usual intake of Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised components were estimated. In the data-driven approach, the usual intake of foods/food groups was estimated by the Multiple Source Method. In the results, hypothesis-driven analysis showed low scores for Whole grains, Total vegetables, Total fruit and Whole fruits, while, in data-driven analysis, fruits and whole grains were not presented in any pattern. High intakes of sodium, fats and sugars were observed in hypothesis-driven analysis with low total scores for Sodium, Saturated fat and SoFAA (calories from solid fat, alcohol and added sugar components in agreement, while the data-driven approach showed the intake of several foods/food groups rich in these nutrients, such as butter/margarine, cookies, chocolate powder, whole milk, cheese, processed meat/cold cuts and candies. In this study, using both approaches at the same time provided consistent and complementary information with regard to assessing the overall dietary habits that will be important in order to drive public health programs, and improve their efficiency to monitor and evaluate the dietary patterns of populations.

  4. Using Two Different Approaches to Assess Dietary Patterns: Hypothesis-Driven and Data-Driven Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previdelli, Ágatha Nogueira; de Andrade, Samantha Caesar; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria

    2016-01-01

    The use of dietary patterns to assess dietary intake has become increasingly common in nutritional epidemiology studies due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the diet. Currently, two main approaches have been widely used to assess dietary patterns: data-driven and hypothesis-driven analysis. Since the methods explore different angles of dietary intake, using both approaches simultaneously might yield complementary and useful information; thus, we aimed to use both approaches to gain knowledge of adolescents’ dietary patterns. Food intake from a cross-sectional survey with 295 adolescents was assessed by 24 h dietary recall (24HR). In hypothesis-driven analysis, based on the American National Cancer Institute method, the usual intake of Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised components were estimated. In the data-driven approach, the usual intake of foods/food groups was estimated by the Multiple Source Method. In the results, hypothesis-driven analysis showed low scores for Whole grains, Total vegetables, Total fruit and Whole fruits), while, in data-driven analysis, fruits and whole grains were not presented in any pattern. High intakes of sodium, fats and sugars were observed in hypothesis-driven analysis with low total scores for Sodium, Saturated fat and SoFAA (calories from solid fat, alcohol and added sugar) components in agreement, while the data-driven approach showed the intake of several foods/food groups rich in these nutrients, such as butter/margarine, cookies, chocolate powder, whole milk, cheese, processed meat/cold cuts and candies. In this study, using both approaches at the same time provided consistent and complementary information with regard to assessing the overall dietary habits that will be important in order to drive public health programs, and improve their efficiency to monitor and evaluate the dietary patterns of populations. PMID:27669289

  5. Dietary Pattern Associated with Frailty: Results from Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yen-Li; Hsieh, Yao-Te; Hsu, Li-Lin; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Ching-Yu; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2017-09-01

    To investigate whether dietary patterns are associated with frailty phenotypes in an elderly Taiwanese population. Cross-sectional. Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT), 2014-2016. Noninstitutionalized Taiwanese nationals aged 65 years and older enrolled in the NAHSIT (N = 923). Dietary intake was assessed using a 79-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Presence of 5 frailty phenotypes was determined using modified Fried criteria and are summed into a frailty score. Using data from the NAHSIT (2014-15), reduced rank regression was used to find a dietary pattern that explained maximal degree of variation of the frailty scores. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between frailty and dietary pattern. The findings were validated with data from 2016. The derived dietary pattern was characterized with a high consumption of fruit, nuts and seeds, tea, vegetables, whole grains, shellfish, milk, and fish. The prevalence of frailty was 7.8% and of prefrailty was 50.8%, defined using the modified Fried criteria. Using data from the NAHSIT (2014-15), the dietary pattern score showed an inverse dose-response relationship with prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty. Individuals in the second dietary pattern tertile were one-third as likely to be frail as those in the first tertile (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12-0.85), and those in the third tertile were 4% as likely to be frail as those in the first tertile (aOR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.01-0.18). The dietary pattern score estimated using FFQ data from the NAHSIT 2016 was also significantly and inversely associated with frailty. Individuals with a dietary pattern with more phytonutrient-rich plant foods, tea, omega-3-rich deep-sea fish, and other protein-rich foods such as shellfish and milk had a reduced prevalence of frailty. Further research is necessary to confirm these findings and investigate whether related dietary interventions can reduce frailty

  6. Clustering of Dietary Patterns, Lifestyles, and Overweight among Spanish Children and Adolescents in the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Weight gain has been associated with behaviors related to diet, sedentary lifestyle, and physical activity. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep time in Spanish children and adolescents and whether the identified clusters could be associated with overweight. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 415) of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep time. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and overweight. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, one reflecting a profile closer to the traditional Mediterranean diet. Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors and sleep time on weekdays in Spanish children and adolescents clustered into two different groups. A low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern, which included a higher proportion of girls, and a high physical activity, low sedentary behavior, longer sleep duration, healthier diet lifestyle pattern. Although increased risk of being overweight was not significant, the Prevalence Ratios (PRs) for the low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern were >1 in children and in adolescents. The healthier lifestyle pattern included lower proportions of children and adolescents from low socioeconomic status backgrounds. PMID:26729155

  7. Clustering of Dietary Patterns, Lifestyles, and Overweight among Spanish Children and Adolescents in the ANIBES Study

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    Carmen Pérez-Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Weight gain has been associated with behaviors related to diet, sedentary lifestyle, and physical activity. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep time in Spanish children and adolescents and whether the identified clusters could be associated with overweight. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 415 of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep time. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and overweight. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, one reflecting a profile closer to the traditional Mediterranean diet. Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors and sleep time on weekdays in Spanish children and adolescents clustered into two different groups. A low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern, which included a higher proportion of girls, and a high physical activity, low sedentary behavior, longer sleep duration, healthier diet lifestyle pattern. Although increased risk of being overweight was not significant, the Prevalence Ratios (PRs for the low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern were >1 in children and in adolescents. The healthier lifestyle pattern included lower proportions of children and adolescents from low socioeconomic status backgrounds.

  8. Weight changes, exercise, and dietary patterns during freshman and sophomore years of college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Deusinger, Susan S; Strube, Michael J; Highstein, Gabrielle R; Deusinger, Robert H

    2005-01-01

    Weight gain and behavioral patterns during college may contribute to overweight and obesity in adulthood. The aims of this study were to assess weight, exercise, and dietary patterns of 764 college students (53% women, 47% men) during freshman and sophomore years. Students had their weight and height measured and completed questionnaires about their recent exercise and dietary patterns. At the beginning of freshman year, 29% of students reported not exercising, 70% ate fewer than 5 fruits and vegetables daily, and more than 50% ate fried or high-fat fast foods at least 3 times during the previous week. By the end of their sophomore year, 70% of the 290 students who were reassessed had gained weight (4.1+/-3.6 kg, p < .001), but there was no apparent association with exercise or dietary patterns. Future research is needed to assess the contributions of fat, muscle, and bone mass to observed weight gain and to determine the health implications of these findings.

  9. Dietary patterns and prevention of type 2 diabetes: from research to clinical practice; a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastorini, Christina-Maria; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2009-11-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, a disease difficult to treat and expensive to manage, is increasing rapidly worldwide. It is also known that lifestyle, and particularly dietary habits, play an important role in the development of diabetes. Adherence to a healthy dietary pattern, like the Mediterranean diet, exerts a beneficial role regarding the development of diabetes. Additionally certain individual food groups and components of the diet, such as monounsaturated fatty acids, fruits, vegetables, whole grain cereals, dietary fiber, fish and moderate consumption of alcohol, also may protect against the development of diabetes, possibly through the amelioration of insulin sensitivity and their anti-inflammatory actions. Unfortunately, dietary habits in the developed world are changing towards an unhealthier direction. Consequently, emphasis should be given on encouraging at population and individual level for adopting a healthier lifestyle, including dietary habits, in order to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes.

  10. Dietary patterns in an elderly population and their relation with bone mineral density: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Ester A L; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Erler, Nicole S; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2016-08-24

    Our aim was to identify dietary patterns that are associated with bone mineral density (BMD) against a background of relatively high dairy intake in elderly Dutch subjects. Participants were 55 years of age and older (n = 5144) who were enrolled in The Rotterdam Study, a population-based prospective cohort study. Baseline intake of 28 pre-defined food groups was determined using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and at three subsequent visits (between 1993 and 2004). Linear mixed modelling was used to longitudinally analyse associations of adherence to each pattern with repeatedly measured BMD (both in Z scores). After adjustment for confounders, two dietary patterns were associated with high BMD: a "Traditional" pattern, characterized by high intake of potatoes, meat and fat (β = 0.06; 95 % CI 0.03, 0.09) and a "Health conscious" pattern, characterized by high intake of fruits, vegetables, poultry and fish (β = 0.06; 95 % CI 0.04, 0.08). The "Processed" pattern, characterized by high intake of processed meat and alcohol, was associated with low BMD (β = -0.03; 95 % CI -0.06, -0.01). Associations of adherence to the "Health conscious" and "Processed" pattern with BMD were independent of body weight and height, whereas the association between adherence to the "Traditional" pattern with BMD was not. Against a background of high dairy intake and independent of anthropometrics, a "Health conscious" dietary pattern may have benefits for BMD, whereas a "Processed" dietary pattern may pose a risk for low BMD.

  11. Dietary patterns in relation to bone mineral density among menopausal Iranian women.

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    Karamati, Mohsen; Jessri, Mahsa; Shariati-Bafghi, Seyedeh-Elaheh; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2012-07-01

    The association of dietary patterns and bone health is not yet well known, and findings from the rare previous studies conducted on this issue are contradictory. We assessed the dietary patterns in relation to bone mineral density (BMD) in a sample of menopausal Iranian women. In this cross-sectional study, 160 menopausal women aged 50-85 were studied and their femoral neck and lumbar spine BMDs were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated 168-item food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were identified by a principal component factor analysis method. Overall, six dietary patterns emerged, two of which had a significant association with BMD. After adjusting for potential confounders, women who had higher scores for the first (high in high-fat dairy products, organ meats, red or processed meats and nonrefined cereals) and the second (high in French fries, mayonnaise, sweets and desserts and vegetable oils) dietary patterns we identified were more likely to have BMD below the median in the lumbar spine (odds ratio 2.29; 95 % confidence interval 1.05-4.96; p = 0.04) and the femoral neck (odds ratio 2.83, 95 % confidence interval 1.31-6.09; p < 0.01), respectively, compared to women with lower scores. Dietary patterns abundant in foods with high content of saturated fatty acids (similar to factor 1) or with low density of nutrients (similar to factor 2) are detrimental to bone health in menopausal Iranian women. These findings highlight the importance of proper food selection for maintaining bone health.

  12. Gender difference on the association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y; Kim, J

    2016-10-01

    Dietary patterns are found to be associated with metabolic risk factors. We explored gender difference on the association between dietary patterns and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the general Korean population. A total of 13,410 Korean adults (aged ≥19 years, 5384 men and 8026 women) who participated in the fifth KNHANES were studied. Dietary intake was assessed by the 24-h recall method. MetS was defined by the joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the relationship between dietary pattern and MetS and its components by gender. Three dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis by sex: traditional, Westernized, and healthy. The traditional pattern was positively associated with hypertriglyceridemia (P for trend = 0.0098), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P for trend = 0.0007), elevated blood pressure (P for trend = 0.0328), and MetS (P for trend = 0.0003) in women only after adjusting for age, body mass index, socioeconomic status, and lifestyle factors. In contrast, the healthy pattern (HP) was negatively associated with abdominal obesity (P for trend = 0.0051) in women. For men, the HP was negatively associated with hypertriglyceridemia (P for trend = 0.0025) after adjustment for potential confounders. The Westernized pattern was not associated with MetS or its components in either men or women. There may be gender differences on the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic risk factors in Korean population.

  13. Dietary patterns associated with fall-related fracture in elderly Japanese: a population based prospective study

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    Yaegashi Nobuo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet is considered an important factor for bone health, but is composed of a wide variety of foods containing complex combinations of nutrients. Therefore we investigated the relationship between dietary patterns and fall-related fractures in the elderly. Methods We designed a population-based prospective survey of 1178 elderly people in Japan in 2002. Dietary intake was assessed with a 75-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, from which dietary patterns were created by factor analysis from 27 food groups. The frequency of fall-related fracture was investigated based on insurance claim records from 2002 until 2006. The relationship between the incidence of fall-related fracture and modifiable factors, including dietary patterns, were examined. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the relationships between dietary patterns and incidence of fall-related fracture with adjustment for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI and energy intake. Results Among 877 participants who agreed to a 4 year follow-up, 28 suffered from a fall-related fracture. Three dietary patterns were identified: mainly vegetable, mainly meat and mainly traditional Japanese. The moderately confirmed (see statistical methods groups with a Meat pattern showed a reduced risk of fall-related fracture (Hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.13 - 0.94 after adjustment for age, gender, BMI and energy intake. The Vegetable pattern showed a significant risk increase (Hazard ratio = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.03 - 6.90 after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. The Traditional Japanese pattern had no relationship to the risk of fall-related fracture. Conclusions The results of this study have the potential to reduce fall-related fracture risk in elderly Japanese. The results should be interpreted in light of the overall low meat intake of the Japanese population.

  14. The effect of under-reporting of energy intake on dietary patterns and on the associations between dietary patterns and self-reported chronic disease in women aged 50–69 years

    OpenAIRE

    Markussen, Marianne S.; Veierød, Marit B.; Ursin, Giske; Andersen, Lene F.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether under-reporting of energy intake affects derived dietary patterns and the association between dietary patterns and self-reported chronic disease. Diets of 6204 women aged 50–69 years participating in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program were assessed using a 253-item FFQ. We identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis. According to the revised Goldberg cut-off method, women with a ratio of reported en...

  15. Dietary patterns and quality in West-African immigrants in Madrid

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    Vioque Jesús

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating patterns of immigrants deserve to be better documented because they may reflect the extent of acculturation and associated health risks. The study assessed dietary patterns and quality in Bubi immigrants (from Equatorial Guinea using cluster analysis and comparing different diet quality indexes. Methods A random sample of 83 Bubi men and 130 women living in Madrid were studied. A 99-item food frequency questionnaire was administered, body weights and heights were self-reported and socio-demographic and health information was collected during interviews. Usual intakes were collapsed into 19 food groups. Cluster analysis of standardized food intakes per 1000 kcalories was performed. Dietary quality was appraised using the Alternative Mediterranean Diet Score, the Alternative Healthy Eating Index and scores of micronutrient adequacy and prevention based on WHO/FAO recommendations. Results Two dietary patterns were identified. The 'Healthier' pattern, so confirmed by two dietary quality indexes, featured a higher consumption of fish, fruits, vegetables, legumes, dairy products and bread while the 'Western' pattern included more processed meat, animal fat, and sweetened foods and drinks. One third of the subjects were in the 'Healthier' food cluster, with the same proportion of men and women. Age ≥ 30 and residence in Madrid ≥ 11 years were independently associated with the healthier diet. Consumption of traditional foods was unrelated to dietary pattern, however. Overall, Bubi diets were somewhat protective because of high intakes of fruits and vegetables and monounsaturated fat (olive oil, but not with respect to sugar, cholesterol, omega-3 fatty acids and fibre. Less than two thirds of subjects had adequate intakes of iron, calcium and folate in both dietary phenotypes. Body mass index, physical exercise, and self-reported health and cardiovascular disease condition showed no significant association with the dietary

  16. Association between dietary patterns and mental disorders in pregnant women in Southern Brazil

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    Jéssica T.A. Paskulin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between dietary patterns and mental disorders among pregnant women in southern Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 712 pregnant women recruited from the Study of Food Intake and Eating Behaviors in Pregnancy (ECCAGe. Food intake assessment was performed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis. The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD was used to evaluate participants’ mental health. Poisson regression models with robust variance were fitted to estimate prevalence ratios (PR. Results: In the adjusted models, there was a high prevalence of major depressive disorder among women with low fruit intake (43%, PR 1.43, 95%CI 1.04-1.95 and high sweets and sugars intake (91%, PR 1.91, 95%CI 1.19-3.07. Women with a common-Brazilian dietary pattern had higher prevalence of major depressive disorder compared to those with a varied consumption pattern (PR 1.43, 95%CI 1.01-2.02. Low intake of beans was significantly associated with generalized anxiety disorder (PR 1.40, 95%CI 1.01-1.93. Conclusions: Low consumption of fruits and beans and intake of the common-Brazilian dietary pattern during pregnancy were associated with higher prevalence of mental disorders. These results reinforce the importance of an adequate dietary intake to ensure better mental health in pregnancy.

  17. Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk among women in northern Tanzania: a case?control study

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    Jordan, Irmgard; Hebestreit, Antje; Swai, Britta; Michael B. Krawinkel

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. It was tested within a case?control study in this region whether a specific dietary pattern impacts on the breast cancer risk. Methods A validated semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to assess the dietary intake of 115 female breast cancer patients and 230 healthy age-matched women living in the same districts. A logistic regression was performed to estimate breast ...

  18. Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in People with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archundia Herrera, M Carolina; Subhan, Fatheema B; Chan, Catherine B

    2017-10-23

    The primary objective of this review is to identify dietary patterns with beneficial effects on cardiovascular health of adults with type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally. People with diabetes have a greater risk for cardiovascular disease. Mediterranean diet, dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet, vegetarian diet, traditional Korean diet, Japanese diet, and low-glycemic-index diet can reduce cardiovascular disease risk in people with diabetes. Dietary intake is a key modifiable factor in the management of diabetes and plays a significant role in limiting the incidence of cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Dietary patterns and risk of laryngeal cancer: an exploratory factor analysis in Uruguayan men.

