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Sample records for prt study volume

  1. A Study of a Merging Section of PRT System with Bulk Arrival and its Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Takahiro; Inoue, Kousuke; Tsuboi, Kazuhiro; Hamamatsu, Yoshio

    This paper deals with a merging section of Personal Rapid Transit system with bulk arrival. Vehicles arrive at a merging section from a main line and a sub line. In most of the previous studies on PRT system, vehicles on the main line have priority. Then, a queue is formed only on the sub line. In this situation, the queuing delay on the sub line may become extremely long. We propose a control strategy whereby vehicles on the main line are not stopped in normal situation; vehicles on the main line are only stopped when the number of waiting vehicles on the sub line exceeds some specific number. This specific number is a sort of threshold. Thus, queues are formed on the main line and the sub line, respectively. Both of the queuing delays are controlled with the threshold. The optimal value of the threshold can be obtained by analyzing the stochastic model. By the optimal value, we can set the rate of queuing delay between the main and sub lines to an arbitrary rate.

  2. The distinctive regulatory roles of PrtT in the cell metabolism of Penicillium oxalicum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Ling; Zou, Gen; Zhang, Lei; de Vries, Ronald P; Yan, Xing; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Rui; Wang, Chengshu; Qu, Yinbo; Zhou, Zhihua; van den Brink, J.

    PrtT is a fungal-specific transcription activator of extracellular proteases in Aspergilli. In this study, the roles of the PrtT homolog from Penicillum oxalicum was investigated by transcription profiling in combination with electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The prtT deletion

  3. Inhibition of ovine in vitro fertilization by anti-Prt antibody: hypothetical model for Prt/ZP interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Jorge; Sardinha, João; Marques, Carla C; Domingos, Ana; Baptista, Maria C; Barbas, João P; Martins, Ivo C; Mesquita, Patrícia; Pessa, Pedro; Soares, Rui; Viegas, Aldino; Cabrita, Eurico; Horta, E M António; Fontes, Carlos A; Prates, A M José; Pereira, M L N Rosa

    2013-03-26

    The impact of prion proteins in the rules that dictate biological reproduction is still poorly understood. Likewise, the role of prnt gene, encoding the prion-like protein testis specific (Prt), in ram reproductive physiology remains largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the effect of Prt in ovine fertilization by using an anti-Prt antibody (APPA) in fertilization medium incubated with spermatozoa and oocytes. Moreover, a computational model was constructed to infer how the results obtained could be related to a hypothetical role for Prt in sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding. Mature ovine oocytes were transferred to fertilization medium alone (control) or supplemented with APPA, or pre-immune serum (CSerum). Oocytes were inseminated with ovine spermatozoa and after 18 h, presumptive zygotes (n=142) were fixed to evaluate fertilization rates or transferred (n=374) for embryo culture until D6-7. Predicted ovine Prt tertiary structure was compared with data obtained by circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and a protein-protein computational docking model was estimated for a hypothetical Prt/ZP interaction. The fertilizing rate was lower (P=0.006) in APPA group (46.0+/-6.79%) when compared to control (78.5+/-7.47%) and CSerum (64.5+/-6.65%) groups. In addition, the cleavage rate was higher (PZP docking. Computational analyses predicted a favorable Prt-binding activity towards ZP domains. Our data indicates that the presence of APPA reduces the number of fertilized oocytes and of cleaved embryos. Moreover, the CD analysis data reinforces the predicted ovine Prt trend towards an alpha-helical structure. Predicted protein-protein docking suggests a possible interaction between Prt and ZP, thus supporting an important role for Prt in ovine fertilization.

  4. Studies on a novel serine protease of a ΔhapAΔprtV Vibrio cholerae O1 strain and its role in hemorrhagic response in the rabbit ileal loop model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Syngkon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two well-characterized proteases secreted by Vibrio cholerae O1 strains are hemagglutinin protease (HAP and V. cholerae protease (PrtV. The hapA and prtV knock out mutant, V. cholerae O1 strain CHA6.8ΔprtV, still retains residual protease activity. We initiated this study to characterize the protease present in CHA6.8ΔprtV strain and study its role in pathogenesis in rabbit ileal loop model (RIL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We partially purified the residual protease secreted by strain CHA6.8ΔprtV from culture supernatant by anion-exchange chromatography. The major protein band in native PAGE was identified by MS peptide mapping and sequence analysis showed homology with a 59-kDa trypsin-like serine protease encoded by VC1649. The protease activity was partially inhibited by 25 mM PMSF and 10 mM EDTA and completely inhibited by EDTA and PMSF together. RIL assay with culture supernatants of strains C6709 (FA ratio 1.1+/-0.3 n = 3, CHA6.8 (FA ratio 1.08+/-0.2 n = 3, CHA6.8ΔprtV (FA ratio 1.02+/-0.2 n = 3 and partially purified serine protease from CHA6.8ΔprtV (FA ratio 1.2+/-0.3 n = 3 induced fluid accumulation and histopathological studies on rabbit ileum showed destruction of the villus structure with hemorrhage in all layers of the mucosa. RIL assay with culture supernatant of CHA6.8ΔprtVΔVC1649 strain (FA ratio 0.11+/-0.005 n = 3 and with protease incubated with PMSF and EDTA (FA ratio 0.3+/-0.05 n = 3 induced a significantly reduced FA ratio with almost complete normal villus structure. CONCLUSION: Our results show the presence of a novel 59-kDa serine protease in a ΔhapAΔprtV V. cholerae O1 strain and its role in hemorrhagic response in RIL model.

  5. Is prnt a pseudogene? Identification of ram Prt in testis and ejaculated spermatozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pimenta

    Full Text Available A hallmark of prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopaties is the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C, expressed by the prion gene (prnp, into an abnormally folded isoform (PrP(Sc with amyloid-like features that causes scrapie in sheep among other diseases. prnp together with prnd (which encodes a prion-like protein designated as Doppel, and prnt (that encodes the prion protein testis specific--Prt with sprn (shadow of prion protein gene, that encodes Shadoo or Sho genes, constitute the "prion gene complex". Whereas a role for prnd in the proper functioning of male reproductive system has been confirmed, the function of prnt, a recently discovered prion family gene, comprises a conundrum leading to the assumption that ruminant prnt is a pseudogene with no protein expression. The main objective of the present study was to identify Prt localization in the ram reproductive system and simultaneously to elucidate if ovine prnt gene is transcribed into protein-coding RNA. Moreover, as Prt is a prnp-related protein, the amyloid propensity was also tested for ovine and caprine Prt. Recombinant Prt was used to immunize BALB/c mice, and the anti-Prt polyclonal antibody (APPA immune response was evaluated by ELISA and Western Blot. When tested by indirect immunofluorescence, APPA showed high avidity to the ram sperm head apical ridge subdomain, before and after induced capacitation, but did not show the same behavior against goat spermatozoa, suggesting high antibody specificity against ovine-Prt. Prt was also found in the testis when assayed by immunohistochemistry during ram spermatogenesis, where spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa, stained positive. These observations strongly suggest ovine prnt to be a translated protein-coding gene, pointing to a role for Prt protein in the ram reproductive physiology. Besides, caprine Prt appears to exhibit a higher amyloid propensity than ovine Prt, mostly associated

  6. The distinctive regulatory roles of PrtT in the cell metabolism of Penicillium oxalicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Zou, Gen; Zhang, Lei; de Vries, Ronald P; Yan, Xing; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Rui; Wang, Chengshu; Qu, Yinbo; Zhou, Zhihua

    2014-02-01

    PrtT is a fungal-specific transcription activator of extracellular proteases in Aspergilli. In this study, the roles of the PrtT homolog from Penicillum oxalicum was investigated by transcription profiling in combination with electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The prtT deletion dramatically reduced extracellular protease activities and caused intracellular nutrient limitation when cultured on casein as the sole carbon source. PrtT was found to directly regulate the expression of an intracellular peptidase encoding gene (tripeptidyl-peptidase) and the gene encoding the extracellular dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase V, in addition to the expected extracellular peptidase genes (carboxypeptidase and aspergillopepsin). Five amylase genes (α-amylase, glucoamylase, α-glucosidase) and three major facilitator superfamily transporter genes related to maltose, monosaccharide and peptide transporting were also confirmed as putative targets of PrtT by EMSA. In contrast, the transcription levels of other genes encoding polysaccharide degrading enzymes (e.g. cellulases) and most iron or multidrug transporter encoding genes were up- or down-regulated in the ΔprtT mutant due to nutrient limitation resulting from the reduced usage of the sole carbon source, casein. These results deepen the understanding of the interaction of regulation systems for nitrogen and carbon catabolism, which benefit strain improvement of P. oxalicum for industrial enzyme production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Validity and reliability of pre-class reading tasks for waves and optics (PRT-WO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrab Ali Nur Faralina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to produce a valid and reliable instrument in preparing students prior to class at university level of introductory Waves and Optics course. The instrument so called Pre-class Reading Task for Waves and Optics (PRT-WO was used to probe students’ knowledge acquired through targeted reading activities. In practice, PRT-WO was given in a series before actual face-to-face class as a reading assignment. PRT-WO was content validated through expert review which was analyzed using the interrater reliability Cohen’s kappa. An item analysis was done to identify inappropriate items further evaluated using the reliability test of Kuder-Richardson 20 (KR20. The finding reveals that the value of kappa is 0.66 and the value of KR20 is 0.68, indicating that the developed instrument is valid and reliable.

  8. Demand modeling of innovative transport system PRT at the Rotterdam port area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, H.; Chen, Y.; Li, J.; Zuylen, H.J. van; Arem, B. van

    2010-01-01

    Demand modeling for a newly built transit system is a major issue for the feasibility study. The complexity for such demand modeling stems from the complicated multi-modal trip making by travelers. This paper proposes to build an innovative transit system PRT in the east port area of Rotterdam to

  9. The S-layer Associated Serine Protease Homolog PrtX Impacts Cell Surface-Mediated Microbe-Host Interactions of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brant R. Johnson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Health-promoting aspects attributed to probiotic microorganisms, including adhesion to intestinal epithelia and modulation of the host mucosal immune system, are mediated by proteins found on the bacterial cell surface. Notably, certain probiotic and commensal bacteria contain a surface (S- layer as the outermost stratum of the cell wall. S-layers are non-covalently bound semi-porous, crystalline arrays of self-assembling, proteinaceous subunits called S-layer proteins (SLPs. Recent evidence has shown that multiple proteins are non-covalently co-localized within the S-layer, designated S-layer associated proteins (SLAPs. In Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, SLP and SLAPs have been implicated in both mucosal immunomodulation and adhesion to the host intestinal epithelium. In this study, a S-layer associated serine protease homolog, PrtX (prtX, lba1578, was deleted from the chromosome of L. acidophilus NCFM. Compared to the parent strain, the PrtX-deficient strain (ΔprtX demonstrated increased autoaggregation, an altered cellular morphology, and pleiotropic increases in adhesion to mucin and fibronectin, in vitro. Furthermore, ΔprtX demonstrated increased in vitro immune stimulation of IL-6, IL-12, and IL-10 compared to wild-type, when exposed to mouse dendritic cells. Finally, in vivo colonization of germ-free mice with ΔprtX led to an increase in epithelial barrier integrity. The absence of PrtX within the exoproteome of a ΔprtX strain caused morphological changes, resulting in a pleiotropic increase of the organisms’ immunomodulatory properties and interactions with some intestinal epithelial cell components.

  10. Characterization of an extensin-modifying metalloprotease: N-terminal processing and substrate cleavage pattern of Pectobacterium carotovorum Prt1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Tao; Nyffenegger, Christian; Højrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Compared to other plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, proteases are less well understood. In this study, the extracellular metalloprotease Prt1 from Pectobacterium carotovorum (formerly Erwinia carotovora) was expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized with respect to N-terminal processing......, thermal stability, substrate targets, and cleavage patterns. Prt1 is an autoprocessing protease with an N-terminal signal pre-peptide and a pro-peptide which has to be removed in order to activate the protease. The sequential cleavage of the N-terminus was confirmed by mass spectrometry (MS......) fingerprinting and N-terminus analysis. The optimal reaction conditions for the activity of Prt1 on azocasein were at pH 6.0, 50 °C. At these reaction conditions, KM was 1.81 mg/mL and kcat was 1.82 × 107 U M-1. The enzyme was relatively stable at 50 °C with a half-life of 20 min. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid...

  11. Mirasol PRT system inactivation efficacy evaluated in platelet concentrates by bacteria-contamination model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocić Miodrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bacterial contamination of blood components, primarily platelet concentrates (PCs, has been identified as one of the most frequent infectious complications in transfusion practice. PC units have a high risk for bacterial growth/multiplication due to their storage at ambient temperature (20 ± 2°C. Consequences of blood contamination could be effectively prevented or reduced by pathogen inactivation systems. The aim of this study was to determine the Mirasol pathogen reduction technology (PRT system efficacy in PCs using an artificial bacteria-contamination model. Methods. According to the ABO blood groups, PC units (n = 216 were pooled into 54 pools (PC-Ps. PC-Ps were divided into three equal groups, with 18 units in each, designed for an artificial bacteria-contamination. Briefly, PC-Ps were contaminated by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli in concentrations 102 to 107 colony forming units (CFU per unit. Afterward, PC-Ps were underwent to inactivation by Mirasol PRT system, using UV (l = 265-370 nm activated riboflavin (RB. All PC-Ps were assayed by BacT/Alert Microbial Detection System for CFU quantification before and after the Mirasol treatment. Samples from non-inactivated PC-P units were tested after preparation and immediately following bacterial contamination. Samples from Mirasol treated units were quantified for CFUs one hour, 3 days and 5 days after inactivation. Results. A complete inactivation of all bacteria species was obtained at CFU concentrations of 102 and 103 per PC-P unit through storage/ investigation period. The most effective inactivation (105 CFU per PC-P unit was obtained in Escherichia coli setting. Contrary, inactivation of all the three tested bacteria species was unworkable in concentrations of ≥ 106 CFU per PC-P unit. Conclusion. Efficient inactivation of investigated bacteria types with a significant CFU depletion in PC-P units was obtained - 3 Log for all

  12. Streptococcus pneumoniae serine protease HtrA, but not SFP or PrtA, is a major virulence factor in pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Stoppelaar, Sacha F.; Bootsma, Hester J.; Zomer, Aldert; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Hermans, Peter W. M.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae is a common causative pathogen in pneumonia. Serine protease orthologs expressed by a variety of bacteria have been found of importance for virulence. Previous studies have identified two serine proteases in S. pneumoniae, HtrA (high-temperature requirement A) and PrtA

  13. Biofilm Formation on Stainless Steel by Streptococcus thermophilus UC8547 in Milk Environments Is Mediated by the Proteinase PrtS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, D; Cappa, F; Gazzola, S; Orrù, L; Cocconcelli, P S

    2017-04-15

    In Streptococcus thermophilus , gene transfer events and loss of ancestral traits over the years contribute to its high level of adaptation to milk environments. Biofilm formation capacity, a phenotype that is lost in the majority of strains, plays a role in persistence in dairy environments, such as milk pasteurization and cheese manufacturing plants. To investigate this property, we have studied S. thermophilus UC8547, a fast-acidifying dairy starter culture selected for its high capacity to form biofilm on stainless steel under environmental conditions resembling the dairy environment. Using a dynamic flow cell apparatus, it was shown that S. thermophilus UC8547 biofilm formation on stainless steel depends on the presence of milk proteins. From this strain, which harbors the prtS gene for the cell wall protease and shows an aggregative phenotype, spontaneous mutants with impaired biofilm capacity can be isolated at high frequency. These mutants lack the PrtS expendable island, as confirmed by comparison of the genome sequence of UC8547Δ3 with that of the parent strain. The prtS island excision occurs between two 26-bp direct repeats located in the two copies of the IS Sth1 flanking this genomic island. The central role of PrtS was confirmed by analyzing the derivative strain UC8547Δ16, whose prtS gene was interrupted by an insertional mutation, thereby making it incapable of biofilm formation. PrtS, acting as a binding substance between the milk proteins adhered to stainless steel and S. thermophilus cell envelopes, mediates biofilm formation in dairy environments. This feature provides S. thermophilus with an ecological benefit for its survival and persistence in this environment. IMPORTANCE The increased persistence of S. thermophilus biofilm has consequences in the dairy environment: if, on the one hand, the release of this microorganism from biofilm can promote the fermentation of artisanal cheeses, under industrial conditions it may lead to undesirable

  14. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison Between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Structured Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention for Children with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaee,Mohammad; Rafiee, Seyed Majid

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating studies are documenting specific motivational variables that, when combined into a naturalistic teaching paradigm, can positively influence the effectiveness of interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this study was to compare two ABA intervention procedures, a naturalistic approach, Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) with a structured ABA approach in a school setting. A Randomized Clinical Trial design using two groups of children, matched ac...

  15. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison Between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Adult-Driven Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention on Disruptive Behaviors in Public School Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaei, Mohammad; Bakhshi, Enayatolah

    2015-09-01

    Children with autism often demonstrate disruptive behaviors during demanding teaching tasks. Language intervention can be particularly difficult as it involves social and communicative areas, which are challenging for this population. The purpose of this study was to compare two intervention conditions, a naturalistic approach, Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) with an adult-directed ABA approach on disruptive behavior during language intervention in the public schools. A randomized clinical trial design was used with two groups of children, matched according to age, sex and mean length of utterance. The data showed that the children demonstrated significantly lower levels of disruptive behavior during the PRT condition. The results are discussed with respect to antecedent manipulations that may be helpful in reducing disruptive behavior.

  16. Autologous periodontal stem cell assistance in periodontal regeneration technique (SAI-PRT) in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects: A case report with one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kl, Vandana; Ryana, Haneet; Dalvi, Priyanka Jairaj

    2017-01-01

    Numerous animal and human studies have provided evidence supporting the belief that periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) can be harnessed for regeneration of periodontal tissues. Based on current literature on the use of ex vivo stem culture and associated problems, this case report describes a novel approach of direct application PDLSCs using stem cell assistance in periodontal regeneration technique (SAI-PRT) for the regeneration of intrabony periodontal defects bypassing ex vivo cultures. SAI-PRT has emerged as a constructive avenue in the treatment of periodontal osseous defects. Moreover, the current technique is less technique-sensitive, cost-effective and yields promising results.

  17. The PRT Pocket Guide: Pivotal Response Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, Robert L.; Koegel, Lynn Kern

    2012-01-01

    What is Pivotal Response Treatment? What's the research behind it, what does it look like in practice, and what are some good examples of how to use it? Now one concise book gives professionals and parents all the basics of the widely used PRT--one of a select group of highly effective, evidence-based treatments for autism. great resource for…

  18. Serine protease PrtA from Streptococcus pneumoniae plays a role in the killing of S. pneumoniae by apolactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Shaper; Wilson, Landon; Benjamin, William H; Novak, Jan; Barnes, Stephen; Hollingshead, Susan K; Briles, David E

    2011-06-01

    It is known that apolactoferrin, the iron-free form of human lactoferrin, can kill many species of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. Lactoferricin, an N-terminal peptide of apolactoferrin, and fragments of it are even more bactericidal than apolactoferrin. In this study we found that apolactoferrin must be cleaved by a serine protease in order for it to kill pneumococci. The serine protease inhibitors were able to block killing by apolactoferrin but did not block killing by a lactoferrin-derived peptide. Thus, the killing of pneumococci by apolactoferrin appears to require a protease to release a lactoferricin-like peptide(s). Incubation of apolactoferrin with growing pneumococci resulted in a 12-kDa reduction in its molecular mass, of which about 7 to 8 kDa of the reduction was protease dependent. Capsular type 2 and 19F strains with mutations in the gene encoding the major cell wall-associated serine protease, prtA, lost much of their ability to degrade apolactoferrin and were relatively resistant to killing by apolactoferrin (P mass by about 8 kDa, and greatly enhance the killing activity of the solution containing the apolactoferrin and its cleavage products. Mass spectroscopy revealed that PrtA makes a major cut between amino acids 78 and 79 of human lactoferrin, removing the N-terminal end of the molecule (about 8.6 kDa). The simplest interpretation of these data is that the mechanism by which apolactoferrin kills Streptococcus pneumoniae requires the release of a lactoferricin-like peptide(s) and that it is this peptide(s), and not the intact apolactoferrin, which kills pneumococci.

  19. The Secreted Protease PrtA Controls Cell Growth, Biofilm Formation and Pathogenicity in Xylella fastidiosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouran, Hossein; Gillespie, Hyrum; Nascimento, Rafael; Chakraborty, Sandeep; Zaini, Paulo A.; Jacobson, Aaron; Phinney, Brett S.; Dolan, David; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Antonova, Elena S.; Lindow, Steven E.; Mellema, Matthew S.; Goulart, Luiz R.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

    2016-01-01

    Pierce’s disease (PD) is a deadly disease of grapevines caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Though disease symptoms were formerly attributed to bacteria blocking the plant xylem, this hypothesis is at best overly simplistic. Recently, we used a proteomic approach to characterize the secretome of X. fastidiosa, both in vitro and in planta, and identified LesA as one of the pathogenicity factors of X. fastidiosa in grapevines that leads to leaf scorching and chlorosis. Herein, we characterize another such factor encoded by PD0956, designated as an antivirulence secreted protease “PrtA” that displays a central role in controlling in vitro cell proliferation, length, motility, biofilm formation, and in planta virulence. The mutant in X. fastidiosa exhibited reduced cell length, hypermotility (and subsequent lack of biofilm formation) and hypervirulence in grapevines. These findings are supported by transcriptomic and proteomic analyses with corresponding plant infection data. Of particular interest, is the hypervirulent response in grapevines observed when X. fastidiosa is disrupted for production of PrtA, and that PD-model tobacco plants transformed to express PrtA exhibited decreased symptoms after infection by X. fastidiosa. PMID:27492542

  20. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies. (MOW)

  1. Commencement Bay Study. Volume IV. Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-31

    AD-AI12 555 DAMES AND MOORE SEATTLE WA* FIG 8/1 COMMENCEMENT BAY STUDY. VOLUME IV. INVERTEBRATES .(U)DEC 81 W M BAYLOCK, J P HOUGHTON DACW67-80-C-OIDI...December 1981 Volume IV, Invertebrates 6. PERFORMINO ORG. REPORT NUMBER 682-021-05 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUmaER(S) DACW67-80-C-0101 S. PERFORMING... Invertebrates Air Quality, Birds Is. KEY WORDS (Continue an reverse old. It necomemy w red ty a b eek mireber) Salmonids Wetlands Noise Aesthetics Marine Fish

  2. Temel Tepki Öğretimi-TTÖ (Pivotal Response Treatment-PRT İle Gerçekleştirilen Etkililik Araştırmalarının Betimsel Analizi

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    Özlem TOPER-KORKMAZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Temel Tepki Öğretimi (TTÖ Amerika Ulusal Otizm Merkezi (NAC, 2009 tarafından yayınlanmış olan Ulusal Standartlar Raporun’da otizmli çocukların eğitimde kullanılan bilimsel dayanaklı uygulamalardan bir tanesi olarak kabul edilmektedir. TTÖ hem uygulamalı davranış analizi ilkelerine dayanan hem de doğal bir öğretim yöntemidir. Yöntem öğrenci merkezli ve aile eğitimi esaslı olup çocuklara belli temel davranışları kazandırmayı ve buna bağlı olarakta hedeflenmeyen başka alanlarda da ilerlemeler sağlanacağını savunur. Bu çalışmada TTÖ’ne yönelik bir alan yazın çalışması amaçlanmış ve bu amaçla 1995 ile 2011 yılları arasında TTÖ ile gerçekleştirilmiş olan 16 etkililik araştırmasına ulaşılarak bu araştımalar betimsel olarak analiz edilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgular TTÖ’nün okul öncesi ve ilköğretim dönemindeki otizm spektrum bozukluğu gösteren çocuklara ifade edici dil becerilerinin kazandırılmasında, sosyal becerilerin ve oyun becerilerinin öğretiminde etkili olduğunu göstermektedir Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT is one of evidence based treatments identified in the US National Autism Center's National Standards Report published in 2009. PRT is a comprehensive instructional model based on developmental approach and applied behavior analysis principles to provide learning opportunities for supporting children in their natural environments. PRT is a student-centered and parent-training based procedure and advocates that if children achieve some pivotal behaviors, it provides positive effects on untargeted behaviors and also if these pivotal behaviors are achieved once, results will be common and generalizable. The purpose of this study is, by using descriptive analysis, to review the sixteen effectiveness studies of PRT published in 1995-2011. Results of review showed that PRT is an effective procedure on language skills, social skills and play skills of preschool and

  3. Qualification Testing of Engineering Camera and Platinum Resistance Thermometer (PRT) Sensors for Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project under Extreme Temperatures to Assess Reliability and to Enhance Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Maki, Justin N.; Cucullu, Gordon C.

    2008-01-01

    Package Qualification and Verification (PQV) of advanced electronic packaging and interconnect technologies and various other types of qualification hardware for the Mars Exploration Rover/Mars Science Laboratory flight projects has been performed to enhance the mission assurance. The qualification of hardware (Engineering Camera and Platinum Resistance Thermometer, PRT) under extreme cold temperatures has been performed with reference to various project requirements. The flight-like packages, sensors, and subassemblies have been selected for the study to survive three times (3x) the total number of expected temperature cycles resulting from all environmental and operational exposures occurring over the life of the flight hardware including all relevant manufacturing, ground operations and mission phases. Qualification has been performed by subjecting above flight-like qual hardware to the environmental temperature extremes and assessing any structural failures or degradation in electrical performance due to either overstress or thermal cycle fatigue. Experiments of flight like hardware qualification test results have been described in this paper.

  4. Identification of developmentally regulated PCP-responsive non-coding RNA, prt6, in the rat thalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironao Takebayashi

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia and similar psychoses induced by NMDA-type glutamate receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP and ketamine, usually develop after adolescence. Moreover, adult-type behavioral disturbance following NMDA receptor antagonist application in rodents is observed after a critical period at around 3 postnatal weeks. These observations suggest that the schizophrenic symptoms caused by and psychotomimetic effects of NMDA antagonists require the maturation of certain brain neuron circuits and molecular networks, which differentially respond to NMDA receptor antagonists across adolescence and the critical period. From this viewpoint, we have identified a novel developmentally regulated phencyclidine-responsive transcript from the rat thalamus, designated as prt6, as a candidate molecule involved in the above schizophrenia-related systems using a DNA microarray technique. The transcript is a non-coding RNA that includes sequences of at least two microRNAs, miR132 and miR212, and is expressed strongly in the brain and testis, with trace or non-detectable levels in the spleen, heart, liver, kidney, lung and skeletal muscle, as revealed by Northern blot analysis. The systemic administration of PCP (7.5 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c. significantly elevated the expression of prt6 mRNA in the thalamus at postnatal days (PD 32 and 50, but not at PD 8, 13, 20, or 24 as compared to saline-treated controls. At PD 50, another NMDA receptor antagonist, dizocilpine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c., and a schizophrenomimetic dopamine agonist, methamphetamine (4.8 mg/kg, s.c., mimicked a significant increase in the levels of thalamic prt6 mRNAs, while a D2 dopmamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol, partly inhibited the increasing influence of PCP on thalamic prt6 expression without its own effects. These data indicate that prt6 may be involved in the pathophysiology of the onset of drug-induced schizophrenia-like symptoms and schizophrenia through the possible

  5. Exceptional Infant: Studies in Abnormalities, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, Jerome, Ed.

    Designed as a complement to Volume 1 on the normal infant (available as EC 003 414), the text examines the following areas: neurological examination of the newborn, neurobehavioral organization of the newborn, neuropsychology examinations in young children, learning of motor skills on the basis of self-induced movements, factors in vulnerability…

  6. Interaction of the RNP1 motif in PRT1 with HCR1 promotes 40S binding of eukaryotic initiation factor 3 in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus H; Valásek, Leos; Sykes, Caroah

    2006-01-01

    We found that mutating the RNP1 motif in the predicted RRM domain in yeast eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) subunit b/PRT1 (prt1-rnp1) impairs its direct interactions in vitro with both eIF3a/TIF32 and eIF3j/HCR1. The rnp1 mutation in PRT1 confers temperature-sensitive translation initiation...... in vivo and reduces 40S-binding of eIF3 to native preinitiation complexes. Several findings indicate that the rnp1 lesion decreases recruitment of eIF3 to the 40S subunit by HCR1: (i) rnp1 strongly impairs the association of HCR1 with PRT1 without substantially disrupting the eIF3 complex; (ii) rnp1......) hcr1Delta impairs 40S binding of eIF3 in otherwise wild-type cells. Interestingly, rnp1 also reduces the levels of 40S-bound eIF5 and eIF1 and increases leaky scanning at the GCN4 uORF1. Thus, the PRT1 RNP1 motif coordinates the functions of HCR1 and TIF32 in 40S binding of eIF3 and is needed...

  7. Commencement Bay Study. Volume V. Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-31

    source discharges also reflect local rainfall activity (e.g., storm drains , sewer plant outfalls). The body of literature available to -55- support...water.* There were higher concentrations noted in some storm drains , bank seepage, and effluent samples. The amount of discharge at these points was...either storm drains or bank seepage and of low volume. Purgeable Halocarbons None of the waterway stations had concentrations in excess of

  8. Vibrio cholerae cytolysin causes an inflammatory response in human intestinal epithelial cells that is modulated by the PrtV protease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangwei Ou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vibrio cholerae is the causal intestinal pathogen of the diarrheal disease cholera. It secretes the protease PrtV, which protects the bacterium from invertebrate predators but reduces the ability of Vibrio-secreted factor(s to induce interleukin-8 (IL-8 production by human intestinal epithelial cells. The aim was to identify the secreted component(s of V. cholerae that induces an epithelial inflammatory response and to define whether it is a substrate for PrtV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Culture supernatants of wild type V. cholerae O1 strain C6706, its derivatives and pure V. cholerae cytolysin (VCC were analyzed for the capacity to induce changes in cytokine mRNA expression levels, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha secretion, permeability and cell viability when added to the apical side of polarized tight monolayer T84 cells used as an in vitro model for human intestinal epithelium. Culture supernatants were also analyzed for hemolytic activity and for the presence of PrtV and VCC by immunoblot analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest that VCC is capable of causing an inflammatory response characterized by increased permeability and production of IL-8 and TNF-alpha in tight monolayers. Pure VCC at a concentration of 160 ng/ml caused an inflammatory response that reached the magnitude of that caused by Vibrio-secreted factors, while higher concentrations caused epithelial cell death. The inflammatory response was totally abolished by treatment with PrtV. The findings suggest that low doses of VCC initiate a local immune defense reaction while high doses lead to intestinal epithelial lesions. Furthermore, VCC is indeed a substrate for PrtV and PrtV seems to execute an environment-dependent modulation of the activity of VCC that may be the cause of V. cholerae reactogenicity.

  9. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 1: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-12-01

    A preliminary top level study was completed to define power system concepts applicable to Mars surface applications. This effort included definition of power system requirements and selection of power systems with the potential for high commonality. These power systems included dynamic isotope, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell, sodium sulfur battery, photovoltaic, and reactor concepts. Design influencing factors were identified. Characterization studies were then done for each concept to determine system performance, size/volume, and mass. Operations studies were done to determine emplacement/deployment maintenance/servicing, and startup/shutdown requirements. Technology development roadmaps were written for each candidate power system (included in Volume 2). Example power system architectures were defined and compared on a mass basis. The dynamic isotope power system and nuclear reactor power system architectures had significantly lower total masses than the photovoltaic system architectures. Integrated development and deployment time phasing plans were completed for an example DIPS and reactor architecture option to determine the development strategies required to meet the mission scenario requirements.

  10. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 1: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary top level study was completed to define power system concepts applicable to Mars surface applications. This effort included definition of power system requirements and selection of power systems with the potential for high commonality. These power systems included dynamic isotope, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell, sodium sulfur battery, photovoltaic, and reactor concepts. Design influencing factors were identified. Characterization studies were then done for each concept to determine system performance, size/volume, and mass. Operations studies were done to determine emplacement/deployment maintenance/servicing, and startup/shutdown requirements. Technology development roadmaps were written for each candidate power system (included in Volume 2). Example power system architectures were defined and compared on a mass basis. The dynamic isotope power system and nuclear reactor power system architectures had significantly lower total masses than the photovoltaic system architectures. Integrated development and deployment time phasing plans were completed for an example DIPS and reactor architecture option to determine the development strategies required to meet the mission scenario requirements.

  11. Quantifying normal ankle joint volume: An anatomic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draeger Reid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many therapeutic and diagnostic modalities such as intraarticular injections, arthrography and ankle arthroscopy require introduction of fluid into the ankle joint. Little data are currently available in the literature regarding the maximal volume of normal, nonpathologic, human ankle joints. The purpose of this study was to measure the volume of normal human ankle joints. Materials and Methods: A fluoroscopic guided needle was passed into nine cadaveric adult ankle joints. The needle was connected to an intracompartmental pressure measurement device. A radiopaque dye was introduced into the joint in 2 mL boluses, while pressure measurements were recorded. Fluid was injected into the joint until three consecutive pressure measurements were similar, signifying a maximal joint volume. Results: The mean maximum ankle joint volume was 20.9 ± 4.9 mL (range, 16-30 mL. The mean ankle joint pressure at maximum volume was 142.2 ± 13.8 mm Hg (range, 122-166 mm Hg. Two of the nine samples showed evidence of fluid tracking into the synovial sheath of the flexor hallucis longus tendon. Conclusion: Maximal normal ankle joint volume was found to vary between 16-30 mL. This study ascertains the communication between the ankle joint and the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. Exceeding maximal ankle joint volume suggested by this study during therapeutic injections, arthrography, or arthroscopy could potentially damage the joint.

  12. Aircraft Simulator Data Requirements Study. Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    planned, to solicit suggestions relative to the study approach, and to again point out the importance of cooperacion . Representatives from the Aeronautical...be a trn-service document. The decision was reached that this study was to address fixed wing, horizontal takeoff, turbojet, turbofan, or turboprop

  13. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 55, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    National Security Study Memorandum 213--Part I: Intelligence Appraisal— Fac - tors Influencing the Course of Events in the Republic of Vietnam over the...2011), 266 pp., index. After high school, Jack O’Connell worked to save the $750 tuition needed to attend Notre Dame and play football . When an

  14. National Television Violence Study. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  15. National Television Violence Study. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  16. National Television Violence Study. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  17. Professional Development of Officers Study. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-21

    side It neoeeeoop and Idehu•dI by blok nulmber). Officer Development Periods, Warrior Spirit, Mentor, Professional Values, ducation and Training...ndlows•:: study. We conclude that PDOS recommended Sreflection, research and inquiry, policies contain no unfair sexual bias. 7. The manpower investment

  18. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 55, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    CORDS) after 1967.49 In the words of CIA historian Thomas Ahern in his study of CIA pacification programs: [They] incorporated sug- gestions into a...Balawi had adopted several on-line personas in his highly inflam- matory, anti-Western blogs. Balawi seemed to “crack” after three days of relatively

  19. Elliptic Volume Grid Generation for Viscous CFD Parametric Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a robust method for the generation of zonal volume grids of design parametrics for aerodynamic configurations. The process utilizes simple algebraic techniques with parametric splines coupled with elliptic volume grid generation to generate isolated zonal grids for changes in body configuration needed to perform parametric design studies. Speed of the algorithm is maximized through the algebraic methods and reduced number of grid points to be regenerated for each design parametric without sacrificing grid quality and continuity within the volume domain. The method is directly applicable to grid reusability, because it modifies existing ow adapted volume grids and enables the user to restart the CFD solution process with an established flow field. Use of this zonal approach reduces computer usage time to create new volume grids for design parametric studies by an order of magnitude, as compared to current methods which require the regeneration of an entire volume grid. A sample configuration of a proposed Single Stage-to-Orbit Vehicle is used to illustrate an application of this method.

  20. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study.

  1. Pivotal Response Treatment for Infants At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Amanda Mossman; Gengoux, Grace W.; Klin, Ami; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Presently there is limited research to suggest efficacious interventions for infants at-risk for autism. Pivotal response treatment (PRT) has empirical support for use with preschool children with autism, but there are no reports in the literature utilizing this approach with infants. In the current study, a developmental adaptation of PRT was…

  2. Moderate intensity supine exercise causes decreased cardiac volumes and increased outer volume variations: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steding-Ehrenborg, Katarina; Jablonowski, Robert; Arvidsson, Per M

    2013-01-01

    The effects on left and right ventricular (LV, RV) volumes during physical exercise remains controversial. Furthermore, no previous study has investigated the effects of exercise on longitudinal contribution to stroke volume (SV) and the outer volume variation of the heart. The aim of this study ...... was to determine if LV, RV and total heart volumes (THV) as well as cardiac pumping mechanisms change during physical exercise compared to rest using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR).......The effects on left and right ventricular (LV, RV) volumes during physical exercise remains controversial. Furthermore, no previous study has investigated the effects of exercise on longitudinal contribution to stroke volume (SV) and the outer volume variation of the heart. The aim of this study...

  3. Ironmaking Process Alternative Screening Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood Greene, . .

    2005-01-06

    Iron in the United States is largely produced from iron ore mined in the United States or imported from Canada or South America. The iron ore is typically smelted in Blast Furnaces that use primarily iron ore, iron concentrate pellets metallurgical coke, limestone and lime as the raw materials. Under current operating scenarios, the iron produced from these Blast Furnaces is relatively inexpensive as compared to current alternative iron sources, e.g. direct iron reduction, imported pig iron, etc. The primary problem the Blast Furnace Ironmaking approach is that many of these Blast furnaces are relatively small, as compared to the newer, larger Blast Furnaces; thus are relatively costly and inefficient to operate. An additional problem is also that supplies of high-grade metallurgical grade coke are becoming increasingly in short supply and costs are also increasing. In part this is due to the short supply and costs of high-grade metallurgical coals, but also this is due to the increasing necessity for environmental controls for coke production. After year 2003 new regulations for coke product environmental requirement will likely be promulgated. It is likely that this also will either increase the cost of high-quality coke production or will reduce the available domestic U.S. supply. Therefore, iron production in the United States utilizing the current, predominant Blast Furnace process will be more costly and would likely be curtailed due to a coke shortage. Therefore, there is a significant need to develop or extend the economic viability of Alternate Ironmaking Processes to at least partially replace current and declining blast furnace iron sources and to provide incentives for new capacity expansion. The primary conclusions of this comparative Study of Alternative Ironmaking Process scenarios are: (1) The processes with the best combined economics (CAPEX and OPEX impacts in the I.R.R. calculation) can be grouped into those Fine Ore based processes with no scrap

  4. Small power systems study. Volume. Study results. Technical summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitney, L.R.

    1978-05-31

    The Division of Solar Technology of the Department of Energy is currently examining the market potential of a number of dispersed solar energy systems, including the small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) solar thermal power system. Small fossil-fueled generating units in the United States utility system, (i.e., investor-owned, municipal, and cooperatives) have a current capacity of approximately 8000 MW/sub e/ or about 1.5 percent of the total US electrical capacity, and provide a large potential market for small solar thermal power systems. The Small Power Systems Study has as its objective the determination of conditions under which small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) solar thermal power units can provide cost-effective electrical power to a variety of users. Potential users, in addition to the utility systems; include Department of Defense installations and applications, remote mining and/or lumbering operations, and other industrial power systems with and without cogeneration. The first year's results on the Small Power Systems Study are summarized. The data base used and the breakeven cost analysis are discussed. Information on both small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) generating units and the utility systems using them is presented as well as data on fossil fuel costs, solar plant costs, and solar insolation values. The results of a survey of Department of Defense (DOD) worldwide electrical generating capacity at its military bases and on a potential DOD application are presented. Information on a potential small solar power system experiment in the interior of Alaska is given, and a limited amount of information on a remote application which would provide power or a large open pit copper mine is presented. Volume II of this Technical Summary Report contains an inventory, by state, of the small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) generating units in the US utility system. (WHK)

  5. Preschool and Primary Education. Estonian Studies in Education. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikk, Jaan, Ed.; Veisson, Marika, Ed.; Luik, Piret, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The studies in this volume explore a number of issues in education today. One paper reveals what actually motivates teachers to develop their career, another, how to teach primary teachers to talk about visual art. Children's artworks were explored in one article to see how they relate to their adjustment to school. In another, a case study was…

  6. Managing large-volume literature searches in research synthesis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havill, Nancy L; Leeman, Jennifer; Shaw-Kokot, Julia; Knafl, Kathleen; Crandell, Jamie; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews typically require searching for, retrieving, and screening a large volume of literature, yet little guidance is available on how to manage this volume. We detail methods used to search for and manage the yield of relevant citations for a mixed-methods, mixed research synthesis study focused on the intersection between family life and childhood chronic physical conditions. We designed inclusive search strings and searched nine bibliographic databases to identify relevant research regardless of methodological origin. We customized searches to individual databases, developed work-arounds for transferring large volumes of citations and eliminating duplicate citations using reference management software, and used this software as a portal to select citations for inclusion or exclusion. We identified 67,555 citations, retrieved and screened 3,617 reports, and selected 800 reports for inclusion. Systematic reviews require search procedures to allow consistent and comprehensive approaches and the ability to work around technical obstacles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. [eds.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Graduate Studies in Education, Volume 1, Number 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, E. Wayne, Comp.; Heineke, William F., Comp.

    As one part of a volume of abstracts of studies of the last decade primarily in the vocational and technical field, this report includes 139 abstracts in the categories of philosophy, psychology, sociology, statistics, supervision, and technical education. The abstracts in philosophy treat the development of trade and industrial education,…

  9. El PRT-ERP y la lucha por la libertad de los presos políticos, 1971-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Eidelman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda la represión política de la militancia revolucionaria por parte del régimen militar y la problemática de los presos políticos en la etapa 1971-1973 en Argentina. Se realiza un análisis de las principales características de la legislación represiva. Centralmente refiere a las diferentes iniciativas desarrolladas por el PRT-ERP en relación con sus militantes presos y en particular a la constitución de una Comisión de familiares de presos políticos, estudiantiles y gremiales para la organización de la solidaridad y defensa de los mismos. Apuntamos a destacar la amplia actividad de defensa y solidaridad con los presos políticos desarrollada por un conjunto de organizaciones como un antecedente importante, pero no reconocido, para la constitución del movimiento de derechos humanos de la Argentina en 1975-1976

  10. Pivotal response treatment for infants at-risk for autism spectrum disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Amanda Mossman; Gengoux, Grace W; Klin, Ami; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Presently there is limited research to suggest efficacious interventions for infants at-risk for autism. Pivotal response treatment (PRT) has empirical support for use with preschool children with autism, but there are no reports in the literature utilizing this approach with infants. In the current study, a developmental adaptation of PRT was piloted via a brief parent training model with three infants at-risk for autism. Utilizing a multiple baseline design, the data suggest that the introduction of PRT resulted in increases in the infants' frequency of functional communication and parents' fidelity of implementation of PRT procedures. Results provide preliminary support for the feasibility and utility of PRT for very young children at-risk for autism.

  11. Drug and Alcohol Studies (Volume 2: Theoretical Studies)

    OpenAIRE

    MacGregor, S.; Thom, B

    2014-01-01

    VOLUME TWO: THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES Excerpt from Drug, Set and Setting: The Basis for Controlled Intoxicant Use N. Zinberg Sociocultural Anthropology and Alcohol and Drug Research Geoffrey Hunt and Judith Barker Towards a Unified Theory Addiction Is a Brain Disease and It Matters Alan Leshner Drug Dependence A. Thomas McLellan et al A Chronic Mental Illness Alcohol Dependence Griffith Edwards and Milton Gross Provisional Description of a Clinical Syndrome Illicit Drugs and the Rise of Epidem...

  12. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume II. Gas generation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume II of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report contains the data generated from evaluating the adequacy of venting/filtering devices for maintaining safe hydrogen levels in plutonium contaminated waste drums. Additional studies reported in this volume include gas generation rates, selected waste form monitoring, and evaluation of hydrogen migration from sealed 90-mil rigid polyethylene drum liners containing /sup 238/Pu-contaminated wastes. All wastes used in the studies were newly-generated, and the waste drums were under controlled, experimental conditions. Studies using /sup 239/Pu-contaminated wastes were conducted at the Rocky Flats Plant. Studies using /sup 238/Pu-contaminated wastes were conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  13. Control system retrofit guidelines: Volume 3, Case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caple, E. (Lower Colorado River Authority, CO (United States)); Christianson, E.C.; Popkawa, M.S.; Vaccaro, G.J. (Centerior Energy Corp., Cleveland, OH (United States)); Clark, S.L. (Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)); Everly, D.P. (Southern Co. Services, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)); Michael, N.Y. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States)); Patel, M.B. (Boston

    1992-07-01

    In many fossil fuel power plants, new digital control technology has rendered existing control and instrumentation systems obsolete. This comprehensive three-volume report discusses key phases of control system retrofits, technical assessment of a digital control system, and utility-authored case studies focusing on individual retrofit approaches. The project team divided the work into three distinct phases. First they developed a method for assessing the need for a retrofit as well as its associated benefits. Next, they cataloged information concerning manufacturer control system equipment and capabilities. Finally, they documented control system retrofit experience from utility members of EPRI's Instrumentation and Control Advisory Committee. Volume 3 documents utility response to the three-phase retrofit approach. Phase 1 involves project and plant condition assessment, conceptual design, budget development, and benefits analysis. Phase 2 focuses on project approval and planning with emphasis on final cost-benefit justification, final design, and scheduling aspects. Phase 3 emphasizes project implementation, including final hardware specifications, justification for equipment selection, construction management, startup performance, and training. Volume 3 also discusses postretrofit evaluation.

  14. A study of nasal cavity volume by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosa, Yasuyoshi (Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-04-01

    The nasal cavity volume in 69 healthy volunteers from 8 to 23 years old (17 males and 52 females) was studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Merits of MRI such as no radiation exposure, less artifact due to bone and air and measurement of intravascular blood flow; and demerits such as contraindication in users of heart pace-makers or magnetic clips, contraindication in people with claustrophobia and influence of environmental magnetic fields must be considered. A Magunetom M10 (Siemens), a superconduction device with 1.0 Tesla magnetic flux density was used. Enhanced patterns of T[sub 1], and pulse lines were photographed at 600 msec TR (repetition time) and 19 msec TE (echo time) using SE (spin echo) and short SE (spin echo), and 3 or 4 mm slices. Photographs were made of the piriform aperture, choana, superior-middle-inferior concha including the nasal meatus, the frontal sinus, maxillary sinus, cribriform plate, and upper surface of the palate. The line connecting the maximum depression point in the nasal root and the pontomedullary junction was selected by sagittal median section, because this corresponds well with the CM (canthomeatal) line which is useful in CT (computed tomography). The transverse section of the nasal cavity volume was traced by display console with an accessory MRI device and calculated by integration of the slice width. The increase of height and body weight neared a plateau at almost 16 years, whereas increase of nasal cavity volume continued until about 20 years. Pearson's coefficient of correlation and regression line were significant. There were no significant differences in these parameters between male and female groups. Comparatively strong correlation between nasal cavity volume, and age, height and body weight was statistically evident. (author).

  15. Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    This is Volume 1 (Executive Summary) of the Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation Final Report for the Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) Study program conducted for NASA Lewis Research Center under contract No. NAS3-24235. This report presents the results of the study effort leading to five potential platform payloads to service CONUS and WARC Region 2 traffic demand as projected to the year 2008. The report addresses establishing the data bases, developing service aggregation scenarios, selecting and developing 5 payload concepts, performing detailed definition of the 5 payloads, costing them, identifying critical technology, and finally comparing the payloads with each other and also with non-aggregated equivalent services.

  16. Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) study. Volume 3: Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, E. M.; Driggers, T.; Jorasch, R.

    1986-01-01

    This is Volume 3 (Addendum) of the Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation Final Report for the Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) Study Program conducted for NASA Lewis Research Center under contract No. NAS3-24235. This report presents the results of the study effort leading to five potential platform payloads to service CONUS and WARC Region 2 traffic demand as projected to the year 2008. The report addresses establishing the data bases, developing service aggregation scenarios, selecting and developing 5 payload concepts, performing detailed definition of the 5 payloads, costing them, identifying critical technology, and finally comparing the payloads with each other and also with non-aggregated equivalent services.

  17. Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) study. Volume 2: Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, E. M.; Driggers, T.; Jorasch, R.

    1986-01-01

    This is Volume 2 (Technical Report) of the Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation Final Report for the Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) Study program conducted for NASA Lewis Research Center under contract No. NAS3-24235. This report presents the results of the study effort leading to five potential platform payloads to service CONUS and WARC Region 2 traffic demand as projected to the year 2008. The report addresses establishing the data bases, developing service aggregation scenarios, selecting and developing 5 payload concepts, performing detailed definition of the 5 payloads, costing them, identifying critical technology, and finally comparing the payloads with each other and also with non-aggregated equivalent services.

  18. Youth Attitude Tracking Study. Volume 2. Fall 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    youth as coming from rela- tively modest socio-economic backgrounds. Periods of high unemployment affect the less-educated, less-skilled, and less...FRD-fl143 187 YOUTH ATTITUDE TRACKING STUDY VOLUME 2 FALL 1976(U) 1/2 MARKET FACTS INC CHICAGO IL J T HEISLER JAN 76 H390 UNCLASSIFIED ___ F/G 5/9 NL...PRACTS ag e 8 Analytic Comment. I MARKET FAOTS YOUTH ATTITUDE TRACKING STUDY -. FALL 1976 e4.? .2 L A Report Prepared for: . The Department of Defense p’V

  19. Volumizing effects of a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid volumizing filler: prospective European study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Klaus

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial volume loss contributes significantly to facial aging. The 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid (HA formulation used in this study is a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, fully reversible, volumizing filler indicated to restore facial volume. This first prospective study evaluated use in current aesthetic clinical practice. Methods A pan-European evaluation conducted under guidelines of the World Association of Opinion and Marketing Research, the trial comprised a baseline visit (visit 1 and a follow-up (visit 2 at 14 ± 7 days posttreatment. Physicians photographed patients at each visit. Each patient was treated with the 20-mg/mL HA volumizing filler as supplied in standard packaging. Procedural details, aesthetic outcomes, safety, and physician and patient ratings of their experience were recorded. Results Fifteen physicians and 70 patients (91% female; mean age: 50 years participated. Mean volume loss at baseline was 3.7 (moderate on the Facial Volume Loss Scale. Local anesthesia was used in 64.3% of cases. Most injections (85% were administered with needles rather than cannulas. Of the 208 injections, 59% were in the malar region, primarily above the periosteum. Subcutaneous injections were most common for other sites. The mean total injection volume per patient was 4.6 mL. The mean volume loss score declined significantly (P Conclusion The 20-mg/mL smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, volumizing HA filler was effective, well tolerated, and easy to use in current clinical practice. Participants were very likely to recommend this product to colleagues and friends, and patients would be very or quite likely to request this product for future treatments.

  20. PET functional volume delineation: a robustness and repeatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatt, Mathieu [CHU Morvan, INSERM, U650, LaTIM, Brest (France); CHU MORVAN, LaTIM, INSERM U650, Brest (France); Cheze-le Rest, Catherine [CHU Morvan, INSERM, U650, LaTIM, Brest (France); CHU, Academic Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brest (France); Albarghach, Nidal; Pradier, Olivier [CHU Morvan, INSERM, U650, LaTIM, Brest (France); CHU, Institute of Oncology, Brest (France); Visvikis, Dimitris [CHU Morvan, INSERM, U650, LaTIM, Brest (France)

    2011-04-15

    Current state-of-the-art algorithms for functional uptake volume segmentation in PET imaging consist of threshold-based approaches, whose parameters often require specific optimization for a given scanner and associated reconstruction algorithms. Different advanced image segmentation approaches previously proposed and extensively validated, such as among others fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering, or fuzzy locally adaptive bayesian (FLAB) algorithm have the potential to improve the robustness of functional uptake volume measurements. The objective of this study was to investigate robustness and repeatability with respect to various scanner models, reconstruction algorithms and acquisition conditions. Robustness was evaluated using a series of IEC phantom acquisitions carried out on different PET/CT scanners (Philips Gemini and Gemini Time-of-Flight, Siemens Biograph and GE Discovery LS) with their associated reconstruction algorithms (RAMLA, TF MLEM, OSEM). A range of acquisition parameters (contrast, duration) and reconstruction parameters (voxel size) were considered for each scanner model, and the repeatability of each method was evaluated on simulated and clinical tumours and compared to manual delineation. For all the scanner models, acquisition parameters and reconstruction algorithms considered, the FLAB algorithm demonstrated higher robustness in delineation of the spheres with low mean errors (10%) and variability (5%), with respect to threshold-based methodologies and FCM. The repeatability provided by all segmentation algorithms considered was very high with a negligible variability of <5% in comparison to that associated with manual delineation (5-35%). The use of advanced image segmentation algorithms may not only allow high accuracy as previously demonstrated, but also provide a robust and repeatable tool to aid physicians as an initial guess in determining functional volumes in PET. (orig.)

  1. USAF advanced terrestrial energy study. Volume 2: Technology handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, E. J.; Yudow, B. D.; Donakowski, T. D.

    1983-04-01

    This report presents the results of the USAF Advanced Terrestrial Energy Study. The objective of that study was to develop a data base of key parameters of selected energy conversion and energy storage technologies. The data base includes present and expected (through 2000) performance goals of the systems. The data base was established through an extensive literature search, surveys of manufacturers and researchers, and statistical and qualitative analyses of the available input data. The results of the study are reported in four documents: (1) Project Summary; (2) Technology Handbook; (3) Parameter Survey; (4) Analysis, Data, Bibliography. Contents (Volume II): Diesels, Gas Turbines, Stirlings, Organic Rankine Cycle, Fuel Cells, Photovoltaic Energy Conversion System, Wind Turbines, Batteries, Thermal Energy Storage System.

  2. Information management system study results. Volume 1: IMS study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The information management system (IMS) special emphasis task was performed as an adjunct to the modular space station study, with the objective of providing extended depth of analysis and design in selected key areas of the information management system. Specific objectives included: (1) in-depth studies of IMS requirements and design approaches; (2) design and fabricate breadboard hardware for demonstration and verification of design concepts; (3) provide a technological base to identify potential design problems and influence long range planning (4) develop hardware and techniques to permit long duration, low cost, manned space operations; (5) support SR&T areas where techniques or equipment are considered inadequate; and (6) permit an overall understanding of the IMS as an integrated component of the space station.

  3. Channeling, volume reflection, and volume capture study of electrons in a bent silicon crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Wistisen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111 plane in a strongly bent quasimosaic silicon crystal. These phenomena were investigated at 5 energies: 3.35, 4.2, 6.3, 10.5, and 14.0 GeV with a crystal with bending radius of 0.15 m, corresponding to curvatures of 0.053, 0.066, 0.099, 0.16, and 0.22 times the critical curvature, respectively. Based on the parameters of fitting functions we have extracted important parameters describing the channeling process such as the dechanneling length, the angle of volume reflection, the surface transmission, and the widths of the distribution of channeled particles parallel and orthogonal to the plane.

  4. Las mujeres en la política revolucionaria. el caso del PRT-ERP en la Argentina de los años 70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Oberti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2013v10n1p6 La izquierda revolucionaria argentina de los años 60 y 70 contó entre sus filas con una gran cantidad de mujeres. Muchas de ellas eran jóvenes que nacían a la vida política al mismo tiempo que surgían las organizaciones en las que militaban. Este texto explora la prensa y los documentos del PRT-ERP en un análisis que conjuga dos dimensiones. Por un lado, la  participación de las mujeres en la guerrilla, tanto en relación a su incorporación real en número y calidad de la militancia, como en la interpelación de la organización hacia ellas a través de la formación de espacios y la producción de materiales destinados específicamente a las mujeres. La otra dimensión refiere a la preocupación del PRT-ERP por pensar la subjetividad revolucionaria entrecruzando la vida cotidiana con la política, en un contexto de construcción de un modelo de militancia en la cual todos los aspectos de la vida quedaban implicados.

  5. Literacy & Numeracy Studies Volume 15 No 2 Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Lee

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Literacy and Numeracy Studies takes up two major themes shaping the landscape of research and practice in adult literacy. The first of these is the more recent of the two: the intersections between literacy and professional and workplace practice. The second is perhaps a more sustained and enduring concern in the field with the relationship of literacy to context, place and culture. In this sense, this issue of the journal is an expression of the reach and diversity of concerns with literacy in ‘social participation, the utilisation of social resources and the quality of life’ (Green, Lo Bianco and Wyn, this volume and carries forward critical debates for the field across the span of practice from the workplace, to the classroom to the community.

  6. USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process. Volume 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamson, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    .... It is published as three separate volumes. Volume I, USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process -- Phase II Report, discusses the result and cost/benefit analysis of testing three initiatives...

  7. USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process. Volume 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamson, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    .... It is published as three separate volumes. Volume I, USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process -- Phase II Report, discusses the result and cost/benefit analysis of testing three initiatives...

  8. Southwest Florida Shelf benthic communities study, Year 4 annual report. Volume 3. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danek, L.J.; Lewbel, G.S.; Tomlinson, M.S.; Boland, G.S.; Tourtellotte, G.H.

    1985-07-01

    The appendix (Volume 3) accompanies the Technical Discussion (Volume 2) of the study. It presents station plots, physical oceanography data, ancillary physical data, sediment data, lists of infauna, epifauna, nekton and macroalgae, and fouling-plate data.

  9. Hypothalamus and pituitary volume in schizophrenia: a structural MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, Anne; Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Kahn, René S; Haren, Neeltje E M Van

    2012-03-01

    Volumetric differences of the hypothalamus and/or the pituitary gland tend to support involvement of the HPA axis in psychotic disorders. These structures were manually outlined in 154 schizophrenia patients and 156 matched healthy comparison subjects by MRI brain images. Linear regression analyses were performed to investigate differences in volume between groups. Moreover, the effects of illness duration and type of medication were investigated. No significant differences were found between patients and healthy controls in volumes of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. In addition, there were no differences in volumes between patients with short and long illness duration. There was a trend towards patients receiving typical antipsychotic medication at the time of scanning having larger pituitary volumes than patients receiving atypical medication. These findings indicate that volume decreases in brain structures important for the normal functioning of the HPA axis are not present, either in recent-onset or chronically ill patients.

