WorldWideScience

Sample records for prt 1975-1976 ridership

  1. Minnesota logging utilization factors, 1975-1976--development, use, implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1979-01-01

    Discusses Minnesota saw log and pulpwood logging utilization factors developed during 1975-1976 and their implications. Compares factors for several species groups and shows their use in estimating growing stock cut for pulpwood and saw logs.

  2. Universal Esperanto Association. Annual Report 1975-1976. Esperanto Documents, New Series, No. 10A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universal Esperanto Association, Rotterdam (Netherlands).

    The Universal Esperanto Association publishes an annual report each year, covering April-to-April, in Esperanto. This volume presents an edited English summary of the 1975-1976 report, the aim of which is to describe UEA activities and to inform the non-speaker of the language and culture of Esperanto as they relate to the UEA's program. The…

  3. El PRT-ERP y la lucha por la libertad de los presos políticos, 1971-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Eidelman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda la represión política de la militancia revolucionaria por parte del régimen militar y la problemática de los presos políticos en la etapa 1971-1973 en Argentina. Se realiza un análisis de las principales características de la legislación represiva. Centralmente refiere a las diferentes iniciativas desarrolladas por el PRT-ERP en relación con sus militantes presos y en particular a la constitución de una Comisión de familiares de presos políticos, estudiantiles y gremiales para la organización de la solidaridad y defensa de los mismos. Apuntamos a destacar la amplia actividad de defensa y solidaridad con los presos políticos desarrollada por un conjunto de organizaciones como un antecedente importante, pero no reconocido, para la constitución del movimiento de derechos humanos de la Argentina en 1975-1976

  4. Sustainable Mobility: Longitudinal Analysis of Built Environment on Transit Ridership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohyung Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the concerns about urban mobility, traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, extensive research has explored the relationship between the built environment and transit ridership. However, the nature of aggregation and the cross-sectional approach of the research rarely provide essential clues on the potential of a transit system as a sustainable mobility option. From the perspective of longitudinal sustainability, this paper develops regression models for rail transit stations in the Los Angeles Metro system. These models attempt to identify the socio-demographic characteristics and land use features influencing longitudinal transit ridership changes. Step-wise ordinary least square (OLS regression models are used to identify factors that contribute to transit ridership changes. Those factors include the number of dwelling units, employment-oriented land uses such as office and commercial land uses, and land use balance. The models suggest a negative relationship between job and population balance with transit ridership change. They also raise a question regarding the 0.4 km radius commonly used in transit analysis. The models indicate that the 0.4 km radius is too small to capture the significant influence of the built environment on transit ridership.

  5. Predicting Short-Term Subway Ridership and Prioritizing Its Influential Factors Using Gradient Boosting Decision Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ding

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between short-term subway ridership and its influential factors is crucial to improving the accuracy of short-term subway ridership prediction. Although there has been a growing body of studies on short-term ridership prediction approaches, limited effort is made to investigate the short-term subway ridership prediction considering bus transfer activities and temporal features. To fill this gap, a relatively recent data mining approach called gradient boosting decision trees (GBDT is applied to short-term subway ridership prediction and used to capture the associations with the independent variables. Taking three subway stations in Beijing as the cases, the short-term subway ridership and alighting passengers from its adjacent bus stops are obtained based on transit smart card data. To optimize the model performance with different combinations of regularization parameters, a series of GBDT models are built with various learning rates and tree complexities by fitting a maximum of trees. The optimal model performance confirms that the gradient boosting approach can incorporate different types of predictors, fit complex nonlinear relationships, and automatically handle the multicollinearity effect with high accuracy. In contrast to other machine learning methods—or “black-box” procedures—the GBDT model can identify and rank the relative influences of bus transfer activities and temporal features on short-term subway ridership. These findings suggest that the GBDT model has considerable advantages in improving short-term subway ridership prediction in a multimodal public transportation system.

  6. An econometric analysis of determinants of transit ridership : 1960-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-25

    This study examines the principal dterminants of the levels and changes in transit ridership for the U.S. transit operators over the 30 year period from 1960 to 1990. Transit ridership is represented by annual boardings. We would hav e preferred to h...

  7. Net effects of gasoline price changes on transit ridership in U.S. urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Using panel data of transit ridership and gasoline prices for ten selected U.S. urbanized areas over the time period of 2002 to 2011, : this study analyzes the effect of gasoline prices on ridership of the four main transit modesbus, light rail, h...

  8. Inhibition of ovine in vitro fertilization by anti-Prt antibody: hypothetical model for Prt/ZP interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Jorge; Sardinha, João; Marques, Carla C; Domingos, Ana; Baptista, Maria C; Barbas, João P; Martins, Ivo C; Mesquita, Patrícia; Pessa, Pedro; Soares, Rui; Viegas, Aldino; Cabrita, Eurico; Horta, E M António; Fontes, Carlos A; Prates, A M José; Pereira, M L N Rosa

    2013-03-26

    The impact of prion proteins in the rules that dictate biological reproduction is still poorly understood. Likewise, the role of prnt gene, encoding the prion-like protein testis specific (Prt), in ram reproductive physiology remains largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the effect of Prt in ovine fertilization by using an anti-Prt antibody (APPA) in fertilization medium incubated with spermatozoa and oocytes. Moreover, a computational model was constructed to infer how the results obtained could be related to a hypothetical role for Prt in sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding. Mature ovine oocytes were transferred to fertilization medium alone (control) or supplemented with APPA, or pre-immune serum (CSerum). Oocytes were inseminated with ovine spermatozoa and after 18 h, presumptive zygotes (n=142) were fixed to evaluate fertilization rates or transferred (n=374) for embryo culture until D6-7. Predicted ovine Prt tertiary structure was compared with data obtained by circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and a protein-protein computational docking model was estimated for a hypothetical Prt/ZP interaction. The fertilizing rate was lower (P=0.006) in APPA group (46.0+/-6.79%) when compared to control (78.5+/-7.47%) and CSerum (64.5+/-6.65%) groups. In addition, the cleavage rate was higher (PZP docking. Computational analyses predicted a favorable Prt-binding activity towards ZP domains. Our data indicates that the presence of APPA reduces the number of fertilized oocytes and of cleaved embryos. Moreover, the CD analysis data reinforces the predicted ovine Prt trend towards an alpha-helical structure. Predicted protein-protein docking suggests a possible interaction between Prt and ZP, thus supporting an important role for Prt in ovine fertilization.

  9. Forecasting Method for Urban Rail Transit Ridership at Station Level Using Back Propagation Neural Network

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    Junfang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct forecasting method for Urban Rail Transit (URT ridership at the station level is not able to reflect nonlinear relationship between ridership and its predictors. Also, population is inappropriately expressed in this method since it is not uniformly distributed by area. In this paper, a new variable, population per distance band, is considered and a back propagation neural network (BPNN model which can reflect nonlinear relationship between ridership and its predictors is proposed to forecast ridership. Key predictors are obtained through partial correlation analysis. The performance of the proposed model is compared with three other benchmark models, which are linear model with population per distance band, BPNN model with total population, and linear model with total population, using four measures of effectiveness (MOEs, maximum relative error (MRE, smallest relative error (SRE, average relative error (ARE, and mean square root of relative error (MSRRE. Also, another model for contribution rate of population per distance band to ridership is formulated based on the BPNN model with nonpopulation variables fixed. Case studies with Japanese data show that BPNN model with population per distance band outperforms other three models and the contribution rate of population within special distance band to ridership calculated through the contribution rate model is 70%~92.9% close to actual statistical value. The result confirms the effectiveness of models proposed in this paper.

  10. Changes in Service and Associated Ridership Impacts near a New Light Rail Transit Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongwoo Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Los Angeles (LA, for many years a city with limited rail transit, is substantially expanding its public transit system. This paradigm change in transportation policy and investment creates new requirements for monitoring. One area needing evaluation is whether new, high quality transit options, such as light rail, near existing transit services increase sustainable transportation mode shares and reduce car travel. Few studies have explored light rail’s role as a catalyst to increase overall transit use and achieve sustainability goals within an auto-oriented city like LA. Metro’s data show that trips taken on its bus and rail system dropped overall by 10.5% between 2009 and 2016, but its rail ridership grew 21% during the same period due to the debut of the Gold Line and Expo Line extensions. We analyze changes to bus service and associated ridership impacts that resulted from the opening of these two LRT lines in LA. The immediate effect of the city’s bus service changes along the Gold Line light rail extension appear to be associated with a net “bus plus rail” ridership decline in that corridor. In contrast, the Expo Line corridor experienced an initial increase in ridership during the two years immediately after its opening, possibly because the bus service was not reduced by the same magnitude as along the Gold Line extension. Our findings indicate that changes in bus service made to coincide with the introduction of new light rail transit (LRT can negatively affect the overall transit ridership in the corridor. Planners and policy makers should closely monitor changes in bus service and ridership associated with new rail transit to ensure investments results in an overall net increase in more sustainable travel.

  11. The distinctive regulatory roles of PrtT in the cell metabolism of Penicillium oxalicum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Ling; Zou, Gen; Zhang, Lei; de Vries, Ronald P; Yan, Xing; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Rui; Wang, Chengshu; Qu, Yinbo; Zhou, Zhihua; van den Brink, J.

    PrtT is a fungal-specific transcription activator of extracellular proteases in Aspergilli. In this study, the roles of the PrtT homolog from Penicillum oxalicum was investigated by transcription profiling in combination with electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The prtT deletion

  12. The effect of contract renewal and competitive tendering on public transport costs, subsidies and ridership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouwen, A.; van Ommeren, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to estimate the effect of contract renewal as well as competitive tendering on public transport costs, subsidies, and ridership. More specifically, we examine to what extent (multiple) contract renewals and introduction of competitive tendering for long-term public transport

  13. Environmental, behavioral, and psychological predictors of transit ridership: Evidence from a community intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Barbara B; Werner, Carol M; Smith, Ken R; Tribby, Calvin P; Miller, Harvey J; Jensen, Wyatt A; Tharp, Doug

    2016-06-01

    Understanding who takes advantage of new transit (public transportation) interventions is important for personal and environmental health. We examine transit ridership for residents living near a new light rail construction as part of "complete street," pedestrian-friendly improvements. Adult residents (n=536) completed surveys and wore accelerometer and GPS units that tracked ridership before and after new transit service started. Transit riders were more physically active. Those from environments rated as more walkable were likely to be continuing transit riders. Place attachment, but not perceived physical incivilities on the path to transit, was associated with those who continued to ride or became new riders of transit. This effect was mediated through pro-city attitudes, which emphasize how the new service makes residents eager to explore areas around transit. Thus, place attachment, along with physical and health conditions, may be important predictors and promoters of transit use.

  14. The Effects of Bus Ridership on Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10 Concentrations

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    Jaeseok Her

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution caused by rapid urbanization and the increased use of private vehicles seriously affects citizens’ health. In order to alleviate air pollution, many cities have replaced diesel buses with compressed natural gas (CNG buses that emit less exhaust gas. Urban planning strategies such as transit-oriented development (TOD posit that reducing private vehicle use and increasing public transportation use would reduce air pollution levels. The present study examined the effects of bus ridership on airborne particulate matter (PM10 concentrations in the capital region of Korea. We interpolated the levels of PM10 from 128 air pollution monitoring stations, utilizing the Kriging method. Spatial regression models were used to estimate the impact of bus ridership on PM10 levels, controlling for physical environment attributes and socio-economic factors. The analysis identified that PM10 concentration levels tend to be lower in areas with greater bus ridership. This result implies that urban and transportation policies designed to promote public transportation may be effective strategies for reducing air pollution.

  15. Is prnt a pseudogene? Identification of ram Prt in testis and ejaculated spermatozoa.

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    Jorge Pimenta

    Full Text Available A hallmark of prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopaties is the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C, expressed by the prion gene (prnp, into an abnormally folded isoform (PrP(Sc with amyloid-like features that causes scrapie in sheep among other diseases. prnp together with prnd (which encodes a prion-like protein designated as Doppel, and prnt (that encodes the prion protein testis specific--Prt with sprn (shadow of prion protein gene, that encodes Shadoo or Sho genes, constitute the "prion gene complex". Whereas a role for prnd in the proper functioning of male reproductive system has been confirmed, the function of prnt, a recently discovered prion family gene, comprises a conundrum leading to the assumption that ruminant prnt is a pseudogene with no protein expression. The main objective of the present study was to identify Prt localization in the ram reproductive system and simultaneously to elucidate if ovine prnt gene is transcribed into protein-coding RNA. Moreover, as Prt is a prnp-related protein, the amyloid propensity was also tested for ovine and caprine Prt. Recombinant Prt was used to immunize BALB/c mice, and the anti-Prt polyclonal antibody (APPA immune response was evaluated by ELISA and Western Blot. When tested by indirect immunofluorescence, APPA showed high avidity to the ram sperm head apical ridge subdomain, before and after induced capacitation, but did not show the same behavior against goat spermatozoa, suggesting high antibody specificity against ovine-Prt. Prt was also found in the testis when assayed by immunohistochemistry during ram spermatogenesis, where spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa, stained positive. These observations strongly suggest ovine prnt to be a translated protein-coding gene, pointing to a role for Prt protein in the ram reproductive physiology. Besides, caprine Prt appears to exhibit a higher amyloid propensity than ovine Prt, mostly associated

  16. Mass transit ridership and self-reported hearing health in an urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Sherman, Martin F; Magda, Lori A; Riley, Halley E; McAlexander, Tara P; Neitzel, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Information on prevalence and risk factors associated with self-reported hearing health among mass transit riders is extremely limited, even though evidence suggests mass transit may be a source of excessive exposure to noise. Data on mass transit ridership were collected from 756 study participants using a self-administered questionnaire. Hearing health was measured using two symptom items (tinnitus and temporary audiometric threshold shift), two subjective measures (self-rated hearing and hearing ability), and two medical-related questions (hearing testing and physician-diagnosed hearing loss). In logistic regression analyses that controlled for possible confounders, including demographic variables, occupational noise exposure, nonoccupational noise exposure (including MP3 player use) and use of hearing protection, frequent and lengthy mass transit (all forms) ridership (1,100 min or more per week vs. 350 min or less per week) was the strongest predictor of temporary threshold shift symptoms. Noise abatement strategies, such as engineering controls, and the promotion of hearing protection use should be encouraged to reduce the risk of adverse impacts on the hearing health of mass transit users.

  17. The distinctive regulatory roles of PrtT in the cell metabolism of Penicillium oxalicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Zou, Gen; Zhang, Lei; de Vries, Ronald P; Yan, Xing; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Rui; Wang, Chengshu; Qu, Yinbo; Zhou, Zhihua

    2014-02-01

    PrtT is a fungal-specific transcription activator of extracellular proteases in Aspergilli. In this study, the roles of the PrtT homolog from Penicillum oxalicum was investigated by transcription profiling in combination with electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The prtT deletion dramatically reduced extracellular protease activities and caused intracellular nutrient limitation when cultured on casein as the sole carbon source. PrtT was found to directly regulate the expression of an intracellular peptidase encoding gene (tripeptidyl-peptidase) and the gene encoding the extracellular dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase V, in addition to the expected extracellular peptidase genes (carboxypeptidase and aspergillopepsin). Five amylase genes (α-amylase, glucoamylase, α-glucosidase) and three major facilitator superfamily transporter genes related to maltose, monosaccharide and peptide transporting were also confirmed as putative targets of PrtT by EMSA. In contrast, the transcription levels of other genes encoding polysaccharide degrading enzymes (e.g. cellulases) and most iron or multidrug transporter encoding genes were up- or down-regulated in the ΔprtT mutant due to nutrient limitation resulting from the reduced usage of the sole carbon source, casein. These results deepen the understanding of the interaction of regulation systems for nitrogen and carbon catabolism, which benefit strain improvement of P. oxalicum for industrial enzyme production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Validity and reliability of pre-class reading tasks for waves and optics (PRT-WO

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    Asrab Ali Nur Faralina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to produce a valid and reliable instrument in preparing students prior to class at university level of introductory Waves and Optics course. The instrument so called Pre-class Reading Task for Waves and Optics (PRT-WO was used to probe students’ knowledge acquired through targeted reading activities. In practice, PRT-WO was given in a series before actual face-to-face class as a reading assignment. PRT-WO was content validated through expert review which was analyzed using the interrater reliability Cohen’s kappa. An item analysis was done to identify inappropriate items further evaluated using the reliability test of Kuder-Richardson 20 (KR20. The finding reveals that the value of kappa is 0.66 and the value of KR20 is 0.68, indicating that the developed instrument is valid and reliable.

  19. Savanna ecosystem project - progress report 1975/1976

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Huntley, BJ

    1977-03-01

    Full Text Available the period (684 mm) was slightly above the long-term average of 630 mm. Primary production and phytomass were measured using harvest techniques for above ground herbage, C02 gas exchange, and destructive sampling of woody plants for the determination...

  20. Annual narrative : Clarence Cannon NWR : 1975-1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Clarence Cannon NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1976 calendar year, including the Annada District. The report begins with an...

  1. The PRT Pocket Guide: Pivotal Response Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, Robert L.; Koegel, Lynn Kern

    2012-01-01

    What is Pivotal Response Treatment? What's the research behind it, what does it look like in practice, and what are some good examples of how to use it? Now one concise book gives professionals and parents all the basics of the widely used PRT--one of a select group of highly effective, evidence-based treatments for autism. great resource for…

  2. Demand modeling of innovative transport system PRT at the Rotterdam port area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, H.; Chen, Y.; Li, J.; Zuylen, H.J. van; Arem, B. van

    2010-01-01

    Demand modeling for a newly built transit system is a major issue for the feasibility study. The complexity for such demand modeling stems from the complicated multi-modal trip making by travelers. This paper proposes to build an innovative transit system PRT in the east port area of Rotterdam to

  3. The Secreted Protease PrtA Controls Cell Growth, Biofilm Formation and Pathogenicity in Xylella fastidiosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouran, Hossein; Gillespie, Hyrum; Nascimento, Rafael; Chakraborty, Sandeep; Zaini, Paulo A.; Jacobson, Aaron; Phinney, Brett S.; Dolan, David; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Antonova, Elena S.; Lindow, Steven E.; Mellema, Matthew S.; Goulart, Luiz R.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

    2016-01-01

    Pierce’s disease (PD) is a deadly disease of grapevines caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Though disease symptoms were formerly attributed to bacteria blocking the plant xylem, this hypothesis is at best overly simplistic. Recently, we used a proteomic approach to characterize the secretome of X. fastidiosa, both in vitro and in planta, and identified LesA as one of the pathogenicity factors of X. fastidiosa in grapevines that leads to leaf scorching and chlorosis. Herein, we characterize another such factor encoded by PD0956, designated as an antivirulence secreted protease “PrtA” that displays a central role in controlling in vitro cell proliferation, length, motility, biofilm formation, and in planta virulence. The mutant in X. fastidiosa exhibited reduced cell length, hypermotility (and subsequent lack of biofilm formation) and hypervirulence in grapevines. These findings are supported by transcriptomic and proteomic analyses with corresponding plant infection data. Of particular interest, is the hypervirulent response in grapevines observed when X. fastidiosa is disrupted for production of PrtA, and that PD-model tobacco plants transformed to express PrtA exhibited decreased symptoms after infection by X. fastidiosa. PMID:27492542

  4. Mirasol PRT system inactivation efficacy evaluated in platelet concentrates by bacteria-contamination model

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    Jocić Miodrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bacterial contamination of blood components, primarily platelet concentrates (PCs, has been identified as one of the most frequent infectious complications in transfusion practice. PC units have a high risk for bacterial growth/multiplication due to their storage at ambient temperature (20 ± 2°C. Consequences of blood contamination could be effectively prevented or reduced by pathogen inactivation systems. The aim of this study was to determine the Mirasol pathogen reduction technology (PRT system efficacy in PCs using an artificial bacteria-contamination model. Methods. According to the ABO blood groups, PC units (n = 216 were pooled into 54 pools (PC-Ps. PC-Ps were divided into three equal groups, with 18 units in each, designed for an artificial bacteria-contamination. Briefly, PC-Ps were contaminated by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli in concentrations 102 to 107 colony forming units (CFU per unit. Afterward, PC-Ps were underwent to inactivation by Mirasol PRT system, using UV (l = 265-370 nm activated riboflavin (RB. All PC-Ps were assayed by BacT/Alert Microbial Detection System for CFU quantification before and after the Mirasol treatment. Samples from non-inactivated PC-P units were tested after preparation and immediately following bacterial contamination. Samples from Mirasol treated units were quantified for CFUs one hour, 3 days and 5 days after inactivation. Results. A complete inactivation of all bacteria species was obtained at CFU concentrations of 102 and 103 per PC-P unit through storage/ investigation period. The most effective inactivation (105 CFU per PC-P unit was obtained in Escherichia coli setting. Contrary, inactivation of all the three tested bacteria species was unworkable in concentrations of ≥ 106 CFU per PC-P unit. Conclusion. Efficient inactivation of investigated bacteria types with a significant CFU depletion in PC-P units was obtained - 3 Log for all

  5. A Study of a Merging Section of PRT System with Bulk Arrival and its Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Takahiro; Inoue, Kousuke; Tsuboi, Kazuhiro; Hamamatsu, Yoshio

    This paper deals with a merging section of Personal Rapid Transit system with bulk arrival. Vehicles arrive at a merging section from a main line and a sub line. In most of the previous studies on PRT system, vehicles on the main line have priority. Then, a queue is formed only on the sub line. In this situation, the queuing delay on the sub line may become extremely long. We propose a control strategy whereby vehicles on the main line are not stopped in normal situation; vehicles on the main line are only stopped when the number of waiting vehicles on the sub line exceeds some specific number. This specific number is a sort of threshold. Thus, queues are formed on the main line and the sub line, respectively. Both of the queuing delays are controlled with the threshold. The optimal value of the threshold can be obtained by analyzing the stochastic model. By the optimal value, we can set the rate of queuing delay between the main and sub lines to an arbitrary rate.

  6. Characterization of an extensin-modifying metalloprotease: N-terminal processing and substrate cleavage pattern of Pectobacterium carotovorum Prt1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Tao; Nyffenegger, Christian; Højrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Compared to other plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, proteases are less well understood. In this study, the extracellular metalloprotease Prt1 from Pectobacterium carotovorum (formerly Erwinia carotovora) was expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized with respect to N-terminal processing......, thermal stability, substrate targets, and cleavage patterns. Prt1 is an autoprocessing protease with an N-terminal signal pre-peptide and a pro-peptide which has to be removed in order to activate the protease. The sequential cleavage of the N-terminus was confirmed by mass spectrometry (MS......) fingerprinting and N-terminus analysis. The optimal reaction conditions for the activity of Prt1 on azocasein were at pH 6.0, 50 °C. At these reaction conditions, KM was 1.81 mg/mL and kcat was 1.82 × 107 U M-1. The enzyme was relatively stable at 50 °C with a half-life of 20 min. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid...

  7. The S-layer Associated Serine Protease Homolog PrtX Impacts Cell Surface-Mediated Microbe-Host Interactions of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

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    Brant R. Johnson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Health-promoting aspects attributed to probiotic microorganisms, including adhesion to intestinal epithelia and modulation of the host mucosal immune system, are mediated by proteins found on the bacterial cell surface. Notably, certain probiotic and commensal bacteria contain a surface (S- layer as the outermost stratum of the cell wall. S-layers are non-covalently bound semi-porous, crystalline arrays of self-assembling, proteinaceous subunits called S-layer proteins (SLPs. Recent evidence has shown that multiple proteins are non-covalently co-localized within the S-layer, designated S-layer associated proteins (SLAPs. In Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, SLP and SLAPs have been implicated in both mucosal immunomodulation and adhesion to the host intestinal epithelium. In this study, a S-layer associated serine protease homolog, PrtX (prtX, lba1578, was deleted from the chromosome of L. acidophilus NCFM. Compared to the parent strain, the PrtX-deficient strain (ΔprtX demonstrated increased autoaggregation, an altered cellular morphology, and pleiotropic increases in adhesion to mucin and fibronectin, in vitro. Furthermore, ΔprtX demonstrated increased in vitro immune stimulation of IL-6, IL-12, and IL-10 compared to wild-type, when exposed to mouse dendritic cells. Finally, in vivo colonization of germ-free mice with ΔprtX led to an increase in epithelial barrier integrity. The absence of PrtX within the exoproteome of a ΔprtX strain caused morphological changes, resulting in a pleiotropic increase of the organisms’ immunomodulatory properties and interactions with some intestinal epithelial cell components.