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    De Stefani, Eduardo; Boffetta, Paolo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Acosta, Giselle; Mendilaharsu, María

    2007-09-01

    Laryngeal carcinoma is a common malignancy among Uruguayan men. A number of case-control and prospective studies have studied the role of diet in this malignancy. To our knowledge, this is the first study that has explored broad dietary patterns by factor (principal components) analysis. The results of this study retained 6 dietary patterns. Pattern 5 (drinker) was directly associated with risk of laryngeal carcinoma (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.9-7.5), whereas the Pattern 2 (healthy) was protective (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.2). Finally, the Pattern 6 (western) displayed a significant increase in risk of 3.2 (95% CI 1.6-6.2). Most dietary patterns were associated with supraglottic cancer, supporting a possible etiological difference between supraglottic and glottic carcinomas. This study also suggests that the analysis of dietary patterns might be a useful approach for investigating nutritional factors implicated in laryngeal carcinogenesis. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Iron deposits and dietary patterns in familial combined hyperlipidemia and familial hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-Gallego, Rocio; Solanas-Barca, Maria; Burillo, Elena; Cenarro, Ana; Marques-Lopes, Iva; Civeira, Fernando

    2010-09-01

    Iron deposits are associated with lipid phenotype in familial hypertriglyceridemias, mainly familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) and familial hypertriglyceridemia (FHTG). In turn, diet plays an important role in hypertriglyceridemias although it is not known if dietary patterns are associated with iron concentration in these disorders. The objective was to determine the relationship between diet and iron deposits, measured through serum ferritin concentration, in patients with FCH and FHTG. The study was composed of 140 patients, 107 with FCH and 33 with FHTG. Subjects completed a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Dividing subjects by ferritin tertiles adjusted by sex, there were no significant differences in dietary patterns except in dairy products consumption which was lower in the highest ferritin tertile. Subjects were also divided by triglycerides tertiles adjusted by sex. Those subjects in the highest tertile had lower HDL cholesterol and higher ferritin concentrations. Regarding to dietary parameters, there were significant differences in marine omega three fatty acids and vegetables presenting higher and lower consumption, respectively, those patients in the highest tertile of triglycerides. Moreover, there was not a significant correlation between dietary iron intake and any parameter, both biochemical and dietary, including ferritin concentrations. In conclusion, in patients with primary hypertriglyceridemia, triglycerides are associated with ferritin concentrations but dietary patterns are not related to iron deposits. Our results highly support the concept that the genetic mechanisms driven to hypertriglyceridemia also favor iron overload.

  1. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can thus not only influence human health but also the environment. The aim of the study was to analyze the sustainability of the MDP in the context of the Spanish population in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural land use, energy consumption and water consumption. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the current Spanish diet with the Mediterranean Diet and in comparison with the western dietary pattern, exemplified by the U.S.A. food pattern, in terms of their corresponding environmental footprints. Methods The environmental footprints of the dietary patterns studied were calculated from the dietary make-up of each dietary pattern, and specific environmental footprints of each food group. The dietary compositions were obtained from different sources, including food balance sheets and household consumption surveys. The specific environmental footprints of food groups were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. Results The adherence of the Spanish population to the MDP has a marked impact on all the environmental footprints studied. Increasing adherence to the MDP pattern in Spain will reduce greenhouse gas emissions (72%), land use (58%) and energy consumption (52%), and to a lower extent water consumption (33%). On the other hand, the adherence to a western dietary pattern implies an increase in all these descriptors of between 12% and 72%. Conclusions The MDP is presented as not only a cultural model but also as a healthy and environmentally

  2. Dietary patterns and breakfast consumption in relation to insulin resistance in children. The Healthy Growth Study.

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    Karatzi, Kalliopi; Moschonis, George; Barouti, Afroditi-Alexandra; Lionis, Christos; Chrousos, George P; Manios, Yannis

    2014-12-01

    Insulin resistance is a significant cross-point for the manifestation of several chronic diseases in children and adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible relationship of certain dietary patterns and breakfast consumption habits with insulin resistance in children. A representative sample of 1912 schoolchildren (aged 9-13 years) participated in a cross-sectional epidemiological study, the Healthy Growth Study, which was initiated in May 2007 and completed in June 2009. It was conducted in seventy-seven primary schools in four large regions in Greece. Dietary intake, breakfast consumption, anthropometric and physical examination data, biochemical indices and socio-economic information collected from parents were assessed in all children. Principal components analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. A dietary pattern of increased consumption of margarine, sweets (candies, lollipops, jellies, traditional fruit in heavy syrup) and savoury snacks (chips, cheese puffs and not home-made popcorn) was associated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR; β = 0·08, P Children in the third tertile of this dietary pattern had a 2·51 (95 % CI 1·30, 4·90) times higher risk of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR > 3·16) than those in the first tertile. Breakfast consumption had an inverse correlation with insulin resistance, but the correlation lost its significance after adjustments for waist circumference, birth weight, parental BMI and socio-economic status. Increased consumption of margarine, sweets and savoury snacks, which is a common dietary pattern in childhood, was positively associated with insulin resistance, while breakfast consumption had an inverse association with HOMA-IR, in schoolchildren (aged 9-13 years). Identification of dietary behaviours that might affect insulin resistance in children offers valuable advice in cardiometabolic risk prevention strategies.

  3. A Western Dietary Pattern Increases Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Roberto Fabiani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC risk. While the associations between PC risk with the glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by “a posteriori” methods. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns were selected and the risks estimated were calculated by a random-effect model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs, for a first-percentile increase in dietary pattern score, were combined by a dose-response meta-analysis. Twelve observational studies were included in the meta-analysis which identified a “Healthy pattern” and a “Western pattern”. The Healthy pattern was not related to PC risk (OR = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.88–1.04 while the Western pattern significantly increased it (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.08–1.65. In addition, the “Carbohydrate pattern”, which was analyzed in four articles, was positively associated with a higher PC risk (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.35–2.00. A significant linear trend between the Western (p = 0.011 pattern, the Carbohydrate (p = 0.005 pattern, and the increment of PC risk was observed. The small number of studies included in the meta-analysis suggests that further investigation is necessary to support these findings.

  4. Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Metabolic Outcomes among Adult Samoans in a Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Wang, Dongqing; Hawley, Nicola L; Thompson, Avery A; Lameko, Viali; Reupena, Muagatutia Sefuiva; McGarvey, Stephen T; Baylin, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Background: The Samoan population has been undergoing a nutrition transition toward more imported and processed foods and a more sedentary lifestyle. Objectives: We aimed to identify dietary patterns in Samoa and to evaluate their associations with metabolic outcomes. Methods: The sample of this cross-sectional study includes 2774 Samoan adults recruited in 2010 (1104 with metabolic syndrome compared with 1670 without). Principal component analysis on food items from a 104-item food-frequency questionnaire was used to identify dietary patterns. Adjusted least squares means of each component of metabolic syndrome were estimated by quintiles of factor scores for each dietary pattern. Metabolic syndrome status was regressed on quintiles of scores by using log-binomial models to obtain prevalence ratios. Results: We identified a modern pattern, a mixed-traditional pattern, and a mixed-modern pattern. The modern pattern included a high intake of imported and processed foods, including pizza, cheeseburgers, margarine, sugary drinks, desserts, snacks, egg products, noodles, nuts, breads, and cakes and a low intake of traditional agricultural products and fish. The mixed-traditional pattern had a high intake of neotraditional foods, including fruits, vegetables, soup, poultry, and fish, and imported and processed foods, including dairy products, breads, and cakes. The mixed-modern pattern was loaded with imported and processed foods, including pizza, cheeseburgers, red meat, egg products, noodles, and grains, but also with neotraditional foods, such as seafood and coconut. It also included a low intake of fish, tea, coffee, soup, and traditional agricultural staples. Higher adherence to the mixed-modern pattern was associated with lower abdominal circumference ( P -trend pattern was inversely associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome (the highest quintile: prevalence ratio = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.91; P -trend = 0.006). Conclusion: Mixed dietary patterns containing

  5. Four major dietary patterns identified for a target-population of adults residing in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

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    Chen, Zhi; Liu, Lin; Roebothan, Barbara; Ryan, Ann; Colbourne, Jennifer; Baker, Natasha; Yan, Jing; Wang, Peizhong Peter

    2015-01-31

    Very limited nutritional epidemiological studies conducted to explore the unique dietary exposure in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). This study aims to identify and characterize major dietary patterns in the target-population from general adult NL residents and assess the associations with selected demographic factors. A total of 192 participants, aged 35-70 years, completed and returned a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and participated in a telephone interview to collect demographic information. Dietary patterns were identified by common factor analysis. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to assess determinants of the different food consumption patterns. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated for food scores of each pattern, total energy, and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes. Factor analyses identified four dietary patterns, which were labeled as "Meat", "Vegetable/fruit", "Fish", and "Grain" patterns. In combination, the four dietary patterns explained 63% of the variance in dietary habits of the study population. Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated an increasing trend of factor scores for Meat and Grain pattern with age. Male participants were found to be more likely to choose the Meat and Fish patterns. Current smokers and those married/living together tend to choose the Grain pattern. Pearson's correlation coefficients showed positive correlations between fat and cholesterol and the Meat pattern, fiber and the Vegetable/fruits pattern, protein and the Fish pattern, and carbohydrates and the Grain pattern. This study derived four dietary patterns and obtained their significant associations with specific demographic characteristics in this population. It identified one dietary consumption pattern (Fish) not yet seen in other studied populations. These findings will update the current dietary-health information published in this province, and contribute to further research into the association between

  6. Dietary Patterns Modulate the Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese Adults

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    Chao-Qun Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although previous studies reported the associations between the intakes of individual foods or nutrients and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, the relationship between dietary patterns and NAFLD in the Chinese population has been rarely studied to date. This study aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of NAFLD in a middle-aged Chinese population. The Study subjects were 999 Chinese adults aged 45–60 years in the Anhui province who participated in the Hefei Nutrition and Health Study. Dietary intake was collected by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was defined as the presence of moderate-severe hepatic steatosis (by B-ultrasonic examination; the absence of excessive alcohol use (>20 g day−1 in men and 10 g day−1 in women; no use of steatogenic medications within the past six months; no exposure to hepatotoxins; and no history of bariatric surgery. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to examine the association between dietary patterns and NAFLD with adjustment of potential confounding variables. Out of 999 participants, 345 (34.5% were classified as having NAFLD. Four major dietary patterns were identified: “Traditional Chinese”, “Animal food”, “Grains-vegetables” and “High-salt” dietary patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects in the highest quartile of the “Animal food” pattern scores had greater prevalence ratio for NAFLD (prevalence ratio (PR = 1.354; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.063–1.724; p < 0.05 than did those in the lowest quartile. After adjustment for body mass index (BMI, compared with the lowest quartile of the “Grains-vegetables” pattern, the highest quartile had a lower prevalence ratio for NAFLD (PR = 0.777; 95% CI: 0.618–0.977, p < 0.05. However, the “traditional Chinese” and “high-salt” dietary patterns showed no association with the risk of NAFLD. Our findings indicated that the

  7. DIFFERENT DIETARY PATTERNS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH THE DISPARITY IN OVERWEIGHT OF BOYS BETWEEN RURAL AND URBAN CHINA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu Tian; Li Zhong; Chao Liu; Hui Wang

    2017-01-01

    .... Subgroup differences in dietary pattern were identified using analysis of covariance. The relationship between children's BMI and calorie structure was identified using nonparametric estimation...

  8. Dietary patterns are associated with lung function among Spanish smokers without respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorli-Aguilar, Mar; Martin-Lujan, Francisco; Flores-Mateo, Gemma; Arija-Val, Victoria; Basora-Gallisa, Josep; Sola-Alberich, Rosa

    2016-11-25

    Diet can help preserve lung function in smokers, in addition to avoidance of smoking. The study aimed to evaluate associations between dietary patterns and lung function in smokers without respiratory disease. This cross-sectional study analysed baseline data from randomised representative smokers without respiratory disease (n = 207, aged 35-70 years), selected from 20 primary health-care centres. Participants completed a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Impaired lung function was defined as FVC function was associated with the Alcohol-consumption pattern (OR 4.56, 95% CI 1.58-13.18), especially in women (OR 11.47, 95% CI 2.25-58.47), and with the Westernised pattern in women (OR 5.62, 95% CI 1.17-27.02), whereas it not was associated with the Mediterranean-like pattern (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.28-1.79). In smokers without respiratory disease, the Alcohol-consumption pattern and the Westernised pattern are associated with impaired lung function, especially in women. The Mediterranean-like pattern appears to be associated with preserved lung function because no statistical association is observed with impaired lung function. In addition to smoking cessation, modifying dietary patterns has possible clinical application to preserve lung function.

  9. Unusual sub-genus associations of faecal Prevotella and Bacteroides with specific dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Laghi, Luca; Gobbetti, Marco; Ercolini, Danilo

    2016-10-21

    Diet has a recognized effect in shaping gut microbiota. Many studies link an increase in Prevotella to high-fibre diet, while Bacteroides abundance is usually associated with the consumption of animal fat and protein-rich diets. Nevertheless, closely related species and strains may harbour different genetic pools; therefore, further studies should aim to understand whether species of the same genus are consistently linked to dietary patterns or equally responsive to diet variations. Here, we used oligotyping of 16S rRNA gene sequencing data to exploit the diversity within Prevotella and Bacteroides genera in faecal samples of omnivore and non-omnivore subjects from a previously studied cohort. A great heterogeneity was found in oligotype composition. Nevertheless, different oligotypes within the same genus showed distinctive correlation patterns with dietary components and metabolome. We found that some Prevotella oligotypes are significantly associated with the plant-based diet but some are associated with animal-based nutrients, and the same applies to Bacteroides. Therefore, an indiscriminate association of Bacteroidetes genera with specific dietary patterns may lead to an oversimplified vision that does not take into account sub-genus diversity and the different possible responses to dietary components. We demonstrated that Prevotella and Bacteroides oligotypes show distinctive correlation patterns with dietary components and metabolome. These results substantiate a current oversimplification of diet-dependent microbe-host associations and highlighted that sub-genus differences must be taken into account when planning gut microbiota modulation for health benefits.

  10. The association between acculturation and dietary patterns of South Asian immigrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris A Lesser

    Full Text Available Dietary acculturation, specifically the adoption of western dietary habits, may result in adverse health effects such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the role of acculturation in dietary patterns as well as awareness and knowledge of healthy nutrition among South Asian immigrants. This is an especially important population to target as South Asians have higher prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which may be magnified with immigration. The current investigation is a sub-study of the Multi-Cultural Community Health Assessment Trial (M-CHAT. There were 207 participants of South Asian origin included in the initial study, 129 were born outside of Canada and had immigrated after the age of 18. The length of residence in Canada was used as a marker for acculturation. A questionnaire addressing perceived changes in dietary patterns, food preparation, and nutrition knowledge and awareness since immigration was used to assess dietary practices. The association between length of residence and variables related to perceived changes in dietary patterns was explored with Spearman correlation and significant associations were subsequently analyzed with ordinal logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, education and body mass index. South Asian immigrants in Canada reported a variety of positive dietary practices, including an increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and an improvement in food preparation (including an increase in grilling and a decrease in deep frying when cooking. However, there was a reported increase in the consumption of convenience foods, sugar-sweetened beverages, red meat and in dining out. South Asian immigrants in Canada reported a variety of positive dietary practices including an improvement in food preparation. Future health promotion strategies should encourage cultural sensitivity in efforts to reduce the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage

  11. The association between acculturation and dietary patterns of South Asian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Iris A; Gasevic, Danijela; Lear, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Dietary acculturation, specifically the adoption of western dietary habits, may result in adverse health effects such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the role of acculturation in dietary patterns as well as awareness and knowledge of healthy nutrition among South Asian immigrants. This is an especially important population to target as South Asians have higher prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which may be magnified with immigration. The current investigation is a sub-study of the Multi-Cultural Community Health Assessment Trial (M-CHAT). There were 207 participants of South Asian origin included in the initial study, 129 were born outside of Canada and had immigrated after the age of 18. The length of residence in Canada was used as a marker for acculturation. A questionnaire addressing perceived changes in dietary patterns, food preparation, and nutrition knowledge and awareness since immigration was used to assess dietary practices. The association between length of residence and variables related to perceived changes in dietary patterns was explored with Spearman correlation and significant associations were subsequently analyzed with ordinal logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, education and body mass index. South Asian immigrants in Canada reported a variety of positive dietary practices, including an increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and an improvement in food preparation (including an increase in grilling and a decrease in deep frying when cooking). However, there was a reported increase in the consumption of convenience foods, sugar-sweetened beverages, red meat and in dining out. South Asian immigrants in Canada reported a variety of positive dietary practices including an improvement in food preparation. Future health promotion strategies should encourage cultural sensitivity in efforts to reduce the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage, convenience foods

  12. A Western dietary pattern is associated with higher blood pressure in Iranian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojhabrimanesh, Abdollah; Akhlaghi, Masoumeh; Rahmani, Elham; Amanat, Sasan; Atefi, Masoumeh; Najafi, Maryam; Hashemzadeh, Maral; Salehi, Saedeh; Faghih, Shiva

    2017-02-01

    The dietary determinants of adolescent blood pressure (BP) are not well understood. We determined the association between major dietary patterns and BP in a sample of Iranian adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample (n = 557) of Shirazi adolescents aged 12-19 years. Participants' systolic and diastolic BP was measured using a validated oscillometric BP monitor. Usual dietary intakes during the past 12 months were assessed using a valid and reproducible 168-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire through face-to-face interviews. Principal component factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns based on a set of 25 predefined food groups. Overall, three major dietary patterns were identified, among which only the Western pattern (abundant in soft drinks, sweets and desserts, salt, mayonnaise, tea and coffee, salty snacks, high-fat dairy products, French fries, and red or processed meats) had a significant association with BP. After adjusting for potential confounders in the analysis of covariance models, multivariable adjusted means of the systolic and mean BP of subjects in the highest tertile of the Western pattern score were significantly higher than those in the lowest tertile (for systolic BP: mean difference 6.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; and for mean BP: mean difference 4.2 mmHg, P = 0.003). A similar but statistically insignificant difference was observed in terms of diastolic BP. The findings suggest that a Western dietary pattern is associated with higher BP in Iranian adolescents. However, additional large-scale prospective studies with adequate methodological quality are required to confirm these findings.