  10. Observational study of the effect of obesity on lung volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steier, Joerg; Lunt, Alan; Hart, Nicholas; Polkey, Michael I; Moxham, John

    2014-08-01

    Severe obesity causes respiratory morbidity and mortality. The impact of obesity on the mechanics of breathing is not fully understood. We undertook a comprehensive observational study of lung volumes and elasticity in nine obese and nine normal weight subjects, seated and supine, during spontaneous breathing. Seated and supine total lung capacity (TLC) and subdivisions were measured by multibreath helium dilution method. Using balloon catheters, oesophageal (Poes) and gastric (Pgas) pressures were recorded. Transpulmonary pressure (PL) was calculated as mouth pressure (Pmouth)-Poes, and complete expiratory PL volume curves were measured. The obese group had a body mass index (BMI) of 46.8 (17.2) kg/m(2), and the normal group had a BMI of 23.2 (1.6) kg/m(2) (p=0.001). Obese and normals were matched for age (p=0.233), gender (p=0.637) and height (p=0.094). The obese were more restricted than the normals (TLC 88.6 (16.9) vs 104.4 (12.3) %predicted, p=0.033; FEV1/FVC 79.6 (7.3) vs 82.5 (4.2) %, p=0.325), had dramatically reduced expiratory reserve volume (ERV 0.4 (0.4) vs 1.7 (0.6) L, p<0.001) and end-tidal functional residual capacity (FRC) was smaller (37.5 (6.9) vs 46.9 (4.6) %TLC, p=0.004) when seated, but was similar when supine (39.4 (7.7) vs 41.5 (4.3) %TLC, p=0.477). Gastric pressures at FRC were significantly elevated in the obese (seated 19.1 (4.7) vs 12.1 (6.2) cm H2O, p=0.015; supine 14.3 (5.7) vs 7.1 (2.6) cm H2O, p=0.003), as were end-expiratory oesophageal pressures at FRC (seated 5.2 (6.9) vs -2.0 (3.5) cm H2O, p=0.013; supine 14.0 (8.0) vs 5.4 (3.1) cm H2O, p=0.008). BMI correlated with end-expiratory gastric (seated R(2)=0.43, supine R(2)=0.66, p<0.01) and oesophageal pressures (seated R(2)=0.51, supine R(2)=0.62, p<0.01). Obese subjects have markedly increased gastric and oesophageal pressures, both when upright and supine, causing dramatically reduced FRC and ERV, which increases work of breathing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  11. Modeled Urea Distribution Volume and Mortality in the HEMO Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tom; Depner, Thomas A.; Levin, Nathan W.; Chertow, Glenn M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives In the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study, observed small decreases in achieved equilibrated Kt/Vurea were noncausally associated with markedly increased mortality. Here we examine the association of mortality with modeled volume (Vm), the denominator of equilibrated Kt/Vurea. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Parameters derived from modeled urea kinetics (including Vm) and blood pressure (BP) were obtained monthly in 1846 patients. Case mix–adjusted time-dependent Cox regressions were used to relate the relative mortality hazard at each time point to Vm and to the change in Vm over the preceding 6 months. Mixed effects models were used to relate Vm to changes in intradialytic systolic BP and to other factors at each follow-up visit. Results Mortality was associated with Vm and change in Vm over the preceding 6 months. The association between change in Vm and mortality was independent of vascular access complications. In contrast, mortality was inversely associated with V calculated from anthropometric measurements (Vant). In case mix–adjusted analysis using Vm as a time-dependent covariate, the association of mortality with Vm strengthened after statistical adjustment for Vant. After adjustment for Vant, higher Vm was associated with slightly smaller reductions in intradialytic systolic BP and with risk factors for mortality including recent hospitalization and reductions in serum albumin concentration and body weight. Conclusions An increase in Vm is a marker for illness and mortality risk in hemodialysis patients. PMID:21511841

  12. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC STUDY OF THE CHILD. PSYCHOANALYTIC STUDY OF THE CHILD SERIES, VOLUME 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EISSLER, RUTH S., ED.; AND OTHERS

    TWENTY ARTICLES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS VOLUME, THE 22ND IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE CHILD SERIES. PAPERS ON PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND THERAPY INTERPRET LOSING AND BEING LOST, OBSTACLES TO PSYCHOANALYTIC CURE, AND AFFECT CONTROL. ASPECTS OF PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY CONSIDERED ARE FREUD'S CONCEPT OF PRIMAL REPRESSION, CONCEPTS OF STRUCTURE AND…

  13. Pivotal Response Treatment for Infants At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Amanda Mossman; Gengoux, Grace W.; Klin, Ami; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Presently there is limited research to suggest efficacious interventions for infants at-risk for autism. Pivotal response treatment (PRT) has empirical support for use with preschool children with autism, but there are no reports in the literature utilizing this approach with infants. In the current study, a developmental adaptation of PRT was piloted via a brief parent training model with three infants at-risk for autism. Utilizing a multiple baseline design, the data suggest that the introd...

  14. Adrenal gland volume measurement in septic shock and control patients: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nougaret, Stephanie; Aufort, S.; Gallix, B. [Hopital Saint Eloi, Department of Abdominal Imaging, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France); Jung, B.; Chanques, G.; Jaber, S. [Hopital Saint Eloi, Intensive Care Unit, Department of Critical Care and Anesthesiology: DAR B, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France)

    2010-10-15

    To compare adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients and control patients by using semi-automated volumetry. Adrenal gland volume and its inter-observer variability were measured with tomodensitometry using semi-automated software in 104 septic shock patients and in 40 control patients. The volumes of control and septic shock patients were compared and the relationship between volume and outcome in intensive care was studied. The mean total volume of both adrenal glands was 7.2 {+-} 2.0 cm{sup 3} in control subjects and 13.3 {+-} 4.7 cm{sup 3} for total adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients (p < 0.0001). Measurement reproducibility was excellent with a concordance correlation coefficient value of 0.87. The increasing adrenal gland volume was associated with a higher rate of survival in intensive care. The present study reports that with semi-automated software, adrenal gland volume can be measured easily and reproducibly. Adrenal gland volume was found to be nearly double in sepsis compared with control patients. The absence of increased volume during sepsis would appear to be associated with a higher rate of mortality and may represent a prognosis factor which may help the clinician to guide their strategy. (orig.)

  15. Study of accurate volume measurement system for plutonium nitrate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoma, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-12-01

    It is important for effective safeguarding of nuclear materials to establish a technique for accurate volume measurement of plutonium nitrate solution in accountancy tank. The volume of the solution can be estimated by two differential pressures between three dip-tubes, in which the air is purged by an compressor. One of the differential pressure corresponds to the density of the solution, and another corresponds to the surface level of the solution in the tank. The measurement of the differential pressure contains many uncertain errors, such as precision of pressure transducer, fluctuation of back-pressure, generation of bubbles at the front of the dip-tubes, non-uniformity of temperature and density of the solution, pressure drop in the dip-tube, and so on. The various excess pressures at the volume measurement are discussed and corrected by a reasonable method. High precision-differential pressure measurement system is developed with a quartz oscillation type transducer which converts a differential pressure to a digital signal. The developed system is used for inspection by the government and IAEA. (M. Suetake)

  16. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

  17. Thyroid gland volume of schoolchildren in the North of Iran: Comparison with other studies

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Kalantari; Masrur Vahabi Moghadam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have shown the limitation of the World Health Organization (WHO)/ International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency (ICCIDD)-adopted thyroid gland volume references as universal normative values for thyroid gland volume. So we decided to measure thyroid gland volume by sonography in schoolchildren in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran ? Rasht is a metropolitan city on the Caspian Sea coast ? and compare them to WHO normative values. Materials and Methods: In a cross-...

  18. Pineal gland volume in primary insomnia and healthy controls: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumb, Jan M; Schilling, Claudia; Enning, Frank; Haddad, Leila; Paul, Franc; Lederbogen, Florian; Deuschle, Michael; Schredl, Michael; Nolte, Ingo

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about the relation between pineal volume and insomnia. Melatonin promotes sleep processes and, administered as a drug, it is suitable to improve primary and secondary sleep disorders in humans. Recent magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that human plasma and saliva melatonin levels are partially determined by the pineal gland volume. This study compares the pineal volume in a group of patients with primary insomnia to a group of healthy people without sleep disturbance. Pineal gland volume (PGV) was measured on the basis of high-resolution 3 Tesla MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in 23 patients and 27 controls, matched for age, gender and educational status. Volume measurements were performed conventionally by manual delineation of the pineal borders in multi-planar reconstructed images. Pineal gland volume was significantly smaller (P Pineal volume appears to be reduced in patients with primary insomnia compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to clarify whether low pineal volume is the basis or the consequence of functional sleep changes to elucidate the molecular pathology for the pineal volume loss in primary insomnia. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  19. Pressure-regulated volume control vs. volume control ventilation in healthy and injured rabbit lung: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porra, Liisa; Bayat, Sam; Malaspinas, Iliona; Albu, Gergely; Doras, Camille; Broche, Ludovic; Strengell, Satu; Peták, Ferenc; Habre, Walid

    2016-10-01

    It is not well understood how different ventilation modes affect the regional distribution of ventilation, particularly within the injured lung. We compared respiratory mechanics, lung aeration and regional specific ventilation ((Equation is included in full-text article.)) distributions in healthy and surfactant-depleted rabbits ventilated with pressure-regulated volume control (PRVC) mode with a decelerating inspiratory flow or with volume control (VC) mode. Randomised experimental study. New Zealand white rabbits (n = 8) were anaesthetised, paralysed and mechanically ventilated either with VC or PRVC mode (tidal volume: 7 ml kg; rate: 40 min; positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP): 3 cmH2O), at baseline and after lung injury induced by lung lavage. Airway resistance (Raw), respiratory tissue damping (G) and elastance (H) were measured by low-frequency forced oscillations. Synchrotron radiation computed tomography during stable xenon wash-in was used to measure regional lung aeration and specific ventilation and the relative fraction of nonaerated, trapped, normally, poorly and hyperinflated lung regions. Lung lavage significantly elevated peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) (P lungs with, however, a significantly lower peak pressure. Our data suggest that the lower PIP on PRVC ventilation was because of the decelerating flow pattern rather than the ventilation distribution.

  20. Thyroid gland volume of schoolchildren in the North of Iran: Comparison with other studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Saeed; Moghadam, Masrur Vahabi

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have shown the limitation of the World Health Organization (WHO)/ International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency (ICCIDD)-adopted thyroid gland volume references as universal normative values for thyroid gland volume. So we decided to measure thyroid gland volume by sonography in schoolchildren in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran - Rasht is a metropolitan city on the Caspian Sea coast - and compare them to WHO normative values. In a cross-sectional study, 2,522 schoolchildren, aged 6-13 years, in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran were selected by multistage random sampling. Data were collected on their age, sex, weight, height, body surface area (BSA), and thyroid gland size by palpation and sonography. The terminal phalange of thumb finger volume was calculated with the same formula used in sonography, for the thyroid gland in 1,085 of these cases. Goiter prevalence was 64% (1613 cases) by palpation, 76.1% (1228 subjects) grade I and 23.9% (385 cases) grade II. The mean thyroid gland volume in girls was more than boys (3.67 ± 1.89 mL vs 3.41 ± 1.58 mL, P thyroid gland volume reference, none of the children had goiter based on BSA and age even in those with grade II goiters (23.9%). In contrast, the median thyroid gland volume in our cases was larger than the 2004 WHO reference. The best single predictor of thyroid gland volume was age (R (2) = 0.391, P thyroid gland and finger volume in all grades of goiter and grade II goiters (3 ± 1.4 mL vs 9.59 ± 2.4 mL; P thyroid gland volume by sonography may underestimate or overestimate the goiter prevalence in many areas and populations. Finger volume was much larger than thyroid gland volume in even visible goiters.

  1. Change in brain and lesion volumes after CEE therapies: the WHIMS-MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Laura H; Espeland, Mark A; Hogan, Patricia E; Resnick, Susan M; Bryan, R Nick; Robinson, Jennifer G; Goveas, Joseph S; Davatzikos, Christos; Kuller, Lewis H; Williamson, Jeff D; Bushnell, Cheryl D; Shumaker, Sally A

    2014-02-04

    To determine whether smaller brain volumes in older women who had completed Women's Health Initiative (WHI)-assigned conjugated equine estrogen-based hormone therapy (HT), reported by WHI Memory Study (WHIMS)-MRI, correspond to a continuing increased rate of atrophy an average of 6.1 to 7.7 years later in WHIMS-MRI2. A total of 1,230 WHI participants were contacted: 797 (64.8%) consented, and 729 (59%) were rescanned an average of 4.7 years after the initial MRI scan. Mean annual rates of change in total brain volume, the primary outcome, and rates of change in ischemic lesion volumes, the secondary outcome, were compared between treatment groups using mixed-effect models with adjustment for trial, clinical site, age, intracranial volumes, and time between MRI measures. Total brain volume decreased an average of 3.22 cm(3)/y in the active arm and 3.07 cm(3)/y in the placebo arm (p = 0.53). Total ischemic lesion volumes increased in both arms at a rate of 0.12 cm(3)/y (p = 0.88). Conjugated equine estrogen-based postmenopausal HT, previously assigned at WHI baseline, did not affect rates of decline in brain volumes or increases in brain lesion volumes during the 4.7 years between the initial and follow-up WHIMS-MRI studies. Smaller frontal lobe volumes were observed as persistent group differences among women assigned to active HT compared with placebo. Women with a history of cardiovascular disease treated with active HT, compared with placebo, had higher rates of accumulation in white matter lesion volume and total brain lesion volume. Further study may elucidate mechanisms that explain these findings.

  2. Commingled uranium-tailings study. Volume II. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-06-30

    Public Law 96-540, Section 213, directs the Secretary of Energy to develop a plan for a cooperative program to provide assistance in the stabilization and management of defense-related uranium mill tailings commingled with other tailings. In developing the plan, the Secretary is further directed to: (1) establish the amount and condition of tailings generated under federal contracts; (2) examine appropriate methodologies for establishing the extent of federal assistance; and (3) consult with the owners and operators of each site. This technical report summarizes US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor activities in pursuit of items (1), (2), and (3) above. Recommendations regarding policy and a cooperative plan for federal assistance are under separate cover as Volume I.

  3. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks.

  4. Feasibility and efficacy of progressive resistance training and dietary supplements in radiotherapy treated head and neck cancer patients - the DAHANCA 25A study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønbro, Simon; Dalgas, Ulrik; Primdahl, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Background. Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) often lose a considerable amount of muscle mass following the disease and treatment. This is an independent mortality predictor, lowering muscle strength and functional performance. Progressive resistance training (PRT......) increases muscle mass among healthy individuals and groups of cancer patients, but it has not been investigated in HNSCC patients. Furthermore, studies in healthy subjects show an additive effect of protein and creatine supplementation following PRT. Objectives. Firstly, to investigate the feasibility of 12...... weeks of PRT ± protein and creatine supplementation among HNSCC patients. Secondly, to investigate group changes over time and group differences regarding lean body mass (LBM), muscle strength and functional performance following PRT ± dietary supplementation. Material and methods. Thirty patients were...

  5. A comparative study of self-consolidating concretes incorporating high-volume natural pozzolan or high-volume fly ash

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Kemal

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of Portland cement replacement on the strength and durability of self-consolidating concretes (SSC). The two replacement materials used are high-volume natural pozzolan (HVNP), a Saudi Arabian aluminum-silica rich basaltic glass and high-volume Class-F fly ash (HVFAF), from Jim Bridger Power Plant, Wyoming, US. As an extension of the study, limestone filler (LF) is also used to replace Portland cement, alongside HVNP or HVFAF, forming ternary blends. Along with compressive strength tests, non-steady state chloride migration and gas permeability tests were performed, as durability indicators, on SCC specimens. The results were compared to two reference concretes; 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and 85% OPC - 15% LF by mass. The HVNP and HVFAF concrete mixes showed strength and durability results comparable to those of the reference concretes; identifying that both can effectively be used to produce low-cost and environmental friendly SCC. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of hospital volume on processes of breast cancer care: A National Cancer Data Base study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tina W F; Pezzin, Liliana E; Li, Jianing; Sparapani, Rodney; Laud, Purushuttom W; Nattinger, Ann B

    2017-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine variations in delivery of several breast cancer processes of care that are correlated with lower mortality and disease recurrence, and to determine the extent to which hospital volume explains this variation. Women who were diagnosed with stage I-III unilateral breast cancer between 2007 and 2011 were identified within the National Cancer Data Base. Multiple logistic regression models were developed to determine whether hospital volume was independently associated with each of 10 individual process of care measures addressing diagnosis and treatment, and 2 composite measures assessing appropriateness of systemic treatment (chemotherapy and hormonal therapy) and locoregional treatment (margin status and radiation therapy). Among 573,571 women treated at 1755 different hospitals, 38%, 51%, and 10% were treated at high-, medium-, and low-volume hospitals, respectively. On multivariate analysis controlling for patient sociodemographic characteristics, treatment year and geographic location, hospital volume was a significant predictor for cancer diagnosis by initial biopsy (medium volume: odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.25; high volume: OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.14-1.49), negative surgical margins (medium volume: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.06-1.24; high volume: OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.13-1.44), and appropriate locoregional treatment (medium volume: OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.07-1.17; high volume: OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.09-1.24). Diagnosis of breast cancer before initial surgery, negative surgical margins and appropriate use of radiation therapy may partially explain the volume-survival relationship. Dissemination of these processes of care to a broader group of hospitals could potentially improve the overall quality of care and outcomes of breast cancer survivors. Cancer 2017;123:957-66. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  7. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 2. Industry description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    The United States railroad industry plays a key role in transporting materials to support our industrial economy. One of the oldest industries in the US, the railroads have developed over 150 years into their present physical and operational configuration. Energy conservation proposals to change industry facilities, equipment, or operating practices must be evaluated in terms of their cost impact. A current, comprehensive and accurate data baseline of railroad economic activity and energy consumption is presented. Descriptions of the history of railroad construction in the US and current equipment, facilities, and operation practices follow. Economic models that relate cost and energy of railroad service to the volume of railroad output and to physical and operational parameters are provided. The analyses and descriptions should provide not only an analytical baseline for evaluating the impact of proposed conservation measures, but they should also provide a measure of understanding of the system and its operations to analysts and policy makers who are involved in proposing, analyzing, and implementing such changes.

  8. Depression and Anxiety Scores Are Associated with Amygdala Volume in Cushing’s Syndrome: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cushing’s syndrome (CS has repeatedly been associated with hippocampal volume reductions, while little information is available on the amygdala, another structure rich in glucocorticoid receptors. The aim of the study was to analyze amygdala volume in patients with CS and its relationship with anxiety, depression, and hormone levels. Material and Methods. 39 CS patients (16 active and 23 patients in remission and 39 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education level completed anxiety (STAI and depression tests (BDI-II and underwent a 3 Tesla brain MRI and endocrine testing. Amygdala volumes were analysed with FreeSurfer software. Results. Active CS patients had smaller right (but not left amygdala volumes when compared to controls (P=0.045. Left amygdala volumes negatively correlated with depression scores (r=-0.692, P=0.003 and current anxiety state scores (r=-0.617, P=0.011 in active CS patients and with anxiety trait scores (r=-0.440, P=0.036 in patients in remission. No correlations were found between current ACTH, urinary free cortisol or blood cortisol levels, and amygdala volumes in either patient group. Conclusion. Patients with active CS have a smaller right amygdala volume in comparison to controls, while left amygdala volumes are associated with mood state in both patient groups.

  9. Normal gray matter volumes in women recovered from anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Lasse; Rø, Øyvind; Endestad, Tor

    2016-05-13

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) has consistently been associated with reduced gray (GM) and white matter (WM) brain volumes. It is unclear whether GM alterations are present following recovery from AN, as previous findings are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to determine if women recovered from AN exhibit reduced global or regional GM volumes. Global GM and WM, as well as regional GM volumes, were investigated in 22 women recovered from AN and 22 age-matched healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging. Women were considered recovered if they had maintained a body mass index above 18.0 and had not engaged in binge eating, purging, or restrictive eating behaviors during the past year. There were no significant differences between recovered AN women and healthy controls in terms of GM and WM volumes. There were also no significant differences between restricting and binging-purging AN subtypes. Lowest lifetime weight was positively correlated with regional GM volumes in the precuneus and insula. The present study showed that regional GM and global GM and WM volumes were similar for women long-term recovered from AN and age-matched healthy controls. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which illness severity affect regional GM volumes.

  10. HPG-axis hormones during puberty: a study on the association with hypothalamic and pituitary volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Jiska S; Brouwer, Rachel M; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Schnack, Hugo G; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2010-01-01

    During puberty, the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is activated, leading to increases in luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol) levels. We aimed to study the association between hypothalamic and pituitary volumes and development of pubertal hormones in healthy pubertal children. Hormone levels of LH, FSH, estradiol (measured in urine) and testosterone (measured in saliva) were assessed in 85 healthy children (39 boys, 46 girls) between 10 and 15 years of age. Hypothalamic and pituitary gland volumes were segmented on high resolution structural MRI scans. Since sex hormone production is regulated in a sex-specific manner, associations between hormones, hypothalamus and pituitary were analyzed in boys and girls separately. LH, estradiol and testosterone levels all increased with age in both sexes, whereas FSH level did not. Pituitary volume also increased with age and explained 12%, 10% and 8% of the variance in female estradiol, testosterone and LH levels respectively. Corrected for age, pituitary volume explained 17% of FSH level in girls (not boys). Hypothalamic volume did not change with age and did not significantly explain variance in any hormonal level. Our study suggests that a larger pituitary volume is related to higher FSH production, but this association seems independent of pubertal development. The positive association between estradiol, LH and testosterone and pituitary volume is related to age-related pubertal development. With respect to the hypothalamus, we did not find convincing evidence for a larger structure to be involved in elevated hormonal production.

  11. Reduced Pineal Volume in Alzheimer Disease: A Retrospective Cross-sectional MR Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Teruyuki; Imai, Ayu; Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Kato, Yuka; Shibata, Keisuke; Nakamura, Kaeko; Yokota, Hajime; Yamada, Kei; Narumoto, Jin

    2017-07-26

    Purpose To evaluate pineal volume in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy control subjects and to correlate the findings with results of cognitive testing and brain parenchymal volumes. Materials and Methods The ethics committee approved this retrospective study. The participants included 63 patients with AD, 33 patients with MCI, and 24 healthy control subjects. There were 36 men and 84 women, with a mean age (±standard deviation) of 76.7 years ± 7.6. The pineal gland volume and pineal parenchymal volume were measured by using three-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (T1-weighted magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo sequence; spatial resolution, 0.9 × 0.98 × 0.98 mm). With age and total intracranial volume as covariates, analysis of covariance with the Bonferroni post hoc test was performed to compare the pineal volume among the AD, MCI, and control groups. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify predictor variables associated with pineal volume. Results The mean pineal gland volume in patients with AD (72.3 mm(3) ± 5.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 61.5 mm(3), 83.1 mm(3)) was significantly smaller than that in control subjects (102.1 mm(3) ± 9.0; 95% CI: 84.4 mm(3), 119.9 mm(3)) (P = .019). The mean pineal parenchymal volume in patients with AD (63.8 mm(3) ± 4.2; 95% CI: 55.4 mm(3), 72.1 mm(3)) was significantly smaller than that in patients with MCI (81.7 mm(3) ± 5.8; 95% CI: 70.3 mm(3), 93.1 mm(3); P = .044) and control subjects (89.1 mm(3) ± 6.9; 95% CI: 75.4 mm(3), 102.9 mm(3); P = .009). Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the Mini-Mental State Examination score and total intracranial volume were significant independent predictors of both pineal gland volume and pineal parenchymal volume (P Pineal volume reduction showed correlation with cognitive decline and thus might be useful to predict cognitive decline in patients with AD. (©) RSNA, 2017.

  12. Conceptual design and systems analysis of photovoltaic systems. Volume II. Study results. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirpich, A.

    1977-03-19

    This investigation of terrestrial PV systems considered the technical and economic feasibility for systems in three size categories: a small system of about 12 kW peak output for on-site residential use; a large 1500 MW central power plant contributing to the bulk energy of a utility system power grid; and an intermediate size system of about 250 kW for use on public or commercial buildings. In each category, conceptual designs were developed, performance was analyzed for a range of climatic regions, economic analyses were performed, and assessments were made of pertinent institutional issues. The report consists of three volumes. Volume I contains a Study Summary of the major study results. This volume contains the detailed results pertaining to on-site residential photovoltaic systems, central power plant photovoltaic systems, and intermediate size systems applied to commercial and public buildings. Volume III contains supporting appendix material. (WHK)

  13. Dutch surgeons' views on the volume-outcome mechanism in surgery: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, R; Faber, M J; Westert, G P; Berden, H J J M

    2017-08-09

    To contribute to a better understanding of volume-outcome relationships in surgery by exploring Dutch surgeons' views on the underlying mechanism. A qualitative study based on face-to-face semi structured interviews and an inductive content analysis approach. Interviews were conducted in eight hospitals in the Netherlands (2 university, 4 teaching and 2 general). Twenty surgeons (gastrointestinal, vascular and trauma). Dutch surgeons' views on volume-outcome relationships in surgery and the underlying mechanism. The majority of surgeons believed volume is related to outcomes after surgery. Interviewees highlighted the importance of both focus and skills when describing the underlying mechanism. Focus was visible on three levels: hospital, surgeon and team. Focus on a hospital level referred to investing in specific infrastructure and dedicated personnel. Surgeons described both the benefits and downsides of surgeons' increased focus to a certain surgical subspeciality. And their experiences on the importance of working with fixed, procedure-specific teams. The positive influence of caseload on technical and nontechnical skills was acknowledged, as well as the benefits of combining skills by operating together. Although a basic skill set should be maintained, this does not necessarily require high volume. Focus and skills are important explanatory factors in volume-outcome relationships according to Dutch surgeons. This suggests that both high- and low-volume providers should enable specialized, fixed teams for complex surgeries and focus on maintenance of both their technical and nontechnical skills. By uncovering the underlying mechanism, imperfect quality indicators such as volume can be supplemented or replaced.

  14. Ornamental Horticulture. Course of Study Outlines. 1975 Edition. Volume XXX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Aubry

    These courses of study in ornamental horticulture for secondary and adult technical education levels are based on a 1972 Rutgers University study and are designed to accomodate occupational needs in the field of ornamental horticulture. Job titles emphasized at the secondary level are caretaker, nurserymen, flower grower, and flower salesperson;…

  15. Thyroid gland volume of schoolchildren in the North of Iran: Comparison with other studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Saeed; Moghadam, Masrur Vahabi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have shown the limitation of the World Health Organization (WHO)/ International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency (ICCIDD)-adopted thyroid gland volume references as universal normative values for thyroid gland volume. So we decided to measure thyroid gland volume by sonography in schoolchildren in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran — Rasht is a metropolitan city on the Caspian Sea coast — and compare them to WHO normative values. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 2,522 schoolchildren, aged 6-13 years, in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran were selected by multistage random sampling. Data were collected on their age, sex, weight, height, body surface area (BSA), and thyroid gland size by palpation and sonography. The terminal phalange of thumb finger volume was calculated with the same formula used in sonography, for the thyroid gland in 1,085 of these cases. Results: Goiter prevalence was 64% (1613 cases) by palpation, 76.1% (1228 subjects) grade I and 23.9% (385 cases) grade II. The mean thyroid gland volume in girls was more than boys (3.67 ± 1.89 mL vs 3.41 ± 1.58 mL, P < 0.0001). According to the 1997 WHO thyroid gland volume reference, none of the children had goiter based on BSA and age even in those with grade II goiters (23.9%). In contrast, the median thyroid gland volume in our cases was larger than the 2004 WHO reference. The best single predictor of thyroid gland volume was age (R2 = 0.391, P < 0.0001) followed by BSA (R2 = 0.151, P < 0.0001). There was also a significant difference between thyroid gland and finger volume in all grades of goiter and grade II goiters (3 ± 1.4 mL vs 9.59 ± 2.4 mL; P < 0.0001. 4.3 ± 1.4 mL vs 9.3 ± 2.5 mL; P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The WHO standards for thyroid gland volume by sonography may underestimate or overestimate the goiter prevalence in many areas and populations. Finger volume was much larger than thyroid gland volume in even visible goiters. PMID:26941811

  16. Thyroid gland volume off schoolchildren in the North of Iran: Comparison with other studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kalantari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have shown the limitation of the World Health Organization (WHO/ International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency (ICCIDD-adopted thyroid gland volume references as universal normative values for thyroid gland volume. So we decided to measure thyroid gland volume by sonography in schoolchildren in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran - Rasht is a metropolitan city on the Caspian Sea coast - and compare them to WHO normative values. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 2,522 schoolchildren, aged 6-13 years, in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran were selected by multistage random sampling. Data were collected on their age, sex, weight, height, body surface area (BSA, and thyroid gland size by palpation and sonography. The terminal phalange of thumb finger volume was calculated with the same formula used in sonography, for the thyroid gland in 1,085 of these cases. Results: Goiter prevalence was 64% (1613 cases by palpation, 76.1% (1228 subjects grade I and 23.9% (385 cases grade II. The mean thyroid gland volume in girls was more than boys (3.67 ± 1.89 mL vs 3.41 ± 1.58 mL, P < 0.0001. According to the 1997 WHO thyroid gland volume reference, none of the children had goiter based on BSA and age even in those with grade II goiters (23.9%. In contrast, the median thyroid gland volume in our cases was larger than the 2004 WHO reference. The best single predictor of thyroid gland volume was age (R2 = 0.391, P < 0.0001 followed by BSA (R2 = 0.151, P < 0.0001. There was also a significant difference between thyroid gland and finger volume in all grades of goiter and grade II goiters (3 ± 1.4 mL vs 9.59 ± 2.4 mL; P < 0.0001. 4.3 ± 1.4 mL vs 9.3 ± 2.5 mL; P < 0.0001. Conclusion: The WHO standards for thyroid gland volume by sonography may underestimate or overestimate the goiter prevalence in many areas and populations. Finger volume was much larger than thyroid gland volume in even visible goiters.

  17. Wilderness Study Report : Volume VI : Kenai National Moose Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to conform to the Wilderness Act of 1964, a study was conducted by the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife personnel to ascertain which of the Kenai...

  18. 6809 Volume 12 No. 6 October 2012 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ayoola S.O

    2012-10-06

    Clarias gariepinus), pituitary extract and non-piscine; frog (Haplobutrachus occipitalis) pituitary extracts. The study was carried out in the Department of Marine. Sciences, University of Lagos, Lagos state Nigeria.

  19. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Twenty Four.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    This collection of studies in contrastive linguistics includes the following: "Bilingual Intralinguistic Orthographic Interference" (Philip A. Luelsdorff); "Reassociation of Sentence Melodies" (Wolfgang U. Dressler, Lavinia Merlini Barbaresi); "English Word Stress and Empty Vowel Slots" (Grazyna Rowicka);…

  20. Pulmonary vascular volume, impaired left ventricular filling and dyspnea: The MESA Lung Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Carrie P; Hoffman, Eric A; Lima, Joao A C; Kawut, Steven M; Bertoni, Alain G; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Habibi, Mohammadali; Hueper, Katja; Jacobs, David R; Kalhan, Ravi; Michos, Erin D; Post, Wendy S; Prince, Martin R; Smith, Benjamin M; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Liu, Chia-Ying; Zemrak, Filip; Watson, Karol E; Budoff, Matthew; Bluemke, David A; Barr, R Graham

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of impaired left ventricular (LV) filling has focused on intrinsic causes of LV dysfunction; however, pulmonary vascular changes may contribute to reduced LV filling and dyspnea. We hypothesized that lower total pulmonary vascular volume (TPVV) on computed tomography (CT) would be associated with dyspnea and decrements in LV end-diastolic volume, particularly among ever-smokers. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis recruited adults without clinical cardiovascular disease in 2000-02. In 2010-12, TPVV was ascertained as the volume of arteries and veins in the lungs detectable on non-contrast chest CT (vessels ≥1 mm diameter). Cardiac measures were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Dyspnea was self-reported. Of 2303 participants, 53% had ever smoked cigarettes. Among ever-smokers, a lower TPVV was associated with a lower LV end-diastolic volume (6.9 mL per SD TPVV), stroke volume, and cardiac output and with dyspnea (all P-values lung disease and those with 0-10 pack-years but were mostly non-significant among never-smokers. TPVV was associated smaller left atrial volume but not with LV ejection fraction or MRI measures of impaired LV relaxation. In a second sample of ever-smokers, a lower pulmonary microvascular blood volume on contrast-enhanced MRI was also associated with a lower LV end-diastolic volume (P-value = 0.008). Reductions in pulmonary vascular volume were associated with lower LV filling and dyspnea among ever-smokers, including those without lung disease, suggesting that smoking-related pulmonary vascular changes may contribute to symptoms and impair cardiac filling and function without evidence of impaired LV relaxation.

  1. Experimental Study on Volume for Fly Ash of Building Block

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Wang; He Sun; Zhihui Sun; Enqing Ma

    2013-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste substance from thermal power plants, steel mills, etc. That is found in abundance in the world. It has polluted the environment, wasting the cultivated land. This study introduces an experimental research on fly ash being reused effectively, the study introduces raw materials of fly ash brick, production process and product inspection, fly ash content could be amounted to 40%~75%. High doping fly ash bricks are manufactured, which selects wet fly ash from the power plants, ...

  2. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy Study 2. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to build on the findings of the Nevada Potential Repository Preliminary Transportation Strategy Study 1 (CRWMS M&O 1995b), and to provide additional information for input to the repository environmental impact statement (EIS) process. In addition, this study supported the future selection of a preferred rail corridor and/or heavy haul route based on defensible data, methods, and analyses. Study research did not consider proposed legislation. Planning was conducted according to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1994a). The specific objectives of Study 2 were to: eliminate or reduce data gaps, inconsistencies, and uncertainties, and strengthen the analysis performed in Study 1; develop a preliminary list of rail route evaluation criteria that could be used to solicit input from stakeholders during scoping meetings. The evaluation criteria will be revised based on comments received during scoping; restrict and refine the width of the four rail corridors identified in Study 1 to five miles or less, based on land use constraints and engineering criteria identified and established in Study 2; evaluate national-level effects of routing spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste to the four identified branch lines, including the effects of routing through or avoiding Las Vegas; continue to gather published land use information and environmental data to support the repository EIS; continue to evaluate heavy haul truck transport over three existing routes as an alternative to rail and provide sufficient information to support the repository EIS process; and evaluate secondary uses for rail (passenger use, repository construction, shared use).

  3. Site locality identification study: Hanford Site. Volume II. Data cataloging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Data compilation and cataloging for the candidate site locality identification study were conducted in order to provide a retrievable data cataloging system for the present siting study and future site evaluation and licensng processes. This task occurred concurrently with and also independently of other tasks of the candidate site locality identification study. Work in this task provided the data utilized primarily in the development and application of screening and ranking processes to identify candidate site localities on the Hanford Site. The overall approach included two steps: (1) data acquisition and screening; and (2) data compilation and cataloging. Data acquisition and screening formed the basis for preliminary review of data sources with respect to their probable utilization in the candidate site locality identification study and review with respect to the level of completeness and detail of the data. The important working assumption was that the data to be used in the study be based on existing and available published and unpublished literature. The data compilation and cataloging provided the basic product of the Task; a retrievable data cataloging system in the form of an annotated reference list and key word index and an index of compiled data. The annotated reference list and key word index are cross referenced and can be used to trace and retrieve the data sources utilized in the candidate site locality identification study.

  4. Thermal loading study for FY 1996. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-08

    The primary objective of this study was to provide recommendations for Mined Geologic Disposal System requirements affected by thermal loading that will provide sufficient definition to facilitate development of design concepts and support life cycle cost determinations. The study reevaluated and/or redefined selected thermal goals used for design and are currently contained in the requirements documents or the Controlled Design Assumption Document. The study provided recommendations as to what, if any, actions (such as edge loading and limiting of the heat variability between waste packages) are needed and must be accommodated in the design. Additionally, the study provided recommendations as to what alternative thermal loads should be maintained for continued flexibility. Section 1 provides the study objective, background, scope, and organization of the report. Section 2 documents the requirements and standards to include quality assurance (QA) requirements, any requirements used or evaluated, and the inputs and assumptions considered. Section 3 provides the analysis and recommendations for the thermal goals reevaluation. Section 4 discusses the evaluation of edge loading and provides conclusions. Section 5 provides the analyses done to establish recommendations as to what requirements need to be implemented to either limit or manage the amount of heat output variability that may occur. Section 6 discusses alternate thermal loadings; Section 7 provides the study conclusions and recommendations; Section 8 provides the references, standards, and regulations; and Section 9 contains the acronym list.

  5. Long-term decontamination engineering study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geuther, W.J.

    1995-04-03

    This report was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) with technical and cost estimating support from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) and Parsons Environmental Services, Inc. (Parsons). This engineering study evaluates the requirements and alternatives for decontamination/treatment of contaminated equipment at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to determine the decontamination/treatment strategy that best supports the Hanford Site environmental restoration mission. It describes the potential waste streams requiring treatment or decontamination, develops the alternatives under consideration establishes the criteria for comparison, evaluates the alternatives, and draws conclusions (i.e., the optimum strategy for decontamination). Although two primary alternatives are discussed, this study does identify other alternatives that may warrant additional study. hanford Site solid waste management program activities include storage, special processing, decontamination/treatment, and disposal facilities. This study focuses on the decontamination/treatment processes (e.g., waste decontamination, size reduction, immobilization, and packaging) that support the environmental restoration mission at the Hanford Site.

  6. Study of Prostatic Volume and its Variations in Different Age Groups of Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsi, E Z; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Azam, A S; Choudhury, S; Ahmed, Z; Farjan, S; Kabir, A; Ismatsara, M; Yesmin, M; Zisa, R S; Khan, S H

    2016-10-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma of the prostate are the most common disorders of Bangladeshi male in recent years. Volume of the prostate is necessary to estimate the amount of BPH adenoma to determine the appropriate therapy or to select the surgical approach. Transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) is preferred for small glands and open prostatectomy for larger ones. Decrease in prostatic mass after hormonal manipulation or radiation therapy can be used as an indicator of therapeutic efficacy. The effect of prostate volume on biopsy outcome was assessed and was noted that there was an inverse relationship in between size of the gland and prostate cancer. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh to find out the difference in volume of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories: Group A (upto 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The volume of the prostate gland were measured and recorded. The mean volume of the prostate gland was 13.75ml in Group A, 24.44ml in Group B and 29.72ml in Group C. Variance analysis shows that mean differences of volume of the prostate were highly significant among all age groups. The volume of prostate gland was found to be increased with increasing age. For statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using students unpaired 't' test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the volume of prostate gland of Bangladeshi

  7. Southwest Florida shelf ecosystems study, Volume 1: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    The 6-year Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Program began in 1980 as an interdisciplinary study. The study area extends seaward from the west coast of Florida to the 200-meter isobath and from 27/degree/N latitude southward to the Florida Keys and Dry Tortugas. The region includes Florida Bay but not other estuarine areas. This area contains numerous live-bottom habitats and associated communities in a complex, patchy matrix. Live-bottom areas are often separated by wide expanses of sand or mud bottom areas. This report concludes the 6-year Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Program's environmental study. The ultimate objective of the program was to determine the potential impact of OCS oil and gas offshore activities on live-bottom habitats and communities, which are integral components of the southwest Florida shelf ecosystems.

  8. Experimental geothermal research facilities study (Phase 0). Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The study comprises Phase 0 of a project for Experimental Geothermal Research Facilities. The study focuses on identification of a representative liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir of moderate temperature and salinity, preliminary engineering design of an appropriate energy conversion system, identification of critical technology, and planning for implementation of experimental facilities. The objectives included development of liaison with the industrial sector, to ensure responsiveness to their views in facility requirements and planning, and incorporation of environmental and socioeconomic factors. This Phase 0 report covers problem definition and systems requirements. Facilities will incorporate capability for research in component, system, and materials technology and a nominal 10 MWe experimental, binary cycle, power generating plant.

  9. Ghana Journal of Development Studies, Volume 7, Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    were derived from administration of two sets of structured questionnaires, which were administered to 120 respondents who were randomly selected among peasant farmers from all ..... bare football pitch, it would grow well. It is therefore not surprising that all the 120 respondents included in this study cultivated cassava.

  10. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 7, Number 1, Spring 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    www.guardian.co.uk/mcveigh/story/0,7369,488284,00.html; and David Segal, "The Pied Piper of Racism ," Washington Post, 12 January 2000. 18. For more on Pierces...alliance to shed the stigma of World STRATEGIC STUDIES QUARTERLY ♦ SPRING 2013 [81] Damon V. Coletta War II and punch above its weight on several issues

  11. Buffalo Harbor Study. Preliminary Feasibility Report. Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    Great Lakes, from cheap energy at nearby Niagara Falls, and from its railroad links to the great markets of North America. The opening of the Panama ...vious years. (Sweeny and Merckel: 1972). A 1977 benthic study of Buffalo Harbor showed the family Chironomidae was the most diverse group followed by

  12. Buffalo Harbor Study. Preliminary Feasibility Report. Volume I. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    between 1933-1937 of 98 million bushels (Barrick, 1970). The opening of the Panama Canal in 1914, the growing use of alternative inland waterways, and...Sweeny and Merckel: 1972). A 1977 benthic study of Buffalo Harbor showed the family Chironomidae was the most diverse group followed by Tubificidae and

  13. Vessel Monitoring Systems Study. Volume I - Technical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    In the Port and Tanker Safety Act of 1978 the U.S. Conress directed the Department of Transportation to performa a study on the desirability and feasibility of a shore-station system for monitoring vessels (including fishing vessels)offshore within t...

  14. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Volume XXIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, Ruth S., Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-seven papers treat aspects of the psychoanalytic study of the child. Problems of psychopathology and therapy considered are the fantasy of the phallic woman, the use of child analysis, the background of perversions, variables in the production of neurotic disturbances, treatment of narcissistic personality disorders, and problems of the…

  15. Improving School Leadership. Volume 2: Case Studies on System Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, David, Ed.; Nusche, Deborah, Ed.; Pont, Beatriz, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This book explores what specialists are saying about system leadership for school improvement. Case studies examine innovative approaches to sharing leadership across schools in Belgium (Flanders), Finland and the United Kingdom (England) and leadership development programmes for system improvement in Australia and Austria. As these are emerging…

  16. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Nine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This issue of the journal includes these papers on contrastive linguistics: "Tag Questions, Transformational Grammar and Pragmatics" (Wolfram Bublitz); "Toward Contrasting Styles" (Karol Janicki); "Some More Remarks on the Pedagogical Uses of Contrastive Studies" (Waldemar Marton); "Stress in Polish--With Some Comparisons to English Stress" (James…

  17. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Eight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This issue of the journal includes these papers on contrastive linguistics: "The Impersonal Sentence in Russian and Romanian" (Suzanne Whalen); "Differential Identity Between Languages--A Study of Assertion and Interrogation in French and English" (William A. Bennett); "The Use of the Article in English and Hungarian: A Contrastive Analysis" (Eva…

  18. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Seven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the journal includes these papers on contrastive linguistics: "A Note on Semantic Representation of Lexical Items and on Lexical Gaps" (Maria Grzegorek); "Some Remarks on Case Grammars as Bases for Contrastive Studies" (Hans U. Boas); "Are Exclusively Attributive Adjectives 'Transpositional'?--Some Comments on the Nature of Lexical…

  19. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 10, Number 3. Fall 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    marketed handheld device. 41. Matthew Potter , “Boeing Video of Advanced Tactical Laser (ATL) Aircraft,” Defense Procurement News, 2 October 2009, accessed...C. Hailes, and Harry Foster, “Blue Horizons III: The Age of Surprise” (unpublished briefing given to AF/A8, April 2010). 74 Strategic Studies

  20. Experimental study of the effect of top-ring clearance volume on unburned hydrocarbon concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muammer Ozkan; Orhan Deniz; Tarkan Sandalci [Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2002-07-01

    The clearance volume between the piston, the cylinder and the top compression ring in an internal combustion engine has a significant effect on the unburned hydrocarbon concentration. The high heat transfer from the burning mixture to the cylinder surface extinguishes the flame front, and this is the main reason for increased unburned hydrocarbon concentrations. The heat transfer between the mixture and the clearance volume surface is affected by the ratio of coolant surface to the clearance volume. In this study the effect of the ratio of the coolant surface to the clearance volume on the unburned hydrocarbon concentration was investigated using three different purpose-built pistons. A decrease of this ratio reduced the unburned hydrocarbon concentration by 40%. (author)

  1. Free volumes and gas transport in polymers: amine-modified epoxy resins as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pushkar N; Roilo, David; Brusa, Roberto S; Miotello, Antonio; Aghion, Stefano; Ferragut, Rafael; Checchetto, Riccardo

    2016-02-07

    The CO2 transport process was studied in a series of amine-modified epoxy resins having different cross-linking densities but the same chemical environment for the penetrant molecules. Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) was used to monitor the free volume structure of the samples and experimentally evaluate their fractional free volume fh(T) and its temperature evolution. The analysis of the free volume hole size distribution showed that all the holes have a size large enough to accommodate the penetrant molecules at temperatures T above the glass transition temperature Tg. The measured gas diffusion constants at T > Tg have been reproduced in the framework of the free volume theory of diffusion using a novel procedure based on the use of fh(T) as an input experimental parameter.

  2. USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process. Volume 3. Future to be Asset Sustainment Process Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamson, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    .... It is published as three separate volumes. Volume I, USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process -- Phase II Report, discusses the result and cost/benefit analysis of testing three initiatives...

  3. Kidney volume measurement methods for clinical studies on autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanishka Sharma

    Full Text Available In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, total kidney volume (TKV is regarded as an important biomarker of disease progression and different methods are available to assess kidney volume. The purpose of this study was to identify the most efficient kidney volume computation method to be used in clinical studies evaluating the effectiveness of treatments on ADPKD progression.We measured single kidney volume (SKV on two series of MR and CT images from clinical studies on ADPKD (experimental dataset by two independent operators (expert and beginner, twice, using all of the available methods: polyline manual tracing (reference method, free-hand manual tracing, semi-automatic tracing, Stereology, Mid-slice and Ellipsoid method. Additionally, the expert operator also measured the kidney length. We compared different methods for reproducibility, accuracy, precision, and time required. In addition, we performed a validation study to evaluate the sensitivity of these methods to detect the between-treatment group difference in TKV change over one year, using MR images from a previous clinical study. Reproducibility was higher on CT than MR for all methods, being highest for manual and semiautomatic contouring methods (planimetry. On MR, planimetry showed highest accuracy and precision, while on CT accuracy and precision of both planimetry and Stereology methods were comparable. Mid-slice and Ellipsoid method, as well as kidney length were fast but provided only a rough estimate of kidney volume. The results of the validation study indicated that planimetry and Stereology allow using an importantly lower number of patients to detect changes in kidney volume induced by drug treatment as compared to other methods.Planimetry should be preferred over fast and simplified methods for accurately monitoring ADPKD progression and assessing drug treatment effects. Expert operators, especially on MR images, are required for performing reliable

  4. Phased-array-fed antenna configuration study, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, R. M.; Zaghloul, A. I.; Lee, B. S.; Siddiqi, S.; Geller, B. D.

    1983-01-01

    Increased capacity in future satellite systems can be achieved through antenna systems which provide multiplicity of frequency reuses at K sub a band. A number of antenna configurations which can provide multiple fixed spot beams and multiple independent spot scanning beams at 20 GHz are addressed. Each design incorporates a phased array with distributed MMIC amplifiers and phasesifters feeding a two reflector optical system. The tradeoffs required for the design of these systems and the corresponding performances are presented. Five final designs are studied. In so doing, a type of MMIC/waveguide transition is described, and measured results of the breadboard model are presented. Other hardware components developed are described. This includes a square orthomode transducer, a subarray fed with a beamforming network to measure scanning performance, and another subarray used to study mutual coupling considerations. Discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of the final design are included.

  5. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 4. Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B; White, J D; Sims, J W [eds.

    1986-09-01

    Documents in the Nuclear Power Options Viability Study (NPOVS) bibliography are classified under one of four headings or categories as follows: nuclear options; light water reactors; liquid metal reactors; and high temperature reactors. The collection and selection of these documents, beginning early in 1984 and continuing through March of 1986, was carried out in support of the study's objective: to explore the viabilities of several nuclear electric power generation options for commercial deployment in the United States between 2000 and 2010. There are approximately 550 articles, papers, reports, and books in the bibliography that have been selected from some 2000 surveyed. The citations have been made computer accessible to facilitate rapid on-line retrieval by keyword, author, corporate author, title, journal name, or document number.

  6. Superconducting gravity gradiometer mission. Volume 2: Study team technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Samuel H. (Editor); Paik, Ho Jung (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Scientific and engineering studies and developments performed or directed by a Study Team composed of various Federal and University activities involved with the development of a three-axis superconducting gravity gradiometer integrated with a six-axis superconducting accelerometer are examined. This instrument is being developed for a future orbital mission to make precise global gravity measurements. The scientific justification and requirements for such a mission are discussed. This includes geophysics, the primary mission objective, as well as secondary objective, such as navigation and feats of fundamental laws of physics, i.e., a null test of the inverse square law of gravitation and tests of general relativity. The instrument design and status along with mission analysis, engineering assessments, and preliminary spacecraft concepts are discussed. In addition, critical spacecraft systems and required technology advancements are examined. The mission requirements and an engineering assessment of a precursor flight test of the instrument are discussed.

  7. Snohomish Estuary Wetlands Study. Volume II. Basic Information and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    plantain (Plantago maritima ) and lilaeopsis (Lilaeopsis occidentalis). Bulrush (Scirpus spp.) oc- casionally forms extensive monotypic communities in the...chti-es the inatioune polit -y Wo encouragte a (R) The National 1Iistonic e. l’esrvii- that the clumping of the minterial will re- ’prodactive kind... Political and Legislative Environment. F-11 Puget Sound Task Force, Pacific N.W. River Basins Commission, 1970b, Comprehensive Study of Water and

  8. Anthropometry: Basic Studies and Applications. Volume 2, 1976 - July 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    in a questionnaire and somatotype measurement study during the 1972 U.S. Masters long-course national champions. Nearly 70 percent of all mala...swimming experience. Somatotype data gathered on the men did not differentiate swimmers in their 70’s from swimmers in their 5C’s, nor did somatotype ...Anthropometry, Males, Physical fitness, Aging (PhysiolDgy) , Body weight Identifiers: Competition, Reprints, Questionnaires, Surveys, Somatotyping

  9. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 4, Number 4, Winter 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    and George Kennan. The English School is best represented in the work of Martin Wight and Hedley Bull. The con- temporary argument is found in...Indeed, Israel has reported deployed nuclear weapons on submarines. See Martin Sieff, “Israel Buying 3 Submarines to Carry Nuclear Missiles,” Washington...Washington: Institute for National Strategic Studies [INSS], October 2008), 3. 31. Gustav Lindstrom , EU-US Burdensharing: Who Does What? Chaillot Paper no

  10. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 7, Number 2, Summer 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    US educators also fan out across Asia, teach - ing in a wide range of Asian universities and vocational schools. The Fulbright Program remains the...flagship sponsor, sending US professors and students to Asia and bringing Asians to the United States to teach and study.7 One can offer many other...between global market de- mands and domestic cultural idioms —which include the rise of "new wealth barons" in China as well as other powers.12 Ultimately

  11. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 2: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed, along with the impact of its availability on future space programs. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied.

  12. Orbital transfer vehicle launch operations study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose was to use the operational experience at the launch site to identify, describe and quantify the operational impacts of the various configurations on the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and/or space station launch sites. Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) configurations are being developed/defined by contractor teams. Lacking an approved configuration, the KSC Study Team defined a Reference Configuration to be used for this study. This configuration then become the baseline for the identification of the facilities, personnel and crew skills required for processing the OTV in a realistic manner that would help NASA achieve the lowest possible OTV life cycle costs. As the study progressed, researchers' initial apraisal that the vehicle, when delivered, would be a sophisticated, state-of-the-art vehicle was reinforced. It would be recovered and reused many times so the primary savings to be gained would be in the recurring-cycle of the vehicle operations--even to the point where it would be beneficial to break from tradition and make a significant expenditure in the development of processing facilities at the beginning of the program.

  13. Effect of aging and degeneration on disc volume and shape: A quantitative study in asymptomatic volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Metzdorf, Alexander; Elfering, Achim; Hodler, Juerg; Boos, Norbert

    2006-05-01

    Debate continues on the effect of disc degeneration and aging on disc volume and shape. So far, no quantitative in vivo MRI data is available on the factors influencing disc volume and shape. The objective of this MRI study was to quantitatively investigate changes in disc height, volume, and shape as a result of aging and/or degeneration omitting pathologic (i.e., painful) disc alterations. Seventy asymptomatic volunteers (20-78 years) were investigated with sagittal T1- and T2-weighted MR-images encompassing the whole lumbar spine. Disc height was determined by the Dabbs method and the Farfan index. Disc volume was calculated by the Cavalieri method. For the disc shape the "disc convexity index" was calculated by the ratio of central disc height and mean anterior/posterior disc height. Disc height, disc volume, and the disc convexity index measurements were corrected for disc level and the individuals age, weight, height, and sex in a multilevel regression analysis. Multilevel regression analysis showed that disc volume was negatively influenced by disc degeneration (p < 0.001) and positively correlated with body height (p < 0.001) and age (p < 0.01). Mean disc height and the disc convexity index were negatively influenced by disc degeneration but not by gender, weight, and height. Disc height was positively correlated with age (p < 0.01). From the results of this study, it can be concluded that disc degeneration generally results in a decrease of disc height and volume as well as a less convex disc shape. In the absence of disc degeneration, however, age tends to result in an inverse relationship on disc height, volume, and shape. Copyright 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  14. Spider phobia is associated with decreased left amygdala volume: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from animal and human studies imply the amygdala as the most critical structure involved in processing of fear-relevant stimuli. In phobias, the amygdala seems to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and maintenance of the disorder. However, the neuropathology of specific phobias remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether patients with spider phobia show altered amygdala volumes as compared to healthy control subjects. Methods Twenty female patients with spider phobia and twenty age-matched healthy female controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging to investigate amygdala volumes. The amygdalae were segmented using an automatic, model-based segmentation tool (FSL FIRST). Differences in amygdala volume were investigated by multivariate analysis of covariance with group as between-subject factor and left and right amygdala as dependent factors. The relation between amygdala volume and clinical features such as symptom severity, disgust sensitivity, trait anxiety and duration of illness was investigated by Spearman correlation analysis. Results Spider phobic patients showed significantly smaller left amygdala volume than healthy controls. No significant difference in right amygdala volume was detected. Furthermore, the diminished amygdala size in patients was related to higher symptom severity, but not to higher disgust sensitivity or trait anxiety and was independent of age. Conclusions In summary, the results reveal a relation between higher symptom severity and smaller left amygdala volume in patients with spider phobia. This relation was independent of other potential confounders such as the disgust sensitivity or trait anxiety. The findings suggest that greater spider phobic fear is associated with smaller left amygdala. However, the smaller left amygdala volume may either stand for a higher vulnerability to develop a phobic disorder or emerge as a consequence of the disorder. PMID:23442196

  15. Effect of malaria on placental volume measured using three-dimensional ultrasound: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijken Marcus J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of malaria parasites and histopathological changes in the placenta are associated with a reduction in birth weight, principally due to intrauterine growth restriction. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of studying early pregnancy placental volumes using three-dimensional (3D ultrasound in a malaria endemic area, as a small volume in the second trimester may be an indicator of intra-uterine growth restriction and placental insufficiency. Methods Placenta volumes were acquired using a portable ultrasound machine and a 3D ultrasound transducer and estimated using the Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL image analysis software package. Intra-observer reliability and limits of agreement of the placenta volume measurements were calculated. Polynomial regression models for the mean and standard deviation as a function of gestational age for the placental volumes of uninfected women were created and tested. Based on these equations each measurement was converted into a z -score. The z-scores of the placental volumes of malaria infected and uninfected women were then compared. Results Eighty-four women (uninfected = 65; infected = 19 with a posterior placenta delivered congenitally normal, live born, single babies. The mean placental volumes in the uninfected women were modeled to fit 5th, 10th, 50th, 90th and 95th centiles for 14-24 weeks' gestation. Most placenta volumes in the infected women were below the 50th centile for gestational age; most of those with Plasmodium falciparum were below the 10th centile. The 95% intra-observer limits of agreement for first and second measurements were ± 37.0 mL and ± 25.4 mL at 30 degrees and 15 degrees rotation respectively. Conclusion The new technique of 3D ultrasound volumetry of the placenta may be useful to improve our understanding of the pathophysiological constraints on foetal growth caused by malaria infection in early pregnancy.

  16. LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

  17. Crew/computer communications study. Volume 2: Appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The software routines developed during the crew/computer communications study are described to provide the user with an understanding of each routine, any restrictions in use, the required input data, and expected results after executing the routines. The combination of routines to generate a crew/computer communications application is also explained. The programmable keyboard and display used by the program is described, and an experiment scenario is provided to illustrate the relationship between the program frames when they are grouped into activity phases. Program descriptions and a user's guide are also presented. For Vol. 1, see N74-18843.

  18. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 2, Number 3, Fall 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA). The lowest common denominator of these disparate views is very low indeed—a [ 20 ] Strategic Studies Quarterly...Air Force are than those of the People’s Liberation Army , and despite the disagreeable experiences of the Korean War, I have little doubt that we...Quarterly 13 (Au­ tumn 1996): 10–14. 4. Ibid., 15. 5. Richard Meinhart , Strategic Planning by the Chairmen, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1990–2005 (Carlisle

  19. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied. The NEP stage design provides both inherent reliability and high payload mass capability. The NEP stage and payload integration was found to be compatible with the space shuttle.

  20. A study of nasal cavity volume in patients with cleft lip and palate by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Kenichi [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-02-01

    Nasal cavity volume was studied in 11 patients with cleft lip and palate by magnetic resonance imaging. The areas of horizontal sections of the nasal cavity on the cleft and non-cleft sides were measured with the help of a personal computer and image analyzing software. Nasal cavity volume was determined by integrated volume calculation. The volume of each side was measured before and after cleft lip repair. Before cleft lip repair nasal cavity volume on the non-cleft side was larger than on the cleft side. However there was no significant difference in the volume of the cleft and non-cleft sides after cleft lip repair. (author)

  1. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 6: Computer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The potential technical capabilities of energy conversion systems in the 1985 - 2000 time period were defined with emphasis on systems using coal, coal-derived fuels or alternate fuels. Industrial process data developed for the large energy consuming industries serve as a framework for the cogeneration applications. Ground rules for the study were established and other necessary equipment (balance-of-plant) was defined. This combination of technical information, energy conversion system data ground rules, industrial process information and balance-of-plant characteristics was analyzed to evaluate energy consumption, capital and operating costs and emissions. Data in the form of computer printouts developed for 3000 energy conversion system-industrial process combinations are presented.