  8. Identification of developmentally regulated PCP-responsive non-coding RNA, prt6, in the rat thalamus.

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    Hironao Takebayashi

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia and similar psychoses induced by NMDA-type glutamate receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP and ketamine, usually develop after adolescence. Moreover, adult-type behavioral disturbance following NMDA receptor antagonist application in rodents is observed after a critical period at around 3 postnatal weeks. These observations suggest that the schizophrenic symptoms caused by and psychotomimetic effects of NMDA antagonists require the maturation of certain brain neuron circuits and molecular networks, which differentially respond to NMDA receptor antagonists across adolescence and the critical period. From this viewpoint, we have identified a novel developmentally regulated phencyclidine-responsive transcript from the rat thalamus, designated as prt6, as a candidate molecule involved in the above schizophrenia-related systems using a DNA microarray technique. The transcript is a non-coding RNA that includes sequences of at least two microRNAs, miR132 and miR212, and is expressed strongly in the brain and testis, with trace or non-detectable levels in the spleen, heart, liver, kidney, lung and skeletal muscle, as revealed by Northern blot analysis. The systemic administration of PCP (7.5 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c. significantly elevated the expression of prt6 mRNA in the thalamus at postnatal days (PD 32 and 50, but not at PD 8, 13, 20, or 24 as compared to saline-treated controls. At PD 50, another NMDA receptor antagonist, dizocilpine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c., and a schizophrenomimetic dopamine agonist, methamphetamine (4.8 mg/kg, s.c., mimicked a significant increase in the levels of thalamic prt6 mRNAs, while a D2 dopmamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol, partly inhibited the increasing influence of PCP on thalamic prt6 expression without its own effects. These data indicate that prt6 may be involved in the pathophysiology of the onset of drug-induced schizophrenia-like symptoms and schizophrenia through the possible

  9. Interaction of the RNP1 motif in PRT1 with HCR1 promotes 40S binding of eukaryotic initiation factor 3 in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus H; Valásek, Leos; Sykes, Caroah

    2006-01-01

    We found that mutating the RNP1 motif in the predicted RRM domain in yeast eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) subunit b/PRT1 (prt1-rnp1) impairs its direct interactions in vitro with both eIF3a/TIF32 and eIF3j/HCR1. The rnp1 mutation in PRT1 confers temperature-sensitive translation initiation...... in vivo and reduces 40S-binding of eIF3 to native preinitiation complexes. Several findings indicate that the rnp1 lesion decreases recruitment of eIF3 to the 40S subunit by HCR1: (i) rnp1 strongly impairs the association of HCR1 with PRT1 without substantially disrupting the eIF3 complex; (ii) rnp1......) hcr1Delta impairs 40S binding of eIF3 in otherwise wild-type cells. Interestingly, rnp1 also reduces the levels of 40S-bound eIF5 and eIF1 and increases leaky scanning at the GCN4 uORF1. Thus, the PRT1 RNP1 motif coordinates the functions of HCR1 and TIF32 in 40S binding of eIF3 and is needed...

  10. Vibrio cholerae cytolysin causes an inflammatory response in human intestinal epithelial cells that is modulated by the PrtV protease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangwei Ou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vibrio cholerae is the causal intestinal pathogen of the diarrheal disease cholera. It secretes the protease PrtV, which protects the bacterium from invertebrate predators but reduces the ability of Vibrio-secreted factor(s to induce interleukin-8 (IL-8 production by human intestinal epithelial cells. The aim was to identify the secreted component(s of V. cholerae that induces an epithelial inflammatory response and to define whether it is a substrate for PrtV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Culture supernatants of wild type V. cholerae O1 strain C6706, its derivatives and pure V. cholerae cytolysin (VCC were analyzed for the capacity to induce changes in cytokine mRNA expression levels, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha secretion, permeability and cell viability when added to the apical side of polarized tight monolayer T84 cells used as an in vitro model for human intestinal epithelium. Culture supernatants were also analyzed for hemolytic activity and for the presence of PrtV and VCC by immunoblot analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest that VCC is capable of causing an inflammatory response characterized by increased permeability and production of IL-8 and TNF-alpha in tight monolayers. Pure VCC at a concentration of 160 ng/ml caused an inflammatory response that reached the magnitude of that caused by Vibrio-secreted factors, while higher concentrations caused epithelial cell death. The inflammatory response was totally abolished by treatment with PrtV. The findings suggest that low doses of VCC initiate a local immune defense reaction while high doses lead to intestinal epithelial lesions. Furthermore, VCC is indeed a substrate for PrtV and PrtV seems to execute an environment-dependent modulation of the activity of VCC that may be the cause of V. cholerae reactogenicity.

  11. LMFBR safety. 5. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1975--1976)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-06-08

    The current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA), are discussed. Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development and safety of the breeder reactor is presented for the period 1975 through 1976. The bibliography consists of approximately 1618 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  12. Prime Contract Awards by Service Category and Federal Supply Classification, Fiscal Years 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-09

    TOILET PREPARATIONS. AND PONDERS 1,128 16649 2,655 3,643 eszo TOILET SOAP, SHAVING PREPARATIONS. AND OENTIFRES 2.S39 3,922 S,714 8,46 6530 PERSONAL...LESIASTICAL EQUIPMENT, FURNISHINGS, AND SUPPLIES 139 269 263 201 J., so MEORIALS. CEMETERIAL + MORTUARY EOUiP • SUPPLIES 211 152 63 36 93,49 MISCELLANEOUS

  13. Research program in elementary particle theory. Progress report, 1975--1976. [Summaries of research activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Ne' eman, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Research on particle theory is summarized including field theory models, phenomenological applications of field theory, strong interactions, the algebraic approach to weak and electromagnetic interactions, and superdense matter. A list of reports is also included. (JFP)

  14. Comprehensive Support Services Program for Serving Pupils with Special Educational Needs, 1975 - 1976. Report and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, Sarah H.

    Presented are a description and evaluation report of the Comprehensive Support Services Program (CSSP), a regional effort by seven New York school districts to identify, evaluate, and provide supplemental educational support for learning disabled students with special educational needs through a multi-disciplinary team in each school. Summarized…

  15. Joint Public-Parochial Planning Councils. Final Report 1975-1976. Report No. 7702.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philadelphia School District, PA. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    This report briefly describes Philadelphia's Joint Public Parochial Planning Councils (JPC) project and presents an evaluation of the project's impact during the 1975-76 school year. The JPC project is intended to provide sustained interaction between the Philadelphia School District and the Archdiocese of Philadelphia. During 1975-76, 102 joint…

  16. Bilingual/Bicultural Education Program; Programa De Educacion Bilingue/ Bicultural, 1975-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milwaukee Public Schools, WI. Dept. of Educational Research and Program Assessment.

    A description and evaluation of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII-funded Bilingual/Bicultural Education Program in Milwaukee, Wisconsin is provided in this report. A developmental system of bilingual education enabled kindergarten through twelfth grade pupils to learn all subject content in both English and Spanish in the…

  17. Streptococcus pneumoniae serine protease HtrA, but not SFP or PrtA, is a major virulence factor in pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Stoppelaar, Sacha F.; Bootsma, Hester J.; Zomer, Aldert; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Hermans, Peter W. M.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae is a common causative pathogen in pneumonia. Serine protease orthologs expressed by a variety of bacteria have been found of importance for virulence. Previous studies have identified two serine proteases in S. pneumoniae, HtrA (high-temperature requirement A) and PrtA

  18. Serine protease PrtA from Streptococcus pneumoniae plays a role in the killing of S. pneumoniae by apolactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Shaper; Wilson, Landon; Benjamin, William H; Novak, Jan; Barnes, Stephen; Hollingshead, Susan K; Briles, David E

    2011-06-01

    It is known that apolactoferrin, the iron-free form of human lactoferrin, can kill many species of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. Lactoferricin, an N-terminal peptide of apolactoferrin, and fragments of it are even more bactericidal than apolactoferrin. In this study we found that apolactoferrin must be cleaved by a serine protease in order for it to kill pneumococci. The serine protease inhibitors were able to block killing by apolactoferrin but did not block killing by a lactoferrin-derived peptide. Thus, the killing of pneumococci by apolactoferrin appears to require a protease to release a lactoferricin-like peptide(s). Incubation of apolactoferrin with growing pneumococci resulted in a 12-kDa reduction in its molecular mass, of which about 7 to 8 kDa of the reduction was protease dependent. Capsular type 2 and 19F strains with mutations in the gene encoding the major cell wall-associated serine protease, prtA, lost much of their ability to degrade apolactoferrin and were relatively resistant to killing by apolactoferrin (P mass by about 8 kDa, and greatly enhance the killing activity of the solution containing the apolactoferrin and its cleavage products. Mass spectroscopy revealed that PrtA makes a major cut between amino acids 78 and 79 of human lactoferrin, removing the N-terminal end of the molecule (about 8.6 kDa). The simplest interpretation of these data is that the mechanism by which apolactoferrin kills Streptococcus pneumoniae requires the release of a lactoferricin-like peptide(s) and that it is this peptide(s), and not the intact apolactoferrin, which kills pneumococci.

  19. Biofilm Formation on Stainless Steel by Streptococcus thermophilus UC8547 in Milk Environments Is Mediated by the Proteinase PrtS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, D; Cappa, F; Gazzola, S; Orrù, L; Cocconcelli, P S

    2017-04-15

    In Streptococcus thermophilus , gene transfer events and loss of ancestral traits over the years contribute to its high level of adaptation to milk environments. Biofilm formation capacity, a phenotype that is lost in the majority of strains, plays a role in persistence in dairy environments, such as milk pasteurization and cheese manufacturing plants. To investigate this property, we have studied S. thermophilus UC8547, a fast-acidifying dairy starter culture selected for its high capacity to form biofilm on stainless steel under environmental conditions resembling the dairy environment. Using a dynamic flow cell apparatus, it was shown that S. thermophilus UC8547 biofilm formation on stainless steel depends on the presence of milk proteins. From this strain, which harbors the prtS gene for the cell wall protease and shows an aggregative phenotype, spontaneous mutants with impaired biofilm capacity can be isolated at high frequency. These mutants lack the PrtS expendable island, as confirmed by comparison of the genome sequence of UC8547Δ3 with that of the parent strain. The prtS island excision occurs between two 26-bp direct repeats located in the two copies of the IS Sth1 flanking this genomic island. The central role of PrtS was confirmed by analyzing the derivative strain UC8547Δ16, whose prtS gene was interrupted by an insertional mutation, thereby making it incapable of biofilm formation. PrtS, acting as a binding substance between the milk proteins adhered to stainless steel and S. thermophilus cell envelopes, mediates biofilm formation in dairy environments. This feature provides S. thermophilus with an ecological benefit for its survival and persistence in this environment. IMPORTANCE The increased persistence of S. thermophilus biofilm has consequences in the dairy environment: if, on the one hand, the release of this microorganism from biofilm can promote the fermentation of artisanal cheeses, under industrial conditions it may lead to undesirable

  20. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison Between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Adult-Driven Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention on Disruptive Behaviors in Public School Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaei, Mohammad; Bakhshi, Enayatolah

    2015-09-01

    Children with autism often demonstrate disruptive behaviors during demanding teaching tasks. Language intervention can be particularly difficult as it involves social and communicative areas, which are challenging for this population. The purpose of this study was to compare two intervention conditions, a naturalistic approach, Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) with an adult-directed ABA approach on disruptive behavior during language intervention in the public schools. A randomized clinical trial design was used with two groups of children, matched according to age, sex and mean length of utterance. The data showed that the children demonstrated significantly lower levels of disruptive behavior during the PRT condition. The results are discussed with respect to antecedent manipulations that may be helpful in reducing disruptive behavior.

  1. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison Between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Structured Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention for Children with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaee,Mohammad; Rafiee, Seyed Majid

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating studies are documenting specific motivational variables that, when combined into a naturalistic teaching paradigm, can positively influence the effectiveness of interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this study was to compare two ABA intervention procedures, a naturalistic approach, Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) with a structured ABA approach in a school setting. A Randomized Clinical Trial design using two groups of children, matched ac...

  2. Studies on a novel serine protease of a ΔhapAΔprtV Vibrio cholerae O1 strain and its role in hemorrhagic response in the rabbit ileal loop model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Syngkon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two well-characterized proteases secreted by Vibrio cholerae O1 strains are hemagglutinin protease (HAP and V. cholerae protease (PrtV. The hapA and prtV knock out mutant, V. cholerae O1 strain CHA6.8ΔprtV, still retains residual protease activity. We initiated this study to characterize the protease present in CHA6.8ΔprtV strain and study its role in pathogenesis in rabbit ileal loop model (RIL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We partially purified the residual protease secreted by strain CHA6.8ΔprtV from culture supernatant by anion-exchange chromatography. The major protein band in native PAGE was identified by MS peptide mapping and sequence analysis showed homology with a 59-kDa trypsin-like serine protease encoded by VC1649. The protease activity was partially inhibited by 25 mM PMSF and 10 mM EDTA and completely inhibited by EDTA and PMSF together. RIL assay with culture supernatants of strains C6709 (FA ratio 1.1+/-0.3 n = 3, CHA6.8 (FA ratio 1.08+/-0.2 n = 3, CHA6.8ΔprtV (FA ratio 1.02+/-0.2 n = 3 and partially purified serine protease from CHA6.8ΔprtV (FA ratio 1.2+/-0.3 n = 3 induced fluid accumulation and histopathological studies on rabbit ileum showed destruction of the villus structure with hemorrhage in all layers of the mucosa. RIL assay with culture supernatant of CHA6.8ΔprtVΔVC1649 strain (FA ratio 0.11+/-0.005 n = 3 and with protease incubated with PMSF and EDTA (FA ratio 0.3+/-0.05 n = 3 induced a significantly reduced FA ratio with almost complete normal villus structure. CONCLUSION: Our results show the presence of a novel 59-kDa serine protease in a ΔhapAΔprtV V. cholerae O1 strain and its role in hemorrhagic response in RIL model.

  3. Las mujeres en la política revolucionaria. el caso del PRT-ERP en la Argentina de los años 70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Oberti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2013v10n1p6 La izquierda revolucionaria argentina de los años 60 y 70 contó entre sus filas con una gran cantidad de mujeres. Muchas de ellas eran jóvenes que nacían a la vida política al mismo tiempo que surgían las organizaciones en las que militaban. Este texto explora la prensa y los documentos del PRT-ERP en un análisis que conjuga dos dimensiones. Por un lado, la  participación de las mujeres en la guerrilla, tanto en relación a su incorporación real en número y calidad de la militancia, como en la interpelación de la organización hacia ellas a través de la formación de espacios y la producción de materiales destinados específicamente a las mujeres. La otra dimensión refiere a la preocupación del PRT-ERP por pensar la subjetividad revolucionaria entrecruzando la vida cotidiana con la política, en un contexto de construcción de un modelo de militancia en la cual todos los aspectos de la vida quedaban implicados.

  4. Autologous periodontal stem cell assistance in periodontal regeneration technique (SAI-PRT) in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects: A case report with one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kl, Vandana; Ryana, Haneet; Dalvi, Priyanka Jairaj

    2017-01-01

    Numerous animal and human studies have provided evidence supporting the belief that periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) can be harnessed for regeneration of periodontal tissues. Based on current literature on the use of ex vivo stem culture and associated problems, this case report describes a novel approach of direct application PDLSCs using stem cell assistance in periodontal regeneration technique (SAI-PRT) for the regeneration of intrabony periodontal defects bypassing ex vivo cultures. SAI-PRT has emerged as a constructive avenue in the treatment of periodontal osseous defects. Moreover, the current technique is less technique-sensitive, cost-effective and yields promising results.

  5. Qualification Testing of Engineering Camera and Platinum Resistance Thermometer (PRT) Sensors for Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project under Extreme Temperatures to Assess Reliability and to Enhance Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Maki, Justin N.; Cucullu, Gordon C.

    2008-01-01

    Package Qualification and Verification (PQV) of advanced electronic packaging and interconnect technologies and various other types of qualification hardware for the Mars Exploration Rover/Mars Science Laboratory flight projects has been performed to enhance the mission assurance. The qualification of hardware (Engineering Camera and Platinum Resistance Thermometer, PRT) under extreme cold temperatures has been performed with reference to various project requirements. The flight-like packages, sensors, and subassemblies have been selected for the study to survive three times (3x) the total number of expected temperature cycles resulting from all environmental and operational exposures occurring over the life of the flight hardware including all relevant manufacturing, ground operations and mission phases. Qualification has been performed by subjecting above flight-like qual hardware to the environmental temperature extremes and assessing any structural failures or degradation in electrical performance due to either overstress or thermal cycle fatigue. Experiments of flight like hardware qualification test results have been described in this paper.

  6. On Righting Writing: Classroom Practices in Teaching English 1975-1976. Thirteenth Report of the Committee on Classroom Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Ouida H., Ed.

    The 34 articles in this publication focus on the improvement of writing instruction and range from brief statements to discussions of courses. Contents are divided into the following six categories: getting the writer started finding a subject; developing a point of view; sharpening technique; writing to clarify values; and exploring writing…

  7. ESEA Title VII Bilingual/Bicultural Education Program; Programa de Educacion Bilingue/Bicultural 1975-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milwaukee Public Schools, WI. Dept. of Educational Research and Program Assessment.

    This is the annual evaluation report of the Title VII components of the Milwaukee Bilingual/Bicultural Education Program funded by Title I and Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1967 and the Milwaukee Public Schools. The results of the 1975-76 assessment of pupil progress toward achievement of the program's academic and…

  8. Temel Tepki Öğretimi-TTÖ (Pivotal Response Treatment-PRT İle Gerçekleştirilen Etkililik Araştırmalarının Betimsel Analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem TOPER-KORKMAZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Temel Tepki Öğretimi (TTÖ Amerika Ulusal Otizm Merkezi (NAC, 2009 tarafından yayınlanmış olan Ulusal Standartlar Raporun’da otizmli çocukların eğitimde kullanılan bilimsel dayanaklı uygulamalardan bir tanesi olarak kabul edilmektedir. TTÖ hem uygulamalı davranış analizi ilkelerine dayanan hem de doğal bir öğretim yöntemidir. Yöntem öğrenci merkezli ve aile eğitimi esaslı olup çocuklara belli temel davranışları kazandırmayı ve buna bağlı olarakta hedeflenmeyen başka alanlarda da ilerlemeler sağlanacağını savunur. Bu çalışmada TTÖ’ne yönelik bir alan yazın çalışması amaçlanmış ve bu amaçla 1995 ile 2011 yılları arasında TTÖ ile gerçekleştirilmiş olan 16 etkililik araştırmasına ulaşılarak bu araştımalar betimsel olarak analiz edilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgular TTÖ’nün okul öncesi ve ilköğretim dönemindeki otizm spektrum bozukluğu gösteren çocuklara ifade edici dil becerilerinin kazandırılmasında, sosyal becerilerin ve oyun becerilerinin öğretiminde etkili olduğunu göstermektedir Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT is one of evidence based treatments identified in the US National Autism Center's National Standards Report published in 2009. PRT is a comprehensive instructional model based on developmental approach and applied behavior analysis principles to provide learning opportunities for supporting children in their natural environments. PRT is a student-centered and parent-training based procedure and advocates that if children achieve some pivotal behaviors, it provides positive effects on untargeted behaviors and also if these pivotal behaviors are achieved once, results will be common and generalizable. The purpose of this study is, by using descriptive analysis, to review the sixteen effectiveness studies of PRT published in 1995-2011. Results of review showed that PRT is an effective procedure on language skills, social skills and play skills of preschool and

  9. Investigation into the computerized data bases of the Employment and Training Administration. Regional Management Information System Project (RMIS) report on second-year activities, 1975--1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postle, W.; Heckman, B.

    1977-01-01

    The research and development project discussed was aimed at creating the necessary computer system for the rapid retrieval, analysis, and display of information to meet the individual and nonroutine needs of the Department of Labor's Employment and Training Administration and the general public. The major objective was to demonstrate that it was both feasible and practical to organize data that are currently available and to provide planning and management information in a much more usable and timely fashion than previously possible. Fast access to data with a system which is easy to use was an important project goal. Programs were written to analyze and display data by means of bar, pie, and line charts, etc. Although prototypical interactive retrieval, analysis, and report formation tools have been developed, further research and development of interactive tools is required. (RWR)

  10. Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment 1975-1976, Physical Oceanography Data Report Profiling Current Meter Data. Volume 2. Camp Blue Fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    larger main camp. The radio call signs of the satellite camps were Caribou, Blue Fox, and Snowbird, the main camp being designated Big Bear. Profiles of...8217 ord"wie.oBAu I.IT o 33~ 3 8 x- Mau ..; c m SIC 0 N u x I~ t&X 1 X S.. X en I- 06*06~~~~ ~ 0sW fIk o t NOT od usia sid.u.~ sdr d.34 0 I -4; W 2...0000 0OO0 mvW w w* W v 4 n 0 00,444 4 ?4.r’?’ ~0* -. 30 4P ~* ~ I I I I I I I I I I I I I *I Ln u OP Cj~j Lin o(Nr) 8 H~dcM 370 I gnu . W 0* I

  11. La naturalización de la violencia y el horror: armas, muerte y vida cotidiana en los policiales de Clarín (1975-1976)

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez, Nancy Mariana

    2015-01-01

    El presente artículo intenta ser un aporte a la comprensión sobre cómo y por qué fue posible la puesta en práctica del aparato desaparecedor durante la última dictadura militar argentina, haciendo foco en el escenario social –y representacional– previo al mismo y que habilitó su implementación. Para ello, se indaga en los modos en que se construyeron y circularon sentidos sobre la utilización de armas en lo cotidiano, así como de la gestión de la muerte y los muertos en el espacio público, to...

  12. Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment 1975-1976. Physical Oceanography Data Report, Salinity, Temperature and Depth Data, Camp Big Bear. Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    STATIONT ER ALNT LECRMotc AT LOG WLE SAMPLE LEVELS L__r MMTR/S ANLO MAG.nETICSEORDT CHARTSTAPE TD calibration data SCREEN AND SMOOTH D C T MANUALLY mutwINT...AT CAMP BIG BEAR MAY 19 1975 TO MAY 319 1975 I’d 3 L4 is V5 1. B 1.9 ED l. 2 23 24 2 -i j -j 21 2 a 24 25C7 23 cm 30 31 S.. u N ri r tD 0 ca 0 a CA -4...DIVISION MARK (- jeB DEGeC.) * TEMP’ERATURE SCALE SHIFTS RIGH-T ± DIVISIONJ 0.5 DEG- C.) PER HALF DAY BAY 2 4 6 7 9 9 :L0 1 12 Im 15D- - TEMPERATURE PROF

  13. Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment 1975-1976. Physical Oceanography Data Report, Salinity, Temperature and Depth Data, Camp Caribou. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    W4m4m m w m m.*~m mm mQ wem m*.mm4 Art doflf l nl 0 27-. 1,24 0 1001 200- 300. aR) 400- 500. 6ao- 7001 CB 538 -t 1-22-76 0 600 WOGR-TI 2? 21 27? ! EPPT...iicl2 : 2 :iC 0a0a00 b0a 20 s4.5.1 ~ OA~~o~oz zom MMofN4CI4.1mzi ***c--IOo nc4M.4 1.m 1i000--4N4~4 VIVA , 1 0.P0.0.o.01M4.N4.c DNinWnminW.A 4 W7. -N ’W

  14. NODC Standard Format Marine Mammals of Coastal Alaska Data (1975-1976): Marine Mammal Sighting 2 (F026) (NODC Accession 0014151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC maintains data in three NODC Standard Format Marine Mammal Data Sets: Marine Mammal Sighting and Census (F127); Marine Mammal Specimens (F025); Marine Mammal...