  13. Development of Dietary Patterns Spanning Infancy and Toddlerhood: Relation to Body Size, Composition and Metabolic Risk Markers at Three Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B. B.; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the development of dietary patterns during toddlerhood and the relation to growth and health. The study objective was to characterise the development of dietary patterns from 9-36 mo of age and investigate the association to body size, body composition and metabolic risk...... markers at 36 mo. Food records were filled out at 9, 18 and 36 mo of age (n = 229). Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis (PCA). Three dietary patterns were identified: Transition Food, Healthy Food and Traditional Food. The course of development in dietary patterns from 9-36 mo...... indicated tracking for a relatively large group of participants in the three patterns. Transition Food and Healthy Food were associated with some of the investigated outcomes. Children with lower adherence to the Transition Food pattern than average at 18 and 36 mo irrespectively of intake at 9 mo had...

  14. Dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal adenoma recurrence in a European intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, V; Bonithon-Kopp, C; Kronborg, O; Santos, L; Andreatta, R; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Faivre, J

    2005-02-01

    The relations between individual foods and nutrients to colorectal tumours are conflicting. Few studies have taken into account the interdependence between individual components of diet and their possible interactions. The aim of the study was to examine the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal adenoma recurrence in the European fibre-calcium intervention trial. Among the 640 patients with confirmed adenomas at the index colonoscopy, 592 had an initial dietary assessment using a diet history questionnaire. The present analysis was restricted to 277 men and 165 women without history of adenoma prior to the index colonoscopy and who completed the study. The main end point was the 3-year recurrence of adenomas. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns from 50 food groups. Ninety-two patients presented new colorectal adenomas at the 3-year colonoscopy (65 men and 27 women). In men, three meaningful dietary patterns emerged from analysis, explaining 21.3% of variability. They were called 'Mediterranean', 'Sweets and snacks' and 'High fat and proteins' patterns. None of them were significantly related to the overall recurrence of colorectal adenomas either in univariate or multivariate analyses. Among women, the 'Mediterranean', the 'Western' and the 'Snacks' patterns explained 21.9% of variability. The 'Mediterranean' pattern characterized by a high consumption of olive oil, vegetables, fruit, fish and lean meat significantly reduced adenoma recurrence [second tertile: adjusted odds ratio (OR)=0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.18-1.42; third tertile: adjusted OR=0.30, 95% CI=0.09-0.98; P for linear trend=0.04]. The 'Western' and 'Snacks' patterns were not associated with recurrence among women. In conclusion, this study suggests that the Mediterranean dietary pattern may reduce the recurrence of colorectal adenomas, at least in women. These exploratory results need to be confirmed by larger studies.

  15. Dietary patterns in Greenland and their relationship with type 2 diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Charlotte; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Traditional Inuit dietary patterns have been found to be beneficial for CVD but have not been investigated in relation to glucose intolerance. We examined the association between dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting...... food was positively associated with T2DM, IFG and fasting plasma glucose, and negatively associated with β-cell function, compared with a standard diet. The imported meat diet seemed the best in relation to glucose intolerance, with lowest fasting plasma glucose and lowest odds for IFG and T2DM....

  16. Role of Dietary Pattern Analysis in Determining Cognitive Status in Elderly Australian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Ashby-Mitchell

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Principal Component Analysis (PCA was used to determine the association between dietary patterns and cognitive function and to examine how classification systems based on food groups and food items affect levels of association between diet and cognitive function. The present study focuses on the older segment of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab sample (age 60+ that completed the food frequency questionnaire at Wave 1 (1999/2000 and the mini-mental state examination and tests of memory, verbal ability and processing speed at Wave 3 (2012. Three methods were used in order to classify these foods before applying PCA. In the first instance, the 101 individual food items asked about in the questionnaire were used (no categorisation. In the second and third instances, foods were combined and reduced to 32 and 20 food groups, respectively, based on nutrient content and culinary usage—a method employed in several other published studies for PCA. Logistic regression analysis and generalized linear modelling was used to analyse the relationship between PCA-derived dietary patterns and cognitive outcome. Broader food group classifications resulted in a greater proportion of food use variance in the sample being explained (use of 101 individual foods explained 23.22% of total food use, while use of 32 and 20 food groups explained 29.74% and 30.74% of total variance in food use in the sample, respectively. Three dietary patterns were found to be associated with decreased odds of cognitive impairment (CI. Dietary patterns derived from 101 individual food items showed that for every one unit increase in ((Fruit and Vegetable Pattern: p = 0.030, OR 1.061, confidence interval: 1.006–1.118; (Fish, Legumes and Vegetable Pattern: p = 0.040, OR 1.032, confidence interval: 1.001–1.064; (Dairy, Cereal and Eggs Pattern: p = 0.003, OR 1.020, confidence interval: 1.007–1.033, the odds of cognitive impairment decreased. Different

  17. Dietary Patterns and Obesity among Chinese Adults: Results from a Household-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yan; Zhang, Ronghua; Xia, Shichang; Huang, Lichun; Meng, Jia; Fang, Yueqiang; Ding, Gangqiang

    2017-05-05

    The key dietary pattern other than dietary factors influencing obesity has been reported by several large epidemiological studies. This study was carried out between 2010 and 2012 including 1613 adult residents in Zhejiang Province. Dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis based on 24-h dietary recall. Associations with dietary patterns and obesity were examined and adjusted for age and gender by logistic regression. Five dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis with their eigenvalues greater than 1: 'cereal, animal, and plant food', 'high protein food', 'plant food', 'poultry', and 'beverage'. After adjustment for age and gender, the 'cereal, animal, and plant food' and 'beverage' pattern was associated with obesity (OR = 2.924, 3.257; 95% CI = 1.147-7.463, 1.372-7.692). In conclusion, 'cereal, animal, and plant food' and 'beverage' dietary patterns may be associated with increased risk of obesity. 'Cereal, animal, and plant food' dietary patterns may be associated with increased risk of obesity resulting from increased total energy intake by increased protein and fat intake; while a 'beverage' dietary pattern may be associated with increased risk of obesity resulting from increased total energy intake by increased carbohydrate intake. The findings are valuable in targeting future nutrition education.

  18. Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Obesity in Older People in China: Data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyue Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: No studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity among older Chinese people, by considering gender and urbanization level differences. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (2745 individuals, aged ≥ 60 years. Dietary data were obtained using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Height, Body Weight, and Waist Circumference were measured. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multinomial and Poisson regression models were used to examine the association between dietary patterns and Body Mass Index (BMI status/central obesity. Results: The prevalence of general and central obesity was 9.5% and 53.4%. Traditional dietary pattern (high intake of rice, pork and vegetables was inversely associated with general/central obesity; modern dietary pattern (high intake of fruit, fast food, and processed meat was positively associated with general/central obesity. The highest quartile of traditional dietary pattern had a lower risk of general/central obesity compared with the lowest quartile, while an inverse picture was found for the modern dietary pattern. These associations were consistent by gender and urbanization levels. Conclusions: Dietary patterns are associated with general/central obesity in older Chinese. This study reinforces the importance of a healthy diet in promoting healthy ageing in China.

  19. Nutrient dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Francesca; Edefonti, Valeria; Bosetti, Cristina; Talamini, Renato; Montella, Maurizio; Giacosa, Attilio; Franceschi, Silvia; Negri, Eva; Ferraroni, Monica; La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano

    2010-11-01

    The role of diet on colorectal cancer has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns. Data were derived from an Italian case-control study, including 1,225 subjects with cancer of the colon, 728 subjects with rectal cancer, and 4,154 hospital controls. We identified dietary patterns on a selected set of nutrients through principal component factor analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for both cancers were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression. We identified 5 major dietary patterns. Direct associations were observed between the Starch-rich pattern and both cancer of the colon (OR = 1.68) and of the rectum (OR = 1.74). Inverse relationships were found between the Vitamins and fiber pattern and rectal cancer (OR = 0.61), between the Unsaturated fats (animal source) and the Unsaturated fats (vegetable source) and cancer of the colon (OR = 0.80 and OR = 0.79, respectively). No other significant association was found. The Starch-rich pattern is potentially an unfavorable indicator of risk for both colon and rectal cancer, whereas the Vitamins and fiber pattern is associated with a reduced risk of rectal cancer and the Unsaturated fats patterns with a reduced risk of colon cancer.

  20. Association between Dietary Patterns and the Indicators of Obesity among Chinese: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Shu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available No previous study has investigated dietary pattern in association with obesity risk in a middle-aged Chinese population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of obesity in the city of Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang Province, east China. In this cross-sectional study of 2560 subjects aged 45–60 years, dietary intakes were evaluated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. All anthropometric measurements were obtained using standardized procedures. The partial correlation analysis was performed to assess the associations between dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and waist to hip ratio (WHR. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between dietary patterns and obesity, with adjustment for potential confounders. Four major dietary patterns were extracted by means of factor analysis: animal food, traditional Chinese, western fast-food, and high-salt patterns. The animal food pattern was positively associated with BMI (r = 0.082, 0.144, respectively, p < 0.05 and WC (r = 0.102, 0.132, respectively, p < 0.01, and the traditional Chinese pattern was inversely associated with BMI (r = −0.047, −0.116, respectively, p < 0.05 and WC (r = −0.067, −0.113, respectively, p < 0.05 in both genders. After controlling for potential confounders, subjects in the highest quartile of animal food pattern scores had a greater odds ratio for abdominal obesity (odds ratio (OR = 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.188–2.340; p < 0.01, in comparison to those from the lowest quartile. Compared with the lowest quartile of the traditional Chinese pattern, the highest quartile had a lower odds ratio for abdominal obesity (OR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.441–0.901, p < 0.05. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that the animal food pattern was associated with a higher risk of abdominal obesity, while the traditional Chinese

  1. Association between Dietary Patterns and the Indicators of Obesity among Chinese: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Long; Zheng, Pei-Fen; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Si, Cai-Juan; Yu, Xiao-Long; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Lun; Liao, Dan

    2015-09-17

    No previous study has investigated dietary pattern in association with obesity risk in a middle-aged Chinese population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of obesity in the city of Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang Province, east China. In this cross-sectional study of 2560 subjects aged 45-60 years, dietary intakes were evaluated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). All anthropometric measurements were obtained using standardized procedures. The partial correlation analysis was performed to assess the associations between dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist to hip ratio (WHR). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between dietary patterns and obesity, with adjustment for potential confounders. Four major dietary patterns were extracted by means of factor analysis: animal food, traditional Chinese, western fast-food, and high-salt patterns. The animal food pattern was positively associated with BMI (r = 0.082, 0.144, respectively, p < 0.05) and WC (r = 0.102, 0.132, respectively, p < 0.01), and the traditional Chinese pattern was inversely associated with BMI (r = -0.047, -0.116, respectively, p < 0.05) and WC (r = -0.067, -0.113, respectively, p < 0.05) in both genders. After controlling for potential confounders, subjects in the highest quartile of animal food pattern scores had a greater odds ratio for abdominal obesity (odds ratio (OR) = 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.188-2.340; p < 0.01), in comparison to those from the lowest quartile. Compared with the lowest quartile of the traditional Chinese pattern, the highest quartile had a lower odds ratio for abdominal obesity (OR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.441-0.901, p < 0.05). Our findings indicated that the animal food pattern was associated with a higher risk of abdominal obesity, while the traditional Chinese pattern was associated with a lower

  2. Body image dissatisfaction and dietary patterns according to nutritional status in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Silva, Rita de Cássia; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; Conceição-Machado, Maria Ester Pereira da; Ruiz, Ana Santos; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Santana, Mônica Leila Portela

    2017-08-09

    There is a lack of data on the association between body self-perception and eating patterns in Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to explore the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and eating patterns by the anthropometric status in adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 1496 adolescents was conducted. The participants completed the Body Shape Questionnaire. Demographic, anthropometric, and socioeconomic data were collected, as well as information regarding the pubertal development and dietary intake. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the associations of interest. Body image dissatisfaction was identified in 19.5% of the adolescents. Three dietary patterns were identified: (1) the Western pattern was composed of sweets and sugars, soft drinks, typical dishes, pastries, fast food, beef, milk, and dairy products; (2) the Traditional pattern was composed of oils, chicken, fish, eggs, processed meat products, cereals (rice, cassava flour, pasta, etc.), baked beans, and bread; and (3) the Restrictive pattern was composed of granola, roots, vegetables, and fruit. Among overweight/obese adolescents, the data indicated a negative association of slight body image dissatisfaction (OR: 0.240 [0.100; 0.576]) and moderate body image dissatisfaction (OR: 0.235 [0.086; 0.645]) with the Western dietary pattern. Additionally, in this group, there was a positive association between high body image dissatisfaction and the Restrictive pattern (OR: 2.794 [1.178; 6.630]). Amongst overweight/obese adolescents, those with slight and moderate body image dissatisfaction were less likely to follow a Western-like dietary pattern when compared with those satisfied with their body image. Additionally, in this group, adolescents with high body image dissatisfaction was more likely to follow a restrictive pattern. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  3. Dietary patterns, food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andreas W; Christensen, Dirk L; Larsson, Melanie W; Eis, Jeannette; Christensen, Tue; Friis, Henrik; Mwaniki, David L; Kilonzo, Beatrice; Boit, Michael K; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Tetens, Inge

    2011-09-01

    To compare dietary patterns and food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya. In the present cross-sectional study, dietary intake was estimated in adult volunteers using two non-consecutive interactive 24 h recalls. Dietary patterns were assessed from the number of meals and snacks per day and from the food items and major food groups registered, and their contribution to energy intake (EI) was calculated. Anthropometric values were measured and sociodemographic data obtained using a questionnaire. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Bondo, Kitui and Transmara districts of rural Kenya. A high prevalence of food insecurity in Kenya underlines the importance of describing the dietary patterns and intakes in different Kenyan ethnic groups. A total of 1163 (61 % women) adult Luo, Kamba and Maasai, with a mean age of 38·6 (range: 18-68) years, volunteered to participate. Dietary patterns and food groups contributing to EI differed significantly among the ethnic groups. Mean EI ranged from 5·8 to 8·6 MJ/d among women and from 7·2 to 10·5 MJ/d among men, with carbohydrates contributing between 55·7 % and 74·2 % and fat contributing between 14·5 % and 30·2 % of total EI. Mean protein intake ranged from 0·72 to 1·3 g/kg per d, and EI:BMR ratio ranged between 1·1 and 1·6 in both sexes, and was highest among the Luo. Prevalence of underweight (BMI food insecurity measured as a degree of undernutrition and as dietary patterns differed considerably among the ethnic groups. The Maasai and Kamba in particular were exposed to food insecurity.

  4. Bone mineral density and dietary patterns in older adults: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Katherine L; Chen, Honglei; Hannan, Marian T; Cupples, L Adrienne; Wilson, Peter W F; Felson, David; Kiel, Douglas P

    2002-07-01

    Several nutrients are known to affect bone mineral density (BMD). However, these nutrients occur together in foods and dietary patterns, and the overall effects of dietary choices are not well understood. We evaluated associations between dietary patterns and BMD in older adults. Of the original Framingham Heart Study subjects, 907 aged 69-93 y completed food-frequency questionnaires as part of an osteoporosis study. We defined dietary patterns by cluster analysis. BMD was measured at the proximal right femur (femoral neck, trochanter, Ward's area) with a dual-photon absorptiometer and at the 33% radial shaft with a single-photon absorptiometer. We regressed BMD measures onto the cluster variable, adjusting for potential confounders. Six dietary patterns were identified, with relatively greater proportions of intake from meat, dairy, and bread; meat and sweet baked products; sweet baked products; alcohol; candy; and fruit, vegetables, and cereal. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, men in the last group had significantly (P = 0.05) greater BMD than did 2-4 other groups at the hip sites and the candy group at the radius. Men in the candy group had significantly (P < 0.05) lower BMD than did those in the fruit, vegetables, and cereal group for 3 of the 4 sites. Women in the candy group had significantly (P < 0.01) lower BMD than did all but one other group at the radius. Dietary pattern is associated with BMD. High fruit and vegetable intake appears to be protective in men. High candy consumption was associated with low BMD in both men and women.

  5. Untargeted metabolomics as a screening tool for estimating compliance to a dietary pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj-Britt Schmidt; Rinnan, Åsmund; Manach, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    as well as more general dietary traits such as high fruit and vegetable intake or high intake of heat-treated foods. It was easier to classify the ADD diet than the NND diet probably due to seasonal variation in the food composition of NND and indications of lower compliance among the NND subjects......There is a growing interest in studying the nutritional effects of complex diets. For such studies measurement of dietary compliance is a challenge since the currently available compliance markers only cover limited aspects of a diet. In the present study, an untargeted metabolomics approach...... was used to develop a compliance measure in urine to distinguish between two dietary patterns. A parallel intervention study was carried out in which 181 participants were randomized to follow either a New Nordic Diet (NND) or an Average Danish Diet (ADD) for six months. Dietary intakes were closely...