  2. Space physics strategy: Implementation study. Volume 2: Program plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    In June, 1989, the Space Science and Applications Advisory Committee (SSAAC) authorized its Space Physics Subcommittee (SPS) to prepare a plan specifying the future missions, launch sequence, and encompassing themes of the Space Physics Division. The plan, now complete, is the product of a year-long study comprising two week-long workshops - in January and June 1990 - assisted by pre-workshop, inter-workshop, and post-workshop preparation and assessment activities. The workshops engaged about seventy participants, drawn equally from the Division's four science disciplines: cosmic and heliospheric physics, solar physics, magnetosphere physics, and ionosphere-thermosphere-mesospheric physics. An earlier report records the outcome of the first workshop; this is the report of the final workshop.

  3. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concepts are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  4. Inertial Fusion Energy reactor design studies: Prometheus-L, Prometheus-H. Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Lee, V.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains a review of design studies for inertial confinement reactors. The first of three volumes briefly discusses the following: Introduction; Key objectives, requirements, and assumptions; Systems modeling and trade studies; Prometheus-L reactor plant design overview; Prometheus-H reactor plant design overview; Key technical issues and R&D requirements; Comparison of IFE designs; and study conclusions.

  5. Recent regulatory experience of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume III. Supporting case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, E.; Hart, D.; Lethi, M.; Park, W.; Rifkin, S.

    1980-02-01

    The MITRE Corporation conducted a five-month study for the Office of Resource Applications in the Department of Energy on the regulatory requirements of low-Btu coal gasification. During this study, MITRE interviewed representatives of five current low-Btu coal gasification projects and regulatory agencies in five states. From these interviews, MITRE has sought the experience of current low-Btu coal gasification users in order to recommend actions to improve the regulatory process. This report is the third of three volumes. It contains the results of interviews conducted for each of the case studies. Volume 1 of the report contains the analysis of the case studies and recommendations to potential industrial users of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume 2 contains recommendations to regulatory agencies.

  6. Fuel Quality/Processing Study. Volume I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J B; Bela, A; Jentz, N E; Syverson, H T; Klumpe, H W; Kessler, R E; Kotzot, H T; Loran, B I

    1981-04-01

    This report presents the results of the Fuel Quality/Processing Study project for production of gas turbine fuels. The objective was to provide a data base for establishing intelligent trade-off between advanced turbine technology and liquid fuel quality. Synthetic fuels to be emphasized include those derived from coal and shale. The intent is to use the data base produced to guide the development of specifications for future synthetic liquid fuels anticipated for use in the time period 1985-2000. It is also to be used as a basis for evaluating the value and benefits of federally sponsored R and D efforts in the field of advanced gas turbine technology. The project assessed relative fuel costs, quality and energy efficiency for a number of fuel sources and processing alternatives. An objective was to accelerate implementation of fuel-flexible combustors for industrial and utility stationary gas turbine systems. This is to be accomplished by generating and demonstrating the technology base for development of reliable gas turbine combustors capable of sustained environmentally acceptable operation when using minimally processed synthetic fuels. The key program results are summarized for the following subject areas: literature survey, on-site fuel pretreatment, existing refineries to upgrade fuels, new refineries to upgrade fuels, and environmental considerations. An inhouse linear programming model served as the basis for determining economic processing paths for the existing refineries and new refineries syncrude upgrading. This involved development of extensive input data comprised of fuel properties, yields, component blending characteristics, incremental capital and operating costs, feed and product costs. Economics are based on March 1980 price levels.

  7. Effect of water coffee extract on kidney volume (a stereological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Dehghani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coffee is a traditional drinking used by most of the people around the world. Overuse of coffee leads to many side effects on body. In this study, the effect of different doses of coffee extract on kidney volume was studied by the stereological method. Material and Methods: Sixty spragu-dawley male rats were divided into 6 groups. Control group was given tap water (0.5ml and experimental groups were given coffee extract orally for 14 days with doses (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5gr/kg with the same volume of control group. Then rats were anesthetized (with ether, sacrificed and their right kidneys were removed, fixed, tissue processed and stained with H&E. The 5µm slides were studied by Cavalieri principle. Results: Higher doses of water coffee extract were associated with decreased kidney volume and volumes of glomerules but in lower doses it increased related to control group. Conclusion: It seems that, high doses of coffee has side effect on kidneyand reduces volume of kidney and its glomerules. However further studies are required to confirm this research.

  8. Reducing blood volume requirements for clinical pathology testing in toxicologic studies-points to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitout-Belissent, Florence; Aulbach, Adam; Tripathi, Niraj; Ramaiah, Lila

    2016-12-01

    In preclinical safety assessment, blood volume requirements for various endpoints pose a major challenge. The goal of this working group was to review current practices for clinical pathology (CP) testing in preclinical toxicologic studies, and to discuss advantages and disadvantages of methods for reducing blood volume requirements. An industry-wide survey was conducted to gather information on CP instrumentation and blood collection practices for hematology, clinical biochemistry, and coagulation evaluation in laboratory animals involved in preclinical studies. Based on the survey results and collective experience of the authors, the working group proposes the following "points to consider" for CP testing: (1) For most commercial analyzers, 0.5 mL and 0.8 mL of whole blood are sufficient for hematology and biochemistry evaluation, respectively. (2) Small analyzers with low volume requirements and low throughput have limited utility in preclinical studies. (3) Sample pooling or dilution is inappropriate for many CP methods. (4) Appropriate collection sites should be determined based on blood volume requirements and technical expertise. (5) Microsampling does not provide sufficient volume given current analyzer and quality assurance requirements. (6) Study design considerations include: the use of older/larger animals (rodents), collection of CP samples before toxicokinetic samples, use of separate subsets of mice for hematology and clinical biochemistry testing, use of a priority list for clinical biochemistry, and when possible, eliminating coagulation testing. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  9. A Study of Low-Wage Workers and Their Response to High Intensity Training. Volume II: Technical Appendix A, Tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Earl E.

    This is volume II of a three-volume study designed to examine low-wage, low-skilled workers, within the context of their work environment, and to develop techniques to measure the effects of skill advancement training upon the participants. Volume II is composed of 12 statistical tables showing factor analysis and analysis of variance derived from…

  10. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and regional brain volumes: the WHIMS-MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, S M; Espeland, M A; Jaramillo, S A; Hirsch, C; Stefanick, M L; Murray, A M; Ockene, J; Davatzikos, C

    2009-01-13

    To determine whether menopausal hormone therapy (HT) affects regional brain volumes, including hippocampal and frontal regions. Brain MRI scans were obtained in a subset of 1,403 women aged 71-89 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS). WHIMS was an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative, which consisted of two randomized, placebo-controlled trials: 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) with or without 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in one daily tablet. Scans were performed, on average, 3.0 years post-trial for the CEE + MPA trial and 1.4 years post-trial for the CEE-Alone trial; average on-trial follow-up intervals were 4.0 years for CEE + MPA and 5.6 years for CEE-Alone. Total brain, ventricular, hippocampal, and frontal lobe volumes, adjusted for age, clinic site, estimated intracranial volume, and dementia risk factors, were the main outcome variables. Compared with placebo, covariate-adjusted mean frontal lobe volume was 2.37 cm(3) lower among women assigned to HT (p = 0.004), mean hippocampal volume was slightly (0.10 cm(3)) lower (p = 0.05), and differences in total brain volume approached significance (p = 0.07). Results were similar for CEE + MPA and CEE-Alone. HT-associated reductions in hippocampal volumes were greatest in women with the lowest baseline Modified Mini-Mental State Examination scores (scores equine estrogens with or without MPA are associated with greater brain atrophy among women aged 65 years and older; however, the adverse effects are most evident in women experiencing cognitive deficits before initiating hormone therapy.

  11. Measurement of angioplasty lumen volume and wall compliance: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A; Allen, V

    1997-02-01

    We have developed a device and technique for measuring the pressure-volume characteristics of an arterial segment from a standard angioplasty balloon, enabling us in this laboratory study to investigate the ability of the technique to measure changes in lumen volume and wall compliance. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is a valuable clinical procedure for alleviating arterial stenosis, but the long-term success of the technique is less than ideal. The ability to monitor the effect of the balloon on the artery during inflations could lead to improvements in the technique. In this study, 10 different lumen diameters (1.6 to 3.4 mm) were produced in a Perspex block, and six different wall compliances produced with silicone tubes of constant inner diameter (2.0 mm) but different outer diameters (3.5 to 6.0 mm) A standard PTCA balloon was inflated under automatic control at a constant rate of 0.05 ml s-1 to 800 kPa (8 bar). Pressure and volume data were recorded to computer continuously throughout the procedure. Differences in lumen volume of +/-0.01 ml and wall compliance of +/-5% could be differentiated with greater than 95% confidence. We conclude that our technique allows small changes in lumen volume and wall compliance to be differentiated using a standard angioplasty catheter and balloon.

  12. OMERACT Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies. Exercise 5: an international multicenter reliability study using computerized MRI erosion volume measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bird, P; Ejbjerg, B; McQueen, F

    2003-01-01

    . The volume estimation method was more time consuming, taking roughly 5 times as long as the scoring method. Computerized MRI erosion volume measurements are feasible, with high intra-observer and inter-occasion reliabilities. Despite high ICC, the inter-observer reliability is not sufficient for multicenter......Scoring erosions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one method of estimating damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but it has limitations. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and inter-reader reliability of computer assisted erosion volume estimation...... in patients with RA. Intra-reader and inter-occasion reliability was also assessed, and different slice thicknesses were compared in terms of erosion volume estimation. A 3 mm slice thickness 3D gradient-echo sequence followed by a 1 mm sequence was performed at baseline and repeated within 24 h...

  13. Impact of ascites volume on clinical outcomes in ovarian cancer: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szender, J Brian; Emmons, Tiffany; Belliotti, Sarah; Dickson, Danielle; Khan, Aalia; Morrell, Kayla; Khan, A N M Nazmul; Singel, Kelly L; Mayor, Paul C; Moysich, Kirsten B; Odunsi, Kunle; Segal, Brahm H; Eng, Kevin H

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the impact of ascites volume on ovarian cancer outcomes. Clinicopathologic features of a cohort of patients with ovarian cancer were obtained from a curated database at a single institution. Progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were recorded. Ascites volume at primary surgery was dichotomized at 2000mL and comparisons for high and low volume ascites were made. Additionally, to elucidate interactions between ascites and ovarian tumor progression, we evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal administrations of murine cell-free ascites versus saline in a syngeneic mouse model of epithelial ovarian cancer. Out of 685 patients identified, 58% had ascites present at the time of initial surgery. Considering the volume of ascites continuously, each liter of ascites was associated with shorter PFS (HR=1.12, 95% CI: 1.07-1.17) and OS (HR=1.12, 95%CI: 1.07-1.17). Patients with ascites greater than the median of 2000mL had significantly shorter PFS (14.5months vs. 22.7months; povarian cancer progression in mice. The volume of ascites at initial diagnosis of ovarian cancer correlated with worse PFS and OS. The effect of large volume on prognosis is likely to be in part related to reduced likelihood for complete resection of tumor (R0). If these findings are confirmed in independent studies, consideration should be made to add the presence of large volume ascites at diagnosis to the staging criteria for ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Penafsiran Volume Pohon Pinus merkusii melalui Foto Udara (Studi Kasus BKPH Majenang, KPH Banyumas Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahid -

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of  Stock Volume of Pinus merkusii  using Aerial Photographs (Case Study in BKPH Majenang, West Banyumas FMU The study aims to compile and analyse the growing stock volume of Pinus merkusii by using stand parameter measured through aerial photographs. The study was conducted by using black-white panchromatic aerial photographs produced in 2005 and the scale was 1 : 20,000. The study was conducted in Pinus merkusii taping plots in the Majenang BKPH, under the forest districts of west Banyumas, Perum Perhutani using tree height, crown diameter and number of trees per hectare as parameters. Data analysis was done to define the relationship among these parameters in regression equation. The steps of the study were defining measurement plots in aerial photographs, measurement of stand parameters in the aerial photographs and field observation. Data analysis was performed using micro computer. As a result, the regression equation for each location as follows: V = 72,415 – 0,231 N + 35,242 H – 24,454D – 0,923 (N x D, with the determination coefficient was 0,789 and the significance of 95%. Where: V = growing stock volume (m3, N = the number of trees per hectare, H = tree height (m and D = crown diameter (m. It was concluded that number of tree per hectare, tree height and crown diameter were good predictors for standing stock volume of Pinus merkusii.

  15. Temporal, seasonal and weather effects on cycle volume: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Tin Sandar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cycling has the potential to provide health, environmental and economic benefits but the level of cycling is very low in New Zealand and many other countries. Adverse weather is often cited as a reason why people do not cycle. This study investigated temporal and seasonal variability in cycle volume and its association with weather in Auckland, New Zealand's largest city. Methods Two datasets were used: automated cycle count data collected on Tamaki Drive in Auckland by using ZELT Inductive Loop Eco-counters and weather data (gust speed, rain, temperature, sunshine duration available online from the National Climate Database. Analyses were undertaken using data collected over one year (1 January to 31 December 2009. Normalised cycle volumes were used in correlation and regression analyses to accommodate differences by hour of the day and day of the week and holiday. Results In 2009, 220,043 bicycles were recorded at the site. There were significant differences in mean hourly cycle volumes by hour of the day, day type and month of the year (p p Conclusions There are temporal and seasonal variations in cycle volume in Auckland and weather significantly influences hour-to-hour and day-to-day variations in cycle volume. Our findings will help inform future cycling promotion activities in Auckland.

  16. Anions Govern Cell Volume: A Case Study of Relative Astrocytic and Neuronal Swelling in Spreading Depolarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Hübel

    Full Text Available Cell volume changes are ubiquitous in normal and pathological activity of the brain. Nevertheless, we know little about the dynamics of cell and tissue swelling, and the differential changes in the volumes of neurons and glia during pathological states such as spreading depolarizations (SD under ischemic and non-ischemic conditions, and epileptic seizures. By combining the Hodgkin-Huxley type spiking dynamics, dynamic ion concentrations, and simultaneous neuronal and astroglial volume changes into a comprehensive model, we elucidate why glial cells swell more than neurons in SD and the special case of anoxic depolarization (AD, and explore the relative contributions of the two cell types to tissue swelling. Our results demonstrate that anion channels, particularly Cl-, are intrinsically connected to cell swelling and blocking these currents prevents changes in cell volume. The model is based on a simple and physiologically realistic description. We introduce model extensions that are either derived purely from first physical principles of electroneutrality, osmosis, and conservation of particles, or by a phenomenological combination of these principles and known physiological facts. This work provides insights into numerous studies related to neuronal and glial volume changes in SD that otherwise seem contradictory, and is broadly applicable to swelling in other cell types and conditions.

  17. Third International Mathematics and Science Study 1999 Video Study Technical Report: Volume 2--Science. Technical Report. NCES 2011-049

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Helen E.; Lemmens, Meike; Druker, Stephen L.; Roth, Kathleen J.

    2011-01-01

    This second volume of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 Video Study Technical Report focuses on every aspect of the planning, implementation, processing, analysis, and reporting of the science components of the TIMSS 1999 Video Study. The report is intended to serve as a record of the actions and documentation of…

  18. Inertial Fusion Energy reactor design studies: Prometheus-L, Prometheus-H. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Lee, V.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains a review of design studies for Inertial Confinement reactor. This second of three volumes discussions is some detail the following: Objectives, requirements, and assumptions; rationale for design option selection; key technical issues and R&D requirements; and conceptual design selection and description.

  19. Partial volume correction of brain PET studies using iterative deconvolution in combination with HYPR denoising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golla, Sandeep S. V.; Lubberink, Mark; van Berckel, Bart N. M.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Boellaard, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Background: Accurate quantification of PET studies depends on the spatial resolution of the PET data. The commonly limited PET resolution results in partial volume effects (PVE). Iterative deconvolution methods (IDM) have been proposed as a means to correct for PVE. IDM improves spatial resolution

  20. Plasma volume expansion by medium molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch in neonates: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liet, Jean-Michel; Bellouin, Anne-Sophie; Boscher, Cécile; Lejus, Corinne; Rozé, Jean-Christophe

    2003-07-01

    To study the renal effects (measured by creatininemia) of plasma volume expansion with a medium molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch in the newborn. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, pilot study. The study included 26 neonates weighing 690-4030 g (gestational age, 26-40 wks), without cardiac or renal failure or major hemostasis abnormalities and requiring a peripherally inserted central catheter for parenteral nutrition. Pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit of a university-affiliated hospital. Plasma volume expansion was performed to facilitate insertion of the central catheter. After parental consent, neonates were randomly allocated to receive intravenous infusions at 10 mL.kg(-1) of 5% albumin or 6% hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5. Sample size was calculated to detect an increase in mean creatininemia of >20 micromol.L(-1) (with alpha = 0.05, beta = 0.80). No clinically or statistically significant differences were found between the two groups 6 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, and 7 days after plasma volume expansion. The study could detect an increase in creatininemia > or =20 micromol.L(-1) with a power of 80%. In 13 healthy neonates, plasma volume expansion with 10 mL.kg(-1) of 6% hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5 does not increase creatininemia.

  1. Student Financial Aid Handbook, 2001-2002. Volume 6: Federal Work-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

    The Federal Work-Study (FWS) Program encourages the part-time employment of undergraduate and graduate students who need the income to help pay the cost of their education and encourages FWS recipients to participate in community service activities. This volume describes the ways schools are required to use money from their FWS Program funds to…

  2. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2A. GSFLS visit findings (appendix). Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-31

    This appendix is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This appendix provides the legal/regulatory reference material, supportive of Volume 2 - GSFLS Visit Finding and Evaluations; and certain background material on British Nuclear Fuel Limited (BNFL).

  3. 4708 Volume 11 No. 2 March 2011 PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-02

    Mar 2, 2011 ... Volume 11 No. 2. March 2011. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE ASPECTS OF THE BIOLOGY. OF SNAKEHEAD FISH Parachanna Obscura (Günther). IN A NIGERIAN WETLAND. Bolaji BB*. 2. ,Mfon TU. 1. , and DI Utibe. 2. Benard Bolaji. *Correspondence author's email: afababs@yahoo.com. 1.

  4. A Study on Sixth Grade Students' Misconceptions and Errors in Spatial Measurement: Length, Area, and Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan Sisman, Gulcin; Aksu, Meral

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to portray students' misconceptions and errors while solving conceptually and procedurally oriented tasks involving length, area, and volume measurement. The data were collected from 445 sixth grade students attending public primary schools in Ankara, Türkiye via a test composed of 16 constructed-response…

  5. Sexual dimorphism of volume reduction but not cognitive deficit in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: A combined diffusion tensor imaging, cortical thickness and brain volume study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Treit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has revealed abnormalities in brain volumes, cortical thickness and white matter microstructure in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD; however, no study has reported all three measures within the same cohort to assess the relative magnitude of deficits, and few studies have examined sex differences. Participants with FASD (n = 70; 30 females; 5–32 years and healthy controls (n = 74; 35 females; 5–32 years underwent cognitive testing and MRI to assess cortical thickness, regional brain volumes and fractional anisotropy (FA/mean diffusivity (MD of white matter tracts. A significant effect of group, age-by-group, or sex-by-group was found for 9/9 volumes, 7/39 cortical thickness regions, 3/9 white matter tracts, and 9/10 cognitive tests, indicating group differences that in some cases differ by age or sex. Volume reductions for several structures were larger in males than females, despite similar deficits of cognition in both sexes. Correlations between brain structure and cognitive scores were found in females of both groups, but were notably absent in males. Correlations within a given MRI modality (e.g. total brain volume and caudate volume were prevalent in both the control and FASD groups, and were more numerous than correlations between measurement types (e.g. volumes and diffusion tensor imaging in either cohort. This multi-modal MRI study finds widespread differences of brain structure in participants with prenatal alcohol exposure, and to a greater extent in males than females which may suggest attenuation of the expected process of sexual dimorphism of brain structure during typical development.

  6. Cine MR imaging in mitral valve prolapse; Study on mitral regurgitation and left atrial volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumai, Toshihiko (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-02-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the ability of cine MR imaging to evaluate the direction, timing, and severity of mitral regurgitation in patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP). The population of this study was 33 patients with MVP diagnosed by two-dimensional echocardiography and 10 patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease (MSR) for comparison. 7 patients with MVP and 5 with MSR had atrial fibrillation and/or history of congestive heart failure as complications. Mitral regurgitation was graded for severity by color Doppler flow imaging in all patients. Direction and size of systolic flow void in the left atrium were analyzed by contiguous multilevel cine MR images and the maximum volumes of flow void and left atrium were measured. Although flow void was found at the center of the left atrium in most of MSR, it was often directed along the postero-caudal atrial wall in anterior leaflet prolapse and along the anterocranial atrial wall in posterior leaflet prolapse. In MVP, the maximum volume of flow void was often seen in late systole. The maximum volume of flow void and that of left atrium were significantly larger in patients with atrial fibrillation and/or history of congestive heart failure. The length and volume of flow void were increased with clinical severity and degree of regurgitation determined by color Doppler flow imaging. Thus cine MR imaging provides a useful means for detection and semiquantitative evaluation of mitral regurgitation in subjects with MVP. (author).

  7. IEA Wind Task 24 Integration of Wind and Hydropower Systems; Volume 2: Participant Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the background, concepts, issues and conclusions related to the feasibility of integrating wind and hydropower, as investigated by the members of IEA Wind Task 24. It is the result of a four-year effort involving seven IEA member countries and thirteen participating organizations. The companion report, Volume 2, describes in detail the study methodologies and participant case studies, and exists as a reference for this report.

  8. Cortisol/DHEA ratio and hippocampal volume: A pilot study in major depression and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Rowen O.; Mason, Sara; Mellon, Synthia H.; Elissa S Epel; Reus, Victor I.; Mahan, Laura; Rosser, Rebecca L.; Hough, Christina M.; Heather M. Burke; Mueller, Susanne G.; Wolkowitz, Owen M.

    2016-01-01

    Structural imaging studies investigating the relationship between hippocampal volume (HCV) and peripheral measures of glucocorticoids (GCs) have produced conflicting results in both normal populations and in individuals with MDD, raising the possibility of other modulating factors. In preclinical studies, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester (DHEAS; together abbreviated, DHEA(S)) have been shown to antagonize the actions of GCs on the central nervous system. Therefore, consider...

  9. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) test facilities study program. Final report. Volume II. Part A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-17

    Results are presented of an 8-month study to develop alternative non-site-specific OTEC facilities/platform requirements for an integrated OTEC Test Program which may include land and floating test facilities. The document, Volume II - Appendixes is bound in three parts (A, B, and C) which together comprise a compendium of the most significant detailed data developed during the study. Part A contains definitions, baseline revisions, test plans, and energy utilization sections.

  10. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, Executive Summary, Volume I, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, David; DosSantos, Joseph M.

    1988-06-01

    This Executive Summary, Volume I, of the lower Flathead System Fisheries Study Final Report, was prepared to provide a study overview for persons who are not fisheries scientists. The contents provide an introduction to the study and its objectives, a short description of the study area, a discussion of the major findings and conclusions of the study, and the description of fisheries management alternatives available to managers of the lower Flathead system. Technical reports were prepared for those portions of the study dealing with the lower Flathead River and its tributaries, Volume II, and the South Bay of Flathead Lake, Volume III. The annual hydrographic regime of the Flathead system, consisting of upper rivers, lake and lower river, has been modified by the construction and operation of two major hydroelectric facilities, Hungry Horse Dam on the south fork Flathead River and Kerr Dam at the outlet of Flathead Lake. The modified hydrographic regime has resulted in significant impacts to kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) and several species of trout. Kerr Dam, closed in 1938, controls Flathead Lake levels between 878.7 m (2883 ft) and 881.8 m (2893 ft) and discharges into the lower Flathead River. Kerr Dam is a 63.4 m (208 ft) high concrete arch structure located 7.2 km (4.5 miles) downstream from the outlet of Flathead Lake. The facility is used by Montana Power Company primarily for system frequency load control with some use for low level base load. 77 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Relationship between Prefrontal Grey Matter Volumes and Working Memory Performance in Schizophrenia: A Family Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M; MacDonald, Angus W; Sponheim, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse structural abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex have been reported in both schizophrenia patients and their nonpsychotic biological relatives. Additionally, working memory difficulties have long been documented in schizophrenia patients and have been associated with the genetic liability for the disorder. The present analysis investigated the relationship between prefrontal regional grey matter volumes and two facets of working memory in schizophrenia using a family study. Structural neuroimaging scans provided measurements of rostral middle, superior, and inferior prefrontal cortical grey matter volumes. Participants also completed a spatial working memory task that measured both short-term maintenance and manipulation of material in memory. Both schizophrenia patients and relatives had reduced superior and inferior frontal grey matter volumes. Schizophrenia patients demonstrated a spatial working memory deficit compared to both controls and relatives, with no greater impairment when required to manipulate material. Smaller prefrontal volumes in schizophrenia patients were associated with worse working memory performance. These relationships were absent in the nonpsychotic relatives and controls. Despite normative behavioural performance, nonpsychotic relatives demonstrated abnormalities in brain structure similar to those found in schizophrenia patients. Manipulation abilities were not more impaired than maintenance in schizophrenia patients. Consistent with other neuroimaging research, our results suggest that direct measures of the underlying biology may be more sensitive to the effects of the genetic liability for schizophrenia than behavioural measures. PMID:24529364

  12. Study on the pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume by RI-cardiogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushio, N.

    1987-03-01

    The pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume in cases of cardio-pulmonary disease were measured using Giuntini's method which is considered the most appropriate among radiocardiographic methods. The errors in this method were confirmed to be almost negligible. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The pulmonary mean transit time was related to the systemic mean transit time and markedly prolonged in left heart failure. On the other hand, it was markedly shortened in some cases of chronic pulmonary disease, particularly pulmonary emphysema. 2) The pulmonary blood volume tended to increase in left heart disorders and mitral valve disease and tended to decrease in the chronic pulmonary disease. The decrease was conspicuous particularly in some cases of pulmonary emphysema. 3) A structural change of the pulmonary vascular system in the chronic pulmonary disease appeared to bring about shortening of the pulmonary mean transit time and a decrease in the pulmonary blood volume. The pathophysiology of cardio-pulmonary disease can be more clarified by the RI-cardiogram used in this study, in which the pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume are used as the indicator.

  13. An Experimental Study of High Strength-High Volume Fly Ash Concrete for Sustainable Construction Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Gunavant K.; Thakare, Sunil B., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Concrete is the most widely used building material in the construction of infrastructures such as buildings, bridges, highways, dams, and many other facilities. This paper reports the development, the basic idea, the main properties of high strength-high volume fly ash with application in concrete associated with the development and implementation of Sustainable Properties of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete (HVFAC) Mixtures and Early Age Shrinkage and mechanical properties of concrete for 7,28,56 and 90days. Another alternative to make environment-friendly concrete is the development of high strength-high-volume fly ash concrete which is an synthesized from materials of geological origin or by-product materials such as fly ash which is rich in silicon and aluminum. In this paper 6 concrete mixtures were produced to evaluate the effect of key parameters on the mechanical properties of concrete and its behavior. The study key parameters are; binder material content, cement replacement ratios, and the steel fibers used to High Volume Fly Ash mixtures for increasing performance of concrete.

  14. Reduced thalamic volume in Parkinson disease with REM sleep behavior disorder: volumetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsone, M; Cerasa, A; Arabia, G; Morelli, M; Gambardella, A; Mumoli, L; Nisticò, R; Vescio, B; Quattrone, A

    2014-09-01

    REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a common non motor feature of Parkinson's Disease (PD) affecting about half the patients with this disease. Distinct structural brain tissue abnormalities have been reported in several regions modulating REM sleep of the patients with idiopathic RBD. At the present time, there are no conventional MRI studies investigating patients with PD associated with RBD. Herein, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to detect the neuroanatomical profile of PD patients with and without RBD. Optimized VBM was applied to the MRI brain images in 11 PD patients with RBD (PD-RBD), 11 PD patients without RBD (PD) and 18 age-and sex-matched controls. To corroborate VBM findings we used automated volumetric method (FreeSurfer) to quantify subcortical brain regions volumes. Patients and controls also underwent DAT-SPECT and cardiac MIBG scintigraphies. The VBM analysis showed markedly reduced gray matter volume in the right thalamus of PD-RBD patients in comparison with PD patients and controls. Automatic thalamic segmentation in PD-RBD patients showed a bilaterally reduced thalamic volume as compared with PD patients or controls. All PD patients (with and without RBD) showed a reduced tracer uptake on DAT-SPECT and cardiac MIBG scintigraphies as compared to controls. Our findings suggest that the presence of RBD symptoms in PD patients is associated with a reduced thalamic volume suggesting a pathophysiologic role of the thalamus in the complex circuit causing RBD. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) laser studies. Volume 1: Laser environmental impact study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverly, R. E., III

    1980-01-01

    The environmental impact of space to Earth power transmission using space borne laser subsystems is emphasized. A laser system is defined, estimates of relevant efficiencies for laser power generation and atmospheric transmission are developed, and a comparison is made to a microwave system. Ancillary issues, such as laser beam spreading, safety and security, mass and volume estimates and technology growth are considered.

  16. Comparative study of pressure- and volume-controlled ventilation on stroke volume variation as a predictor of fluid responsiveness in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yeon; Park, Hee Yeon; Jung, Wol Seon; Jo, Youn Yi; Kwak, Hyun Jeong

    2012-10-01

    We hypothesized that the 2 ventilation modes might have a different influence on the stroke volume variation (SVV). This study investigated the effect of the ventilation modes on SVV as a predictor of fluid responsiveness during major abdominal surgery. Sixty patients were randomly allocated to volume-controlled ventilation (VCV, n = 30) or pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV, n = 30) modes. After the induction of anesthesia, hemodynamic variables and SVV were measured before and after volume expansion (VE) with colloid solution of 10 mL/kg. The ability of SVV to predict the fluid responsiveness was tested by calculation of the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve for an increase in stroke volume index of at least 15% after VE. There were 10 and 16 responders in the VCV and PCV groups, respectively. The area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (95% confidence interval) for SVV before VE was 0.723 (0.538-0.907) and 0.799 (0.625-0.973) in the VCV and PCV groups, respectively. The optimal threshold value of SVV was 11% and 14% in the VCV and PCV groups, respectively. Stroke volume variation can predict fluid responsiveness during both VCV and PCV modes. However, the optimal threshold values of SVV may differ according to the ventilation modes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tri-level study of the causes of traffic accidents, volume 2 : special analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    This final report is comprised of two volumes. Volume I provides causal result tabulations and related analyses. Volume II presents several special analysis reports dealing with driver vision knowledge, psychological make-up, etc. Human, environmenta...

  18. Genetic variation in white matter hyperintensity volume in the Framingham Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Larry D; Wolf, Philip A; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Massaro, Joseph M; Beiser, Alexa; D'Agostino, Ralph B; DeCarli, Charles

    2004-07-01

    In a previous study of normal elderly male twins, the heritability of quantitative white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume has been estimated to be high (0.73). We investigated heritability of WMH in a family-based sample of the Framingham Heart Study for sex differences and the impact of age. Brain magnetic resonance scans were performed on 2012 individuals in the cohort and offspring of the Framingham study. This report was limited to 1330 stroke-free and dementia-free members (mean age 61.0 years) of the Framingham offspring. Individuals with a history of multiple sclerosis, stroke, dementia, or other neurological condition including traumatic brain injury were excluded from this analysis. WMH volume and total cranial volume (TCV) were quantified using a previously published algorithm. Because of extreme skewing, measures of WMH were log-transformed before analysis. Variance components methods were used to estimate heritability of WMH after adjusting for sex, age, age2, and TCV. In the full dataset, WMH heritability was 0.55 (Pmen was 0.52 (Polder. Using a family-based study design comprising generally healthy individuals, this study found high heritability of WMH overall and similar heritability for both men and women. In addition, the heritability of WMH remained high among individuals in whom the prevalence of cerebrovascular brain injury was generally low, suggesting that WMH is also likely to be an excellent genetic marker of brain aging.

  19. OMERACT Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies. Exercise 5: an international multicenter reliability study using computerized MRI erosion volume measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bird, P; Ejbjerg, B; McQueen, F

    2003-01-01

    Scoring erosions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one method of estimating damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but it has limitations. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and inter-reader reliability of computer assisted erosion volume estimation...

  20. Study of special performance and volume training loadings at swimmers in the year preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamutova N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to study the dynamics of the special performance and volume of training load during annual training swimmers. Material / Methods : The study involved 14 teams of students of Kharkiv universities. All swimmers are of high qualification. Motor tests of special performance swimmers, functional tests were used to confirm the effectiveness of the training process. Results : The dynamics of special performance indicators and volume of training load of highly qualified swimmers in the annual cycle of training. Determined part of aerobic (58.3 %, aerobic- anaerobic special (34.5%, anaerobic- glycolytic (5.5%, anaerobic- alactate (1.7% loadings in the direction of total training load for the academic year. Conclusions : In preparing swimmers stayer is the most appropriate single-cycle construction of the annual cycle, and for swimmers, sprinters should be based on two-cycle version of the load distribution.

  1. Preface to the 8th Volume of The Interdisciplinary Journal of International Studies (IJIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn

    2012-01-01

    This 8th volume of The Interdisciplinary Journal of International Studies (IJIS) is a product of the continuing revitalization process that the journal has undertaken since 2010. Very significant recent developments in this process are the IJIS’ successful listing in the Directory of Open Access ...... by the commitments and generosity of many people—current students, alumni, and faculty members—to whom we express our sincerest gratitude and appreciation....

  2. The physics benchmark processes for the detector performance studies used in CLIC CDR Volume 3

    CERN Document Server

    Allanach, B.J.; Desch, K.; Ellis, J.; Giudice, G.; Grefe, C.; Kraml, S.; Lastovicka, T.; Linssen, L.; Marschall, J.; Martin, S.P.; Muennich, A.; Poss, S.; Roloff, P.; Simon, F.; Strube, J.; Thomson, M.; Wells, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    This note describes the detector benchmark processes used in volume 3 of the CLIC conceptual design report (CDR), which explores a staged construction and operation of the CLIC accelerator. The goal of the detector benchmark studies is to assess the performance of the CLIC ILD and CLIC SiD detector concepts for different physics processes and at a few CLIC centre-of-mass energies.

  3. From Insurgency to Stability. Volume 2: Insights from Selected Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Paul Oquist, Conflict and Politics in Colombia, New York: Academic Press, 1980; Rafael Pardo, La Historia de Las Guerras, Bogotá, 2004. 2 Known as...Verdadera Historia , Bogotá: Planeta, 2009. 58 From Insurgency to Stability, Volume II: Insights from Selected Case Studies been, or are being...1980. Pardo, Rafael, La Historia de Las Guerras, Bogotá, 2004. “Pastrana Desconoce Cómo Marchar Hacia Adelante,” El Tiempo, Bogotá, March 1, 1999. As

  4. Comparative studies on right ventricular pressure and volume overloading by thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owada, K.; Tsukahara, Y.; Kijima, M.; Miyazaki, Y.; Ono, K. (Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1982-03-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 44 patients with various heart diseases including mitral stenosis, atrial septal defect, primary pulmonary hypertension, and left atrial myxoma. The morphological findings of right ventricular (RV) free wall on the scintigram and RV/IVS (interventricular septum) uptake ratio of the images obtained from the left anterior oblique projection were studied in the patients with RV pressure or volume overloading.

  5. Application of a photogrammetric kinematic model for prediction of lung volumes in adolescents: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Ripka, Wagner L; Ulbricht, Leandra; Gewehr, Pedro M

    2014-01-01

    Background There are several ways to measure the respiratory system, among them inductance plethysmography and three-dimensional kinematic analysis, methods of high cost and difficult transportability. The objective of this study was to correlate respiratory volumes obtained by spirometry standard equipment with a biomechanical model photogrammetric analysis of adolescents. Methods We evaluated 50 subjects of both genders, aged between 14 and 17 years old, excluding those with respiratory obs...

  6. A stereological study of glomerular number and volume: preliminary findings in a multiracial study of kidneys at autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wendy E; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Hughson, Michael D; Cass, Alan; Johnson, Kelli; Bertram, John F

    2003-02-01

    This report describes preliminary results of a study of glomerular number and volume and their associations, in kidneys of people coming to autopsy. Both kidneys were weighed at autopsy and the right kidney was perfusion-fixed and sub-sampled for stereological estimation of total glomerular number, and of mean renal corpuscle volume, using the physical disector/fractionator combination. The 78 kidneys studied so far were from Australian Aborigines, Australian non-Aborigines, US blacks and US whites, ages newborn to 84 years. Glomerular number ranged almost ninefold (from 210,332 to 1,825,380), with mean (SD) of 784,909 (314,686); it decreased throughout adult life (r=-0.32, P=0.009). Mean renal corpuscle volume varied 5.6-fold in adults and was inversely correlated with glomerular number (r=-0.38, P=0.001). Total renal corpuscle volume varied in adults by a factor of 15.8. Kidney weight correlated with body surface area (BSA) at all ages (r=0.76, P obsolescence. Much, however, remains to be done, including evaluation of history, clinical features, accompanying pathology, detailed renal morphology, and further pursuit of potentially defining characteristics in high risk groups.

  7. Simple platelet markers: Mean platelet volume and congestive heart failure coexistent with periodontal disease. Pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniuk, Maciej R; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew; Dudzik-Niewiadomska, Iwona; Pilecki, Tomasz; Górska, Renata; Filipiak, Krzysztof J

    2017-07-17

    Conducted pilot study concerning mean platelet volume parameter among patients suffering from congestive heart failure and periodontal disease. Examination of dynamic changes of platelet and periodontal markers in group of 50 patients before and an average of 6 months subsequent to professional periodontal treatment. Both platelet and periodontal parameters decreased after periodontal treatment, what is more, the decrease of mean platelet volume (MPV) value due to periodontal disease/mm improvement was shown to be statistically significant (p = 0.05). Improvement of periodontal status may influence decrease of MPV value andincrease of congestive heart failure treatment efficacy and effect patient comfort. It is a new, not frequently used pattern of chronic disease treatment optimalization.

  8. The Canada country study: Climate impacts and adaptation -- Vol. 7: National sectoral volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshida, G.; Avis, W. [eds.] [Environment Canada, Downsview, ON (Canada)

    1998-10-01

    The Canada Country Study is a comprehensive source of knowledge on how climate change could impact on communities across Canada. The Study consists of a series of eight volumes and constitutes the scientific and technical results of the assessment phase of the project. This volume (Vol. 7) contains 12 sectoral papers which provide a digest of the findings of the previous six regional volumes, but viewed from the vantage points of the various sectors of national life and the economy, i.e. (1) agriculture, (2) built environment, (3) energy, (4) fisheries, (5) forestry, (6) human health, (7) insurance, (8) recreation and tourism, (9) transportation, (10) unmanaged ecosystems, (11) water resources, and (12) wetlands. Each paper is accompanied by an extensive list of references, a list of tables, a list of figures, and a list of appendices. Readers are cautioned that confidence levels are higher in the hemispheric-to-continental projections of climate change than in the regional projections. Also, it should be borne in mind that the identified changes in climate are projected to occur over the next century, and that the average rate of warming used in the models underlying these projections may be greater than any seen in the last several millenia.

  9. Effects of yoga on arm volume among women with breast cancer related lymphedema: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mary Insana; Donahoe-Fillmore, Betsy; Leach, Laura; O'Malley, Colleen; Paeplow, Cheryl; Prescott, Tess; Merriman, Harold

    2014-10-01

    Lymphedema affects 3-58% of survivors of breast cancer and can result in upper extremity impairments. Exercise can be beneficial in managing lymphedema. Yoga practice has been minimally studied for its effects on breast cancer related lymphedema (BCRL). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of yoga on arm volume, quality of life (QOL), self-reported arm function, and hand grip strength in women with BCRL. Six women with BCRL participated in modified Hatha yoga 3×/week for 8 weeks. Compression sleeves were worn during yoga sessions. Arm volume, QOL, self-reported arm function, and hand grip strength were measured at baseline, half-way, and at the conclusion of yoga practice. Arm volume significantly decreased from baseline (2423.3 ml ± 597.2) to final measures (2370.8 ml ± 577.2) (p = .02). No significant changes in QOL (p = .12), self-reported arm function (p = .34), or hand grip strength (p = .26) were found. Yoga may be beneficial in the management of lymphedema. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. VOLUME STUDY WITH HIGH DENSITY OF PARTICLES BASED ON CONTOUR AND CORRELATION IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Yu. Nikolaeva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study is the techniques of particle statistics evaluation, in particular, processing methods of particle images obtained by coherent illumination. This paper considers the problem of recognition and statistical accounting for individual images of small scattering particles in an arbitrary section of the volume in case of high concentrations. For automatic recognition of focused particles images, a special algorithm for statistical analysis based on contouring and thresholding was used. By means of the mathematical formalism of the scalar diffraction theory, coherent images of the particles formed by the optical system with high numerical aperture were simulated. Numerical testing of the method proposed for the cases of different concentrations and distributions of particles in the volume was performed. As a result, distributions of density and mass fraction of the particles were obtained, and the efficiency of the method in case of different concentrations of particles was evaluated. At high concentrations, the effect of coherent superposition of the particles from the adjacent planes strengthens, which makes it difficult to recognize images of particles using the algorithm considered in the paper. In this case, we propose to supplement the method with calculating the cross-correlation function of particle images from adjacent segments of the volume, and evaluating the ratio between the height of the correlation peak and the height of the function pedestal in the case of different distribution characters. The method of statistical accounting of particles considered in this paper is of practical importance in the study of volume with particles of different nature, for example, in problems of biology and oceanography. Effective work in the regime of high concentrations expands the limits of applicability of these methods for practically important cases and helps to optimize determination time of the distribution character and

  11. Secondary radiation damage as the main cause for unexpected volume effects : A histopathologic study of the parotid gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, AWT; Faber, H; Cotteleer, F; Vissink, A; Coppes, RP

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To elucidate with a histopathological study the mechanism of region-dependent volume effects in the partly irradiated parotid gland of the rat. Methods and Materials: Wistar rats were locally X-irradiated with collimators with conformal radiation portals for 100% volume and 50%

  12. Regenerating the Philosophy of Education: What Happened to Soul? Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education, Volume 352

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincheloe, Joe L., Ed.; Hewitt, Randall, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In this volume, Joe L. Kincheloe and Randall Hewitt have gathered an impressive and scholarly group of authors who argue for the continuing importance of the philosophy of education. Reviving the notion that philosophy is an essential foundation in the study and research of education, contributors to this volume directly confront the evisceration…

  13. A Simple Mercury-Free Laboratory Apparatus to Study the Relationship between Pressure, Volume, and Temperature in a Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Donna; Sweeney, William V.; Mills, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive mercury-free apparatus to measure the change in volume of a gas as a function of pressure at different temperatures is described. The apparatus is simpler than many found in the literature and can be used to study variations in pressure, volume, and temperature. (Contains 1 table and 7 figures.)

  14. The history of NATO TNF policy: The role of studies, analysis and exercises conference proceedings. Volume 1, Introduction and summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, R.L. [ed.

    1994-02-01

    This conference was organized to study and analyze the role of simulation, analysis, modeling, and exercises in the history of NATO policy. The premise was not that the results of past studies will apply to future policy, but rather that understanding what influenced the decision process -- and how -- would be of value. The structure of the conference was built around discussion panels. The panels were augmented by a series of papers and presentations focusing on particular TNF events, issues, studies or exercise. The conference proceedings consist of three volumes. This volume, Volume 1, contains the conference introduction, agenda, biographical sketches of principal participants, and analytical summary of the presentations and discussion panels. Volume 2 contains a short introduction and the papers and presentations from the conference. Volume 3 contains selected papers by Brig. Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.).

  15. The history of NATO TNF policy: The role of studies, analysis and exercises conference proceedings. Volume 2: Papers and presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    This conference was organized to study and analyze the role of simulation, analysis, modeling, and exercises in the history of NATO policy. The premise was not that the results of past studies will apply to future policy, but rather that understanding what influenced the decision process -- and how -- would be of value. The structure of the conference was built around discussion panels. The panels were augmented by a series of papers and presentations focusing on particular TNF events, issues, studies, or exercises. The conference proceedings consist of three volumes. Volume 1 contains the conference introduction, agenda, biographical sketches of principal participants, and analytical summary of the presentations and panels. This volume contains a short introduction and the papers and presentations from the conference. Volume 3 contains selected papers by Brig. Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.). Individual papers in this volume were abstracted and indexed for the database.

  16. The best prostate biopsy scheme is dictated by the gland volume: a monocentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Atti, L

    2015-08-01

    Accuracy of biopsy scheme depends on different parameters. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and digital rectal examination (DRE) influenced the detection rate and suggested the biopsy scheme to approach each patient. Another parameter is the prostate volume. Sampling accuracy tends to decrease progressively with an increasing prostate volume. We prospectively observed detection cancer rate in suspicious prostate cancer (PCa) and improved by applying a protocol biopsy according to prostate volume (PV). Clinical data and pathological features of these 1356 patients were analysed and included in this study. This protocol is a combined scheme that includes transrectal (TR) 12-core PBx (TR12PBx) for PV ≤ 30 cc, TR 14-core PBx (TR14PBx) for PV > 30 cc but scheme, in 198 (14.6%) through TR14PBx scheme and in 253 (18.6%) through TR18PBx scheme. The PCa detection rate was increased by 44% by adding two TZ cores (TR14PBx scheme). The TR18PBx scheme increased this rate by 21.7% vs. TR14PBx scheme. The diagnostic yield offered by TR18PBx was statistically significant compared to the detection rate offered by the TR14PBx scheme (p scheme diagnostic yield and those detected by the TR18PBx scheme (p = 0.362). The only PV parameter, in our opinion, can be significant in choosing the best biopsy scheme to approach in a first setting of biopsies increasing PCa detection rate.

  17. Excluded volume effects on ionic partitioning in gels and microgels: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahualli, Silvia; Martín-Molina, Alberto; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel

    2014-12-14

    In this work the effect of volume exclusion on ionic partitioning in swollen and moderately collapsed gels has been studied through coarse-grained simulations. Our results show that finite size effects yield deviations from the classical theory of Donnan exclusion. At low or moderate reservoir electrolyte concentration these discrepancies become important if one of the ions has diameters of just a few nanometers. When the reservoir electrolyte concentration grows, volume exclusion can lead to a drastic failure of the ideal Donnan exclusion even for conventional hydrated monoatomic ions. In addition, an approximate analytical expression for the partition coefficient of ionic species including the volume exclusion associated with the polymer network and the neutralizing counterions has been proposed and tested. This theoretical approach also provides an expression for the Donnan potential difference that takes such effects into account. Good agreement between theory and simulations is found for slightly and moderately charged gels (both at low and high reservoir electrolyte concentrations). The theory also works acceptably for highly charged gels at high salt concentrations or for electrolytes with large counterions.

  18. Investigation of partial volume correction methods for brain FDG PET studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Huang, S. C.; Mega, M.; Lin, K. P.; Toga, A. W.; Small, G. W.; Phelps, M. E.

    1996-12-01

    The use of positron emission tomography (PET) in quantitative fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies of aging and dementia has been limited by partial volume effects. A general method for correction of partial volume effects (PVE) in PET involves the following common procedures: segmentation of MRI brain images into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and muscle (MS) components: MRI PET registration; and generation of simulated PET images. Afterward, two different approaches can be taken. The first approach derives first a pixel-by-pixel correction map as the ratio of the measured image to the simulated image [with realistic full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)]. The correction map was applied to the MRI segmentation image. Regions of interest (ROI's) can then be applied to give results free of partial volume effects. The second approach uses the ROI values of the simulated "pure" image (with negligible FWHM) and those of the simulated and the measured PET images to correct for the PVE effect. By varying the ratio of radiotracer concentrations for different tissue components, the in-plane FWHM's of a three-dimensional point spread function, and the ROI size, the authors evaluated the performance of these two approaches in terms of their accuracy and sensitivity to different simulation configurations. The results showed that both approaches are more robust than the approach developed by Muller-Gartner et al. (1992), and the second approach is more accurate and more robust than the first. In conclusion, the authors recommend that the second approach should be used on FDG PET images to correct for partial volume effects and to determine whether an apparent change in GM radiotracer concentration is truly due to metabolic changes.

  19. Investigation of partial volume correction methods for brain FDG PET studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Huang, S.C.; Mega, M.; Toga, A.W.; Small, G.W.; Phelps, M.E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lin, K.P. [Chung Yuan Christian Univ., Chung-Li (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-12-01

    The use of positron emission tomography (PET) in quantitative fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies of aging and dementia has been limited by partial volume effects. A general method for correction of partial volume effects (PVE) in PET involves the following common procedures; segmentation of MRI brain images into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and muscle (MS) components; MRI PET registration; and generation of simulated PET images. Afterward, two different approaches can be taken. The first approach derives first a pixel-by-pixel correction map as the ratio of the measured image to the simulated image [with realistic full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)]. The correction map was applied to the MRI segmentation image. Regions of interest (ROI`s) can then be applied to give results free of partial volume effects. The second approach uses the ROI values of the simulated ``pure`` image (with negligible FWHM) and those of the simulated and the measured PET images to correct for the PVE effect. By varying the ratio of radiotracer concentrations for different tissue components, the in-plane FWHM`s of a three-dimensional point spread function, and the ROI size, the authors evaluated the performance of these two approaches in terms of their accuracy and sensitivity to different simulation configurations. The results showed that both approaches are more robust than the approach developed by Muller-Gartner et al., and the second approach is more accurate and more robust than the first. In conclusion, the authors recommend that the second approach should be used on FDG PET images to correct for partial volume effects and to determine whether an apparent change in GM radiotracer concentration is truly due to metabolic changes.

  20. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) test facilities study program. Final report. Volume II. Part C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-17

    Results are presented of an 8-month study to develop alternative non-site-specific OTEC facilities/platform requirements for an integrated OTEC Test Program which may include land and floating test facilities. Volume II--Appendixes is bound in three parts (A, B, and C) which together comprise a compendium of the most significant detailed data developed during the study. Part C describes test facility support, data acquisition and control system design, cost data, energy self-sufficiency, and test facility applications.

  1. Study of the free volume fraction in polylactic acid (PLA) by thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, A.; Benrekaa, N.

    2015-10-01

    The poly (lactic acid) or polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer with high modulus, strength and thermoplastic properties. In this work, the evolution of various properties of PLA is studied, such as glass transition temperature, mechanical modules and elongation percentage with the aim of investigating the free volume fraction. To do so, two thermal techniques have been used: the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and dilatometry. The results obtained by these techniques are combined to go back to the structural properties of the studied material.

  2. Economic Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) study. Volume I. ERTG design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-12-01

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop and evaluate an ERTG design for a high power, Curium-244 fueled system based on the tubular thermoelectric module technology; (2) to prepare a program plan for the development of a flight qualified ERTG; and (3) to estimate the costs associated with the production of one, ten and twenty flight qualified ERTG's. This volume presents the Reference Design ERTG approach, the results of the engineering trade studies leading to its selection, and the Second Generation ERTG Design proposed for development. (WHK)

  3. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This volume is in support of the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the Oak Ridge Reservation (for more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities there). It addresses the quality assurance objectives for measuring the data, presents selected historical data, contains data from several discrete water characterization studies, provides data supporting the sediment characterization, and contains data related to several biota characterization studies.

  4. Assessment of LWR spent fuel disposal options. Volume 3. Study bases and system design considerations (Appendices). Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Volume 3 (Appendices) provides a tabulation of the bases and assumptions used in the study as well as preconceptual design description and cost estimates of the facilities and transportation systems necessary to implement the various study cases.

  5. Restraint of appetite and reduced regional brain volumes in anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Samantha J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume. Methods Voxel based morphometry (VBM, corrected for total intracranial volume, age, BMI, years of education in 14 women with AN (8 RAN and 6 BPAN and 21 women (HC was performed. Correlations between brain volume and dietary restraint were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Results Increased right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and reduced right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left cerebellum and right posterior cingulate volumes in AN compared to HC. RAN compared to BPAN had reduced left orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and left cerebellum. Age negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume in HC but not in AN; dietary restraint and BMI predicted 57% of variance in right DLPFC volume in AN. Conclusions In AN, brain volume differences were found in appetitive, somatosensory and top-down control brain regions. Differences in regional GMV may be linked to levels of appetitive restraint, but whether they are state or trait is unclear. Nevertheless, these discrete brain volume differences provide candidate brain regions for further structural and functional study in people with eating disorders.

  6. [Comparative study of the volume difference vs. healthy limb, morphological and population description in transfemoral amputees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cruz, Felipe; Rodríguez-Reyes, Gerardo; Galván Duque-Gastélum, Carlos; Alvarez-Camacho, Michelín

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge of the general characteristics and physical condition that keeps the transfemoral amputation stump to select and adapt appropriate type of prosthesis to restore a walking pattern amputee patient acceptable and useful design parameters set to propose new prosthetic systems. In this paper, the degree of difference between the volumes of the limb stump and healthy as well as morphological features occurred more frequently in the stumps of transfemoral amputees who were treated at the Laboratory of Orthotics and Prosthetics (LOP), Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación (INR) in 2008. It captured all patients with unilateral transfemoral amputation left and right, over 18 years old, both sexes, use of hearing candidates were evaluated clinically and took three measurements of the circumferences at different wavelengths and the limb stump healthy, were calculated volumes of both sides using the mathematical model of the truncated cone and analyzed in three groups according to the level of amputation (proximal, middle and distal third). We obtained 49 patients, 39 men and 10 women, the difference stump volume compared to healthy limb volume per group were: 44.9% proximal third, middle third and distal 26.5%, 21.1%, the frequency of diagnostic data showed a stump right transfemoral amputees, due to metabolic, without use of prostheses, the most common morphological features indicate that the stump has a conical shape and size distal third, whose tissue is semi-flaccid consistency, the scar is not adhered to deep planes and shows a negative tinel, the mattress soft tissue is 2.15 ± 1.3 cm and physically presents a force level 4 in the clinical rating scale Daniels. The data are consistent with other studies comparing the percentage of the volume change with the percentages of reduced diameters transfemoral stump muscle, likewise agrees most amputees incidence of diabetes mellitus with other studies, cataloging it eat first cause amputation. The general description

  7. Ethnomathematics study: uncovering units of length, area, and volume in Kampung Naga Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septianawati, T.; Turmudi; Puspita, E.

    2017-02-01

    During this time, mathematics is considered as something neutral and not associated with culture. It can be seen from mathematics learning in the school which adopt many of foreign mathematics learning are considered more advanced (western). In fact, Indonesia is a rich country in cultural diversity. In the cultural activities, there are mathematical ideas that were considered a important thing in the mathematics learning. A study that examines the idea or mathematical practices in a variety of cultural activities are known as ethnomathematics. In Indonesia, there are some ethnic maintain their ancestral traditions, one of them is Kampung Naga. Therefore, this study was conducted in Kampung Naga. This study aims to uncover units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society. This study used a qualitative approach and ethnography methods. In this research, data collection is done through the principles of ethnography such as observation, interviews, documentation, and field notes. The results of this study are units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society and its conversion into standard units. This research is expected to give information to the public that mathematics has a relationship with culture and become recommendation to mathematics curriculum in Indonesia.

  8. Importance of the test volume on the lag phase in biodegradation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, F.; Torang, Lars; Nyholm, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Increasing the total volume of test medium resulted in decreased lag times (TL) in biodegradability shake flask batch tests conducted with either surface water or with synthetic mineral medium inoculated with supernatant from settled activated sludge. Experiments were performed with test volumes...... volume tended to increase the lag time, even when a single test batch was redistributed into smaller flasks. With 5 ml supernatant added to different volumes of mineral medium, lag times for PNP were independent of the test volume in a range from 10 to 1,000 ml. At small volumes of 10 ml or less...

  9. Endoscopic lung volume reduction coil treatment in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marcel; Harbaum, Lars; Oqueka, Tim; Kluge, Stefan; Klose, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic lung volume reduction coil (LVRC) treatment is an option for selected patients with severe emphysema. In the advanced stages, emphysema leads to respiratory failure: hypoxemia and eventually chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. It can be hypothesized that LVRC treatment, a procedure targeting hyperinflation and thereby reducing ventilatory workload, may be especially beneficial in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. This study was conducted to gain first insights into the effects and the safety of LVRC treatment in patients with emphysema and chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. A retrospective observational study conducted in the Department of Respiratory Medicine at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany on all patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure in whom bilateral LVRC treatment was performed between 1 April 2012 and 30 September 2015. During the study period, bilateral LVRC treatment was performed in 10 patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. Compared with baseline, bilateral LVRC treatment led to a significant increase in mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) from 0.5 ± 0.1 l to 0.6 ± 0.2 l ( p = 0.004), a decrease in residual volume (RV) from 6.1 ± 0.9 l to 5.6 ± 1.1 l ( p = 0.02) and a reduction in partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2) from 53 ± 5 mmHg to 48 ± 4 mmHg ( p = 0.03). One case of hemoptysis requiring readmission to hospital was the only severe adverse event. LVRC treatment was safe and effective in patients with nonsevere chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. It led not only to an improvement in lung function but also to a significant decrease in PaCO2.

  10. The Canada country study: Climate impacts and adaptation -- Vol. 8: National cross-cutting issues volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, N.; Avis, W. [eds.] [Environment Canada, Downsview, ON (Canada)

    1998-10-01

    The Canada Country Study is a comprehensive series of studies highlighting the possibility of significant implications for Canada as a consequence of projected changes in climate. The Study comprises eight volumes and constitutes the scientific and technical results of the assessment phase of the project. It was undertaken to help Canadians understand the issues involved, and to enable them to be well informed as they prepare to respond to the potential impacts of climate change. This volume (Vol. 8) contains a series of eight papers dealing with cross-cutting issues, i. e. concerns that are multi-disciplinary in nature and broad in scope. Among these are the cost of adaptations and residual impacts of climate change, extreme events, integrated air issues, extra-territorial issues, domestic trade and commerce, changing landscapes, sustainable development and northern subsistence and land-based economies. Each of the papers is extensively documented, and contains lists of topics that require further study and consultation to forge the best strategies. In summarizing the contents of the papers, the editors caution readers to bear in mind that the reliability of the results is limited by the reliability of the assumptions built into the computer models.