  15. Graduate Theses and Dissertations in English as a Second Language: 1975-1976. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics. No. 45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Stephen, Comp.

    This listing is an attempt to provide graduate students and other researchers in ESL (English as a Second Language) with specific, comprehensive data on contemporary studies. The bibliography consists of 110 titles of theses and dissertations completed between July 1975 and June 1976 at degree-granting institutions in the United States and Canada.…

  16. GTFS for Estimating Transit Ridership and Supporting Multimodal Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-15

    This project demonstrates a potential avenue to use new data sources to support State and local agencies in measuring the use and effectiveness of their public transportation systems. General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) data provided by transit...

  17. Ridership impacts of South Florida's EASY smart card : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Transit agencies across the U.S. increasingly are replacing electronic fare reading systems with Advanced Fare Collection (AFC) or smart card systems. In 2009, Miami-Dade Transit (MDT) was the first Florida transit agency to deploy AFC, branded...

  18. Estudo comparativo da pressão arterial e da prevalência de hipertensão arterial em duas coortes sucessivas (1975-1976 de estudantes de 16 a 25 anos, Botucatu, SP, Brasil Blood pressure levels and hipertension prevalence in 16 to 25 year-old students in Botucatu, S. Paulo, Brazil. A comparative study of two successive cohorts, 1975-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dináh Borges de Almeida

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar os níveis de pressão arterial e a prevalência de hipertensão arterial em uma população jovem, foram realizados pesquisas em dois anos sucessivos em 1.288 e 736 estudantes de Botucatu, SP (Brasil tendo sido comparados os resultados obtidos. As médias das pressões sistólicas da população estudada e dos dois grupos etários desta população (16 a 20 anos e 21 a 25 anos foram idênticas em ambos os anos, tendo as médias das pressões diastólicas diferido de no máximo 2 mmHg; as médias, tanto sistólicas quanto diastólicas, dos dois sexos e da parcela branca da população estudada quanto à idade e sexo também diferiram de no máximo 2 mmHg. As médias da população estudada e sua parcela branca, em ambos os anos, foram superiores no sexo masculino e no grupo etário de 21 a 25 anos. Na população negra e amarela houve disparidade de resultados entre 1975 e 1976, indicando influência da exiguidade do tamanho dos contigentes negro e amarelo desta população. A prevalência de hipertensão arterial (pressão sistólica igual ou maior que 140 mmHg e diastólica igual ou maior que 90 mmHg foi de 5,04% em 1975 e 6,22% em 1976, tendo sido em ambos os anos maior no sexo masculino do que no feminino e no grupo de 21 a 25 do que no de 16 a 20 anos.To determine the prevalence of hypertension and blood pressure levels in a young population group, two groups, one of 1288 students and another of 736, all from Botucatu, were investigated during two consecutive years, and the results were then compared. The mean values for systolic readings of the whole population, as for the two age groups (16 to 20 and 21 to 25 years old, were identical for both years studied; the diastolic mean values differed by 2 mmHg at most. The mean systolic and diastolic reading for both sexes and among the whites also differed by 2 mmHg at most. The mean values for the whole population and among the white population were higher for males than for females, and also higher in the 21 to 25 age group than in the 16 to 20 group. The 1975 and 1976 results for the black and yellow population were inconsistent, reflecting the influence of the small size of these groups. The prevalence of arterial hypertension (systolic readings equal to or higher than 140 mmHg and diastolic readings equal to or higher than 90 mmHg was 5.04% in 1975 and 6.22% in 1976, being higher in the males than in the females and higher in the 21 to 25 age group than in the 16 to 20 year-old group.

  19. Report for Marine Mammal Permit PRT-690715-Pacific Walrus

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One of three Pacific walruses drugged with Telezol died while further evaluating immobilization techniques on Round Island, Alaska, although animal selection, drug...

  20. Short-Term Prediction of Ridership on Public Transport with Smart Card Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, N.; Brands, Ties; de Romph, E.

    2015-01-01

    Public transport operators are collecting massive amounts of data from smart card systems. In the Netherlands, every passenger checks in and checks out; this system creates detailed records of demand patterns. In buses and trams, users check in and check out in the vehicle; this factor provides good

  1. Data driven enhancement of public transport planning and operations : Service reliability improvements and ridership predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, N.

    Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) and smartcard data are of great value in planning, design and operations of public transport. We developed a transport demand model, which utilizes smartcard data for overall and what-if analyses, by converting these data into passengers per line and OD-matrixes and

  2. Ridesharing or Ridestealing? Changes in Taxi Ridership and Revenue in Los Angeles 2009-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Waheed, Saba; Herrera, Lucero; Ritoper, Stefanie; Mehta, Jonaki; Romero, Hugo; Narro, Victor

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, Los Angeles increased the minimum wage to one of the highest in the country, leading the way to boost stagnating pay for workers and to ensure that workers are able to earn enough to support themselves and their families. Los Angeles needs to take the same care to ensure quality employment within the taxi industry, particularly in light of the rapid growth of transportation networking companies (TNCs) such as Uber and Lyft into Los Angeles. TNCs are on-demand ride services w...

  3. Data-driven public transport ridership prediction approach including comfort aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, N.; Drost, M.; Brands, T.; Yap, M.

    2015-01-01

    The most important aspects on which passengers base their choice whether to travel by public transport are the perceived travel time, costs, reliability and comfort. Despite its importance, comfort is often not explicitly considered when predicting demand for public transport. In this paper, we

  4. Changes in Service and Associated Ridership Impacts near a New Light Rail Transit Line

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeongwoo Lee; Marlon Boarnet; Douglas Houston; Hilary Nixon; Steven Spears

    2017-01-01

    .... One area needing evaluation is whether new, high quality transit options, such as light rail, near existing transit services increase sustainable transportation mode shares and reduce car travel...

  5. Effect of bike lane infrastructure improvements on ridership in one New Orleans neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kathryn M; Rice, Janet; Gustat, Jeanette; Ruley, Jennifer; Spriggs, Aubrey; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-02-01

    Incorporating cycling into daily life is one way to increase physical activity. This study examined the impact of building new bike lanes in New Orleans to determine whether more people were cycling on the street and with the flow of traffic after bike lanes were built. Through direct observation of one intervention and two adjacent streets, observers counted cyclists riding on the street and sidewalk, with and against traffic, before and after installation of the lanes. Data were tallied separately for adults, children, males, females, and by race for each location. There was an increase in cyclists on all three streets after the installation of the bike lanes, with the largest increase on the street with the new lane. Additionally, the proportion of riders cycling with traffic increased after the lanes were striped. Bike lanes can have a positive impact in creating a healthy neighborhood.

  6. Solid state chemistry of rare earth oxides. Technical progress report, 1975--1976. [Pr/sub 7/O/sub 12/; Pr/sub 10/O/sub 18/; HfO/sub 2/. xEr/sub 2/O/sub 3/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyring, L.; Skarnulis, A.J.; Tuenge, R.T.; Von Dreele, R.B.

    1976-04-15

    It has been demonstrated that electron microscope images obtained at about 3A resolution for Pr/sub 7/O/sub 12/ are in agreement with calculated images based upon known structures. This establishes the efficacy of crystal structure image interpretation in structural terms, including the defect structure and mechanism of phase reactions, for these types of related phases whose structures are as yet beyond conventional means to determine. Further work on the epsilon (Pr/sub 10/O/sub 18/) phase is reported both utilizing electron optical methods and single crystal X-ray techniques. The ternary ceramic system HfO/sub 2/.xEr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ is being examined using electron optical techniques and ordering not hitherto reported is being observed. An interactive crystal structure image calculation system is being developed which will permit the immediate comparison of enhanced images synthesized from trial structures (including defects) and displayed in juxtaposition on a graphics unit. 22 fig. (auth)

  7. Pekerja Rumah Tangga (PRT dan penerimaan terhadap makna spiritual dalam tayangan religi di televisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Triwardani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Religious soap opera is a tv shows that display story and culture which related to Islam within its story line. Different representations within religoius soap opera could lead to various interpretations. The text displayed posses dynamic values, particularly about how a text receive a value after being consumed by its audience. This research aims to describe audience acceptance level of spiritual meaning in religion tv shows. TV programs that had been observed were Layar kemilau (MNC TV and sinema Pintu Taubat (Indosiar. This research uses descriptive qualitative method with in depth interview using 3 informants. Stuart Hall acceptance analysis was was used to identify two from three different affeptance models; dominant and negotiating. This research identify dominant and negotiating audience as informant to answer the research question. Informant background, peer group influence, the need of enterainment and audience gender were founded as significant inlfluencer of domestic workers’ decision to watch religion soap opera in TV. This research shows that different interpretation obtained the audience can be reciprocal or contradict with the content of religious soap opera in TV

  8. Positive role of cell wall anchored proteinase PrtP in adhesion of lactococci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habimana, Olivier; Le Goff, Carine; Juillard, Vincent; Bellon-Fontaine, Marie-Noelle; Buist, Girbe; Kulakauskas, Saulius; Briandet, Romain

    2007-01-01

    Background: The first step in biofilm formation is bacterial attachment to solid surfaces, which is dependent on the cell surface physico-chemical properties. Cell wall anchored proteins (CWAP) are among the known adhesins that confer the adhesive properties to pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria. To

  9. Installation of bicycle lanes and increased ridership in an urban, mixed-income setting in New Orleans, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kathryn M; Gustat, Jeanette; Rice, Janet C

    2011-01-01

    People are more physically active in neighborhoods that are well designed for walking and bicycling. Building infrastructure for safer cycling is one way to promote physical activity. On-road bike lanes are one type of infrastructure hypothesized to positively impact levels of cycling. The first on-street bike lane was painted in New Orleans, LA during the spring of 2008. In November of 2007 and again in November 2008, trained observers conducted manual counts of cyclists riding on St. Claude Avenue in New Orleans, LA. The data collected included the number of men, women, adults, and children riding a bicycle with traffic, against traffic, and on sidewalks. Data showed a 57% increase in the average number of riders per day (P Bike lanes can have a positive impact in creating a healthy physical environment. Future research should include other streets for comparison purposes and surveys to determine whether riders are substituting biking for nonactive forms of transportation.

  10. Dismal Swamp Staff Gages

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Well design - Dismal Swamp Shallow observation wells - these are the early wells put in during 1975, 1976. They are black ABS plastic, 2-inch diameter, open at the...

  11. Estimate of Fuel Consumption and GHG Emission Impact on an Automated Mobility District: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche; Young, Stanley; Gonder, Jeff; Qi, Xuewei

    2015-12-11

    This study estimates the range of fuel and emissions impact of an automated-vehicle (AV) based transit system that services campus-based developments, termed an automated mobility district (AMD). The study develops a framework to quantify the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of a transit system comprised of AVs, taking into consideration average vehicle fleet composition, fuel consumption/GHG emission of vehicles within specific speed bins, and the average occupancy of passenger vehicles and transit vehicles. The framework is exercised using a previous mobility analysis of a personal rapid transit (PRT) system, a system which shares many attributes with envisioned AV-based transit systems. Total fuel consumption and GHG emissions with and without an AMD are estimated, providing a range of potential system impacts on sustainability. The results of a previous case study based of a proposed implementation of PRT on the Kansas State University (KSU) campus in Manhattan, Kansas, serves as the basis to estimate personal miles traveled supplanted by an AMD at varying levels of service. The results show that an AMD has the potential to reduce total system fuel consumption and GHG emissions, but the amount is largely dependent on operating and ridership assumptions. The study points to the need to better understand ride-sharing scenarios and calls for future research on sustainability benefits of an AMD system at both vehicle and system levels.

  12. Performance Improvements for Coarse Mesh Finite Difference Acceleration L3:RTM.PRT.P13.02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Benjamin S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hamilton, Steven P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stimpson, Shane [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yee, Ben [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Larsen, Edward W. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kochunas, Brendan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-05-31

    The development of VERA-CS in recent years has focused on developing the capability to simulate multiple cycles of operating commercial nuclear power plants. Now that these capabilities have advanced to the point where it is being deployed to users, the focus is on improving the computational performance of various components in VERA-CS. In this work, the focus is on the Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) solution in MPACT. CMFD serves multiple purposes in the 2D/1D solution methodology. First, it is a natural mechanism to tie together the radial MOC transport and the axial SP3 solution. Because the CMFD system solves the multigroup three-dimensional core in one system, it pulls together the global response of the system. In addition, the CMFD solution provides a framework to accelerate the convergence of the eigenvalue problem.

  13. RPP-PRT-58489, Revision 1, One Systems Consistent Safety Analysis Methodologies Report. 24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-15-014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Mukesh [URS Professional Solutions LLC, Aiken, SC (United States); Niemi, Belinda [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Paik, Ingle [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-02

    In 2012, One System Nuclear Safety performed a comparison of the safety bases for the Tank Farms Operations Contractor (TOC) and Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) (RPP-RPT-53222 / 24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-12-018, “One System Report of Comparative Evaluation of Safety Bases for Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project and Tank Operations Contract”), and identified 25 recommendations that required further evaluation for consensus disposition. This report documents ten NSSC approved consistent methodologies and guides and the results of the additional evaluation process using a new set of evaluation criteria developed for the evaluation of the new methodologies.

  14. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Structured Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaee, Mohammad; Rafiee, Seyed Majid

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating studies are documenting specific motivational variables that, when combined into a naturalistic teaching paradigm, can positively influence the effectiveness of interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this study was to compare two applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention procedures, a…

  15. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Adult-Driven Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention on Disruptive Behaviors in Public School Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaei, Mohammad; Bakhshi, Enayatolah

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism often demonstrate disruptive behaviors during demanding teaching tasks. Language intervention can be particularly difficult as it involves social and communicative areas, which are challenging for this population. The purpose of this study was to compare two intervention conditions, a naturalistic approach, Pivotal Response…

  16. Double Bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenfelt, Anders

    The study of the acoustics of bowed instruments has for several reasons focused on the violin. A substantial amount of knowledge has been accumulated over the last century (see Hutchins 1975, 1976; Hutchins and Benade 1997). The violin is discussed in Chap. 13, while the cello is discussed in Chap. 14. The bow is discussed in Chap. 16.

  17. Meie esimese luuletõlke-antoloogia puhul : [rets.] / Ain Kaalep

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaalep, Ain, 1926-

    1997-01-01

    Ilm.: Kirjandus kriitiku pilguga : artikleid, arvustusi ja aastaülevaateid 1975-1976. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 1978, lk. 25-31 ; Keel ja Kirjandus 1975, nr. 5, lk. 309-311 . Rets. rmt.: Sang, August. Laenatud laulud I: luuletõlkeid. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 1973. 336 lk.; Sang, August. Laenatud laulud II: luuletõlkeid. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 1974. 392 lk.

  18. Snowfall observations from natural-draft cooling tower plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, M L; Seymour, D E; Smith, M E; Reeves, R W; Frankenberg, T T

    1976-09-24

    During the winter of 1975-1976, snowfall from the plumes of large natural-draft cooling towers of power plants has been observed. Snow accumulations up to 2.5 centimeters have been found on the ground at extended distances from the cooling towers, and visibility has been restricted to less than 1600 meters in the tower plume near ground level.

  19. Educational Statistics for Selected Health Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald W.; Holz, Frank M.

    Detailed statistics on education are provided for a number of health occupations. Data are given as far back as 1950-1951 for medical and dental schools, while for schools of public health, the data begin in 1975-1976. Complete 1980 data are provided only for dentistry, pharmacy, and veterinary medicine. Statistical tables are included on the…

  20. Proceedings, 15th Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Planning and Operations Review, held 17-20 November 1980, Savannah, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    pickerelweed ( Pontederia cordata L.) (Vogel and Oliver 1969 a,b; Center 1975, 1976). The authors of those studies stated that "A. densa populations could be...fed on pickerelweed ( Pontederia cordata L.), but now they also utilize waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) as a food source. The larvae

  1. Mapping pine mortality by aerial photography, Umstead State Park, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarence J. DeMars; Garey W. Slaughter; Lnla E. Greene; John H. Ghent

    1982-01-01

    In 1975-1976, pine trees killed by the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.) in a 2l70-hectare (5362-acre) area at the William B. Umstead State Park in central North Carolina, were monitored by sequential color infrared aerial photography. From 1973 through summer 1975, beetles in 350 infestation spots killed more than 20,500 pines on...

  2. Facsimile Transmission of Microforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-30

    acoustico-optic laser and precision lenses to scan microimages. Boticelli et al. (1975, 1976) of Epsco Labs summarize a parametric study which presents... Epsco Labs. Botticelli, R.A. at al. (1976). Accessing and Displaying Stored Microimage Information. Society for Information Display International

  3. Pontonides sympathes, a new species of commensal shrimp (Crustacea, Decapoda, Pontoniinae) from Antipatharia in the Galapagos Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de Ch.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1979-01-01

    During a stay at the Galapagos Islands (1975-1976), one of us (Ch. de Ridder) made a study of Gorgonaria and Antipatharia, paying special attention to commensals found with these corals. On Antipathes galapagensis Deichmann, 1941, a species of the pontoniine shrimp genus Pontonides was observed,

  4. Graduate Students' Effectiveness at Training Others in Progressive Relaxation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Graduate students in psychology were effective at reducing undergraduate student anxiety through progressive relaxation training (PRT). Trainer sex did not differentially influence PRT effectiveness. (RM)

  5. OLIGOPEPTIDES ARE THE MAIN SOURCE OF NITROGEN FOR LACTOCOCCUS-LACTIS DURING GROWTH IN MILK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JUILLARD, [No Value; LEBARS, D; KUNJI, ERS; KONINGS, WN; GRIPON, JC; RICHARD, J

    The consumption of amino acids and peptides was monitored during growth in milk of proteinase-positive (Prt(+)) and -negative (Prt(-)) strains of Lactococcus lactis, The Prt(-) strains showed monophasic exponential growth, while the Prt(+) strains grew in two phases. The first growth phases of the

  6. A Formal Approach to Discourse Anaphora

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    to account for antecedent preferences. Other factors include emphatic stress [Akmajian and Jackendoff, 1970] and empathy [Kuno, 1975, 1976]. With...34John gave Mary a book about whales " (indefinite singular) versus "John gave Mary the book about whales " (definite singular). In the first case, a...new memory token would be created with a descriptive set indicating that its counterpart was a book, was about whales and was what John gave to Mary

  7. Leo F. Laporte: Professor of Earth Sciences, Recollections of UCSC, 1971-1996

    OpenAIRE

    Laporte, Leo F.; Jarrell, Randall; Regional History Project, UCSC Library

    1998-01-01

    Randall Jarrell conducted an oral history with Leo Laporte on August 15, 1994, as a part of the Project's interviews with retiring senior faculty. Laporte served as department chairman of Earth Sciences from 1972 to 1975, and dean as the Natural Sciences Division from 1975-1976. In 1980 he received the UC Santa Cruz Alumni Distinguished Teaching Award. In his narration, Laporte discusses the building of the earth sciences department at UC Santa Cruz, how and why certain specialties were empha...

  8. Canopy Over Israel. Eyewitness Reports on the Selection, Training, and Assignment of Personnel in the Israel Air Force. First Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    Manifest Anxiety test The author was advised that the use of Rorschach tests was ended in 1975-1976. The above tests completed, the Aviation Medicine...the Mirage aircraft. The French developed it, but the French Air Force had not tried, tested , and debugged it at the time the Israeli put it into the...system with some built-in test provisions is designed to detect approximately 50% of potential malfunctions. More complete built-in tests can be provided

  9. M-X Environmental Technical Report. Environmental Characteristics of Alternative Designated Deployment Areas, Power and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-22

    fuel handling terminals in Salt Lake City and Las Vegas to local distribution centers. The bottled gas (propane) is marketed locally by three...VESSELS AND RAILROADS 700--~ ELECTRIC SUTILITIES SINDUSTRIAL *600 - AND OIL COMPANIES 500- 400- 300- 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 For additional information a...power planning and provides regional sup- ort for the Federal Marketing Agency for electric power by the U.S. Corps of Engineers and U.S. Water and

  10. 77 FR 6816 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Partnership, Bandera, TX; PRT-731315 The applicant requests amendment of their captive-bred wildlife... Partnership, Bandera, TX; PRT-828861 The applicant requests amendment of their permit authorizing interstate...

  11. Improved perception-reaction time information for intersection sight distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    Perception-reaction time (PRT) data were obtained in an operational setting to assess the adequacy of existing PRT specifications for intersection sight distance standards. A sample of 124 subjects traversed a 3-hour driving circuit in an instrumente...

  12. Peer-Mediated Pivotal Response Treatment for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Ainsley M.; Corkum, Penny; Meko, Katelyn; Smith, Isabel M.

    2015-01-01

    This review examined the effectiveness of peer-mediated pivotal response treatment (PM-PRT) to increase social-communication skills for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A systematic review was conducted of all published studies examining PM-PRT in school-aged children with ASD, based on an established rubric. Five PM-PRT studies…

  13. General Aviation Avionics Statistics: 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    POPULATION Alaska 5,865 756 12.9 Central 15,650 2,457 15.7 Eastern 22,536 4,430 19.7 European (Foreign) 373 171 45.8 Great Lakes 38,272 3,818 10.0 New...50 Southwestern 78 Great Lakes 83 Western 78 New England 84 Northwestern 80 TOTAL 80 TABLE AS. RESPONSE RATES BY AIRCRAFT TYPE AIRCRAFT TYPE RESPONSE...Designated Areas Future syte Present System In plan TOta Designation Measure 1975 1976-85 1985 3m route: Jet rout

  14. Leap Model 22C results versus EIA 1979 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, M.

    1981-03-01

    A comparison study of LEAP Model 22C predicted results for years 1975 and 1980 versus the compiled real data of EIA 1979 report for years 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, and 1979 has been performed. It is concluded that most of the quantities predicted by LEAP Model 22C for 1975 and 1980 are in reasonable agreement (within about 2%) with EIA 1979 as well as with EIA 1978 data. Many differences between LEAP Model 22C predicted results and EIA 1979 real data for years 1975 and 1980 are also discussed.

  15. El joven Joyce y el pathos del lenguaje

    OpenAIRE

    De Battista, Julieta

    2017-01-01

    Este artículo ofrece una construcción del caso Joyce como un relato clínico a partir de los lineamientos que Lacan subrayó en 1975-1976. Metodológicamente se basa en la obra autobiográfica sobre la infancia y adolescencia de James Joyce y ofrece una lectura de la constelación original del nacimiento, la posición fundacional de la orientación subjetiva, los efectos del rechazo y el pathos singular que lo aquejaba: las palabras impuestas o experiencia del lenguaje parásito. Este artigo forne...

  16. Comparison of equatorial electron content in the Indian and American longitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobuchar, J.A.; Rastogi, R.G.

    1988-06-01

    Total electron content (TEC) measurements taken at the magnetically equatorial stations located at Ootacamund, India and Huancayo, Peru by the group delay technique from radio beacon signals transmitted from the ATS 6 geostationary satellite show excellent agreement, though these stations are at widely different longitudes and are at nearly opposite geographic latitudes. Data from both stations were taken during the solar minimum period 1975-1976. The equivalent slab thickness, the ratio TEC/N(max) also indicated similar F region profile shape in the two longitude sectors. The standard deviation of equatorial daytime TEC is significantly smaller than at other latitudes. 20 references.

  17. El joven Joyce y el pathos del lenguaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta De Battista

    Full Text Available Este artículo ofrece una construcción del caso Joyce como un relato clínico a partir de los lineamientos que Lacan subrayó en 1975-1976. Metodológicamente se basa en la obra autobiográfica sobre la infancia y adolescencia de James Joyce y ofrece una lectura de la constelación original del nacimiento, la posición fundacional de la orientación subjetiva, los efectos del rechazo y el pathos singular que lo aquejaba: las palabras impuestas o experiencia del lenguaje parásito.