  6. Current evidence on the association of the metabolic syndrome and dietary patterns in a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Zeinab; Whiting, Susan J; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2016-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a key indicator of two main causes of death worldwide: CVD and diabetes. The present paper aimed to perform a review of the population-based research on the association of dietary patterns and the MetS in terms of methodology and findings. For the purpose of the present study, a scoping literature review was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and hand searching in Google Scholar. Thirty-nine population-based studies were selected. Most of these studies used the factor analysis method and the a priori dietary approach, which had been initially extracted via a posteriori methods such as using the Mediterranean dietary pattern. The main finding was that following the Mediterranean or similar 'healthy' pattern reduced risk of the MetS, while following a 'Western' pattern increased risk of the MetS. The methodological approach in determining the dietary pattern of a population, whether a priori or a posteriori, should be chosen based on the purpose of the research. Overall, evidence suggests a diet based on the components of the Mediterranean diet and the avoidance of the 'Western' diet can aid in preventing the MetS.

  7. Processed red meat contribution to dietary patterns and the associated cardio-metabolic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenighan, Yvonne M; Nugent, Anne P; Li, Kaifeng F; Brennan, Lorraine; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Roche, Helen M; McNulty, Breige A

    2017-08-01

    Evidence suggests that processed red meat consumption is a risk factor for CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This analysis investigates the association between dietary patterns, their processed red meat contributions, and association with blood biomarkers of CVD and T2D, in 786 Irish adults (18-90 years) using cross-sectional data from a 2011 national food consumption survey. All meat-containing foods consumed were assigned to four food groups (n 502) on the basis of whether they contained red or white meat and whether they were processed or unprocessed. The remaining foods (n 2050) were assigned to twenty-nine food groups. Two-step and k-means cluster analyses were applied to derive dietary patterns. Nutrient intakes, plasma fatty acids and biomarkers of CVD and T2D were assessed. A total of four dietary patterns were derived. In comparison with the pattern with lower contributions from processed red meat, the dietary pattern with greater processed red meat intakes presented a poorer Alternate Healthy Eating Index (21·2 (sd 7·7)), a greater proportion of smokers (29 %) and lower plasma EPA (1·34 (sd 0·72) %) and DHA (2·21 (sd 0·84) %) levels (Pprocessed red meat consumption as a risk factor for CVD and T2D may need to be re-assessed.

  8. Nutrient-based dietary patterns and laryngeal cancer: evidence from an exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edefonti, Valeria; Bravi, Francesca; Garavello, Werner; La Vecchia, Carlo; Parpinel, Maria; Franceschi, Silvia; Dal Maso, Luigino; Bosetti, Cristina; Boffetta, Paolo; Ferraroni, Monica; Decarli, Adriano

    2010-01-01

    The issue of diet and laryngeal cancer has been rarely addressed considering the potential role of dietary patterns. We examined this association using data from a case-control study carried out between 1992 and 2000. Cases were 460 histologically confirmed incident laryngeal cancers hospitalized in two Italian areas. Controls were 1,088 subjects hospitalized for acute nonneoplastic diseases unrelated to tobacco or alcohol consumption. Dietary habits were investigated through a 78-item food frequency questionnaire. A posteriori dietary patterns were identified through principal component factor analysis carried out on a selected set of 28 major nutrients. The internal reproducibility, robustness, and reliability of the identified patterns were evaluated. Odds ratios (OR) of laryngeal cancer and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression models on quartiles of factor scores. We identified five major dietary patterns named "animal products," "starch-rich," "vitamins and fiber," "vegetable unsaturated fatty acids," and "animal unsaturated fatty acids." The vitamins and fiber dietary pattern was inversely associated with laryngeal cancer (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.24-0.52 for the highest versus the lowest score quartile), whereas the animal products (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.59-3.45) and the animal unsaturated fatty acids (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.42-3.01) patterns were directly associated with it. There was no significant association between the vegetable unsaturated fatty acids and the starch-rich patterns and laryngeal cancer risk. These findings suggest that diets rich in animal products and animal fats are directly related, and those rich in fruit and vegetables inversely related, to laryngeal cancer risk.

  9. Gut microbiota and cardiometabolic outcomes: influence of dietary patterns and their associated components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Julia M W

    2014-07-01

    Many dietary patterns have been associated with cardiometabolic risk reduction. A commonality between these dietary patterns is the emphasis on plant-based foods. Studies in individuals who consume vegetarian and vegan diets have shown a reduced risk of cardiovascular events and incidence of diabetes. Plant-based dietary patterns may promote a more favorable gut microbial profile. Such diets are high in dietary fiber and fermentable substrate (ie, nondigestible or undigested carbohydrates), which are sources of metabolic fuel for gut microbial fermentation and, in turn, result in end products that may be used by the host (eg, short-chain fatty acids). These end products may have direct or indirect effects on modulating the health of their host. Modulation of the gut microbiota is an area of growing interest, and it has been suggested to have the potential to reduce risk factors associated with chronic diseases. Examples of dietary components that alter the gut microbial composition include prebiotics and resistant starches. Emerging evidence also suggests a potential link between interindividual differences in the gut microbiota and variations in physiology or predisposition to certain chronic disease risk factors. Alterations in the gut microbiota may also stimulate certain populations and may assist in biotransformation of bioactive components found in plant foods. Strategies to modify microbial communities may therefore provide a novel approach in the treatment and management of chronic diseases. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Food availability, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and dietary patterns among blacks with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, Rachel A; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Brancati, Frederick L; Batts-Turner, Marian; Gary, Tiffany L

    2009-01-01

    High diabetes prevalence among low-income and urban African American populations. OBJECTIVES & MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This study aimed to determine associations between neighborhood-level food sources and socioeconomic status (SES), and dietary patterns and body-mass index (BMI). The hypotheses were that the presence of food stores in neighborhoods would be associated with better dietary habits and BMI, and that the presence of convenience stores, and lower neighborhood SES, would be associated with poorer dietary habits and BMI. DESIGN, SETTING, & PATIENTS: Black adults (n = 132) with type 2 diabetes in Project Sugar 2 (Baltimore, Maryland) underwent the Ammerman dietary assessment: total dietary risk score and subscores for meat, dairy, starches, and added fat. Food source availability (food stores, convenience stores, other food stores, restaurants, and other food service places) and SES data from the 2000 US census at the tract-level were linked to individual-level data. Linear mixed-effects regression models with random intercepts were used to account for neighborhood clustering and for individual-level SES and potential confounders. The presence of restaurants and other food service places in census tracts were associated with better dietary patterns (adjusted added fat subscore beta = -1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.8, -0.4, and beta = -1.0, 95% CI = -1.7, -0.3, respectively). The presence of convenience stores and lower neighborhood SES was not significantly associated with worse dietary patterns or body-mass index, although trends were in the hypothesized direction. These findings provide some evidence for structural improvements to food environments in urban and low-income black neighborhoods.

  11. Dietary patterns and significance of nutrition for women with low-risk pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Sales de CARVALHO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate dietary patterns and significance of diet for pregnant women. Methods: Cross-sectional study carried out in eight health units in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, with 201 pregnant women. The following instruments were used: a socio-economic and health questionnaire, the Free-Word Association Test, and a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified using principal components and factor analysis. Poisson regression with 5% significance level was used. Results: Three dietary patterns were identified: current Brazilian pattern (beans, rice, processed meats, fats, refined grains, pasta and pastries, soft drink, sugar and sweets, cookies and crackers; healthy pattern (fruits and fruit juices, vegetables, whole grains, seafood, dairy products; and energy-rich pattern (salty deep-fried snacks, popcorn, packaged snacks, instant noodles, tubers, and chicken. Women who did not receive nutrition guidance during prenatal care showed less chance of adherence to the current Brazilian dietary pattern (PR=0.87, and therefore their level of consumption of foods commonly present in Brazilian diets was low. For most women, the significance of diet was reported as important and healthy, but it was not associated with any of the diet patterns identified. However, the women who did not consider that during pregnancy diet should be healthy showed greater chance of adherence to the energy-rich pattern (PR=1.18. This finding deserves special attention since excessive weight gain can have a negative effect on pregnancy. Conclusion: Nutrition guidance during prenatal care and the way pregnant women perceive their eating habits can influence their food choices during pregnancy.

  12. The social distribution of dietary patterns. Traditional, modern and healthy eating among women in a Latin American city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojorquez, Ietza; Unikel, Claudia; Cortez, Irene; Cerecero, Diego

    2015-09-01

    Popkin's nutrition transition model proposes that after the change from the traditional to the modern dietary pattern, another change toward "healthy eating" could occur. As health-related practices are associated with social position, with higher socioeconomic groups generally being the first to adopt public health recommendations, a gradient of traditional-modern-healthy dietary patterns should be observed between groups. The objectives of this article were: 1) to describe the dietary patterns of a representative sample of adult women; 2) to assess whether dietary patterns differentiate in traditional, modern and healthy; and 3) to evaluate the association of social position and dietary patterns. We conducted a survey in Tijuana, a Mexican city at the Mexico-United States (US) border. Women 18-65 years old (n = 2345) responded to a food frequency questionnaire, and questions about socioeconomic and demographic factors. We extracted dietary patterns through factor analysis, and employed indicators of economic and cultural capital, life course stage and migration to define social position. We evaluated the association of social position and dietary patterns with linear regression models. Three patterns were identified: "tortillas," "hamburgers" and "vegetables." Women in a middle position of economic and cultural capital scored higher in the "hamburgers" pattern, and women in upper positions scored higher in the "vegetables" pattern. Economic and cultural capitals and migration interacted, so that for women lower in economic capital, having lived in the US was associated with higher scores in the "hamburgers" pattern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy Are Associated with Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayeon Shin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal dietary patterns before and during pregnancy play important roles in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. We aimed to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy that are associated with GDM risk in pregnant U.S. women. From a 24 h dietary recall of 253 pregnant women (16–41 years included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003–2012, food items were aggregated into 28 food groups based on Food Patterns Equivalents Database. Three dietary patterns were identified by reduced rank regression with responses including prepregnancy body mass index (BMI, dietary fiber, and ratio of poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acid: “high refined grains, fats, oils and fruit juice”, “high nuts, seeds, fat and soybean; low milk and cheese”, and “high added sugar and organ meats; low fruits, vegetables and seafood”. GDM was diagnosed using fasting plasma glucose levels ≥5.1 mmol/L for gestation <24 weeks. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (AOR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for GDM, after controlling for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, family poverty income ratio, marital status, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, energy intake, physical activity, and log-transformed C-reactive protein (CRP. All statistical analyses accounted for the appropriate survey design and sample weights of the NHANES. Of 249 pregnant women, 34 pregnant women (14% had GDM. Multivariable AOR (95% CIs of GDM for comparisons between the highest vs. lowest tertiles were 4.9 (1.4–17.0 for “high refined grains, fats, oils and fruit juice” pattern, 7.5 (1.8–32.3 for “high nuts, seeds, fat and soybean; low milk and cheese” pattern, and 22.3 (3.9–127.4 for “high added sugar and organ meats; low fruits, vegetables and seafood” pattern after controlling for maternal sociodemographic variables, prepregnancy BMI, gestational

  14. Exploring dietary patterns by using the treelet transform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    as the first 7 patterns derived with PCA, for which interpretation was less clear. When the authors used multivariate Cox regression models to estimate relative risk of myocardial infarction, the significant risk factors were comparable whether the model was based on PCA or TT factors. The present study shows......Principal component analysis (PCA) has been used extensively in the field of nutritional epidemiology to derive patterns that summarize food and nutrient intake, but interpreting it can be difficult. The authors propose the use of a new statistical technique, the treelet transform (TT...

  15. Dietary patterns and relationship to obesity-related health outcomes and mortality in adults 75 years of age or greater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, P Y; Mitchell, D C; Coffman, D L; Craig Wood, G; Hartman, T J; Still, C; Jensen, G L

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity-related adverse health outcomes is increasing among older adults. Because it is thought that nutrition plays an important role in successful aging, there has been considerable interest in the association between dietary patterns of older adults and obesity-related health outcomes. This study examined the association between dietary patterns and mortality and prevalence of obesity-related health outcomes, namely cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), over a 5-year follow-up period in adults aged 75 years or greater. A longitudinal observational study with cross-sectional dietary assessment. Rural Central Pennsylvania. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 449; 76.5 years old; 57% female). Multiple, unannounced, 24-hour dietary recalls were used to collect dietary intake. Cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Prevalence of CVD, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and MetSyn was extracted from outpatient electronic medical records. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between dietary patterns and health outcomes and mortality. 'Sweets and Dairy', 'Health-Conscious' and 'Western' dietary patterns were identified. Compared to the 'Health-Conscious' pattern, those in the 'Sweets and Dairy' pattern had increased odds of hypertension over the follow-up period; adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) was 2.18 (1.11-4.30). No significant associations were found for CVD, diabetes mellitus, MetSyn or mortality with dietary patterns. These findings support the potential value of healthy dietary patterns in the management of hypertension in older adults. We did not observe any other strong associations between dietary patterns and health outcomes or mortality in persons ≥ 75 years of age; thus failing to support the use of overly restrictive diet prescriptions for older persons, especially where food intake may be inadequate.

  16. [Dietary patterns and its influencing factors among freshmen students in college].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-fang; Mu, Min; Zhao, Yan; Li, Hu-zhong; Fang, Yan-fu; Wang, Hai-lin; Li, Li; Hu, Chuan-lai

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the dietary pattern in college freshmen students and to analyze the influencing factors on their dietary patterns. A questionnaire survey on situation of dietary pattern and influencing factors was conducted among 1319 freshmen students. Four major dietary patterns were noticed and they were: I, high consumption in hamburger, fried food, nuts, biscuit, chocolate, cola, coffee, sugars, II, high consumption in pork, mutton, beef, poultry meat, animal liver, III, high consumption in fresh fruits, eggs, fish and shrimps, kelp laver and sea fish, milk and dairy products, beans and bean products, IV, high consumption in rice and grain, fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, pork. Risk factors on dietary pattern were presented as follows: (1) boys:having the food pattern I and II showed a strong positive association with the place where they live (OR = 1.67, 95%CI: 0.87 - 3.19; OR = 1.51, 95%CI: 0.79 - 2.88), eating place (OR = 1.63, 95%CI: 1.03 - 2.59;OR = 1.83, 95%CI: 1.04 - 3.23), level of mother's education (OR = 2.52, 95%CI: 1.07 - 5.95; OR = 3.38, 95%CI: 1.50 - 7.63), family income (OR = 2.24, 95%CI: 1.30 - 3.88; OR = 3.06, 95%CI: 1.77 - 5.29) and the status of passive smoking (OR = 1.80, 95%CI: 0.70 - 4.59; OR = 1.83, 95%CI: 0.75 - 4.45). Inverse correlations was found on the level of mother's education (OR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.17 - 1.79). The food pattern IV showed a strong positive association with place of eating (OR = 1.83, 95%CI: 1.04 - 3.23) but having an inverse correlation with the level of mother's education (OR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.17 - 1.79). (2) girls when compared with boys, the food pattern I showed minor association with the places of living and eating; while the food pattern II and III had minor association with the status of passive smoking. Socio-demographic factors and lifestyle had influenced on the dietary patterns among college freshmen students who should be guided to have a reasonable, balanced diet in the college.

  17. Dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a South African population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increased emphasis on the quality of food and the overall pattern of micronutrient intake as an integral consideration for food security particularly among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). However, limited data exist on food consumption and nutrient intakes for populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The study ...

  18. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and heart rate in the SUN project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, M; Martínez-González, M A; Basterra-Gortari, F J; Barrio-López, M T; Gea, A; Beunza, J J

    2014-04-01

    A higher heart rate has been related to an increase of total and cardiovascular mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and heart rate. The SUN project is an ongoing multipurpose cohort study based on university graduates from Spain. This cross-sectional study included 15,863 participants of the SUN project. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern was assessed through a validated 136-item food frequency questionnaire and calculated according to the 9-point score proposed by Trichopoulou. Multiple linear regression models were fitted to assess the relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and heart rate and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The multivariable-adjusted models revealed that participants with a high adherence (7--9 points) to the Mediterranean dietary pattern had a heart rate 2.2 bpm (95% CI 1.4-3.1) lower than participants with a low adherence (0--2 points). Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern seems to be related to a lower heart rate.

  19. Diversity of dietary patterns observed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Fahey, M.; Welch, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    countries. France and particularly Spain have more heterogeneous dietary patterns, with a relatively high consumption of both plant foods and animal products. Apart from characteristics specific to vegetarian groups, the UK 'health-conscious' group shares with the UK general population a relatively high...

  20. Mediterranean and western dietary patterns are related to markers of testicular function among healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutillas-Tolín, A; Mínguez-Alarcón, L; Mendiola, J

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Are there any associations of dietary patterns with semen quality, reproductive hormone levels, and testicular volume, as markers of testicular function? SUMMARY ANSWER: These results suggest that traditional Mediterranean diets may have a positive impact on male reproductive pote...

  1. The impact of a nutrition programme on the dietary intake patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to improve the dietary intake patterns and food choices of children aged 9-13 years in a periurban community. Methods: Two schools were randomly selected from within this periurban community. A nutrition education programme was implemented over one school term, with the testing of ...

  2. Changes in Dietary Patterns from Childhood to Adolescence and Associated Body Adiposity Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danielle Biazzi Leal; Maria Alice Altenburg de; Patrícia de Fragas Hinnig; Jeovani Schmitt; Adriana Soares Lobo; France Bellisle; Patrícia Faria Di Pietro; Francilene Kunradi Vieira; Pedro Henrique de Moura; Dalton Francisco de Andrade

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify cross-sectional dietary patterns (DPs) in a representative sample of 7-10-year-old schoolchildren, to examine how scores for these DPs tracked over a time period of five years...