  11. DOE plutonium disposition study: Pu consumption in ALWRs. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) to provide information on the capability of ABB-CE`s System 80 + Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) to transform, through reactor burnup, 100 metric tonnes (MT) of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) into a form which is not readily useable in weapons. This information is being developed as part of DOE`s Plutonium Disposition Study, initiated by DOE in response to Congressional action. This document Volume 2, provides a discussion of: Plutonium Fuel Cycle; Technology Needs; Regulatory Considerations; Cost and Schedule Estimates; and Deployment Strategy.

  12. Effects of elevated vacuum on in-socket residual limb fluid volume: Case study results using bioimpedance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, JE; Harrison, DS; Myers, TR; Allyn, KJ

    2015-01-01

    Bioimpedance analysis was used to measure residual limb fluid volume on seven trans-tibial amputee subjects using elevated vacuum sockets and non-elevated vacuum sockets. Fluid volume changes were assessed during sessions with the subjects sitting, standing, and walking. In general, fluid volume losses during 3 or 5 min walks and losses over the course of the 30-min test session were less for elevated vacuum than for suction. A number of variables including the time of day data were collected, soft tissue consistency, socket-to-limb size differences and shape differences, and subject health may have affected the results and had an equivalent or greater impact on limb fluid volume compared with elevated vacuum. Researchers should well consider these variables in study design of future investigations on the effects of elevated vacuum on residual limb volume. PMID:22234667

  13. Application of a photogrammetric kinematic model for prediction of lung volumes in adolescents: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripka, Wagner L; Ulbricht, Leandra; Gewehr, Pedro M

    2014-02-27

    There are several ways to measure the respiratory system, among them inductance plethysmography and three-dimensional kinematic analysis, methods of high cost and difficult transportability. The objective of this study was to correlate respiratory volumes obtained by spirometry standard equipment with a biomechanical model photogrammetric analysis of adolescents. We evaluated 50 subjects of both genders, aged between 14 and 17 years old, excluding those with respiratory obstruction or restriction. Stickers with markers, there was a five-point mapping for anatomical modeling and photogrammetry, with each evaluated in supine position, was sought to test the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). The test was filmed and repeated three times. Images of the films were extracted for the moment of maximum exhalation and inhalation of proof with better breathing. With the use of a commercial software, defined the respiratory volumes to the thorax and abdomen. The photogrammetric analysis has found values strongly correlated with the spirometric measurements of FVC (0.812), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 - 0.708), Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF - 0.762) in addition to post test performed Inspiration (IP- 0.816). There was a higher ventilatory mobility for boys than girls for Lower Chest and Lower and Upper Abdomen. It was possible to reach a regression R2 = 0.866 for proof of FVC and R2 = 0.776 for IP with the use of photogrammetry, presenting a standard error of 0.353 and 0.451, respectively. Photogrammetry can be used to study thoracoabdominal movements by applying analytical two-dimensional and three-dimensional images acquired using a video camera being, applicable and reproducible.

  14. Enhancing economic competiveness of dish Stirling technology through production volume and localization: Case study for Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larchet, Kevin; Guédez, Rafael; Topel, Monika; Gustavsson, Lars; Machirant, Andrew; Hedlund, Maria-Lina; Laumert, Björn

    2017-06-01

    The present study quantifies the reduction in the levelized cost of electricity (LCoE) and capital expenditure (CAPEX) of a dish Stirling power plant (DSPP) through an increase in localization and unit production volume. Furthermore, the localization value of the plant is examined to determine how much investment is brought into the local economy. Ouarzazate, Morocco, was chosen as the location of the study due to the country's favorable regulatory framework with regards to solar power technologies and its established industry in the concentrating solar power (CSP) field. A detailed techno-economic model of a DSPP was developed using KTH's in-house modelling tool DYESOPT, which allows power plant evaluation by means of technical and economic performance indicators. Results on the basis of LCoE and CAPEX were compared between two different cases of production volume, examining both a minimum and maximum level of localization. Thereafter, the DSPP LCoE and localization value were compared against competing solar technologies to evaluate its competitiveness. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was conducted around key design parameters. The study confirms that the LCoE of a DSPP can be reduced to values similar to solar photovoltaic (PV) and lower than other CSP technologies. Furthermore, the investment in the local economy is far greater when compared to PV and of the same magnitude to other CSP technologies. The competiveness of a DSPP has the potential to increase further when coupled with thermal energy storage (TES), which is currently under development.

  15. Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area habitability study. Volume 5. Peer review summary: TRC (Technical Review Committee) responses. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    Environmental studies were conducted to provide data that could be used by the Commissioner of Health for the State of New York in determining whether the Emergency Declaration Area surrounding the Love Canal hazardous-waste site is habitable. These volumes (II through IV) were reviewed by a peer-review panel of expert scientists. The scientists concluded that each of the three environmental studies was well planned and well executed. Volume V summarizes the peer review and gives additional information or clarifications as requested during the peer review. Volume V also provides additional supplemental statistical analyses requested by the peer reviewer panel.

  16. Brain gray matter volume differences in obese youth with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redel, Jacob M; DiFrancesco, Mark; Vannest, Jennifer; Altaye, Mekibib; Beebe, Dean; Khoury, Jane; Dolan, Lawrence M; Lee, Gregory; Brunner, Hermine; Holland, Scott; Brady, Cassandra; Shah, Amy S

    2018-01-26

    Adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have significantly lower gray matter volume (GMV) compared to healthy peers. Whether GMV differences exist in youth with T2D remains unclear. Thus, we compared global and regional GMV between obese youth with T2D with age, race and sex similar healthy controls. In a cross-sectional study, 20 obese youth with T2D underwent T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Comparisons were made to 20 age, race and sex similar controls. Differences in global and regional GMV between groups were identified using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Youth with T2D had a significantly lower global GMV-to-intracranial volume ratio (0.51±0.02 in T2D vs. 0.53±0.02 in controls, p=0.02, Cohen's d=0.85). There were 14 regions where GMV was significantly lower in the T2D group, and nine of these were found in either the temporal or occipital lobes. There were six regions with increased GMV in T2D. All regional differences were significant at p<0.05 after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Results from this pilot study show obese youth with T2D have significantly lower global GMV and regional GMV differences, when compared to their age, race and sex similar peers. Future work is needed to determine whether these brain findings are a direct result of adolescent-onset T2D.

  17. Validation study of a fast, accurate, and precise brain tumor volume measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Mong; Modi, Jayesh; Roberts, Mike; Chan, Christopher; Mitchell, J Ross

    2013-08-01

    Precision and accuracy are sometimes sacrificed to ensure that medical image processing is rapid. To address this, our lab had developed a novel level set segmentation algorithm that is 16× faster and >96% accurate on realistic brain phantoms. This study reports speed, precision and estimated accuracy of our algorithm when measuring MRIs of meningioma brain tumors and compares it to manual tracing and modified MacDonald (MM) ellipsoid criteria. A repeated-measures study allowed us to determine measurement precisions (MPs) - clinically relevant thresholds for statistically significant change. Speed: the level set, MM, and trace methods required 1:20, 1:35, and 9:35 (mm:ss) respectively on average to complete a volume measurement (plesion volumes (p>0.05). Precision: the MM's within-operator and between-operator MPs were significantly higher (worse) than the other methods (p0.05). Our level set is faster on average than MM, yet has accuracy and precision comparable to manual tracing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Seismic hazard analysis application of methodology, results, and sensitivity studies. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, D. L

    1981-08-08

    As part of the Site Specific Spectra Project, this report seeks to identify the sources of and minimize uncertainty in estimates of seismic hazards in the Eastern United States. Findings are being used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to develop a synthesis among various methods that can be used in evaluating seismic hazard at the various plants in the Eastern United States. In this volume, one of a five-volume series, we discuss the application of the probabilistic approach using expert opinion. The seismic hazard is developed at nine sites in the Central and Northeastern United States, and both individual experts' and synthesis results are obtained. We also discuss and evaluate the ground motion models used to develop the seismic hazard at the various sites, analyzing extensive sensitivity studies to determine the important parameters and the significance of uncertainty in them. Comparisons are made between probabilistic and real spectral for a number of Eastern earthquakes. The uncertainty in the real spectra is examined as a function of the key earthquake source parameters. In our opinion, the single most important conclusion of this study is that the use of expert opinion to supplement the sparse data available on Eastern United States earthquakes is a viable approach for determining estimted seismic hazard in this region of the country. 29 refs., 15 tabs.

  19. Does ultrasonographic volume of the thyroid gland correlate with difficult intubation? An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Ceyda Meco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Preoperative ultrasonographic evaluation of the thyroid gland done by surgeons could let us foresee airway management challenges. The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the effects of thyroid-related parameters assessed preoperatively by surgeons via ultrasonography and chest X-ray on intubation conditions. METHODS: Fifty patients undergoing thyroid surgery were enrolled. Thyromental distance, Mallampati score, neck circumference and range of neck movement were evaluated before the operation. Thyroid volume, signs of invasion or compression and tracheal deviation on chest X-ray were also noted. The intubation conditions were assessed with Cormack and Lehane score and the intubation difficulty scale. Statistical analyses were done with SPSS 15.0 software. RESULTS: The mean thyroid volume of the patients was 26.38 ± 14 mL. The median intubation difficulty scale was 1 (0-2. Thyromental distance (p = 0.011; r = 0.36; 95% CI 0.582-0.088, Mallampati score (p = 0.041; r = 0.29; 95% CI 0.013-0.526, compression or invasion signs (p = 0.041; r = 0.28; 95% CI 0.006-0.521 and tracheal deviation on chest X-ray (p = 0.041; r = 0.52; 95% CI 0.268-0.702 were correlated with intubation difficulty scale. Also patients were classified into two groups related to their intubation difficulty scale (Group I, n = 19: intubation difficulty scale = 0; Group II, n = 31: 1 < intubation difficulty scale ≤ 5 and difficult intubation predictors and thyroid-related parameters were compared. Only Mallampati score was significantly different between groups (p = 0.025. CONCLUSION: The thyroid volume is not associated with difficult intubation. However clinical assessment parameters may predict difficult intubation.

  20. Neck fat volume as a potential indicator of difficult intubation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Buono, Romualdo; Sabatino, Lorenzo; Greco, Federico

    2018-01-01

    Direct laryngoscopy is the gold standard of the airway management in patients without predicted difficulties. If unpredicted difficulties are encountered instead, different algorithms to follow have been developed. To date, no single predictor is sufficiently valid. In clinical practice, it is used a combination of them to enhance the estimate, and despite the variety of parameters used, not all the difficult intubations are predicted. The aim of this work is to retrospectively analyze neck computed tomography scans of 37 patients who have had tracheal intubation and search for anatomic neck fat compartments that correlate with the intubation difficulty, and eventually find a suitable, clinical parameter that can potentially enhance the prediction of a difficult airway when used in combination of the preexisting scores. the patients are divided by direct laryngoscopy view into two groups: Group A ( n = 31): Normal airway, with a Cormack Lehane, Score I or II; Group B ( n = 6): Difficult airway, with a Cormack Lehane Score III or IV. In the zone of interest, it was measured the neck volume parameter and other subparameters. Despite a positive trend is shown for anterior fat volume (AFV) ( P = 0.23) and fat volume (FV) ( P = 0.28), statistically significant differences ( P < 0.05) were not found between Group A and B in any of the measurements acquired. According to the literature, our results confirmed that there is still no single element that can predict a difficult intubation. Although no statistical significance was found, the AFV and FV have shown to have a potential predictive role for difficult intubation. Further studies with bigger samples are advisable to confirm this encouraging result.

  1. Does Surgical Volume Influence the Need for Second Surgery? A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Judge MD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To examine outcomes of pediatric thyroidectomy in the context of training background, institution, and experience of the surgeon. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting A tertiary academic medical center and a pediatric hospital. Subjects and Methods Eighty-one thyroidectomy patients younger than 18 years. Outcomes were major complications (recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, permanent hypocalcemia, and wound infection, length of stay (LOS, and need for repeat surgery. Results Eighty-one patients, 39 from the University of Nebraska Medical Center and 42 from the Children’s Hospital and Medical Center–Omaha, were identified over a 12-year time period. No difference was found in surgeon training (otolaryngology/head and neck surgery vs general/pediatric surgery for complications (1 vs 1, odds ratio [OR] = 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.05, 13.1], LOS >1 day (5 vs 13, OR = 0.39, 95% CI = [0.13, 1.24], or need for second surgery (4 vs 7, OR = 1.47, 95% CI = [0.39, 5.49]. Higher surgeon volume (≥12 surgeries was found to be significant for decreased need for second surgery (3 vs 8, OR = 6.67, 95% CI = [1.57, 27.17]. Patients of higher-volume surgeons were 4.2 times more likely to stay in the hospital 1 day or less compared with those patients operated on by surgeons with less experience (7 vs 11, 95% CI = [1.59, 15.0]. Conclusions Need for second surgery in pediatric thyroidectomy may be predicted by surgical volume.

  2. Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area habitability study. Volume 1. Introduction and decision-making documentation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    Environmental studies were conducted to provide data that could be used by the Commissioner of Health for the State of New York in determining whether the Emergency Declaration Area surrounding the Love Canal hazardous-waste site is habitable. Volume I of the five-volume series summarizes the main elements and the key decision points in the Habitability Study as an introduction to the series.

  3. Effect of restoration volume on stresses in a mandibular molar: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Jennifer S; Chande, Ruchi; Porter, H Christian; Janus, Charles

    2014-10-01

    There can be significant disagreement among dentists when planning treatment for a tooth with a failing medium-to-large--sized restoration. The clinician must determine whether the restoration should be replaced or treated with a crown, which covers and protects the remaining weakened tooth structure during function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stresses generated in different sized amalgam restorations via a computational modeling approach and reveal whether a predictable pattern emerges. A computer tomography scan was performed of an extracted mandibular first molar, and the resulting images were imported into a medical imaging software package for tissue segmentation. The software was used to separate the enamel, dentin, and pulp cavity through density thresholding and surface rendering. These tissue structures then were imported into 3-dimensional computer-aided design software in which material properties appropriate to the tissues in the model were assigned. A static finite element analysis was conducted to investigate the stresses that result from normal occlusal forces. Five models were analyzed, 1 with no restoration and 4 with increasingly larger restoration volume proportions: a normal-sized tooth, a small-sized restoration, 2 medium-sized restorations, and 1 large restoration as determined from bitewing radiographs and occlusal surface digital photographs. The resulting von Mises stresses for dentin-enamel of the loaded portion of the tooth grew progressively greater as the size of the restoration increased. The average stress in the normal, unrestored tooth was 4.13 MPa, whereas the smallest restoration size increased this stress to 5.52 MPa. The largest restoration had a dentin-enamel stress of 6.47 MPa. A linear correlation existed between restoration size and dentin-enamel stress, with an R(2) of 0.97. A larger restoration volume proportion resulted in higher dentin-enamel stresses under static loading. A comparison of the von Mises

  4. New Market Paradigm for Zero-Energy Homes: The Comparative San Diego Case Study; Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Appendixes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B. C.; Coburn, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    This study suggests a conceptually fresh alternative paradigm for the building and marketing of zero-energy homes (ZEHs) based on experience which will help builders create sustainable communities for our well-being and that of future generations.

  5. Study of the value of information and the effect on value of intermediary organizations, timeliness of services and products, and comprehensiveness of the EDB. Volume 1, Volume 2, and Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.W.; Griffiths, J.M.; Sweet, E.A.; Wiederkehr, R.R.V.; Roderer, N.K.

    1984-09-01

    A previous study demonstrated that energy information has substantial value when considered from the standpoints of amount of use, purposes of use, and value measured by what users are willing to pay for the information and the savings in labor, equipment, etc., derived from use of the information. Furthermore, energy information services and products derived from the Energy Data Base clearly contribute greatly to the value of energy information by making it more accessible and, therefore, more usable. The purpose of this study was to determine what contribution intermediary information transfer organizations such as libraries and information analysis centers make to the value of information. Also, other factors such as timeliness of primary publishing and distribution and comprehensiveness of the Energy Data Base were considered to be important as well. The results are presented in 3 sections (volumes). Volume 1 gives an analysis of the value of the services provided by libraries. The library study estimated the value of library services (in terms of willingness to pay and savings). It also provided the relationships of the use of library services and factors such as performance attributes (i.e., quality and timeliness of services), distance to the library, awareness of services and economics of library use. Volume 2 gives results of a study of two software Information Analysis Centers and the value of software that is attributable to the centers. Volume 3 provides an analysis of the value of the timeliness and comprehensiveness of the Energy Data Base. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each section for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  6. Effect of fluid loading on left ventricular volume and stroke volume variability in patients with end-stage renal disease: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanda H

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hirotsugu Kanda,1 Yuji Hirasaki,2 Takafumi Iida,1 Megumi Kanao-Kanda,1 Yuki Toyama,1 Takayuki Kunisawa,1 Hiroshi Iwasaki11Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Hokkaido, Japan; 2Department of Anatomy, The Jikei University Graduate School of Medicine, Minato-ku, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: The aim of this study was to investigate fluid loading-induced changes in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV and stroke volume variability (SVV in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD using real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography and the Vigileo-FloTrac system.Patients and methods: After obtaining ethics committee approval and informed consent, 28 patients undergoing peripheral vascular procedures were studied. Fourteen patients with ESRD on hemodialysis (HD were assigned to the HD group and 14 patients without ESRD were assigned to the control group. Institutional standardized general anesthesia was provided in both groups. SVV was measured using the Vigileo-FloTrac system. Simultaneously, a full-volume three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography dataset was acquired to measure LVEDV, left ventricular end-systolic volume, and left ventricular ejection fraction. Measurements were obtained before and after loading 500 mL hydroxyethyl starch over 30 minutes in both groups.Results: In the control group, intravenous colloid infusion was associated with a significant decrease in SVV (13.8%±2.6% to 6.5%±2.6%, P<0.001 and a significant increase in LVEDV (83.6±23.4 mL to 96.1±28.8 mL, P<0.001. While SVV significantly decreased after infusion in the HD group (16.2%±6.0% to 6.2%±2.8%, P<0.001, there was no significant change in LVEDV.Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that fluid responsiveness can be assessed not by LVEDV but also by SVV due to underlying cardiovascular pathophysiology in patients with ESRD.Keywords: stroke volume variability, end-stage renal

  7. Blade system design studies volume II : preliminary blade designs and recommended test matrix.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (Global Energy Concepts, LLC, Kirkland, WA)

    2004-06-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC is performing a Blade System Design Study (BSDS) concerning innovations in materials, processes and structural configurations for application to wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt range. The BSDS Volume I project report addresses issues and constraints identified to scaling conventional blade designs to the megawatt size range, and evaluated candidate materials, manufacturing and design innovations for overcoming and improving large blade economics. The current report (Volume II), presents additional discussion of materials and manufacturing issues for large blades, including a summary of current trends in commercial blade manufacturing. Specifications are then developed to guide the preliminary design of MW-scale blades. Using preliminary design calculations for a 3.0 MW blade, parametric analyses are performed to quantify the potential benefits in stiffness and decreased gravity loading by replacement of a baseline fiberglass spar with carbon-fiberglass hybrid material. Complete preliminary designs are then presented for 3.0 MW and 5.0 MW blades that incorporate fiberglass-to-carbon transitions at mid-span. Based on analysis of these designs, technical issues are identified and discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for composites testing under Part I1 of the BSDS, and the initial planned test matrix for that program is presented.

  8. Forensic 3D Visualization of CT Data Using Cinematic Volume Rendering: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Lars C; Schweitzer, Wolf; Gascho, Dominic; Ruder, Thomas D; Flach, Patricia M; Thali, Michael J; Ampanozi, Garyfalia

    2017-02-01

    The 3D volume-rendering technique (VRT) is commonly used in forensic radiology. Its main function is to explain medical findings to state attorneys, judges, or police representatives. New visualization algorithms permit the generation of almost photorealistic volume renderings of CT datasets. The objective of this study is to present and compare a variety of radiologic findings to illustrate the differences between and the advantages and limitations of the current VRT and the physically based cinematic rendering technique (CRT). Seventy volunteers were shown VRT and CRT reconstructions of 10 different cases. They were asked to mark the findings on the images and rate them in terms of realism and understandability. A total of 48 of the 70 questionnaires were returned and included in the analysis. On the basis of most of the findings presented, CRT appears to be equal or superior to VRT with respect to the realism and understandability of the visualized findings. Overall, in terms of realism, the difference between the techniques was statistically significant (p 0.05). CRT, which is similar to conventional VRT, is not primarily intended for diagnostic radiologic image analysis, and therefore it should be used primarily as a tool to deliver visual information in the form of radiologic image reports. Using CRT for forensic visualization might have advantages over using VRT if conveying a high degree of visual realism is of importance. Most of the shortcomings of CRT have to do with the software being an early prototype.

  9. A study in derived algebraic geometry volume I : correspondences and duality

    CERN Document Server

    Gaitsgory, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Derived algebraic geometry is a far-reaching generalization of algebraic geometry. It has found numerous applications in various parts of mathematics, most prominently in representation theory. This volume develops the theory of ind-coherent sheaves in the context of derived algebraic geometry. Ind-coherent sheaves are a "renormalization" of quasi-coherent sheaves and provide a natural setting for Grothendieck-Serre duality as well as geometric incarnations of numerous categories of interest in representation theory. This volume consists of three parts and an appendix. The first part is a survey of homotopical algebra in the setting of \\infty-categories and the basics of derived algebraic geometry. The second part builds the theory of ind-coherent sheaves as a functor out of the category of correspondences and studies the relationship between ind-coherent and quasi-coherent sheaves. The third part sets up the general machinery of the \\mathrm{(}\\infty, 2\\mathrm{)}-category of correspondences needed for the sec...

  10. A study in derived algebraic geometry volume II : deformations, lie theory and formal geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gaitsgory, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Derived algebraic geometry is a far-reaching generalization of algebraic geometry. It has found numerous applications in other parts of mathematics, most prominently in representation theory. This volume develops deformation theory, Lie theory and the theory of algebroids in the context of derived algebraic geometry. To that end, it introduces the notion of inf-scheme, which is an infinitesimal deformation of a scheme and studies ind-coherent sheaves on such. As an application of the general theory, the six-functor formalism for D-modules in derived geometry is obtained. This volume consists of two parts. The first part introduces the notion of ind-scheme and extends the theory of ind-coherent sheaves to inf-schemes, obtaining the theory of D-modules as an application. The second part establishes the equivalence between formal Lie group(oids) and Lie algebr(oids) in the category of ind-coherent sheaves. This equivalence gives a vast generalization of the equivalence between Lie algebras and formal moduli prob...

  11. Analisis Volume Sedimen yang Mengendap Setelah T-Tahun Waduk Beroperasi (Studi Kasus: Waduk Cirata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welstien Herma Tatipata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has two seasons of the year: the rainy season and the dry season, So that the water supply can be optimally used both in the rainy season and dry season, made the operating system of reservoirs. Reservoirs can also be used for irrigation, power generation, tourism, controllers rivers and floods, in preserving the reservoir, the problem of erosion and sedimentation will comply, it is feared will not reach the age of the planned reservoir. The study was conducted in Cirata located on the CRB, West Java Province that covers most of the three districts namely Regency Bandung, Purwakarta and Cianjur. Methods of data collection includes data Primary and secondary data collected from PT Generation Java Bali Cirata Cirata Basin Management Board, Results The conclusion is by the entry of sediment into the reservoir will result in sedimentation and silting that would affect the capacities of reservoirs also the longer the dam operates, the more sediment that settles in the reservoir, the ratio between the volume of sediment that settles after 10 years and after 200 years was 10215287,18 m3 and 193953499,6 m3, after analyzing the volume of sediment that settles after T years at the reservoir operating plan will be considered next dam age.

  12. DOE Plutonium Disposition Study: Pu consumption in ALWRs. Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) to provide information on the capability of ABB-CE`s System 80 + Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) to transform, through reactor burnup, 100 metric tonnes (MT) of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) into a form which is not readily useable in weapons. This information is being developed as part of DOE`s Plutonium Disposition Study, initiated by DOE in response to Congressional action. This document, Volume 1, presents a technical description of the various elements of the System 80 + Standard Plant Design upon which the Plutonium Disposition Study was based. The System 80 + Standard Design is fully developed and directly suited to meeting the mission objectives for plutonium disposal. The bass U0{sub 2} plant design is discussed here.

  13. Experimental studies on the effect of moisture content and volume resistivity on electrostatic behaviour of pharmaceutical powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwangseok; Taghavivand, Milad; Zhang, Lifeng

    2017-03-15

    Pharmaceutical powders are mainly organic materials and are likely to be charged due to repeated inter-particle and particle-wall contacts during industrial processes. This study experimentally investigated the effect of moisture content (ranging from approximately 1.8 to 30wt.%) on tribocharging behaviour of pharmaceutical granules, as well as their apparent volume resistivity. The tribocharging behaviour of pharmaceutical granules was investigated using a rotating device and apparent volume resistivity was measured in a conventional volume resistivity test cell. Additional measurements were performed on individual ingredients, each having the same moisture content as that of the granules, in order to investigate the effect of each single ingredient on the apparent volume resistivity of granules. In this work, the individual ingredients used for granules were: α-Lactose Monohydrate (α-LMH), Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC), Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC), and Croscarmellose Sodium (CCS). The results showed that the specific charge of granules began to increase at the moisture contents below 5wt.%, which can be referred as critical moisture content of granules. The apparent volume resistivity showed the same behaviour, indicating that the specific charge could be due to an increase in apparent volume resistivity of granules at reduced moisture content. Finally, it was shown that the apparent volume resistivity measured for granules was mainly affected by that of the α-LMH, the major component of granules accounting for 40wt.%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Lung volume reduction surgery since the National Emphysema Treatment Trial: study of Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Marquita R; Leverson, Glen E; Jaoude, Wassim Abi; Maloney, James D

    2014-12-01

    The National Emphysema Treatment Trial demonstrated that lung volume reduction surgery is an effective treatment for emphysema in select patients. With chronic lower respiratory disease being the third leading cause of death in the United States, this study sought to assess practice patterns and outcomes for lung volume reduction surgery on a national level since the National Emphysema Treatment Trial. Aggregate statistics on lung volume reduction surgery reported in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database from January 2003 to June 2011 were analyzed to assess procedure volume, preoperative and operative characteristics, and outcomes. Comparisons with published data from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial were made using chi-square and 2-sided t tests. In 8.5 years, 538 patients underwent lung volume reduction surgery, with 20 to 118 cases reported in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database per year. When compared with subjects in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial, subjects in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database were younger (P volume in 1 second was 31% versus 28% of predicted (P lung volume reduction surgery. It underscores the need for dedicated centers to increasingly address the heavy burden of chronic lower respiratory disease in the United States in a multidisciplinary fashion, particularly for preoperative evaluation and postoperative management of emphysema. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Partial volume correction of brain PET studies using iterative deconvolution in combination with HYPR denoising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golla, Sandeep S V; Lubberink, Mark; van Berckel, Bart N M; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald

    2017-12-01

    Accurate quantification of PET studies depends on the spatial resolution of the PET data. The commonly limited PET resolution results in partial volume effects (PVE). Iterative deconvolution methods (IDM) have been proposed as a means to correct for PVE. IDM improves spatial resolution of PET studies without the need for structural information (e.g. MR scans). On the other hand, deconvolution also increases noise, which results in lower signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The aim of this study was to implement IDM in combination with HighlY constrained back-PRojection (HYPR) denoising to mitigate poor SNR properties of conventional IDM. An anthropomorphic Hoffman brain phantom was filled with an [ 18 F]FDG solution of ~25 kBq mL -1 and scanned for 30 min on a Philips Ingenuity TF PET/CT scanner (Philips, Cleveland, USA) using a dynamic brain protocol with various frame durations ranging from 10 to 300 s. Van Cittert IDM was used for PVC of the scans. In addition, HYPR was used to improve SNR of the dynamic PET images, applying it both before and/or after IDM. The Hoffman phantom dataset was used to optimise IDM parameters (number of iterations, type of algorithm, with/without HYPR) and the order of HYPR implementation based on the best average agreement of measured and actual activity concentrations in the regions. Next, dynamic [ 11 C]flumazenil (five healthy subjects) and [ 11 C]PIB (four healthy subjects and four patients with Alzheimer's disease) scans were used to assess the impact of IDM with and without HYPR on plasma input-derived distribution volumes (V T ) across various regions of the brain. In the case of [ 11 C]flumazenil scans, Hypr-IDM-Hypr showed an increase of 5 to 20% in the regional V T whereas a 0 to 10% increase or decrease was seen in the case of [ 11 C]PIB depending on the volume of interest or type of subject (healthy or patient). References for these comparisons were the V T s from the PVE-uncorrected scans. IDM improved quantitative accuracy

  16. 'Predatory' open access: a longitudinal study of article volumes and market characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cenyu; Björk, Bo-Christer

    2015-10-01

    A negative consequence of the rapid growth of scholarly open access publishing funded by article processing charges is the emergence of publishers and journals with highly questionable marketing and peer review practices. These so-called predatory publishers are causing unfounded negative publicity for open access publishing in general. Reports about this branch of e-business have so far mainly concentrated on exposing lacking peer review and scandals involving publishers and journals. There is a lack of comprehensive studies about several aspects of this phenomenon, including extent and regional distribution. After an initial scan of all predatory publishers and journals included in the so-called Beall's list, a sample of 613 journals was constructed using a stratified sampling method from the total of over 11,000 journals identified. Information about the subject field, country of publisher, article processing charge and article volumes published between 2010 and 2014 were manually collected from the journal websites. For a subset of journals, individual articles were sampled in order to study the country affiliation of authors and the publication delays. Over the studied period, predatory journals have rapidly increased their publication volumes from 53,000 in 2010 to an estimated 420,000 articles in 2014, published by around 8,000 active journals. Early on, publishers with more than 100 journals dominated the market, but since 2012 publishers in the 10-99 journal size category have captured the largest market share. The regional distribution of both the publisher's country and authorship is highly skewed, in particular Asia and Africa contributed three quarters of authors. Authors paid an average article processing charge of 178 USD per article for articles typically published within 2 to 3 months of submission. Despite a total number of journals and publishing volumes comparable to respectable (indexed by the Directory of Open Access Journals) open access

  17. Progressive strength training to prevent LYmphoedema in the first year after breast CAncer - the LYCA feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Lanng, Charlotte; Kroman, Niels

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lymphoedema is a common late effect after breast cancer (BC) that has no effective cure once chronic. Accumulating evidence supports progressive strength training (PRT) as a safe exercise modality in relation to the onset and exacerbation of lymphoedema. In the 'preventive intervention...... against LYmphoedema after breast CAncer' (LYCA) feasibility study we examined the feasibility of a program of PRT in the first year after BC to inform a planned randomised controlled trial (RCT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: LYCA was a one-group prospective pilot trial inviting women operated with axillary lymph...

  18. Bleeding Complications After Endoscopic Lung Volume Reduction Coil Treatment: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marcel; Ittrich, Harald; Harbaum, Lars; Oqueka, Tim; Kluge, Stefan; Klose, Hans

    2016-12-01

    Endoscopic lung volume reduction coil (LVRC) treatment is an option for selected patients with severe emphysema. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of bleeding complications after LVRC treatment, to identify risk factors and to discuss treatment options in case of hemoptysis which does not resolve spontaneously. Retrospective observational study conducted in the Department of Respiratory Medicine at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf in all subjects in whom LVRC treatment was performed between April 1, 2012 and September 30, 2015. During the study period, 101 LVRC procedures were performed in 62 subjects. Early post-procedural bleeding was encountered in 65.3% of cases. Hemoptysis was significantly more likely to occur in patients receiving acetylsalicylic acid (P=.005). Hemoptysis resolved spontaneously in 98.5% of cases. In the one case (1.5%) with persistent hemoptysis, bronchial artery embolization was successful in terminating bleeding. Hospital stay was significantly prolonged in subjects with hemoptysis (P=.01). No significant differences were found between subjects with or without hemoptysis in terms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations within four weeks after LVRC treatment (P=.18). Late bleeding complications were observed in 3 subjects (3.0%). In 2 of these cases, bronchial artery embolization was performed and bleeding was successfully terminated. Self-limiting low volume bleeding is a common finding in the first days after LVRC treatment. However, persistent bleeding may occur in the early post-procedural phase and late after LVRC treatment. In these cases, bronchial artery embolization was a feasible and successful approach to terminating bleeding. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Serious maternal complications in relation to severe pre-eclampsia: a retrospective cohort study of the impact of hospital volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, C V; Lavery, J A; Friedman, A M; Wapner, R J; Wright, J D

    2017-07-01

    We examined rates of serious maternal complications in relation to severe pre-eclampsia based on the delivering hospital's annualised volume. Retrospective cohort study. Singleton deliveries (n = 25 782 235) in 439 hospitals in the USA. Annualised hospital volume was categorised as 25-500, 501-1000, 1001-2000 and >2000. Rates of in-hospital maternal death and serious maternal complications, including puerperal cerebrovascular disorders, pulmonary oedema, disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal, heart and liver failure, sepsis, haemorrhage and intubation in relation to severe pre-eclampsia. We derived adjusted risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI), from hierarchical Poisson regression models. Severe pre-eclampsia was associated with an 8.7-fold (95% CI 7.6, 10.1) risk of composite maternal complications, with similar RRs across levels of hospital volumes. However, compared with hospitals with low annual volume (pre-eclampsia were lower in high volume hospitals. The rates of serious maternal complications were 410.7 per 10 000 to women who delivered in hospitals with a high rate of severe pre-eclampsia (≥2.12%) and 584.8 per 10 000 to women who delivered in hospitals with low severe pre-eclampsia rates (≤0.41; RR 1.75, 95% CI 1.24, 2.45). While the risks of serious maternal complications in relation to severe pre-eclampsia was similar across hospital delivery volume categories, deaths showed lower rates in large delivery volume hospitals than in smaller volume hospitals. The risk of complications was increased in hospitals with low compared with high severe pre-eclampsia rates. Hospital volume had little impact on the association between severe pre-eclampsia and maternal complications. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Routine gastric residual volume measurement and energy target achievement in the PICU: a comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tume, Lyvonne N; Bickerdike, Anna; Latten, Lynne; Davies, Simon; Lefèvre, Madeleine H; Nicolas, Gaëlle W; Valla, Frédéric V

    2017-12-01

    Critically ill children frequently fail to achieve adequate energy intake, and some care practices, such as the measurement of gastric residual volume (GRV), may contribute to this problem. We compared outcomes in two similar European Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs): one which routinely measures GRV (PICU-GRV) to one unit that does not (PICU-noGRV). An observational pilot comparison study was undertaken. Eighty-seven children were included in the study, 42 (PICU-GRV) and 45 (PICU-noGRV). There were no significant differences in the percentage of energy targets achieved in the first 4 days of PICU admission although PICU-noGRV showed more consistent delivery of median (and IQR) energy targets and less under and over feeding for PICU-GRV and PICU-noGRV: day 1 37 (14-72) vs 44 (0-100), day 2 97 (53-126) vs 100 (100-100), day 3 84 (45-112) vs 100 (100-100) and day 4 101 (63-124) vs 100 (100-100). The incidence of vomiting was higher in PICU-GRV. No necrotising enterocolitis was confirmed in either unit, and ventilator-acquired pneumonia rates were not significantly different (7.01 vs 12 5.31 per 1000 ventilator days; p = 0.70) between PICU-GRV and PICU-noGRV units. The practice of routine gastric residual measurement did not significantly impair energy targets in the first 4 days of PICU admission. However, not measuring GRV did not increase vomiting, ventilator-acquired pneumonia or necrotising enterocolitis, which is the main reason clinicians cite for measuring GRV. What is known: • The practice of routinely measuring gastric residual volume is widespread in critical care units • This practice is increasingly being questioned in critically ill patients, both as a practice that increases • The likelihood of delivering inadequate enteral nutrition amounts and as a tool to assess feeding tolerance What is new: • Not routinely measuring gastric residual volume did not increase adverse events of ventilator acquired pneumonia, necrotising enterocolitis

  1. Space station systems technology study (add-on task). Volume 2: Trade study and technology selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The current Space Station Systems Technology Study add on task was an outgrowth of the Advanced Platform Systems Technology Study (APSTS) that was completed in April 1983 and the subsequent Space Station System Technology Study completed in April 1984. The first APSTS proceeded from the identification of 106 technology topics to the selection of five for detailed trade studies. During the advanced platform study, the technical issues and options were evaluated through detailed trade processes, individual consideration was given to costs and benefits for the technologies identified for advancement, and advancement plans were developed. An approach similar to that was used in the subsequent study, with emphasis on system definition in four specific technology areas to facilitate a more in depth analysis of technology issues.

  2. Improving estimation of glacier volume change: a GLIMS case study of Bering Glacier System, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Beedle

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS project has developed tools and methods that can be employed by analysts to create accurate glacier outlines. To illustrate the importance of accurate glacier outlines and the effectiveness of GLIMS standards we conducted a case study on Bering Glacier System (BGS, Alaska. BGS is a complex glacier system aggregated from multiple drainage basins, numerous tributaries, and many accumulation areas. Published measurements of BGS surface area vary from 1740 to 6200 km2, depending on how the boundaries of this system have been defined. Utilizing GLIMS tools and standards we have completed a new outline (3630 km2 and analysis of the area-altitude distribution (hypsometry of BGS using Landsat images from 2000 and 2001 and a US Geological Survey 15-min digital elevation model. We compared this new hypsometry with three different hypsometries to illustrate the errors that result from the widely varying estimates of BGS extent. The use of different BGS hypsometries results in highly variable measures of volume change and net balance (bn. Applying a simple hypsometry-dependent mass-balance model to different hypsometries results in a bn rate range of −1.0 to −3.1 m a−1 water equivalent (W.E., a volume change range of −3.8 to −6.7 km3 a−1 W.E., and a near doubling in contributions to sea level equivalent, 0.011 mm a−1 to 0.019 mm a−1. Current inaccuracies in glacier outlines hinder our ability to correctly quantify glacier change. Understanding of glacier extents can become comprehensive and accurate. Such accuracy is possible with the increasing volume of satellite imagery of glacierized regions, recent advances in tools and standards, and dedication to this important task.

  3. Abdominal injuries in a low trauma volume hospital - a descriptive study from northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Abdominal injuries occur relatively infrequently during trauma, and they rarely require surgical intervention. In this era of non-operative management of abdominal injuries, surgeons are seldom exposed to these patients. Consequently, surgeons may misinterpret the mechanism of injury, underestimate symptoms and radiologic findings, and delay definite treatment. Here, we determined the incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of traumatic abdominal injuries at our hospital to provide a basis for identifying potential hazards in non-operative management of patients with these injuries in a low trauma volume hospital. Methods This retrospective study included prehospital and in-hospital assessments of 110 patients that received 147 abdominal injuries from an isolated abdominal trauma (n = 70 patients) or during multiple trauma (n = 40 patients). Patients were primarily treated at the University Hospital of Umeå from January 2000 to December 2009. Results The median New Injury Severity Score was 9 (range: 1–57) for 147 abdominal injuries. Most patients (94%) received computed tomography (CT), but only 38% of patients with multiple trauma were diagnosed with CT trauma caused injuries in seven patients. Solid organ injuries constituted 78% of abdominal injuries. Non-operative management succeeded in 82 patients. Surgery was performed for 28 patients, either immediately (n = 17) as result of operative management or later (n = 11), due to non-operative management failure; the latter mainly occurred with hollow viscus injuries. Patients with multiple abdominal injuries, whether associated with multiple trauma or an isolated abdominal trauma, had significantly more non-operative failures than patients with a single abdominal injury. One death occurred within 30 days. Conclusions Non-operative management of patients with abdominal injuries, except for hollow viscus injuries, was highly successful in our low trauma volume hospital, even though

  4. Assessment of condyle, masseter and temporal muscles volumes in patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golin, Sandra Lucia; Sinicato, Nailu Angélica; Valle-Corotti, Karyna; Fuziy, Acácio; Nahas-Scocate, Ana Carla; Appenzeller, Simone; Costa, Andre Luiz Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the corticosteroid therapy for both treatment of juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus and disease activity on two masticatory muscles and condyle of the temporomandibular joint. A total of 21 controls and 48 juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients were investigated. Volumes of the temporal and masseter muscles and condyle of the subjects were assessed by using a 3D reconstruction in magnetic resonance imaging. The ITK-SNAP, a medical imaging software, was used for 3D reconstruction. A dental examination with registration of occlusion was performed in subjects. Data were statistically analyzed by means of the Dahlberg's test associated with paired t-test, Fisher's exact test and Chi-square. There was a positive correlation between temporalis muscle and age (p = 0.032), masseter volume (p = 0.029) and condyle volume (p = 0.013). The mean volume measurements of temporal and masseter muscles and condyle were not statistically associated with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus regarding disease activity and corticosteroid therapy (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences between malocclusion and volume of muscles and condyle. This study suggested that volume of the target structures has no correlation with cumulative corticosteroid dose, disease activity, and malocclusion.

  5. Free volume analysis and gas transport mechanisms of aromatic polyimide membranes: a molecular simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kai-Shiun; Tung, Chieng-Chi; Wang, Ko-Shung; Tung, Kuo-Lun

    2009-07-23

    Molecular simulation techniques were adopted to investigate membrane free volume morphologies and gas-transport mechanisms in the aromatic polyimide (PI) membranes composed of various diamines and dianhydrides. A molecular dynamics (MD) technique was adopted to analyze the fractional free volume (FFV), fractional accessible volume (FAV), free volume size and shape, and diffusion mechanisms. A Monte Carlo (MC) method was used to analyze the gas sorption behaviors in the membranes. The FFV, FAV, and free volume morphology analyses reveal that bulky groups in the PI membranes contributed to the formation of a larger and more continuous free volume. The thermal motion analysis shows that a greater effective free volume in the membranes promoted effective motion, such as jumping and diffusive motions. The sorption analysis indicates that the larger free volume provides more sites for gas molecule absorption. The MD and MC results provide good agreement with the experimental data from past reports, which validates the feasibility of molecular simulation techniques in gas separation membranes at a molecular scale.

  6. Reduced striatal volumes in Parkinson’s disease: a magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitcher Toni L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence and extent of structural changes in the brain as a consequence of Parkinson’s disease (PD is still poorly understood. Methods High-resolution 3-tesla T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images in sixty-five PD and 27 age-matched healthy control participants were examined. Putamen, caudate, and intracranial volumes were manually traced in the axial plane of 3D reconstructed images. Striatal nuclei volumes were normalized to intracranial volume for statistical comparison. Disease status was assessed using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and Hoehn and Yahr scale. Cognitive status was assessed using global status tests and detailed neuropsychological testing. Results Both caudate and putamen volumes were smaller in PD brains compared to controls after adjusting for age and gender. Caudate volumes were reduced by 11% (p = 0.001 and putamen volumes by 8.1% (p = 0.025. PD striatal volumes were not found to be significantly correlated with cognitive or motor decline. Conclusion Small, but significant reductions in the volume of both the caudate and putamen occur in PD brains. These reductions are independent of the effects of age and gender, however the relation of these reductions to the functional loss of dopamine, which is characteristic of PD, remains unclear.

  7. Achieving high convection volumes in postdilution online hemodiafiltration : a prospective multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roij van Zuijdewijn, Camiel L M; Chapdelaine, Isabelle; Nubé, Menso J.; Blankestijn, Peter J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086704850; Bots, Michiel L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110610032; Konings, Constantijn J A M; Kremer Hovinga, Ton K; Molenaar, Femke M; van der Weerd, Neelke C.; Grooteman, Muriel P C

    2017-01-01

    Background. Available evidence suggests a reduced mortality risk for patients treated with high-volume postdilution hemodiafiltration (HDF) when compared with hemodialysis (HD) patients. As the magnitude of the convection volume depends on treatment-related factors rather than patient-related

  8. Surgeon-performed bedside ultrasound to assess volume status: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, Deidre L; Smith, Samuel D; Burford, Jeffrey M; Swearingen, Christopher J; Dassinger, Melvin S

    2015-12-01

    Rapid assessment of volume status in children is often difficult. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of surgeon-performed ultrasound to assess volume status in patients with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Ultrasounds were performed on admission and before operation. The diameters of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and aorta (Ao) were measured and IVC/Ao ratios were calculated. Electrolytes were measured on admission and repeated if warranted. Logistic regression was used to associate the clinical outcome, defined as CO2 ≤30 mEq/L, with IVC/Ao ratios. Predictive capacity was estimated from the logistic regression for IVC/Ao ratios. Linear regression was used to estimate associations between CO2 values and IVC/Ao ratios. Thirty-one patients were enrolled. The IVC/Ao ratio is highly associated with actual CO2 values (P < 0.001) and the clinical outcome (P = 0.004). For every 0.05 unit increase in IVC/Ao ratio, predicted CO2 decreased 1.1 units. For every 0.05 unit increase in the IVC/Ao ratio, the odds of having a CO2 ≤30 mEq/L increased 48% [OR = 1.48, 95% CI (1.13,1.94)]. Predictive capacity is maximized at an IVC/Ao ratio of 0.75 as 83.9 % of subjects were correctly classified and specificity and PPV = 100%. Surgeon-performed ultrasound to determine IVC/Ao ratio is feasible. An IVC/Ao ratio of 0.75 predicted adequate resuscitation.

  9. Study of the seroma volume changes in the patients who underwent Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Son, Sang Jun; Mun, Jun Ki; Seo, Seok Jin; Lee, Je Hee [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    By analyzing seroma volume changes in the patients who underwent Partial breast radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery, we try to contribute to the improvement of radiotherapy effect. Enrolled 20 patients who underwent partial breast radiation therapy by ViewRay MRIdian System were subject. After seeking for the size of the removed sample in the patients during surgery and obtained seroma volume changes on a weekly basis. On the Basis of acquired volume, it was compared with age, term from start of the first treatment after surgery, BMI (body mass index) and the extracted sample size during surgery. And using the ViewRay MRIdian RTP System, the figure was analyzed by PTV(=seroma volume + margin) to obtain a specific volume of the Partial breast radiation therapy. The changes of seroma volume from MR simulation to the first treatment (a week) is 0~5% in 8, 5~10% in 3, 10 to 15% in 2, and 20% or more in 5 people. Two patients(A, B patient) among subjects showed the biggest change. The A patient's 100% of the prescribed dose volume is 213.08 cc, PTV is 181.93 cc, seroma volume is 15.3 cc in initial plan. However, while seroma volume decreased 65.36% to 5.3 cc, 100% of the prescribed dose volume was reduced to 3.4% to 102.43 cc and PTV also did 43.6% to 102.54 cc. In the case of the B patient, seroma volume decreased 42.57% from 20.2 cc to 11.6 cc. Because of that, 100% of the prescribed dose volume decreased 8.1% and PTV also did to 40%. As the period between the first therapy and surgery is shorter, the patient is elder and the size of sample is smaller than 100 cc, the change grow bigger. It is desirable to establish an adaptive plan according to each patient's changes of seroma volume through continuous observation. Because partial breast patients is more sensitive than WBRT patients about dose conformity in accordance with the volume change.

  10. Advanced Platform Systems Technology study. Volume 2: Trade study and technology selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Three primary tasks were identified which include task 1-trade studies, task 2-trade study comparison and technology selection, and task 3-technology definition. Task 1 general objectives were to identify candidate technology trade areas, determine which areas have the highest potential payoff, define specific trades within the high payoff areas, and perform the trade studies. In order to satisfy these objectives, a structured, organized approach was employed. Candidate technology areas and specific trades were screened using consistent selection criteria and considering possible interrelationships. A data base comprising both manned and unmanned space platform documentation was used as a source of system and subsystem requirements. When requirements were not stated in the data base documentation, assumptions were made and recorded where necessary to characterize a particular spacecraft system. The requirements and assumptions were used together with the selection criteria to establish technology advancement goals and select trade studies. While both manned and unmanned platform data were used, the study was focused on the concept of an early manned space station.

  11. An Evaluation of the Mulligan Stew 4-H Television Series for Extension Service, USDA. Volume II: Report of the Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Sydelle Stone; And Others

    Conducted on over 3,000 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children in six states, this study documents changes in nutrition-related knowledge and behaviors which can be related to participating in the Mulligan Stew television series. This volume is a detailed elaboration of the study findings as well as a description of the study design,…

  12. Auxiliary feedwater system aging study. Volume 2, Phase 1: Follow-on study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, J.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This report documents the results of a Phase I follow-on study of the Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) System that has been conducted for the US Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging research Program. The Phase I study found a number of significant AFW System functions that are not being adequately tested by conventional test methods and some that are actually being degraded by conventional testing. Thus, it was decided that this follow-on study would focus on these testing omissions nd equipment degradation. The deficiencies in current monitoring and operating practice are categorized and evaluated. Areas of component degradation caused by current practice are discussed. Recommendations are made for improved diagnostic methods and test procedures.

  13. Scheduling language and algorithm development study. Volume 1: Study summary and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A high level computer programming language and a program library were developed to be used in writing programs for scheduling complex systems such as the space transportation system. The objectives and requirements of the study are summarized and unique features of the specified language and program library are described and related to the why of the objectives and requirements.

  14. Decrease in temporal gyrus gray matter volume in first-episode, early onset schizophrenia: an MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Tang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Loss of gray matter has been previously found in early-onset schizophrenic patients. However, there are no consistent findings between studies due to different methods used to measure grey matter volume/density and influences of confounding factors. METHODS: The volume of gray matter (GM was measured in 29 first episode early-onset schizophrenia (EOS and 34 well-matched healthy controls by using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. Psychotic symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. The correlations between the GM volume and PANSS scores, age of psychosis onset, duration of psychosis, and chlorpromazine (CPZ equivalent value were investigated. RESULTS: Relative to healthy subjects, the patients with first episode EOS showed significantly lower GM volume in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus. The loss of GM volume negatively correlated with PANSS-positive symptoms (p = 0.002, but not with PANSS-negative symptoms, PANSS-general psychopathology, and PANSS-total score. No significant correlation was found between GM volume and age of psychosis onset, duration of psychosis, and CPZ equivalent value. CONCLUSION: Patients with first episode EOS have evidence of reduced GM in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus. Structural abnormalities in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  15. Smaller gray matter volume of hippocampus/parahippocampus in elderly people with subthreshold depression: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huixia; Li, Rui; Ma, Zhenling; Rossi, Sonja; Zhu, Xinyi; Li, Juan

    2016-07-07

    Hippocampal/parahippocampal structural changes accompany major depressive disorders in the elderly, but whether subthreshold depression (StD) at an advanced age is also accompanied by similar changes in hippocampal/parahippocampal volumes is still unknown. By using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of the gray matter, we explored whether there are structural alterations of the hippocampus/parahippocampus and the correlations between its volume and participants' self-reported depressive symptoms. Participants were 19 community-dwelling older adults with StD assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) scores. We collected magnetic resonance images of their brain compared to images of 17 healthy aged-matched adults. We used VBM to analyze differences in gray matter volume (GMV) of the hippocampus/parahippocampus between the two groups. Moreover, we examined the correlation between the GMV of the hippocampus/parahippocampus and participants' self-reported depressive symptoms. VBM revealed that elderly individuals with StD had substantially reduced volumes of the right parahippocampus compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, the volumes of the hippocampus/parahippocampus were significantly associated with participants' self-reported depressive symptoms in StD. Gray matter volume alterations in the hippocampus/parahippocampus are correlated with subthreshold depression suggesting that early structural changes in the hippocampus/parahippocampus can constitute a risk indicator of depression.

  16. Combat History Analysis Study Effort (CHASE) Data Enhancement Study (CDES). Volume 1. Introductory Materials and Bioliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-31

    American Revolution . New York, 1966. Bodart, Gaston. Miltaer-historisches Kreigs Lexicon, 1618-1905. Vienna, 1908. Boettger, Hermann. "Die Ereignisse um...The Encyclopedia of Military History. New York, 1970. ._ An Outline History of the American Revolution . New York, 1975. Dupuy, Col. T.N., and Paul...Novembre 1914-ler Mai 1915) Les armees francaises dans la grande guerre. Vol. II. Paris, 1931. Freeman, D.S. Lee’s Lieutenants: A Study in Command. 3 vols

  17. Volume analysis of heat-induced cracks in human molars: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandholzer, Michael A; Baron, Katharina; Heimel, Patrick; Metscher, Brian D

    2014-05-01

    Only a few methods have been published dealing with the visualization of heat-induced cracks inside bones and teeth. As a novel approach this study used nondestructive X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) for volume analysis of heat-induced cracks to observe the reaction of human molars to various levels of thermal stress. Eighteen clinically extracted third molars were rehydrated and burned under controlled temperatures (400, 650, and 800°C) using an electric furnace adjusted with a 25°C increase/min. The subsequent high-resolution scans (voxel-size 17.7 μm) were made with a compact micro-CT scanner (SkyScan 1174). In total, 14 scans were automatically segmented with Definiens XD Developer 1.2 and three-dimensional (3D) models were computed with Visage Imaging Amira 5.2.2. The results of the automated segmentation were analyzed with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and uncorrected post hoc least significant difference (LSD) tests using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 17. A probability level of P models. The macroscopic heat-induced changes observed in this preliminary study correspond with previous observations of unrestored human teeth, yet the current observations also take into account the entire microscopic 3D expansions of heat-induced cracks within the dental hard tissues. Using the same experimental conditions proposed in the literature, this study confirms previous results, adds new observations, and offers new perspectives in the investigation of forensic evidence.

  18. Ambient temperature and volume of perihematomal edema in acute intracerebral haemorrhage: the INTERACT1 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Danni; Arima, Hisatomi; Heeley, Emma; Karpin, Anne; Yang, Jie; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S

    2015-01-01

    As no human data exist, we aimed to determine the relation between ambient temperature and volume of perihematomal 'cerebral' edema in acute spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) among Chinese participants of the pilot phase, Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Haemorrhage Trial (INTERACT1). INTERACT1 was a multicenter, open, blind outcome assessed, randomized controlled trial of intensive (systolic target edema volumes. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to evaluate association between ambient temperature and edema volumes. A generalized linear regression model with a generalized estimating equations approach (GEE) was used to assess any association of ambient temperature and change in edema volume over 72 h. A total of 250 of all 384 Chinese participants had complete data that showed positive associations between ambient temperature (mean and minimum temperatures) and edema volumes at each time point over 72 h after hospital admission (all P edema volume after adjustment for confounding variables (all P edema volume in acute spontaneous ICH. © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  19. Scoliosis surgery in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis does not alter lung volume: a 3-dimensional computed tomography-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwahi, Vishal; Sugarman, Etan P; Wollowick, Adam L; Amaral, Terry D; Harmon, Elliot D; Thornhill, Beverly

    2014-03-15

    Retrospective study of surgically treated patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To determine the change in lung volume after the surgical correction of scoliosis using a volumetric reconstruction of lung volume from computed tomographic (CT) scans. Previously published studies have shown that pulmonary function tests improve after scoliosis correction; however, these results are not consistent. CT-based volumetric studies in patients with scoliosis have previously shown differences in lung volume and lung volume ratio when compared with a normal population. To date, no study exists that analyzes changes in these parameters after scoliosis surgery. A total of 29 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who had pre- and postoperative CT scans on file were included in this study. Three-dimensional lung volume reconstruction was performed (TeraRecon software, TeraRecon, Inc., Foster City, CA). Appropriate masking methods were used to isolate the lung tissue. Total lung volumes, left and right lung volumes, and left/right lung volume ratio were obtained from the pre- and postoperative CT scans. Hemithoracic symmetry, pre- and postoperative Cobb angle, and kyphosis were also calculated. Neither total lung volume nor left/right lung volume ratio changed significantly postoperatively. Surgery did not significantly change total lung volume (P = 0.87), right lung volume (P = 0.69), left lung volume (P = 0.70), or the ratio between right and left lung volumes (P = 0.87). Hemithoracic asymmetry was significantly improved (P lung volume or the ratio of right-to-left lung volume. Deformity correction leads to an improvement in the symmetry of the thoracic architecture and costovertebral joint mechanics, as evidenced by the improved hemithoracic asymmetry. Thus, the change in pulmonary function tests, which has been previously documented, may be a dynamic rather than a static phenomenon. 4.

  20. Medicine and Design Investigate Residual Limb Volume Fluctuations: Three case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Staker

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVolume fluctuations dramatically affect the daily fit andfunction of amputees’ prosthetic limbs. Prosthetists haveexperiential knowledge of patient volume fluctuations;however they rarely have access to quantitative evidence.Information regarding volume fluctuations is crucial whendetermining prosthetic socket design, component selection,and rehabilitation regimens. A collaboration between theHuman Dimensioning© Lab (HDL and Dan Rowe andAssociates, a community prosthetic and orthotic providerquantified volume data of individual residuum anatomy.MethodThe project used a 3-dimensional optical body scanner andpoint cloud digitizing technology, currently used for appareldesign, to quantify the daily residuum volume fluctuations inthree lower limb amputees. Utilizing the HDL designresources, three amputees were scanned three times at fourintervals over a six-hour period. The scans were analyzedusing Polyworks® software. Each group of three scans wasmeshed into an average and each of the four averaged scanswas compared to the amputee’s remaining three averagedscans.ResultsThe results document the changes in volume of the subjects’residuum over the six-hour period. The subjects experienceda range of volume fluctuations from 0.5% to 7.5% of totalvolume. To validate the method, scanned volumemeasurements were compared to a simple waterdisplacement measurement. The results from the scanningmethod and displacement method differed between .71%and 1.16%. The magnitude and period of fluctuation werenot consistent between the subjects.ConclusionPresently, little is known of the magnitude of short-termvolume fluctuations, nor is it known if shape changesaccompany short-term volume changes. This design andmedicine collaboration provides a platform for compilingaccurate and consistent residuum volume data and shapecharacterization. The method has the potential to affectprosthetic limb design and fit.