  18. Douglas Davis / Douglas Davis ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davis, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Ameerika kunstnikust Douglas Davisest (sünd. 1933) ja tema loonmingust, intervjuu kunstnikuga 8. 05. 1999 Osnabrückis. D. Davis oma interaktiivsetest performance'itest "Austrian Tapes" ja "Florence Tapes" (1970-ndad), Interneti-projektist "Terrible Beauty", sateliidiperformance'ist "Seven Thoughts" (1976), teleperformance'ist "The Last Nine Minutes" (1977), Vitali Komari ja Aleksander Melamidiga koos tehtud projektist "Questions Moscow New York" (1975-1976), võrguprojektidest "The World's Longest Sentence" (1994, asub New Yorgi Whitney Muuseumis), "MetaBody" jm.

  19. A research framework for studying transit bus driver distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The increase in transit bus ridership nationally during the past ten years, along with the : proliferation of personal electronic control and communication gadgets is causing more : distractions for the drivers. Earlier research studies have found dr...

  20. Integration of multi-modal public transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Transit ridership may be sensitive to fares, travel times, waiting times, and access times, among other factors. Thus, : elastic demands are considered in formulations for maximizing the system welfare for conventional and flexible bus : services. Tw...

  1. Financial Planning in Transit : Use of Commercially Available Microcomputer Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    This report addresses the potential of using commercially available microcomputer software for transit financial planning activities. Discussions with transit operators identified the need for inexpensive, easy to use software for ridership and fare ...

  2. NPS national transit inventory, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    This document summarizes key highlights from the National Park Service (NPS) 2013 National Transit Inventory, and presents data for NPS transit systems system-wide. The document discusses statistics related to ridership, business models, fleet charac...

  3. Analyzing the Potential for High-speed Rail as Part of the Multimodal Transportation System in the United States' Midwest Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Peters

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With increasing demand and rising fuel costs, both travel time and cost of current intercity passenger transportation modes are becoming increasingly relevant. Around the world, highspeed rail (HSR is seen as a way to alleviate demand on highways and at airports. Ridership is the critical element in determining the viability of a large capital, long-term transportation investment. This paper provides a systematic, consistent methodology for analyzing systemwide modal ridership with and without a proposed HSR network and analyzes the potential for highspeed rail as part of the existing multimodal transportation system in a region in terms of ridership. Considerations of capital investment (e.g., network design and HSR speed, along with exogenous demographic, technological, economic, and policy trends in the long-term, are used to project ridership over time. This study represents an important step toward a consistent, comprehensive economic analysis of HSR in the United States.

  4. The influence of service planning decisions on rail transit success or failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Some United States metropolitan areas with rail transit systems enjoy ridership and productivity success while : others do not. This study examines the experiences of 11 U.S. metropolitan areas with between onr million and : five million persons to b...

  5. A smartphone-based system for automated detection of walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Walking is the most effective mode of travel to access transit: transit hubs with higher residential and employment densities have higher : ridership levels because they serve areas where a large population is within a short walk of transit service. ...

  6. Improving Travel Projections for Public Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Public transportation use saves energy and reduces emissions by taking people : out of single passenger automobiles and putting them into high occupancy, energy : efficient transit vehicles. Furthermore, public transit ridership and vehicular : trip ...

  7. How Change of Public Transportation Usage Reveals Fear of the SARS Virus in a City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2014-01-01

    The outbreaks of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2003 resulted in unprecedented impacts on people's daily life. One of the most significant impacts to people is the fear of contacting the SARS virus while engaging daily routine activity. Here we use data from daily underground ridership in Taipei City and daily reported new SARS cases in Taiwan to model the dynamics of the public fear of the SARS virus during the wax and wane of the SARS period. We found that for each reported new SARS case there is an immediate loss of about 1200 underground ridership (the fresh fear). These daily loss rates dissipate to the following days with an e-folding time of about 28 days, reflecting the public perception on the risk of contacting SARS virus when traveling with the underground system (the residual fear). About 50% of daily ridership was lost during the peak of the 2003 SARS period, compared with the loss of 80% daily ridership during the closure of the underground system after Typhoon Nari, the loss of 50–70% ridership due to the closure of the governmental offices and schools during typhoon periods, and the loss of 60% daily ridership during Chinese New Year holidays. PMID:24647278

  8. How change of public transportation usage reveals fear of the SARS virus in a city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2014-01-01

    The outbreaks of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2003 resulted in unprecedented impacts on people's daily life. One of the most significant impacts to people is the fear of contacting the SARS virus while engaging daily routine activity. Here we use data from daily underground ridership in Taipei City and daily reported new SARS cases in Taiwan to model the dynamics of the public fear of the SARS virus during the wax and wane of the SARS period. We found that for each reported new SARS case there is an immediate loss of about 1200 underground ridership (the fresh fear). These daily loss rates dissipate to the following days with an e-folding time of about 28 days, reflecting the public perception on the risk of contacting SARS virus when traveling with the underground system (the residual fear). About 50% of daily ridership was lost during the peak of the 2003 SARS period, compared with the loss of 80% daily ridership during the closure of the underground system after Typhoon Nari, the loss of 50-70% ridership due to the closure of the governmental offices and schools during typhoon periods, and the loss of 60% daily ridership during Chinese New Year holidays.

  9. Effects of radiation and surgery on function and quality of life (QOL) in rectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linda; Wang, Xiaodong; Lo, Ada; Raval, Manoj; Brown, Carl; Karimuddin, Ahmer; Phang, P Terry

    2018-01-31

    Pre-operative radiotherapy (PRT) and total mesorectal excision surgery (TME) for rectal cancer yield the lowest risk for local recurrence. However, both treatments negatively impact quality of life (QOL). To understand individual treatment effects, we ask whether PRT affects function and quality of life before TME. Function and QOL were prospectively assessed in 26 patients using EORTC QLQ-C30/-CR38, and Wexner scale at three time points: before PRT, 6 weeks after PRT and before TME, and one year after stoma closure. Wexner score did not change post-PRT but did increase post-TME (p < .01). Micturition score did not change with PRT or TME (p = .29). Sexual function score improved post-PRT (p = .03) but did not change post-TME. Global health status did not change post-treatments (p = .45). Future perspective improved post-surgery (p = .04). PRT did not affect micturition, bowel function, or QOL. Future perspective improved despite increased bowel problems and fecal incontinence. QOL was maintained after curative rectal cancer treatments, radiation and TME surgery. This information may help patients and physicians better understand effects of PRT and TME treatments for rectal cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimating the Need for Palliative Radiation Therapy: A Benchmarking Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackillop, William J., E-mail: william.mackillop@krcc.on.ca [Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen' s Cancer Research Institute, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Department of Oncology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Kong, Weidong [Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen' s Cancer Research Institute, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Palliative radiation therapy (PRT) benefits many patients with incurable cancer, but the overall need for PRT is unknown. Our primary objective was to estimate the appropriate rate of use of PRT in Ontario. Methods and Materials: The Ontario Cancer Registry identified patients who died of cancer in Ontario between 2006 and 2010. Comprehensive RT records were linked to the registry. Multivariate analysis identified social and health system-related factors affecting the use of PRT, enabling us to define a benchmark population of patients with unimpeded access to PRT. The proportion of cases treated at any time (PRT{sub lifetime}), the proportion of cases treated in the last 2 years of life (PRT{sub 2y}), and number of courses of PRT per thousand cancer deaths were measured in the benchmark population. These benchmarks were standardized to the characteristics of the overall population, and province-wide PRT rates were then compared to benchmarks. Results: Cases diagnosed at hospitals with no RT on-site and residents of poorer communities and those who lived farther from an RT center, were significantly less likely than others to receive PRT. However, availability of RT at the diagnosing hospital was the dominant factor. Neither socioeconomic status nor distance from home to nearest RT center had a significant effect on the use of PRT in patients diagnosed at a hospital with RT facilities. The benchmark population therefore consisted of patients diagnosed at a hospital with RT facilities. The standardized benchmark for PRT{sub lifetime} was 33.9%, and the corresponding province-wide rate was 28.5%. The standardized benchmark for PRT{sub 2y} was 32.4%, and the corresponding province-wide rate was 27.0%. The standardized benchmark for the number of courses of PRT per thousand cancer deaths was 652, and the corresponding province-wide rate was 542. Conclusions: Approximately one-third of patients who die of cancer in Ontario need PRT, but many of them are never

  11. Pulsed Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Cisplatin Results in Superior Tumor Growth Delay in a Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Murine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kurt; Krueger, Sarah A.; Kane, Jonathan L.; Wilson, Thomas G.; Hanna, Alaa; Dabjan, Mohamad; Hege, Katie M.; Wilson, George D.; Grills, Inga; Marples, Brian, E-mail: brian.marples@beaumont.edu

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of 3-week schedules of low-dose pulsed radiation treatment (PRT) and standard radiation therapy (SRT), with concurrent cisplatin (CDDP) in a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenograft model. Methods and Materials: Subcutaneous UT-SCC-14 tumors were established in athymic NIH III HO female mice. A total of 30 Gy was administered as 2 Gy/d, 5 d/wk for 3 weeks, either by PRT (10 × 0.2 Gy/d, with a 3-minute break between each 0.2-Gy dose) or SRT (2 Gy/d, uninterrupted delivery) in combination with concurrent 2 mg/kg CDDP 3 times per week in the final 2 weeks of radiation therapy. Treatment-induced growth delays were defined from twice-weekly tumor volume measurements. Tumor hypoxia was assessed by {sup 18}F-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography imaging, and calculated maximum standardized uptake values compared with tumor histology. Tumor vessel density and hypoxia were measured by quantitative immunohistochemistry. Normal tissues effects were evaluated in gut and skin. Results: Untreated tumors grew to 1000 mm{sup 3} in 25.4 days (±1.2), compared with delays of 62.3 days (±3.5) for SRT + CDDP and 80.2 days (±5.0) for PRT + CDDP. Time to reach 2× pretreatment volume ranged from 8.2 days (±1.8) for untreated tumors to 67.1 days (±4.7) after PRT + CDDP. Significant differences in tumor growth delay were observed for SRT versus SRT + CDDP (P=.04), PRT versus PRT + CDDP (P=.035), and SRT + CDDP versus PRT + CDDP (P=.033), and for survival between PRT versus PRT + CDDP (P=.017) and SRT + CDDP versus PRT + CDDP (P=.008). Differences in tumor hypoxia were evident by {sup 18}F-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography imaging between SRT and PRT (P=.025), although not with concurrent CDDP. Tumor vessel density differed between SRT + CDDP and PRT + CDDP (P=.011). No differences in normal tissue parameters were seen. Conclusions: Concurrent CDDP was more effective in combination PRT than SRT at

  12. AABW-transport variation and its effect on internal wave motions between top and bottom of the Puerto Rico Trench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2017-01-01

    Slow subinertial variations in Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) are investigated interacting with internal waves and associated turbulent mixing in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT), northwest Atlantic. Just below the PRT's top at 5,500 m, a deep-sea mooring was deployed for 14 months. Around 6,100 m, the

  13. Peer Collaboration: Improving Teaching through Comprehensive Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shelley L.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes a brief rationale and review of the literature on peer review of teaching (PRT). Based on that literature review, it offers a proposal for an optimal formative review process that results in a teaching portfolio that would reflect a faculty member's efforts and successes in a critically reflective PRT process, and contributes…

  14. Ship motion effects in CTD-data from weakly stratified waters of the Puerto Rico trench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2015-01-01

    Shipborne SBE 911plus Conductivity Temperature Depth (CTD)-casts have been made to maximum 7220 m in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT). In PRT-waters from 5500 m and deeper and specifically below the 6500 m transition to the hadal-zone, the vertical density stratification is found very weak, with

  15. The effect of pathogen reduction technology (Mirasol) on platelet quality when treated in additive solution with low plasma carryover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L; Winter, K M; Reid, S; Hartkopf-Theis, T; Marschner, S; Goodrich, R P; Marks, D C

    2011-10-01

    Pathogen reduction technologies (PRT) for platelets are now compatible with both plasma and platelet additive solutions (PAS). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of PRT on the platelet storage lesion, in the presence of PAS with low plasma carryover. PRT-treated (Mirasol) and untreated buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates prepared in 28% plasma/PAS-IIIM were evaluated using in vitro cell quality parameters on days 1, 2, 5, and 7 post-collection. At day 5, there were no significant differences between control and PRT treated platelets for swirl, viability, pO(2) , pCO(2) , mean platelet volume and adenosine diphosphate-induced aggregation. PRT treatment did not affect the functional integrity of the mitochondria. However, PRT resulted in a decrease in pH and enhancement of platelet glycolysis and activation, evidenced by increased glucose consumption and lactate production rates, increased expression of CD62P, CD63, annexin V staining and increased secretion of cytokines (P < 0.05). Hypotonic shock response and aggregation in response to collagen were also significantly reduced in PRT treated platelets (P < 0.05). Despite the observed differences in platelet metabolism and activation observed following PRT treatment in PAS and low plasma carryover, the results suggest that treatment and storage of platelets in PAS is no more detrimental to platelets than treatment and storage in plasma. © 2011 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2011 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  16. Chromosomal Stabilization of the Proteinase Genes in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, Cornelis; Gietema, Jan; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerhardus

    The plasmid-encoded proteinase genes prtP and prtM of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2 were integrated by a Campbell-like mechanism into the L. lactis subsp. lactis MG1363 chromosome by using the insertion vector pKLG610. Two transformants were obtained that differed in the number of amplified

  17. 78 FR 12777 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... period. ] Applicant: Heart A Ranch, Sonora, TX; PRT-96457A The applicant requests a captive-bred wildlife... by the applicant over a 5-year period. Applicant: Heart A Ranch, Sonora, TX; PRT-96459A The applicant... grevyi) Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) Panamanian golden frog (Atelopus zeteki) Applicant: Exotic Feline...

  18. 76 FR 12990 - Endangered Species Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ..., Ontario, Canada, for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species. Applicant: St. John Fisher... subflavus) from United Kingdom, for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species. Multiple.... Applicant: John Cross, San Angelos, TX; PRT-35586A Applicant: James McArtor, Cody, WY; PRT-35246A Dated...

  19. 77 FR 6139 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... Applicant: Frank Metzger, Westerville, OH; PRT-63679A Applicant: Paul Monsen, Salt Lake City, UT; PRT-63627A... captive born at Cango Wildlife Ranch, South Africa, for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the... of the Republic of South Africa, for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species...

  20. 78 FR 50083 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... period. Applicant: William Burnett, North Little Rock, AR; PRT-034480 The applicant requests renewal of... (Tapirus indicus) for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species. ] Applicant: John Klauss... activities to be conducted by the applicant over a 5-year period. Applicant: John Klauss, Pipe Creek, TX; PRT...

  1. Pivotal Response Treatment for Children with Autism: Core Principles and Applications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Tyler L.; Kuriakose, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, pivotal response treatment (PRT) has emerged as an evidence-based methodology for intervening with the behavioral, communicative, social, and academic impairments of children with autism. Unlike other highly structured behavioral interventions for autism, PRT emphasizes principles over procedures and focuses on enhancing…

  2. Antimicrobial activity and stability of protonectin with D-amino acid substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shuai; Zhu, Ranran; Zhao, Yanyan; An, Xiaoping; Jia, Fengjing; Peng, Jinxiu; Ma, Zelin; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jiayi; Su, Jinhuan; Wang, Qingjun; Wang, Hailin; Li, Yuan; Wang, Kairong; Yan, Wenjin; Wang, Rui

    2017-05-01

    The misuse and overuse of antibiotics result in the emergence of resistant bacteria and fungi, which make an urgent need of the new antimicrobial agents. Nowadays, antimicrobial peptides have attracted great attention of researchers. However, the low physiological stability in biological system limits the application of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides as novel therapeutics. In the present study, we synthesized derivatives of protonectin by substituting all the amino acid residues or the cationic lysine residue with the corresponding D-amino acids. Both the D-enantiomer of protonectin (D-prt) and D-Lys-protonectin (D-Lys-prt) exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. Moreover, D-prt showed strong stability against trypsin, chymotrypsin and the human serum, while D-Lys-prt only showed strong stability against trypsin. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that D-Lys-prt still kept typical α-helical structure in the membrane mimicking environment, while D-prt showed left hand α-helical structure. In addition, propidium iodide uptake assay and bacteria and fungi killing experiments indicated that all D-amino acid substitution or partially D-amino acid substitution analogs could disrupt the integrity of membrane and lead the cell death. In summary, these findings suggested that D-prt and D-Lys-prt might be promising candidate antibiotic agents for therapeutic application against resistant bacteria and fungi infection. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Pivotal Response Treatment for Infants At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Amanda Mossman; Gengoux, Grace W.; Klin, Ami; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Presently there is limited research to suggest efficacious interventions for infants at-risk for autism. Pivotal response treatment (PRT) has empirical support for use with preschool children with autism, but there are no reports in the literature utilizing this approach with infants. In the current study, a developmental adaptation of PRT was…

  4. The Effect of Pivotal Response Treatment in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Non-Randomized Study with a Blinded Outcome Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duifhuis, E. A.; den Boer, J. C.; Doornbos, A.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Oosterling, I. J.; Klip, H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of this quasi-experimental trial was to investigate the effect of Pivotal response treatment (PRT) versus treatment as usual (TAU) on autism symptoms. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), aged 3-8 years, received either PRT (n = 11) or TAU (n = 13). Primary outcome measure was the total score on the Autism Diagnostic Observation…

  5. The Effect of Positive Reinforcement Training on an Adult Female Western Lowland Gorilla’s (Gorilla gorilla gorilla Rate of Abnormal and Aggressive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Leeds

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive reinforcement training (PRT has become a widely used tool in improving the ease with which husbandry and veterinary procedures are performed for animals under human care. PRT provides positive social interaction, cognitive stimulation, and choice, in addition to desensitization towards potentially stressful situations. As a result, PRT has been used as enrichment to decrease abnormal and aggressive behavior in various primate species, however, this has not been empirically tested in western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla. This study used an ABA design to test the effect of PRT on the abnormal and aggressive behavior of an adult female gorilla both during and outside of interaction sessions. No change in behavior was observed during the PRT phase of this study. However, a decrease in ear covering and keeper-directed aggression were observed in the post-training period. Here we argue that the combination of both PRT and non-training interactions cumulatively provided social and cognitive stimuli resulting in the observed changes. These results provide further evidence on the importance of interactions between staff and animals in their care. Further systematic evaluation of the usefulness of PRT as enrichment is still needed, specifically in zoos and across different species. However, PRT is helpful in facilitating husbandry and veterinary procedures and thus should be considered an important tool in optimizing the welfare of animals under human care regardless of its effectiveness as enrichment.

  6. Pathogen reduction treatment using riboflavin and ultraviolet light impairs platelet reactivity toward specific agonists in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeddies, Sabrina; de Cuyper, Iris M.; van der Meer, Pieter F.; Daal, Brunette B.; de Korte, Dirk; Gutiérrez, Laura; Thijssen-Timmer, Daphne C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed that Mirasol pathogen reduction treatment (PRT) leads to increased P-selectin expression and increased oxygen and glucose consumption in resting platelets (PLTs). This study investigates the effect of PRT on PLT activation. Untreated or Mirasol-treated PLTs were analyzed at

  7. The Effect of Pivotal Response Treatment in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Non-randomized Study with a Blinded Outcome Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duifhuis, E.A.; Boer, J.C. den; Doornbos, A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Oosterling, I.J.; Klip, H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of this quasi-experimental trial was to investigate the effect of Pivotal response treatment (PRT) versus treatment as usual (TAU) on autism symptoms. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), aged 3-8 years, received either PRT (n = 11) or TAU (n = 13). Primary outcome measure was the

  8. Regulatory processes in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars

    , for the increase oxalate formation. From similar knock out studies, another mutant was identified and this strain was shown to be a protease mutant and the responsible transcription factor was entitled Protease Regulator B, PrtB. This was compared against the already described, protease deficient strain, Δprt...

  9. 77 FR 36571 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... not consider or include in our administrative record comments we receive after the close of the... Species Applicant: Southwest Fisheries Science Center, La Jolla, CA; PRT-844694 The applicant requests...., China Springs, TX; PRT-76154A The applicant requests a captive-bred wildlife registration under 50 CFR...

  10. Progressive and Self-Induced Relaxation Training: Their Relative Effects on Subjective and Autonomic Arousal to Fearful Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kenneth D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Compared progressive relaxation training (PRT), self-induced relaxation training (SRT), and a control condition on measures of tonic physiological arousal and phasic physiological and subjective reactions to fearful stimuli. Concluded that live PRT is the treatment of choice for reducing tonic physiological arousal and attenuating subjective…

  11. What works for you? Using teacher feedback to inform adaptations of pivotal response training for classroom use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmer, Aubyn C; Suhrheinrich, Jessica; Reed, Sarah; Schreibman, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Several evidence-based practices (EBPs) have been identified as efficacious for the education of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, effectiveness research has rarely been conducted in schools and teachers express skepticism about the clinical utility of EBPs for the classroom. Innovative methods are needed to optimally adapt EBPs for community use. This study utilizes qualitative methods to identify perceived benefits and barriers of classroom implementation of a specific EBP for ASD, Pivotal Response Training (PRT). Teachers' perspectives on the components of PRT, use of PRT as a classroom intervention strategy, and barriers to the use of PRT were identified through guided discussion. Teachers found PRT valuable; however, they also found some components challenging. Specific teacher recommendations for adaptation and resource development are discussed. This process of obtaining qualitative feedback from frontline practitioners provides a generalizable model for researchers to collaborate with teachers to optimally promote EBPs for classroom use.

  12. What Works for You? Using Teacher Feedback to Inform Adaptations of Pivotal Response Training for Classroom Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubyn C. Stahmer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several evidence-based practices (EBPs have been identified as efficacious for the education of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. However, effectiveness research has rarely been conducted in schools and teachers express skepticism about the clinical utility of EBPs for the classroom. Innovative methods are needed to optimally adapt EBPs for community use. This study utilizes qualitative methods to identify perceived benefits and barriers of classroom implementation of a specific EBP for ASD, Pivotal Response Training (PRT. Teachers' perspectives on the components of PRT, use of PRT as a classroom intervention strategy, and barriers to the use of PRT were identified through guided discussion. Teachers found PRT valuable; however, they also found some components challenging. Specific teacher recommendations for adaptation and resource development are discussed. This process of obtaining qualitative feedback from frontline practitioners provides a generalizable model for researchers to collaborate with teachers to optimally promote EBPs for classroom use.

  13. Independent catalysis of the short form HisG from Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Emma K; Mittelstädt, Gerd; Given, Fiona M; Parker, Emily J

    2016-08-01

    ATP-phosphoribosyltransferase (ATP-PRT) catalyses the first step of histidine biosynthesis. Two different forms of ATP-PRT have been described; the homo-hexameric long form, and the hetero-octameric short form. Lactococcus lactis possesses the short form ATP-PRT comprising four subunits of HisGS , the catalytic subunit, and four subunits of HisZ, a histidyl-tRNA synthetase paralogue. Previous studies have suggested that HisGS requires HisZ for catalysis. Here, we reveal that the dimeric HisGS does display ATP-PRT activity in the absence of HisZ. This result reflects the evolutionary relationship between the long and short form ATP-PRT, which acquired allosteric inhibition and enhanced catalysis via two divergent strategies. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  14. Covalent Modification of Human Serum Albumin by the Natural Sesquiterpene Lactone Parthenolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Plöger

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of parthenolide (PRT, a natural sesquiterpene lactone from Tanacetum parthenium (Asteraceae, with human serum albumin (HSA was studied by UHPLC/+ESI-QqTOF MS analysis after tryptic digestion of albumin samples after incubation with this compound. It was found that the single free cysteine residue, C34, of HSA (0.6 mM reacted readily with PRT when incubated at approximately 13-fold excess of PRT (8 mM. Time-course studies with PRT and its 11β,13-dihydro derivative at equimolar ratios of the reactants revealed that PRT under the chosen conditions reacts preferably with C34 and does so exclusively via its α-methylene-γ-lactone moiety, while the epoxide structure is not involved in the reaction.