  3. Dietary patterns as compared with physical activity in relation to metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Li, Y.; Lai, J.; Wang, D.; Zhang, J.; Fu, P.; Yang, X.; Qi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To examine the nationally-representative dietary patterns and their joint effects with physical activity on the likelihood of metabolic syndrome (MS) among 20,827 Chinese adults. Methods and results: CNNHS was a nationally representative cross-sectional observational study. Metabolic syndrome

  4. Associations among handgrip strength, dietary pattern, and physical activity level in Physical Education students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem KURT

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among handgrip strength (HGS, dietary pattern, and physical activity level in students from a physical education and sport department. Material and Methods: In this study, 124 men and 77 women aged 18–29 y participated. HGS was evaluated in the dominant hand by using an adjustable handgrip dynamometer and expressed in Newton. Dietary pattern was evaluated by using the Dietary Pattern Index (DPI adapted into the Turkish. Physical activity level was measured by using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Results: The Spearman correlation coefficient showed that HGS positively correlated with IPAQ score (r=0.204, p=0.004, body mass index (r=0.559, p<0.001, and age (r=0.205, p=0.003, but negatively correlated with DPI score (r=−0.179, p=0.01. Conclusion: HGS is a useful, simple, and objective assessment tool for monitoring the physical activity levels and dietary patterns of young subjects.

  5. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer in a low-risk population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Penniecook-Sawyers, Jason A; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Beeson, Larry; Knutsen, Synnove; Herring, Patti; Fraser, Gary E

    2016-01-01

    ...), a prospective cohort of 96 001 subjects recruited between 2002 and 2007. Answers to a previously validated FFQ were used to classify subjects to vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian and non-vegetarian dietary patterns...

  6. Common and Country-Specific Dietary Patterns in Four European Cohort Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balder, H.F.; Virtanen, M.; Brants, H.A.M.; Krogh, V.; Dixon, L.B.; Tan, F.; Mannisto, S.; Bellocco, R.; Pietinen, P.; Wolk, A.; Berrino, F.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Hartman, A.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    The association between diet and cancer, predominantly investigated univariately, has often been inconsistent, possibly because of the large number of candidate risk factors and their high intercorrelations. Analysis of dietary patterns is expected to give more insight than analysis of single

  7. Dietary patterns associated with male lung cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balder, H.F.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this article was to study the association between dietary patterns and lung cancer incidence in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer. The baseline measurement of this prospective case cohort study that was completed by 58,279 men in 1986 included a self-administered

  8. Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk: Results from three cohort studies in the DIETSCAN project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Männistö, S.; Dixon, L.B.; Balder, H.F.; Virtanen, M.J.; Krogh, V.; Khani, B.R.; Berrino, F.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Hartman, A.M.; Pietinen, P.; Tan, F.; Wolk, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Only a few consistent findings on individual foods or nutrients that influence breast cancer risk have emerged thus far. Since people do not consume individual foods but certain combinations of them, the analysis of dietary patterns may offer an additional aspect for assessing

  9. Visualization of dietary patterns and their associations with age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    PURPOSE: We aimed to visualize the relationship of predominant dietary patterns and their associations with AMD. METHODS: A total of 8103 eyes from 4088 participants in the baseline Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were classified into three groups: control (n=2739), early AMD (n=4599), and adv...

  10. Dietary patterns, biomarkers of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, F.P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary belonging to the thesis entitled ‘Dietary patterns, biomarkers of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality’ The long history of epidemiologic studies on diet and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has traditionally relied on analysis of specific

  11. The relationship of major American dietary patterns to age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that major American dietary patterns are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk. This was a cross-sectional study with 8,103 eyes from 4,088 eligible participants in the baseline Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were classified into control (n=2,739), early ...

  12. Multifactorial analysis of dietary patterns in healthy and coronary artery disease patients: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Maleki

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Although there are some differences between dietary pattern in patient with coronary artery disease, nutritional attitudes are not significantly different in normal and CAD patients. However, according to the importance of diet in CAD, balancing these attitudes should be on the educational system high priority.

  13. Dietary Patterns Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease: Population Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Gustaw-Rothenberg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently dietary pattern analysis has emerged as a way for examining diet-disease relations in Alzheimer’s disease. In contrast with the conventional approach, which focuses on a single nutrient or a few nutrients or foods, this method considers overall eating patterns. We examined the dietary patterns defined by factor analysis using data collected with a food-frequency questionnaire in people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD as compared to healthy controls. The diet data were obtained during population based study of the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease in a population in Poland. Stratified sampling and random selection strategies were combined to obtain a representative population for screening (age group > 55. From the population screened three times, 71 people were diagnosed with Alzheimer’s according to DSM-IV, and were recruited for further diet risk factors assessment. A group of people with Alzheimer disease (n = 71; F/M 42/29 and the same number of healthy, age and gender matched control were recruited for the study. Patients and their caregivers as well as controls were presented with a food frequency questionnaire based on the 12 food groups. Factor analysis (principal component was used to derive food patterns. The analysis was conducted using the factor procedure. The factors were rotated by an orthogonal transformation (Varimax rotation to achieve simpler structure with greater interpretability. Using factor analysis, we identified major eating patterns, one for Alzheimer’s patients and a different one for control group. The AD dietary pattern, FACTOR AD was characterized by a high intake of meat, butter, high-fat dairy products, eggs, and refined sugar, whereas the other pattern, (FACTOR C was characterized by a high intake of grains and vegetables. These data indicate the existence of dietary patterns defined by factor analysis with data from a food frequency questionnaire, characteristic for Alzheimer’s disease in a

  14. Dietary Patterns and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a First Nations Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeds, Jacqueline; Mansuri, Sudaba; Mamakeesick, Mary; Harris, Stewart B; Zinman, Bernard; Gittelsohn, Joel; Wolever, Thomas M S; Connelly, Phillip W; Hanley, Anthony

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a growing concern worldwide, particularly in Indigenous communities, which have undergone a marked nutrition transition characterized by reduced intakes of traditional foods and increased intakes of market foods. Few studies have assessed the relationships between differing dietary patterns and risk for type 2 diabetes in Indigenous communities in Canada. The objective of the study was to characterize dietary patterns using factor analysis (FA) and to relate these patterns to the incidence of type 2 diabetes after 10 years of follow up in a First Nations community in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a prospective analysis of 492 participants in the SLHDP who did not have diabetes at baseline (1993 to 1995) and were followed for 10 years. A food-frequency questionnaire was administered, and FA was used to identify patterns of food consumption. Multivariate logistic regression analyses determined associations of food patterns with incident type 2 diabetes, adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle confounders. At follow up, 86 participants had developed incident type 2 diabetes. FA revealed 3 prominent dietary patterns: Balanced Market Foods, Beef and Processed Foods and Traditional Foods. After adjustment for age, sex, waist circumference, interleukin-6 and adiponectin, the Beef and Processed Foods pattern was associated with increased risk for incident type 2 diabetes (OR=1.38; 95% CI 1.02, 1.86). In contrast, the Balanced Market Foods and Traditional Foods Patterns were not significantly associated with type 2 diabetes. Dietary interventions should encourage reduced consumption of unhealthful market foods, in combination with improvements in local food environments so as to increase access to healthful foods and reduce food insecurity in Indigenous communities. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of dietary patterns on serum C-reactive protein level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y; Kang, D; Lee, S-A

    2014-09-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of inflammation which has been shown in multiple prospective epidemiological studies to predict the risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Dietary patterns may influence the risk of diseases through the effects of CRP on inflammation. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of dietary patterns with CRP in blood, taking into consideration gender and blood pressure. The present cross-sectional analysis included 7574 participants from a large, population-based study of middle-aged Koreans. Four dietary patterns, including 'fruit', 'vegetable', 'meat' and 'coffee', were derived using factor analysis. Multiple linear regressions were used to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and CRP after adjusting for age, sex, education, waist circumference, smoke status and alcohol consumption. We found that the 'vegetable' pattern was inversely associated with CRP (Ptrend = 0.01). The adjusted mean CRP was 0.04 mg/dl lower (95% CI -0.07, -0.01) for subjects in the highest quartile of the 'vegetable' pattern compared with those in the lowest quartile. This inverse association was more pronounced in men with hypertensive blood; CRP concentrations across increasing quartile categories of the 'vegetable' pattern score were 0.1, 0.14, and 0.15 mg/dl reduction compared to the 1st quartile (the lowest quartile) (Ptrend = 0.04, Plinearity = 0.02). The inverse association of the 'vegetable' pattern with CRP was assessed, and the association appeared to be more predominant in men with hypertensive blood pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Adherence to predefined dietary patterns and incident type 2 diabetes in European populations: EPIC-InterAct Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kröger, J.; Schulze, M.B.; Romaguera, D.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis - Few studies have investigated the relationship between predefined dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes incidence; little is known about the generalisability of these associations. We aimed to assess the association between predefined dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes risk in

  17. Socio-demographic and the lifestyle determinants of 'Western-like' and 'Health conscious' dietary patterns in toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Bleeker, S.E.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, M.K.; Raat, H.; Moll, H.

    2013-01-01

    Determinants of a child's diet shortly after weaning and lactation have been relatively understudied. The aim of the present study was hence to identify common dietary patterns in toddlers and to explore parental and child indicators of these dietary patterns. The study was a population-based,

  18. Dietary pattern, inflammation and cognitive decline: The Whitehall II prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Mio; Shipley, Martin; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Brunner, Eric J

    2017-04-01

    Low-grade inflammation appears to play an etiological role in cognitive decline. However the association between an inflammatory dietary pattern and cognitive decline has not been investigated. We aimed to investigate dietary patterns associated with inflammation and whether such diet is associated with cognitive decline. We analyzed 5083 participants (28.7% women) from the Whitehall II cohort study. Diet and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed in 1991-1993 and 1997-1999. We used reduced rank regression methods to determine a dietary pattern associated with elevated IL-6. Cognitive tests were performed in 1997-1999 and repeated in 2002-2004 and 2007-2009. The association between dietary pattern and cognitive decline between ages 45 and 79 was assessed using linear mixed models. We identified an inflammatory dietary pattern characterized by higher intake of red meat, processed meat, peas and legumes, and fried food, and lower intake of whole grains which correlated with elevated IL-6 both in 1991-1993 and 1997-1999. A greater decline in reasoning was seen in participants in the highest tertile of adherence to the inflammatory dietary pattern (-0.37 SD; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.40, -0.34) compared to those in the lowest tertile (-0.31; 95% CI -0.34, -0.28) after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, occupational status, education, and total energy intake (p for interaction across tertiles = 0.01). This association remained significant after multivariable adjustment. Similarly for global cognition, the inflammatory dietary pattern was associated with faster cognitive decline after multivariable adjustment (p for interaction across tertiles = 0.04). Associations were stronger in younger participants (peas, legumes and fried food, and lower intake of whole grains was associated with higher inflammatory markers and accelerated cognitive decline at older ages. This supports the case for further research. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by

  19. Dietary patterns in toddlers with excess weight. The 2016 pitnuts study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weker, Halina; Barańska, Marta; Riahi, Agnieszka; Strucińska, Małgorzata; Więch, Małgorzata; Rowicka, Grażyna; Dyląg, Hanna; Klemarczyk, Witold; Bzikowska, Agnieszka; Socha, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Children's appropriate dietary pattern determines their optimal development, reduces the risk of childhood diseases and the risk of diet-dependent diseases, including obesity in adulthood. To analyze the dietary patterns of children with excess weight aged 1-3 years in comparison with the main components of the safe nutrition model including: the organization of meals (frequency of meals), selection of products (food intake), energy and nutritional value of children's diets. The study was carried out in 2016 on a representative nationwide sample of children aged 5-36 months (n=1059). The analysis of dietary patterns covered 173 with excess weight children aged 13-36 months (BMI-z-score >1 SD). Their nutritional status was evaluated based on BMI and its standardisation according to the WHO reference child growth standards for children aged 0-5 years (BMI z-score). The diets of children were assessed using 3-day dietary records. The dietary patterns of the children who were analysed were determined using the cluster analysis (k-means method), including 11 variables concerning average daily intake of main food group products (cow's milk, junior formula, milk products, bread, groats and rice, cereals, cured meats, fats, sugar and sweets, fruits, nectars and juices). Three clusters of overweight and obese children with different dietary patterns were identified. The diet of children from the first cluster (n=58) was based primarily on junior formula and foods for infants and toddlers. This dietary pattern was defined as the "baby food diet". The second cluster comprised 33 children whose diets were characterised by high consumption of cow's milk and dairy products, as well as cereal products, including bread, groats, rice and breakfast cereals. This dietary pattern was defined the "milk and cereals diet". The third cluster consisted of 82 children whose dietary pattern was characterised by high consumption of bread, cold meats and fats, sweets, juices and fruits (the

  20. Western dietary pattern increases risk of cardiovascular disease in Iranian adults: a prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Vakili, Azita Zadeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-03-01

    Limited data are available regarding the association of major dietary patterns and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Middle Eastern countries. We aimed to evaluate the association of major dietary patterns, using factor analysis, with the risk of CVD. Participants without CVD (n = 2284) were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and were followed for a mean of 4.7 years. Dietary intake of participants was assessed at baseline (2006-2008); biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and follow-up examination. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate risk of CVD across tertiles of dietary pattern scores. Linear regression models were used to indicate association of dietary pattern scores with changes of CVD risk factors over the study period. Two major dietary patterns, Western and traditional, were identified. During a mean 4.7 ± 1.4 years of follow-up, 57 participants experienced CVD-related events. In the fully adjusted model, we observed an increased risk of CVD-related events in the highest compared to the lowest tertile category of Western dietary pattern score (HR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.03-4.18, P for trend = 0.01). Traditional dietary pattern was not associated with incidence of CVD or CVD risk factors. A significant association was observed between the Western dietary pattern and changes in serum insulin (β = 5.88, 95% CI = 0.34-11.4). Our findings confirm that the Western dietary pattern, characterized by higher loads of processed meats, salty snacks, sweets, and soft drinks, is a dietary risk factor for CVD in the Iranian population.

  1. Dietary obesity caused by a specific circadian eating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Niloofar; Thibault, Louise

    2011-04-01

    The eating pattern is altered by high-fat diet-induced obesity. To clarify whether this is dependent on the fatty acid profile of the diet, the authors conducted two studies on adult female Sprague-Dawley rats fed normal-fat chow or high-fat diets with varying fatty acid composition. Eating pattern and body weight were assessed in rats fed canola-based (low in saturated fatty acids) or lard-based (moderate in saturated fatty acids) diets for 7 days, and in animals fed chow or canola- or butter-based diets (rich in saturated fatty acids) for 43 days. These parameters were also determined when restricted amounts of low-fat canola- or butter-based diets were consumed for 25 days. Early exposure to canola or lard high-fat feeding or prolonged access to canola- or butter-based fat-rich diets (relative to chow feeding) did not alter the normal light-dark distribution of food and energy intake. All animals ingested most of their food during the dark phase. However, feeding the high-fat canola- and butter-based diets produced an altered eating pattern during the light phase characterized by a smaller number of meals, longer intermeal interval, and enhanced satiety ratio, and consumption of shorter-lasting meals than chow-fed animals. Relative to canola or chow feeding, butter-fed animals consumed a lower number of meals during the dark phase and had a higher eating rate in the light phase, but ate larger meals overall. Only butter feeding led to overeating and obesity. When given a restricted amount of low-fat canola- or butter-based diet at the start of the light phase, rats ate most of their food in that phase and diurnal rather than nocturnal feeding occurred with restriction. These findings underscore the role of saturated fatty acids and the resulting eating pattern alteration in the development of obesity.

  2. Unique pattern of dietary adaptation in the dentition of Carnivora: its advantage and developmental origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuyuki; Kishida, Takushi; Takahashi, Katsu; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Carnivora is a successful taxon in terms of dietary diversity. We investigated the dietary adaptations of carnivoran dentition and the developmental background of their dental diversity, which may have contributed to the success of the lineage. A developmental model was tested and extended to explain the unique variability and exceptional phenotypes observed in carnivoran dentition. Carnivorous mammalian orders exhibited two distinct patterns of dietary adaptation in molars and only Carnivora evolved novel variability, exhibiting a high correlation between relative molar size and the shape of the first molar. Studies of Bmp7-hetero-deficient mice, which may exhibit lower Bmp7 expression, suggested that Bmp7 has pleiotropic effects on these two dental traits. Its effects are consistent with the pattern of dietary adaptation observed in Carnivora, but not that observed in other carnivorous mammals. A molecular evolutionary analysis revealed that Bmp7 sequence evolved by natural selection during ursid evolution, suggesting that it plays an evolutionary role in the variation of carnivoran dentition. Using mouse experiments and a molecular evolutionary analysis, we extrapolated the causal mechanism of the hitherto enigmatic ursid dentition (larger M2 than M1 and M3). Our results demonstrate how carnivorans acquired novel dental variability that benefits their dietary divergence.