  1. CEAMF study, volume 2 : cumulative effects indicators, thresholds, and case studies : final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    The four types of cumulative effects on the environment are: alteration, loss, and fragmentation of habitat; disturbance; barriers to movement; and direct and indirect mortality. Defining where and how human activities can be continued without irreversible net harm to the environment is part of cumulative effects management. Various land-use and habitat indicators were tested in the Blueberry and Sukunka study areas of British Columbia, to address the environmental effects associated with oil and gas development. As recommended, a tiered threshold approach was used to allow for flexibility in different land management regimes and ecological settings. Success will depend on defining acceptable change, threshold values, standard public database, standard processes to calculate indicator values using the database, and project-specific and cooperative management actions. A pilot study was suggested to test the candidate thresholds and implementation process. The two areas proposed for consideration were the Jedney Enhanced Resource Development Resource Management Zone in the Fort St. John Forest District, and the Etsho Enhanced Resource Development Resource Management Zone in the Fort Nelson Forest District. Both are of interest to the petroleum and forest sectors, and support the woodland caribou, a species which is extremely sensitive to cumulative effects of habitat fragmentation and disturbance. 117 refs., 11 tabs., 39 figs.

  2. Fluctuating Asymmetry and Individual Variation in Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Euler

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Composite measures of fluctuating asymmetry (FA of skeletal features are commonly used to estimate developmental instability (DI, the imprecise expression of developmental design due to perturbations during an individual's growth and maturation. Though many studies have detailed important behavioral correlates of FA, very little is known about its possible neuroanatomical correlates. In this study we obtained structural brain MRI scans from 20 adults and utilized voxel-based morphometry (VBM to identify specific regions linked to FA. Greater FA predicted greater whole brain white matter volume, and a trend in the same direction was noted for whole brain gray matter volume. Greater FA was associated with significantly greater gray and white matter volumes in discrete brain regions, most prominently in the frontal lobes and in the right cerebral hemisphere. Developmental studies are needed to identify when FA-related brain differences emerge and to elucidate the specific neurobiological mechanisms leading to these differences.

  3. Preliminary study of the internal margin of the gross tumor volume in thoracic esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiancheng; Wang, Linhua; Wang, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Yunhui; Liu, Di; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, He Ping; Pan, Jianji

    2012-10-01

    To measure the displacement of the tumor of the gross tumor volume (GTV) of thoracic esophageal cancer in the calm states of end-inspiration and end-expiration for determining the internal margin of the GTV (IGTV). Twenty-two patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who were unable to undergo surgery were identified in our hospital. The patients received radiotherapy. By using 16-slice spiral computed tomography (CT), we acquired the calm states of end-inspiration and end-expiration. The displacement and volume changes in tumor target volume were measured, and the changes were analyzed to determine if these were associated with the tidal volume and the location and length of the target volume V. In the end, we analyzed the displacement of tumor target volume and calculated the internal margin of the GTV by empirical formula. The average tidal volume was 463.6 ml. The average GTV at end-inspiration was 33.3 ml and at end-expiration was 33.35 ml. Three was not any significant between two groups (T=-0.034, P>0.05). The IGTV (X-axis direction) was 3.09 mm for the right sector and 4.08 mm for the left border; the IGTV (Z-axis direction) was 3.96 mm for the anterior border and 2.83 mm for the posterior border; and the IGTV (Y-axis direction) was 7.31 mm for the upper boundary (head direction) and 10.16 mm for the lower boundary (feet direction). The motion of the GTV showed no significant correlation with the tidal volume of patients and the length of the tumor, but in relation to the tumor location, the displacement of the lower thoracic and the middle thoracic target volumes occurred in the direction of the anterior and right, which were not significantly different (T=0.859, 0.229, P>0.05) The significant differences were observed for the other directions (P<0.05). Because of respiratory and organ movements, the displacement of the tumor target volume was different in all directions. Therefore, we recommend that expansion of the planning target volume during clinical

  4. Payload specialist station study. Volume 3: Program study cost estimates. Part 1: Work breakdown structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The work breakdown structure (WBS) for the Payload Specialist Station (PSS) is presented. The WBS is divided into two elements--PSS contractor and mission unique requirements. In accordance with the study ground rules, it is assumed that a single contractor, hereafter referred to as PSS Contractor will perform the following: (1) provide C and D hardware (MFDS and elements of MMSE), except for GFE; (2) identify software requirements; (3) provide GSE and ground test software; and (4) perform systems engineering and integration in support of the Aft Flight Deck (AFD) C and D concept. The PSS Contractor WBS element encompasses a core or standardized PSS concept. Payload peculiar C and D requirements identified by users will originate as a part of the WBS element mission unique requirements; these requirements will be provided to the PSS Contractor for implementation.

  5. Remedial investigation/feasibility study badger army ammunition plant Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 1. Feasibility study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    This Feasibility Study (FS) report for the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP) in Baraboo, Wisconsin, was prepared by ABB Environmental Services, Inc. (ABB-ES) as a component of Task Order 1 of Contract DAAAl5-91-D-OOO8 with the U.S. Army Environmental Center (USAEC). This report uses the results presented in the Final Remedial Investigation (RI) report (ABB-ES, 1993a) to develop and screen alternatives for remediation of contaminated media at BAAP. The purpose of this FS report is to develop, screen, and evaluate site-specific remedial alternatives to mitigate the impact of site-derived chemicals and ultimately provide protection of human health and the environment. Preferred alternatives for each site are included in this report. Based on previous environmental studies at BAAP, 11 potential hazardous waste sites were ranked according to potential contributions of hazardous chemicals to the environment. These sites were designated as Waste Management Areas because some of the sites contain multiple Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs). The sites selected to undergo facility assessment and corrective actions are: the Propellant Burning Ground (including Landfill), Deterrent Burning Ground, existing Landfill, Settling Ponds and Spoils Disposal Area, Rocket Paste Area, Oleum Plant and Oleum Plant Pond, Nitroglycerine Pond, old Acid Area, new Acid Area, and Ballistics Pond. The USAEC added an 11th site, the Old Fuel Oil Tank, to the list in October 1989 after discovery of fuel-contaminated soils during excavation of a water line in the vicinity of the old fuel oil tank foundation.

  6. Remedial investigation/feasibility study badger army ammunition plant Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 2. Feasibility study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    This Feasibility Study (FS) report for the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP) in Baraboo, Wisconsin, was prepared by ABB Environmental Services, Inc. (ABB-ES) as a component of Task Order 1 of Contract DAAAl5-91-D-OOO8 with the U.S. Army Environmental Center (USAEC). This report uses the results presented in the Final Remedial Investigation (RI) report (ABB-ES, 1993a) to develop and screen alternatives for remediation of contaminated media at BAAP. The purpose of this FS report is to develop, screen, and evaluate site-specific remedial alternatives to mitigate the impact of site-derived chemicals and ultimately provide protection of human health and the environment. Preferred alternatives for each site are included in this report. Based on previous environmental studies at BAAP, 11 potential hazardous waste sites were ranked according to potential contributions of hazardous chemicals to the environment. These sites were designated as Waste Management Areas because some of the sites contain multiple Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs). The sites selected to undergo facility assessment and corrective actions are: the Propellant Burning Ground (including Landfill), Deterrent Burning Ground, existing Landfill, Settling Ponds and Spoils Disposal Area, Rocket Paste Area, Oleum Plant and Oleum Plant Pond, Nitroglycerine Pond, old Acid Area, new Acid Area, and Ballistics Pond. The USAEC added an 11th site, the Old Fuel Oil Tank, to the list in October 1989 after discovery of fuel-contaminated soils during excavation of a water line in the vicinity of the old fuel oil tank foundation.

  7. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  8. Feasibility Study Of Advanced Technology Hov Systems: Volume 2a: Feasibility Of Implementing Roadway Powered Electric Vehicle Technology In El Monte Busway: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chira-Chavala, Ted; Lechner, Edward H.; Empey, Dan M.

    1992-01-01

    This study investigates issues concerning the implementation and impacts of lateral guidance/control systems and the phased implementation of these systems in exclusive-access High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes. The study is divided into 5 volumes. The objectives of each volume are as follows: Vol. 1: identify strategies for early deployment of longitudinal control technologies on the highway, and to evaluate potential impacts of these strategies on traffic operation, highway capacity, and tr...

  9. Marked effects of intracranial volume correction methods on sex differences in neuroanatomical structures: a HUNT MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Wolfgang S Pintzka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To date, there is no consensus whether sexual dimorphism in the size of neuroanatomical structures exists, or if such differences are caused by choice of intracranial volume (ICV correction method. When investigating volume differences in neuroanatomical structures, corrections for variation in ICV are used. Commonly applied methods are the ICV-proportions, ICV-residuals and ICV as a covariate of no interest, ANCOVA. However, these different methods give contradictory results with regard to presence of sex differences. Our aims were to investigate presence of sexual dimorphism in 18 neuroanatomical volumes unrelated to ICV-differences by using a large ICV-matched subsample of 304 men and women from the HUNT-MRI general population study, and further to demonstrate in the entire sample of 966 healthy subjects, which of the ICV-correction methods gave results similar to the ICV-matched subsample. In addition, sex-specific subsamples were created to investigate whether differences were an effect of head size or sex. Most sex differences were related to volume scaling with ICV, independent of sex. Sex differences were detected in a few structures; amygdala, cerebellar cortex, and 3rd ventricle were larger in men, but the effect sizes were small. The residuals and ANCOVA methods were most effective at removing the effects of ICV. The proportions method suffered from systematic errors due to lack of proportionality between ICV and neuroanatomical volumes, leading to systematic mis-assignment of structures as either larger or smaller than their actual size. Adding additional sexual dimorphic covariates to the ANCOVA gave opposite results of those obtained in the ICV-matched subsample or with the residuals method. The findings in the current study explain some of the considerable variation in the literature on sexual dimorphisms in neuroanatomical volumes. In conclusion, sex plays a minor role for neuroanatomical volume differences; most differences are

  10. Marked effects of intracranial volume correction methods on sex differences in neuroanatomical structures: a HUNT MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintzka, Carl W S; Hansen, Tor I; Evensmoen, Hallvard R; Håberg, Asta K

    2015-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus whether sexual dimorphism in the size of neuroanatomical structures exists, or if such differences are caused by choice of intracranial volume (ICV) correction method. When investigating volume differences in neuroanatomical structures, corrections for variation in ICV are used. Commonly applied methods are the ICV-proportions, ICV-residuals and ICV as a covariate of no interest, ANCOVA. However, these different methods give contradictory results with regard to presence of sex differences. Our aims were to investigate presence of sexual dimorphism in 18 neuroanatomical volumes unrelated to ICV-differences by using a large ICV-matched subsample of 304 men and women from the HUNT-MRI general population study, and further to demonstrate in the entire sample of 966 healthy subjects, which of the ICV-correction methods gave results similar to the ICV-matched subsample. In addition, sex-specific subsamples were created to investigate whether differences were an effect of head size or sex. Most sex differences were related to volume scaling with ICV, independent of sex. Sex differences were detected in a few structures; amygdala, cerebellar cortex, and 3rd ventricle were larger in men, but the effect sizes were small. The residuals and ANCOVA methods were most effective at removing the effects of ICV. The proportions method suffered from systematic errors due to lack of proportionality between ICV and neuroanatomical volumes, leading to systematic mis-assignment of structures as either larger or smaller than their actual size. Adding additional sexual dimorphic covariates to the ANCOVA gave opposite results of those obtained in the ICV-matched subsample or with the residuals method. The findings in the current study explain some of the considerable variation in the literature on sexual dimorphisms in neuroanatomical volumes. In conclusion, sex plays a minor role for neuroanatomical volume differences; most differences are related to ICV.

  11. Study of scattering cross section of a plasma column using Green's function volume integral equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanmoradi, Elmira; Shokri, Babak

    2017-05-01

    In this article, the electromagnetic wave scattering from plasma columns with inhomogeneous electron density distribution is studied by the Green's function volume integral equation method. Due to the ready production of such plasmas in the laboratories and their practical application in various technological fields, this study tries to find the effects of plasma parameters such as the electron density, radius, and pressure on the scattering cross-section of a plasma column. Moreover, the incident wave frequency influence of the scattering pattern is demonstrated. Furthermore, the scattering cross-section of a plasma column with an inhomogeneous collision frequency profile is calculated and the effect of this inhomogeneity is discussed first in this article. These results are especially used to determine the appropriate conditions for radar cross-section reduction purposes. It is shown that the radar cross-section of a plasma column reduces more for a larger collision frequency, for a relatively lower plasma frequency, and also for a smaller radius. Furthermore, it is found that the effect of the electron density on the scattering cross-section is more obvious in comparison with the effect of other plasma parameters. Also, the plasma column with homogenous collision frequency can be used as a better shielding in contrast to its inhomogeneous counterpart.

  12. Petrophysical studies of north American carbonate rock samples and evaluation of pore-volume compressibility models

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gilberto Peixoto; Franco, Daniel R.; Stael, Giovanni C.; da Costa de Oliveira Lima, Maira; Sant'Anna Martins, Ricardo; de Moraes França, Olívia; Azeredo, Rodrigo B. V.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we evaluate two pore volume compressibility models that are currently discussed in the literature (Horne, 1990; Jalalh, 2006b). Five groups of carbonate rock samples from the three following sedimentary basins in North America that are known for their association with hydrocarbon deposits were selected for this study: (i) the Guelph Formation of the Michigan Basin (Middle Silurian); (ii) the Edwards Formation of the Central Texas Platform (Middle Cretaceous); and (iii) the Burlington-Keokuk Formation of the Mississippian System (Lower Mississippian). In addition to the evaluation of the compressibility model, a petrophysical evaluation of these rock samples was conducted. Additional characterizations, such as grain density, the effective porosity, absolute grain permeability, thin section petrography, MICP and NMR, were performed to complement constant pore-pressure compressibility tests. Although both models presented an overall good representation of the compressibility behavior of the studied carbonate rocks, even when considering their broad porosity range (~ 2-38%), the model proposed by Jalalh (2006b) performed better with a confidence level of 95% and a prediction interval of 68%.

  13. MRI-based brain structure volumes in temporal lobe epilepsy patients and their unaffected siblings: a preliminary study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Scanlon, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Investigating the heritability of brain structure may be useful in simplifying complicated genetic studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). A preliminary study is presented to determine if volume deficits of candidate brain structures present at a higher rate in unaffected siblings than controls subjects.

  14. An Evaluation of the Mulligan Stew 4-H Television Series for Extension Service, USDA. Volume III: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    Conducted on over 3,000 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children in six states, this study documents changes in nutrition-related knowledge and behaviors which can be related to participating in the Mulligan Stew television series. The case studies which comprise this volume function as a brief organizational analysis of the Mulligan Stew effort at…

  15. A finite-volume, incompressible Navier Stokes model for studies of the ocean on parallel computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John; Adcroft, Alistair; Hill, Chris; Perelman, Lev; Heisey, Curt

    1997-03-01

    The numerical implementation of an ocean model based on the incompressible Navier Stokes equations which is designed for studies of the ocean circulation on horizontal scales less than the depth of the ocean right up to global scale is described. A "pressure correction" method is used which is solved as a Poisson equation for the pressure field with Neumann boundary conditions in a geometry as complicated as that of the ocean basins. A major objective of the study is to make this inversion, and hence nonhydrostatic ocean modeling, efficient on parallel computers. The pressure field is separated into surface, hydrostatic, and nonhydrostatic components. First, as in hydrostatic models, a two-dimensional problem is inverted for the surface pressure which is then made use of in the three-dimensional inversion for the nonhydrostatic pressure. Preconditioned conjugate-gradient iteration is used to invert symmetric elliptic operators in both two and three dimensions. Physically motivated preconditioners are designed which are efficient at reducing computation and minimizing communication between processors. Our method exploits the fact that as the horizontal scale of the motion becomes very much larger than the vertical scale, the motion becomes more and more hydrostatic and the three-dimensional Poisson operator becomes increasingly anisotropic and dominated by the vertical axis. Accordingly, a preconditioner is used which, in the hydrostatic limit, is an exact integral of the Poisson operator and so leads to a single algorithm that seamlessly moves from nonhydrostatic to hydrostatic limits. Thus in the hydrostatic limit the model is "fast," competitive with the fastest ocean climate models in use today based on the hydrostatic primitive equations. But as the resolution is increased, the model dynamics asymptote smoothly to the Navier Stokes equations and so can be used to address small-scale processes. A "finite-volume" approach is employed to discretize the model in

  16. Study of optimal exposure windows using 320-Detector rows dynamic volume CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Sun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Gang Sun1, Min Li1, Li Li1, Guo-ying Li1, Zhi-wei Jing21Departments of Medical Imaging, 2Medical Statistics, Jinan Military General Hospital, Shandong Province, ChinaAbstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal electrocardiographic (ECG pulsing windows and evaluate the effect on reduced dose and accuracy using 320-detector rows dynamic volume computed tomography (DVCT. A total of 170 patients were prospectively studied. The optimal reconstruction windows were analyzed in 76 patients scanned using retrospective ECG gating. Forty-seven patients were scanned by the predicted triggering windows. The optimal positions of exposure intervals according to different heart rates were evaluated. Optimal image quality, radiation dose, and diagnostic accuracy were then investigated by applying optimal triggering windows. The optimal ECG pulsing windows were determined as follows: when heart rate was <70 beats per minute, the exposure windows should be preset at 60%–80%; for a heart rate 70–90 beats per minute at 70%–90%; and for a heart rate ≥90 beats per minute at 30%–50%. The radiation dose for patients scanned with prospective ECG gating was significantly lower (5.9 versus 12.9 mSv, P < 0.001. However, because two or three heart beats were needed when heart rate was >70 beats per minute, the radiation dose increased with increasing heart rate for both retrospective and prospective ECG gating (r = 0.64, P < 0.001 and r = 0.59, P < 0.001, respectively. On the basis of a per segment analysis, overall sensitivity was 98.0% (49/50, specificity was 99.2% (602/607, the positive predictive value was 90.7% (49/54, and the negative predictive value was 99.8% (602/603. In conclusion, DVCT has the potential to provide high image quality across a wide range of heart rates using an optimized ECG pulsing window. However, it is recommended to control heart rate below 70 beats per minute, if possible, to decrease the radiation dose

  17. Modelling distributed mountain glacier volumes: A sensitivity study in the Austrian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfricht, Kay; Huss, Matthias; Fischer, Andrea; Otto, Jan Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge about the spatial ice thickness distribution in glacier covered mountain regions and the elevation of the bedrock underneath the glaciers yields the basis for numerous applications in geoscience. Applications include the modelling of glacier dynamics, natural risk analyses and studies on mountain hydrology. Especially in recent times of accelerating and unprecedented changes of glacier extents, the remaining ice volume is of interest regarding future glacier and sea level scenarios. Subglacial depressions concern because of their hazard potential in case of sudden releases of debris or water. A number of approaches with different level of complexity have been developed in the past years to infer glacier ice thickness from surface characteristics. Within the FUTURELAKES project, the ice thickness estimation method presented by Huss and Farinotti (2012) was applied to all glaciers in the Austrian Alps based on glacier extents and surface topography corresponding to the three Austrian glacier inventories (1969 - 1997 - 2006) with the aim to predict size and location of future proglacial lakes. The availability of measured ice thickness data and a time series of glacier inventories of Austrian glaciers, allowed carrying out a sensitivity study of the key parameter, the apparent mass balance gradient. First, the parameters controlling the apparent mass balance gradient of 58 glaciers where calibrated glacier-wise with the aim to minimize mean deviations and mean absolute deviations to measured ice thickness. The results were analysed with respect to changes of the mass balance gradient with time. Secondly, we compared the observed to modelled ice thickness changes. For doing so, glacier-wise as well as regional means of mass balance gradients have been used. The results indicate that the initial values for the apparent mass balance gradient have to be adapted to the changing conditions within the four decades covered by the glacier inventories. The gradients

  18. Gastrointestinal toxicity of vorinostat: reanalysis of phase 1 study results with emphasis on dose-volume effects of pelvic radiotherapy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bratland, Ase

    2011-04-08

    Abstract Background In early-phase studies with targeted therapeutics and radiotherapy, it may be difficult to decide whether an adverse event should be considered a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of the investigational systemic agent, as acute normal tissue toxicity is frequently encountered with radiation alone. We have reanalyzed the toxicity data from a recently conducted phase 1 study on vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, in combination with pelvic palliative radiotherapy, with emphasis on the dose distribution within the irradiated bowel volume to the development of DLT. Findings Of 14 eligible patients, three individuals experienced Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events grade 3 gastrointestinal and related toxicities, representing a toxicity profile vorinostat has in common with radiotherapy to pelvic target volumes. For each study patient, the relative volumes of small bowel receiving radiation doses between 6 Gy and 30 Gy at 6-Gy intervals (V6-V30) were determined from the treatment-planning computed tomography scans. The single patient that experienced a DLT at the second highest dose level of vorinostat, which was determined as the maximum-tolerated dose, had V6-V30 dose-volume estimates that were considerably higher than any other study patient. This patient may have experienced an adverse radiation dose-volume effect rather than a toxic effect of the investigational drug. Conclusions When reporting early-phase trial results on the tolerability of a systemic targeted therapeutic used as potential radiosensitizing agent, radiation dose-volume effects should be quantified to enable full interpretation of the study toxicity profile. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00455351

  19. Cone beam computed tomography images fusion in predicting lung ablation volumes: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierardi, Anna Maria; Petrillo, Mario; Xhepa, Genti; Laganà, Domenico; Piacentino, Filippo; Floridi, Chiara; Duka, Ejona; Fugazzola, Carlo; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo

    2016-02-01

    Recently different software with the ability to plan ablation volumes have been developed in order to minimize the number of attempts of positioning electrodes and to improve a safe overall tumor coverage. To assess the feasibility of three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (3D CBCT) fusion imaging with "virtual probe" positioning, to predict ablation volume in lung tumors treated percutaneously. Pre-procedural computed tomography contrast-enhanced scans (CECT) were merged with a CBCT volume obtained to plan the ablation. An offline tumor segmentation was performed to determine the number of antennae and their positioning within the tumor. The volume of ablation obtained, evaluated on CECT performed after 1 month, was compared with the pre-procedural predicted one. Feasibility was assessed on the basis of accuracy evaluation (visual evaluation [VE] and quantitative evaluation [QE]), technical success (TS), and technical effectiveness (TE). Seven of the patients with lung tumor treated by percutaneous thermal ablation were selected and treated on the basis of the 3D CBCT fusion imaging. In all cases the volume of ablation predicted was in accordance with that obtained. The difference in volume between predicted ablation volumes and obtained ones on CECT at 1 month was 1.8 cm(3) (SD ± 2, min. 0.4, max. 0.9) for MW and 0.9 cm(3) (SD ± 1.1, min. 0.1, max. 0.7) for RF. Use of pre-procedural 3D CBCT fusion imaging could be useful to define expected ablation volumes. However, more patients are needed to ensure stronger evidence. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  20. Estimation of clinically significant prostate volumes by digital rectal examination: a comparative prospective study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, Sarfraz

    2011-12-01

    Reliable quantification of prostate volume is important to correctly select patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) most likely to benefit from medical therapy [e.g. 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs)] and in selecting appropriate surgical approach. We aim to determine the reliability of digital rectal examination (DRE) in estimation of prostate volume which may be helpful in patient selection for 5-ARIs therapy.

  1. Impact of stapling devices on radical cystectomy: comparative study between low- and high-volume surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortzis, Vassilios; Gravas, Stavros; Mitsogiannis, Iraklis C; Moutzouris, Georgios; Karatzas, Anastasios; Leventis, Angelos; Mpouzalas, Ioannis; Melekos, Michael D

    2008-02-01

    To compare effectiveness in terms of blood loss and operative time of stapling devices among surgeons with different levels of surgical volume. We evaluated a group of 29 male patients with invasive bladder cancer who underwent radical cystectomy by two groups of surgeons. The first group included two high-volume surgeons, and the second group two low-volume surgeons. All cystectomies were performed using the multifire autosuture articulated vascular Endo-GIA. We compared patients with a series of 28 patients who had undergone radical cystectomy during the same period using standard technique by the same surgeons. Blood loss was defined as the difference between the hemoglobin at the beginning and at the end of cystectomy. In the group of high-volume surgeons, the mean operative time was 81.4 +/- 17 minutes and 79.3 +/- 20 minutes for the classical and stapler arm, respectively (P = 0.551). In the low-volume surgeons group, the mean operative time was 114.3 +/- 22 minutes and 92.4 +/- 12 minutes for the two methods (P = 0.003). The mean intraoperative blood loss in the experienced surgeons was 2.3 +/- 0.82 g/dL and 1.49 +/- 0.66 g/dL for the classical and stapler arm, respectively (P = 0.008). In the group of low-volume surgeons, the difference in hemoglobin was 3.02 +/- 0.84 g/dL and 1.91 +/- 0.6 g/dL for the two methods (P = 0.02). Stapling devices seem to make cystectomy safer and faster in surgeons with different surgical volumes. The group of low-volume surgeons benefited more.

  2. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume III: Engineering design files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The following information was calculated to support cost estimates and radiation exposure calculations for closure activities at the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). Within the estimate, volumes were calculated to determine the required amount of grout to be used during closure activities. The remaining calcine on the bin walls, supports, piping, and floor was also calculated to approximate the remaining residual calcine volumes at different stages of the removal process. The estimates for remaining calcine and vault void volume are higher than what would actually be experienced in the field, but are necessary for bounding purposes. The residual calcine in the bins may be higher than was is experienced in the field as it was assumed that the entire bin volume is full of calcine before removal activities commence. The vault void volumes are higher as the vault roof beam volumes were neglected. The estimations that follow should be considered rough order of magnitude, due to the time constraints as dictated by the project`s scope of work. Should more accurate numbers be required, a new analysis would be necessary.

  3. Epicardial fat volume and aortic stiffness in healthy individuals. A quantitative cardiac magnetic resonance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homsi, R.; Thomas, D.; Meier-Schroers, M.; Dabir, D.; Kuetting, D.; Luetkens, J.A.; Marx, C.; Schild, H.H. [Bonn University Hospital (Germany). Radiology; Gieseke, J. [Philips Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Sprinkart, A. [Bonn University Hospital (Germany). Radiology; Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Medical Engineering

    2016-09-15

    To determine epicardial fat volume (EFV) and aortic stiffness (assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV)) in healthy individuals, and to investigate the relationship of these parameters, and their association with body mass index (BMI) and age. 58 subjects (29 men, mean age 44.7 ± 13.9 years[y]) underwent a CMR exam at 1.5 Tesla. A 2 D velocity-encoded CMR scan was acquired to determine PWV. The EFV was measured based on a 3 D-mDixon sequence. Group comparisons were made between younger (age < 45y; n=30; mean age 33.4 ± 6.6y) and older (> 45y; n=28; 56.7 ± 8.4y) subjects and between subjects with a BMI < 25 kg/m{sup 2} (n=28; BMI 21.9 ± 2.5 kg/m{sup 2}) and a BMI > 25 kg/m{sup 2} (n=30; 28.7 ± 4.0 kg/m{sup 2}). Associations between the determined parameters were assessed by analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs). The mean values of PWV and EFV (normalized to body surface area) were 6.9 ±1.9 m/s and 44.2 ± 25.0 ml/m{sup 2}, respectively. The PWV and EFV were significantly higher in the older group (PWV=7.9 ± 2.0 m/s vs. 6.0 ± 1.2 m/s; EFV=54.7 ml/m{sup 2} vs. 34.5 ml/m{sup 2}; p < 0.01, each), with no significant differences in BMI or sex. In the overweighted group the EFV was significantly higher than in subjects with a BMI < 25kg/m{sup 2} (EFV=56.1 ± 27.1 ml/m{sup 2} vs. 31.5 ± 14.6 ml/m{sup 2}; p < 0.01) but without a significant difference in PWV. ANCOVA revealed a significant correlation between EFV and PWV, also after adjustment for age (p=0.025). An association was found between age and EFV as well as PWV. EFV and PWV were related to each other also after adjustment for age. The metabolic and pro-inflammatory activity found with increased epicardial fat volume may promote the development of atherosclerosis and aortic stiffness. CMR may be valuable for future studies investigating the relationship between EFV and PWV in patients with increased cardiovascular risk.

  4. Synthetic Parathyroid Hormone May Augment Bone Volume in Autogenous Grafts: A Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rodrigo A B; Ferreira, Marcelo S; Mafra, Carlos Eduardo S; Holzhausen, Marinella; de Lima, Luiz Antônio Pugliesi Alves; Mendes Pannuti, Cláudio; César Neto, João Batista

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic parathyroid hormone [PTH(1-34)] has been investigated for its benefits on bone healing and osteoporosis treatment; however, there is little information regarding bone grafts. This study therefore investigates the effect of PTH(1-34) on autogenous bone graft healing. Bone grafts were harvested from the calvarium of rats with a trephine bur (3-mm internal diameter) and placed on the cortex near the mandible angle with a titanium screw. Animals were randomly assigned to group 1 (control): subcutaneous injections of saline solution, three times a week (n = 15); group 2: 2 μg/kg PTH(1-34), three times a week (n = 15); and group 3: 40 μg/kg PTH(1-34), three times a week (n = 15). Thirty days postoperatively, the animals were killed, and specimens (implant + bed + graft) were removed and used for undecalcified sections. The following histometric parameters were evaluated: total bone thickness (TT) (bed + gap + graft), graft thickness (GT) (adjacent to the implant), bone-to-implant contact (BIC), and bone area (BA) (within the limits of the threads). Five additional animals were sacrificed immediately after surgery (zero hour) to register bed and graft sizes before healing. Group 3 showed significantly greater bone gain compared with groups 1 and 2 (TT and GT, P bone gain (1.21%). Data analysis revealed a significant difference for group 3 compared with groups 1 and 2 (P 0.05). Systemic administration of PTH(1-34) augmented bone volume in autogenous grafts.

  5. [Study on color matching of equal volume in dental ceramic prothesis materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Bei-yan; Zhang, Yan; Luo, Yun; Sun, Jun; Chao, Yong-lie

    2007-10-01

    To study the color changes on brightness and hue in dental ceramic prothesis materials. The different color mark of VINTAGE series was sintered on 15 pieces Ni-Cr alloy denture materials. The sample group and control group was given the sintering of color blending with equivalent volume. The order of color mark was of A1 and A2, A2 and A3, A3 and A4, B1 and B2, B2 and B3, B3 and B4 in sample group, and A1, A2, A3, A3.5, A4, B1, B2, B3 and B4 orderly in control group. The chromatic analysis on samples of VITA had been taken through applying PR 650 spectrum detector and adopted the statistic software of Photo Research and SPSS 12.0 for analysis. The statistical difference (P<0.05) of L*a*b* value was found in the different color mark of the same color serials. A non-linearity relation had been found in the chromatic parameters a*b*. It means the change of color was visible. Set A has a bigger grading change of brightness than Set B. The change of red-green is obviously in Set A, as well as yellow-blue in Set B.

  6. Design and evaluation of potentiometric principles for bladder volume monitoring: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Ching; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Fan, Wen-Jia; Lai, Chien-Hung; Chen, Chun-Lung; Wei, Wei-Feng; Peng, Chih-Wei

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in microelectronics and wireless transmission technology have led to the development of various implantable sensors for real-time monitoring of bladder conditions. Although various sensing approaches for monitoring bladder conditions were reported, most such sensors have remained at the laboratory stage due to the existence of vital drawbacks. In the present study, we explored a new concept for monitoring the bladder capacity on the basis of potentiometric principles. A prototype of a potentiometer module was designed and fabricated and integrated with a commercial wireless transmission module and power unit. A series of in vitro pig bladder experiments was conducted to determine the best design parameters for implementing the prototype potentiometric device and to prove its feasibility. We successfully implemented the potentiometric module in a pig bladder model in vitro, and the error of the accuracy of bladder volume detection was wireless module, the design principles and animal experience gathered from this research can serve as a basis for developing new implantable bladder sensors in the future.

  7. Design and Evaluation of Potentiometric Principles for Bladder Volume Monitoring: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ching Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in microelectronics and wireless transmission technology have led to the development of various implantable sensors for real-time monitoring of bladder conditions. Although various sensing approaches for monitoring bladder conditions were reported, most such sensors have remained at the laboratory stage due to the existence of vital drawbacks. In the present study, we explored a new concept for monitoring the bladder capacity on the basis of potentiometric principles. A prototype of a potentiometer module was designed and fabricated and integrated with a commercial wireless transmission module and power unit. A series of in vitro pig bladder experiments was conducted to determine the best design parameters for implementing the prototype potentiometric device and to prove its feasibility. We successfully implemented the potentiometric module in a pig bladder model in vitro, and the error of the accuracy of bladder volume detection was <±3%. Although the proposed potentiometric device was built using a commercial wireless module, the design principles and animal experience gathered from this research can serve as a basis for developing new implantable bladder sensors in the future.

  8. Gray matter volume changes in chronic subcortical stroke: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Diao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of lesion side and degree of motor recovery on gray matter volume (GMV difference relative to healthy controls in right-handed subcortical stroke. Structural MRI data were collected in 97 patients with chronic subcortical ischemic stroke and 79 healthy controls. Voxel-wise GMV analysis was used to investigate the effects of lesion side and degree of motor recovery on GMV difference in right-handed chronic subcortical stroke patients. Compared with healthy controls, right-lesion patients demonstrated GMV increase (P < 0.05, voxel-wise false discovery rate correction in the bilateral paracentral lobule (PCL and supplementary motor area (SMA and the right middle occipital gyrus (MOG; while left-lesion patients did not exhibit GMV difference under the same threshold. Patients with complete and partial motor recovery showed similar degree of GMV increase in right-lesion patients. However, the motor recovery was correlated with the GMV increase in the bilateral SMA in right-lesion patients. These findings suggest that there exists a lesion-side effect on GMV difference relative to healthy controls in right-handed patients with chronic subcortical stroke. The GMV increase in the SMA may facilitate motor recovery in subcortical stroke patients.

  9. A finite volume study for pressure waves propagation in a straight section of pipeline with caviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the pressure waves propagation generated by a sudden closure of a valve in a straight pipe. The physical model consisted of a head tank that can be pressurized with air, and a copper pipe with a fast-closing ball valve on the downstream end of the line. The cavitation and fluid-structure interaction phenomena were integrated analytically into the one-dimensional continuity and momentum equations, by assuming that the fluid density and the flow area vary with pressure. These equations were solved through a high resolution finite volume method, in combination with others numerical methods such as Taylor series expansion, Newton method, Simpson's Rule and quadratic interpolation. Due to the complexity of the solution procedure, a computational code in FORTRAN 95 language was developed in order to obtain numerical solutions. Several discretizations of the computational grid were achieved to assess their impact on the solution. The model was validated with experimental data and analytic results obtained by other researchers. Several pressure values, in different points of pipe, were compared, and an excellent agreement was found for both cases.

  10. Volume 1: Survey of Available Information in Support of the Energy-Water Bandwidth Study of Desalination Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sheaffer, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brueske, Sabine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dollinger, Caroline [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Kevin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sarker, Prateeti [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ward, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cresko, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has set a goal to reduce the cost of seawater desalination systems to $0.50/ cubic meter (m3) through the development of technology pathways to reduce energy, capital, operating, soft, and system integration costs.1 In support of this goal and to evaluate the technology pathways to lower the energy and carbon intensity of desalination while also reducing the total water cost, DOE is undertaking a comprehensive study of the energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for desalination technologies and systems. This study is being undertaken in two phases. Phase 1, Survey of Available Information in Support of the Energy-Water Bandwidth Study of Desalination Systems, collected the background information that will underpin Phase 2, the Energy Water Bandwidth Study for Desalination Systems. This report (Volume 1) summarizes the results from Phase 1. The results from Phase 2 will be summarized in Volume 2: Energy Water Bandwidth Study for Desalination Systems (Volume 2). The analysis effort for Phase 2 will utilize similar methods as other industry-specific Energy Bandwidth Studies developed by DOE,2 which has provided a framework to evaluate and compare energy savings potentials within and across manufacturing sectors at the macroscale. Volume 2 will assess the current state of desalination energy intensity and reduction potential through the use of advanced and emerging technologies. For the purpose of both phases of study, energy intensity is defined as the amount of energy required per unit of product water output (for example, kilowatt-hours per cubic meter of water produced). These studies will expand the scope of previous sectorial bandwidth studies by also evaluating CO2 intensity and reduction opportunities and informing a techno-economic analysis of desalination systems. Volume 2 is expected to be completed in 2017.

  11. Reduced hippocampal volume in healthy young ApoE4 carriers: an MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence O'Dwyer

    Full Text Available The E4 allele of the ApoE gene has consistently been shown to be related to an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD. The E4 allele is also associated with functional and structural grey matter (GM changes in healthy young, middle-aged and older subjects. Here, we assess volumes of deep grey matter structures of 22 healthy younger ApoE4 carriers and 22 non-carriers (20-38 years. Volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen, thalamus and brain stem were calculated by FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST algorithm. A significant drop in volume was found in the right hippocampus of ApoE4 carriers (ApoE4+ relative to non-carriers (ApoE4-, while there was a borderline significant decrease in the volume of the left hippocampus of ApoE4 carriers. The volumes of no other structures were found to be significantly affected by genotype. Atrophy has been found to be a sensitive marker of neurodegenerative changes, and our results show that within a healthy young population, the presence of the ApoE4+ carrier gene leads to volume reduction in a structure that is vitally important for memory formation. Our results suggest that the hippocampus may be particularly vulnerable to further degeneration in ApoE4 carriers as they enter middle and old age. Although volume reductions were noted bilaterally in the hippocampus, atrophy was more pronounced in the right hippocampus. This finding relates to previous work which has noted a compensatory increase in right hemisphere activity in ApoE4 carriers in response to preclinical declines in memory function. Possession of the ApoE4 allele may lead to greater predilection for right hemisphere atrophy even in healthy young subjects in their twenties.

  12. On the volume of cremated remains - a comparative study of archaeologically recovered cremated bone volume as measured manually and assessed by Computed Tomography and by Stereology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvig, L.; Lynnerup, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Weight but occasionally also the volume of cremated human remains may often be the primary basis for interpreting the many stages involved in past cremation ceremonies. However, methods used for describing volume for cremated remains are extremely varying and biased by many factors. Here we evalu...

  13. Study of the prices of sugar and alcohol and its influence on long-term public stocks volume in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laion Wolff

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This main objective of the study is to analyze transmission process between the price of sugar and prices of alcohol (anhydrous and hydrated and the influence of the volume of public stocks of sugar, from January 2006 to July 2011. Were used in the analysis, the unit root tests of Dickey-Fuller (ADF, and Kwaiatkowski, Phillips, Schmidt and Shin (KPSS, of Johansen co-integration method and Vector Auto-Regression with Error Correction (VEC. The results show that sugar prices and the prices of anhydrous and hydrated alcohol influence each other, and that the volume of public stocks of sugar does not influence the prices out, what was expected, due to the volume does not change the price and but government intervention. Overall, shocks to variables in the model are transmitted quickly to the variable and are of short duration, disappearing after the sixth month.

  14. PET imaging in a longitudinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma study: association with tumor volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Maija; Jaervenpaeae, Ritva (Medical Imaging Centre, Dept. of Radiology, Tampere Univ. Hospital, Tampere (Finland)), email: maija.rossi@pshp.fi; Korkola, Pasi (Medical Imaging Centre, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Tampere Univ. Hospital, Tampere (Finland)); Pertovaara, Hannu (Dept. of Oncology, Tampere Univ. Hospital, Tampere (Finland)); Dastidar, Prasun; Soimakallio, Seppo (Medical Imaging Centre, Dept. of Radiology, Tampere Univ. Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Tampere Medical School, Tampere (Finland)); Wu, Xingchen (Medical Imaging Centre, Dept. of Radiology, Tampere Univ. Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Dept. of Oncology, Tampere Univ. Hospital, Tampere (Finland)); Eskola, Hannu (Medical Imaging Centre, Dept. of Radiology, Tampere Univ. Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Tampere Univ. of Technology, Tampere (Finland)); Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa (Dept. of Oncology, Tampere Univ. Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Tampere Medical School, Tampere (Finland))

    2011-11-15

    Background. Computed tomography (CT) is generally used in the evaluation of the treatment response of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients. Instead of morphological images, positron emission tomography (PET) shows metabolic information that is connected to tumor activity, cell proliferation rate, and, thus, prognosis. Purpose. To determine the prognostic value of PET for tumor volume reduction measured by CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) along with clinical characteristics in NHL patients. Material and Methods. We imaged 21 B-cell type NHL patients using whole-body 18F-FDG-PET at the onset and the completion of treatment and at six-month follow-up. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) was calculated. Morphological tumor volume calculations were assessed using both MRI and CT. Additionally, patients underwent thorough clinical examination including several laboratory tests. Results. A high SUV{sub max} was able to predict significant tumor volume reduction at the beginning of treatment, but the relation to pure tumor volume was poor. Conclusion. The SUV{sub max} values derived from FDG-PET seemed to correlate with volume changes but not with their absolute values or laboratory tests. Unlike MRI and CT, FDG-PET showed the disappearance of active tumors after treatment

  15. Cerebral blood flow in temporal lobe epilepsy: a partial volume correction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovacchini, Giampiero [University Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Bonwetsch, Robert; Theodore, William H. [National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Strokes, Clinical Epilepsy Section, Bethesda, MD (United States); Herscovitch, Peter [National Institutes of Health, PET Department, Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States); Carson, Richard E. [Yale PET Center, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Previous studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have shown that, owing to brain atrophy, positron emission tomography (PET) can overestimate deficits in measures of cerebral function such as glucose metabolism (CMR{sub glu}) and neuroreceptor binding. The magnitude of this effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) is unexplored. The aim of this study was to assess CBF deficits in TLE before and after magnetic resonance imaging-based partial volume correction (PVC). Absolute values of CBF for 21 TLE patients and nine controls were computed before and after PVC. In TLE patients, quantitative CMR{sub glu} measurements also were obtained. Before PVC, regional values of CBF were significantly (p<0.05) lower in TLE patients than in controls in all regions, except the fusiform gyrus contralateral to the epileptic focus. After PVC, statistical significance was maintained in only four regions: ipsilateral inferior temporal cortex, bilateral insula and contralateral amygdala. There was no significant difference between patients and controls in CBF asymmetry indices (AIs) in any region before or after PVC. In TLE patients, AIs for CBF were significantly smaller than for CMR{sub glu} in middle and inferior temporal cortex, fusiform gyrus and hippocampus both before and after PVC. A significant positive relationship between disease duration and AIs for CMR{sub glu}, but not CBF, was detected in hippocampus and amygdala, before but not after PVC. PVC should be used for PET CBF measurements in patients with TLE. Reduced blood flow, in contrast to glucose metabolism, is mainly due to structural changes. (orig.)

  16. Association of cognitive impairment and lesion volumes in multiple sclerosis--a MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Murat; Tettenborn, Barbara; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Bendfeldt, Kerstin; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive impairment (CI) can be demonstrated in 40-65% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, sometimes starting from the early stages of the disease. The objective of this study was a community-based investigation of FLAIR-hyperintense lesion volumes (LV) and their association with CI in patients with relapsing remitting (RR) MS. The neurocognitive assessment was conducted with the brief cognitive screening instrument, MUSIC. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained with a 1.5 Tesla Sigma Magnetom MRI scanner. We conducted a stepwise multiple regression analysis to assess the relative contribution of the main clinical, demographic and MRI-variables in predicting cognitive impairment. We recruited 78 patients with RRMS. The mean MUSIC score was 20.6 ± 5.4. Forty five percent of patients (n = 35, mean score 15.1 ± 3.3) had CI and 55% (n = 43, mean score 24.4 ± 2.5) had no sign of CI. In the correlation analysis of the MUSIC subtests only the interference test correlated negatively with the LV (r = -0.23). Multivariate linear regression analysis using MUSIC as the dependent continuous variable revealed LV and disability severity as independent factors associated with MUSIC (p value of the regression model < 0.001; adjusted R-square = 0.11). The results of the present study suggest an association between white matter damage and CI in MS. We could demonstrate an association between attention difficulties and the LV in MS patients. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01250665 and NCT01250678. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum prostate-specific antigen as a predictor of prostate volume in the community: the Krimpen study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohnen, A.M.; Groeneveld, F.P.; Bosch, J.L.H.R.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is considered a proxy for prostate volume (PV). This study investigates which range of PSA values has the best utility in the determination of PV (4. Low PSA ranges (0-2 and 2.1-4.0) discriminate better for a PV of 30 cc (eg, in men with a PSA range

  18. 3D highly heterogeneous thermal model of pineal gland in-vitro study for electromagnetic exposure using finite volume method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Wei; Hoppe, Ralph; Lu, Rongbo; Cai, Zhaoquan; Gu, Ning

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the relationship between electromagnetic power absorption and temperature distributions inside highly heterogeneous biological samples was accurately determinated using finite volume method. An in-vitro study on pineal gland that is responsible for physiological activities was for the first time simulated to illustrate effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Hospital volume and 1-year mortality after treatment of intracranial aneurysms: a study based on patient registries in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindekleiv, Haakon; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Førde, Olav H; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ingebrigtsen, Tor

    2015-09-01

    The object of this study was to examine the relationship between hospital volume and long-term mortality after treatment of intracranial aneurysms. The authors identified patients treated for intracranial aneurysms between 2002 and 2010 from patient registries of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, and linked to data on 1-year mortality from the population registry of each country. Cox regression models were used to relate hospital volume to the risk of death and adjusted for potential confounders (age, sex, year of treatment, Charlson comorbidity index, country, and surgical treatment). The authors identified 5773 patients with ruptured and 1756 patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms, treated at 15 hospitals. One-year mortality rates were 15.6% for patients with ruptured aneurysms and 2.7% for patients with unruptured aneurysms. No consistent relationship was found between hospital volume and 1-year mortality for ruptured aneurysms in the unadjusted analyses, but higher hospital volume was associated with increased mortality in the analyses adjusted for potential confounders (hazard ratio [HR] per 10-patient increase 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.07). There was a trend toward a lower mortality rate in higher-volume hospitals after treatment for unruptured intracranial aneurysms, but this was not statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounders (HR per 10-patient increase 0.69, 95% CI 0.42-1.10). There were large variations in mortality after treatment for both ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms across hospitals and between the Scandinavian countries (p < 0.01). The findings in this study did not confirm a relationship between higher hospital volume and reduced long-term mortality after treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Prospective registries for evaluating outcomes after aneurysm treatment are highly warranted.

  20. Risk for affective disorders is associated with greater prefrontal gray matter volumes: A prospective longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Baaré, William; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2017-01-01

    transmission. Methods: We used voxel based morphometry to investigate changes in regional GM brain volume, over a seven-year period, in 37 initially healthy individuals having a mono- or di-zygotic twin diagnosed with major depression or bipolar disorder (high-risk group; mean age 41.6 yrs.) as compared to 36...... anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and temporoparietal regions as compared to low-risk twins. Further, individuals who developed an affective disorder at follow-up (n=12), had relatively the largest GM volumes, both at baseline and follow-up, in the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and right...... inferior frontal cortex compared to high- and low-risk twins who remained well at follow-up. Conclusion: This pattern of apparently stable grater regional GM volume may constitute a neural marker of an increased risk for developing an affective disorder in individuals at familial risk....

  1. Studies in human lactation: milk volume and nutrient composition during weaning and lactogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, M C; Allen, J C; Archer, P C; Casey, C E; Seacat, J; Keller, R P; Lutes, V; Rasbach, J; Neifert, M

    1991-07-01

    Concentrations and secretion rates of macronutrients and major ions in human milk during lactogenesis (birth to 8 d) and late lactation (greater than 6 mo postpartum) are reported. Postpartum changes in lactose, sodium, and chloride concentrations signalled closure of the paracellular pathway during days 1-2. From days 2 to 4 postpartum, initiation of copious milk secretion was accompanied by significant increases in citrate, free phosphate, glucose, and calcium concentrations and a decrease in pH. During weaning, significant changes in milk protein, lactose, chloride, and sodium concentrations were observed only when milk volume fell below 400 mL/d; more than one feed per day was necessary to maintain milk secretion. Temporal changes in the concentration of other milk components, except glucose and magnesium, were not different in weaning and non-weaning women. Differences between the relation of milk volume and composition during lactogenesis and weaning suggest that volume is differently regulated in the two periods.

  2. Calculating Study of the Turbine at Last Stage Flow Field in the Small Volume Flow Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Tieliu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on basic equation and boundary layer theory of pneumodynamics, the thesis conducts numerical modeling and theoretical analysis on the last stage of turbine characteristics at a small volume flow by using FLUENT, gives an emphasized analysis on the position of first occurrence of backflow and its expansion direction and comes up with flow structure of the turbine flow field at last stage in the small volume flow condition. In connection with specific experiments, it puts forward the flow model of backflow occurring in the last stage field and the solution to the model. The flow field at last stage for a 100MW turbine in the small volume flow condition that is calculated by using the model is basically in conformity to the actual result.

  3. Follicular Volume Predicts Oocyte Maturity: A Prospective Cohort Study Using Three-Dimensional Ultrasound and SonoAVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Jairo; Rodríguez-Fuentes, Adela; Puopolo, Maria; Palumbo, Angela

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the automatic measurement of follicular volume by three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound can predict the number of mature oocytes retrieved. A prospective cohort study including 47 women undergoing in vitro fertilization was conducted in a private fertility center. Follicular growth was monitored both manually and automatically using 3D scanning with SonoAVC on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration. Regression analysis showed that under a standard protocol for hCG administration, the count of mature oocytes is well predicted by a multivariate model including the counts of follicles in the volume classes 2.00 to 5.00 cm(3), 1.50 to 1.99 cm(3), 1.00 to 1.49 cm(3), and 0.60 to 0.99 cm(3) In conclusion, this study shows that follicular volume as measured by SonoAVC on the day of hCG administration can be useful to predict oocyte maturity. Specifically, larger follicles and smaller size follicles (class 0.60-0.99 cm(3)) contribute to the mature oocyte count. This finding warrants the design of clinical trials to establish new criteria for hCG administration based on follicular volume. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Saliva sampling in global clinical studies: the impact of low sampling volume on performance of DNA in downstream genotyping experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The collection of viable DNA samples is an essential element of any genetics research programme. Biological samples for DNA purification are now routinely collected in many studies with a variety of sampling methods available. Initial observation in this study suggested a reduced genotyping success rate of some saliva derived DNA samples when compared to blood derived DNA samples prompting further investigation. Methods Genotyping success rate was investigated to assess the suitability of using saliva samples in future safety and efficacy pharmacogenetics experiments. The Oragene® OG-300 DNA Self-Collection kit was used to collect and extract DNA from saliva from 1468 subjects enrolled in global clinical studies. Statistical analysis evaluated the impact of saliva sample volume of collection on the quality, yield, concentration and performance of saliva DNA in genotyping assays. Results Across 13 global clinical studies that utilized the Oragene® OG-300 DNA Self-Collection kit there was variability in the volume of saliva sample collection with ~31% of participants providing 0.5 mL of saliva, rather than the recommended 2 mL. While the majority of saliva DNA samples provided high quality genotype data, collection of 0.5 mL volumes of saliva contributed to DNA samples being significantly less likely to pass genotyping quality control standards. Assessment of DNA sample characteristics that may influence genotyping outcomes indicated that saliva sample volume, DNA purity and turbidity were independently associated with sample genotype pass rate, but that saliva collection volume had the greatest effect. Conclusion When employing saliva sampling to obtain DNA, it is important to encourage all study participants to provide sufficient sample to minimize potential loss of data in downstream genotyping experiments. PMID:23759220

  5. Total reference air kerma can accurately predict isodose surface volumes in cervix cancer brachytherapy. A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkiwane, Karen S; Andersen, Else; Champoudry, Jerome; de Leeuw, Astrid; Swamidas, Jamema; Lindegaard, Jacob; Pötter, Richard; Kirisits, Christian; Tanderup, Kari

    To demonstrate that V 60  Gy, V 75  Gy, and V 85  Gy isodose surface volumes can be accurately estimated from total reference air kerma (TRAK) in cervix cancer MRI-guided brachytherapy (BT). 60 Gy, 75 Gy, and 85 Gy isodose surface volumes levels were obtained from treatment planning systems (V TPS ) for 239 EMBRACE study patients from five institutions treated with various dose rates, fractionation schedules and applicators. An equation for estimating V TPS from TRAK was derived. Furthermore, a surrogate Point A dose (Point A*) was proposed and tested for correlation with V 75  Gy. Predicted volumes V pred  = 4965 (TRAK/dref) 3/2 + 170 (TRAK/dref) - 1.5 gave the best fit to V TPS . The difference between V TPS and predicted volumes was 0.0% ± 2.3%. All volumes were predicted within 10%. The prediction was valid for (1) high-dose rate and pulsed dose rate, (2) intracavitary vs. intracavitary/interstitial applicators, and (3) tandem-ring, tandem-ovoid, and mold. Point A* = 14 TRAK was converted to total EQD 2 and showed high correlation with V 75  Gy. TRAK derived Isodose surface volumes may become a tool for assessment of treatment intensity. Furthermore, surrogate Point A ∗ doses can be applied for both intracavitary and intracavitary/interstitial BT and can be used to compare treatments across fractionation schedules. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Value of Children: A Cross-National Study, Volume One. Introduction and Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Fred; And Others

    The volume, first in a series of seven, discusses the Value of Children Project, a cross-cultural survey designed to analyze reasons for married couples' wanting or not wanting children. The sample includes participants from the Republic of China (Taiwan), Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States (Hawaii). The…

  7. A Voxel Based Morphometry Study of Brain Gray Matter Volumes in Juvenile Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarajan, Rajan Nishanth; Agarwal, Sri Mahavir; Viswanath, Biju; Kalmady, Sunil V; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Srinath, Shoba; Chandrashekar, C R; Janardhan Reddy, Y C

    2015-01-01

    Adult patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) have been shown to have gray matter (GM) volume differences from healthy controls in multiple regions - the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), medial frontal gyri (MFG), striatum, thalamus, and superior parietal lobule. However, there is paucity of data with regard to juvenile OCD. Hence, we examined GM volume differences between juvenile OCD patients and matched healthy controls using voxel based morphometry (VBM) with the above apriori regions of interest. Fifteen right handed juvenile patients with OCD and age- sex- handedness- matched healthy controls were recruited after administering the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-KID and the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, and scanned using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. VBM methodology was followed. In comparison with healthy controls, patients had significantly smaller GM volumes in left ACC. YBOCS total score (current) showed significant negative correlation with GM volumes in bilateral OFC, and left superior parietal lobule. These findings while reiterating the important role of the orbito-fronto-striatal circuitry, also implicate in the parietal lobe - especially the superior parietal lobule as an important structure involved in the pathogenesis of OCD.

  8. A study of partial molar volumes of citric acid and tartaric acid in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Partial molar volumes; citric acid; tartaric acid; water + ethanol mixture; structure breaker. 1. Introduction ... ity water (sp. cond. ≈ 10–6 ohm–1 cm–1) was used as standard solvent and for making binary aqueous mixtures of ethanol (EtOH). Ethyl alcohol was kept ..... temperatures meaning thereby that solute–solute in-.

  9. BReastfeeding Attitude and Volume Optimization (BRAVO) trial : Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savitri, Ary I.; Idris, Nikmah S; Indawati, Wahyuni; Saldi, Siti Rizny F; Amelia, Dwirani; Baharuddin, Mohammad; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M

    2016-01-01

    Background: A growing body of evidence shows the short-term benefits of breastfeeding, which include protection against infections, allergies, and lung diseases. However, evidence on the long-term benefits of breastfeeding is scarce and often conflicting. The BReastfeeding Attitude and Volume

  10. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Twenty-Five. The Polish-English Contrastive Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    Papers in this volume on contrastive linguistics include the following: "Auxiliaries in English and Danish" (Niels Davidsen-Nielsen); "On Tongue Twisters" (Wlodzimierz Sobkowiak); "On Derivational and Phrasal Adverbials of Manner" (James L. Wyatt); "Scrambling and the Polish Word Order. An Alternative Hypothesis" (Przemyslaw Tajsner); "Verbs of…

  11. Difficult Characters: Interdisciplinary Studies of Chinese and Japanese Writing. Pathways to Advanced Skills Series, Volume 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbaugh, Mary S.

    2002-01-01

    Mary S. Erbaugh has compiled this volume to examine the so-called "ideographic myth" from a variety of perspectives. Through this multidisciplinary collection of articles, we learn how the myth has come about, what sort of theory and empirical evidence have been generated to refute it, and how this myth has stubbornly persisted to hamper progress…

  12. Analysis of Partial Volume Effects on Arterial Input Functions Using Gradient Echo: A Simulation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølby, Birgitte Fuglsang; Mikkelsen, Irene Klærke; Pedersen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    of an AIF voxel including the relaxation properties of blood and tissue. Artery orientations parallel and perpendicular to the main magnetic field were investigated and AIF voxels were modeled to either include or be situated close to a large artery. The impact of partial volume effects on quantitative...

  13. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 1-A. Commercial fusion electric plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E. (eds.)

    1984-07-01

    Volume 1-A contains the following chapters: (1) plasma engineering, (2) magnets, (3) ecr heating systems, (4) anchor ion-cyclotron resonance heating system, (5) sloshing ion neutral beam, (6) end cell structure, (7) end plasma technology, (8) fueling, (9) startup ion cyclotron resonant heating systems, and (10) end cell radiation analysis. (MOW)

  14. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 1-B. Commercial fusion electric plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E. (eds.)

    1984-07-01

    Volume 1-B contains the following chapters: (1) blanket and reflector; (2) central cell shield; (3) central cell structure; (4) heat transport and energy conversion; (5) tritium systems; (6) cryogenics; (7) maintenance; (8) safety; (9) radioactivity, activation, and waste disposal; (10) instrumentation and control; (11) balance of plant; (12) plant startup and operation; (13) plant availability; (14) plant construction; and (15) economic analysis.

  15. Effect of Exercise Training on Hippocampal Volume in Humans: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Beth A.; Thompson, Paul D.; Jordan, Kathryn C.; Grimaldi, Adam S.; Assaf, Michal; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2011-01-01

    The hippocampus is the primary site of memory and learning in the brain. Both normal aging and various disease pathologies (e.g., alcoholism, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder) are associated with lower hippocampal volumes in humans and hippocampal atrophy predicts progression of Alzheimers disease. In animals, there is convincing…

  16. A lean production control system for high-variety/low-volume environments : a case study implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, J.; Bokhorst, J.A.C.; Germs, R.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the success of lean manufacturing, many companies are interested in implementing a lean production control system. Lean production control principles include the levelling of production, the use of pull mechanisms and takt time control. These principles have mainly been applied in high volume

  17. A study of partial molar volumes of citric acid and tartaric acid in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Partial molar volumes of citric acid and tartaric acid have been determined in water and binary aqueous mixtures of ethanol (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% by weight of ethanol) at different temperatures and acid concentrations from the solution density measurements. The data have been evaluated by using Masson equation and ...