  15. Pivotal response treatment for infants at-risk for autism spectrum disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Amanda Mossman; Gengoux, Grace W; Klin, Ami; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Presently there is limited research to suggest efficacious interventions for infants at-risk for autism. Pivotal response treatment (PRT) has empirical support for use with preschool children with autism, but there are no reports in the literature utilizing this approach with infants. In the current study, a developmental adaptation of PRT was piloted via a brief parent training model with three infants at-risk for autism. Utilizing a multiple baseline design, the data suggest that the introduction of PRT resulted in increases in the infants' frequency of functional communication and parents' fidelity of implementation of PRT procedures. Results provide preliminary support for the feasibility and utility of PRT for very young children at-risk for autism.

  16. A putative vesicular transporter expressed in Drosophila mushroom bodies that mediates sexual behavior may define a novel neurotransmitter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Elizabeth S.; Greer, Christina L.; Romero-Calderón, Rafael; Serway, Christine N.; Grygoruk, Anna; Haimovitz, Jasmine M.; Nguyen, Bac T.; Najibi, Rod; Tabone, Christopher J.; de Belle, J. Steven; Krantz, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Storage and release of classical and amino acid neurotransmitters requires vesicular transporters. Some neurons lack known vesicular transporters, suggesting additional neurotransmitter systems remain unidentified. Insect mushroom bodies (MBs) are critical for several behaviors, including learning, but the neurotransmitters released by the intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) remain unknown. Likewise, KCs do not express a known vesicular transporter. We report the identification of a novel Drosophila gene portabella (prt) that is structurally similar to known vesicular transporters. Both larval and adult brains express PRT in the KCs of the MBs. Additional PRT cells project to the central complex and optic ganglia. prt mutation causes an olfactory learning deficit and an unusual defect in the male’s position during copulation that is rescued by expression in KCs. Since prt is expressed in neurons that lack other known vesicular transporters or neurotransmitters, it may define a previously unknown neurotransmitter system responsible for sexual behavior and a component of olfactory learning. PMID:22017990

  17. Hemostatic function of buffy coat platelets in additive solution treated with pathogen reduction technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Bochsen, Louise; Windeløv, Nis Agerlin

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pathogen reduction technologies (PRTs) may influence the hemostatic potential of stored platelet (PLT) concentrates. To investigate this, buffy coat PLTs (BCPs) stored in PLT additive solution (SSP+) with or without Mirasol PRT treatment (CaridianBCT Biotechnologies) were compared...... by functional hemostatic assays. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed in vitro comparison of PRT (PRT-BCP) and control pooled-and-split BCPs (CON-BCP) after 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8 days' storage. Hemostatic function was evaluated with thrombelastography (TEG) and impedance aggregometry (Multiplate), the latter also...... in a sample matrix (Day 2) with or without addition of red blood cells (RBCs), control plasma, and/or PRT-treated plasma. RESULTS: PRT treatment of 8-day-stored BCPs influenced clot formation (TEG) minimally, with reductions in maximum clot strength (maximum amplitude, p = 0.014) but unchanged initial fibrin...

  18. A Functional Thinking Approach to the Design of Future Transportation Systems: Taxis as a Proxy for Personal Rapid Transit in South Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Bae, Hyun Hye

    2014-01-01

    For over 50 years, personal rapid transit (PRT) has been viewed as one of the most promising ways to provide sustainable, economical, and convenient transportation while reducing reliance on personal automobiles. However, despite concerted efforts around the world, the promise of PRT has yet...... taxis can be used as an alternative embodiment of personal rapid transit and can serve as a test bed to support PRT-related design, research, and development. The paper then explores the transportation patterns and characteristics of cities in South Korea and the United States in order to determine...... the conditions necessary to create and maintain a PRT-like taxi system and to demonstrate the differences between ‘normal’ and PRT-like taxi systems. Finally, the future of personal rapid transit as a functional and physical transportation paradigm is discussed....

  19. Exercise in myasthenia gravis: A feasibility study of aerobic and resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Martin Amadeus; Mikkelsen, Erik Elgaard; Overgaard, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: It has not been established whether progressive resistance training (PRT) and aerobic training (AT) are feasible and efficient in myasthenia gravis (MG). Methods: Fifteen subjects with generalized MG (Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) clinical classification II-IV) were...... randomly assigned to 20 training sessions during 8 weeks of either PRT or AT. Feasibility was evaluated based on adherence, drop-out rate, adverse events, and Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis (QMG) score. Results: Twelve subjects (MGFA II, n = 11; MGFA III, n=1) completed the intervention with a mean...... adherence of 95 % ± 8. One dropout (PRT) could potentially be related to PRT. Both groups reported adverse events, including bulbar symptoms (n = 2) and increased fatigue (n = 3), but no change in QMG score was observed in either group. The PRT group showed increases in maximal strength and functional...

  20. Hemostatic function of buffy coat platelets in additive solution treated with pathogen reduction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Bochsen, Louise; Windeløv, Nis A; Salado-Jimena, José A; Reynaerts, Inge; Goodrich, Raymond P; Johansson, Pär I

    2011-02-01

    Pathogen reduction technologies (PRTs) may influence the hemostatic potential of stored platelet (PLT) concentrates. To investigate this, buffy coat PLTs (BCPs) stored in PLT additive solution (SSP+) with or without Mirasol PRT treatment (CaridianBCT Biotechnologies) were compared by functional hemostatic assays. We performed in vitro comparison of PRT (PRT-BCP) and control pooled-and-split BCPs (CON-BCP) after 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8 days' storage. Hemostatic function was evaluated with thrombelastography (TEG) and impedance aggregometry (Multiplate), the latter also in a sample matrix (Day 2) with or without addition of red blood cells (RBCs), control plasma, and/or PRT-treated plasma. PRT treatment of 8-day-stored BCPs influenced clot formation (TEG) minimally, with reductions in maximum clot strength (maximum amplitude, p = 0.014) but unchanged initial fibrin formation (R), clot growth rate (α), and fibrinolysis resistance. In the absence of RBCs and plasma, PRT impaired aggregation (Multiplate) in stored BCPs, with reduced aggregation against thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 (p Addition of RBCs and PRT-treated or untreated plasma to PRT-BCP and CON-BCP, respectively, enhanced aggregation in both groups. Mirasol PRT treatment of BCPs had a minimal influence on clot formation, whereas aggregation in the absence of RBCs and plasma was significantly reduced. Addition of RBCs and plasma increased agonist-induced responses resulting in comparable aggregation between PRT-BCP and CON-BCP. The clinical relevance for PLT function in vivo of these findings will be investigated in a clinical trial. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Streptococcus thermophilus cell wall-anchored proteinase: release, purification, and biochemical and genetic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Espla, M D; Garault, P; Monnet, V; Rul, F

    2000-11-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus CNRZ 385 expresses a cell envelope proteinase (PrtS), which is characterized in the present work, both at the biochemical and genetic levels. Since PrtS is resistant to most classical methods of extraction from the cell envelopes, we developed a three-step process based on loosening of the cell wall by cultivation of the cells in the presence of glycine (20 mM), mechanical disruption (with alumina powder), and enzymatic treatment (lysozyme). The pure enzyme is a serine proteinase highly activated by Ca(2+) ions. Its activity was optimal at 37 degrees C and pH 7.5 with acetyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-paranitroanilide as substrate. The study of the hydrolysis of the chromogenic and casein substrates indicated that PrtS presented an intermediate specificity between the most divergent types of cell envelope proteinases from lactococci, known as the PI and PIII types. This result was confirmed by the sequence determination of the regions involved in substrate specificity, which were a mix between those of PI and PIII types, and also had unique residues. Sequence analysis of the PrtS encoding gene revealed that PrtS is a member of the subtilase family. It is a multidomain protein which is maturated and tightly anchored to the cell wall via a mechanism involving an LPXTG motif. PrtS bears similarities to cell envelope proteinases from pyogenic streptococci (C5a peptidase and cell surface proteinase) and lactic acid bacteria (PrtP, PrtH, and PrtB). The highest homologies were found with streptococcal proteinases which lack, as PrtS, one domain (the B domain) present in cell envelope proteinases from all other lactic acid bacteria.

  2. Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brett A; Johnson, W Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R

    2013-09-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946-1975; 1976-2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species.

  3. Melhaoui Mohammed, Peste, contagion et martyre. Histoire du fléau en Occident médiéval, Paris, Publisud, 2005, 217 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Barry

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En France, à l’exception des études du médecin, historien et démographe Jean-Noël Biraben (1975-1976, peu de travaux existent sur la Peste noire et ses conséquences dans l’Occident musulman médiéval. On comprendra alors tout l’intérêt de l’ouvrage de Mohammed Melhaoui sur ce thème qu’il connaît bien puisqu’il lui a consacré non seulement une thèse de doctorat d’histoire, mais aussi quelques études portant notamment sur la « perception de la peste en pays chrétiens byzantins et musulman » (Co...

  4. Ionospheric electron content within the equatorial F2 layer anomaly belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, R. G.; Klobuchar, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on continuous TEC measurements, taken along a chain of stations spaced between 0 deg N and 25 deg N and aligned roughly along the same longitude sector in India, that describe the day-to-day behavior of the location of equatorial anomaly in the TEC during the period of the 1975-1976 sunspot minimum, when the ATS spacecraft was visible from India. It was found that the presence or absence of the latitudinal anomaly in TEC on a particular day depended only on the strength of the electrojet current, as determined by the difference of the horizontal magnetic field at stations on the magnetic equator and stations outside the equatorial electrojet, rather than on the horizontal magnetic field measured only at equatorial stations.

  5. Síntomas (decoloniales: Grosfoguel como lector de Foucault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Soto Morera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la crítica de Ramón Grosfoguel a la aproximación que propone Michel Foucault a los conceptos racismo y colonialismo en su curso Defender la sociedad (1975-1976. El autor analiza los presupuestos teóricos y criterios metodológicos que sustentan la hermenéutica de Grosfoguel, a partir de algunos presupuestos de la genealogía del poder y la gubernamentalidad de Michel Foucault. El autor propone que este ejercicio permite establecer el lugar que Michel Foucault asigna a los dispositivos coloniales en la conformación de las tecnologías gubernamentales modernas.

  6. The invasion of the intertidal canopy-forming alga Fucus serratus L. to southwestern Iceland: Possible community effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingólfsson, Agnar

    2008-04-01

    The intertidal serrated wrack, Fucus serratus L. (Fucales: Phaeophyceae), has become an abundant canopy-forming alga along a ca. 100 km stretch of shore in southwestern Iceland in the last century. Its distribution has not changed noticeably since a survey in 1975/1976. Many experimental studies have shown that canopy-forming algae can have profound effects on the community structure. Although such experiments involving F. serratus are few it was decided to test predictions from these experiments on a geographical scale by comparing community compositions within the area where F. serratus is a dominant algae (since at least 1975/1976) with an adjacent area of similar size where F. serratus is absent (with a single exception without consequences). The work is based on measurements on some 372 stations in the F. serratus area, termed region A, and 227 stations from the F. serratus-free area, termed region B. Percentage cover of algae and sessile invertebrates was estimated on 2 m 2 on each station and animals collected from 800 cm 2 from each station. The vertical distribution of F. serratus was most similar to that of Fucus distichus and the two species often grew intermingled on the lower part of the shore. F. serratus appeared to have reduced the cover of F. distichus in the lowermost part of the shore, while having little or no effect on other canopy-forming species. The low abundance of Semibalanus balanoides in the F. serratus area (region A) is in line with experiments showing detrimental effect on this barnacle by whiplash of F. serratus. In general algal grazers were more abundant in region A, consistent with the greater attractiveness of F. serratus than other canopy-forming species to grazers, although this may be partly explained by the abundance of understorey algae in region A.

  7. Joyce y el inconsciente. // Joyce and the unconscious.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Ramírez Carmen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes two references proposed by Lacan that apparently pose a paradox: in the first reference, in 1975, he stated that Joyce is an unsubscribed from the unconscious; in the second one, in 1976, he affirmed that Unconscious and Real in Joyce are tied one to another, which lead us to ask this question: from which unconscious is Joyce unsubscribed? This way, the author intends to examine the rule of unconscious in Joyce’s case, as explained by Lacan in 1975-1976. If Lacan considers the Unconscious structured like a language to be a lucubration of knowledge in relation with lalangue, this paper will show how Joyce finds a particular answer for the issue of joy that does not pass through that lucubration. // En el presente trabajo se retoman dos referencias de Lacan que plantean una aparente paradoja; en la primera, de 1975, habla de Joyce como desabonado del Inconsciente, en la segunda, en 1976, dice que en Joyce Inconsciente y real se anudan, razón suficiente para preguntarse ¿De qué Inconsciente está desabonado Joyce? Así, se pretende interrogar el estatuto del Inconsciente en el caso de Joyce, tal como lo aborda Lacan en 1975-1976. Si para Lacan el Inconsciente estructurado como un lenguaje es una elucubración de saber sobre lalengua, este recorrido permitirá ver cómo Joyce encuentra una respuesta singular al problema del goce que no pasa por dicha elucubración.

  8. Progressive resistance training rebuilds lean body mass in head and neck cancer patients after radiotherapy - Results from the randomized DAHANCA 25B trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønbro, Simon; Dalgas, Ulrik; Primdahl, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    the effect of progressive resistance training (PRT) on lean body mass, muscle strength and functional performance in HNSCC patients following radiotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Following radiotherapy HNSCC patients were randomized into two groups: Early Exercise (EE, n=20) initiated 12weeks of PRT followed...... by 12weeks of self-chosen physical activity. Delayed Exercise (DE, n=21) initiated 12weeks of self-chosen physical activity followed by 12weeks of PRT. Lean body mass, muscle strength, functional performance and QoL were evaluated at baseline and after week 12 and 24. RESULTS: In the first 12weeks lean...... body mass increased by 4.3% in EE after PRT and in the last 12weeks by 4.2% in DE after PRT. These increases were significantly larger than the changes after self-chosen physical activity (p⩽0.005). Regardless of PRT start-up time, the odds ratio of increasing lean body mass by more than 4% after PRT...

  9. Trends in transit-oriented development 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    After decades of decline, public transportation ridership grew 36 percent from 1995 through 2008, almost three times the growth rate of : the U.S. population (14%) and substantially more than the growth for vehicle miles of travel on our nations s...

  10. Train station access and train use: a joint stated and revealed preference choice modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Paix Puello, Lissy Cesarina; Geurs, Karst Teunis; Geurs, K.T.; Patuelli, R.; Dentinho, T.

    2016-01-01

    Public transport accessibility depends not only on the places and opportunities that can be reached by transit, but also on accessibility to public transport. The characteristics of access and egress modes influence accessibility patterns but also ridership levels of public transport modes. In

  11. Measuring Passenger Travel Time Reliability Using Smart Card Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagherian, M.; Cats, O.; van Oort, N.; Hickman, M

    2016-01-01

    Service reliability is a key performance measure for transit agencies in increasing their service quality and thus ridership. Conventional reliability metrics are established based on vehicle movements and thus do not adequately reflect passenger’s experience. In the past few years, the growing

  12. Measuring Passenger Travel Time Reliability using Smartcard Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagherian, M.; Cats, O.; van Oort, N.; Hickman, M

    2016-01-01

    Service reliability is a key performance measure for transit agencies in increasing their service quality and thus ridership. Conventional reliability metrics are established based on vehicle movements and thus do not adequately reflect passenger’s experience. In the past few years, the growing

  13. Sensors and signal processing for high accuracy passenger counting : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-05

    It is imperative for a transit system to track statistics about their ridership in order to plan bus routes. There exists a wide variety of methods for obtaining these statistics that range from relying on the driver to count people to utilizing came...

  14. Big data supports light rail in Utrecht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, N.

    2014-01-01

    Transport planners are starting to consider how "big data" retrieved from passenger smart cards, computers and mobile phones could improve the design of urban rail networks and timetables, and improve operations by predicting ridership. Niels van Oort, assistant professor at Delft University of

  15. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Closure (Withdrawal of Units) of Norton Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    Colaptes aura tus Passeriformes (perching birds ) Black Phoebe Sayornis nigricans Horned Lark Eromophila alpestris Tree Swallow Tachycineta bicolor Scrub...ridership AVS Audiovisual Squadron BASH bird aircraft strike hazard Bldg. building Blvd. boulevard BMO Ballistic Missile Organization BOS base operating...Common bird species are meadowlark, gull, raven, crow, and starling. Reptiles that may be found on the base include rattlesnakes and horned lizards

  16. Using the GTFS format to improve public transport data accessibility in Gauteng

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Koetsier, Sumarie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Public transport plays an important role in cities. It is a less expensive option than private transport and could reduce congestion and improve accessibility to jobs. However, ridership could be hampered when information regarding an operator’s...

  17. Personal, Social, Psychological and Other Factors in Ridesharing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    An in-depth investigation of the ridesharing programs in the Baltimore and : suburban Washington, D.C. areas was needed in light of the apparent difficulty : in increasing ridership on the existing ridesharing programs. Many of the : studies done on ...

  18. Explosive resistance training increases rate of force development in ankle dorsiflexors and gait function in adults with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Henrik; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Lorentzen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    development of ankle dorsiflexors (RFDdf), improves gait function and affects passive ankle joint stiffness in adults with CP.Thirty-five adults (age 36.5; range: 18-59 years) with CP were non-randomly assigned to a PRT or non-training control (CON) group in this explorative trial. The PRT group trained ankle......Alterations in passive elastic properties of muscles and reduced ability to quickly generate muscle force contribute to impaired gait function in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Here, we investigated if 12 weeks of progressive and explosive resistance training (PRT) increases rate of force...... for adults with CP....

  19. Quantitative analysis of plasma proteins in whole blood-derived fresh frozen plasma prepared with three pathogen reduction technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrea, Luis; Ortiz-de-Salazar, María-Isabel; Martínez, Patricia; Roig, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Several plasma pathogen reduction technologies (PRT) are currently available. We evaluated three plasma PRT processes: Cerus Amotosalen (AM), Terumo BCT riboflavin (RB) and Macopharma methylene blue (MB). RB treatment resulted in the shortest overall processing time and in the smallest volume loss (1%) and MB treatment in the largest volume loss (8%). MB treatment retained the highest concentrations of factors II, VII, X, IX, Protein C, and Antithrombin and the AM products of factor V and XI. Each PRT process evaluated offered distinct advantages such as procedural simplicity and volume retention (RB) and overall plasma protein retention (MB). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative Doppler ultrasound evaluation of occlusive arterial disease in the lower limb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, P; Sillesen, H; Hansen, H J

    1988-01-01

    Forty consecutive patients with lower limb arterial disease were evaluated using a multi-gated pulsed Doppler system. Doppler signals were sampled at 4 sites in each limb, and following spectral analysis, the pulse rise time (PRT) was measured. The value obtained at the location giving the longest...... duration of PRT was used for comparison with ankle/brachial pressure index (A/B index) and angiography. A highly significant correlation was found between PRT and A/B index (r = -0.75, P less than 0.001). Based on receiver operating characteristic curves an overall diagnostic accuracy of 90% in diagnosing...

  1. Central Okanagan smart transit plan : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, R.A. [IBI Group, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-04-15

    This report outlines the steps and financial aspects of implementing the smart transit plan for the Central Okanagan region, one of British Columbia's fastest growing regions. The plan, which is designed to enhance transit services, is affordable by all stakeholders and is adjustable, based on levels of ridership and availability of resources. The region is expected to grow from 160,000 to 225,000 people by 2021. Transit ridership has grown from just over 1 million passengers per year 10 years ago to almost 3 million passengers in 2003. This strong growth provides an opportunity to pursue a transit plan and land use plan that supports efficient modes of transportation such as transit, walking and cycling. This Smart Transit project involved collaboration with stakeholders to develop a vision for sustainable transit for the region; guidelines for promoting transit-supportive land use development and a business plan to direct transit investments to achieve the transit vision. The existing conditions of the transit system were described with reference to ridership performance by route, current transit ridership, recommended priorities, bus stop inventory, and comparison to other transit systems. Currently, the transit system in the Okanagan region has higher than average ridership compared to similar Canadian systems. It is also as cost-effective as similar sized transit systems. Areas of improvement include better on-time transit service reliability; reduction in the level of graffiti and vandalism and the need to expand off-peak services. Historical and projected future transit system performance was also discussed with reference to system growth, productivity and cost. tabs., figs.

  2. Evaluating the attractiveness of a new light rail extension: Testing simple change and displacement change hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Barbara B.; Tribby, Calvin P.; Tharp, Doug; Flick, Kristi; Miller, Harvey J.; Smith, Ken R.; Jensen, Wyatt

    2015-01-01

    Many communities in the United States have been adding new light rail to bus-predominant public transit systems. However, there is disagreement as to whether opening light rail lines attracts new ridership or merely draws ridership from existing transit users. We study a new light rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, which is part of a complete street redevelopment. We utilize a pre-test post-test control group quasi-experimental design to test two different measures of ridership change. The first measure is calculated from stops along the light rail route; the second assumes that nearby bus stops might be displaced by the rail and calculates ridership change with those stops included as baseline. Both the simple measure (transit use changes on the complete street light rail corridor) and the “displacement” measure (transit use changes in the one-quarter mile catchment areas around new light rail stops) showed significant (p light rail bus users. In particular, the displacement analysis discredits a common challenge that when a new light rail line opens, most passengers are simply former bus riders whose routes were canceled in favor of light rail. The study suggests that light rail services can attract additional ridership to public transit systems. In addition, although pre-post control-group designs require time and effort, this project underscores the benefits of such quasi-experimental designs in terms of the strength of the inferences that can be drawn about the impacts of new transit infrastructure and services. PMID:26543329

  3. Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia : a personalized approach : Allogene hematopoïetische stamcel transplantatie voor patiënten met acute myeloïde leukemie : een gepersonaliseerde benadering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Versluis (Jurjen)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe majority of patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) obtain complete hematological remission (CR) after induction chemotherapy, but the incidence of relapse is considerable despite chemotherapeutic consolidation therapy. Currently, post-remission treatment (PRT) for

  4. Analysis of patient outcomes following proton radiation therapy for retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent W. Mouw, MD PhD

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In addition to providing an opportunity for long-term disease control and functional eye preservation, PRT does not appear to be associated with unexpected late visual, endocrine, or QOL effects in this cohort of patients with RB.

  5. Analysis of Position Error Headway Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    An analysis is developed to determine safe headway on PRT systems that use point-follower control. Periodic measurements of the position error relative to a nominal trajectory provide warning against the hazards of overspeed and unexpected stop. A co...

  6. Can resistance training impact MRI outcomes in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Tue; Siemonsen, Susanne; Wenzel, Damian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterised by accelerated brain atrophy, which relates to disease progression. Previous research shows that progressive resistance training (PRT) can counteract brain atrophy in other populations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of PRT by magnetic...... lifestyle followed by PRT). Assessments included disability measures and MRI (lesion load, global brain volume, percentage brain volume change (PBVC) and cortical thickness). RESULTS: While the MS Functional Composite score improved, Expanded Disability Status Scale, lesion load and global brain volumes did...... not differ between groups. PBVC tended to differ between groups and higher absolute cortical thickness values were observed in 19 of 74 investigated cortical regions after PRT. Observed changes were confirmed and reproduced when comparing relative cortical thickness changes between groups for four areas...

  7. 78 FR 45954 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... the Conservation of Threatened Parrots, Inc., Palm City, FL; PRT-01604B The applicant requests a permit to export five male and four female captive-born St. Vincent Parrots (Amazona guildingii) for the...

  8. 77 FR 14035 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    .... Applicant: Association for the Conservation of Threatened Parrots, ] Inc. (ACTP) Loxahatchee, FL; PRT-62567A The applicant requests a permit to export 15 live, captive-born St. Vincent parrots (Amazona...