  3. Dietary pattern and risk of hodgkin lymphoma in a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Mara M; Chang, Ellen T; Zhang, Yawei; Fung, Teresa T; Batista, Julie L; Ambinder, Richard F; Zheng, Tongzhang; Mueller, Nancy E; Birmann, Brenda M

    2015-09-01

    Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has few known modifiable risk factors, and the relationship between diet and cHL risk is unclear. We performed the first investigation of an association between dietary pattern and cHL risk in 435 cHL cases and 563 population-based controls from Massachusetts and Connecticut (1997-2000) who completed baseline diet questionnaires. We identified 4 major dietary patterns ("vegetable," "high meat," "fruit/low-fat dairy," "desserts/sweets") using principal components analysis. We computed multivariable odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of dietary pattern score (quartiles) with younger-adult (age desserts/sweets was associated with younger-adult (odds ratio(quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 2.45; Ptrend = 0.008) and EBV-negative, younger-adult (odds ratio = 2.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.31, 3.41; Ptrend = 0.007) cHL risk. A high meat diet was associated with older-adult (odds ratio = 3.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 10.91; Ptrend = 0.04) and EBV-negative, older-adult (odds ratio = 4.64, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 20.86; Ptrend = 0.04) cHL risk. Other dietary patterns were not clearly associated with cHL. We report the first evidence for a role of dietary pattern in cHL etiology. Diets featuring high intake of meat or desserts and sweets may increase cHL risk. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Dietary Pattern and Risk of Hodgkin Lymphoma in a Population-Based Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Mara M.; Chang, Ellen T.; Zhang, Yawei; Fung, Teresa T.; Batista, Julie L.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Mueller, Nancy E.; Birmann, Brenda M.

    2015-01-01

    Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has few known modifiable risk factors, and the relationship between diet and cHL risk is unclear. We performed the first investigation of an association between dietary pattern and cHL risk in 435 cHL cases and 563 population-based controls from Massachusetts and Connecticut (1997–2000) who completed baseline diet questionnaires. We identified 4 major dietary patterns (“vegetable,” “high meat,” “fruit/low-fat dairy,” “desserts/sweets”) using principal components analysis. We computed multivariable odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of dietary pattern score (quartiles) with younger-adult (age desserts/sweets was associated with younger-adult (odds ratio(quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 2.45; Ptrend = 0.008) and EBV-negative, younger-adult (odds ratio = 2.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.31, 3.41; Ptrend = 0.007) cHL risk. A high meat diet was associated with older-adult (odds ratio = 3.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 10.91; Ptrend = 0.04) and EBV-negative, older-adult (odds ratio = 4.64, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 20.86; Ptrend = 0.04) cHL risk. Other dietary patterns were not clearly associated with cHL. We report the first evidence for a role of dietary pattern in cHL etiology. Diets featuring high intake of meat or desserts and sweets may increase cHL risk. PMID:26182945

  5. Major dietary patterns, ethnicity, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in rural Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Seon; Park, Song-Yi; Grandinetti, Andrew; Holck, Peter S; Waslien, Carol

    2008-01-01

    The association of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with the overall dietary pattern and its relation with ethnicity was examined. A cross-sectional study with 1257 participants with four ethnicities (Caucasian, Filipino, Native Hawaiian, and Japanese) in the North Kohala region of Hawaii was conducted. Participants 18-95 y of age were surveyed for their ethnic and demographic backgrounds, dietary intakes, and biochemical indexes of glucose intolerance between 1997 and 2000. Three dietary patterns from the food-frequency questionnaire were identified by factor analysis. Factor 1 was characterized by a healthy diet with a frequent intake of vegetables and fruits, and factor 2 was dominated by animal foods and local ethnic dishes. Factor 3 was characterized by a Western diet, which was dominated by French fries, fast-food hamburgers, pizza, and chips. Multivariate logistic regression model for T2DM prevalence included ethnicity and three dietary factors after adjustment for age, sex, income, physical activity, smoking status, and energy intake. Ethnicity was significantly associated with T2DM, with an odds ratio of 1.83 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-3.00) for Native Hawaiians and 1.92 (95% CI 1.12-3.29) for Filipinos compared with Caucasians 1.92 (95% CI 1.12-3.29). Among the three dietary factors, factor 2 was positively associated with T2DM (odds ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.03-1.68), but the significance disappeared after adjustment for energy intake. The findings show that ethnicity is a stronger risk factor for T2DM than dietary patterns when energy intake is adjusted for. Reducing energy intake to prevent T2DM deserves more attention during health promotion for the multiethnic population of Hawaii.

  6. Greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with improved plasma lipid profile: the Aragon Health Workers Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñalvo, José L; Oliva, Belén; Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Uzhova, Irina; Moreno-Franco, Belén; León-Latre, Montserrat; Ordovás, José María

    2015-04-01

    There is wide recognition of the importance of healthy eating in cardiovascular health promotion. The purpose of this study was to identify the main dietary patterns among a Spanish population, and to determine their relationship with plasma lipid profiles. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of data from 1290 participants of the Aragon Workers Health Study cohort. Standardized protocols were used to collect clinical and biochemistry data. Diet was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire, quantifying habitual intake over the past 12 months. The main dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. The association between adherence to dietary patterns and plasma lipid levels was assessed by linear and logistic regression. Two dietary patterns were identified: a Mediterranean dietary pattern, high in vegetables, fruits, fish, white meat, nuts, and olive oil, and a Western dietary pattern, high in red meat, fast food, dairy, and cereals. Compared with the participants in the lowest quintile of adherence to the Western dietary pattern, those in the highest quintile had 4.6 mg/dL lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P < .001), 8 mg/dL lower apolipoprotein A1 levels (P = .005) and a greater risk of having decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (odds ratio = 3.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-7.5; P-trend = .03). Participants adhering to the Mediterranean dietary pattern had 3.3mg/dL higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P < .001), and a ratio of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol that was 0.43 times lower (P = .043). Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with improved lipid profile compared with a Western dietary pattern, which was associated with a lower odds of optimal high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in this population. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary patterns of children at 3.5 and 7 years of age: a New Zealand birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Clare R; Thompson, John M D; Robinson, Elizabeth; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2013-02-01

    To describe the dietary patterns of children at 3.5 and 7 years born small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and the association of dietary patterns with socio-demographic and obstetric factors. Children from a New Zealand birth cohort study were followed up at 3.5 (n = 550) and 7 (n = 591) years. Dietary information was collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were defined in these children ('traditional', 'junk' and 'healthy'). Factors associated with dietary patterns were examined in multivariable analyses. At 3.5 years, 'junk' was associated with maternal smoking in pregnancy, no attendance at antenatal classes, maternal BMI and a younger maternal age. At 3.5 years, 'healthy' was associated with being married when pregnant. At 7 years, 'traditional' was associated with being born SGA, smoking in pregnancy, a younger maternal age and being male. Maternal socio-demographic, obstetric factors and birth size were associated with dietary patterns. The associations were not consistent with each dietary pattern across age groups. To examine the impact of diet in childhood on growth and health outcomes, factors influencing dietary patterns should be assessed at regular intervals throughout childhood. ©2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  8. Association between Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Birth Size Measures in a Diverse Population in Southern US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriyoán Colón-Ramos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite increased interest in promoting nutrition during pregnancy, the association between maternal dietary patterns and birth outcomes has been equivocal. We examined maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy as a determinant of offspring’s birth weight-for-length (WLZ, weight-for-age (WAZ, length-for-age (LAZ, and head circumference (HCZ Z-scores in Southern United States (n = 1151. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed by seven dietary patterns. Multivariable linear regression models described the association of WLZ, WAZ, LAZ, and HCZ with diet patterns controlling for other maternal and child characteristics. In bivariate analyses, WAZ and HCZ were significantly lower for processed and processed-Southern compared to healthy dietary patterns, whereas LAZ was significantly higher for these patterns. In the multivariate models, mothers who consumed a healthy-processed dietary pattern had children with significantly higher HCZ compared to the ones who consumed a healthy dietary pattern (HCZ β: 0.36; p = 0.019. No other dietary pattern was significantly associated with any of the birth outcomes. Instead, the major outcome determinants were: African American race, pre-pregnancy BMI, and gestational weight gain. These findings justify further investigation about socio-environmental and genetic factors related to race and birth outcomes in this population.

  9. Different Dietary Patterns and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus After Kidney Transplantation: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centenaro, Analaura; Pedrollo, Elis F; Nicoletto, Bruna B; Manfro, Roberto C; Gonçalves, Luiz Felipe S; Leitão, Cristiane B; Souza, Gabriela C

    2017-11-21

    To verify the association of dietary patterns and dietary components with new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT). Cross-sectional study. Adult kidney transplant recipients, without history of diabetes before transplantation, who received a kidney transplant and were followed up for at least 1 year. One hundred and sixteen subjects recruited between January 2013 and August 2014. Diagnosis of NODAT was established according to the American Diabetes Association criteria for type 2 diabetes. Demographic, clinical, and anthropometric data were collected. Dietary intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire, administered by a registered dietitian. Dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis. Chi-square test was used to verify the association between dietary patterns and NODAT. Total energy, fiber, and cholesterol intake were calculated. Consumption of macronutrients, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats (total fats and saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and trans fatty acids), were expressed in percentage of total energy intake. Twenty-eight patients developed NODAT in the follow-up period. They presented higher body mass index and body fat percentage, as well as higher levels of triglycerides and urinary protein/creatinine ratio than the non-NODAT group. Two dietary patterns, I and II, were identified. Pattern II was characterized by higher intake of total, saturated, monounsaturated, and trans fats than pattern I. No association between the dietary patterns and NODAT was identified (P = .905), and there was no difference in the distribution of macronutrients, dietary fiber, and dietary cholesterol between the groups with and without NODAT. Posttransplant dietary patterns were not different between patients with and without NODAT. Further larger and prospective studies are needed to evaluate a possible relationship between dietary components and NODAT incidence in kidney transplant recipients. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney

  10. Dietary patterns and odds of Type 2 diabetes in Beirut, Lebanon: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naja Farah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Lebanon, Type 2 diabetes (T2D has a major public health impact through high disease prevalence, significant downstream pathophysiologic effects, and enormous financial liabilities. Diet is an important environmental factor in the development and prevention of T2D. Dietary patterns may exert greater effects on health than individual foods, nutrients, or food groups. The objective of this study is to examine the association between dietary patterns and the odds of T2D among Lebanese adults. Methods Fifty-eight recently diagnosed cases of T2D and 116 population-based age, sex, and place of residence matched control participants were interviewed. Data collection included a standard socio-demographic and lifestyle questionnaire. Dietary intake was evaluated by a semi-quantitative 97-item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, waist circumference, and percent body fat were also obtained. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of extracted patterns with T2D. Pearson correlations between these patterns and obesity markers, energy, and nutrient intakes were also examined. Results Four dietary patterns were identified: Refined Grains & Desserts, Traditional Lebanese, Fast Food and Meat & Alcohol. While scores of the “Refined Grains & Desserts” had the highest correlations with energy (r = 0.74 and carbohydrates (r = 0.22, those of the “Fast Food” had the highest correlation with fat intake (r = 0.34. After adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, scores of the Refined Grains & Desserts and Fast Food patterns were associated with higher odds of T2D (OR: 3.85, CI: 1.13-11.23 and OR: 2.80, CI: 1.14-5.59; respectively and scores of the Traditional Lebanese pattern were inversely associated with the odds of T2D (OR: 0.46, CI: 0.22-0.97. Conclusions The

  11. Dietary patterns and odds of Type 2 diabetes in Beirut, Lebanon: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naja, Farah; Hwalla, Nahla; Itani, Leila; Salem, Maya; Azar, Sami T; Zeidan, Maya Nabhani; Nasreddine, Lara

    2012-12-27

    In Lebanon, Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has a major public health impact through high disease prevalence, significant downstream pathophysiologic effects, and enormous financial liabilities. Diet is an important environmental factor in the development and prevention of T2D. Dietary patterns may exert greater effects on health than individual foods, nutrients, or food groups. The objective of this study is to examine the association between dietary patterns and the odds of T2D among Lebanese adults. Fifty-eight recently diagnosed cases of T2D and 116 population-based age, sex, and place of residence matched control participants were interviewed. Data collection included a standard socio-demographic and lifestyle questionnaire. Dietary intake was evaluated by a semi-quantitative 97-item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, waist circumference, and percent body fat were also obtained. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of extracted patterns with T2D. Pearson correlations between these patterns and obesity markers, energy, and nutrient intakes were also examined. Four dietary patterns were identified: Refined Grains & Desserts, Traditional Lebanese, Fast Food and Meat & Alcohol. While scores of the "Refined Grains & Desserts" had the highest correlations with energy (r = 0.74) and carbohydrates (r = 0.22), those of the "Fast Food" had the highest correlation with fat intake (r = 0.34). After adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, scores of the Refined Grains & Desserts and Fast Food patterns were associated with higher odds of T2D (OR: 3.85, CI: 1.13-11.23 and OR: 2.80, CI: 1.14-5.59; respectively) and scores of the Traditional Lebanese pattern were inversely associated with the odds of T2D (OR: 0.46, CI: 0.22-0.97). The findings of this study demonstrate direct associations of the Refined Grains

  12. Dietary patterns and odds of Type 2 diabetes in Beirut, Lebanon: a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In Lebanon, Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has a major public health impact through high disease prevalence, significant downstream pathophysiologic effects, and enormous financial liabilities. Diet is an important environmental factor in the development and prevention of T2D. Dietary patterns may exert greater effects on health than individual foods, nutrients, or food groups. The objective of this study is to examine the association between dietary patterns and the odds of T2D among Lebanese adults. Methods Fifty-eight recently diagnosed cases of T2D and 116 population-based age, sex, and place of residence matched control participants were interviewed. Data collection included a standard socio-demographic and lifestyle questionnaire. Dietary intake was evaluated by a semi-quantitative 97-item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, waist circumference, and percent body fat were also obtained. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of extracted patterns with T2D. Pearson correlations between these patterns and obesity markers, energy, and nutrient intakes were also examined. Results Four dietary patterns were identified: Refined Grains & Desserts, Traditional Lebanese, Fast Food and Meat & Alcohol. While scores of the “Refined Grains & Desserts” had the highest correlations with energy (r = 0.74) and carbohydrates (r = 0.22), those of the “Fast Food” had the highest correlation with fat intake (r = 0.34). After adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, scores of the Refined Grains & Desserts and Fast Food patterns were associated with higher odds of T2D (OR: 3.85, CI: 1.13-11.23 and OR: 2.80, CI: 1.14-5.59; respectively) and scores of the Traditional Lebanese pattern were inversely associated with the odds of T2D (OR: 0.46, CI: 0.22-0.97). Conclusions The findings of this study

  13. Dietary patterns and cardiometabolic and endocrine plasma biomarkers in US women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlEssa, Hala B; Malik, Vasanti S; Yuan, Changzheng; Willett, Walter C; Huang, Tianyi; Hu, Frank B; Tobias, Deirdre K

    2017-02-01

    Healthful dietary patterns have been associated with lower risks of type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease, but their relations with intermediate markers of cardiometabolic and endocrine health are less established. We evaluated the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), the alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED), and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI) diet-quality scores with cardiometabolic and endocrine plasma biomarkers in US women. The trial was a cross-sectional analysis of 775 healthy women in the Women's Lifestyle Validation Study that was conducted within the NHS (Nurses' Health Study) and NHS II longitudinal cohorts. Multiple linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate associations between quartiles of dietary pattern-adherence scores that were derived from a food-frequency questionnaire and plasma biomarker concentrations that were collected simultaneously. In multivariable models in which highest and lowest quartiles of dietary pattern scores were compared, 1) DASH was significantly associated with higher concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (9%) and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) (21%), and lower concentrations of leptin (28%), triglycerides (19%), and C-peptide (4%) (all P-trend ≤ 0.04); 2) the aMED was associated with 19% higher SHBG and 16% lower triglycerides (P-trend = 0.02 and 0.003, respectively); and 3) the aHEI was associated with significantly higher concentrations of insulin (16%) and SHBG (19%) and lower concentrations of leptin (18%) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Further adjustment for body mass index (BMI) attenuated these associations but remained significant for 1) DASH with leptin and triglycerides and 2) the aMED with triglycerides (all P-trend ≤ 0.03). Adherence to healthful dietary patterns is associated with favorable concentrations of many cardiometabolic and endocrine biomarkers. These relations are mediated in part by BMI. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Food shopping profiles and their association with dietary patterns: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKim, Nicole A; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2015-07-01

    Food shopping is a complex behavior that consists of multiple dimensions. Little research has explored multiple dimensions of food shopping or examined how it relates to dietary intake. To identify patterns (or classes) of food shopping across four domains (fresh food purchasing, conscientious food shopping, food shopping locations, and food/beverage purchasing on or near campus) and explore how these patterns relate to dietary intake among college students. A cross-sectional online survey was administered. Students attending a public 4-year university and a 2-year community college in the Twin Cities (Minnesota) metropolitan area (N=1,201) participated in this study. Fast-food and soda consumption as well as meeting fruit and vegetable, fiber, added sugar, calcium, dairy, and fat recommendations. Crude and adjusted latent class models and adjusted logistic regression models were fit. An eight-class solution was identified: "traditional shopper" (14.9%), "fresh food and supermarket shopper" (14.1%), "convenience shopper" (18.8%), "conscientious convenience shopper" (13.8%), "conscientious, fresh food, convenience shopper" (11.8%), "conscientious fresh food shopper" (6.6%), "conscientious nonshopper" (10.2%), and "nonshopper" (9.8%). "Fresh food and supermarket shoppers" and "conscientious fresh food shoppers" had better dietary intake (for fast food, calcium, dairy, and added sugar), whereas "convenience shoppers" and "conscientious convenience shoppers," and "nonshoppers" had worse dietary intake (for soda, calcium, dairy, fiber, and fat) than "traditional shoppers." These findings highlight unique patterns in food shopping and associated dietary patterns that could inform tailoring of nutrition interventions for college students. Additional research is needed to understand modifiable contextual influences of healthy food shopping. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Food shopping profiles and their association with dietary patterns: A latent class analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Darin J.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Food shopping is a complex behavior that consists of multiple dimensions. Little research has explored multiple dimensions of food shopping or examined how it relates to dietary intake. Objective To identify patterns (or ‘classes’) of food shopping across four domains (fresh food purchasing, “conscientious” food shopping, food shopping locations, and food/beverage purchasing on or near campus) and explore how these patterns relate to dietary intake among college students. Design A cross-sectional online survey was administered. Participants/setting Students attending a public 4-year university and a 2-year community college in the Twin Cities metropolitan area (n=1,201) participated in this study. Main outcome measures Fast food and soda consumption; meeting fruit and vegetable, fiber, added sugar, calcium, dairy, and fat recommendations. Statistical analyses Crude and adjusted latent class models and adjusted logistic regression models were fit. Results An eight-class solution was identified: “traditional shopper (14.9%),” “fresh food and supermarket shopper (14.1%),” “convenience shopper (18.8%),” “conscientious convenience shopper (13.8%),” “conscientious, fresh food, convenience shopper (11.8%),” “conscientious fresh food shopper (6.6%),” “conscientious non-shopper (10.2%)”, and “non-shopper (9.8%).” “Fresh food and supermarket shoppers” and “conscientious fresh food shopper” had better dietary intake (for fast food, calcium, dairy, and added sugar) while “convenience shoppers” and “conscientious convenience shoppers,” and “non-shoppers” had worse dietary intake (for soda, calcium, dairy, fiber, and fat) than “traditional shoppers.” Conclusions These findings highlight unique patterns in food shopping and associated dietary patterns that could inform tailoring of nutrition interventions for college students. Additional research is needed to understand modifiable contextual influences of