  18. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Twenty Three. The Polish-English Contrastive Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Ten articles are presented in this volume on contrastive linguistics. The articles and authors are as follows: "Contrastive Grammar: Theory and Practice" (F. Aarts and H. Wekker); "On the Semantic and Morphological Status of Reversative Verbs in English and German" (W.-P. Funk); "The Problem of Directionality in…

  19. Surprising volume change in PPy(DBS): An atomic force microscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smela, E.; Gadegaard, N.

    1999-01-01

    Communication: Conjugated polymers such as polypyrrole (PPy) have potential use as artificial muscles or in microsystems such as valves for micro-fluid handling. One of the most important parameters in such uses is the magnitude of volume change during associated redox processes; however, until now...

  20. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix F: Flight food and primary packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The analysis and selection of food items and primary packaging, the development of menus, the nutritional analysis of diet, and the analyses of alternate food mixes and contingency foods is reported in terms of the overall food system design for space shuttle flight. Stowage weights and cubic volumes associated with each alternate mix were also evaluated.

  1. Cortisol/DHEA ratio and hippocampal volume: A pilot study in major depression and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rowen O; Mason, Sara; Mellon, Synthia H; Epel, Elissa S; Reus, Victor I; Mahan, Laura; Rosser, Rebecca L; Hough, Christina M; Burke, Heather M; Mueller, Susanne G; Wolkowitz, Owen M

    2016-10-01

    Structural imaging studies investigating the relationship between hippocampal volume (HCV) and peripheral measures of glucocorticoids (GCs) have produced conflicting results in both normal populations and in individuals with MDD, raising the possibility of other modulating factors. In preclinical studies, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester (DHEAS; together abbreviated, DHEA(S)) have been shown to antagonize the actions of GCs on the central nervous system. Therefore, considering the relationship of HCV to both of these hormones simultaneously may be important, although it has rarely been done in human populations. Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the present pilot study examined the relationship between morning serum cortisol, DHEA(S), and HCV in nineteen normal controls and eighteen unmedicated subjects with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Serum cortisol and DHEA(S) were not significantly correlated with HCV across all subjects (cortisol: r=-0.165, p=0.33; DHEA: r=0.164, p=0.35; DHEAS: r=0.211, p=0.22, respectively). However, the ratios of cortisol/DHEA(S) were significantly negatively correlated with HCV in combined group (Cortisol/DHEA: r=-0.461, p=0.005; Cortisol/DHEAS: r=-0.363, p=0.03). Significant or near-significant correlations were found between some hormonal measurements and HCV in the MDDs alone (DHEA: r=0.482, p=0.059; DHEAS: r=0.507, p=0.045; cort/DHEA: r=-0.589, p=0.02; cort/DHEAS: r=-0.424p=0.10), but not in the controls alone (DHEA: r=0.070, p=0.79; DHEAS: r=0.077, p=0.77; cort/DHEA: r=-0.427, p=0.09; cort/DHEAS: r=-0.331, p=0.19). However, Group (MDDs vs controls) did not have a significant effect on the relationship between cortisol, DHEA(S), and their ratios with HCV (p>0.475 in all analyses). Although the exact relationship between serum and central steroid concentrations as well as their effects on the human hippocampus remains not known, these preliminary results suggest that the ratio of cortisol to

  2. "Small World" architecture in brain connectivity and hippocampal volume in Alzheimer's disease: a study via graph theory from EEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Piludu, Francesca; Granata, Giuseppe; Romanello, Roberto; Caulo, Massimo; Onofrj, Valeria; Bramanti, Placido; Colosimo, Cesare; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2017-04-01

    Brain imaging plays an important role in the study of Alzheimer's disease (AD), where atrophy has been found to occur in the hippocampal formation during the very early disease stages and to progress in parallel with the disease's evolution. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible correlation between "Small World" characteristics of the brain connectivity architecture-as extracted from EEG recordings-and hippocampal volume in AD patients. A dataset of 144 subjects, including 110 AD (MMSE 21.3) and 34 healthy Nold (MMSE 29.8) individuals, was evaluated. Weighted and undirected networks were built by the eLORETA solutions of the cortical sources' activities moving from EEG recordings. The evaluation of the hippocampal volume was carried out on a subgroup of 60 AD patients who received a high-resolution T1-weighted sequence and underwent processing for surface-based cortex reconstruction and volumetric segmentation using the Freesurfer image analysis software. Results showed that, quantitatively, more correlation was observed in the right hemisphere, but the same trend was seen in both hemispheres. Alpha band connectivity was negatively correlated, while slow (delta) and fast-frequency (beta, gamma) bands positively correlated with hippocampal volume. Namely, the larger the hippocampal volume, the lower the alpha and the higher the delta, beta, and gamma Small World characteristics of connectivity. Accordingly, the Small World connectivity pattern could represent a functional counterpart of structural hippocampal atrophying and related-network disconnection.

  3. Lesion filling effect in regional brain volume estimations: a study in multiple sclerosis patients with low lesion load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareto, D; Sastre-Garriga, J; Aymerich, F X; Auger, C; Tintoré, M; Montalban, X; Rovira, A

    2016-05-01

    Regional brain volume estimation in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is prone to error due to white matter lesions being erroneously segmented as grey matter. The Lesion Segmentation Toolbox (LST) is an automatic tool that estimates a lesion mask based on 3D T2-FLAIR images and then uses this mask to fill the structural MRI image. The goal of this study was (1) to test the LST for estimating white matter lesion volume in a cohort of MS patients using 2D T2-FLAIR images, and (2) to evaluate the performance of the optimized LST on image segmentation and the impact on the calculated grey matter fraction (GMF). The study included 110 patients with a clinically isolated syndrome and 42 with a relapsing-remitting MS scanned on a 3.0-T MRI system. In a subset of consecutively selected patients, the lesion mask was semi-manually delineated over T2-FLAIR images. After establishing the optimized LST parameters, the corresponding regional fractions were calculated for the original, filled, and masked images. A high agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.955) was found between the (optimized) LST and the semi-manual lesion volume estimations. The GMF was significantly smaller when lesions were masked (mean difference -0.603, p lesion volume calculation seems reliable. GMFs are significantly reduced when a method to correct the contribution of MS lesions is used, and it may have an impact in assessing GMF differences between clinical cohorts.

  4. Would increasing centre volumes improve patient outcomes in peritoneal dialysis? A registry-based cohort and Monte Carlo simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David; Lobbedez, Thierry; Verger, Christian; Flahault, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association between centre volume and patient outcomes in peritoneal dialysis, explore robustness to residual confounding and predict the impact of policies to increase centre volumes. Design Registry-based cohort study with probabilistic sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of (hypothetical) intervention effects. Setting 112 secondary-care centres in France. Participants 9602 adult patients initiating peritoneal dialysis. Main outcome measures Technique failure (ie, permanent transfer to haemodialysis), renal transplantation and death while on peritoneal dialysis within 5 years of initiating treatment. Associations with underlying risk measured by cause-specific HRs (cs-HRs) and with cumulative incidence by subdistribution HRs (sd-HRs). Intervention effects measured by predicted mean change in cumulative incidences. Results Higher volume centres had more patients with diabetes and were more frequently academic centres or associative groupings of private physicians. Patients in higher volume centres had a reduced risk of technique failure (>60 patients vs 0–10 patients: adjusted cs-HR 0.46; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.69), with no changed risk of death or transplantation. Sensitivity analyses mitigated the cs-HRs without changing the findings. In higher volume centres, the cumulative incidence was reduced for technique failure (>60 patients vs 0–10 patients: adjusted sd-HR 0.49; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.85) but was increased for transplantation and death (>60 patients vs 0–10 patients: transplantation—adjusted sd-HR 1.53; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.24; death—adjusted sd-HR 1.28; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.63). The predicted reduction in cumulative incidence of technique failure was largest under a scenario of shifting all patients to the two highest volume centre groups (0.091 reduction) but lower for three more realistic interventions (around 0.06 reduction). Conclusions Patients initiating peritoneal dialysis in high-volume centres had a considerably

  5. The impact of glucose disorders on cognition and brain volumes in the elderly: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Katherine; Lutgers, Helen L; Kochan, Nicole A; Crawford, John D; Campbell, Lesley V; Wen, Wei; Slavin, Melissa J; Baune, Bernard T; Lipnicki, Darren M; Brodaty, Henry; Trollor, Julian N; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2014-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes predicts accelerated cognitive decline and brain atrophy. We hypothesized that impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and incident glucose disorders have detrimental effects on global cognition and brain volume. We further hypothesized that metabolic and inflammatory derangements accompanying hyperglycaemia contribute to change in brain structure and function. This was a longitudinal study of a community-dwelling elderly cohort with neuropsychological testing (n = 880) and brain volumes by magnetic resonance imaging (n = 312) measured at baseline and 2 years. Primary outcomes were global cognition and total brain volume. Secondary outcomes were cognitive domains (processing speed, memory, language, visuospatial and executive function) and brain volumes (hippocampal, parahippocampal, precuneus and frontal lobe). Participants were categorised as normal, impaired fasting glucose at both assessments (stable IFG), baseline diabetes or incident glucose disorders (incident diabetes or IFG at 2 years). Measures included inflammatory cytokines and oxidative metabolites. Covariates were age, sex, education, non-English speaking background, smoking, blood pressure, lipid-lowering or antihypertensive medications, mood score, apolipoprotein E genotype and baseline cognition or brain volume. Participants with incident glucose disorders had greater decline in global cognition and visuospatial function compared to normal, similar to that observed in baseline diabetes. Homocysteine was independently associated with the observed effect of diabetes on executive function. Apolipoprotein E genotype did not influence the observed effects of diabetes on cognition. Incident glucose disorders and diabetes were also associated with greater 2-year decline in total brain volume, compared to normal (40.0 ± 4.2 vs. 46.7 ± 5.7 mm(3) vs. 18.1 ± 6.2, respectively, p cognition or brain volumes compared to normal. Incident glucose disorders, like diabetes, are

  6. Impact of institutional volume and experience with CT interpretation on sizing of transcatheter aortic valves: A multicenter retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Divya Ratan [Cardiovascular Institute, Banner University Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Division of Interventional Cardiology, Banner University Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Pershad, Yash [Department of Radiology, Banner University Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Pershad, Ashish [Cardiovascular Institute, Banner University Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Division of Interventional Cardiology, Banner University Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Fang, Kenith [Cardiovascular Institute, Banner University Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Banner University Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Gellert, George [Cardiovascular Institute, Banner University Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, Banner University Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Morris, Michael F., E-mail: mfmorris@mail.arizona.edu [Cardiovascular Institute, Banner University Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Department of Radiology, Banner University Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Background: Computed tomography (CT) has become the standard imaging modality for pre-procedural aortic annular sizing prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). We hypothesized that the accuracy of CT derived annular measurements would be greater at sites with higher TAVR procedural volume. Methods: Within a large integrated health system, TAVR was performed at low (<40 cases), intermediate (40–75 cases), and high-volume sites (>75 cases). 181 patients underwent TAVR with a Sapien XT transcatheter heart valve (THV). Two blinded experienced readers independently remeasured the annulus on CT and compared their measurements to site reported measurements. Hypothetical THV sizes were chosen based on measurements from site CT reports and independent readers’ measurements, and compared to the implanted THV size. Results: Correlation between site reported measurements and independent readers measurements of mean annulus size varied between low-volume (r = 0.31, p = 0.18), intermediate-volume (r = 0.34, p = 0.01), and high-volume sites (r = 0.96, p < 0.01). On multivariate analysis, interpretation of ≥20 CT scans (OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.03–0.81; p 0.02) and high-volume site (OR 0.16; 95% CI 0.10–0.82; p 0.02) were associated with reduced mismatch between the site predicted THV size and independent readers predicted THV size. Mismatch between site predicted THV size and implanted THV size was associated with a worse 30-day composite of mortality, dialysis-dependent renal failure, cerebrovascular accident, new permanent pacemaker, and hospital readmission (55.3 vs. 38.7%; p = 0.05). Conclusions: Accuracy of CT aortic annular sizing is improved with higher individual experience and site TAVR volume. These findings should be confirmed in larger, prospective studies. - Highlights: • Accuracy of CT aortic annular sizing is improved with higher individual experience and site TAVR volume. • CT readers with experience interpreting ≥20 pre-TAVR CT scans had

  7. METODE PENENTUAN VOLUME AGGREGAT PONDASI JALAN BERDASARKAN VARIASI DAN KESALAHAN: STUDI KASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsinta Simamora

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Variations between plans and reality can hardly be avoided in construction projects. These variations may beaccepted when they are still in the acceptance limits, or rejected when they are beyond the acceptance limits.The former is called variation in acceptance and the later is called error. Distinguishing these two in acompleted construction work is very important, as rejected variations (errors may be considered as breaching acontract, thus may have legal implications. The research aims to evaluate the traditional calculation method(MeTrad and to promote variation acceptance and error approach (MeVE that is able to draw a clear linewhether a particular work to be accepted and rejected. The research was conducted by comparing the results ofcalculation of the aggregate volume between MeTrad and MeVE. The data was collected from Mauponggo-Puuwada road project in Nangakeo in 2010. The results show that there was no difference in the volumescalculated using both methods. The volume of Class B aggregate based on MeTrad calculation is 386.01m 3andthe volume based on MeVE is 386.01m3; where 16.67m3 of which (3.34% of the planned volume is in the rangeof acceptance and 369.34m3 of which (73.94% of the planned volumeis the volume that is rejected (error. Theresults suggest that MeTrad cannot distinguish clearly whether the work is within the limits of acceptance orrejection, while on the other hand MeVE can describe in detail parts of the work to be accepted or rejected.Using this MeVE calculation, an assessment of a construction workis expected to be more objective anddetailed.

  8. Brain MRI Volume Findings in Diabetic Adults With Albuminuria: The ACCORD-MIND Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, Joshua I; Morgan, Timothy M; Murray, Anne M; Bryan, R Nick; Williamson, Jeff D; Schnall, Adrian; Launer, Lenore J

    2016-06-01

    Albuminuria is associated with cognitive impairment in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The brain volume correlates of albuminuria in people with T2DM have not been well investigated. We examined 502 individuals with T2DM (9-12 years duration; mean age ~62 years) who had a brain MRI at baseline and at 40 months. Baseline MRI findings were examined by the presence or absence of albuminuria (≥30mg/g creatinine). Changes in MRI findings were examined by whether albuminuria was persistent, intermittent, or absent during follow-up. At baseline, participants with albuminuria (28.7% of the cohort) had more abnormal white matter volume (AWMV) than participants without albuminuria on unadjusted analysis. This difference was attenuated with adjustment for systolic blood pressure, which was higher in participants with albuminuria than in those without albuminuria. During ~3.5 years of follow-up, participants with persistent albuminuria (15.8%) had a greater increase in new AWMV than participants without albuminuria (59.8%) or those with intermittent albuminuria on unadjusted analysis. This difference was attenuated with adjustment for age and systolic blood pressure. There were no significant differences in gray matter volume and total brain volume between participants with or without albuminuria at baseline or during follow-up. There was no significant effect modification of these findings by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline or change in eGFR during follow-up. In this diabetic cohort, baseline albuminuria and persistent albuminuria were not independently associated with any significant differences in brain volume measurements compared with participants without albuminuria. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Structured Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaee, Mohammad; Rafiee, Seyed Majid

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating studies are documenting specific motivational variables that, when combined into a naturalistic teaching paradigm, can positively influence the effectiveness of interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this study was to compare two applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention procedures, a…

  10. The associations between indices of patellofemoral geometry and knee pain and patella cartilage volume: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urquhart Donna M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst patellofemoral pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders presenting to orthopaedic clinics, sports clinics, and general practices, factors contributing to its development in the absence of a defined arthropathy, such as osteoarthritis (OA, are unclear. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the relationships between parameters of patellofemoral geometry (patella inclination, sulcus angle and patella height and knee pain and patella cartilage volume. Methods 240 community-based adults aged 25-60 years were recruited to take part in a study of obesity and musculoskeletal health. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the dominant knee was used to determine the lateral condyle-patella angle, sulcus angle, and Insall-Salvati ratio, as well as patella cartilage and bone volumes. Pain was assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC VA pain subscale. Results Increased lateral condyle-patella angle (increased medial patella inclination was associated with a reduction in WOMAC pain score (Regression coefficient -1.57, 95% CI -3.05, -0.09 and increased medial patella cartilage volume (Regression coefficient 51.38 mm3, 95% CI 1.68, 101.08 mm3. Higher riding patella as indicated by increased Insall-Salvati ratio was associated with decreased medial patella cartilage volume (Regression coefficient -3187 mm3, 95% CI -5510, -864 mm3. There was a trend for increased lateral patella cartilage volume associated with increased (shallower sulcus angle (Regression coefficient 43.27 mm3, 95% CI -2.43, 88.98 mm3. Conclusion These results suggest both symptomatic and structural benefits associated with a more medially inclined patella while a high-riding patella may be detrimental to patella cartilage. This provides additional theoretical support for the current use of corrective strategies for patella malalignment that are aimed at medial patella translation, although

  11. The associations between indices of patellofemoral geometry and knee pain and patella cartilage volume: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Whilst patellofemoral pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders presenting to orthopaedic clinics, sports clinics, and general practices, factors contributing to its development in the absence of a defined arthropathy, such as osteoarthritis (OA), are unclear. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the relationships between parameters of patellofemoral geometry (patella inclination, sulcus angle and patella height) and knee pain and patella cartilage volume. Methods 240 community-based adults aged 25-60 years were recruited to take part in a study of obesity and musculoskeletal health. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the dominant knee was used to determine the lateral condyle-patella angle, sulcus angle, and Insall-Salvati ratio, as well as patella cartilage and bone volumes. Pain was assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) VA pain subscale. Results Increased lateral condyle-patella angle (increased medial patella inclination) was associated with a reduction in WOMAC pain score (Regression coefficient -1.57, 95% CI -3.05, -0.09) and increased medial patella cartilage volume (Regression coefficient 51.38 mm3, 95% CI 1.68, 101.08 mm3). Higher riding patella as indicated by increased Insall-Salvati ratio was associated with decreased medial patella cartilage volume (Regression coefficient -3187 mm3, 95% CI -5510, -864 mm3). There was a trend for increased lateral patella cartilage volume associated with increased (shallower) sulcus angle (Regression coefficient 43.27 mm3, 95% CI -2.43, 88.98 mm3). Conclusion These results suggest both symptomatic and structural benefits associated with a more medially inclined patella while a high-riding patella may be detrimental to patella cartilage. This provides additional theoretical support for the current use of corrective strategies for patella malalignment that are aimed at medial patella translation, although longitudinal studies will

  12. Esoterismo. Giornata di studi intorno al volume 25 degli Annali della Storia d’Italia Einaudi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellano, Carolina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available [Esotericism. One-day Workshop about the Annale n. 25 of the Storia d'Italia Einaudi]. This section contains the proceedings of the one-day workshop on the book Esoterismo ("Esotericism", published as the Annale n. 25 in the collection "History of Italy" by Einaudi. The workshop was organized by ISPF on the October 26, 2011 to promote the discussion on the significance of Western esotericist traditions in Italian history. S. Caianiello’s introduction highlights some major concepts and goals of the recent field of studies about Western Esotericism, and some open problems about its definition. M. Cambi comments on the substantial transformation of esotericist themes in Giordano Bruno’s natural philosophy, whereby the sources of the magician’s power are completely enclosed in the realm of nature, thus rejecting any transcendent foundation. M. Conforti focuses on "the function and opportunities" offered by the Western Esotericism approach "to the genesis and development of early modern science" and comments from this perspective on different contributions in the volume, emphasizing however the importance of largely pre-existing traditions in the history of science and medicine which have long challenged the wiggish separation between science and magic, rational and irrational thought. L. Simonutti provides new material to the general theme, with a historical-philosophical analysis of the esotericist elements in Picart’s iconography of the 18th Century edition of "Cymbalum mundi". F. Sofia discusses the effective role of esotericist traditions in the attempts to establish a "civil religion" in Italy from Risorgimento to Fascism, a history in which, she argues, it is difficult to establish "how much esotericism was an intentional choice or the product of an unavoidable nicodemism". C. Castellano reviews the contributions dedicated to the "political teology" of Italian Risorgimento, dealing in depth with the complex relationship between

  13. Total volume and composition of fluid intake and mortality in older women: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai H; Wong, Germaine; Lewis, Joshua R; Lok, Charmaine E; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Hodgson, Jonathan; Lim, Ee M; Prince, Richard L

    2017-03-24

    The health benefits of 'drinking at least 8 glasses of water a day" in healthy individuals are largely unproven. We aimed to examine the relationship between total fluid and the sources of fluid consumption, risk of rapid renal decline, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and all-cause mortality in elderly women. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of a population-based cohort study of 1055 women aged ≥70 years residing in Australia. The associations between total daily fluid intake (defined as total volume of beverage excluding alcohol and milk) and the types of fluid (water, black tea, coffee, milk and other fluids) measured as cups per day and rapid renal decline, CVD and all-cause mortality were assessed using adjusted logistic and Cox regression analyses. Over a follow-up period of 10 years, 70 (6.6%) experienced rapid renal decline and 362 (34.4%) died, of which 142 (13.5%) deaths were attributed to CVD. The median (IQR) intake of total fluid was 10.4 (8.5-12.5) cups per day, with water (median (IQR) 4 (2-6) cups per day) and black tea (median (IQR) 3 (1-4) cups per day) being the most frequent type of fluid consumed. Every cup per day higher intake of black tea was associated with adjusted HRs of 0.90 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.99) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.86 to 0.98) for CVD mortality and all-cause mortality, respectively. There were no associations between black tea intake and rapid renal decline, or between the quantity or type of other fluids, including water intake, and any clinical outcomes. Habitual higher intake of black tea may potentially improve long-term health outcomes, independent of treating traditional CVD risk factors, but validation of our study findings is essential. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Determination of regional lung air volume distribution at mid-tidal breathing from computed tomography: a retrospective study of normal variability and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, John; Conway, Joy; Majoral, Caroline; Bennett, Michael; Caillibotte, Georges; Montesantos, Spyridon; Katz, Ira

    2014-07-25

    Determination of regional lung air volume has several clinical applications. This study investigates the use of mid-tidal breathing CT scans to provide regional lung volume data. Low resolution CT scans of the thorax were obtained during tidal breathing in 11 healthy control male subjects, each on two separate occasions. A 3D map of air volume was derived, and total lung volume calculated. The regional distribution of air volume from centre to periphery of the lung was analysed using a radial transform and also using one dimensional profiles in three orthogonal directions. The total air volumes for the right and left lungs were 1035 +/- 280 ml and 864 +/- 315 ml, respectively (mean and SD). The corresponding fractional air volume concentrations (FAVC) were 0.680 +/- 0.044 and 0.658 +/- 0.062. All differences between the right and left lung were highly significant (p lung air volumes and FAVC were 6.5% and 6.9% and 2.5% and 3.6%, respectively. FAVC correlated significantly with lung space volume (r = 0.78) (p lung. Central to peripheral ratios were significantly higher for the right (0.100 +/- 0.007 SD) than the left (0.089 +/- 0.013 SD) (p volume in the lung at mid-tidal breathing is described. Mean values and reproducibility are described for healthy male control subjects. Fractional air volume concentration is shown to increase with lung size.

  15. FURTHER STUDIES ON THE VARIATION OF SPRAY DEPOSITS IN VINEYARDS WITH AIRFLOW RATE AND VOLUME RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Cerruto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research, continuing that reported in [2], deals with the spray application subject, so to investigate as volume rate and airflow rate, forward speed being equal, affect the foliar deposition in an espalier vineyard. Experimental trials were carried out by means of an air assisted towed sprayer, equipped with “Albuz ATR” nozzles. To take into account the influence of the development of the trees, the field trials were replicated in two phenological stages with an interval of about one month: “Inflorescences fully developed” (stage 1 and “Beginning of berry touch” (stage 2. A full factorial experiment was carried out for each growth stage, with two airflow rates (3.9 and 7.5 m3/s, three volume rates (103, 216, and 276 L/ha in the first growth stage and 154, 330 and 432 L/ha in the second growth stage, and four replicates, arranged according to a randomised complete block design. Working pressure (1.2 MPa and forward speed (1.4 m/s were kept unchanged for all the trials. The foliar deposition was measured by means of a spectrophotometric technique. The leaves were sampled on two depth layers and two or three heights, according to the trees’ development. The results showed that volume rate did not significantly influence the mean foliar deposition in both the two growth stages, while the highest deposits were obtained with the lowest airflow rate. The airflow rate × volume rate interaction, though not statistically significant, showed that low volume rates together with high airflow rates, result in a noticeable reduction in foliar deposition (29% with respect the grand mean, due to an increase of the spry drift, especially at the first growth stage, when the foliar development is little. These second tests, unlike those described in [2], did not show any positive influence of the airflow rate on the foliar deposition in the inner part of the canopy, so further investigations could be necessary to better understand the

  16. Serum Ionized Calcium May Be Related to White Matter Lesion Volumes in Older Adults: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. B. Anderson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available White matter lesions have detrimental effects upon older adults, while serum calcium levels have been associated with elevated vascular risk and may be associated with these lesions. Depression, a serious mental disorder characterized by disturbances in calcium metabolism, may be an important contributor to any calcium-lesion relationship. This cross-sectional pilot study examined the association between serum ionized calcium (the physiologically active form of calcium and white matter lesion volumes in a sample of depressed and non-depressed older adults (N = 42; 60 years and older. Serum ionized calcium was determined using an ion-selective electrode technique, while lesion volumes were estimated from magnetic resonance imaging using an automated expectation-maximization segmentation. A linear regression model, controlling for age and group (depression vs. comparison, showed a trend for a positive relationship between serum ionized calcium and white matter lesion volume (β = 4.34, SE = 2.27, t = 1.91, p = 0.063. Subsample analyses with depressed participants showed a significant positive relationship between higher ionic calcium and greater lesion volume (β = 6.41, SE = 2.53, t = 2.53, p = 0.018, but no association was found for non-depressed participants. Sex-specific subsample analyses showed a significant positive relationship between higher calcium and greater lesion volume in men only (β = 7.49, SE = 3.42, t = 2.19, p = 0.041. These preliminary results indicate that serum ionized calcium may be associated with white matter lesions in older adults, particularly among men and individuals with depression. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  17. A prospective study of corpus callosum regional volumes and neurocognitive outcomes following cranial radiation for pediatric brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Arif; Ram, Ashwin N; Kates, Wendy R; Redmond, Kristin J; Wharam, Moody; Mark Mahone, E; Horska, Alena; Terezakis, Stephanie

    2017-06-01

    Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) may disrupt the corpus callosum (CC), which plays an important role in basic motor and cognitive functions. The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to assess changes in CC mid-sagittal areas, CC volumes, and performance on neuropsychological (NP) tests related to the CC in children following CRT. Twelve pediatric patients were treated with CRT for primary brain malignancies. Thirteen age-matched healthy volunteers served as controls. Brain MRIs and NP assessment emphasizing motor dexterity, processing speed, visuomotor integration, and working memory (visual and verbal) were performed at baseline and at 6, 15, and 27 months following completion of CRT. Linear mixed effects (LME) analyses were used to evaluate patient NP performance and changes in regional CC volumes (genu, anterior body, mid-body, posterior body, and splenium) and mid-sagittal areas over time and with radiation doses, correcting for age at CRT start. The mean age at CRT was 9.41 (range 1.2-15.7) years. The median prescription dose was 54 (range 18-59.4) Gy. LME analysis revealed a significant decrease in overall CC volumes over time (p CC regions demonstrated a significant decrease in all regional volumes over time (p motor dexterity and visual working memory (both p CC regional volumes after CRT, with associated decline in neurocognitive function, most notably in manual dexterity, attention, and working memory. Further prospective study of larger cohorts of patients is needed to establish the relationship between CRT dose, neuroanatomical, and functional changes in the CC.

  18. Optimizing viewing procedures of breast tomosynthesis image volumes using eye tracking combined with a free response human observer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lång, Kristina; Zackrisson, Sophia; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nystrom, Marcus; Andersson, Ingvar; Förnvik, Daniel; Tingberg, Anders; Timberg, Pontus

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate four different viewing procedures as part of improving viewing conditions of breast tomosynthesis (BT) image volumes. The procedures consisted of free scroll volume browsing, and a combination of initial cine loops at three different frame rates (9, 14 and 25 fps) terminated upon request followed by free scroll volume browsing. Fifty-five normal BT image volumes in MLO view were collected. In these, simulated lesions (20 masses and 20 clusters of microcalcifications) were randomly inserted, creating four unique image sets for each procedure. Four readers interpreted the cases in a random order. Their task was to locate a lesion, mark and assign a five level confidence scale. The diagnostic accuracy was analyzed using Jackknife Free Receiver Operating Characteristics (JAFROC). Time efficiency and visual search behavior were also investigated using eye tracking. The results indicate that there was no statistically significant difference in JAFROC FOM between the different viewing procedures, however the medium cine loop speed seemed to be the preferred viewing procedure in terms of total analyze time and dwell time.

  19. Infratentorial lesion volume correlates with sensory functional system in multiple sclerosis patients: a 3.0-Tesla MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocchi, C C; Cherubini, A; Luccichenti, G; Grasso, M G; Nocentini, U; Beomonte Zobel, B; Sabatini, U

    2010-02-01

    This study sought to correlate lesion volume in infratentorial areas using 3.0-T proton-density (PD)-weighted images with disability scales and appropriate functional system scores in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We examined 20 consecutive patients (13 women and 7 men) with a median age of 47 years (range 26-70). Neurological examination included the Expanded Disability Status Scale and its functional systems, the Barthel Index (BI) and the Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI). MRI scans were performed on a system operating at 3.0 T using a quadrature birdcage head coil. Acquired images imported as Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) files, and the region of interest (ROI) files were converted to Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (NIfTI) format and normalised to the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) standard template. An automated segmentation algorithm was used to distinguish between supratentorial and infratentorial areas. Normalisation to the magnetisation-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MPRAGE) T1-weighted sequence allowed lesion volume estimation in the different anatomical areas. A significant correlation was found between infratentorial lesion volume and the sensory functional system score (rho=0.76, p=0.002). No significant correlation was found between supratentorial lesion volume and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), RMI and BI scores. The described method, by means of anatomical assignment of MS lesions, allows detection of significant correlation coefficients between clinical and MRI lesion burden in MS patients at the infratentorial level.

  20. Regional Gray Matter Volumes Are Related to Concern About Falling in Older People: A Voxel-Based Morphometric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuerk, Carola; Zhang, Haobo; Sachdev, Perminder; Lord, Stephen R; Brodaty, Henry; Wen, Wei; Delbaere, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Concern about falling is common in older people. Various related psychological constructs as well as poor balance and slow gait have been associated with decreased gray matter (GM) volume in old age. The current study investigates the association between concern about falling and voxel-wise GM volumes. A total of 281 community-dwelling older people aged 70-90 years underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Concern about falling was assessed using Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I). For each participant, voxel-wise GM volumes were generated with voxel-based morphometry and regressed on raw FES-I scores (p concern about falling is negatively associated with brain volumes in areas important for emotional control and for motor control, executive functions and visual processing in a large sample of older men and women. Regression analyses suggest that these relationships were primarily accounted for by psychological factors (generalized anxiety and neuroticism) and not by physical fall risk or vision. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes: large-scale proof-of-concept and roadmap for future studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W; Nichols, Thomas E; Neale, Michael C; McIntosh, Andrew M; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A; Turner, Jessica A; Schwarz, Emanuel; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Shugart, Yin Yao; Ho, Yvonne YW; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between schizophrenia cases and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use genome-wide data to investigate genetic overlap. Here we integrated results from common variant studies of schizophrenia (33,636 cases, 43,008 controls) and volumes of several (mainly subcortical) brain structures (11,840 subjects). We did not find evidence of genetic overlap between schizophrenia risk and subcortical volume measures either at the level of common variant genetic architecture or for single genetic markers. The current study provides proof-of-concept (albeit based on a limited set of structural brain measures), and defines a roadmap for future studies investigating the genetic covariance between structural/functional brain phenotypes and risk for psychiatric disorders. PMID:26854805

  2. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Adult-Driven Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention on Disruptive Behaviors in Public School Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaei, Mohammad; Bakhshi, Enayatolah

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism often demonstrate disruptive behaviors during demanding teaching tasks. Language intervention can be particularly difficult as it involves social and communicative areas, which are challenging for this population. The purpose of this study was to compare two intervention conditions, a naturalistic approach, Pivotal Response…

  3. The effect of pathogen reduction technology (Mirasol) on platelet quality when treated in additive solution with low plasma carryover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L; Winter, K M; Reid, S; Hartkopf-Theis, T; Marschner, S; Goodrich, R P; Marks, D C

    2011-10-01

    Pathogen reduction technologies (PRT) for platelets are now compatible with both plasma and platelet additive solutions (PAS). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of PRT on the platelet storage lesion, in the presence of PAS with low plasma carryover. PRT-treated (Mirasol) and untreated buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates prepared in 28% plasma/PAS-IIIM were evaluated using in vitro cell quality parameters on days 1, 2, 5, and 7 post-collection. At day 5, there were no significant differences between control and PRT treated platelets for swirl, viability, pO(2) , pCO(2) , mean platelet volume and adenosine diphosphate-induced aggregation. PRT treatment did not affect the functional integrity of the mitochondria. However, PRT resulted in a decrease in pH and enhancement of platelet glycolysis and activation, evidenced by increased glucose consumption and lactate production rates, increased expression of CD62P, CD63, annexin V staining and increased secretion of cytokines (P < 0.05). Hypotonic shock response and aggregation in response to collagen were also significantly reduced in PRT treated platelets (P < 0.05). Despite the observed differences in platelet metabolism and activation observed following PRT treatment in PAS and low plasma carryover, the results suggest that treatment and storage of platelets in PAS is no more detrimental to platelets than treatment and storage in plasma. © 2011 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2011 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  4. K Basin spent fuel sludge treatment alternatives study. Volume 2, Technical options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beary, M.M.; Honekemp, J.R.; Winters, N. [Science Applications International Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of irradiated N Reactor fuel are stored in the KE and KW Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Corrosion of the fuel has led to the formation of sludges, both within the storage canisters and on the basin floors. Concern about the degraded condition of the fuel and the potential for leakage from the basins in proximity to the Columbia River has resulted in DOE`s commitment in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to Milestone M-34-00-T08 to remove the fuel and sludges by a December 2002 target date. To support the planning for this expedited removal action, the implications of sludge management under various scenarios are examined. This report, Volume 2 of two volumes, describes the technical options for managing the sludges, including schedule and cost impacts, and assesses strategies for establishing a preferred path.

  5. Constrained reaction volume approach for studying chemical kinetics behind reflected shock waves

    KAUST Repository

    Hanson, Ronald K.

    2013-09-01

    We report a constrained-reaction-volume strategy for conducting kinetics experiments behind reflected shock waves, achieved in the present work by staged filling in a shock tube. Using hydrogen-oxygen ignition experiments as an example, we demonstrate that this strategy eliminates the possibility of non-localized (remote) ignition in shock tubes. Furthermore, we show that this same strategy can also effectively eliminate or minimize pressure changes due to combustion heat release, thereby enabling quantitative modeling of the kinetics throughout the combustion event using a simple assumption of specified pressure and enthalpy. We measure temperature and OH radical time-histories during ethylene-oxygen combustion behind reflected shock waves in a constrained reaction volume and verify that the results can be accurately modeled using a detailed mechanism and a specified pressure and enthalpy constraint. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  6. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 2. Commercial fusion synfuels plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E. (eds.)

    1984-07-01

    Volume 2 contains the following chapters: (1) synfuels; (2) physics base and parameters for TMR; (3) high-temperature two-temperature-zone blanket system for synfuel application; (4) thermochemical hydrogen processes; (5) interfacing the sulfur-iodine cycle; (6) interfacing the reactor with the thermochemical process; (7) tritium control in the blanket system; (8) the sulfur trioxide fluidized-bed composer; (9) preliminary cost estimates; and (10) fuels beyond hydrogen. (MOW)

  7. Statistical modeling of volume of alcohol exposure for epidemiological studies of population health: the US example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gmel Gerrit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor in the global burden of disease, with overall volume of exposure as the principal underlying dimension. Two main sources of data on volume of alcohol exposure are available: surveys and per capita consumption derived from routine statistics such as taxation. As both sources have significant problems, this paper presents an approach that triangulates information from both sources into disaggregated estimates in line with the overall level of per capita consumption. Methods A modeling approach was applied to the US using data from a large and representative survey, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Different distributions (log-normal, gamma, Weibull were used to model consumption among drinkers in subgroups defined by sex, age, and ethnicity. The gamma distribution was used to shift the fitted distributions in line with the overall volume as derived from per capita estimates. Implications for alcohol-attributable fractions were presented, using liver cirrhosis as an example. Results The triangulation of survey data with aggregated per capita consumption data proved feasible and allowed for modeling of alcohol exposure disaggregated by sex, age, and ethnicity. These models can be used in combination with risk relations for burden of disease calculations. Sensitivity analyses showed that the gamma distribution chosen yielded very similar results in terms of fit and alcohol-attributable mortality as the other tested distributions. Conclusions Modeling alcohol consumption via the gamma distribution was feasible. To further refine this approach, research should focus on the main assumptions underlying the approach to explore differences between volume estimates derived from surveys and per capita consumption figures.

  8. New Concept Study for Repair of Bomb-Damaged Runways. Volume I. Concept Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    153 B-10 Experimental Den ity Factor Versus Predicted Density Factor - Crushed Limestone 154 vii LIST OF TABLES Table Title Page 1 Summary...aggregate or wet sand Plaster and aggregate 52 Weight of Material Required to Fill a Volume of 150 Yd 3 * 175 tons of binder 0 75 tons of filler Cost a Low...tons inorganic or 45 tons of polymer * 100 tons filler Cost * Low to high Advantages * Can be designed for maximizing compaction * Excellent adhesion

  9. Interface profile studies in immiscible and partially miscible binary polymer blends from free volume measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, P.; Meghala, D.; Pasang, T.; Raj, J. M.; Ranganathaiah, C.; Williams, J. F.

    2013-06-01

    The diffused interface widths in an immiscible and a partially miscible polymer blend namely Polyvinyl chloride/Ethylene vinyl acetate (PVC/EVA) and Polystyrene/Polymethylmethacrylate (PS/PMMA) are experimentally measured and reported here. A new empirical relation found between hydrodynamic interaction parameter α derived from free volume data and the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter χ is used to construct density profile across the interface to derive the interface width in above two binary blends.

  10. STUDI FOTOGRAMETRI JARAK DEKAT DALAM PEMODELAN 3D DAN ANALISIS VOLUME OBJEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defry Mulia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fotogrametri adalah sebuah proses untuk memperoleh informasi metris mengenai sebuah objek melalui pengukuran yang dibuat pada hasil foto baik dari udara maupun dari permukaan tanah. Interpretasi foto didefinisikan sebagai ekstraksi dari informasi kualitatif mengenai foto udara dari sebuah objek oleh analisis visual manusia dan evaluasi fotografi (Edward dan James 2004. Dalam disiplin ilmu fotogrametri dipelajari berbagai metode untuk mengklasifikasikan dan menginterpretasi foto udara dengan berbagai metode. Pengolahan data dilakukan dengan pengambilan gambar objek menggunakan kamera non metric, pengukuran menggunakan Electronic Total Station (ETS dan roll meter yang kemudian dilakukan kalibrasi kamera menggunakan Sotware Photomodeler Scanner untuk mendapatkan parameter internal kamera. Kemudian melakukukan penandaan titik pada foto sampai akhirnya pembentukan objek 3 dimensi dan volume objek. Selanjutnya melakukan perbandingan dengan hasil pengolahan data thacymetri. Hasil penetilian ini menunjukkan bahwa data foto pada fotogrametri jarak dekat belum bisa dijadikan acuan dalam proses pembentukan 3 dimensi maupun perhitungan volumenya. Perkiraan volume pada objek lemari menggunakan metode fotogrametri jarak dekat adalah 0,903 m3 dan dengan menggunakan rol meter adalah 0,192 m3. Sementata itu, volume objek gundukan berumput menggunakan metode thacymetri adalah 162,164987 m3 dan luas adalah 30 m2.

  11. Epicardial fat volume is associated with coronary microvascular response in healthy subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborit, Bénédicte; Kober, Frank; Jacquier, Alexis; Moro, Pierre Julien; Flavian, Antonin; Quilici, Jacques; Cuisset, Thomas; Simeoni, Umberto; Cozzone, Patrick; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Clément, Karine; Bernard, Monique; Dutour, Anne

    2012-06-01

    Epicardial fat (EF) is an active ectopic fat depot, which has been associated with coronary atherosclerosis, and which could early influence endothelial function. We thus investigated the relationship between EF and endothelium-dependent vasoreactivity of the coronary microcirculation, in highly selected healthy volunteers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was determined by measuring coronary sinus flow with velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3T. We measured MBF at baseline and in response to sympathetic stimulation by cold pressor testing (CPT) in 30 healthy volunteers with normal left ventricular (LV) function (age 22 ± 4 years, BMI = 21.3 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)). EF volume was volumetrically assessed by manual delineation on short-axis views. CPT was applied by immersing one foot in ice water for 4 min. Mean EF volume was 56 ± 26 ml and mean LV mass 100 ± 28 g. CPT significantly increased heart rate (HR) by 32 ± 19%, systolic blood pressure by 14 ± 10%, and rate-pressure product by 45 ± 25%, P glycemic parameters. In multivariate analysis, adiponectin and EF volume remained both independently associated with ΔMBF. A high EF amount is associated with a lower coronary microvascular response, suggesting that EF could early influence endothelial function.

  12. Effects of clonidine and sumatriptan on postprandial gastric volume response, antral contraction waves and emptying: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, M A; Fox, M R; Steingoetter, A; Menne, D; Pal, A; Fruehauf, H; Kaufman, E; Forras-Kaufman, Z; Brasseur, J G; Goetze, O; Hebbard, G S; Boesiger, P; Thumshirn, M; Fried, M; Schwizer, W

    2009-09-01

    Gastric emptying (GE) may be driven by tonic contraction of the stomach ('pressure pump') or antral contraction waves (ACW) ('peristaltic pump'). The mechanism underlying GE was studied by contrasting the effects of clonidine (alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist) and sumatriptan (5-HT(1) agonist) on gastric function. Magnetic resonance imaging provided non-invasive assessment of gastric volume responses, ACW and GE in nine healthy volunteers. Investigations were performed in the right decubitus position after ingestion of 500 mL of 10% glucose (200 kcal) under placebo [0.9% NaCl intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC)], clonidine [0.01 mg min(-1) IV, max 0.1 mg (placebo SC)] or sumatriptan [6 mg SC (placebo IV)]. Total gastric volume (TGV) and gastric content volume (GCV) were assessed every 5 min for 90 min, interspersed with dynamic scan sequences to measure ACW activity. During gastric filling, TGV increased with GCV indicating that meal volume dictates initial relaxation. Gastric contents volume continued to increase over the early postprandial period due to gastric secretion surpassing initial gastric emptying. Clonidine diminished this early increase in GCV, reduced gastric relaxation, decreased ACW frequency compared with placebo. Gastric emptying (GE) rate increased. Sumatriptan had no effect on initial GCV, but prolonged gastric relaxation and disrupted ACW activity. Gastric emptying was delayed. There was a negative correlation between gastric relaxation and GE rate (r(2 )=49%, P < 0.001), whereas the association between ACW frequency and GE rate was inconsistent and weak (r2=15%, P = 0.05). These findings support the hypothesis that nutrient liquid emptying is primarily driven by the 'pressure pump' mechanism.

  13. Association between changes in cerebral grey matter volume and postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients: study protocol for a prospective observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettel, Nicolai; Mistridis, Panagiota; Berres, Manfred; Reinhardt, Julia; Stippich, Christoph; Monsch, Andreas U; Steiner, Luzius A

    2016-11-25

    Cognitive decline is frequently observed in elderly patients after major surgery. The pathophysiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) remains unclear. The aim of our investigation is to identify potential associations between brain volume change and POCD in elderly patients undergoing major surgery. This is a prospective observational cohort study approved by the regional ethics board. We intend to compare specific brain volumes (hippocampus, lateral ventricle, total grey matter volume, regional cortical thickness) on magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive functions determined by a neuropsychological assessment battery in 70 study participants aged ≥65 years before and 3 and 12 months after major noncardiac surgery. Thirty volunteers will be included as matched nonsurgical controls. The primary endpoint of the study is the change in hippocampal volume over time in patients with and without POCD. The secondary endpoint is the correlation between the change in cerebral volume and cognitive function. We will follow the STROBE guidelines for reporting the results of observational studies. We hypothesize that surgery under general anesthesia is associated with a loss of cerebral grey matter, and that the degree of postoperative cognitive dysfunction correlates with the extent of atrophy in areas of the brain that are relevant for cognitive functions. The validation of reproducible anatomical biomarkers, such as the specific brain volumes examined in our cohort, may serve to evaluate the effect of preventive strategies and treatment interventions for POCD in follow-up studies. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02045004 . Registered 22 January 2014. Kofam.ch SNCTP000001751. Registered 21 April 2016 (retrospectively registered).

  14. Decreased gray matter volume of the medial orbitofrontal cortex in panic disorder with agoraphobia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kyoung-Sae; Ham, Byung-Joo; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Leen; Kim, Yong-Ku; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung

    2013-08-01

    Patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) have clinical symptoms such as the fear of being outside or of open spaces from which escape would be difficult. Although recent neurobiological studies have suggested that fear conditioning and extinction are associated with PDA, no study has examined the possible structural abnormalities in patients with PDA. This preliminary study compares the gray matter volume among patients with PDA, those with panic disorder without agoraphobia (PDW), and healthy controls (HC) using high-resolution 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Compared with HC, patients with PDA showed decreased gray matter volume in their left medial orbitofrontal gyrus. However, differences were not found in the gray matter volumes of patients with PDW and whole panic disorder compared with HC. These findings suggest that the phobic avoidance found in patients with PDA arise from abnormalities in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, which plays an important role in fear extinction. Future studies should investigate the neuroanatomical substrates of PDA and distinguish them from those of PDW. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A study of Channeling, Volume Reflection and Volume Capture of 3.35 - 14.0 GeV Electrons in a bent Silicon Crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wistisen, T. N. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark); Uggerhoj, U. I. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark); Wienands, U. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Markiewicz, T. W. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Noble, R. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Benson, B. L. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Smith, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bagli, E. [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy); Bandiera, L. [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy); Germogli, G. [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy); Guidi, V. [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy); Mazzolari, A. [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy); Holtzapple, R. [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Tucker, S. [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)

    2015-12-03

    We present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111) plane in a strongly bent quasi-mosaic silicon crystal. Additionally, these phenomena were investigated at 5 energies: 3.35, 4.2, 6.3, 10.5 and 14.0 GeV with a crystal with bending radius of 0.15m, corresponding to curvatures of 0.070, 0.088, 0.13, 0.22 and 0.29 times the critical curvature respectively. We have extracted important parameters describing the channeling process such as the dechanneling length, the angle of volume reflection, the surface transmission and the widths of the distribution of channeled particles parallel and orthogonal to the plane.

  16. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume II: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This document contains Volume II of the Closure Study for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Calcined Solids Storage Facility. This volume contains draft information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the four options described in Volume I: (1) Risk-Based Clean Closure; NRC Class C fill, (2) Risk-Based Clean Closure; Clean fill, (3) Closure to landfill Standards; NRC Class C fill, and (4) Closure to Landfill Standards; Clean fill.

  17. Reservoir volume optimization and performance evaluation of rooftop catchment systems in arid regions: A case study of Birjand, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinat Komeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the performance of rooftop catchment systems in securing non-potable water supply in Birjand, located in an arid area in southeastern Iran. The rooftop catchment systems at seven study sites of different residential buildings were simulated for dry, normal, and wet water years, using 31-year rainfall records. The trial and error approach and mass diagram method were employed to optimize the volume of reservoirs in five different operation scenarios. Results showed that, during the dry water year from 2000 to 2001, for reservoirs with volumes of 200–20000 L, the proportion of days that could be secured for non-portable water supply was on average computed to be 16.4%–32.6% across all study sites. During the normal water year from 2009 to 2010 and the wet water year from 1995 to 1996, for reservoirs with volumes of 200–20000 L, the proportions were 20.8%–69.6% and 26.8%–80.3%, respectively. Therefore, a rooftop catchment system showed a high potential to meet a significant portion of non-potable water demand in the Birjand climatic region. Reservoir volume optimization using the mass diagram method produced results consistent with those obtained with the trial and error approach, except at sites #1, #2, and #5. At these sites, the trial and error approach performed better than the mass diagram method due to relatively high water consumption. It is concluded that the rooftop catchment system is applicable under the same climatic conditions as the study area, and it can be used as a drought mitigation strategy as well.

  18. Reference data on muscle volumes of healthy human pelvis and lower extremity muscles: an in vivo magnetic resonance imaging feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lube, Juliane; Cotofana, Sebastian; Bechmann, Ingo; Milani, Thomas L; Özkurtul, Orkun; Sakai, Tatsuo; Steinke, Hanno; Hammer, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Muscle volumes are of crucial interest when attempting to analyze individual physical performance and disease- or age-related alterations in muscle morphology. However, very little reference data are available in the literature on pelvis and lower extremity muscle volumes originating from healthy and young individuals. Furthermore, it is of interest if representative muscle volumes, covering large anatomical regions, can be obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a setting similar to the clinical routine. Our objective was therefore to provide encompassing, bilateral, 3-T MRI-based datasets on muscle volumes of the pelvis and the lower limb muscles. T1-weighted 3-T MRI records were obtained bilaterally from six young and healthy participants. Three-dimensional volumes were compiled from 28 muscles and muscle groups of each participant before the muscle volumes were computed. Muscle volumes were obtained from 28 muscles and muscle groups of the pelvis and lower extremity. Volumes were larger in male than in female participants. Volumes of the dominant and non-dominant sides were similar in both genders. The obtained results were in line with volumetric data obtained from smaller anatomical areas, thus extending the available datasets. This study provides an encompassing and feasible approach to obtain data on the muscle volumes of pelvic and limb muscles of healthy, young, and physically active individuals. The respective data form a basis to determine effects of therapeutic approaches, progression of diseases, or technical applications like automated segmentation algorithms applied to different populations.

  19. Microstructure Optimization of Dual-Phase Steels Using a Representative Volume Element and a Response Surface Method: Parametric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgasam, Tarek M.; Zbib, Hussein M.

    2017-12-01

    Dual-phase (DP) steels have received widespread attention for their low density and high strength. This low density is of value to the automotive industry for the weight reduction it offers and the attendant fuel savings and emission reductions. Recent studies on developing DP steels showed that the combination of strength/ductility could be significantly improved when changing the volume fraction and grain size of phases in the microstructure depending on microstructure properties. Consequently, DP steel manufacturers are interested in predicting microstructure properties and in optimizing microstructure design. In this work, a microstructure-based approach using representative volume elements (RVEs) was developed. The approach examined the flow behavior of DP steels using virtual tension tests with an RVE to identify specific mechanical properties. Microstructures with varied martensite and ferrite grain sizes, martensite volume fractions, carbon content, and morphologies were studied in 3D RVE approaches. The effect of these microstructure parameters on a combination of strength/ductility of DP steels was examined numerically using the finite element method by implementing a dislocation density-based elastic-plastic constitutive model, and a Response surface methodology to determine the optimum conditions for a required combination of strength/ductility. The results from the numerical simulations are compared with experimental results found in the literature. The developed methodology proves to be a powerful tool for studying the effect and interaction of key microstructural parameters on strength and ductility and thus can be used to identify optimum microstructural conditions.

  20. Efficacy of High-volume Evacuator in Aerosol Reduction: Truth or Myth? A Clinical and Microbiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh Desarda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Basic periodontal treatment aims at eliminating supra- and sub-gingival plaque and establishing conditions which will allow effective self-performed plaque control. This aim is primarily achieved with sonic and ultrasonic scalers. However, generation of bacterial aerosols during these procedures is of great concern to patients, the dentist and the dental assistant. The aim of this study was to compare the reduction in aerosol with and without high-volume evacuator through a microbiological study. Materials and methods. For this clinical study a fumigated closed operatory was selected. Maxillary incisors and canines were selected as an area for scaling. Piezoelectric ultrasonic scaling was performed in the absence and in the presence of a high-volume evacuator at 12 and 20 inches from the patient's oral cavity. In both groups scaling was carried out for 10 minutes. Nutrient agar plates were exposed for a total of 20 minutes. After this procedure, nutrient agar plates were incubated in an incubator at 37°C for 24 hours. The next day the nutrient agar plates were examined for colony forming units by a single microbiologist. Results. The results showed no statistically significant differences in colony forming units (CFU with and without the use of a high-volume evacuator either at 12 or 20 inches from the patient’s oral cavity. Conclusion. It was concluded that high-volume evacuator, when used as a separate unit without any modification, is not effective in reducing aerosol counts and environmental contamination.

  1. Deriving airborne laser scanning based computational canopy volume for forest biomass and allometry studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauhkonen, Jari; Næsset, Erik; Gobakken, Terje

    2014-10-01

    A computational canopy volume (CCV) based on airborne laser scanning (ALS) data is proposed to improve predictions of forest biomass and other related attributes like stem volume and basal area. An approach to derive the CCV based on computational geometry, topological connectivity and numerical optimization was tested with sparse-density, plot-level ALS data acquired from 40 field sample plots of 500-1000 m2 located in a boreal forest in Norway. The CCV had a high correspondence with the biomass attributes considered when derived from optimized filtrations, i.e. ordered sets of simplices belonging to the triangulations based on the point data. Coefficients of determination (R2) between the CCV and total above-ground biomass, canopy biomass, stem volume, and basal area were 0.88-0.89, 0.89, 0.83-0.97, and 0.88-0.92, respectively, depending on the applied filtration. The magnitude of the required filtration was found to increase according to an increasing basal area, which indicated a possibility to predict this magnitude by means of ALS-based height and density metrics. A simple prediction model provided CCVs which had R2 of 0.77-0.90 with the aforementioned forest attributes. The derived CCVs always produced complementary information and were mainly able to improve the predictions of forest biomass relative to models based on the height and density metrics, yet only by 0-1.9 percentage points in terms of relative root mean squared error. Possibilities to improve the CCVs by a further analysis of topological persistence are discussed.

  2. Chronic Use of Aspirin and Total White Matter Lesion Volume: Results from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Andrea; Ammann, Eric; Espeland, Mark A; Kelley, Brendan J; Manson, JoAnn E; Wallace, Robert; Robinson, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between aspirin and subclinical cerebrovascular heath, we evaluated the effect of chronic aspirin use on white matter lesions (WML) volume among women. Chronic aspirin use was assessed in 1365 women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Differences in WML volumes between aspirin users and nonusers were assessed with linear mixed models. A number of secondary analyses were performed, including lobe-specific analyses, subgroup analyses based on participants' overall risk of cerebrovascular disease, and a dose-response relationship analysis. The mean age of the women at magnetic resonance imaging examination was 77.6 years. Sixty-one percent of participants were chronic aspirin users. After adjusting for demographic variables and comorbidities, chronic aspirin use was nonsignificantly associated with 4.8% (95% CI: -6.8%, 17.9%) larger WML volumes. These null findings were confirmed in secondary and sensitivity analyses, including an active comparator evaluation where aspirin users were compared to users of nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen. There was a nonsignificant difference in WML volumes between aspirin users and nonusers. Further, our results suggest that chronic aspirin use may not have a clinically significant effect on WML volumes in women. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Multi-Rate Secure Processor Terminal Architecture Study. Volume 1. Terminal Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    PROM via the D-bus. Outputs from the ALU pass over the Y-bus to either the MAR, MPR, the memory data write register (MDW), the data output port or the...Terminal Controller is contained in Volume II (classified) of this report. 3.5 Mechanical Packaging Concept The mechanical packaging aproach for the...primarily used to route data outputs from the ALU. There are four program selectable receivers on the Y Bus. 1. The Memory Data Write Register 2. The

  4. Correlated volume-energy fluctuations of phospholipid membranes: A simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ulf. R.; Peters, Günther H.J.; Schröder, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    membranes, showing a similar picture. The cause of the observed strong correlations is identified by splitting volume and energy into contributions from tails, heads, and water, and showing that the slow volume−energy fluctuations derive from van der Waals interactions of the tail region; they are thus...... analogous to the similar strong correlations recently observed in computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones and other simple van der Waals type liquids (U. R. Pedersen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008, 100, 015701). The strong correlations reported here confirm one crucial assumption of a recent theory...