  9. 77 FR 19311 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... by the applicant over a 5-year period. Applicant: Hacienda Yturria LLC, Brownsville, TX; PRT-69566A... to be conducted by the applicant over a 5-year period. Applicant: Hacienda Yturria LLC, Brownsville...

  10. Pivotal response treatment for autism spectrum disorder: current perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lei J; Ventola P

    2017-01-01

    ...: Pivotal response treatment (PRT) is an evidence-based behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis principles aimed to improve social communication skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD...

  11. 77 FR 44264 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ...). Applicant: Mitchell Strickling, Midland, TX; PRT-80316A The applicant requests a permit to import a sport... survival of the species. B. Endangered Marine Mammals and Marine Mammals Applicant: Darlene Ketten, Ph.D...

  12. Annual report on sea otter research in Prince William Sound, Alaska, for 1985.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the second annual report for sea otter research activities conducted in Prince William Sound, Alaska, under permit PRT 2-678319 (Appendix A). It is intended...

  13. 75 FR 82409 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ..., reproductive physiology, genetics, nutrition, and animal health and is a continuation of activities currently.... Applicant: Reggie Pratt, Minot, ME; PRT-30840A. The applicant requests a permit to import a sport-hunted...

  14. 77 FR 15383 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    .... The proposed research will cover all aspects of behavior, reproductive physiology, genetics, nutrition...Nicol, Chandler, AR; PRT-66555A The applicant requests a permit to import a sport-hunted trophy of one...

  15. 75 FR 19656 - Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... Genetics Lab, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL; PRT-06638A The applicant requests a permit to...-year period. The following applicants each request a permit to import the sport- hunted trophy of one...

  16. 76 FR 48880 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... a 5-year period. Applicant: University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology, Ann Arbor, MI; PRT-46480A The... decisions are: (1) Those supported by quantitative information or studies; and (2) Those that include...

  17. 75 FR 22162 - Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... Species Applicant: Los Angeles Zoo & Botanical Garden, Los Angeles, CA; PRT- 06373A The applicant requests... Museum de Besancon, Besancon, France for the purpose of enhancement of the survival or the species in...

  18. Forging Provincial Reconstruction Teams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Honore, Russel L; Boslego, David V

    2007-01-01

    The Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) training mission completed by First U.S. Army in April 2006 was a joint Service effort to meet a requirement from the combatant commander to support goals in Afghanistan...

  19. Construction Management Module: Contingency Contracting Synergistic Approach Integrating Joint Capabilities for USSOCOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    PRT Provisional Reconstruction Team PVO Private Volunteer Organizations QAE Quality Assurance Evaluator QAP Quality Assurance Personnel QDR...operations. Other names include: contracting officers technical representative (COTR), or quality assurance personnel/evaluator ( QAP /E) (used most often

  20. Feasibility and efficacy of progressive resistance training and dietary supplements in radiotherapy treated head and neck cancer patients - the DAHANCA 25A study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønbro, Simon; Dalgas, Ulrik; Primdahl, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Background. Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) often lose a considerable amount of muscle mass following the disease and treatment. This is an independent mortality predictor, lowering muscle strength and functional performance. Progressive resistance training (PRT......) increases muscle mass among healthy individuals and groups of cancer patients, but it has not been investigated in HNSCC patients. Furthermore, studies in healthy subjects show an additive effect of protein and creatine supplementation following PRT. Objectives. Firstly, to investigate the feasibility of 12...... weeks of PRT ± protein and creatine supplementation among HNSCC patients. Secondly, to investigate group changes over time and group differences regarding lean body mass (LBM), muscle strength and functional performance following PRT ± dietary supplementation. Material and methods. Thirty patients were...

  1. Southern African Journal of Environmental Education - Vol 1 (1984)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die eties-reugieuse inslag en sin van buitelugopvoeding en omgewingstudie: 'n Christelikwetenskapuke verantwoording. EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. PRT Nel, 4-6 ...

  2. Acute and chronic cytokine responses to resistance exercise and training in people with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Tue; Dalgas, Ulrik; Brolin Gade, Anne

    2016-01-01

    responses to resistance exercise training in medicated PwMS. Thirty-five people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with interferon (IFN)-β, were randomized to a 24-week progressive resistance training (PRT) or control group. Plasma interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17F, IL-23, tumor...... necrosis factor-α and IFN-γ were measured before and after 24 weeks of PRT. The acute effect was evaluated following standardized single-bout resistance exercise in the untrained and the trained state. No changes were observed in resting cytokine levels after PRT. However, an indication of reduced IL-17F...... secretion following resistance exercise was observed in the trained compared with the untrained state. This study suggests little acute and chronic effect of PRT on cytokine levels in IFN-treated PwMS....

  3. No exacerbation of knee joint pain and effusion following preoperative progressive resistance training in patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoffer, Birgit; Dalgas, Ulrik; Maribo, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative progressive resistance training (PRT) is controversial in patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty (TKA), because of the concern that it may exacerbate knee joint pain and effusion. OBJECTIVE: To examine if preoperative PRT initiated 5 weeks prior to TKA would 1...... were scheduled for TKA due to osteoarthritis and assigned for the intervention group. METHODS: Patients underwent unilateral PRT (3 sessions/week). Exercise loading was 12 repetition maximum (RM) with progression towards 8RM. The training program consisted of 6 exercises performed unilaterally. MAIN...... the training period was found (p=.21). Training load generally increased and maximal muscle strength improved; unilateral leg press: 18%±30 (p=.03), knee extension: 81%±156 (pPRT of the affected leg initiated shortly before TKA does not exacerbate knee...

  4. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-30

    from 12 secondary schools on best practices for managing teenage aggression and stress, psychologically troubled adolescents, and juvenile delinquents...early diagnosis of diabetes in children, diagnosis of growth hormone abnormalities, and monitoring and assisting with infertility.489 Agriculture. PRT

  5. Effects of proprioceptive exercises on pain and function in chronic neck- and low back pain rehabilitation: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    McCaskey, Michael A.; Schuster-Amft, Corinna; Wirth, Brigitte; Suica, Zorica; de Bruin, Eling D

    2014-01-01

    Background Proprioceptive training (PrT) is popularly applied as preventive or rehabilitative exercise method in various sports and rehabilitation settings. Its effect on pain and function is only poorly evaluated. The aim of this systematic review was to summarise and analyse the existing data on the effects of PrT on pain alleviation and functional restoration in patients with chronic (≥3 months) neck- or back pain. Methods Relevant electronic databases were searched from their respective i...

  6. A Parent-Mediated Naturalistic Behavioural Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of Pivotal Response Training (PRT) as an evidence-based intervention for children with ASD. However, very few researchers have conducted studies on parent’s use of these strategies, specifically in naturally occurring contexts (i.e., home setting). This study was a preliminary attempt to teach parents how to implement the six motivational procedures of PRT during everyday routines. A concurrent multiple baseline design across nine p...

  7. Development of an Elliptical Trainer Physical Fitness Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-02

    trainer for PRT testing and to provide standards for its use that were equivalent to current run test standards. Methods Study 1: A single test...Predicting Run Times CT 9500 HR performance must be equated with running performance to set fair PRT standards for this new testing method. Run test performance...HR performance to run test performance will maximize the consistency of test standards for the general U.S. Navy population. The fact that running

  8. [Diagnostic-therapeutic approach for retroperitoneal tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariati, A

    1993-12-01

    After a careful review of the Literature, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for Primary Retroperitoneal Tumours (PRT) are reported. The Author analyzes the experience of the Institute of Clinica Chirurgica "R" (Chief: Prof. E. Tosatti) as well as that of Anatomia Chirurgica (Chief: Prof. E. Cariati),--University of Genoa--in the management of PRT, stressing the importance of preoperative staging for a correct surgical approach.

  9. 8p23 beta-defensin copy number determination by single-locus pseudogene-based paralog ratio tests risk bias due to low-frequency sequence variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianghong; Müller, Sebastian; Möller, Michael; Huse, Klaus; Taudien, Stefan; Book, Malte; Stuber, Frank; Platzer, Matthias; Groth, Marco

    2014-01-24

    The copy number variation (CNV) in beta-defensin genes (DEFB) on human chromosome 8p23 has been proposed to contribute to the phenotypic differences in inflammatory diseases. However, determination of exact DEFB CN is a major challenge in association studies. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), paralog ratio tests (PRT) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) have been extensively used to determine DEFB CN in different laboratories, but inter-method inconsistencies were observed frequently. In this study we asked which one is superior among the three methods for DEFB CN determination. We developed a clustering approach for MLPA and PRT to statistically correlate data from a single experiment. Then we compared qPCR, a newly designed PRT and MLPA for DEFB CN determination in 285 DNA samples. We found MLPA had the best convergence and clustering results of the raw data and the highest call rate. In addition, the concordance rates between MLPA or PRT and qPCR (32.12% and 37.99%, respectively) were unacceptably low with underestimated CN by qPCR. Concordance rate between MLPA and PRT (90.52%) was high but PRT systematically underestimated CN by one in a subset of samples. In these samples a sequence variant which caused complete PCR dropout of the respective DEFB cluster copies was found in one primer binding site of one of the targeted paralogous pseudogenes. MLPA is superior to PRT and even more to qPCR for DEFB CN determination. Although the applied PRT provides in most cases reliable results, such a test is particularly sensitive to low-frequency sequence variations preferably accumulating in loci like pseudogenes which are most likely not under selective pressure. In the light of the superior performance of multiplex assays, the drawbacks of such single PRTs could be overcome by combining more test markers.

  10. Pivotal Response Treatment for Infants At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Amanda Mossman; Gengoux, Grace W.; Klin, Ami; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Presently there is limited research to suggest efficacious interventions for infants at-risk for autism. Pivotal response treatment (PRT) has empirical support for use with preschool children with autism, but there are no reports in the literature utilizing this approach with infants. In the current study, a developmental adaptation of PRT was piloted via a brief parent training model with three infants at-risk for autism. Utilizing a multiple baseline design, the data suggest that the introd...

  11. Forms of social relationships in distinct cultural settings

    OpenAIRE

    Favre, Maroussia; Sornette, Didier

    2016-01-01

    We contribute to the understanding of social relationships within cultural contexts by proposing a connection between a social theory, relational models theory (RMT: Fiske 1991, 1992) and a social and political one, cultural or plural rationality theory (PRT: Douglas, 1982, Thompson et al., 1990). Drawing examples from the literature of both theories, we argue that each relational model of RMT may be implemented in ways compatible with each cultural bias of PRT. A cultural bias restrains the ...

  12. Relationship between the Placental Retention Time and the Reproductive Performance at the Foal Heat in Thoroughbred and a Comparison with Heavy Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Mitsuo; Aoki, Takahiro; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Magata, Fumie; Gojo, Chikara; Ito, Katsumi; Kayano, Mitsunori; Nambo, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the placental retention time (PRT) and the reproductive performance following mating at the foal heat in Thoroughbreds. For this purpose, we interviewed 292 farmers over a period of 3 years with questionnaires evaluating foaling, expulsion of placenta and reproductive performance at the foal heat in 1,432 mares. The obtained data were later compared with a previous study of heavy draft mares. The average of the PRT of the 1,432 Thoroughbred mares was 58 ± 88 min (mean ± SD). The mean PRT of Thoroughbreds was significantly shorter than that of the148 min of heavy draft mares. The incidences of retained placenta (RP) occurring in the Thoroughbred mares were 5.2 and 4.0%, for over 3 and 4 hr after foaling, respectively. The incidence of RP over 4 hr was significantly lower than that of 25% in heavy draft mares. The pregnancy rate at foal heat of the mares in which PRT was less than 3 hr was 37%, and it significantly decreased to 11% for those with PRT of more than 3 hr. In the comparison of the reproductive performance between Thoroughbred and heavy draft mares, the pregnancy rate of Thoroughbreds dropped drastically to 10% when PRT exceeded 40, and in consequence, the pregnancy rate of Thoroughbreds was significantly lower than the 30% of heavy draft mares, which had a PRT of over 4 hr. In conclusion, the Thoroughbred mares had a low incidence of RP, however, a PRT exceeding 3 hr severely affected the reproductive performance at the foal heat.

  13. Muscle fiber size increases following resistance training in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Stenager, E; Jakobsen, Johannes Klitgaard

    2010-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that lower body progressive resistance training (PRT) leads to an increase of the muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and a shift in the proportion of fiber types in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).......To test the hypothesis that lower body progressive resistance training (PRT) leads to an increase of the muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and a shift in the proportion of fiber types in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS)....

  14. A randomized clinical trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy vs. Progressive Relaxation Training for obsessive compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.; Hayes, Steven C.; Plumb, Jennifer C.; Pruitt, Larry D.; Collins, Angela B.; Hazlett-Stevens, Holly; Woidneck, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Effective treatments for adult OCD exist, but refusal and drop-out rates are high and treatments are not effective for all individuals who complete them. Thus, additional treatment options are needed. This study investigated the effectiveness of eight sessions of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for adult obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to Progressive Relaxation Training (PRT). Method 79 adults (66% Female) diagnosed with OCD (M age=37, 89% Caucasian) participated in a randomized clinical trial of 8 sessions of ACT or PRT with no in-session exposure. The following assessments were completed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and three month follow-up by an assessor who was unaware of treatment conditions: Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Beck Depression Inventory-II, Quality of Life Scale, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire, Thought Action Fusion Scale, and Thought Control Questionnaire. The Treatment Evaluation Inventory-Short Form was completed at posttreatment. Results ACT produced greater changes at posttreatment and follow-up over PRT on OCD severity (Y-BOCS: ACT pre=24.22, post=12.76, follow-up=11.79; PRT pre=25.4, post=18.67, follow-up=16.23), and produced greater change on depression among those reporting at least mild depression before treatment. Clinically significant change in OCD severity occurred more in the ACT condition than PRT using multiple criteria (clinical response rates: ACT post=46-56%, follow-up 46-66%; PRT post=13%-18%, follow-up 16-18%). Quality of life improved in both conditions but was marginally in favor of ACT at post. Finally, treatment refusal (2.4% ACT, 7.8% PRT) and drop-out (9.8% ACT, 13.2% PRT) were low in both conditions. Conclusions ACT is worth exploring further as a treatment for OCD. PMID:20873905

  15. Pathogen reduction treatment of buffy coat platelet concentrates in additive solution induces proapoptotic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Samantha; Johnson, Lacey; Woodland, Narelle; Marks, Denese C

    2012-10-01

    Pathogen reduction technology (PRT) can potentially reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections. However, PRT treatment of platelet (PLT) concentrates also results in reduced PLT quality and increased markers of apoptosis during storage. The aim of this study was to investigate changes to the expression and activation of proteins involved in apoptosis signaling. Samples from riboflavin and ultraviolet light PRT-treated and untreated (control) buffy coat-derived PCs in 70% SSP+ and 30% plasma were taken on Days 1, 5, and 7 of storage. Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, cytochrome c release, and cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-3 substrates were analyzed using flow cytometry and Western blotting. Compared to untreated controls, markers of apoptosis signaling were increased after PRT and subsequent storage. PS exposure on the PLT outer membrane was significantly higher after PRT on Days 5 and 7 of storage (p controls. This study demonstrated an increase in proapoptotic signaling during PLT storage, which was exacerbated by PRT. Many of these differences emerged outside the current 5-day storage period. These changes may not currently influence PLT transfusion quality, but will need to be carefully evaluated when considering extending PLT storage beyond 5 days. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  16. Peer review of teaching in UK dental schools. Is it happening? How successful is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, I M; Lynch, C D

    2016-06-24

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the utilisation of peer review of teaching (PRT) within UK dental schools.Method A structured questionnaire was emailed to all sixteen UK dental schools seeking information on existing PRT schemes, level of staff engagement, and the success of schemes in relation to extent of operation and perceived benefit.Results A 100% response rate was achieved. Fourteen schools (88%) operate PRT schemes. For most, the expected frequency of staff engagement is annually, although there was a wide range between schools (minimum = once every five years, maximum = three times per year). Nine schools (64%) consider their schemes to be fully operational. Twelve schools (86%) feel their staff are either mostly or fully engaged. Reasons for sub-optimal operation and/or engagement include: newly introduced schemes, problems with compliance for off-campus staff, and loss of momentum. Thirteen schools (93%) consider that PRT benefits their teaching staff. Ten schools (71%) stated that changes are required to their schemes.Conclusion PRT is operating within the majority of U.K dental schools but the format and success of schemes varies. Schemes will benefit from ongoing development but changes should take into account evidence from the literature, particularly recognised models of PRT.

  17. Determination of beta-defensin genomic copy number in different populations: a comparison of three methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peder Fode

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There have been conflicting reports in the literature on association of gene copy number with disease, including CCL3L1 and HIV susceptibility, and β-defensins and Crohn's disease. Quantification of precise gene copy numbers is important in order to define any association of gene copy number with disease. At present, real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR is the most commonly used method to determine gene copy number, however the Paralogue Ratio Test (PRT is being used in more and more laboratories.In this study we compare a Pyrosequencing-based Paralogue Ratio Test (PPRT for determining beta-defensin gene copy number with two currently used methods for gene copy number determination, QPCR and triplex PRT by typing five different cohorts (UK, Danish, Portuguese, Ghanaian and Czech of DNA from a total of 576 healthy individuals. We found a systematic measurement bias between DNA cohorts revealed by QPCR, but not by the PRT-based methods. Using PRT, copy number ranged from 2 to 9 copies, with a modal copy number of 4 in all populations.QPCR is very sensitive to quality of the template DNA, generating systematic biases that could produce false-positive or negative disease associations. Both triplex PRT and PPRT do not show this systematic bias, and type copy number within the correct range, although triplex PRT appears to be a more precise and accurate method to type beta-defensin copy number.

  18. Therapeutically relevant structural and functional mechanisms triggered by physical and cognitive exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, C; Singh, M F; Gates, N; Wen, W; Sachdev, P; Brodaty, H; Saigal, N; Wilson, G C; Meiklejohn, J; Singh, N; Baune, B T; Baker, M; Foroughi, N; Wang, Y; Mavros, Y; Lampit, A; Leung, I; Valenzuela, M J

    2016-01-01

    Physical and cognitive exercise may prevent or delay dementia in later life but the neural mechanisms underlying these therapeutic benefits are largely unknown. We examined structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain changes after 6 months of progressive resistance training (PRT), computerized cognitive training (CCT) or combined intervention. A total of 100 older individuals (68 females, average age=70.1, s.d.±6.7, 55–87 years) with dementia prodrome mild cognitive impairment were recruited in the SMART (Study of Mental Activity and Resistance Training) Trial. Participants were randomly assigned into four intervention groups: PRT+CCT, PRT+SHAM CCT, CCT+SHAM PRT and double SHAM. Multimodal MRI was conducted at baseline and at 6 months of follow-up (immediately after training) to measure structural and spontaneous functional changes in the brain, with a focus on the hippocampus and posterior cingulate regions. Participants' cognitive changes were also assessed before and after training. We found that PRT but not CCT significantly improved global cognition (F(90)=4.1, Pbrain areas. In contrast, CCT but not PRT attenuated decline in overall memory performance (F(90)=5.7, Pphysical and cognitive training depend on discrete neuronal mechanisms for their therapeutic efficacy, information that may help develop targeted lifestyle-based preventative strategies. PMID:27001615

  19. The feasibility of progressive resistance training in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizza, Lisa; Smith, Caroline A; Swaraj, Soji; Agho, Kingsley; Cheema, Birinder S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of executing a randomized controlled trial of progressive resistance training (PRT) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women with PCOS were randomized to an experimental (PRT) group or a no-exercise (usual care) control group. The PRT group was prescribed two supervised and two unsupervised (home-based) training sessions per week for 12 weeks. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment and attrition, adherence, adverse events, and completion of assessments. Secondary outcomes, collected pre and post intervention, included a range of pertinent physiological, functional and psychological measures. Fifteen participants were randomised into the PRT group (n = 8) or control group (n = 7); five women (n = 2 in PRT group and n = 3 in control group) withdrew from the study. The most successful recruitment sources were Facebook (40 %) and online advertisement (27 %), while least successful methods were referrals by clinicians, colleagues and flyers. In the PRT group, attendance to supervised sessions was higher (95 %; standard deviation ±6 %) compared to unsupervised sessions (51 %; standard deviation ±28 %). No adverse events were attributed to PRT. Change in menstrual cycle status was not significantly different between groups over time (p = 0.503). However, the PRT group significantly increased body weight (p = 0.01), BMI (p = 0.04), lean mass (p = 0.01), fat-free mass (p = 0.005) and lower body strength (p = 0.03), while reducing waist circumference (p = 0.03) and HbA1c (p = 0.033) versus the control group. The PRT group also significantly improved across several domains of disease-specific and general health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety and exercise self-efficacy. A randomized controlled trial of PRT in PCOS would be feasible, and this mode of exercise may elicit a therapeutic effect on clinically important outcomes in this cohort. The success of a large

  20. Introduction to the 2012-2013 Tolbachik eruption special issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Benjamin R.; Belousov, Alexander; Belousova, Marina; Volynets, Anna

    2015-12-01

    The Tolbachik volcanic complex in central Kamchatka holds a special place in global volcanological studies. It is one of 4 areas of extensive historic volcanic activity in the northern part of the Central Kamchatka Depression (the others being Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, Shiveluch), and is part of the Klyuchevskoy volcanic group, which is one of the most active areas of volcanism on Earth. Tolbachik is especially well-known due largely to the massive 1975-1976 eruption that became known as the Great Tolbachik Fissure eruption (GTFE; Fedotov, 1983; Fedotov et al., 1984). This was one of the first eruptions in Russia to be predicted based on precursory seismic activity, based on M5 earthquakes approximately one week before the eruption started, and was intensively studied during its course by a large number of Russian scientists. A summary of those studies was published, first in Russian and then in English, and it became widely read for many reasons. One in particular is that the eruption was somewhat unusual for a subduction zone setting; although many subduction zone stratovolcanoes have associated basaltic tephra cone-lava fields, this was the first such Hawaiian-style eruption to be widely observed. After the end of the eruption in 1976, the complex showed no signs of activity until 27 November 2012, when increased seismic activity was registered by the Kamchatka Branch of the Russian Geophysical Survey and a red glow from the eruption site was first noticed through the snowstorm haze. This prompted them, and then the Kamchatka Volcanic Emergency Response Team (KVERT) to issue an alert that activity was coming from the south flank of Plosky Tolbachik volcano, the younger of two volcanic edifices (the older is Ostry Tolbachik) that together make up the bulk of the complex along with tephra cone-lava fields that lie along a NE-SW fissure zone that transects Plosky Tolbachik. The new eruption lasted for more than 250 days and, like the 1975-1976 eruption, was

  1. Modeling and evaluation of characteristics for on-street Rapid Transit systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2012-01-01

    to obtain the main objective of introducing a Rapid Transit System. to increase the number of passengers. Variations in the system characteristics have a direct impact on ridership. However, it is difficult to predict the impact of implementing or altering the characteristics. A Rapid Transit system should...... display sufficient service already in the planning phase. That is why pre-acquired knowledge of the impact of the characteristics on the system performance is valuable. Such knowledge could provide a firm basis for planning the service and operation of a Rapid Transit system. This article focuses....... It focuses on the following characteristics for Rapid Transit systems: rail factor, travel time, headway and capacity. It evaluates how the implementation and variation of these characteristics affected the ridership of a case project. It evaluates the magnitude of the impacts for the various characteristics...

  2. Cost and benefits of urban public transit in Texas. Interim report, July 1987-January 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomax, T.J.; Memmott, J.L.