  16. Associations between dietary patterns and psychological factors: a cross-sectional study among Chinese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-Min; Ho, Suzanne C; Xie, Yao Jie; Chen, Ya-Jun; Chen, Yu-Ming; Chen, Bailing; Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan; Chan, Dicken; Wong, Carmen Ka Man; He, Qiqiang; Tse, Lap Ah; Woo, Jean

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the association of dietary patterns with depression, perceived stress, and self-esteem among postmenopausal Chinese women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 906 participants who attended the screening visits for two soy trials. Dietary data were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire containing 85 food items. Principal component factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns based on 11 food groups. Psychological factors were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. We identified three dietary patterns as follows: processed foods (refined grains, preserved foods, fat meat, fried foods, and sweets), whole plant foods (whole grains, vegetables, and fruits), and animal foods (fish, lean meat, and milk products). Multivariable linear regression analyses indicated that whole plant food intake was negatively associated with depression score (P = 0.030). Processed food intake was positively associated with perceived stress (P = 0.025) and depression (P = 0.073), and negatively associated with scores of self-esteem (P = 0.046). The highest tertile of processed foods score was associated with 79.3% increased risk of depression (P for trend = 0.006), whereas the highest tertile of whole plant food score was associated with 26% reduction of depression (P for trend = 0.023) relative to the lowest tertile. Dietary patterns featuring a low intake of processed foods and/or a high intake of whole plant foods were associated with a reduced risk of depression and perceived stress.

  17. Instant noodle intake and dietary patterns are associated with distinct cardiometabolic risk factors in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Joon; Cho, Eunyoung; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Fung, Teresa T; Rimm, Eric; Rosner, Bernard; Manson, JoAnn E; Wheelan, Kevin; Hu, Frank B

    2014-08-01

    The consumption of instant noodles is relatively high in Asian populations. It is unclear whether a higher intake of instant noodles is associated with cardiometabolic risk independent of overall dietary patterns. We therefore investigated the association using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV 2007-2009, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the Korean population with a clustered, multistage, stratified, and rolling sampling design. A total of 10,711 adults (54.5% women) 19-64 y of age were analyzed, with adjustment for sampling design complexity. Diet was assessed by using a 63-item food-frequency questionnaire. We identified 2 major dietary patterns with the use of principal components analysis: the "traditional dietary pattern" (TP), rich in rice, fish, vegetables, fruit, and potatoes, and the "meat and fast-food pattern" (MP), with less rice intake but rich in meat, soda, fried food, and fast food including instant noodles. The highest MP quintile was associated with increased prevalence of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.90), LDL cholesterol ≥130 mg/dL (1.3 g/L) (OR: 1.57, 95% CI 1.26, 1.95), decreased prevalence of low HDL cholesterol (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.80), and high triglycerides [≥150 mg/dL (1.5 g/L); OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.93]. The highest quintile for the TP was associated with decreased prevalence of elevated blood pressure (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.90) and marginally lower trends for abdominal obesity (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98; P-trend = 0.06), but neither of the dietary patterns was associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The consumption of instant noodles ≥2 times/wk was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.55) in women but not in men (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.49; P-interaction = 0.04). The 2 major dietary patterns were associated with distinct cardiometabolic risk factors. The consumption of instant noodles was

  18. Which Diet-Related Behaviors in Childhood Influence a Healthier Dietary Pattern? From the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Ah; Hwang, Hyo Jeong; Oh, Se Young; Park, Eun Ae; Cho, Su Jin; Kim, Hae Soon; Park, Hyesook

    2016-12-23

    This study was performed to examine how childhood dietary patterns change over the short term and which changes in diet-related behaviors influence later changes in individual dietary patterns. Using food frequency questionnaire data obtained from children at 7 and 9 years of age from the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort, we examined dietary patterns by principal component analysis. We calculated the individual changes in dietary pattern scores. Changes in dietary habits such as eating a variety of food over two years were defined as "increased", "stable", or "decreased". The dietary patterns, termed "healthy intake", "animal food intake", and "snack intake", were similar at 7 and 9 years of age. These patterns explained 32.3% and 39.1% of total variation at the ages of 7 and 9 years, respectively. The tracking coefficient of snack intake had the highest coefficient (γ = 0.53) and that of animal food intake had the lowest (γ = 0.21). Intra-individual stability in dietary habits ranged from 0.23 to 0.47, based on the sex-adjusted weighted kappa values. Of the various behavioral factors, eating breakfast every day was most common in the "stable" group (83.1%), whereas consuming milk or dairy products every day was the least common (49.0%). Moreover, changes in behavior that improved the consumption of milk or dairy products or encouraged the consumption of vegetables with every meal had favorable effects on changes in healthy dietary pattern scores over two years. However, those with worsened habits, such as less food variety and more than two portions of fried or stir-fried food every week, had unfavorable effects on changes in healthy dietary pattern scores. Our results suggest that diet-related behaviors can change, even over a short period, and these changes can affect changes in dietary pattern.

  19. Dietary patterns in relation to prostate cancer in Iranian men: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Faezeh; Parizi, Mehdi Kardoust; Jessri, Mahsa; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer among males in economically developed countries. Among the several risk factors that have been suggested, only age, ethnicity, diabetes, and family history of prostate cancer are well-established and primary prevention of this disease is limited. Prior studies had shown that dietary intake could be modified to reduce cancer risk. We conducted a hospital-based, case- control study to examine the association between dietary patterns and prostate cancer risk in Iran. A total of fifty patients with prostate cancer and a hundred controls underwent face-to-face interviews. Factor analysis was used to determine the dietary patterns. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We defined two major dietary patterns in this population: 'western diet'(high in sweets and desserts, organ meat, snacks, tea and coffee, French fries, salt, carbonated drinks, red or processed meat) and 'healthy diet' (high in legumes, fish, dairy products, fruits and fruit juice, vegetables, boiled potatoes ,whole cereal and egg). Both Healthy and western pattern scores were divided into two categories (based on medians). Higher scores on Healthy pattern was marginally significantly related to decreased risk of prostate cancer (above median vs below median, OR =0.4, 95%CI=0.2-1.0). An increased risk of prostate cancer was observed with the higher scores on the Western pattern (above median vs below median, OR=4.0, 95%CI=1.5-11.0). The results of this study suggested that diet might be associated with prostate cancer among Iranian males.

  20. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Practices and Birth Weight in Northern Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulai Abubakari

    Full Text Available Adequate maternal nutrition is a key factor for achieving good pregnancy outcomes. Moreover, inadequate dietary intake during pregnancy is considered an important contributor to maternal malnutrition in developing countries. Although some studies have examined the effect of the entire diet on birth outcome, most studies have been very narrow because they considered the effect of single nutrient. The single nutrient approach is a major setback because usually several nutrient deficiencies are more likely to occur than single deficiencies especially in low-income settings.The main aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal dietary patterns, and practices and birth weight in Northern Ghana.A facility-based cross-sectional survey was performed in two districts in the Northern Region of Ghana. The selected districts were the Tamale Metropolis and Savelugu-Nanton District. These districts were purposively sampled to represent a mix of urban, peri-urban and rural populations, therefore ensuring that the distribution in social groups of the study population was similar to the entire population of the region. In all, 578 mothers who were drawing antenatal and postnatal care services were interviewed using a questionnaire, which asked the mothers about their frequency of consumption of individual foods per week since they became pregnant or when they were pregnant.We determined dietary patterns by applying a factor analysis with a varimax rotation using STATA. Multivariate analysis was used to establish association between maternal factors and dietary patterns. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between dietary practices and patterns and birth weight.Women who ate outside the home twice a week (OR = 1.6 & 95% CI; 1.1-2.45, P; 0.017 and those who practiced 'pica' (OR = 1.7 & 95% CI; 1.16-2.75, P; 0.008 had increased odds for low birth. Two dietary patterns were identified-namely 'health conscious' and 'non

  1. Harmonization of Food-Frequency Questionnaires and Dietary Pattern Analysis in 4 Ethnically Diverse Birth Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Russell J; Zulyniak, Michael A; Desai, Dipika; Shaikh, Mateen R; Campbell, Natalie C; Lefebvre, Diana L; Gupta, Milan; Wilson, Julie; Wahi, Gita; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Teo, Koon K; Subbarao, Padmaja; Becker, Allan B; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Turvey, Stuart E; Sears, Malcolm R; Anand, Sonia S

    2016-11-01

    Canada is an ethnically diverse nation, which introduces challenges for health care providers tasked with providing evidence-based dietary advice. We aimed to harmonize food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) across 4 birth cohorts of ethnically diverse pregnant women to derive robust dietary patterns to investigate maternal and newborn outcomes. The NutriGen Alliance comprises 4 prospective birth cohorts and includes 4880 Canadian mother-infant pairs of predominantly white European [CHILD (Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development) and FAMILY (Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life)], South Asian [START (SouTh Asian birth cohoRT)-Canada], or Aboriginal [ABC (Aboriginal Birth Cohort)] origins. CHILD used a multiethnic FFQ based on a previously validated instrument designed by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, whereas FAMILY, START, and ABC used questionnaires specifically designed for use in white European, South Asian, and Aboriginal people, respectively. The serving sizes and consumption frequencies of individual food items within the 4 FFQs were harmonized and aggregated into 36 common food groups. Principal components analysis was used to identify dietary patterns that were internally validated against self-reported vegetarian status and externally validated against a modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index (mAHEI). Three maternal dietary patterns were identified-"plant-based," "Western," and "health-conscious"-which collectively explained 29% of the total variability in eating habits observed in the NutriGen Alliance. These patterns were strongly associated with self-reported vegetarian status (OR: 3.85; 95% CI: 3.47, 4.29; r2 = 0.30, P < 0.001; for a plant-based diet), and average adherence to the plant-based diet was higher in participants in the fourth quartile of the mAHEI than in the first quartile (mean difference: 46.1%; r2 = 0.81, P < 0.001). Dietary data collected by using FFQs from ethnically diverse pregnant women can be

  2. Comparable Dietary Patterns Describe Dietary Behavior across Ethnic Groups in the Netherlands, but Different Elements in the Diet Are Associated with Glycated Hemoglobin and Fasting Glucose Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Louise H; van Dam, Rob M; Snijder, Marieke B; Peters, Ron J G; Dekker, Jacqueline M; de Vries, Jeanne H M; de Boer, Evelien J; Schulze, Matthias B; Stronks, Karien; Nicolaou, Mary

    2015-08-01

    Ethnic minority populations in Western societies suffer from a disproportionate burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Insight into the role of dietary patterns in T2D may assist public health nutrition efforts in addressing these health disparities. We explored the association between dietary patterns and biomarkers of T2D in 5 ethnic groups living in Amsterdam, Netherlands. A total of 3776 men and women aged 18-70 y of Dutch, South Asian Surinamese, African-Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan origin from the HELIUS (HEalthy LIfe in an Urban Setting) study were included. Diet was assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were derived separately per ethnic group. First, food group-based dietary patterns were derived by using principal components analysis and the association with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and plasma fasting glucose was assessed by using multivariable linear regression. Second, biomarker-driven dietary patterns based on HbA1c and fasting glucose concentrations were derived by applying reduced rank regression. Two comparable food group-based dietary patterns were identified in each ethnic group: a "meat and snack" pattern and a "vegetable" pattern. The meat-and-snack pattern derived within the Dutch origin population was significantly associated with HbA1c (β = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.19) and fasting glucose (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.26) concentrations. A biomarker-derived pattern characterized by red and processed meat was observed among Dutch-origin participants; however, among ethnic minority groups, this pattern was characterized by other foods including ethnicity-specific foods (e.g., roti, couscous). Although similar food group dietary patterns were derived within 5 ethnic groups, the association of the meat-and-snack pattern with fasting glucose concentrations differed by ethnicity. Taken together with the finding of ethnic differences in biomarker-driven dietary patterns, our results imply that addressing T2D risk in

  3. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy in New Zealand—Influence of Maternal Socio-Demographic, Health and Lifestyle Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare R. Wall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, ‘Junk’ and ‘Traditional/White bread’, were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fusion/Protein’, were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and not smoking. Higher scores on ‘Junk’ and ‘Health conscious’ were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ, whereas higher scores on ‘Fusion/Protein’ was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the ‘Health conscious’ dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines.

  4. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy in New Zealand-Influence of Maternal Socio-Demographic, Health and Lifestyle Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Clare R; Gammon, Cheryl S; Bandara, Dinusha K; Grant, Cameron C; Atatoa Carr, Polly E; Morton, Susan M B

    2016-05-19

    Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, 'Junk' and 'Traditional/White bread', were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, 'Health conscious' and 'Fusion/Protein', were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and not smoking. Higher scores on 'Junk' and 'Health conscious' were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ), whereas higher scores on 'Fusion/Protein' was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the 'Health conscious' dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines.

  5. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy in New Zealand—Influence of Maternal Socio-Demographic, Health and Lifestyle Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Clare R.; Gammon, Cheryl S.; Bandara, Dinusha K.; Grant, Cameron C.; Atatoa Carr, Polly E.; Morton, Susan M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, ‘Junk’ and ‘Traditional/White bread’, were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fusion/Protein’, were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and not smoking. Higher scores on ‘Junk’ and ‘Health conscious’ were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ), whereas higher scores on ‘Fusion/Protein’ was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the ‘Health conscious’ dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines. PMID:27213438

  6. Association between dietary patterns and the risk of metabolic syndrome among Lebanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naja, F; Nasreddine, L; Itani, L; Adra, N; Sibai, A M; Hwalla, N

    2013-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its metabolic abnormalities among Lebanese adults, using data from a national nutrition survey. A cross-sectional analysis involving adults aged ≥ 18 years (n = 323) with no prior history of chronic diseases was conducted. Participants completed a brief sociodemographic and 61-item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples were also obtained. The International Diabetes Federation criteria were used to classify study participants with the metabolic syndrome. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of extracted patterns with MetS and its metabolic abnormalities. Out of 323 participants, 112 (34.6%) were classified as having MetS. Three dietary patterns were identified: "Fast Food/Dessert," "Traditional Lebanese," and "High Protein." Compared with participants in the lowest quintile of the Fast Food/Dessert pattern, those in the highest quintile had significantly higher odds for MetS (OR, 3.13; 95% CI: 1.36-7.22) and hyperglycemia (OR, 3.81; 95% CI: 159-9.14). Subjects with the highest intake of the High Protein pattern had an increased risk for hypertension (OR, 2.98; 95% CI: 1.26-7.02). The Traditional Lebanese pattern showed no association with MetS or its components. The findings of this study demonstrate a positive association of the Fast Food/Dessert pattern with MetS and hyperglycemia among Lebanese adults. These results may guide the development of improved preventive nutrition interventions in this adult population.

  7. Comparison in dietary patterns derived for the Canadian Newfoundland and Labrador population through two time-separated studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Shi, Lian; Zhu, Yun; Liu, Lin; Gao, Zhiwei; Woodrow, Janine; Roebothan, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    While a dietary pattern is often believed to be stable in a population, there is limited research assessing its stability over time. The objective of this study is to explore and compare major dietary patterns derived for the Canadian subpopulation residing in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), through two time-separated studies using an identical method. In this study, we derived and compared the major dietary patterns derived from two independent studies in the NL adult population. The first study was based on the healthy controls from a large population-based case-control study (CCS) in 2005. The second was from a food-frequency questionnaire validation project (FFQVP) conducted in 2012. In both studies, participants were recruited in the same manner and dietary information was collected by an identical self-administered food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Exploratory common factor analysis was conducted to identify major dietary patterns. A comparison was conducted between the two study populations. Four major dietary patterns were identified: Meat, Vegetables/fruits, Fish, and Grains explaining 22%, 20%, 12% and 9% variance respectively, with a total variance of 63%. Three major dietary patterns were derived for the controls of the CCS: Meat, Plant-based diet, and Fish explaining 24%, 20%, and 10% variance respectively, with a total variance of 54%. As the Plant-based diet pattern derived for the CCS was a combination of the Vegetables/fruits and Grains patterns derived for the FFQVP, no considerable difference in dietary patterns was found between the two studies. A comparison between two time-separated studies suggests that dietary patterns of the NL adult population have remained reasonably stable over almost a decade.