  5. Remedial Investigation Report. Volume 7. Eastern Study Area, Section 1. 0, Version 3.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    Halogenated Organics 3-48 3.3.2 Volatile Hydrocarbons and Related Compounds 3-52 3.3.3 Volatile Aromatic Oranics 3-53 3.3.4 Organosulfur Compounds. Mustard...Agent Related 3-56 3.3.5 Organosulfur Compounds. Herbicide Related 3-59 3.3.6 Organophosphorus Compounds. GB-Agent Related 3-61 3.3.7...Aromatic Organics ESA 3.4-4 Potentially Contaminated Soil Areas and Volumes for Organosulfur Compounds, Mustard-Agent Related ESA 3.4-5 Potentially

  6. Radiation doses in volume-of-interest breast computed tomography--A Monte Carlo simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chao-Jen; Zhong, Yuncheng; Yi, Ying; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C

    2015-06-01

    Cone beam breast computed tomography (breast CT) with true three-dimensional, nearly isotropic spatial resolution has been developed and investigated over the past decade to overcome the problem of lesions overlapping with breast anatomical structures on two-dimensional mammographic images. However, the ability of breast CT to detect small objects, such as tissue structure edges and small calcifications, is limited. To resolve this problem, the authors proposed and developed a volume-of-interest (VOI) breast CT technique to image a small VOI using a higher radiation dose to improve that region's visibility. In this study, the authors performed Monte Carlo simulations to estimate average breast dose and average glandular dose (AGD) for the VOI breast CT technique. Electron-Gamma-Shower system code-based Monte Carlo codes were used to simulate breast CT. The Monte Carlo codes estimated were validated using physical measurements of air kerma ratios and point doses in phantoms with an ion chamber and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters. The validated full cone x-ray source was then collimated to simulate half cone beam x-rays to image digital pendant-geometry, hemi-ellipsoidal, homogeneous breast phantoms and to estimate breast doses with full field scans. 13-cm in diameter, 10-cm long hemi-ellipsoidal homogeneous phantoms were used to simulate median breasts. Breast compositions of 25% and 50% volumetric glandular fractions (VGFs) were used to investigate the influence on breast dose. The simulated half cone beam x-rays were then collimated to a narrow x-ray beam with an area of 2.5 × 2.5 cm(2) field of view at the isocenter plane and to perform VOI field scans. The Monte Carlo results for the full field scans and the VOI field scans were then used to estimate the AGD for the VOI breast CT technique. The ratios of air kerma ratios and dose measurement results from the Monte Carlo simulation to those from the physical measurements were 0.97 ± 0.03 and 1.10

  7. Radiation doses in volume-of-interest breast computed tomography—A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chao-Jen, E-mail: cjlai3711@gmail.com; Zhong, Yuncheng; Yi, Ying; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C. [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Cone beam breast computed tomography (breast CT) with true three-dimensional, nearly isotropic spatial resolution has been developed and investigated over the past decade to overcome the problem of lesions overlapping with breast anatomical structures on two-dimensional mammographic images. However, the ability of breast CT to detect small objects, such as tissue structure edges and small calcifications, is limited. To resolve this problem, the authors proposed and developed a volume-of-interest (VOI) breast CT technique to image a small VOI using a higher radiation dose to improve that region’s visibility. In this study, the authors performed Monte Carlo simulations to estimate average breast dose and average glandular dose (AGD) for the VOI breast CT technique. Methods: Electron–Gamma-Shower system code-based Monte Carlo codes were used to simulate breast CT. The Monte Carlo codes estimated were validated using physical measurements of air kerma ratios and point doses in phantoms with an ion chamber and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters. The validated full cone x-ray source was then collimated to simulate half cone beam x-rays to image digital pendant-geometry, hemi-ellipsoidal, homogeneous breast phantoms and to estimate breast doses with full field scans. 13-cm in diameter, 10-cm long hemi-ellipsoidal homogeneous phantoms were used to simulate median breasts. Breast compositions of 25% and 50% volumetric glandular fractions (VGFs) were used to investigate the influence on breast dose. The simulated half cone beam x-rays were then collimated to a narrow x-ray beam with an area of 2.5 × 2.5 cm{sup 2} field of view at the isocenter plane and to perform VOI field scans. The Monte Carlo results for the full field scans and the VOI field scans were then used to estimate the AGD for the VOI breast CT technique. Results: The ratios of air kerma ratios and dose measurement results from the Monte Carlo simulation to those from the physical

  8. X Chromosome inactivation pattern is not associated with interindividual variations in thyroid volume: a study of euthyroid danish female twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hansen, Pia Skov; Bennedbak, Finn Noe

    2009-01-01

    Ahigher frequency of skewed X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is found in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) than in controls. Although goitre is often present in AITD, a recent study failed to show an association between XCI and clinically overt nontoxic goitre. However, the etiology...... a statistically significant association between XCI and thyroid volume: Regression coefficient (beta) = 0.023 (95% confidence interval, -0.062-0.108), p = 0.592 and beta = 0.038 (-0.080-0.156), p = 0.521, respectively. Controlling for potential confounders such as zygosity, age, TSH, smoking habits and use...... of oral contraceptives did not change the findings. In conclusion, in a sample of euthyroid Danish female twins, we found no evidence of a relationship between XCI pattern and thyroid volume....

  9. Regional Prefrontal Cortex Gray Matter Volumes in Youth at Familial Risk for Schizophrenia from the Harvard Adolescent High Risk Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Isabelle M.; Makris, Nikos; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Hodge, Steven M.; Brown, Ariel; Kennedy, David; Caviness, Verne S.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Seidman, Larry J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Regional prefrontal cortex gray matter reductions have been identified in schizophrenia, likely reflecting a combination of genetic vulnerability and disease effects. Few morphometric studies to date have examined regional prefrontal abnormalities in non-psychotic biological relatives who have not passed through the age range of peak risk for onset of psychosis. We conducted a region-of-interest morphometric study of prefrontal subregions in adolescent and young adult relatives of schizophrenia patients. Methods Twenty-seven familial high-risk (FHR) first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and forty-eight control subjects without a family history of psychosis (ages 13–28) underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla. The prefrontal cortex was parcellated into polar, dorsolateral, ventrolateral, ventromedial and orbital subregions. The Chapman scales measured subpsychotic symptoms. General linear models examined associations of prefrontal subregion volumes with familial risk and subpsychotic symptoms. Results FHR subjects had significantly reduced bilateral ventromedial prefrontal and frontal pole gray matter volumes compared with controls. Ventromedial volume was significantly negatively correlated with magical ideation and anhedonia scores in FHR subjects. Conclusions Selective, regional prefrontal gray matter reductions may differentially mark genetic vulnerability and early symptom processes among non-psychotic young adults at familial risk for schizophrenia. PMID:20705433

  10. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 8. Repository preconceptual design studies: salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 8 ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Salt,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in salt. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/9, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Salt.''

  11. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 10. Repository preconceptual design studies: granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 10 ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Granite,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in granite. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/11, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Granite.''

  12. Comparison of volume-selective z-shim and conventional EPI in fMRI studies using face stimuli

    CERN Document Server

    Fukunaga, Hu Cheng Srikanth Padmala Rena

    2013-01-01

    Single-shot gradient recalled echo planar imaging (EPI) is the primary tool for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The image often suffers from signal drop near the air-tissue interface, such as the amygdala and regions of the orbitofrontal lobe. An effective way to correct for this type of artifact is by applying multi-shot EPI using different z-shimming. Unfortunately, the scanning efficiency is significantly lowered. More recently, a new technique called volume-selective z-shim was proposed to implement z-shim compensation to only specific slices with large susceptibility effects. The high imaging efficiency of volume selective z-shim makes it possible to substitute conventional EPI for whole brain studies. In this study two fMRI experiments were conducted to compare volume- selective z-shim and conventional EPI while subjects performed tasks on face stimuli. The comparison was focused on three brain regions: amygdala, hippocampus, and fusiform gyrus. Our results indicate that despite fewer volu...

  13. Trauma of the Frontal Region Is Influenced by the Volume of Frontal Sinuses. A Finite Element Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srbislav S. Pajic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy of frontal sinuses varies individually, from differences in volume and shape to a rare case when the sinuses are absent. However, there are scarce data related to influence of these variations on impact generated fracture pattern. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of frontal sinus volume on the stress distribution and fracture pattern in the frontal region. The study included four representative Finite Element models of the skull. Reference model was built on the basis of computed tomography scans of a human head with normally developed frontal sinuses. By modifying the reference model, three additional models were generated: a model without sinuses, with hypoplasic, and with hyperplasic sinuses. A 7.7 kN force was applied perpendicularly to the forehead of each model, in order to simulate a frontal impact. The results demonstrated that the distribution of impact stress in frontal region depends on the frontal sinus volume. The anterior sinus wall showed the highest fragility in case with hyperplasic sinuses, whereas posterior wall/inner plate showed more fragility in cases with hypoplasic and undeveloped sinuses. Well-developed frontal sinuses might, through absorption of the impact energy by anterior wall, protect the posterior wall and intracranial contents.

  14. Prefrontal cerebral blood volume patterns while playing video games--a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Nagano, Miki; Yamashita, Yushiro; Takashima, Sachio; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2006-06-01

    Video game playing is an attractive form of entertainment among school-age children. Although this activity reportedly has many adverse effects on child development, these effects remain controversial. To investigate the effect of video game playing on regional cerebral blood volume, we measured cerebral hemoglobin concentrations using near-infrared spectroscopy in 12 normal volunteers consisting of six children and six adults. A Hitachi Optical Topography system was used to measure hemoglobin changes. For all subjects, the video game Donkey Kong was played on a Game Boy device. After spectroscopic probes were positioned on the scalp near the target brain regions, the participants were asked to play the game for nine periods of 15s each, with 15-s rest intervals between these task periods. Significant increases in bilateral prefrontal total-hemoglobin concentrations were observed in four of the adults during video game playing. On the other hand, significant decreases in bilateral prefrontal total-hemoglobin concentrations were seen in two of the children. A significant positive correlation between mean oxy-hemoglobin changes in the prefrontal region and those in the bilateral motor cortex area was seen in adults. Playing video games gave rise to dynamic changes in cerebral blood volume in both age groups, while the difference in the prefrontal oxygenation patterns suggested an age-dependent utilization of different neural circuits during video game tasks.

  15. Volume holographic reflection endoscope for in-vivo ovarian cancer clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, I. D.; Gordon, M.; Brownlee, J. W.; Barton, J. K.; Kostuk, R. K.

    2014-03-01

    We present the design for an endoscopic system capable of imaging tissues of the ovary at two selected imaging depths simultaneously. The method utilizes a multiplexed volume hologram to select wavefronts from different depths within the tissue. It is the first demonstration of an endoscopic volume holographic imaging system. The endoscope uses both gradient index (GRIN) optical components and off the shelf singlet lenses to relay an image from the distal tip to the proximal end. The endoscope has a minimum diameter of 3.75 mm. The system length is 30 cm which is connected to a handle that includes the holographic components and optics that relay the image to a camera. Preliminary evaluation of the endoscope was performed with tissue phantoms and calibrated targets, which shows lateral resolution ≍ 4 μm at an operating wavelength of 660 nm. The hologram is recorded in phenanthraquinone doped poly methacrylate and is designed to produce images from two tissue depths. One image is obtained at the tissue surface and the second 70 μm below the surface. This method requires no mechanical scanning and acquires an image at the camera frame rate. The preliminary ex-vivo results show good correlation with histology sections of the same tissue sections.

  16. A Study of Low-Wage Workers and Their Response to High Intensity Training. Volume III, Part 1 and Part 2: Appendices B 1-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Earl E.

    This document is the last of a three-volume study designed to examine low-wage, low-skilled workers, within the context of their work environment, and to develop ways of measuring the effects of skill advancement training upon the program participants. Volume III, Parts I and II, contains modified employee pre- and post-test interview schedules…

  17. Comparison of pharyngeal airway volume among different vertical skeletal patterns: a cone-beam computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikoglu, Mevlut; Bayram, Mehmet; Sekerci, Ahmet E; Buyuk, Suleyman K; Toy, Ebubekir

    2014-09-01

    To test the null hypothesis that there are no significant differences in pharyngeal airway volumes among adult patients with different vertical skeletal patterns and a clinically normal sagittal skeletal pattern using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The study sample consisted of 100 adult patients (45 men and 55 women; mean age  =  24.0 ± 5.3 years) with a normal sagittal skeletal pattern divided into three groups according to the vertical skeletal patterns: high angle (32 patients: 15 women and 17 men), low angle (34 patients: 14 women and 20 men), and normal angle (34 patients: 16 women and 18 men) groups. Nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and total airway volumes of patients in all vertical groups were calculated. Group differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests. Nasopharyngeal airway volume in the high-angle group (mean  =  6067.9 ± 1693.9 mm(3)) was significantly lower than that of the low- and normal-angle groups (P skeletal vertical patterns.

  18. An Experimental Study on the Macroscopic Spray Characteristics of Biodiesel and Diesel in a Constant Volume Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhan Xie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the macroscopic spray characteristics of different 0%–100% blends of biodiesel derived from drainage oil and diesel (BD0, BD20, BD50, BD80, BD100, such as spray tip penetration, average tip velocity at penetration, spray angle, average spray angle, spray evolution process, spray area and spray volume under different injection pressures (60, 70, 80, 90, 100 MPa and ambient pressures (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 MPa using a common rail system equipped with a constant volume chamber. The characteristic data was extracted from spray images grabbed by a high speed visualization system. The results showed that the ambient pressure and injection pressure had significant effects on the spray characteristics. As the ambient pressure increased, the spray angle increased, while the spray tip penetration and the peak of average tip velocity decreased. As the injection pressure increased, the spray tip penetration, spray angle, spray area and spray volume increased. The increasing blend ratio of biodiesel brought about a shorter spray tip penetration and a smaller spray angle compared with those of diesel. This is due to the comparatively higher viscosity and surface tension of biodiesel, which enhanced the friction effect between fuel and the injector nozzle surface and inhibited the breakup of the liquid jet.

  19. Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Retrospective Cohort Study of the Predictive Value of Perfusion Defect Volume Measured With Dual-Energy CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Dong Jin; Hur, Jin; Han, Kyung Hwa; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Young Jin; Kwon, Woocheol; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2017-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate dual-energy CT findings predictive of clinical outcome and to determine the incremental risk stratification benefit of dual-energy CT findings compared with CT ventricular diameter ratio in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. A retrospective evaluation was conducted of the cases of 172 patients with acute pulmonary embolism who underwent dual-energy CT. Ventricular diameter ratio and relative perfusion defect volume were measured. The primary endpoints were death within 30 days and pulmonary embolism-related death. A ventricular diameter ratio of 1 or greater was associated with increased risk of death within 30 days (hazard ratio, 3.822; p = 0.002) and pulmonary embolism-related death (hazard ratio, 18.051; p pulmonary embolism-related death (hazard ratio, 1.046; p = 0.017). However, the addition of relative perfusion defect volume to ventricular diameter ratio had no added benefit for prediction of death of any cause within 30 days (concordance statistic, 0.833 vs 0.815; p = 0.187) or pulmonary embolism-related death (concordance statistic, 0.873 vs 0.874; p = 0.866). Compared with ventricular diameter ratio alone, lung perfusion defect volume had no statistically significant added benefit for prediction of death of any cause within 30 days or of pulmonary embolism-related death among patients with acute PE.

  20. An artificial intelligence approach for modeling volume and fresh weight of callus - A case study of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Ali; Fadavi, Ali; Mortazavian, Seyed Mohammad Mahdi

    2016-05-21

    Cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linn.) is valued for its aroma and its medicinal and therapeutic properties. A supervised feedforward artificial neural network (ANN) trained with back propagation algorithms, was applied to predict fresh weight and volume of Cuminum cyminum L. calli. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate input/output dependency of the eleven input parameters. Area, feret diameter, minor axis length, perimeter and weighted density parameters were chosen as input variables. Different training algorithms, transfer functions, number of hidden nodes and training iteration were studied to find out the optimum ANN structure. The network with conjugate gradient fletcher-reeves (CGF) algorithm, tangent sigmoid transfer function, 17 hidden nodes and 2000 training epochs was selected as the final ANN model. The final model was able to predict the fresh weight and volume of calli more precisely relative to multiple linear models. The results were confirmed by R(2)≥0.89, R(i)≥0.94 and T value ≥0.86. The results for both volume and fresh weight values showed that almost 90% of data had an acceptable absolute error of ±5%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Gum Chewing on the Volume and pH of Gastric Contents: A Prospective Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudra, Basavana Gouda; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Carlin, Augustus; Manjunath, Amit K; Reihmer, Joel; Gouda, Gowri B; Ginsberg, Gregory G

    2015-04-01

    Insufficient fasting prior to endoscopic procedures performed under sedation may result in potential aspiration of gastric contents. Fasting as per ASA guidelines is recommended prior to these procedures. However, the effect of chewing gum on fasting status has been a subject of debate and often leads to procedural delays. Evaluation of the effect of chewing gum on the gastric volume and pH. In this randomized controlled prospective observer blinded trail, ASA I-III patients aged more than 18 years scheduled for esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or a combined EGD and colonoscopy under conscious sedation were studied. Patients randomized to the chewing gum group (Group-C) were allowed to chew gum until just before the start of their procedure; the remaining patients were included into Group-NC. After sedation and endoscope insertion, stomach contents were aspirated under vision of a gastroenterologist (blinded to groups). Volume and pH of gastric contents aspirated from 67 patients (34 in Group-C and 33 in Group-NC) were analyzed. The demographic parameters of the groups were comparable. Gastric volume (median-interquartile range) was statistically higher in Group-C (13 ml (7.75-40.75) vs Group-NC 6 ml (1.00-14.00) (P pH in both groups was comparable: 2.84 ± 2.11 in Group-C and 3.79 ± 2.53 in Group-NC (P = 0.141). Although our results show gastric volume in patients chewing gum was statistically higher, clinical relevance of such a small difference is questionable. Thus patients who chewed gum inadvertently prior to procedure should not be denied or delayed administration of sedative and anesthetic medications.

  2. Assessment of the optimum section thickness for the estimation of liver volume using magnetic resonance images: A stereological gold standard study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Bunyamin [Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Ondokuz Mayis University, 55139 Samsun (Turkey)]. E-mail: bsahin@omu.edu.tr; Ergur, Hayati [Akademi Radiological Diagnosis Center, 55030 Samsun (Turkey)

    2006-01-15

    Estimation of liver volume using magnetic resonance (MR) images has been described previously. We have, however, not found a gold standard study, which analyzes the effect of section thickness on the estimation of liver volume. In the present study, five normal cadaveric livers were scanned in the horizontal plane using a 1.5 T MR machine (Signa 1.5T SYS GEMSOW General Electronic, Wisconsin, USA). Consecutive sections at a thickness of 10, 7.5, 5 and 2.5 mm were used to estimate the total volume of the livers by means of the Cavalieri principle. The point counting and planimetry were used for the volume estimates. With a view to evaluating the accuracy of two techniques, all the estimations were done by the same observer. The estimated volumes concur with the actual volume of the livers obtained by the fluid displacement technique (p > 0.05). However, the section thickness has an over- or under-projection effect on the estimated volume. The obtained volume estimation results were analyzed to reveal the deviation principles of the estimates based on the section thickness. The most suitable section thickness for the liver volume estimation was assessed to be 4-5 mm. There were no significant differences between the estimation results of two methods (p > 0.05). The point-counting technique did, however, take less time than planimetry for estimating liver volume from MR images. Results also showed that the effect of section thickness on volume estimates using the two approaches could not be omitted and the values obtained could be calibrated using the proposed regression formula presented in this study.

  3. Normal values of left ventricularmass and cardiac chamber volumes assessed by 320-detector computed tomography angiography in the Copenhagen General Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Andreas; Mejdahl, Mads Rams; Kühl, J Tobias

    2016-01-01

    age was 55 (range: 40-84) years, and 188 (33%) were men. BSA-indexed 97.5th percentile cut-off values: LVM 80 and 65 gr/m2, left ventricular volume 97 and 83 mL/m2, right ventricular volume 120 and 102 mL/m2, left atrial volume 60 and 57 mL/m2, and right atrial volume 85 and 73 mL/m2 for men and women......, respectively. Men had greater absolute and indexed LVM and chamber volumes than women. For both genders, indexed ventricular volumes declined, whereas indexed atrial volumes increased in advancing age groups. For men, indexed LVM declined in advancing age groups. In multivariate analyses, gender, BSA, systolic...... blood pressure, and hard physical activity accounted for 63% of variance in LVM. Conclusion In this cross-sectional general population study, men have greater indexed LVM and chamber volumes than women, and cardiac indexed volumes vary between age groups in both genders. These findings demonstrate...

  4. Effect of volume loading with 1 liter intravenous infusions of 0.9% saline, 4% succinylated gelatine (Gelofusine) and 6% hydroxyethyl starch (Voluven) on blood volume and endocrine responses: a randomized, three-way crossover study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Dileep N; Stanga, Zeno; Aloysius, Mark M; Wicks, Catherine; Nunes, Quentin M; Ingram, Katharine L; Risch, Lorenz; Allison, Simon P

    2010-02-01

    To study the changes in blood volume and hormones controlling sodium and water homeostasis after infusions of 0.9% saline, Gelofusine (4% succinylated gelatin in 0.7% saline, weight-average molecular weight 30 kD), and Voluven (6% hydroxyethyl starch in 0.9% saline, weight-average molecular weight 130 kD) in healthy volunteers. Randomized, three-way crossover study. University teaching hospital. Ten healthy adult male volunteers. Volunteers received 1-L infusions of 0.9% saline, Gelofusine, and Voluven over 1 hr on three occasions. Body weight, hematocrit, serum biochemistry, and plasma concentrations of vasopressin, aldosterone, brain natriuretic peptide, and total renin were measured before infusion and hourly thereafter for 6 hrs. Changes in body water, blood volume, and extravascular fluid volume were calculated. Although changes in body weight (total body water) after the infusions were similar, blood volume expansion by the two colloids was significantly greater than that produced by 0.9% saline (p < .01). At the end of infusions, 68%, 21%, and 16% of the infused volumes of 0.9% saline, Gelofusine, and Voluven, respectively, had escaped from the intravascular space to the extravascular space. Over the 6 hrs, the magnitude and duration of blood volume expansion by the two colloids were similar (p = .70). There were no significant differences in urinary volume, osmolality, and sodium content after the three infusions. Hormonal changes were similar after the three infusions, with the increase in natriuretic peptide being transient. The reduction in aldosterone and total renin concentrations was more sustained. The effects of Gelofusine and Voluven were similar despite the 100 kD difference in weight-average molecular weight. Excretion of an acute fluid load containing sodium and chloride may be dependent on a sustained suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system rather than on natriuretic peptides.

  5. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 3. Regulation and tariff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    Volume 1 described the history of the railroad industry and pointed out that the number of separate companies, their monopoly power, and their trade and labor practices invited regulation by outsiders from the early days. Even though new regulations have been added over the years, few have been removed. Tariffs have been modified to fit a number of needs, not all of them economic. The effects of government regulation on the energy efficiency of railroad operations are examined. The development of railroad regulation is examined and the governmental legislation, policies, and procedures that make up the regulatory environment within which the railroads must operate are briefly described. The relationship among regulations, energy usage, and costs in three specific areas of regulation: long-haul rates, empty car distribution, and rates on low-density rail traffic are examined.

  6. Sleep apnea termination decreases cerebral blood volume: a near-infrared spectroscopy case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jaakko; Noponen, Tommi; Salmi, Tapani; Toppila, Jussi; Meriläinen, Pekka

    2009-07-01

    Medical near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used to estimate cerebral haemodynamic changes non-invasively. Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder where repetitive pauses in breathing decrease the quality of sleep and exposes the individual to various health problems. We have measured oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin concentration changes during apneic events in sleep from the forehead of one subject using NIRS and used principal component analysis to extract extracerebral and cortical haemodynamic changes from NIRS signals. Comparison of NIRS signals with EEG, bioimpedance, and pulse oximetry data suggests that termination of apnea leads to decreases in cerebral blood volume and flow that may be related to neurological arousal via neurovascular coupling.

  7. Advanced Nanoindentation Testing for Studying Strain-Rate Sensitivity and Activation Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier-Kiener, Verena; Durst, Karsten

    2017-11-01

    Nanoindentation became a versatile tool for testing local mechanical properties beyond hardness and modulus. By adapting standard nanoindentation test methods, simple protocols capable of probing thermally activated deformation processes can be accomplished. Abrupt strain-rate changes within one indentation allow determining the strain-rate dependency of hardness at various indentation depths. For probing lower strain-rates and excluding thermal drift influences, long-term creep experiments can be performed by using the dynamic contact stiffness for determining the true contact area. From both procedures hardness and strain-rate, and consequently strain-rate sensitivity and activation volume can be reliably deducted within one indentation, permitting information on the locally acting thermally activated deformation mechanism. This review will first discuss various testing protocols including possible challenges and improvements. Second, it will focus on different examples showing the direct influence of crystal structure and/or microstructure on the underlying deformation behavior in pure and highly alloyed material systems.

  8. Industrial applications study. Volume V. Bibliography of relevant literature. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Harry L.; Hamel, Bernard B.; Karamchetty, Som; Steigelmann, William H.; Gajanana, Birur C.; Agarwal, Anil P.; Klock, Lawrence W.; Henderson, James M.; Calobrisi, Gary; Hedman, Bruce A.; Koluch, Michael; Biancardi, Frank; Bass, Robert; Landerman, Abraham; Peters, George; Limaye, Dilip; Price, Jeffrey; Farr, Janet

    1976-12-01

    This five-volume report represents an initial Phase O evaluation of waste heat recovery and utilization potential in the manufacturing portion of the industrial sector. The scope of this initial phase was limited to the two-digit SIC level and addressed the feasibility of obtaining in-depth energy information in the industrial sector. Within this phase, a successful methodology and approaches for data gathering and assessment are established. Using these approaches, energy use and waste heat profiles were developed at the 2-digit level; with this data, waste heat utilization technologies were evaluated. The first section of the bibliography lists extensive citations for all industries. The next section is composed of an extensive literature search with abstracts for industrial energy conservation. EPA publications on specific industries and general references conclude the publication. (MCW)

  9. First-principles study of the amorphization of stishovite by isotropic volume expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Masaaki; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    Simple synthesis of ceramics with high hardness and high toughness from Earth-abundant materials is one of the most important issues in materials science. Nishiyama et al. synthesized nano-crystalline stishovite with extremely high toughness and high hardness via compression and decompression of silica, and proposed fracture-induced amorphization mechanisms for the toughning. Furthermore, it was shown that the toughening mechanisms are effective even in nanoscale order. Our first-principles molecular dynamics simulations have shown rapid amorphization of stishovite within picoseconds under increasing volume, thus substantiating the proposed amorphization mechanisms. Furthermore, we have calculated the critical stress, energy difference, and energy barrier for the crystalline-to-amorphous structural transition.

  10. Goal-directed intraoperative fluid therapy guided by stroke volume and its variation in high-risk surgical patients : a prospective randomized multicentre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Wiesenack, Christoph; Gerlach, Herwig; Marx, Gernot

    Perioperative hemodynamic optimisation improves postoperative outcome for patients undergoing high-risk surgery (HRS). In this prospective randomized multicentre study we studied the effects of an individualized, goal-directed fluid management based on continuous stroke volume variation (SVV) and

  11. Interobserver variability in gross tumor volume delineation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Results of Korean Radiation Oncology Group 1207 study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk [Jeju National University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Won; Lee, Ik Jae [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Won Sup [Korea University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Min Kyu [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hyun [National Cancer Center, Center for Liver Cancer, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hee [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyung-Sik [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Chul [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hong Seok; Kay, Chul Seung [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sang Min [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi-Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Jinsil [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    There has been increasing use of external beam radiotherapy for localized treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with both palliative and curative intent. Quality control of target delineation in primary HCC is essential to deliver adequate doses of radiation to the primary tumor while preserving adjacent healthy organs. We analyzed interobserver variability in gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation for HCC. Twelve radiation oncologists specializing in liver malignancy participated in a multi-institutional contouring dummy-run study of nine HCC cases and independently delineated GTV on the same set of provided computed tomography images. Quantitative analysis was performed using an expectation maximization algorithm for simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) with kappa statistics calculating agreement between physicians. To quantify the interobserver variability of GTV delineations, the ratio of the actual delineated volume to the estimated consensus volume (STAPLE), the ratio of the common and encompassing volumes, and the coefficient of variation were calculated. The median kappa agreement level was 0.71 (range 0.28-0.86). The ratio of the actual delineated volume to the estimated consensus volume ranged from 0.19 to 1.93 (median 0.94) for all cases. The ratio of the common and encompassing volumes ranged from 0.001 to 0.56 (median 0.25). The coefficient of variation for GTV delineation ranged from 8 to 57 % (median 26 %). The interobserver variability in target delineation of HCC GTV in this study is noteworthy. Multi-institution studies involving radiotherapy for HCC require appropriate quality assurance programs for target delineation. (orig.) [German] Die externe kurative Strahlentherapie ist zunehmend bei der lokalisierten Behandlung hepatozellulaerer Karzinome (HCC) in palliativer und kurativer Absicht in Gebrauch. Eine Qualitaetskontrolle der Zielabgrenzung beim primaeren HCC ist entscheidend, um die passende Dosis fuer die

  12. Changes in liver and spleen volumes after living liver donation: a report from the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jean C; Fisher, Robert A; Everson, Gregory; Samstein, Benjamin; Pomposelli, James J; Zhao, Binsheng; Forney, Sarah; Olthoff, Kim M; Baker, Talia B; Gillespie, Brenda W; Merion, Robert M

    2015-02-01

    Previous reports have drawn attention to persistently decreased platelet counts among liver donors. We hypothesized an etiologic association between altered platelet counts and postdonation splenomegaly and sought to explore this relationship. This study analyzed de-identified computed tomography/magnetic resonance scans of 388 donors from 9 Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study centers read at a central computational image analysis laboratory. Resulting liver and spleen volumes were correlated with time-matched clinical laboratory values. Predonation liver volumes varied 2-fold in healthy subjects, even when they were normalized by the body surface area (BSA; range = 522-1887 cc/m(2) , n = 346). At month 3 (M3), postdonation liver volumes were, on average, 79% of predonation volumes [interquartile range (IQR) = 73%-86%, n = 165] and approached 88% at year 1 (Y1; IQR = 80%-93%, n = 75). The mean spleen volume before donation was 245 cc (n = 346). Spleen volumes greater than 100% of the predonation volume occurred in 92% of donors at M3 (n = 165) and in 88% at Y1 after donation (n = 75). We sought to develop a standard spleen volume (SSV) model to predict normal spleen volumes in donors before donation and found that decreased platelet counts, a younger age, a higher predonation liver volume, higher hemoglobin levels, and a higher BSA predicted a larger spleen volume (n = 344, R(2)  = 0.52). When this was applied to postdonation values, some large volumes were underpredicted by the SSV model. Models developed on the basis of the reduced sample of postdonation volumes yielded smaller underpredictions. These findings confirm previous observations of thrombocytopenia being associated with splenomegaly after donation. The results of the SSV model suggest that the biology of this phenomenon is complex. This merits further long-term mechanistic studies of liver donors with an investigation of the role of

  13. Control Volume Finite Element Method with Multidimensional Edge Element Scharfetter-Gummel upwinding. Part 2. Computational Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Kara J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-08-01

    In [3] we proposed a new Control Volume Finite Element Method with multi-dimensional, edge- based Scharfetter-Gummel upwinding (CVFEM-MDEU). This report follows up with a detailed computational study of the method. The study compares the CVFEM-MDEU method with other CVFEM and FEM formulations for a set of standard scalar advection-diffusion test problems in two dimensions. The first two CVFEM formulations are derived from the CVFEM-MDEU by simplifying the computation of the flux integrals on the sides of the control volumes, the third is the nodal CVFEM [2] without upwinding, and the fourth is the streamline upwind version of CVFEM [10]. The finite elements in our study are the standard Galerkin, SUPG and artificial diffusion methods. All studies employ logically Cartesian partitions of the unit square into quadrilateral elements. Both uniform and non-uniform grids are considered. Our results demonstrate that CVFEM-MDEU and its simplified versions perform equally well on rectangular or nearly rectangular grids. However, performance of the simplified versions significantly degrades on non-affine grids, whereas the CVFEM-MDEU remains stable and accurate over a wide range of mesh Peclet numbers and non-affine grids. Compared to FEM formulations the CVFEM-MDEU appears to be slightly more dissipative than the SUPG, but has much less local overshoots and undershoots.

  14. Study of the deconfinement phase transition in a finite volume with massive particles: Hydrodynamics of the system near the transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghenam, L.; Djoudi, A. Ait El [Laboratoire de Physique des Particules et Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure - Kouba, B.P. 92, 16050, Vieux Kouba, Algiers (Algeria)

    2012-06-27

    We study the finite size and finite mass effects for the thermal deconfinement phase transition in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), using a simple model of coexistence of hadronic (H) gas and quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phases in a finite volume. We consider the equations of state of the two phases with the QGP containing two massless u and d quarks and massive s quarks, and a hadronic gas of massive pions, and we probe the system near the transition. For this, we examine the behavior of the most important hydrodynamical quantities describing the system, at a vanishing chemical potential ({mu}= 0), with temperature and energy density.

  15. Comparative study on triangular and quadrilateral meshes by a finite-volume method with a central difference scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Guojun

    2012-10-01

    In this article, comparative studies on computational accuracies and convergence rates of triangular and quadrilateral meshes are carried out in the frame work of the finite-volume method. By theoretical analysis, we conclude that the number of triangular cells needs to be 4/3 times that of quadrilateral cells to obtain similar accuracy. The conclusion is verified by a number of numerical examples. In addition, the convergence rates of the triangular meshes are found to be slower than those of the quadrilateral meshes when the same accuracy is obtained with these two mesh types. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  16. Major depressive episodes over the course of 7 years and hippocampal subfield volumes at 7 tesla MRI: the PREDICT-MR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisse, L E M; Biessels, G J; Stegenga, B T; Kooistra, M; van der Veen, P H; Zwanenburg, J J M; van der Graaf, Y; Geerlings, M I

    2015-04-01

    Smaller hippocampal volumes have been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). The hippocampus consists of several subfields that may be differentially related to MDD. We investigated the association of occurrence of major depressive episodes (MDEs), assessed five times over seven years, with hippocampal subfield and entorhinal cortex volumes at 7 tesla MRI. In this prospective study of randomly selected general practice attendees, MDEs according to DSM-IV-R criteria were assessed at baseline and after 6, 12, 39 and 84 months follow-up. At the last follow-up, a T2 (0.7 mm(3)) 7 tesla MRI scan was obtained in 47 participants (60±10 years). The subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) 1 to 3, dentate gyrus&CA4 and entorhinal cortex volumes were manually segmented according a published protocol. Of the 47 participants, 13 had one MDE and 5 had multiple MDEs. ANCOVAs, adjusted for age, sex, education and intracranial volume, revealed no significant differences in hippocampal subfield or entorhinal cortex volumes between participants with and without an MDE in the preceding 84 months. Multiple episodes were associated with smaller subiculum volumes (B=-0.03 mL/episode; 95% CI -0.06; -0.003), but not with the other hippocampal subfield volumes, entorhinal cortex, or total hippocampal volume. A limitation of this study is the small sample size which makes replication necessary. In this exploratory study, we found that an increasing number of major depressive episodes was associated with smaller subiculum volumes in middle-aged and older persons, but not with smaller volumes in other hippocampal subfields or the entorhinal cortex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. High volume image guided injections and structured rehabilitation in shoulder impingement syndrome: a retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Sarah; Chan, Otto; Ghozlan, Asser; Price, Jessica; Perry, John; Morrissey, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background the aim was to establish the effect of a high volume-image guided injection and structured rehabilitation (HVIGI&SR) on both pain and function in shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS). Methods 44 participants treated between January 2008 and January 2012 with a >3 month history of recalcitrant ultrasound-confirmed SIS were sent a retrospective questionnaire. All participants had received a HVIGI under ultrasound-guidance consisting of 20 mls of Marcaine with 50 mg of hydrocortisone, followed by a period of physiotherapist-led rehabilitation. The validated Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) score was used to establish the change in the score between 1 week pre-injection and 3 weeks post-injection, along with an 11-point pain scale. Results 59% of participants responded. There was a clinically and statistically significant decrease in the SPADI score of 58.7 ± 29.9 (p<0.01). 76% of participants had an improvement in their score of over 50% from their initial score. There was a clinically and statistically significant improvement in pain of 5.19 ± 2.62 (p<0.01) on the numerical rating scale of pain. Conclusion HVIGI&SR should be considered for short-term treatment of SIS as it showed a significant improvement in both pain and function. A prolonged period of physiotherapist-led rehabilitation can then be undertaken for long term benefits. PMID:26605194

  18. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 1. Pacific Northwest region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The preliminary inventory and analysis procedures provide a comprehensive assessment of the undeveloped hydroelectric power potential in the US and determines which sites merit more thorough investigation. Over 5400 existing structures have been identified as having the physical potential to add hydropower plants or increase hydropower output thereby increasing our present hydropower capacity from a total of 64,000 MW to 158,000 MW and our energy from 280,000 GWH to 503,000 GWH. While the physical potential for this increase is clearly available, some of these projects will undoubtedly not satisfy more-detailed economic analysis as well as the institutional and environmental criteria which will be imposed upon them. Summary tables include estimates of the potential capacity and energy at each site in the inventory. In some cases, individual projects may be site alternatives to others in the same general location, when only one can be considered for hydropower development. The number of sites per state is identified, but specific information is included for only the sites in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington in this first volume.

  19. Association between exercise habits and subcortical gray matter volumes in healthy elderly people: A population-based study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikie Yamamoto

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Subjects with exercise habits show larger subcortical gray matter volumes than subjects without exercise habits in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan. Specifically, the volume of the nucleus accumbens correlates with both exercise habits and cognitive preservation.

  20. Study of stress-strain and volume change behavior of emplaced municipal solid waste using large-scale triaxial testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, B J; Ramana, G V

    2017-05-01

    The article presents the stress-strain and volume change behavior, shear strength and stiffness parameters of landfilled municipal solid waste (MSW) collected from two dump sites located in Delhi, India. Over 30 drained triaxial compression (TXC) tests were conducted on reconstituted large-scale specimens of 150mm diameter to study the influence of fiber content, age, density and confining pressure on the shear strength of MSW. In addition, a few TXC tests were also conducted on 70mm diameter specimen to examine the effect of specimen size on the mobilized shear strength. It is observed that the fibrous materials such as textiles and plastics, and their percentage by weight have a significant effect on the stress-strain-volume change behavior, shear strength and stiffness of solid waste. The stress-strain-volume change behavior of MSW at Delhi is qualitatively in agreement with the behavior reported for MSW from different countries. Results of large-scale direct shear tests conducted on MSW with an identical composition used for TXC tests revealed the cross-anisotropic behavior as reported by previous researchers. Effective shear strength parameters of solid waste evaluated from this study is best characterized by ϕ'=39° and c'=0kPa for the limiting strain-based failure criteria of K0=0.3+5% axial strain and are in the range of the data reported for MSW from different countries. Data presented in this article is useful for the stress-deformation and stability analysis of the dump sites during their operation as well as closure plans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Using very high frequencies with very low lung volumes during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation to protect the immature lung. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pacheco, N; Sánchez-Luna, M; Ramos-Navarro, C; Navarro-Patiño, N; de la Blanca, A R-S

    2016-04-01

    High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) has been described as a rescue therapy in severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) with a potential protective effect in immature lungs. In recent times, HFOV combined with the use of volume guarantee (VG) strategy has demonstrated an independent effect of the frequency on tidal volume to increase carbon-dioxide (CO2) elimination. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using the lowest tidal volume on HFOV+VG to prevent lung damage, maintaining a constant CO2 elimination by increasing the frequency. Newborn infants with RDS on HFOV were prospectively included. After adequate and stable ventilation using a standard HFOV strategy, the tidal volume was fixed using VG and decreased while the frequency was increased to the highest possible to maintain a constant CO2 elimination. Pre- and post-PCO2, delta pressure and tidal volume obtained in each situation were compared. Twenty-three newborn infants were included. It was possible to increase the frequency while decreasing the tidal volume in all patients, maintaining a similar CO2 elimination, with a tendency to a lower mean PCO2 after reaching the highest frequency. High-frequency tidal volume was significantly lower, 2.20 ml kg(-1) before vs 1.59 ml kg(-1) at the highest frequency. It is possible to use lower delivered tidal volumes during HFOV combined with VG and higher frequencies with adequate ventilation to allow minimizing lung injury.

  2. Whole brain volume changes and its correlation with clinical symptom severity in patients with schizophrenia: A DARTEL-based VBM study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwang-Won Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate gray matter (GM and white matter (WM volume alterations in whole-brain structures in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM, and further to assess the correlation between GM and WM volume variations and symptom severity in schizophrenia. A total of 22 patients with schizophrenia and 22 age-matched healthy controls participated. Magnetic resonance image data were processed using SPM8 software with diffeomorphic anatomical registration via an exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL algorithm. Patients with schizophrenia exhibited significantly decreased GM volumes of the insula, superior temporal gyrus (STG, gyrus rectus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC compared with healthy controls. The GM volumes of the STG and gyrus rectus were negatively correlated with the positive scales on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and those of the STG and ACC were negatively correlated with the negative scales. The durations of illness in schizophrenia were negatively correlated with the GM volumes of the insula, STG, and ACC. Patients with schizophrenia exhibited significantly decreased WM volumes of the superior frontal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, and STG. The WM volumes of the STG were negatively correlated with the duration of illness. Our findings suggest that GM and WM volume abnormalities in the STG are associated with the psychopathology of schizophrenia.

  3. Whole brain volume changes and its correlation with clinical symptom severity in patients with schizophrenia: A DARTEL-based VBM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang-Won; Kim, Yun-Hyeon; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations in whole-brain structures in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and further to assess the correlation between GM and WM volume variations and symptom severity in schizophrenia. A total of 22 patients with schizophrenia and 22 age-matched healthy controls participated. Magnetic resonance image data were processed using SPM8 software with diffeomorphic anatomical registration via an exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm. Patients with schizophrenia exhibited significantly decreased GM volumes of the insula, superior temporal gyrus (STG), gyrus rectus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) compared with healthy controls. The GM volumes of the STG and gyrus rectus were negatively correlated with the positive scales on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and those of the STG and ACC were negatively correlated with the negative scales. The durations of illness in schizophrenia were negatively correlated with the GM volumes of the insula, STG, and ACC. Patients with schizophrenia exhibited significantly decreased WM volumes of the superior frontal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, and STG. The WM volumes of the STG were negatively correlated with the duration of illness. Our findings suggest that GM and WM volume abnormalities in the STG are associated with the psychopathology of schizophrenia.

  4. Volume matters in the systemic treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer : a population-based study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haj Mohammad, N; Bernards, N; Besselink, M G H; Busch, O R; Wilmink, J W; Creemers, G J M; De Hingh, I H J T; Lemmens, V E P P; van Laarhoven, H W M

    PURPOSE: In pancreatic surgery, a relation between surgical volume and postoperative mortality and overall survival (OS) has been recognized, with high-volume centers reporting significantly better survival rates. We aimed to explore the influence of hospital volume on administration of palliative

  5. Volume matters in the systemic treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer: a population-based study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Haj Mohammad; N. Bernards (Nienke); M.G. Besselink (Marc); O.R.C. Busch (Olivier); J.W. Wilmink; G.J.M. Creemers (Geert-Jan); I.H.J.T. de Hingh (Ignace); V.E.P.P. Lemmens (Valery); H.W.M. van Laarhoven (Hanneke)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract_Purpose:_ In pancreatic surgery, a relation between surgical volume and postoperative mortality and overall survival (OS) has been recognized, with high-volume centers reporting significantly better survival rates. We aimed to explore the influence of hospital volume on

  6. A study on cognitive impairment and gray matter volume abnormalities in silent cerebral infarction patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Wei; Wei, Xiaofeng; Li, Mengxiong [The First Affiliated Hospital of Yangtze University, Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, Jingzhou, Hubei (China); Jiang, Xun [Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Li, Shanshan [JingZhou City Central Blood Bank, Jingzhou, Hubei (China)

    2015-08-15

    The relationship between silent cerebral infarction (SCI) and the integrity of cognitive function is unknown. We intended to investigate whether cognitive impairment is associated with gray matter volume (GMV) in the SCI patients. Sixty-two patients with SCI and 62 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were evaluated with P300 test, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test, Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), and Hamilton Depression Scale (HDRS). Whole brain high-resolution T1-weighted images were processed with SPM12b software and analyzed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Correlation analysis was performed between the GMV and the scores of MoCA Scale, P300 latency, P300 amplitude, HAMA, HDRS, age, and educational level. The brains of the SCI patients have a significant reduction in GMV in the left superior and inferior frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, and bilateral hippocampus gyrus (p < 0.01, FDR correction). No significant increase of GMV was detected. The GMV of their frontal and temporal lobes is positively correlated with the score of MoCA scale and P300 amplitude (r ≥ 0.62, p < 0.01). The GMV of frontal, temporal, and hippocampus is negatively correlated with P300 latency (r ≤ -0.71, p < 0.05). No significant correlation between the GMV of abnormal brain regions and another two clinical characteristics was found. SCI patients have impaired cognitive function and reduced GMV compared to the HC subjects. The neuropathological basis of such cognitive deficits in SCI patients might be a reduced GMV. (orig.)

  7. Optimal dose and volume for postoperative radiotherapy in brain oligometastases from lung cancer: a retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Seung Yeun; Kim, Hye Ryun; Cho, Byoung Chul; Lee, Chang Geol; Suh, Chang Ok [Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jong Hee [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate intracranial control after surgical resection according to the adjuvant treatment received in order to assess the optimal radiotherapy (RT) dose and volume. Between 2003 and 2015, a total of 53 patients with brain oligometastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) underwent metastasectomy. The patients were divided into three groups according to the adjuvant treatment received: whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) ± boost (WBRT ± boost group, n = 26), local RT/Gamma Knife surgery (local RT group, n = 14), and the observation group (n = 13). The most commonly used dose schedule was WBRT (25 Gy in 10 fractions, equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions [EQD2] 26.04 Gy) with tumor bed boost (15 Gy in 5 fractions, EQD2 16.25 Gy). The WBRT ± boost group showed the lowest 1-year intracranial recurrence rate of 30.4%, followed by the local RT and observation groups, at 66.7%, and 76.9%, respectively (p = 0.006). In the WBRT ± boost group, there was no significant increase in the 1-year new site recurrence rate of patients receiving a lower dose of WBRT (EQD2) <27 Gy compared to that in patients receiving a higher WBRT dose (p = 0.553). The 1-year initial tumor site recurrence rate was lower in patients receiving tumor bed dose (EQD2) of ≥42.3 Gy compared to those receiving <42.3 Gy, although the difference was not significant (p = 0.347). Adding WBRT after resection of brain oligometastases from NSCLC seems to enhance intracranial control. Furthermore, combining lower-dose WBRT with a tumor bed boost may be an attractive option.

  8. Publication bias in studies of an applied behavior-analytic intervention: an initial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Elyssa; Smith, Tristram

    2014-01-01

    Publication bias arises when studies with favorable results are more likely to be reported than are studies with null findings. If this bias occurs in studies with single-subject experimental designs(SSEDs) on applied behavior-analytic (ABA) interventions, it could lead to exaggerated estimates of intervention effects. Therefore, we conducted an initial test of bias by comparing effect sizes, measured by percentage of nonoverlapping data (PND), in published SSED studies (n=21) and unpublished dissertations (n=10) on 1 well-established intervention for children with autism, pivotal response treatment (PRT). Although published and unpublished studies had similar methodologies, the mean PND in published studies was 22% higher than in unpublished studies, 95% confidence interval (4%, 38%). Even when unpublished studies are included, PRT appeared to be effective (PNDM=62%). Nevertheless, the disparity between published and unpublished studies suggests a need for further assessment of publication bias in the ABA literature.

  9. Global and regional brain volumes normalization in weight-recovered adolescents with anorexia nervosa: preliminary findings of a longitudinal voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomba M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Monica Bomba,1,* Anna Riva,1,* Sabrina Morzenti,2 Marco Grimaldi,3 Francesca Neri,1 Renata Nacinovich1 1Child and Adolescent Mental Health Department, San Gerardo Hospital, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy; 2Medical Physics Department, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy; 3Department of Radiology, Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The recent literature on anorexia nervosa (AN suggests that functional and structural abnormalities of cortico-limbic areas might play a role in the evolution of the disease. We explored global and regional brain volumes in a cross-sectional and follow-up study on adolescents affected by AN. Eleven adolescents with AN underwent a voxel-based morphometry study at time of diagnosis and immediately after weight recovery. Data were compared to volumes carried out in eight healthy, age and sex matched controls. Subjects with AN showed increased cerebrospinal fluid volumes and decreased white and gray matter volumes, when compared to controls. Moreover, significant regional gray matter decrease in insular cortex and cerebellum was found at time of diagnosis. No regional white matter decrease was found between samples and controls. Correlations between psychological evaluation and insular volumes were explored. After weight recovery gray matter volumes normalized while reduced global white matter volumes persisted. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, adolescent, gray matter, insula, voxel-based morphometry study

  10. Mapping growing stock volume and forest live biomass: a case study of the Polissya region of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilous, Andrii; Myroniuk, Viktor; Holiaka, Dmytrii; Bilous, Svitlana; See, Linda; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2017-10-01

    Forest inventory and biomass mapping are important tasks that require inputs from multiple data sources. In this paper we implement two methods for the Ukrainian region of Polissya: random forest (RF) for tree species prediction and k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) for growing stock volume and biomass mapping. We examined the suitability of the five-band RapidEye satellite image to predict the distribution of six tree species. The accuracy of RF is quite high: ~99% for forest/non-forest mask and 89% for tree species prediction. Our results demonstrate that inclusion of elevation as a predictor variable in the RF model improved the performance of tree species classification. We evaluated different distance metrics for the k-NN method, including Euclidean or Mahalanobis distance, most similar neighbor (MSN), gradient nearest neighbor, and independent component analysis. The MSN with the four nearest neighbors (k = 4) is the most precise (according to the root-mean-square deviation) for predicting forest attributes across the study area. The k-NN method allowed us to estimate growing stock volume with an accuracy of 3 m3 ha-1 and for live biomass of about 2 t ha-1 over the study area.

  11. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 1, Data summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E. [Agapito Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Kessel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavation of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the feasibility of locating a potential high-level nuclear waste repository on lands adjacent to the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan. This report is volume 1 of the data summary.

  12. Pituitary volume and the effects of phototherapy in patients with seasonal winter depression: a controlled study Volume da pituitária e os efeitos da fototerapia em pacientes com depressão sazonal de inverno: um estudo controlado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Marisa de Aquino Miranda-Scippa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Our aims were to investigate the pituitary volume in patients with seasonal winter depression and healthy volunteers in winter and summer, and to assess the effects of phototherapy in these patients. METHOD: The pituitary volume of 12 patients with winter depression and 12 healthy controls, paired according gender, age and menstrual cycle, were obtained from magnetic resonance imaging in winter and summer. Eight patients were submitted to phototherapy (10000 vs. 2500 lux in a double-blind crossover fashion during the winter, and reassessed (symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging after treatment. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in pituitary volume between controls and patients in winter or summer. Exposure to phototherapy (10000 lux decreased the depressive symptoms (p = 0.004, but the glandular volume did not change (p = 0.5. However, the pituitary volume in winter showed a positive correlation with the severity of depression in these patients (r = 0.69, p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that neither winter depression nor the change of seasons is associated with significant change in the pituitary volume. Despite the fact that this study was performed in a tropical area, phototherapy with 10000 lux showed to be an efficient treatment in this SAD patients sample.OBJETIVOS: Nossos objetivos foram investigar o volume da pituitária em pacientes com depressão sazonal de inverno e controles sadios, no inverno e verão, e avaliar os efeitos da fototerapia nesses pacientes. MÉTODO: O volume da pituitária de 12 pacientes com depressão de inverno e 12 controles sadios, pareados quanto ao gênero, idade e fase do ciclo menstrual, foi examinado por meio de imagem por ressonância magnética no inverno e verão. Oito pacientes foram submetidos à fototerapia (10.000 vs 2.500 lux de forma duplo-cega e cruzada durante o inverno e reavaliados (sintomas e imagem por ressonância magnética após o tratamento. RESULTADOS

  13. The relationship between physician case volume and in-hospital mortality of critically ill children with a diagnosis of pneumonia: a cross-sectional observational analytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chun; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Lee, Yu-Sheng; Lo, Yu-Cheng; Tsao, Pei-Chen; Yang, Chia-Feng; Soong, Wen-Jue

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between physician case volume and the outcomes of critically ill children with pneumonia. This is a population-based cohort study analyzed data provided from by the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, 2006-2009. Children (aged 3 months to 17 years) having records of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and a diagnosis of pneumonia were included. A total of 9754 critically ill children and 1042 attending physicians were enrolled. The children were assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on the physician's pneumonia case volume. The patients in the very high case volume group had a significantly lower length of hospital stay, in-hospital mortality rate, and hospitalization expenses, and a significantly higher ratio of ICU to hospital stays than the other 3 groups (P<.001). The probability of death tended to be lower when the physician's case volume was higher. The risk-adjusted odds ratio for in-hospital mortality of very-high case volume group was 0.48 (95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.65; P<.001) compared to low case volume group. A higher physician's pneumonia case volume is associated with a lower length of hospital stay, lower in-hospital mortality rate, and lower hospitalization expenses among critically ill children with pneumonia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The history of NATO TNF policy: The role of studies, analysis and exercises conference proceedings. Volume 3: Papers by Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, R.L. [ed.

    1994-02-01

    This conference was organized to study and analyze the role of simulation, analysis, modeling, and exercises in the history of NATO policy. The premise was not that the results of past studies will apply to future policy, but rather that understanding what influenced the decision process-and how-would be of value. The structure of the conference was built around discussion panels. The panels were augmented by a series of papers and presentations focusing on particular TNF events, issues, studies, or exercises. The conference proceedings consist of three volumes. Volume 1 contains the conference introduction, agenda, biographical sketches of principal participants, and analytical summary of the presentations and discussion panels. Volume 2 contains a short introduction and the papers and presentations from the conference. This volume contains selected papers by Brig. Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.).

  15. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. Volume 6, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and transportation package acceptable concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume contains introduction section containing a brief SDS background and lists the general assumptions and considerations used during the development of the system concepts. The introduction section is followed by sections describing two system concepts that produce a waste form in compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and transportation package (TRAMPAC) requirements. This system concept category is referred to as Waste Form 4, ``WIPP and TRAMPAC Acceptable.`` The following two system concepts are under this category: Sort, Treat, and Repackage System (4-BE-2); Volume Reduction and Packaging System (4-BE-4).

  16. Making limb and nadir measurements comparable: A common volume study of PMC brightness observed by Odin OSIRIS and AIM CIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benze, Susanne; Gumbel, Jörg; Randall, Cora E.; Karlsson, Bodil; Hultgren, Kristoffer; Lumpe, Jerry D.; Baumgarten, Gerd

    2018-01-01

    Combining limb and nadir satellite observations of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) has long been recognized as problematic due to differences in observation geometry, scattering conditions, and retrieval approaches. This study offers a method of comparing PMC brightness observations from the nadir-viewing Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument and the limb-viewing Odin Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS). OSIRIS and CIPS measurements are made comparable by defining a common volume for overlapping OSIRIS and CIPS observations for two northern hemisphere (NH) PMC seasons: NH08 and NH09. We define a scattering intensity quantity that is suitable for either nadir or limb observations and for different scattering conditions. A known CIPS bias is applied, differences in instrument sensitivity are analyzed and taken into account, and effects of cloud inhomogeneity and common volume definition on the comparison are discussed. Not accounting for instrument sensitivity differences or inhomogeneities in the PMC field, the mean relative difference in cloud brightness (CIPS - OSIRIS) is -102 ± 55%. The differences are largest for coincidences with very inhomogeneous clouds that are dominated by pixels that CIPS reports as non-cloud points. Removing these coincidences, the mean relative difference in cloud brightness reduces to -6 ± 14%. The correlation coefficient between the CIPS and OSIRIS measurements of PMC brightness variations in space and time is remarkably high, at 0.94. Overall, the comparison shows excellent agreement despite different retrieval approaches and observation geometries.

  17. Determination of the Representative Elementary Volume for the study of sandstones and siltstones by X-Ray microtomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaquiel Salvi Fernandes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available X-Ray computerized microtomography (µ-CT besides providing two-dimensional images (2-D of the transversal sections of the sample, the biggest attraction of the methodology is the rendering of three-dimensional images (3-D, enabling a more real analysis of the porous structure of the rock. However, the reconstruction, visualization and analysis of such 3-D images are limited in computer terms. Thus, it is not always possible to reconstruct the images with the total size of the microtomographed sample. Therefore, this study aims at determining the Representative Elementary Volume (REV in reservoir rocks concerning their porosity. In order to collect microtomographic data from reservoir rocks, a microtomograph Skyscan model 1172 was utilized for the sandstone and siltstone samples scanning. After the analysis of the graphs obtained by REV, it was concluded that the most adequate dimensions for the reconstructed volume in each analyzed sample were approximately 1400 × 1400 × 1400 µm, which are dimensions that can easily be reconstructed, visualized and analyzed.

  18. Lymphedema Leads to Fat Deposition in Muscle and Decreased Muscle/Water Volume After Liposuction: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffner, Mattias; Peterson, Pernilla; Månsson, Sven; Brorson, Håkan

    2017-09-28

    Lymphedema leads to adipose tissue deposition. Water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can quantify and localize fat and water. The presence of excess fat and excess water/muscle in the subfascial compartment of the lymphedematous limb has not been investigated before. The aim of this study was to investigate epifascial and subfascial fat and water contents in patients with chronic lymphedema before and after liposuction. Seven patients with arm lymphedema and six with leg lymphedema were operated on. The limbs were examined with water-fat MRI before liposuction (baseline) and at five time points. Complete reduction of the excess limb volumes was achieved. The excess epifascial fat was evident in the edematous limbs and a drop was seen following surgery. There were differences in excess water at all time points. At 1 year there was a decrease in excess water. Excess subfascial fat was seen in the edematous limbs at all time points. Subfascial excess water/muscle did not show any differences after surgery. However, starting from 3 months there was less subfascial water/muscle compared with baseline. Subfascial fat in the lymphedematous limbs did not change. In contrast, the water in the subfascial compartment was reduced over time, which may represent a decrease of muscle volume after treatment due to less mechanical load after liposuction. Using water-fat MRI-based fat quantification, the fat and water contents may be quantified and localized in the various compartments in lymphedema.

  19. Space station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 2: Options development DR-5. Volume 1: Technology options

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The second task in the Space Station Data System (SSDS) Analysis/Architecture Study is the development of an information base that will support the conduct of trade studies and provide sufficient data to make key design/programmatic decisions. This volume identifies the preferred options in the technology category and characterizes these options with respect to performance attributes, constraints, cost, and risk. The technology category includes advanced materials, processes, and techniques that can be used to enhance the implementation of SSDS design structures. The specific areas discussed are mass storage, including space and round on-line storage and off-line storage; man/machine interface; data processing hardware, including flight computers and advanced/fault tolerant computer architectures; and software, including data compression algorithms, on-board high level languages, and software tools. Also discussed are artificial intelligence applications and hard-wire communications.

  20. EDS coal liquefaction process development. Phase V. EDS commercial plant study design update. Illinois coal. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epperly, W. R.