    1989-11-01

    The study affirms that urban public transit systems in Texas provide an alternative to the private automobile in 18 urban areas and generate significant benefits to the users, communities served and the Texas economy. The purpose of the study was to examine the role of urban public transit systems in Texas and associated cost and benefits of transit operations. The report summarizes and documents data collected from federal, state, and local planning and transit agencies--transit operations, ridership characteristics, transit and automobile trip patterns, and impact of transit on urban congestion levels--and describes transit's role in each system along with resulting costs and benefits. The appendices in the report provide transit system operating statistics, roadway and transit travel, and HPMS output for calculating motorist benefits of transit. The data in the report can be used by transit agencies in Texas to compare operations, service, ridership characteristics, mode share and impact of transit on roadway operation.

  3. Riboflavin and ultraviolet light for pathogen reduction of murine cytomegalovirus in blood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Shawn D; Saakadze, Natia; Bowen, Richard; Newman, James L; Karatela, Sulaiman; Gordy, Paul; Marschner, Susanne; Roback, John; Hillyer, Christopher D

    2015-04-01

    Two studies were performed to test the effectiveness of riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light treatment (Mirasol PRT, Terumo BCT) against murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). The first study utilized immune-compromised mice to measure the reduction of cell-free MCMV. A second study used a murine model to evaluate the ability of Mirasol PRT to prevent transfusion-transmitted (TT)-MCMV infection. Human plasma was inoculated with MCMV and then treated with Mirasol PRT. The viral titer was measured using an infectious dose 50% assay in nude mice. Mice were euthanized on Day 10 posttransfusion, and their spleens were tested for the presence of MCMV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mirasol PRT was also evaluated to determine its effectiveness in preventing TT-MCMV in platelets (PLTs) stored in PLT additive solution. PLTs were inoculated with either cell-associated MCMV or cell-free MCMV and then treated with Mirasol PRT. Mice were transfused with treated or untreated product and were euthanized 14 days posttransfusion. Blood and spleens were assayed for MCMV DNA by real-time-PCR. Using nude mice to titer MCMV, a modest 2.1-log reduction was observed in plasma products after Mirasol PRT treatment. TT-MCMV was not observed in the mouse transfusion model when either cell-free or cell-associated MCMV was treated with Mirasol PRT; MCMV transmission was uniformly observed in mice transfused with untreated PLTs. These results suggest that using riboflavin and UV light treatment may be able to reduce the occurrence of transmission of human CMV from infectious PLTs and plasma units. © 2014 AABB.

  4. Qualifications of Bonding Process of Temperature Sensors to Deep-Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Kitiyakara, Amarit; Redick, Richard W., III; Sunada, Eric T.

    2011-01-01

    A process has been examined for bonding a platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) onto potential aerospace materials such as flat aluminum surfaces and a flexible copper tube to simulate coaxial cables for flight applications. Primarily, PRTs were inserted into a silver-plated copper braid to avoid stresses on the sensor while the sensor was attached with the braid to the base material for long-duration, deep-space missions. A1-1145/graphite composite (planar substrate) and copper tube have been used in this study to assess the reliability of PRT bonding materials. A flexible copper tube was chosen to simulate the coaxial cable to attach PRTs. The substrate materials were cleaned with acetone wipes to remove oils and contaminants. Later, the surface was also cleaned with ethyl alcohol and was air-dried. The materials were gently abraded and then were cleaned again the same way as previously mentioned. Initially, shielded (silver plated copper braid) PRT (type X) test articles were fabricated and cleaned. The base antenna material was pretreated and shielded, and CV-2566 NuSil silicone was used to attach the shielded PRT to the base material. The test articles were cured at room temperature and humidity for seven days. The resistance of the PRTs was continuously monitored during the thermal cycling, and the test articles were inspected prior to, at various intermediate steps during, and at the end of the thermal cycling as well. All of the PRTs survived three times the expected mission life for the JUNO project. No adhesion problems were observed in the PRT sensor area, or under the shielded PRT. Furthermore, the PRT resistance accurately tracked the thermal cycling of the chamber.

  5. A randomized controlled trial of Pivotal Response Treatment Group for parents of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardan, Antonio Y; Gengoux, Grace W; Berquist, Kari L; Libove, Robin A; Ardel, Christina M; Phillips, Jennifer; Frazier, Thomas W; Minjarez, Mendy B

    2015-08-01

    With rates of autism diagnosis continuing to rise, there is an urgent need for effective and efficient service delivery models. Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) is considered an established treatment for autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, there have been few well-controlled studies with adequate sample size. The aim of this study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial to evaluate PRT parent training group (PRTG) for targeting language deficits in young children with ASD. Fifty-three children with autism and significant language delay between 2 and 6 years old were randomized to PRTG (N = 27) or psychoeducation group (PEG; N = 26) for 12 weeks. The PRTG taught parents behavioral techniques to facilitate language development. The PEG taught general information about ASD (clinical trial NCT01881750; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). Analysis of child utterances during the structured laboratory observation (primary outcome) indicated that, compared with children in the PEG, children in the PRTG demonstrated greater improvement in frequency of utterances (F(2, 43) = 3.53, p = .038, d = 0.42). Results indicated that parents were able to learn PRT in a group format, as the majority of parents in the PRTG (84%) met fidelity of implementation criteria after 12 weeks. Children also demonstrated greater improvement in adaptive communication skills (Vineland-II) following PRTG and baseline Mullen visual reception scores predicted treatment response to PRTG. This is the first randomized controlled trial of group-delivered PRT and one of the largest experimental investigations of the PRT model to date. The findings suggest that specific instruction in PRT results in greater skill acquisition for both parents and children, especially in functional and adaptive communication skills. Further research in PRT is warranted to replicate the observed results and address other core ASD symptoms. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  6. Proton Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouw, Kent W. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sethi, Roshan V.; Yeap, Beow Y.; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Chen, Yen-Lin E.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.; Munzenrider, John E.; Adams, Judith [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Grabowski, Eric [Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mukai, Shizuo [Retina Service, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate long-term disease and toxicity outcomes for pediatric retinoblastoma patients treated with proton radiation therapy (PRT). Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective analysis of 49 retinoblastoma patients (60 eyes) treated with PRT between 1986 and 2012. Results: The majority (84%) of patients had bilateral disease, and nearly half (45%) had received prior chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 8 years (range, 1-24 years), no patients died of retinoblastoma or developed metastatic disease. The post-PRT enucleation rate was low (18%), especially in patients with early-stage disease (11% for patients with International Classification for Intraocular Retinoblastoma [ICIR] stage A-B disease vs 23% for patients with ICIR stage C-D disease). Post-PRT ophthalmologic follow-up was available for 61% of the preserved eyes (30 of 49): 14 of 30 eyes (47%) had 20/40 visual acuity or better, 7 of 30 (23%) had moderate visual acuity (20/40-20/600), and 9 of 30 (30%) had little or no useful vision (worse than 20/600). Twelve of 60 treated eyes (20%) experienced a post-PRT event requiring intervention, with cataracts the most common (4 eyes). No patients developed an in-field second malignancy. Conclusions: Long-term follow-up of retinoblastoma patients treated with PRT demonstrates that PRT can achieve high local control rates, even in advanced cases, and many patients retain useful vision in the treated eye. Treatment-related ocular side effects were uncommon, and no radiation-associated malignancies were observed.

  7. Results of the 2008-09 Campus Travel Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lovejoy, Kristin; Handy, Susan L.; Contreras, Cliff

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from the 2008-09 UC Davis Campus Travel Survey, administered annually each fall to a stratified random sample of the UC Davis community. It includes estimates of the overall campus mode split, average vehicle occupancy, numbers of vehicles arriving on campus, distances traveled, transit ridership by provider, and carbon emissions associated with campus travel. Additional results include statistics on accidents, bike theft, bikes left on campus overnight, bike t...

  8. Reviewing Efficiency and Effectiveness of Interurban Public Transport Services: A Practical Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Pensa, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and the analysis tool developed for a study, carried out in 2012, aimed at the reorganisation of the interurban public transport services of the Piedmont region of Italy. Reorganization was necessary as a result of the reduction in funds allocated to public transport. We needed to work on a large dataset spanning different types of data, such as service provision, ridership, economic data, and geographical information. The size of the task warranted the ef...

  9. Transportation Contingency Plans for Future Gas Shortages will not Meet Commuter Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    documents, the contingency plans and supporting documentation, and statistical reports on transit ridership and rideshare /carpool applications . le...personnel and equipment, such as school buses or retired transit buses that have been held in reserve, (3) increase ridesharing by promotional activities and...actions such as alternative work hour programs and rideshar - ing programs (see pp. 22 to 25), (2) problems with acquiring, maintaining, and activating

  10. Effects of proprioceptive exercises on pain and function in chronic neck- and low back pain rehabilitation: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaskey, Michael A; Schuster-Amft, Corina; Wirth, Brigitte; Suica, Zorica; de Bruin, Eling D

    2014-11-19

    Proprioceptive training (PrT) is popularly applied as preventive or rehabilitative exercise method in various sports and rehabilitation settings. Its effect on pain and function is only poorly evaluated. The aim of this systematic review was to summarise and analyse the existing data on the effects of PrT on pain alleviation and functional restoration in patients with chronic (≥ 3 months) neck- or back pain. Relevant electronic databases were searched from their respective inception to February 2014. Randomised controlled trials comparing PrT with conventional therapies or inactive controls in patients with neck- or low back pain were included. Two review authors independently screened articles and assessed risk of bias (RoB). Data extraction was performed by the first author and crosschecked by a second author. Quality of findings was assessed and rated according to GRADE guidelines. Pain and functional status outcomes were extracted and synthesised qualitatively and quantitatively. In total, 18 studies involving 1380 subjects described interventions related to PrT (years 1994-2013). 6 studies focussed on neck-, 12 on low back pain. Three main directions of PrT were identified: Discriminatory perceptive exercises with somatosensory stimuli to the back (pPrT, n=2), multimodal exercises on labile surfaces (mPrT, n=13), or joint repositioning exercise with head-eye coordination (rPrT, n=3). Comparators entailed usual care, home based training, educational therapy, strengthening, stretching and endurance training, or inactive controls. Quality of studies was low and RoB was deemed moderate to high with a high prevalence of unclear sequence generation and group allocation (>60%). Low quality evidence suggests PrT may be more effective than not intervening at all. Low quality evidence suggests that PrT is no more effective than conventional physiotherapy. Low quality evidence suggests PrT is inferior to educational and behavioural approaches. There are few relevant

  11. Effects of progressive resistance training on body composition, physical fitness and quality of life of patients on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Woo Jung; Sohng, Kyeong Yae

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the effect of progressive resistance training (PRT) on body composition, physical fitness, quality of life, lipid and nutritional profile of patients on hemodialysis (HD). A non equivalent comparison group pretest and posttest design study was used with 40 participants who were randomly assigned to the exercise group (20 participants) and the comparison group (20 participants). The exercise group received PRT for 30 minutes per session, 3 sessions a week, for 12 weeks, while the comparison group received usual care. The PRT consisted of upper and lower body exercises using elastic bands and sandbags. Outcome measures evaluated were: body composition, physical fitness, quality of life, and lipid profile. Skeletal muscle mass, grip, leg muscle strength, and quality of life all improved significantly in the exercise group. Body fat rate, total cholesterol and triglyceride rate decreased significantly in the exercise group. These results suggest that PRT improves body composition, physical fitness, quality of life, and lipid profile of patients on HD. PRT using elastic bands and sandbags can be utilized as part of a regular care plan for these patients.

  12. Health status of older adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus after aerobic or resistance training: A randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Su-Yen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prior study showed positive effects of resistance training on health status in individuals with diabetes compared to aerobic or no exercise, the exercise regimens were either different in volume, duration or rate of progression. We aimed to compare the effects of progressive resistance training (PRT or aerobic training (AT of similar volume over an 8-week period on health status (measured using the Short-form 36 Questionnaire in middle aged adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Findings Sixty subjects aged 58 (7 years were randomised to PRT (n = 30 or AT (n = 30. General health and vitality were significantly improved in both groups (mean (SD change scores for PRT were 12.2(11.5 and 10.5(18.2, and for AT, 13.3(19.6 and 10.0(13.1, respectively and exceeded the minimally important difference of 5 points. The PRT group also had improved physical function and mental health status (mean (SD change scores: 9.0(22.6, p Conclusions Both exercise regimens have positive impact on health status that correlated well with clinical improvement in patients with T2DM. PRT may have some additional benefits as there were significant changes in more domains of the SF-36 than that observed for the AT group. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01000519

  13. Qualification of Bonding Process of Temperature Sensors to Extreme Temperature Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Kitiyakara, Amarit; Redick, Richard; Sunada, Eric T.

    2011-01-01

    A process has been explored based on the state-of-the-art technology to bond the platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) on to potential aerospace material such as a flat aluminum surface and a flexible copper tube to simulate coaxial cable for the flight applications. Primarily, PRTs were inserted into a metal plated copper braid to avoid stresses on the sensor while attaching the sensor with braid to the base material for long duration deep space missions. Appropriate pretreatment has been implemented in this study to enhance the adhesion of the PRTs to the base material. NuSil product has been chosen in this research to attach PRT to the base materials. The resistance (approx.1.1 k(Omega)) of PRTs has been electrically monitored continuously during the qualification thermal cycling testing from -150 C to +120 C and -100 C to -35 C. The test hardware has been thermal cycled three times the mission life per JPL design principles for JUNO project. No PRT failures were observed during and after the PRT thermal cycling qualification test for extreme temperature environments. However, there were some failures associated with staking of the PRT pig tails as a result of thermal cycling qualification test.

  14. A putative vesicular transporter expressed in Drosophila mushroom bodies that mediates sexual behavior may define a neurotransmitter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Elizabeth S; Greer, Christina L; Romero-Calderón, Rafael; Serway, Christine N; Grygoruk, Anna; Haimovitz, Jasmine M; Nguyen, Bac T; Najibi, Rod; Tabone, Christopher J; de Belle, J Steven; Krantz, David E

    2011-10-20

    Vesicular transporters are required for the storage of all classical and amino acid neurotransmitters in synaptic vesicles. Some neurons lack known vesicular transporters, suggesting additional neurotransmitter systems remain unidentified. Insect mushroom bodies (MBs) are critical for several behaviors, including learning, but the neurotransmitters released by the intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) remain unknown. Likewise, KCs do not express a known vesicular transporter. We report the identification of a novel Drosophila gene portabella (prt) that is structurally similar to known vesicular transporters. Both larval and adult brains express PRT in the KCs of the MBs. Additional PRT cells project to the central complex and optic ganglia. prt mutation causes an olfactory learning deficit and an unusual defect in the male's position during copulation that is rescued by expression in KCs. Because prt is expressed in neurons that lack other known vesicular transporters or neurotransmitters, it may define a previously unknown neurotransmitter system responsible for sexual behavior and a component of olfactory learning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The message and the experience of the site project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, E. V.; Karnik, K. S.

    The Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) was a unique effort aimed at studying the possibilities of satellite broadcasting for education and national development. This one-year joint India-USA project was carried out in 1975-1976 using the ATS-6 spacecraft. This paper briefly describes the experiment and its major findings. It goes on to distill the learning experiences derived from SITE and analyses the extent to which these have influenced the design and configuration of India's domestic satellite system, INSAT. INSAT-1B, which will serve as a replacement for the short-lived INSAT-1A, will be launched shortly and will be operational by the end of 1983. Its payload includes two S-band TV transponders capable of broadcasting directly to augmented TV sets. The paper examines which lessons of SITE are being applied in the planning and operationalisation of the TV system and discusses why others are not being taken account of. Major issues confronting TV system planners in developing countries like India are highlighted and the possible role of satellite broadcasting discussed in this context. The paper concludes by outlining an "ideal scenario" for a large, multilingual country like India, towards which TV planners could attempt to strive.

  16. Energy and its carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, G. Bruno

    1982-09-01

    Reports on the first course of a new physics curriculum developed at the Karlsruhe Institute for the Didactics of Physics (Falk and Herrmann 1977, 1978, 1979, 1981). The entire curriculum begins at the elementary school level with children aged 10-12 and is intended to extend beyond high school and through university studies (Falk and Ruppel 1975, 1976). Energy is introduced as the primary quantity at the very beginning of the course. It is not 'derived' from other seemingly more fundamental quantities such as mass, displacement, velocity and force. However, the course is not an ad hoc construction simply to explain the concept of energy. The essential features of many natural and technological processes can be understood by considering the flow of energy. This is the basic idea underlying the course, and can be restated more completely in terms of the following rule: 'something is happening whenever energy is flowing and a flow of energy is always accompanied by the flow of at least one other substance-like quantity'. The course strategy is designed to make this simple rule obvious by way of numerous examples taken from everyday life. Selected topics are highlighted and they introduce concepts unique to the authors approach. These concepts are presented in the same chronological order as they appear in the course.

  17. Determination trends and abnormal seasonal wind speed in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassoon, Ahmed F. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, AL- Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Monthly observed wind speed data at four weather stations (Baghdad, Mosul, Basra, Rutba) at 10m above surface were used to explore the temporal variations of the wind speed (1971-2000) in Iraq. There are different methods to analyze wind speed variation data, but the time series are one of the powerful analysis methods to diagnose the seasonal wind speed anomaly. The results show most high abnormal data is found in summer seasons in all the stations of study, where it concentrated at 1975, 1976, 1978,1996-1995, 2000. Rutba station is different where its high deviation about annual average at nearly all the seasons, in this station there are trends in seasonal wind towards decreases in all the seasons, for example in winter it reached to about 0.046m/s.a-1, while in other stations Mosul and Basra there increases in annual seasonal wind speed trends in seasons spring, summer, autumn where its reached higher value at summer in Basra about 0.0482m/s.a-1. The second method to determine abnormal annual seasonal wind speed is through comparison seasonal average wind speed, where the average wind speed at the seasons summer and spring in Baghdad and Basra station have very high averages at nearly all years, this cannot see in Mosul and Rutba, in Rutba the seasonal average is intersected with each other, summer and spring is not have greater seasonal average in this station.

  18. New sights for commercial distribution of Nirodh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    On September 11, 1976, an agreement with the Hindustan Petroleum Corporation was signed for making use of the sales channels of Hindustan Petroleum Corporation for promoting Nirodh sales. This agreement is a definite positive for the Nirodh Marketing Scheme. The agreement will make about 2000 petroleum pumps of the Corporation immediately available in rural and urban parts of the country for the commercial distribution of Nirodh. The petroleum pumps will promote the sales of the commercial Nirodh along with the other services and goods they offer. It is expected that the entire oil industry will be involved in the promotion of commercial Nirodh by the end of the year. Additionally, the oil corporations are currently developing their outlets into multipurpose distribution centers which will be mostly located in rural areas. The Nirodh Marketing Scheme has progressed steadily since its initiation in India in 1968. In the 1st year of the Scheme about 15 million pieces of Nirodh were sold via chemists and apothecaries. The figure reached 80 million pieces in the year 1975-1976. The Marketing Executive believes that if the Scheme is conducted with initiative, imagination, and aggressive marketing techniques, sales could reach 350 million pieces by 1980.

  19. Spectral study of wintertime kinetic energy of the Northern Hemisphere in the troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. N.; Zhao, Z.; Kao, S. K.

    1983-01-01

    Characteristics of the kinetic energy of wind fields at various pressure levels were analyzed, and significant wavenumbers in the wavenumber-frequency domain were identified. The nonlinear interaction terms of the kinetic energy equation were examined, and the distribution of the kinetic energy at the 850 mb, 500 mb, and 200 mb levels was calculated. A 5 deg latitude-longitude square grid was used, with NMC data for the 1975-1976 winter in the 20-60 deg N at 500 mb and 20-85 deg N for the 200 mb and 850 mb levels. The kinetic energy distribution was determined to be geography-dependent, with wavenumbers 6-9 westerly waves in the midfrequency range contributing significantly to kinetic energy maxima over the North Pacific and the east coast of North America. The contribution of the nonlinear interactions of these waves, which correspond to the longitudinal convergence of the kinetic energy flux, was found to be larger than the meridional convergence of the kinetic energy flux, and to occur mainly between 30-50 deg N. The nonlinear interactions were a negative contribution over the North Pacific at the 200 mb level.

  20. Ionospheric electron content within the equatorial F sub 2 layer anomaly belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, R.G. (Indian Inst. of Geomagnetism, Bombay (India)); Klobuchar, J.A. (Air Force Geophysics Lab., Hanscom Air Force Base, MA (United States))

    1990-11-01

    This paper describes some new results on the day-to-day behavior of the location of the equatorial anomaly in the columnar electron content. The measurements were made from a unique network of stations covering dip latitudes from 0{degree}N to 25{degree}N during the period in 1975-1976 near sunspot minimum when the ATS 67 satellite was visible from India. The latitudinal distribution of the total electron content on a particular day was found to depend only on the strength of the electrojet current, as determined by the difference of the horizontal magnetic field at stations on the magnetic equator and another outside the equatorial electrojet, rather than on the horizontal magnetic field measured only at the equatorial station. During magnetically disturbed periods the presence or absence of the anomaly was also found to depend only upon the strength of the electrojet current. The varying electrojet current, that is, the equatorial electric field, is very effective in moving the ionization to the anomaly latitudes of 15{degree}-20{degree}, but the columnar electron content over the magnetic equator remains relatively constant.

  1. Ionospheric electron content within the equatorial F2 layer anomaly belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, R.G.; Klobuchar, J.A.

    1990-11-01

    This Reprint describes some new results on the day-to-day behavior of the equatorial anomaly in the columnar electron content. The measurements were made from a unique network of stations covering dip latitudes from 0 to 25 N during the period in 1975-1976 near sunspot minimum when the ATS 6 satellite was visible from India. The latitudinal distribution of the total electron content on a particular day was found to depend only on the strength of the electrojet current, as determined by the difference of the horizontal magnetic field at stations on the magnetic equator and another outside the equatorial electrojet, rather than on the horizontal magnetic field measured only at the equatorial station. During magnetically disturbed periods the presence or absence of the anomaly was also found to depend only upon the strength of the electrojet current. The varying electrojet current, that is, the equatorial electric field, is very effective in moving the ionization to the anomaly latitudes of 15-20, but the columnar electron content over the magnetic equator remains relatively constant.

  2. Likelihood of early detection of breast cancer in relation to false-positive risk in life-time mammographic screening: population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, J D M; Fracheboud, J; den Heeten, G J; Otto, S J; Holland, R; de Koning, H J; Broeders, M J M; Verbeek, A L M

    2013-10-01

    Women require balanced, high-quality information when making an informed decision on screening benefits and harms before attending biennial mammographic screening. The cumulative risk of a false-positive recall and/or (small) screen-detected or interval cancer over 13 consecutive screening examinations for women aged 50 from the start of screening were estimated using data from the Nijmegen programme, the Netherlands. Women who underwent 13 successive screens in the period 1975-1976 had a 5.3% cumulative chance of a screen-detected cancer, with a 4.2% risk of at least one false-positive recall. The risk of being diagnosed with interval cancer was 3.7%. Two decades later, these estimates were 6.9%, 7.3% and 2.9%, respectively. The chance of detection of a small, favourable invasive breast cancer, anticipating a normal life-expectancy, rose from 2.3% to 3.7%. Extrapolation to digital screening mammography indicates that the proportion of false-positive results will rise to 16%. Dutch women about to participate in the screening programme can be reassured that the chance of false-positive recall in the Netherlands is relatively low. A new screening policy and improved mammography have increased the detection of an early screening carcinoma and lowering the risk of interval carcinoma.

  3. The role of space communication in promoting national development with specific reference to experiments conducted in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, E. V.

    The paper describes the role of space communication in promoting national development with special reference to experiments conducted in India, namely SITE (1975-1976), STEP (1977-1979) and APPLE (1981 onwards). The impact of these experiments in economic, cultural and educational terms are discussed, pointing out social implications involved in using advance space communication technology for instruction and information in the areas of education, national integration and development. The paper covers special requirements which arise when a communication system covers backward and remote rural areas in a developing country. The impact on the population measured by conducting social surveys has been discussed - especially the gains of predominently illiterate new media - participants have been highlighted. Possibilities of improving skills of teachers, the quality of the primary and higher education have been covered. The preparation required both on ground as well as space to derive benefits of space technology are considered. A profile of INSAT which marks the culmination of the experimental phase and the beginning of operational domestic satellite system is sketched.