  8. A Snack Dietary Pattern Increases the Risk of Hypercholesterolemia in Northern Chinese Adults: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Lixin; Han, Tianshu; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Xiaoyan; Na, Guanqiong; Du, Shanshan; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2015-01-01

    The evidence about the effect of dietary patterns on blood cholesterol from cohort studies was very scarce. The study was to identify the association of dietary patterns with lipid profile, especially cholesterol, in a cohort in north China. Using a 1-year food frequency questionnaire, we assessed the dietary intake of 4515 adults from the Harbin People's Health Study in 2008, aged 20-74 years. Principle component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. The follow-up was completed in 2012. Fasting blood samples were collected for the determination of blood lipid concentrations. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of dietary patterns with the incidence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and low-HDL cholesterolemia. Five dietary patterns were identified ("staple food", "vegetable, fruit and milk", "potato, soybean and egg", "snack", and "meat"). The relative risk (RR) between the extreme tertiles of the snack dietary pattern scores was 1.72 (95% CI = 1.14, 2.59, P = 0.004) for hypercholesterolemia, 1.39 (1.13, 1.75, P = 0.036) for hypertriglyceridemia, after adjustment for age, sex, education, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, energy intake, exercise and baseline lipid concentrations. There was a significant positive association between the snack dietary pattern scores and fasting serum total cholesterol (SRC (standardized regression coefficient) = 0.262, P = 0.025), LDL-c (SRC = 0.324, P = 0.002) and triglycerides (SRC = 0.253, P = 0.035), after adjustment for the multiple variables above. Moreover, the adjusted RR of hypertriglyceridemia between the extreme tertiles was 0.73 (0.56, 0.94, P = 0.025) for the vegetable, fruit and milk dietary pattern, and 1.86 (1.33, 2.41, P = 0.005) for the meat dietary pattern. The snack dietary pattern was a newly emerged dietary pattern in northern Chinese adults. It appears conceivable that the risk of hypercholesterolemia can be reduced by changing the snack dietary

  9. Dietary patterns associated with hypertension prevalence in the Cameroon defence forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkondjock, A; Bizome, E

    2010-09-01

    To assess the possible role of particular patterns of food consumption in the occurrence of hypertension. A cross-sectional study of 571 members of defence forces was carried out in eight military institutions in Yaounde, Cameroon. Blood pressure was measured with automatic sphygmomanometers simultaneously at both arms. Food consumption data were obtained through a food frequency questionnaire and lifestyle questionnaire was used to ascertain information on physical activity and other risk factors. Two dietary patterns were identified. The 'fruit and vegetable' pattern was typified by a high intake of fruits, vegetables, tubers and legumes. The 'meat' pattern was characterized by a high intake of bush meat, poultry and red meat. After adjustment for age, body mass index, rank, vigorous physical activity and total energy intake, the fruit and vegetable pattern was significantly associated with a reduced risk of hypertension (odds ratio (OR)=0.40; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.20-0.83, P=0.04) when comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of dietary pattern scores. No significant relationship was apparent between the meat pattern and hypertension. Our findings suggest that a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, tubers and legumes may have an important role in regulating blood pressure. More prospective and extensive data are warranted to investigate the magnitude of cardiovascular disease in that specific population.

  10. Relation between salivary cortisol as stress biomarker and dietary pattern in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nathalie; Sioen, Isabelle; Braet, Caroline; Huybrechts, Inge; Vanaelst, Barbara; Wolters, Maike; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2013-09-01

    Psychological stress has been suggested to result in hormonal effects (e.g. changes in cortisol pattern) that may change food selection in unhealthy ways. This study examines whether children's dietary pattern is indeed related to salivary cortisol levels. In 323 children (5-10 years old) participating in the Belgian ChiBS study, salivary cortisol samples, a biomarker for stress, was sampled when waking up, 30 and 60 min after wake up and in the evening on two consecutive weekdays. Data on the children's dietary pattern (frequency of sweet foods, fatty foods, snacks, fruit and vegetables) was collected with a food frequency questionnaire. Multilevel time modelling was used with adjustments for sex, age, body mass index, parental education and wake up time. Higher overall cortisol levels and a large cortisol awakening response (CAR) were associated with more frequent consumption of sweet foods. A steeper diurnal cortisol decline was associated with a higher sweet, fatty and snack food consumption frequency. No associations with fruit and vegetables consumption were found. High cortisol levels were linked to an unhealthier dietary pattern (more fatty food, snacks and especially sweet food). This supports the theory of cortisol-induced comfort food preference and strengthens the stress-diet relation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Fetal Growth: A Large Prospective Cohort Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Shan Lu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There was limited evidence revealing the association of Chinese maternal dietary patterns with fetal growth. We aimed to examine the relationship of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy to neonatal birth weight and birth weight for gestational age in a Chinese population. A total of 6954 mother-child pairs were included from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cluster analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. The following six dietary patterns were identified: “Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups” (n 1026, 14.8%, “Dairy” (n 1020, 14.7%, “Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts” (n 799, 11.5%, “Meats” (n 1066, 15.3%, “Vegetables” (n 1383, 19.9%, and “Varied” (n 1224, 17.6%. The mean neonatal birth weight Z scores of women in the above patterns were 0.02, 0.07, 0.20, 0.01, 0.06, and 0.14, respectively. Women in the “Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts” and “Varied” groups had significantly heavier infants compared with those in the “Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups” group. Compared with women in the “Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups” group, those in the “Varied” group had marginally significantly lower odds of having a small-for-gestational age (SGA infant after adjustment for other confounders (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.57, 1.04, p = 0.08. These findings suggest that compared to a traditional Cantonese diet high in cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups, a diet high in fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts might be associated with a higher birth weight, while a varied diet might be associated with a greater birth weight and also a decreased risk of having a SGA baby.

  12. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Fetal Growth: A Large Prospective Cohort Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min-Shan; Chen, Qiao-Zhu; He, Jian-Rong; Wei, Xue-Ling; Lu, Jin-Hua; Li, Sheng-Hui; Wen, Xing-Xuan; Chan, Fan-Fan; Chen, Nian-Nian; Qiu, Lan; Mai, Wei-Bi; Zhang, Rui-Fang; Hu, Cui-Yue; Xia, Hui-Min; Qiu, Xiu

    2016-04-28

    There was limited evidence revealing the association of Chinese maternal dietary patterns with fetal growth. We aimed to examine the relationship of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy to neonatal birth weight and birth weight for gestational age in a Chinese population. A total of 6954 mother-child pairs were included from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cluster analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. The following six dietary patterns were identified: "Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups" (n 1026, 14.8%), "Dairy" (n 1020, 14.7%), "Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts" (n 799, 11.5%), "Meats" (n 1066, 15.3%), "Vegetables" (n 1383, 19.9%), and "Varied" (n 1224, 17.6%). The mean neonatal birth weight Z scores of women in the above patterns were 0.02, 0.07, 0.20, 0.01, 0.06, and 0.14, respectively. Women in the "Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts" and "Varied" groups had significantly heavier infants compared with those in the "Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups" group. Compared with women in the "Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups" group, those in the "Varied" group had marginally significantly lower odds of having a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant after adjustment for other confounders (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.57, 1.04, p = 0.08). These findings suggest that compared to a traditional Cantonese diet high in cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups, a diet high in fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts might be associated with a higher birth weight, while a varied diet might be associated with a greater birth weight and also a decreased risk of having a SGA baby.

  13. Traditional v. modified dietary patterns and their influence on adolescents' nutritional profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yoonju; Joung, Hyojee; Engelhardt, Katrin; Yoo, Sun Young; Paik, Hee Young

    2005-06-01

    Korea has experienced exceptionally rapid economic developments. Even though the country has managed to maintain aspects of its traditional diet, dietary habits are changing, especially among adolescents. This study was carried out to identify prevailing dietary patterns among Korean adolescents and to compare the nutrient intakes and dietary behaviours between the patterns. A 3 d diet record, collected from 671 Korean adolescents aged 12-14 years in Seoul, Korea, was assessed. By cluster analysis, subjects were classified into a modified (69.9 %) and a traditional (30.1 %) dietary pattern group. The modified group consumed more bread, noodles, cookies and pizza/hamburgers compared with the traditional group, which consumed mainly rice and kimchi (fermented cabbage). The modified group had significantly higher intakes of all nutrients. It had a higher total daily energy intake (7719 kJ), a higher daily energy intake from fat (29.8 %) and a higher cholesterol intake (326 mg/d), compared with the traditional group (6686 kJ, 24.8 % and 244 mg/d, respectively). The modified group was more likely to consume fast foods, fried foods and carbonated beverages even though they consumed more fresh fruits and milk, while the traditional group was more likely to have a rice-based diet and not to skip breakfast. These results suggest that monitoring dietary behaviours of adolescents, especially in a society experiencing a nutrition transition, is necessary in order to identify both negative and positive changes in respect of risk factors for nutrition-related chronic diseases as well as for undernutrition.

  14. Dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome factors in a non-diabetic Italian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Maria Léa Corrêa; Nicolosi, Alfredo

    2009-09-01

    To examine the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome. Population-based cross-sectional study. The K-means clustering method was used to identify dietary patterns and logistic regression models were used to compare the adjusted prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome factors, stratifying by obesity status. The 1992-3 Italian Bollate Eye Study, a population-based survey carried out in the town of Bollate (Milan), Italy. A total of 1052 non-diabetic Italian subjects, 527 men and 525 women, aged 42-74 years. Five dietary clusters were identified: common, animal products, starch, vegetal/fat and vitamin/fibre. After adjusting for potential confounders, the starch group showed the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (36%) followed by the animal products group (30%); the vitamin/fibre (20%) and vegetal/fat groups (19%) showed the lowest prevalence. The starch group had more dyslipidaemia (higher TAG and lower HDL cholesterol levels) and the animal products group had a higher prevalence of impaired fasting glucose. The vitamin/fibre group had the lowest prevalence of abdominal obesity. The beneficial effect of the vegetal/fat and vitamin/fibre dietary patterns seemed stronger among the obese. Our results confirm the deleterious effect of a very-low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet and also of high intakes of animal products. The consumption of a diet high in vegetal fats or rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a healthier metabolic profile. Reducing obesity is essential to prevent metabolic syndrome, but even among the obese dietary habits are important for preserving healthy lipid and glycaemic profiles.

  15. Relationship between alcohol intake and dietary pattern: findings from NHANES III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat

    2010-08-28

    To examine the association between macronutrient dietary patterns and alcohol consumption using the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III. A total of 9877 subjects (5144 males) constituted the study cohort. Dietary interviews were conducted with all examinees by a trained dietary interviewer in a mobile examination center (MEC). Subjects reported all foods and beverages consumed except plain drinking water for the previous 24-h time period. Physical examination and history of alcohol consumption were obtained. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the association of the levels of alcohol consumption and the percentage of energy derived from macronutrients. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed accounting for the study sampling weight to further explore the relationships between alcohol consumption and calories derived from each macronutrient. Subjects who drank were younger than non-drinker controls in both genders (P consumption. In the multivariate analyses, the level of alcohol consumption was found to be an independent predictor associated with lower intake of other macronutrients. Our results show that there is an alteration in the daily dietary pattern with increasing alcohol consumption and that energy derived from alcoholic beverages substitutes that from other macronutrients such as carbohydrate, protein, and fat.

  16. A comparison of heuristic and model-based clustering methods for dietary pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Benjamin; Pigeot, Iris; Huybrechts, Inge; Pala, Valeria; Börnhorst, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    Cluster analysis is widely applied to identify dietary patterns. A new method based on Gaussian mixture models (GMM) seems to be more flexible compared with the commonly applied k-means and Ward's method. In the present paper, these clustering approaches are compared to find the most appropriate one for clustering dietary data. The clustering methods were applied to simulated data sets with different cluster structures to compare their performance knowing the true cluster membership of observations. Furthermore, the three methods were applied to FFQ data assessed in 1791 children participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants) Study to explore their performance in practice. The GMM outperformed the other methods in the simulation study in 72 % up to 100 % of cases, depending on the simulated cluster structure. Comparing the computationally less complex k-means and Ward's methods, the performance of k-means was better in 64-100 % of cases. Applied to real data, all methods identified three similar dietary patterns which may be roughly characterized as a 'non-processed' cluster with a high consumption of fruits, vegetables and wholemeal bread, a 'balanced' cluster with only slight preferences of single foods and a 'junk food' cluster. The simulation study suggests that clustering via GMM should be preferred due to its higher flexibility regarding cluster volume, shape and orientation. The k-means seems to be a good alternative, being easier to use while giving similar results when applied to real data.

  17. Low-calorie- and calorie-sweetened beverages: diet quality, food intake, and purchase patterns of US household consumers123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Mendez, Michelle A; Ng, Shu Wen; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated the diet quality of consumers of low-calorie-sweetened (LCS) and calorie-sweetened (CS) beverages. Objective: The objective was to examine the dietary quality and adherence to dietary purchasing and consumption patterns of beverage consumers from 2000 to 2010. Design: We analyzed purchases for 140,352 households from the Homescan longitudinal data set 2000–2010 and dietary intake from NHANES 2003–2010 (n = 34,393). We defined mutually exclusive consumer profiles as main exposures: LCS beverages, CS beverages, LCS & CS beverages, and non/low consumers. As main outcomes, we explored dietary quality by using total energy and macronutrients (kcal/d). We performed factor analyses and applied factor scores to derive dietary patterns as secondary outcomes. Using multivariable linear (NHANES) and random-effects (Homescan) models, we investigated the associations between beverage profiles and dietary patterns. Results: We found “prudent” and “breakfast” patterns in Homescan and NHANES, “ready-to-eat meals/fast-food” and “prudent/snacks/LCS desserts” patterns in Homescan, and “protein/potatoes” and “CS desserts/sweeteners” patterns in NHANES. In both data sets, compared with non/low consumers, both CS- and LCS-beverage consumers had a significantly higher total energy from foods, higher energy from total and SFAs, and lower probability of adherence to prudent and breakfast patterns. In Homescan, LCS-beverage consumers had a higher probability of adherence to 2 distinct patterns: a prudent/snacks/LCS dessert pattern and a ready-to-eat meals/fast-food purchasing pattern. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that overall dietary quality is lower in LCS-, CS-, and LCS & CS–beverage consumers relative to non/low consumers. Our study highlights the importance of targeting foods that are linked with sweetened beverages (either LCS or CS) in intervention and policy efforts that aim to improve nutrition in the

  18. Dietary pattern associated with selenoprotein P and MRI-derived body fat volumes, liver signal intensity, and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Giuseppe, Romina; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Koch, Manja; Nöthlings, Ute; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Borggrefe, Jan; Both, Marcus; Müller, Hans-Peter; Kassubek, Jan; Jacobs, Gunnar; Lieb, Wolfgang

    2018-02-14

    The association of complex dietary patterns with circulating selenoprotein P (SELENOP) levels in humans is unknown. In a general population sample, we aimed to identify a dietary pattern explaining inter-individual variation in circulating SELENOP concentrations and to study this pattern in relation to prevalent diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), MRI-determined total volumes of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) abdominal adipose tissue, and liver signal intensity/fatty liver disease. In this cross-sectional study, serum SELENOP levels were measured in 853 individuals. In a subsample of 553 participants, whole-body MRI was performed to assess body fat distribution and liver fat. Dietary intake was assessed by a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and the dietary pattern identified using reduced-rank regression (RRR). Multivariable linear and logistic regressions were used to investigate associations between dietary pattern score and metabolic traits. Characterized by high intake of fruit, vegetables and antioxidant beverages, the RRR-derived dietary pattern displayed inverse associations with VAT, SAT, MetS, and prevalent diabetes in multivariable-adjusted restricted cubic splines. Each unit increase in dietary pattern score was associated with 31% higher SELENOP levels, 12% lower VAT (95% CI: - 19%; - 5%), 13% (95% CI: - 20%; - 6%) lower SAT values and 46% (95% CI: 27%; 60%) and 53% (95% CI: 22%; 72%) lower odds of having MetS or diabetes, respectively. No meaningful relations were observed between the dietary pattern and liver traits. Our observations propose diet-related regulation in SELENOP levels and that the identified dietary pattern is inversely related to VAT, SAT, MetS, and prevalent diabetes.

  19. Dietary patterns are associated with plasma F₂-isoprostanes in an observational cohort study of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katie A; Sijtsma, Femke P C; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Steffen, Lyn M; Van Horn, Linda; Shikany, James M; Gross, Myron D; Mursu, Jaakko; Traber, Maret G; Jacobs, David R

    2013-04-01

    Associations between individual foods or nutrients and oxidative markers have been reported. Comprehensive measures of food intake may be uniquely informative, given the complexity of oxidative systems and the possibility of antioxidant synergies. We quantified associations over a 20-year history between three food-based dietary patterns (summary measures of whole diet) and a plasma biomarker of lipid peroxidation, F2-isoprostanes, in a cohort of Americans ages 18-30 at year 0 (1985-1986). We assessed diet at years 0, 7, and 20 through a detailed history of past-month food consumption and supplement use and measured plasma F2-isoprostanes at years 15 and 20. We created three dietary patterns: (1) a priori ("a priori diet quality score") based on hypothesized healthfulness of foods, (2) an empirical pattern reflecting high fruit and vegetable intake ("fruit-veg"), and (3) an empirical pattern reflecting high meat intake ("meat"). We used linear regression to estimate associations between each dietary pattern and plasma F2-isoprostanes cross-sectionally (at year 20, n=2736) and prospectively (year 0/7 average diet and year 15/20 average F2-isoprostanes, n=2718), adjusting for age, sex, race, total energy intake, education, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity, and supplement use. In multivariable-adjusted cross-sectional analysis, the a priori diet quality score and the fruit-veg diet pattern were negatively, and the meat pattern was positively, associated with F2-isoprostanes (all p values <0.001). These associations remained statistically significant in prospective analysis. Our findings suggest that long-term adherence to a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and l