    1981-03-01

    The objectives of the Study Design Update (SDU) were to identify the technical issues facing a potential commercial-size EDS plant design; to provide a reliable basis for estimating the cost of EDS products; and to furnish research guidance to the EDS Project. The SDU consists of two distinct studies in which different processing schemes are used to produce the hydrogen and fuel gas required by the plant. These studies are referred to as the Base Case and the Market Flexibility Sensitivity Case. In the Base Case, hydrogen is generated by steam reforming of the light hydrocarbon gases produced in the plant. Fuel gas is generated by feeding the bottoms stream from the liquefaction section vacuum pipestill to a FLEXICOKING unit. In the FLEXICOKING unit reactor, the bottoms stream is converted to coke; additional liquid product is also recovered. The coke is converted to low-Btu fuel gas in the FLEXICOKING unit gasifier. In the Market Flexibility Sensitivity (MFS) Case, the bottoms stream from the vacuum pipestill is split, and about half is sent to the FLEXICOKING unit for recovery of additional liquid product and production of fuel gas. The remainder of the bottoms stream is converted to hydrogen in a Partial Oxidation Unit. Hence the MFS Case does not consume light hydrocarbon gases produced and they are available for sale. The study of these two cases has demonstrated the importance of bottoms process selection to the economics and thermal efficiency of an EDS plant. Volume 1 - Main Report has been developed to be a stand-alone document. Both the Base Case and Market Flexibility Sensitivity (MFS) Case are covered. This volume includes an overview and detailed case summaries. It also covers economics, product recovery factors, material and energy balances, cost estimates and enviromental considerations.

  1. Determination of normal splenic volume in relation to age, gender and body habitus: a stereological study on computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, V; Alkoc, O A; Uygur, R; Serdaroglu, O; Ozen, O A

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to assess and document the dimensions of the normal spleen measured on computed tomography (CT) images with the normal splenic volume measured by Cavalieri principle on CT images and thereby serve as a baseline for comparison in cases of splenomegaly using abdominal CT. To investigate the relationship between these changes and body mass index, gender, abdominal diameters. We retrospectively reviewed abdominal CT examinations of 212 adults between the ages of 20 and 88 years. There were seven groups of patients. The spleen volume (SV) measurements using abdominal CT images of each patient on the Image Information Systems were performed with Cavalieri principle. The mean SV and splenic length (SL), width (SW), and thickness (ST) for the total study population of 212 patients was 198 ± 88 cm³, 9.96 ± 2.1 cm, 8.87 ±± 1.6 cm and 4.58 ± 0.8 cm, respectively. There was a strong correlation between SV and ST (r = 0.752, p < 0.001), SL (r = 0.735, p < 0.001), SW (r = 0.681,p < 0.001) mean values of total study population. Comparison between mean splenic dimension parameters for males and females showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.032 for SV, p = 0.04 for ST) but no statistically significant difference with SL and SW. Also there was a positive correlation between SV and body height, sagittal abdominal diameter and transvers abdominal diameter in mean of total groups and female groups, there was no correlation in males. The normal reference ranges for SV and size given in this study canserve as a standard to judge whether splenomegaly is present in patients.

  2. IUS/TUG Orbital Operations and Mission Support Study. Volume 1; Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The space transportation system (STS) is discussed which will include a propulsive stage that is carried into low earth orbit by the space shuttle. Data were accumulated from the analyses of various stage concepts, operating modes, and projected missions (space tug systems studies, growth stage studies, engine studies, and critical area studies). The foundation formulated by these studies aided in establishing a tentative two-phase approach for the extension of the STS operating regime beyond the space shuttle including plane changes, higher orbits, geosynchronous orbits and beyond. The orbital operations study, was conducted to provide the generation and analysis of operational plans, requirement, and concepts for the utilization of these vehicles. Primary emphasis was placed on methods and techniques to provide a sound technical approach to operations at reduced cost for the STS mission period.

  3. 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    This publication provides detailed documentation of the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used in preparing BPA's 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (the Study). This is one of two technical appendices to the Study; the other appendix details the utility-specific loads and resources used in the Study. The load forecasts and assumption were developed jointly by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) staff. This forecast is also used in the Council's 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (1991 Plan).

  4. Quantitative evaluation of masseter muscle volume in different growth patterns and its correlation with facial morphology: Cone beam computed tomography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This investigation was designed to evaluate the masseter muscle volume in different growth patterns and its correlation with facial morphology using three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, Materials and Methods: Study was conducted using CBCT scans of nonorthodontically treated individuals (n = 32, 19 males and 13 females between the ages of 18–25 years. The masseter muscle volume was calculated using Dolphin 3D software 11.5 version (Essential Dental Products, New Delhi, India. The subjects were grouped according to growth pattern and facial form. Conclusion: CBCT predicts actual muscle volume by calculating number of voxels of scan data and exact geometry of the muscle. The mean masseter muscle volume was 28.73 ± 5.51 cm3 for horizontal growth patterns, 27.30 ± 6.49 cm3 for average growth pattern, and 22.14 ± 3.25 cm3 for vertical growth pattern. The individuals with thin masseter morphology had a longer face in proportion/relation to their facial width with an increase in masseter muscle volume, the facial index decreased, and face appeared to be more rectangular. Euryprosopic facial form showed maximum/highest masseter muscle volume, whereas leptoprosopic facial form showed least muscle volume.

  5. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume III: Women in Osteopathic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    As part of a larger study of the success and problems of women as applicants to and students in the schools of eight health professions, the study of osteopathic medicine involved interviews with administrators, faculty, and medical students. Its central purpose was to identify any characteristics of the profession--in its history, organization,…

  6. Oak Ridge Health Studies phase 1 report, Volume 1: Oak Ridge Phase 1 overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbrough, M.I.; Van Cleave, M.L.; Turri, P.; Daniel, J.

    1993-09-01

    In July 1991, the State of Tennessee initiated the Health Studies Agreement with the United States Department of Energy to carry out independent studies of possible adverse health effects in people living in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Reservation. The health studies focus on those effects that could have resulted or could result from exposures to chemicals and radioactivity released at the Reservation since 1942. The major focus of the first phase was to complete a Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. This study was designed to find out if enough data exist about chemical and radionuclide releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation to conduct a second phase. The second phase will lead to estimates of the actual amounts or the ``doses`` of various contaminants received by people as a result of off-site releases. Once the doses of various contaminants have been estimated, scientists and physicians will be better able to evaluate whether adverse health effects could have resulted from the releases.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of masseter muscle volume in different growth patterns and its correlation with facial morphology: Cone beam computed tomography study

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh Gupta; P G Makhija

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This investigation was designed to evaluate the masseter muscle volume in different growth patterns and its correlation with facial morphology using three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), Materials and Methods: Study was conducted using CBCT scans of nonorthodontically treated individuals (n = 32, 19 males and 13 females) between the ages of 18–25 years. The masseter muscle volume was calculated using Dolphin 3D software 11.5 version (Essential Dental Products, New...

  8. HPG-axis hormones during puberty: A study on the association with hypothalamic and pituitary volumes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peper, J.S.; Brouwer, R.M.; van Leeuwen, M.; Schnack, H.G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Kahn, R.S.; Hulshoff-Poll, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: During puberty, the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is activated, leading to increases in luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol) levels. We aimed to study the association between hypothalamic and pituitary

  9. HPG-axis hormones during puberty : A study on the association with hypothalamic and pituitary volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peper, Jiska S.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Schnack, Hugo G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Kahn, Rene S.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff

    Objective: During puberty, the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is activated, leading to increases in luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol) levels. We aimed to study the association between hypothalamic and pituitary

  10. Schedule Optimization Study, Hanford RI/FS Program. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    A Schedule Optimization Study (SOS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program was conducted by an independent team of professionals from other federal agencies and the private sector experienced in environmental restoration. This team spent two weeks at Hanford in September 1992 examining the reasons for the lengthy RI/FS process at Hanford and developing recommendations to expedite the process. The need for the study arose out of a schedule dispute regarding the submission of the 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit RI/FS Work Plan. This report documents the study called for in the August 29, 1991, Dispute Resolution Committee Decision Statement. Battelle`s Environmental Management Operations (EMO) coordinated the effort for DOE`s Richland Field Office (RL).

  11. Energy Engineering Analysis Program Study, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Volume 3, Appendices G and H

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    ...) Energy Saving Opportunity Survey (ESOS) at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. This study was authorized under the contract DACA41-92-C-0098 with Corps of Engineers Kansas City District, Kansas City, Missouri...

  12. Image data processing system requirements study. Volume 1: Analysis. [for Earth Resources Survey Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honikman, T.; Mcmahon, E.; Miller, E.; Pietrzak, L.; Yorsz, W.

    1973-01-01

    Digital image processing, image recorders, high-density digital data recorders, and data system element processing for use in an Earth Resources Survey image data processing system are studied. Loading to various ERS systems is also estimated by simulation.

  13. Remedial Investigation Report. Volume 11. North Central Study Area, Section 1.0 Text. Version 3.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    110 3.3.5 Organosulfur Compounds - Mustard-Agent Related (OSCM)......... ................... .... 3-118 3.3.6 Orzanosulfur Co _unds - Herbicid-S...Potentially Contaminated Soil Areas and Volumes for Organosulfur Compounds, Mustard-Agent Related ......... NCSA 3.4-6 Potentially Contaminated Soil Areas and...Volumes for Organosulfur Compounds, Herbicide Related ............ NCSA 3.4-7 Potentially Contm-inated Soil Areas and Volumes for Organophosphorous

  14. Life sciences payload definition and integration study, task C and D. Volume 1: Management summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of a study to define the required payloads for conducting life science experiments in space are presented. The primary objectives of the study are: (1) identify research functions to be performed aboard life sciences spacecraft laboratories and necessary equipment, (2) develop conceptual designs of potential payloads, (3) integrate selected laboratory designs with space shuttle configurations, and (4) establish cost analysis of preliminary program planning.

  15. Oral Prenatal and Postnatal Development Study of WR238605 Succinate in Rats. Volume 2 of 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-18

    a subcutaneously implanted microchip upon arrival at U1C. This number will also appear on a cage card visible on the front of each cage. The cage...refrigerated. The test article dosing suspensions will be prepared weekly. Stability data from a previously conducted dog toxicity study by gastric...selected F, animals will be given a study-unique number as a subcutaneously implanted microchip . A record will be maintained correlating the toe

  16. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short-haul transportation. Volume 4: Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    A marketing study to determine the acceptance and utilization of a STOL aircraft short-haul air transportation system was conducted. The relationship between STOL characteristics and the economic and social viability of STOL as a short-haul reliever system was examined. A study flow chart was prepared to show the city pair and traffic split analysis. The national demand for STOL aircraft, as well as the foreign and military markets, were analyzed.

  17. Materials experiment carrier concepts definition study. Volume 2: Technical report, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A materials experiment carrier (MEC) that provides effective accommodation of the given baseline materials processing in space (MPS) payloads and demonstration of the MPS platform concept for high priority materials processing science, multidiscipline MPS investigations, host carrier for commercial MPS payloads, and system economy of orbital operations is defined. The study flow of task work is shown. Study tasks featured analysis and trades to identify the MEC system concept options.

  18. One Year Oral Toxicity Study of WR238605 Succinate in Dogs. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-18

    and Mead, D.C. Clin. Chem. 20, 586, 1974. Haptoelobin Antigen- antibody method Ciba-Corning 550 Express Clinical Chemistry System Atlantic... Antibodies Test Kit B-4 ’ £• ET •^ !• Tk ir\\. a f HEMATOLOGY Ervthrocyte Count Electronic counting procedure SysmexKlOOO Hematology Analyzer...100X C-19 ONE YEAR ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF WR23 8605 SUCCINATE IN DOGS 1 Shf INCIDENCE OF OBSERVATIONS SEX: MALE STUDY: 219 PERIOD D0SE:(mg

  19. Effect of Scanning and Reconstruction Parameters on Three Dimensional Volume and CT Value Measurement of Pulmonary Nodules: A Phantom Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datong SU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The computed tomography (CT follow-up of indeterminate pulmonary nodules aiming to evaluate the change of the volume and CT value is the common strategy in clinic. The CT dose needs to considered on serious CT scans in addition to the measurement accuracy. The purpose of this study is to quantify the precision of pulmonary nodule volumetric measurement and CT value measurement with various tube currents and reconstruction algorithms in a phantom study with dual-energy CT. Methods A chest phantom containing 9 artificial spherical solid nodules with known diameter (D=2.5 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm and density (-100 HU, 60 HU and 100 HU was scanned using a 64-row detector CT canner at 120 Kilovolt & various currents (10 mA, 20 mA, 50 mA, 80 mA,100 mA, 150 mA and 350 mA. Raw data were reconstructed with filtered back projection and three levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm (FBP, ASIR; 30%, 50% and 80%. Automatic volumetric measurements were performed using commercially available software. The relative volume error (RVE and the absolute attenuation error (AAE between the software measures and the reference-standard were calculated. Analyses of the variance were performed to evaluate the effect of reconstruction methods, different scan parameters, nodule size and attenuation on the RPE. Results The software substantially overestimated the very small (D=2.5 mm nodule's volume [mean RVE: (100.8%±28%] and underestimated it attenuation [mean AAE: (-756±80 HU]. The mean RVEs of nodule with diameter as 5 mm and 10 mm were small [(-0.9%±1.1% vs (0.9%±1.4%], however, the mean AAEs [(-243±26 HU vs (-129±7 HU] were large. The ANOVA analysis for repeated measurements showed that different tube current and reconstruction algorithm had no significant effect on the volumetric measurements for nodules with diameter of 5 mm and 10 mm (F=5.60, P=0.10 vs F=11.13, P=0.08, but significant effects on the measurement of CT

  20. Relationship Between State-Level Google Online Search Volume and Cancer Incidence in the United States: Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Charles A; Barz Leahy, Allison; Li, Yimei; Schapira, Marilyn M; Bailey, L Charles; Merchant, Raina M

    2018-01-08

    In the United States, cancer is common, with high morbidity and mortality; cancer incidence varies between states. Online searches reflect public awareness, which could be driven by the underlying regional cancer epidemiology. The objective of our study was to characterize the relationship between cancer incidence and online Google search volumes in the United States for 6 common cancers. A secondary objective was to evaluate the association of search activity with cancer-related public events and celebrity news coverage. We performed a population-based, retrospective study of state-level cancer incidence from 2004 through 2013 reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for breast, prostate, colon, lung, and uterine cancers and leukemia compared to Google Trends (GT) relative search volume (RSV), a metric designed by Google to allow interest in search topics to be compared between regions. Participants included persons in the United States who searched for cancer terms on Google. The primary measures were the correlation between annual state-level cancer incidence and RSV as determined by Spearman correlation and linear regression with RSV and year as independent variables and cancer incidence as the dependent variable. Temporal associations between search activity and events raising public awareness such as cancer awareness months and cancer-related celebrity news were described. At the state level, RSV was significantly correlated to incidence for breast (r=.18, P=.001), prostate (r=-.27, P<.001), lung (r=.33, P<.001), and uterine cancers (r=.39, P<.001) and leukemia (r=.13, P=.003) but not colon cancer (r=-.02, P=.66). After adjusting for time, state-level RSV was positively correlated to cancer incidence for all cancers: breast (P<.001, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.19), prostate (P=.38, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.22), lung (P<.001, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.46), colon (P<.001, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.17), and uterine cancers (P<.001, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.12) and leukemia (P<.001, 95

  1. Synthesis of Juvenile Salmonid Passage Studies at The Dalles Dam, Volume II, 2001-05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Beeman, John W.; Duran, Ian; Puls, Andrew

    2007-08-15

    The overall goal of juvenile salmonid research at The Dalles Dam is to provide data to inform decisions on strategies to improve smolt survival rates at the project. Survival improvement strategies address the three primary passage routes at The Dalles Dam -- spillway, sluiceway, and turbines – with the general intent to increase spill and sluice passage and decrease turbine passage. Since the review by Ploskey et al. (2001a) of research during 1982-2000 at The Dalles Dam, the Corps funded over $20M of research in at least 39 studies during 2001-2006. The purpose of the current review is to synthesize juvenile salmonid passage data at The Dalles Dam (TDA) collected from 2001 through 2006. The data we synthesize comes from numerous research techniques employed to address particular study objectives at The Dalles Dam. The suite of techniques includes acoustic and radio telemetry, acoustic cameras, acoustic Doppler current profilers, balloon tags, computational fluid dynamics models, drogues, fixed and mobile hydroacoustics, fyke nets, physical scale models, PIT-tags, sensor fish, sonar trackers, and underwater video. Hydraulic data involves flow patterns and water velocities. Biological data involve forebay approach paths and residence times, horizontal and diel distributions, passage efficiencies and effectiveness, fish behaviors, tailrace egress and predation rates, and route-specific and total project survival rates. Data for 2001-2006 are synthesized in this report to provide, in conjunction with Ploskey et al. (2001a), resources for engineers, biologists, and dam operators to use when making decisions about fish protection measures for juvenile salmonids at The Dalles Dam. This review covers the major fish passage research efforts during 2001-2006 and includes sections on the Environmental Setting, Forebay and Project Passage Studies, Spill Studies, Sluiceway Studies, Turbine Studies, Smolt Survival Studies, and a Discussion.

  2. Ecological Study of Lagoons Surrounding the John F. Kennedy Space Center, Brevard County, Florida . Volume 2; Theses and Project Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Many of the detailed studies done in connection with Ecological Study of the Lagoons surrounding the John F. Kennedy Space Port were performed as Master's Thesis investigations by various graduate students enrolled at F. I. T. during and subsequent to the report. The scope and purpose of what we came to call "the KSC Baseline Study" caught the imagination and interest of our student body. Many who were not financially or otherwise connected with the project found their inspiration in studies that were directly connected with project, and thus added materially to the totality of the knowledge gained. An example of one such study is the first article included in this Volume, A Master's Thesis study performed by Shen Phillip Chen, who chose the site for his investigation so that his results would correlate with and extend the results of others. In addition to the Master's Theses contained in this Volume, six other graduate studies must be acknowledged here as contributing to this Report, although they have not reached the stage of final publication. Ms. Sandra Fettes has completed a study of the amounts of five trace metals in mangrove leaves from plants at various locations around the Kennedy Space Center. Mr. Bernard Cohenour has isolated and identified a number of oil consuming bacteria endemic in the waters of the Indian Rivers. Mr. Charles Waterhouse has analyzed historic data of tidal gauges in the lagoonal area and correlated it with wind field records. Mr. Renkert Meyer has measured the vertical and horizontal currents of the lagoons and is attempting an interpretation of them in terms of the wind field as a driving force. Mr. Richard Campbell has measured the rate of nitrogen fixation in both the water columns and the sediments under them in the lagoons. Mr. Craig Weiderhold has measured thl3 annual variations in the populations of benthic invertebrates in the lagoons. An integral part of the F. I. T. curriculum is a requirement that each undergraduate

  3. A Study on the Evaluation of Field Application of High-Fluidity Concrete Containing High Volume Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Wang Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent concrete industry, high-fluidity concrete is being widely used for the pouring of dense reinforced concrete. Normally, in the case of high-fluidity concrete, it includes high binder contents, so it is necessary to replace part of the cement through admixtures such as fly ash to procure economic feasibility and durability. This study shows the mechanical properties and field applicability of high-fluidity concrete using mass of fly ash as alternative materials of cement. The high-fluidity concrete mixed with 50% fly ash was measured to manufacture concrete that applies low water/binder ratio to measure the mechanical characteristics as compressive strength and elastic modulus. Also, in order to evaluate the field applicability, high-fluidity concrete containing high volume fly ash was evaluated for fluidity, compressive strength, heat of hydration, and drying shrinkage of concrete.

  4. An experimental study of the aerodynamics of a NACA0012 airfoil with a simulated glaze ice accretion, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Michael B.

    1993-01-01

    This is the second volume of a report documenting the effect of simulated ice accretion on the aerodynamic performance of a NACA 0012 airfoil. Both an experimentally measured and a computer generated ice shape are studied. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the measurements, not an analysis of the data. Surface pressure, integrated lift and pitching moment data are presented as well as drag from a wake survey. A split hot film probe was used to document the flow-field about the airfoil with simulated ice. Data in the separation bubbles, reattached boundary layer and wake are presented. Both tabulated and graphical data are presented in the paper. The data are also available on computer disk for easy access.

  5. MRS system study for the repository: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinagra, T.A. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA); Harig, R. [Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade and Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)

    1990-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), has initiated a waste management system study to identify the impacts of the presence or absence of a monitored retrievable storage facility (hereinafter referred to as ``MRS``) on system costs and program schedules. To support this study, life-cycle cost estimates and construction schedules have been prepared for the surface and underground facilities and operations geologic nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Nine different operating scenarios (cases) have been identified by OCRWM for inclusion in this study. For each case, the following items are determined: the repository design and construction costs, operating costs, closure and decommissioning costs, required staffing, construction schedules, uncertainties associated with the costs and schedules, and shipping cask and disposal container throughputs. This document contains A-D.

  6. Advanced Platform Systems Technology study. Volume 4: Technology advancement program plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    An overview study of the major technology definition tasks and subtasks along with their interfaces and interrelationships is presented. Although not specifically indicated in the diagram, iterations were required at many steps to finalize the results. The development of the integrated technology advancement plan was initiated by using the results of the previous two tasks, i.e., the trade studies and the preliminary cost and schedule estimates for the selected technologies. Descriptions for the development of each viable technology advancement was drawn from the trade studies. Additionally, a logic flow diagram depicting the steps in developing each technology element was developed along with descriptions for each of the major elements. Next, major elements of the logic flow diagrams were time phased, and that allowed the definition of a technology development schedule that was consistent with the space station program schedule when possible. Schedules show the major milestone including tests required as described in the logic flow diagrams.

  7. SRB/SLEEC (Solid Rocket Booster/Shingle Lap Extendible Exit Cone) feasibility study, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary design and analysis was completed for a SLEEC (Shingle Lap Extendible Exit Cone) which could be incorporated on the Space Transportation System (STS) Solid Rocket Booster (SRB). Studies were completed which predicted weights and performance increases and development plans were prepared for the full-scale bench and static test of SLEEC. In conjunction with the design studies, a series of supporting analyses were performed to assure the validity and feasibility of performance, fabrication, cost, and reliability for the selected design. The feasibility and required amounts of bench, static firing, and flight tests considered necessary for the successful incorporation of SLEEC on the Shuttle SRBs were determined. Preliminary plans were completed which define both a follow on study effort and a development program.

  8. Technical study for the chemical cleaning of Dresden-1. Volume I, Section 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-15

    A feasibility study has been completed to decontaminate the primary system of the Dresden-1 Nuclear Power Unit operated by Commonwealth Edison Company of Illinois. Available data initially were searched to determine the state of the art. Solvents based on organic acids and chelates gave unsatisfactory deontamination factors or unacceptable corrosion rates when evaluated for cleaning of specimens from the Dresden-1 primary system, under static and dynamic conditions. A new proprietary cleaning solution, Dow Solvent NS-1, was successfully applied in these laboratory studies.

  9. Hippocampus in schizophrenia, depression, and suicide: a postmortem stereological study of hippocampal volume and cell number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Rosenberg, Raben; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Robust data from studies of incidence rates in schizophrenia have yielded evidence for a peak in onset at age 22 years in both males and females. An early age of illness onset has been discussed as a more severe (Table Presented) subtype of schizophrenia, characterized by a worse...... illness course. These observations indicate that age at onset might be a distinct liability marker of schizophrenia possibly linked to the genetic underpinnings of the illness. Studying twin data, we wanted to see whether if an early onset of schizophrenia spectrum disorder in the first diagnosed twin (...

  10. Reduction of resuscitation fluid volumes in severely burned patients using ascorbic acid administration: a randomized, prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Matsuda, T; Miyagantani, Y; Yukioka, T; Matsuda, H; Shimazaki, S

    2000-03-01

    High-dose ascorbic acid (vitamin C) therapy (66 mg/kg per hour) attenuates postburn lipid peroxidation, resuscitation fluid volume requirements, and edema generation in severely burned patients. A prospective, randomized study at a university trauma and critical care center in Japan. Thirty-seven patients with burns over more than 30% of their total body surface area (TBSA) hospitalized within 2 hours after injury were randomly divided into ascorbic acid and control groups. Fluid resuscitation was performed using Ringer lactate solution to maintain stable hemodynamic measurements and adequate urine output (0.5-1.0 ml/kg per hour). In the ascorbic acid group (n = 19; mean burn size, 63% +/- 26% TBSA; mean burn index, 57 +/- 26; inhalation injury, 15/ 19), ascorbic acid was infused during the initial 24-hour study period. In the control group (n = 18; mean burn size, 53% +/- 17% TBSA; mean burn index, 47 +/- 13; inhalation injury, 12/18), no ascorbic acid was infused. We compared hemodynamic and respiratory measurements, lipid peroxidation, and fluid balance for 96 hours after injury. Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey test were used to analyze the data. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, arterial pH, base deficit, and urine outputs were equivalent in both groups. The 24-hour total fluid infusion volumes in the control and ascorbic acid groups were 5.5 +/- 3.1 and 3.0 +/- 1.7 mL/kg per percentage of burn area, respectively (Preduction in the severity of respiratory dysfunction was also apparent in these patients.

  11. Numerical study of sea level and kuroshio volume transport change contributed by steric effect due to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Woo, S. B.

    2016-02-01

    For direct consideration of seawater volume change by steric effect due to global warming, this study uses a MOM (Modular Ocean Model) version4 oceanic general circulation model, which does not use Boussinesq approximation. The model was improved to regional scale by increasing the grid resolution. Global simulation model results of CM2.1, HADCM3, MIROC3.2 provided by the IPCC AR4 (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) were used as initial and boundary conditions, and SRES (Special Report on Emissions Scenarios) A1B was selected as a global warming scenario. The Northwestern Pacific region, which includes the Korean Peninsula, was selected as the study area, and the Yellow Sea which has a complex coastline, was expressed in detail by increasing grid resolution. By averaging the results of the three numerical experiments, we found that temperature & mean sea level(MSL) are increased by approximately 3℃/35cm from 2000 to 2100, respectively. Interestingly, The East Sea (Japan sea) appeared to show the largest change of MSL due to steric effect compared with Yellow and East China Sea. Numerical results showed that larger influence on East/Japan Sea is caused by the temperature and volume transport change in Tsushima Warm Current, which passes through the Korea Strait. A direct simulation of steric effect results in higher sea level rise compared with in-direct simulation of steric effect. Also, the Kuroshio Current, which is one of the major currents in the Northwestern Pacific, showed a decrease in transport as global warming progressed. Although there were differences between models, approximately 4 5SV of transport was reduced in 2100. However, there was no huge change in the transport of the Tsushima Warm Current.

  12. Numerical expression of volume status using the bioimpedance ratio in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun Jang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Volume overload results in higher mortality rates in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD. The ratio of bioimpedance (RBI might be a helpful parameter in adjusting dry body weight in CAPD patients. This study examined whether it is possible to distinguish between non-hypervolemic status and hypervolemic status in CAPD patients by using only RBI. Methods: RBI was calculated as follows: RBI = impedance at 50 kHz/impedance at 500 kHz. Based on the experts’ judgements, a total of 64 CAPD patients were divided into two groups, a non-hypervolemic group and a hypervolemic group. The RBI was measured from right wrist to right ankle (rw-raRBI by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BCM®, Fresenius Medical Care before and after the peritosol was emptied. Other RBIs were measured from the right side of the anterior superior iliac spine to the ipsilateral ankle (rasis-raRBI to control for the electro-physiological effects of peritoneal dialysate. Results: The mean rw-raRBI of non-hypervolemic patients was higher than that of hypervolemic patients in the presence (1.141 ± 0.022 vs. 1.121 ± 0.021, P < 0.001 of a peritosol. Likewise, the mean rasis-raRBI of non-hypervolemic patients was higher than that of hypervolemic patients (presence of peritosol: 1.136 ± 0.026 vs. 1.109 ± 0.022, P < 0.001; absence of peritosol: 1.131 ± 0.022 vs. 1.107 ± 0.022, P < 0.001. Conclusion: The volume status of CAPD patients was able to be simply expressed by RBI. Therefore, this study suggests that when patients cannot be analyzed using BCM, RBI could be an alternative.

  13. Whole-brain hippocampal sparing radiation therapy: Volume-modulated arc therapy vs intensity-modulated radiation therapy case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Katrina, E-mail: Trinabena23@gmail.com; Lenards, Nishele; Holson, Janice

    2016-04-01

    The hippocampus is responsible for memory and cognitive function. An ongoing phase II clinical trial suggests that sparing dose to the hippocampus during whole-brain radiation therapy can help preserve a patient's neurocognitive function. Progressive research and advancements in treatment techniques have made treatment planning more sophisticated but beneficial for patients undergoing treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare hippocampal sparing whole-brain (HS-WB) radiation therapy treatment planning techniques using volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We randomly selected 3 patients to compare different treatment techniques that could be used for reducing dose to the hippocampal region. We created 2 treatment plans, a VMAT and an IMRT, from each patient's data set and planned on the Eclipse 11.0 treatment planning system (TPS). A total of 6 plans (3 IMRT and 3 VMAT) were created and evaluated for this case study. The physician contoured the hippocampus as per the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0933 protocol atlas. The organs at risk (OR) were contoured and evaluated for the plan comparison, which included the spinal cord, optic chiasm, the right and left eyes, lenses, and optic nerves. Both treatment plans produced adequate coverage on the planning target volume (PTV) while significantly reducing dose to the hippocampal region. The VMAT treatment plans produced a more homogenous dose distribution throughout the PTV while decreasing the maximum point dose to the target. However, both treatment techniques demonstrated hippocampal sparing when irradiating the whole brain.

  14. Numerical expression of volume status using the bioimpedance ratio in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mun; Kim, Won Hak; Lee, Jung Hee; Kim, Mi Soon; Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, So Mi; Chang, Jai Won

    2017-01-01

    Background Volume overload results in higher mortality rates in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The ratio of bioimpedance (RBI) might be a helpful parameter in adjusting dry body weight in CAPD patients. This study examined whether it is possible to distinguish between non-hypervolemic status and hypervolemic status in CAPD patients by using only RBI. Methods RBI was calculated as follows: RBI = impedance at 50 kHz/impedance at 500 kHz. Based on the experts’ judgements, a total of 64 CAPD patients were divided into two groups, a non-hypervolemic group and a hypervolemic group. The RBI was measured from right wrist to right ankle (rw-raRBI) by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BCM®, Fresenius Medical Care) before and after the peritosol was emptied. Other RBIs were measured from the right side of the anterior superior iliac spine to the ipsilateral ankle (rasis-raRBI) to control for the electro-physiological effects of peritoneal dialysate. Results The mean rw-raRBI of non-hypervolemic patients was higher than that of hypervolemic patients in the presence (1.141 ± 0.022 vs. 1.121 ± 0.021, P < 0.001) of a peritosol. Likewise, the mean rasis-raRBI of non-hypervolemic patients was higher than that of hypervolemic patients (presence of peritosol: 1.136 ± 0.026 vs. 1.109 ± 0.022, P < 0.001; absence of peritosol: 1.131 ± 0.022 vs. 1.107 ± 0.022, P < 0.001). Conclusion The volume status of CAPD patients was able to be simply expressed by RBI. Therefore, this study suggests that when patients cannot be analyzed using BCM, RBI could be an alternative. PMID:28904881

  15. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    We review studies on regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and regulatory volume increase (RVI) of major ion and water transporting vertebrate epithelia. The rate of RVD and RVI is faster in cells of high osmotic permeability like amphibian gallbladder and mammalian proximal tubule as compared...... function of iso-osmotic fluid transport that depends on Na+ recirculation. The causative relationship is discussed for a fluid-absorbing and a fluid-secreting epithelium of which the Na+ recirculation mechanisms have been identified. A large number of transporters and ion channels involved in cell volume...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...

  16. Electroconvulsive therapy increases hippocampal and amygdala volume in therapy refractory depression : A longitudinal pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendolkar, Indira; van Beek, Marleen; van Oostrom, Iris; Mulder, Marlies; Janzing, Joost; Voshaar, Richard Oude; van Eijndhoven, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most potent biological therapy in depression. Animal studies suggest that ECT acts via neuroplasticity effects on limbic structures involved in the pathophysiology of depression but in vivo evidence at the human system level is scarce. Therefore, the aim of the

  17. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 2, Book 1, Energy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific and Northwest generating utility, (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources, and (3) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads. This analysis updates the 1992 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1992. This technical appendix provides utility-specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility (1) Electrical demand firm loads; (2) Generating resources; and (3) Contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here.

  18. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume II. A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  19. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume I. A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  20. Water Treatment Plant Operation Volume 2. A Field Study Training Program. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  1. Preliminary Problem Definition Study of 48 Munitions-Related Chemicals. Volume II. Propellant-Related Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    this step in a form resembling macaroni. The material is again pressed into block form, then extruded through dies form cords of the desired final...toxicity of M-1 propellant dust to aquatic ecosys’ýems has been investigated by Hartley (1977). In algae studies with Miorocstý88 eziWinoea, culture death

  2. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and kidney volume in the offspring: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); A.J. van der Heijden (Bert); M.H. Lequin (Maarten); A. Hofman (Albert); J.J.M. Geelhoed (Miranda); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); H.R. Taal (Rob); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAn adverse fetal environment leads to smaller kidneys, with fewer nephrons, which might predispose an individual to the development of kidney disease and hypertension in adult life. In a prospective cohort study among 1,072 children followed from early fetal life onward, we examined

  3. Follow-Up Study of Dietetic Technician Graduates 1980-1982. Volume 12, No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, Henriette D.; Lucas, John A.

    A follow-up study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to evaluate and obtain externally required information about the dietetic technician program. Surveys were mailed to all 47 of the students who graduated from the program between 1980 and 1982 to obtain information on their employment status, job title, length of service,…

  4. Neck fat volume as a potential indicator of difficult intubation: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo Del Buono

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: According to the literature, our results confirmed that there is still no single element that can predict a difficult intubation. Although no statistical significance was found, the AFV and FV have shown to have a potential predictive role for difficult intubation. Further studies with bigger samples are advisable to confirm this encouraging result.

  5. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools: Volume VIII: Women in Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    In an exploratory study conducted for the Women's Action Program of HEW, the aims were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as MODVOPPP (Medicine, Osteopathic medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary medicine, Optometry, Podiatry, Pharmacy, and Public health) school applicants and students and to describe the discrimination…

  6. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume VI: Women in Optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    In an exploratory study conducted for the Women's Action Program of HEW, the aims were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as MODVOPPP (Medicine, Osteopathic medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary medicine, Optometry, Podiatry, Pharmacy, and Public health) school applicants and students and to describe the discrimination…

  7. Intelligence and Electronic Warfare (IEW) Streamlining Project. Volume 2. Directives and Related Study Documents. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-18

    i11 R A*1* H AOppera~ I Stewart Associates Inc. Study Report. 17 Jun 88. SuA: Logistc Support for Low Density Systems LOGISTIC SUPPORT FOR LOW DENSITY...percent specified in AR 700-138. Any problems with mission equipment (airborne or ground) are reported only as comments on the reverse side of the form

  8. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 7, phase 1: SPS and rectenna systems analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A systems definition study of the solar power satellite systems is presented. The design and power distribution of the rectenna system is discussed. The communication subsystem and thermal control characteristics are described and a failure analysis performed on the systems is reported.

  9. A Study of the Relationship Between the Practice of Civil Engineering and Student Courses: Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, A. J. U.; Richardson, E.

    Australian civil engineers were surveyed for a study intended to establish a model for development based on a list of the basic stock of knowledge and techniques that need to be mastered by the graduate civil engineer. Following a brief introduction and summary, chapters 3-7 review the survey objectives, civil engineering definitions and…

  10. Feasibility Study for Hotel/Motel Career Program for Harper College. Volume XIX, No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, John A.; And Others

    In spring 1990, a study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to determine the feasibility of adding a career program in Hotel/Motel Management (HMM) to the current Food Service Program. Surveys were sent to 53 hotels and motels in the WRHC service area to determine employment demands that would affect the hiring of graduates of…

  11. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume X: Bibliography and Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    The bibliography is part of an extensive study of the barriers to women's success in the schools and practice of eight health professions. It divides resources into 14 segments: one covers the health professions in general; one treats women and careers in general; one is devoted to each of eight health professions (medicine, osteopathic medicine,…

  12. Global spent fuel logistics systems study (GSFLS). Volume I. GSFLS summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    An important element in the implementation of international nuclear energy policies is the creation of viable systems for transporting, handling, storing, and disposing of the world's spent nuclear fuel. There is an urgent need to implement selected global spent fuel logistics systems (GSFLS) which can best bridge the interests of countries throughout the world and provide the necessary means for transporting, handling, storing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel. The viability of these systems depends upon their compatibility with governmental policies and nonproliferation concerns; their adequacy in support of projected global nuclear power programs; and their adaptation to realistic technological and institutional constraints. The United States Department of Energy contracted with Boeing Engineering and Construction (BEC), a division of the Boeing Company, and its subcontractors, International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) and the firm of Doub, Purcell, Muntzing and Hansen to conduct a study of issues and options in establishing GSFLS and to develop preliminary GSFLS concepts. BEC conducted the study integration and developed the technological/economic framework; IEAL researched and developed the institutional framework; and the firm of Doub, Purcell, Muntzing and Hansen conducted the legal/regulatory research associated with the study. BEC also consulted with the First Boston Corporation regarding generic financial considerations associated with GSFLS. This report provides a summarization of the GSFLS study findings.

  13. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants. Volume 1. A Field Study Training Program. Third Edition. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The purpose of this wastewater treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified wastewater treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  14. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume VII: Women in Podiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    In an exploratory study conducted for the Women's Action Program of HEW, the aims were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as MODVOPPP (Medicine, Osteopathic medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary medicine, Optometry, Podiatry, Pharmacy, and Public health) school applicants and students, and to describe the discrimination…

  15. Case-study application of venture analysis: the integrated energy utility. Volume 3. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fein, E; Gordon, T J; King, R; Kropp, F G; Shuchman, H L; Stover, J; Hausz, W; Meyer, C

    1978-11-01

    The appendices for a case-study application of venture analysis for an integrated energy utility for commercialization are presented. The following are included and discussed: utility interviews; net social benefits - quantitative calculations; the financial analysis model; market penetration decision model; international district heating systems; political and regulatory environment; institutional impacts.

  16. Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Volume 106, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Pamela A.; Piety, Philip J.; Gamson, David; Spillane, James P.; Miele, David B.; Knapp, Michael S.; Copland, Michael A.; Swinnerton, Juli A.; Ikemoto, Gina Schuyler; Marsh, Julie A.; Firestone, William A.; Gonzalez, Raymond A.; Resnick, Lauren; Besterfield-Sacre, Mary; Mehalik, Matthew; Sherer, Jennifer Zoltners; Halverson, Erica; Erickson, Frederick; Little, Judith Warren; Diamond, John B.; Cooper, Kristy; Hickey, Daniel T.; Anderson, Kate T.; Gitomer, Drew H.; Duschl, Richard A.; Carr, Peggy; Dogan, Enis; Tirre, William; Walton, Ebony; Thorn, Christopher; Meyer, Robert H.; Gamoran, Adam; Gee, James Paul; Phillips, Denis C.

    2007-01-01

    Much of the methodological literature currently influential in the education policy community has focused on research studies and assessments intended to support generalizable conclusions about "what works" or what students "know and can do." Until recently, far less attention has been paid to how educators actually interpret and use this…

  17. Block 2 SRM conceptual design studies. Volume 1, Book 1: Conceptual design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brad; Williams, Neal; Miller, John; Ralston, Joe; Richardson, Jennifer; Moore, Walt; Doll, Dan; Maughan, Jeff; Hayes, Fred

    1986-01-01

    The conceptual design studies of a Block 2 Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) require the elimination of asbestos-filled insulation and was open to alternate designs, such as case changes, different propellants, modified burn rate - to improve reliability and performance. Limitations were placed on SRM changes such that the outside geometry should not impact the physical interfaces with other Space Shuttle elements and should have minimum changes to the aerodynamic and dynamic characteristics of the Space Shuttle vehicle. Previous Space Shuttle SRM experience was assessed and new design concepts combined to define a valid approach to assured flight success and economic operation of the STS. Trade studies, preliminary designs, analyses, plans, and cost estimates are documented.

  18. The Study of the Relationship between Probabilistic Design and Axiomatic Design Methodology. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwubiko, Chin-Yere; Onyebueke, Landon

    1996-01-01

    Structural failure is rarely a "sudden death" type of event, such sudden failures may occur only under abnormal loadings like bomb or gas explosions and very strong earthquakes. In most cases, structures fail due to damage accumulated under normal loadings such as wind loads, dead and live loads. The consequence of cumulative damage will affect the reliability of surviving components and finally causes collapse of the system. The cumulative damage effects on system reliability under time-invariant loadings are of practical interest in structural design and therefore will be investigated in this study. The scope of this study is, however, restricted to the consideration of damage accumulation as the increase in the number of failed components due to the violation of their strength limits.

  19. Space station automation study. Automation requirements derived from space manufacturing concepts. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The two manufacturing concepts developed represent innovative, technologically advanced manufacturing schemes. The concepts were selected to facilitate an in depth analysis of manufacturing automation requirements in the form of process mechanization, teleoperation and robotics, and artificial intelligence. While the cost effectiveness of these facilities has not been analyzed as part of this study, both appear entirely feasible for the year 2000 timeframe. The growing demand for high quality gallium arsenide microelectronics may warrant the ventures.

  20. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity t6 BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility; and (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1993. This technical appendix provides utility specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility: (1) electrical demand-firm loads; (2) generating resources; and (3) contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1994, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here. This BPA planning document incorporates Pacific Northwest generating resources and the 1994 medium load forecast prepared by BPA. Each utility`s forecasted future firm loads are subtracted from its existing resources to determine whether it will be surplus or deficit. If a utility`s resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which the utility can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if its firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet the utility`s load.

  1. Preliminary Problem Definition Study of 48 Munitions Related Chemicals. Volume I. Explosives Related Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    100 & @ 20%C ethyl ether - 0.6 0/100 g @ 200C precipitates from aqueous ammoniacal solutions Data taken from the following references: Hawley, 1977...when subcutaneously injected with aqueous hexamine-formic acid solutions. This report caused concern amoung world health organizations over the danger ...observed, further studies on primate may be warranted. 2. Due to the potential danger of hexamine breakdown products to the aquatic environment, attention

  2. Capability Surprise (Report of the Defense Science Board 2008 Summer Study). Volume 1: Main Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    but due to semantics and sometimes fuzzy descriptions, they are often difficult to identify and/or differentiate. Recent studies place the number...those acquisitions and fielding efforts completed in ɚ years). It also offers efficiencies by providing incubator /hotel support. In addition...efficiencies by providing incubator /hotel support functions to project teams and legacy organizations. The hybrid model also creates an opportunity for a

  3. Determination of Ammunition Training Rates for Marine Forces Study. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-17

    recommendation to institute data collection will be deferred until fiscal year 1986. 4. This study is approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 5. A...prepara:io- for :re MCCRES. Based purely on the limitation of physical resources, MCCREE evaluations cannct, as a practica ’ matter, be conducted frequently on...are Aeighted differently than firing events in the MCCRES scoring. In acplying the abstract term "proficiency" in a practica ’ maner, -his stucy’s

  4. Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area habitability study. Volume 2. Air assessment: indicator chemicals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-01

    Environmental studies were conducted to provide data that could be used by the Commissioner of Health for the State of New York in determining whether the Emergency Declaration Area (EDA) surrounding the Love Canal hazardous-waste site is habitable. An air assessment was conducted for Love Canal Indicator Chemicals. Homes throughout the EDA were sampled using the Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer Model 6000E.

  5. GREAT I Study of the Upper Mississippi River. Technical Appendixes. Volume 6. Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Road Bikeway could tie into the North-South Bikeway being proposed by the Youth Hostel Association between Kenosha and 3. La Crosse, Wisconsin...cultural significance, the University of Minnesota’s Centennial Showboat is moored at the bank below the University’s main * campus , and depends in part on...Pool 9 is heavily-used for other nonboating activities as well. Students from Luther College conducted a study of the impacts of dredged material

  6. The Dental Needs of Reserve Component Soldiers. Volume 1. Introduction, Methods, and Characteristics of Study Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    problems on a tooth-by-tooth basis. Because pericoronitis is an important source of dental emergencies in the field, the examiners were asked to note...most important consideration. SEQUENCE OF EXAMINATION 1 - Patient information 2 - DMFS Assessment 3 - Pericoronitis Assessment 4 - Periodontal... PERICORONITIS ASSESSMENT Do not use simply to indicate the presence of partially erupted teeth. In this study, make a diagnosis of pericoronitis only if one or

  7. Remote sensing study of historical changes in natural oil slick volumes in the Santa Barbara Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scepan, J.; Estes, J.; Hornafius, J.S. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Large natural oil slicks are continually forming in the Santa Barbara Channel as a result of natural hydrocarbon seeps that occur above subsurface oil accumulations. Evaporation of volatile constituents in these oil slicks is a significant source of air pollution. In this study we employed a suite of remote sensing data along with a variety of image processing and geographic information system techniques to analyze the location, extent and changes in sea surface oil slicks during the period of 1975 - present. An extensive collection of airborne and spaceborne remote sensor data was accessed and examined for this study, including aerial photography, airborne spectral and microwave data, Landsat MSS and TM data and Shuttle Imaging Radar. Areas of oil slick accumulations were identified, delineated, georeferenced, measured and mapped to a common scale using both manual and digital techniques. A Gaussian mathematical model was employed to provide quantitative estimates of surface oil accumulations identified within each image over the entire twenty year period. This study indicates that variances in mapped oil slick location and extent as well as the estimated amounts of oil present within each image may be attributed to image type and quality as well as environmental conditions.

  8. Remote sensing study of historical changes in natural oil slick volumes in the Santa Barbara Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scepan, J.; Estes, J.; Hornafius, J.S. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Large natural oil slicks are continually forming in the Santa Barbara Channel as a result of natural hydrocarbon seeps that occur above subsurface oil accumulations. Evaporation of volatile constituents in these oil slicks is a significant source of air pollution. In this study we employed a suite of remote sensing data along with a variety of image processing and geographic information system techniques to analyze the location, extent and changes in sea surface oil slicks during the period of 1975 - present. An extensive collection of airborne and spaceborne remote sensor data was accessed and examined for this study, including aerial photography, airborne spectral and microwave data, Landsat MSS and TM data and Shuttle Imaging Radar. Areas of oil slick accumulations were identified, delineated, georeferenced, measured and mapped to a common scale using both manual and digital techniques. A Gaussian mathematical model was employed to provide quantitative estimates of surface oil accumulations identified within each image over the entire twenty year period. This study indicates that variances in mapped oil slick location and extent as well as the estimated amounts of oil present within each image may be attributed to image type and quality as well as environmental conditions.

  9. OTEC platform configuration and integration study. Volume I. Systems engineering and integration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    The economic success of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system is highly dependent on a platform which provides adequate support for the power system, accommodates reliably the cold water pipe, and is most cost effective. The results of a study conducted for the Department of Energy to assess six generic types of platforms to determine the most satisfactory platform for severl potential sites are presented. The six platform configurations are ship, circular barge, semi-submersible, Tuned Sphere, submersible, and spar. These represent directional and symmetric types of platforms which operate on the surface, at the interface, and submerged. The five sites for this study were primarily New Orleans, Keahole Point (Hawaii), Brazil, and secondarily Key West and Puerto Rico. Electrical transmission of energy by submarine cable is the planned form of energy transmission for all sites except Brazil, where chemical conversion is to be the method of transmission. This study is devoted to the platform (or ocean systems) of the OTEC plant which is chiefly comprised of the hull and structure, the seawater system, the position control system, and miscellaneous support/assembly systems. The principal elements in the work breakdown structure for the commercial plants are presented. The assessment of the six platform configurations was conducted utilizing a baseline plan (100-MW(e) (Net)) and site (New Orleans) with variations from the baseline to cover the range of interested platforms and sites.

  10. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 3A. GSFLS technical analysis (appendix). Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriger, A.

    1978-01-31

    This report is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. The technical and financial considerations underlying a global spent fuel logistics systems have been studied and are reported. The Pacific Basin is used as a model throughout this report; however the stated methodology and, in many cases, considerations and conclusions are applicable to other global regions. Spent fuel discharge profiles for Pacific Basin Countries were used to determine the technical systems requirements for alternative concepts. Functional analyses and flows were generated to define both system design requirements and logistics parameters. A technology review was made to ascertain the state-of-the-art of relevant GSFLS technical systems. Modular GSFLS facility designs were developed using the information generated from the functional analysis and technology review. The modular facility designs were used as a basis for siting and cost estimates for various GSFLS alternatives. Various GSFLS concepts were analyzed from a financial and economic perspective in order to provide total concepts costs and ascertain financial and economic sensitivities to key GSFLS variations. Results of the study include quantification of GSFLS facility and hardware requirements; drawings of relevant GSFLS facility designs; system cost estimates; financial reports - including user service charges; and comparative analyses of various GSFLS alternatives.

  11. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 3. GSFLS technical and financial analysis. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-31

    This report is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. The technical and financial considerations underlying a global spent fuel logistics systems have been studied and are reported herein. The Pacific Basin is used as a model throughout this report; however the stated methodology and, in many cases, considerations and conclusions are applicable to other global regions. Spent fuel discharge profiles for Pacific Basin Countries were used to determine the technical systems requirements for alternative concepts. Functional analyses and flows were generated to define both system design requirements and logistics parameters. A technology review was made to ascertain the state-of-the-art of relevant GSFLS technical systems. Modular GSFLS facility designs were developed using the information generated from the functional analysis and technology review. The modular facility designs were used as a basis for siting and cost estimates for various GSFLS alternatives. Various GSFLS concepts were analyzed from a financial and economic perspective in order to provide total concepts costs and ascertain financial and economic sensitivities to key GSFLS variations. Results of the study include quantification of GSFLS facility and hardware requirements; drawings of relevant GSFLS facility designs; system cost estimates; financial reports - including user service charges; and comparative analyses of various GSFLS alternatives.

  12. Conceptual design study for an advanced cab and visual system, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rue, R. J.; Cyrus, M. L.; Garnett, T. A.; Nachbor, J. W.; Seery, J. A.; Starr, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to define requirements for an advanced cab and visual system. The rotorcraft system integration simulator is for engineering studies in the area of mission associated vehicle handling qualities. Principally a technology survey and assessment of existing and proposed simulator visual display systems, image generation systems, modular cab designs, and simulator control station designs were performed and are discussed. State of the art survey data were used to synthesize a set of preliminary visual display system concepts of which five candidate display configurations were selected for further evaluation. Basic display concepts incorporated in these configurations included: real image projection, using either periscopes, fiber optic bundles, or scanned laser optics; and virtual imaging with helmet mounted displays. These display concepts were integrated in the study with a simulator cab concept employing a modular base for aircraft controls, crew seating, and instrumentation (or other) displays. A simple concept to induce vibration in the various modules was developed and is described. Results of evaluations and trade offs related to the candidate system concepts are given, along with a suggested weighting scheme for numerically comparing visual system performance characteristics.

  13. Age and gender specific normal values of left ventricular mass, volume and function for gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allansdotter-Johnsson Ase

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about age-specific normal values for left ventricular mass (LVM, end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, stroke volume (SV and ejection fraction (EF by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR is of importance to differentiate between health and disease and to assess the severity of disease. The aims of the study were to determine age and gender specific normal reference values and to explore the normal physiological variation of these parameters from adolescence to late adulthood, in a cross sectional study. Methods Gradient echo CMR was performed at 1.5 T in 96 healthy volunteers (11–81 years, 50 male. Gender-specific analysis of parameters was undertaken in both absolute values and adjusted for body surface area (BSA. Results Age and gender specific normal ranges for LV volumes, mass and function are presented from the second through the eighth decade of life. LVM, ESV and EDV rose during adolescence and declined in adulthood. SV and EF decreased with age. Compared to adult females, adult males had higher BSA-adjusted values of EDV (p = 0.006 and ESV (p Conclusion LV volumes, mass and function vary over a broad age range in healthy individuals. LV volumes and mass both rise in adolescence and decline with age. EF showed a rapid decline in adolescence compared to changes throughout adulthood. These findings demonstrate the need for age and gender specific normal ranges for clinical use.

  14. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 1, Summary: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.; Cerutti, O.M.

    1992-08-01

    Forests are a major source of carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries, in most cases far exceeding the emissions from the energy sector. To date, however, efforts at quantifying forestry emissions have produced a wide range of results. In order to assist policymakers in developing measures to reduce emissions` levels and to increase carbon sequestration, the Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) has undertaken this effort to improve the precision of emissions estimates and to identify possible response options in the forestry sector. This paper summarizes the results of one component of this work. The Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) was established in 1990 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change`s (IPCC) activities in examining growing emissions of greenhouse gases and their potential impact on the global climate. Unlike past methods, this study relied on a network of participants from developing countries to prepare estimates of carbon emissions. The participating countries -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand -- currently represent an estimated two-thirds of the annual deforestation of closed moist forests. This study gives an estimate of 837 million tonnes of carbon emissions from deforestation and logging in the F-7 countries in 1990. A proportional projection of these estimates to the tropical biome shows that the total carbon emissions are between 1.1 and 1.7 billion tonnes of carbon, with a working average of 1.4 billion tonnes per year. This work also provides estimates of emissions and uptake from China, which past studies rarely have included. This summary will be followed by individual reports by each of the participating countries, which will include detailed evaluations of possible response options. Estimates for Nigeria are also under preparation.

  15. Prior Generic Arthroscopic Volume Correlates with Hip Arthroscopic Proficiency: A Simulator Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturan, Gurhan; Alvand, Abtin; Judge, Andrew; Pollard, Thomas C B; Glyn-Jones, Sion; Rees, Jonathan L

    2018-01-03

    Changing trends in surgical education and patient expectation are leading to proficiency models of progression and the use of simulators. Hip arthroscopy is increasingly performed and has a steep learning curve mainly addressed during fellowship training. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of previous generic arthroscopic experience on performance at a simulated hip arthroscopy task to both estimate the minimum case numbers that correlate with expert proficiency levels and help to guide selection for hip arthroscopy fellowships. Fifty-two participants were recruited to a cross-sectional study. Four consultants (expert hip arthroscopists), 28 trainees (residents and fellows), and 20 novices (interns and medical students) performed a standardized bench-top simulated hip arthroscopy task. A validated global rating scale (GRS) score and motion analysis were used to assess surgical performance. Prior arthroscopic experience was recorded from surgical electronic logbooks. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were conducted to identify optimum cut-points for task proficiency at both expert and competent GRS levels. There were significant differences (p arthroscopic ability of all experience groups based on GRS assessment and for all motion analysis metrics. There was a significant positive correlation between logbook numbers and GRS scores (p arthroscopic procedures were necessary to achieve an expert GRS score, and 78 prior arthroscopic procedures were necessary for a competent score. Performing a basic hip arthroscopy task competently requires substantial previous generic arthroscopic experience. The numbers identified in this study provide targets for residents. Program directors appointing to hip arthroscopy fellowship training posts may find these results useful as a guide during the selection process.

  16. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 1: Management summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The objectives of a study program to determine the life sciences payloads required for conducting biomedical experiments during space missions are presented. The objectives are defined as: (1) to identify the research functions which must be performed aboard life sciences spacecraft laboratories and the equipment needed to support these functions and (2) to develop layouts and preliminary conceptual designs of several potential baseline payloads for the accomplishment of life research in space. Payload configurations and subsystems are described and illustrated. Tables of data are included to identify the material requirements for the space missions.

  17. The Study of the Relationship between Probabilistic Design and Axiomatic Design Methodology. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwubiko, Chinyere; Onyebueke, Landon

    1996-01-01

    This program report is the final report covering all the work done on this project. The goal of this project is technology transfer of methodologies to improve design process. The specific objectives are: 1. To learn and understand the Probabilistic design analysis using NESSUS. 2. To assign Design Projects to either undergraduate or graduate students on the application of NESSUS. 3. To integrate the application of NESSUS into some selected senior level courses in Civil and Mechanical Engineering curricula. 4. To develop courseware in Probabilistic Design methodology to be included in a graduate level Design Methodology course. 5. To study the relationship between the Probabilistic design methodology and Axiomatic design methodology.

  18. Study of the application of hydrogen fuel to long-range subsonic transport aircraft, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.; Lange, R. H.; Moore, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility, practicability, and potential advantages/disadvantages of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in long range, subsonic transport aircraft of advanced design were studied. Both passenger and cargo-type aircraft were investigated. To provide a valid basis for comparison, conventional hydrocarbon (Jet A) fueled aircraft were designed to perform identical missions using the same advanced technology and meeting the same operational constraints. The liquid hydrogen and Jet A fueled aircraft were compared on the basis of weight, size, energy utilization, cost, noise, emissions, safety, and operational characteristics. A program of technology development was formulated.

  19. Conceptual design study of 1985 commercial tilt rotor transports. Volume 3. STOL design summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sambell, K.W.

    1976-04-01

    A conceptual design study is presented of 1,985 commercial tilt rotor STOL transports for a NASA 200 n. mi. (370 km) STOL Mission. A 100-passenger STOL Variant (Bell D313) of the Phase I VTOL Tilt Rotor Aircraft is defined. Aircraft characteristics are given; with the aircraft redesigned to meet 2,000-foot (610 m) field criteria, with emphasis on low fuel consumption and low direct operating cost. The 100-passenger STOL Tilt Rotor Aircraft was analyzed for performance, weights, economics, handling qualities, noise footprint and aeroelastic stability. (GRA)

  20. Industrial applications study. Volume IV. Industrial plant surveys. Final report. [Waste heat recovery and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Harry L.; Hamel, Bernard B.; Karamchetty, Som; Steigelmann, William H.; Gajanana, Birur C.; Agarwal, Anil P.; Klock, Lawrence M.; Henderson, James M.; Calobrisi, Gary; Hedman, Bruce A.; Koluch, Michael; Biancardi, Frank; Bass, Robert; Landerman, Abraham; Peters, George; Limaye, Dilip; Price, Jeffrey; Farr, Janet

    1977-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the waste heat recovery and utilization potential in the manufacturing portion of the industrial sector is presented. The scope of this initial phase addressed the feasibility of obtaining in-depth energy information in the industrial sector. Within this phase, the methodology and approaches for data gathering and assessment were established. Using these approaches, energy use and waste heat profiles were developed at the 2-digit level; with this data, waste heat utilization technologies were evaluated. This study represents an important first step in the evaluation of waste heat recovery potential.