  4. Differential mood changes in alcoholics as a function of anxiety management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, G S; Parker, J C; Claiborn, C D

    1978-01-01

    A study was designed to compare the effects of three relaxation strategies on mood state profiles in a group of 30 male alcoholics. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) was used for pre- and posttest treatment measures. The results indicated that the three relaxation strategies--progressive relaxation training, (PRT), meditation training (MT), quiet rest (QR)--produced qualitatively different patterns. While both PRT and MT produced measurable decrements in self-reported tension and QR controls showed no change on any of the six subscales, PRT was observed to effect decreased depression as well as a trend toward increased vigor. Meditation training effects were limited to decreased tension and a nonsignificant decrease in fatigue. These results are discussed in terms of refinement of the "relaxation response" notion to a more heterogeneous, technique-centered definition.

  5. Reduced Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors after Pivotal Response Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventola, Pamela E.; Yang, Daniel; Abdullahi, Sebiha M.; Paisley, Courtney A.; Braconnier, Megan L.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.

    2016-01-01

    Children with ASD show high frequency of restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs); however, higher-order RRBs, such as restricted interests, have remained largely resistant to treatment. This study evaluated change in severity of RRBs following a 16-week open trial of Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT). Participants included 15 children with ASD ages 4 to 7 years. RRBs, as measured by the Repetitive Behavioral Scales- Revised (RBS-R) and Aberrant Behaviors Checklist (ABC), decreased significantly after treatment. These reductions remained significant after controlling for change in social communication skills. PRT shows promise in reducing RRBs; although PRT explicitly addresses pivotal social communication skills, there is a secondary and less direct effect on RRBs. PMID:27230762

  6. Habituation of exploratory activity in aged rats: effects of pyritinol Habituação da atividade exploratória em ratos idosos: efeitos do piritinol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto DeLucia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (Ach is a neurotransmitter considered to play a critical role in processes underlying behavior, learning, and memory. Pyritinol (pyrithioxine, Encephabolâ, PRT is a nootropic drug that increases cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system. Behavioral habituation following multiple exposures to an open field is an experimental paradigm frequently used to assess the cognitive actions of drugs. In this paradigm the decrease of exploratory activity as a function of repeated exposure to the same environment is taken as an index memory. In the present study, effects PRT administrated to aged rats in powder form added to the diet (200 mg /kg / day, p.o., for 14 days were evaluated in the habituation to an open field. A total of 18 aged rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups control (vehicle-treated rats, n = 8 and experimental group (PRT-treated rats, n = 10 and were used in the following procedure. In the exploratory task, the post-training treatment with PRT significantly decreased the number of total area crossings and rears when compared to the control group, indicating habituation. PRT treatment enhanced retention in the total number of area crossings and rears when compared with control animals. Taken together, the data of present study suggest that muscarinic cholinergic systems could be involved in the effect of PRT in habituation of exploratory activity to an open field in aged rats.A acetilcolina é um neurotransmissor que desempenha considerável papel crítico nos processos subjacentes ao comportamento, aprendizagem e memória. Piritinol (piritioxina, Encefabolâ, PRT é um fármaco nootrópico que aumenta a transmissão colinérgica no sistema nervoso central. Habituação comportamental seguida de múltipla exposição no campo aberto é um paradigma experimental freqüentemente usado na avaliação das ações cognitivas de fármacos. Neste paradigma, a diminuição da atividade exploratória em fun

  7. Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Pineal region tumors (PRTs are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method : Seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6–9 months after GKS. Results : Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion : The findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications.

  8. Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The Fifth People' s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu (China); Mao, Qing; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Liang-Xue; Liu, Yan-Hui, E-mail: liuyanhui9@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2014-03-01

    Objective: pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method: seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6-9 months after GKS. Results: Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion: the findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications. (author)

  9. Neuromuscular adaptations to long-term progressive resistance training translates to improved functional capacity for people with multiple sclerosis and is maintained at follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Tue; Vissing, Kristian; de Place, Line

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progressive resistance training (PRT) is acknowledged to effectively improve muscle strength for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), but diverging results exist regarding whether such improvements translates to improved functional capacity, possibly relating to insufficient duration...... and/or intensity in some previous studies. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential changes in functional capacity and neuromuscular function after 24 weeks of supervised PRT, and whether improvements are maintained after an additional 24 weeks of self-guided exercise. METHODS......: This study was a randomised controlled trial, with a training group and a waitlist group undergoing supervised PRT for 24 weeks initially or after 24 weeks of habitual lifestyle, respectively. Functional capacity, isometric muscle strength of knee extensors and flexors, neural drive and thigh muscle cross...

  10. Feasibility of Early-Initiated Progressive Resistance Training after Total Hip Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Mechlenburg, Inger; Petersen, Annemette Krintel

    Background: Muscle atrophy, reduced hip muscle strength and function are documented within the first weeks after Total Hip Replacement (THR). Purpose / Aim of Study: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of early-initiated progressive resistance training (PRT) after THR....... Materials and Methods: 10 patients were followed 4 weeks post THR. The PRT was initiated 2-5 days after surgery, and performed twice a week for 4 weeks. Unilateral exercises were performed in 4 training machines applying 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 10 RM (repetition maximum). Absolute loading (kg) and pain......, mean (sd): 0.98 (0.26), 1.03 (0.29) Nm/kg, p=0.52. Conclusions: It seems feasible to commence PRT within the first week after THR, as hip pain remained the same or decreased, while the training load increased progressively. The included patients reached their preoperative hip-strength levels after 4...

  11. Effect of early supervised progressive resistance training compared to unsupervised home-based exercise after fast-track total hip replacement applied to patients with preoperative functional limitations. A single-blinded randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Mechlenburg, I; Søballe, K

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if 2 weekly sessions of supervised progressive resistance training (PRT) in combination with 5 weekly sessions of unsupervised home-based exercise is more effective than 7 weekly sessions of unsupervised home-based exercise in improving leg-extension power of the operated leg...... 10 weeks after total hip replacement (THR) in patients with lower pre-operative function. METHOD: A total of 73 patients scheduled for THR were randomised (1:1) to intervention group (IG, home based exercise 5 days/week and PRT 2 days/week) or control group (CG, home based exercise 7 days...... between-group differences existed. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial, supervised PRT twice a week in addition to 5 weekly sessions of unsupervised exercise for 10 weeks was not superior to 7 weekly sessions of unsupervised home-based exercise for 10 weeks in improving the primary outcome, leg-extension power...

  12. Neural drive increases following resistance training in patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Ulrik; Stenager, Egon; Lund, Charlote Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that lower body progressive resistance training (PRT) increases the neural drive expressed as surface electromyographical (EMG) activity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The study was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) including a 12-week follow up...... period. Thirty-eight MS patients were randomized to an exercise group (n = 19) or a control group (n = 19). During the intervention period, the exercise group performed a 12-week supervised lower body PRT program, whereas the control group maintained their usual daily activity level. After the 12 week...... intervention period, the exercise group were encouraged to continue training on their own for a 12-week follow up period, while the control group completed the 12-week supervised PRT program. Surface EMG was recorded from vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and semitendinosus during maximal isometric knee...

  13. Discovery and Characterization of Enzymes for Degradation of Xyloglucan and Extensin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Tao; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    for the highest xyloglucanase activity. PmXEG12 was very efficient with a relatively high kcat/KM value. Meanwhile, it had a much lower pH optimum (pH 4.0) than that of other xyloglucanases. PmXEG12 accommodated unbranched Glcp at subsite -1 and also cleaving the xyloglucan in endo-mode. The third enzyme (Prt1......) is an extracellular zinc-binding metalloprotease from Protobacterium carotovora identified previously. Prt1 has a pro-peptide functioning as signal peptide for secretion and a pre-peptide functioning as chaperon peptide, which were sequentially removed by the enzyme itself automatically. It has been demonstrated...... that Prt1 could cleave proline and hydroxyproline-rich proteins, like casein, collagen, lectin and extensins....

  14. In vitro cell quality of buffy coat platelets in additive solution treated with pathogen reduction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Bochsen, Louise; Salado-Jimena, José A; Ullum, Henrik; Reynaerts, Inge; Goodrich, Raymond P; Johansson, Pär I

    2010-10-01

    Pathogen reduction technologies (PRTs) may induce storage lesion in platelet (PLT) concentrates. To investigate this, buffy coat PLTs (BCPs) in PLT additive solution (AS; SSP+) with or without Mirasol PRT (CaridianBCT Biotechnologies) were assessed by quality control tests and four-color flow cytometry. In vitro comparison of PRT and control pooled-and-split BCPs after 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8 days of storage was made. PLT concentration, count per unit, swirl, metabolism, activation (CD62P, PAC1, CD42b/GPIb, CD63, CD40L/CD154, CD40, annexin V), and microparticle, sCD40L, and sCD62P release were evaluated. PRT induced a minor initial PLT loss (Day 2 [mean±SD], 302×10(9) ±44×10(9) PLTs/unit vs. 325× 10(9) ±46×10(9) PLTs/unit; pcontrol BCP. Swirling was comparable and declined with similar rates in PRT-treated and control BCPs during storage. PRT enhanced PLT metabolism and activation, evidenced by lower pH(22) ; increased glucose consumption and lactate production rates (p<0.01); early increases in CD62P-, PAC1-, CD63-, CD40L-, CD40-, and annexin V-positive PLTs; reduced GPIb expression; and enhanced release of PLT-derived MPs and sCD40L (all p<0.05). CD62P and PAC1 expression changed with different kinetics during storage and varying GPIb expression was displayed within the CD62P/PAC1-positive PLT subsets. PRT treatment of BCP in AS induced a minor initial PLT loss and enhanced metabolism and PLT activation. The clinical relevance for PLT function in vivo of these findings will be investigated in a clinical trial. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. Oxygen removal during pathogen inactivation with riboflavin and UV light preserves protein function in plasma for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feys, H B; Van Aelst, B; Devreese, K; Devloo, R; Coene, J; Vandekerckhove, P; Compernolle, V

    2014-05-01

    Photochemical pathogen inactivation technologies (PCT) for individual transfusion products act by inhibition of replication through irreversibly damaging nucleic acids. Concern on the collateral impact of PCT on the blood component's integrity has caused reluctance to introduce this technology in routine practice. This work aims to uncover the mechanism of damage to plasma constituents by riboflavin pathogen reduction technology (RF-PRT). Activity and antigen of plasma components were determined following RF-PRT in the presence or absence of dissolved molecular oxygen. Employing ADAMTS13 as a sentinel molecule in plasma, our data show that its activity and antigen are reduced by 23 ± 8% and 29 ± 9% (n = 24), respectively, which corroborates with a mean decrease of 25% observed for other coagulation factors. Western blotting of ADAMTS13 shows decreased molecular integrity, with no obvious indication of additional proteolysis nor is riboflavin able to directly inhibit the enzyme. However, physical removal of dissolved oxygen prior to RF-PRT protects ADAMTS13 as well as FVIII and fibrinogen from damage, indicating a direct role for reactive oxygen species. Redox dye measurements indicate that superoxide anions are specifically generated during RF-PRT. Protein carbonyl content as a marker of disseminated irreversible biomolecular damage was significantly increased (3·1 ± 0·8 vs. 1·6 ± 0·5 nmol/mg protein) following RF-PRT, but not in the absence of dissolved molecular oxygen (1·8 ± 0·4 nmol/mg). RF-PRT of single plasma units generates reactive oxygen species that adversely affect biomolecular integrity of relevant plasma constituents, a side-effect, which can be bypassed by applying hypoxic conditions during the pathogen inactivation process. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  16. The influence of periodized resistance training on recreationally active males with chronic nonspecific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Joel K; Shepherd, Tyrell R; Kell, Robert T

    2011-01-01

    The most common musculoskeletal health issue is chronic nonspecific low back pain (CLBP). CLBP increases pain and disability, which reduces quality of life (QoL). Generally, pain, disability, and QoL are improved with a moderate volume and intensity of physical activity. Recently, periodized resistance training (PRT) was shown to be effective at improving CLBP in sedentary young, middle-age, and older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if PRT would increase strength, reduce pain and disability, and improve QoL in recreationally active, moderately trained middle- and older-age males. Forty-five male subjects were divided according to age into 1 of 3 groups: (a) middle-age exercise (ME), (b) old-age exercise (OE), or (c) control (C). All subjects suffered from CLBP and were considered to be moderately trained, participating in recreational ice hockey for 60 minutes, 2 times per wk(-1) for ∼5 months/year along with other recreational activities. The study ran for 16 weeks (3-week familiarization and 13 weeks of testing and PRT) with 5 repetition maximum testing at baseline and weeks 8 and 12. The PRT program systematically and progressively overloaded all major muscle groups (whole-body workout). The results indicate that middle- and old-age recreationally active males with CLBP respond similarly in magnitude to PRT, with improvements in all outcome measures (strength, pain, disability, QoL) across all time points of the study. Clinical significance (≥ 25%) in outcome measures was reached on most variables for the ME and OE groups. The results suggest that PRT may be effectively applied as rehabilitation for moderately trained recreational athletes with CLBP.

  17. Brief parent training in pivotal response treatment for preschoolers with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolican, Jamesie; Smith, Isabel M; Bryson, Susan E

    2010-12-01

    Evidence of improved outcomes with early behavioural intervention has placed the early treatment of autism as a health priority. However, long waiting lists for treatment often preclude timely access, raising the question of whether parents could be trained in the interim. Parent training in pivotal response treatment (PRT) has been shown to enhance the communication skills of children with autism. This is typically provided within a 25-hour programme, although less intensive parent training may also be effective. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of brief training in PRT for parents of preschoolers with autism, who were awaiting, or unable to access, more comprehensive treatment. Eight preschoolers with autism and their parents participated in the study. A non-concurrent multiple (across-participants) baseline design was used, in which parents were seen individually for three 2-hour training sessions on PRT. Child and parent outcomes were assessed before, immediately after, and 2 to 4 months following training using standardised tests, questionnaires and behaviour coded directly from video recordings. Overall, children's communication skills, namely functional utterances, increased following training. Parents' fidelity in implementing PRT techniques also improved after training, and generally these changes were maintained at follow-up. A moderate to strong relationship was found between parents' increased ability to implement PRT techniques and improvement in the children's communication skills. Our findings suggest that brief parent training in PRT promises to provide an immediate, cost-effective intervention that could be adopted widely. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2010 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  18. Identification of SlpB, a Cytotoxic Protease from Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Robert M Q; Stella, Nicholas A; Hunt, Kristin M; Brothers, Kimberly M; Zhang, Liang; Thibodeau, Patrick H

    2015-07-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium and opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens causes ocular infections in healthy individuals. Secreted protease activity was characterized from 44 ocular clinical isolates, and a higher frequency of protease-positive strains was observed among keratitis isolates than among conjunctivitis isolates. A positive correlation between protease activity and cytotoxicity to human corneal epithelial cells in vitro was determined. Deletion of prtS in clinical keratitis isolate K904 reduced, but did not eliminate, cytotoxicity and secreted protease production. This indicated that PrtS is necessary for full cytotoxicity to ocular cells and implied the existence of another secreted protease(s) and cytotoxic factors. Bioinformatic analysis of the S. marcescens Db11 genome revealed three additional open reading frames predicted to code for serralysin-like proteases noted here as slpB, slpC, and slpD. Induced expression of prtS and slpB, but not slpC and slpD, in strain PIC3611 rendered the strain cytotoxic to a lung carcinoma cell line; however, only prtS induction was sufficient for cytotoxicity to a corneal cell line. Strain K904 with deletion of both prtS and slpB genes was defective in secreted protease activity and cytotoxicity to human cell lines. PAGE analysis suggests that SlpB is produced at lower levels than PrtS. Purified SlpB demonstrated calcium-dependent and AprI-inhibited protease activity and cytotoxicity to airway and ocular cell lines in vitro. Lastly, genetic analysis indicated that the type I secretion system gene, lipD, is required for SlpB secretion. These genetic data introduce SlpB as a new cytotoxic protease from S. marcescens. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Parametric Reliability of Space-Based Field Programmable Gate Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    0.02 +kt1 = -0.11 kt1l = 0 kt2 = 0.022 ute = -1.5 + ua1 = 4.31e-009 ub1 = 7.61e...ute = -1.5 + ua1 = 4.31e-009 ub1 = 7.61e-018 uc1 = -5.6e-011 prt = 0 +at = 33000 +fnoimod = 1...57 + ua1 = 4.31e-009 ub1 = 7.61e-018 uc1 = -5.6e-011 prt = 0 +at = 33000 +fnoimod = 1

  20. Progressive strength training to prevent LYmphoedema in the first year after breast CAncer - the LYCA feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Lanng, Charlotte; Kroman, Niels

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lymphoedema is a common late effect after breast cancer (BC) that has no effective cure once chronic. Accumulating evidence supports progressive strength training (PRT) as a safe exercise modality in relation to the onset and exacerbation of lymphoedema. In the 'preventive intervention...... against LYmphoedema after breast CAncer' (LYCA) feasibility study we examined the feasibility of a program of PRT in the first year after BC to inform a planned randomised controlled trial (RCT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: LYCA was a one-group prospective pilot trial inviting women operated with axillary lymph...

  1. An Integrated Cutting Tool Selection & Operation Sequencing Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rho, H.M.; Geelink, R.; Geelink, R.; van t Erve, A.H.; van 't Erve, A.H.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1992-01-01

    Within the P.%RT C'APP system. the selection of an optimum operation sequence is related to the modules which perform the machining method and cutting tool selection. This study analyzes the technical and economical aspects of operation sequencing and presents a method which is capable of generating

  2. Brief Report: Reduced Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors after Pivotal Response Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventola, Pamela E.; Yang, Daniel; Abdullahi, Sebiha M.; Paisley, Courtney A.; Braconnier, Megan L.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.

    2016-01-01

    Children with ASD show high frequency of restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs); however, higher-order RRBs, such as restricted interests, have remained largely resistant to treatment. This study evaluated change in severity of RRBs following a 16-weeks open trial of Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT). Participants included 15 children with ASD…

  3. Increasing Opportunities for Question-Asking in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Effectiveness of Staff Training in Pivotal Response Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuur, Rianne; Huskens, Bibi; Verhoeven, Ludo; Didden, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in question-asking are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Furthermore, their opportunities to self-initiate questions are often hindered by directive behavior of their conversation partners. This study assessed the effectiveness of staff training in pivotal response treatment (PRT) on staff member-created…

  4. 77 FR 49453 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ...: African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) Applicant: Joseph Patinio, Mililani, HI; PRT-80510A The applicant... notification covers activities to be conducted by the applicant over a 5-year period. Species: African dwarf...) from 151 animals, wild and captive-bred for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species...

  5. Quantification of Particle Residence Time in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Ga-Young; Les, Andrea S.; Tenforde, Adam S.; Shadden, Shawn C.; Spilker, Ryan L.; Yeung, Janice J.; Cheng, Christopher P.; Herfkens, Robert J.; Dalman, Ronald L.; Taylor, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Hemodynamic conditions are hypothesized to affect the initiation, growth, and rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), a vascular disease characterized by progressive wall degradation and enlargement of the abdominal aorta. This study aims to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to quantify flow stagnation and recirculation in eight AAAs by computing particle residence time (PRT). Specifically, we used gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography to obtain images of the vessel lumens, which were used to generate subject-specific models. We also used phase-contrast MRI to measure blood flow at supraceliac and infrarenal locations to prescribe physiologic boundary conditions. CFD was used to simulate pulsatile flow, and PRT, particle residence index, and particle half-life of PRT in the aneurysms were computed. We observed significant regional differences of PRT in the aneurysms with localized patterns that differed depending on aneurysm geometry and infrarenal flow. A bulbous aneurysm with the lowest mean infrarenal flow demonstrated the slowest particle clearance. In addition, improvements in particle clearance were observed with increase of mean infrarenal flow. We postulate that augmentation of mean infrarenal flow during exercise may reduce chronic flow stasis that may influence mural thrombus burden, degradation of the vessel wall, and aneurysm growth. PMID:21103933

  6. 75 FR 54909 - Endangered Species Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... ESA laws require that we invite public comment before issuing these permits. DATES: We must receive... citations to, and analyses of, the applicable laws and regulations. We will not consider or include in our... Samford, Gun Barrel, TX; PRT-236659 Dated: September 3, 2010. Brenda Tapia, Program Analyst/Data...

  7. 75 FR 47625 - Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species. This notice covers activities conducted under this... enhancement of the survival of the species. Applicant: James Hubbard, Alto, TX; PRT-08600A Applicant: Robert... northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) in Canada for the purpose of scientific research. This...

  8. 76 FR 34095 - Endangered Species Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    .... Background To help us carry out our conservation responsibilities for affected species, the Endangered... permit to import biological samples from ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), collected in the wild in... the applicant over a 5-year period. Applicant: Duke Lemur Center, Duke University, Durham, NC; PRT...

  9. 77 FR 43108 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Taxidermy, Brady, TX; PRT-75675A The applicant requests a permit to export the sport-hunted trophy/ trophies... following applicants each request a permit to import the sport- hunted trophy of one male bontebok... Marine Mammals and Marine Mammals Applicant: John Wise, Ph.D., University of Southern Maine, Portland, ME...

  10. Review of Reports on Lake Erie-Lake Ontario Waterway, New York. Appendix E. Impact Assessment and Environment Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-10-01

    Crops The dominant land-use type along most of the prt)psed route ()t the canal is agricultural. A- food chains and nutrient t y les are de- pendent on...space or as a means of flood-plain protection. E-74 .. ... .... . . .. . . . . .. ... .. .I.1 YouNGS TOWN -iR* N LEGENTO BCAMBRIA Devoped Zone

  11. An appraisal of rehabilitation regimes used for improving functional outcome after total hip replacement surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro Tosan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to systematically review the literature with regards to studies of rehabilitation programmes that have tried to improve function after total hip replacement (THR surgery. 15 randomised controlled trials were identified of which 11 were centre-based, 2 were home based and 2 were trials comparing home and centre based interventions. The use of a progressive resistance training (PRT programme led to significant improvement in muscle strength and function if the intervention was carried out early ( 1 month following surgery in a home based setting (2/2 home based studies used PRT. In direct comparison, there was no difference in functional measures between home and centre based programmes (2 studies, with PRT not included in the regimes prescribed. A limitation of the majority of these intervention studies was the short period of follow up. Centre based program delivery is expensive as high costs are associated with supervision, facility provision, and transport of patients. Early interventions are important to counteract the deficit in muscle strength in the affected limb, as well as persistent atrophy that exists around the affected hip at 2 years post-operatively. Studies of early home-based regimes featuring PRT with long term follow up are needed to address the problems currently associated with rehabilitation following THR.

  12. Impact of Pivotal Response Training Group Therapy on Stress and Empowerment in Parents of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minjarez, Mendy Boettcher; Mercier, Emma M.; Williams, Sharon E.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2013-01-01

    Parents of children with autism are increasingly being considered as primary agents of intervention for their children. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether participating in a pivotal response training (PRT) group therapy program for parents of children with autism influenced related aspects of parents' lives, namely, their levels of…

  13. 76 FR 54480 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... applications. III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: University of New Mexico, Museum of SW...), for the purpose of enhancement of the species through conservation education and captive propagation.... Applicant: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, CT; PRT- 120045 The applicant requests a...

  14. The influence of Positional Release Therapy on the myofascial trigger points of the upper trapezius muscle in computer users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Kojidi, M; Okhovatian, F; Rahimi, A; Baghban, A A; Azimi, H

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Positional Release Therapy (PRT) in computer users via latent trigger points (LTrPs) of the upper trapezius muscle. Twenty-eight women with the upper trapezius MTrPs participated in this study. Subjects were randomly classified into two groups (14 in each group): the subjects in the Group 1 received PRT in shortened position while those in the group 2 received sham control in the neutral position of the upper trapezius muscle. They received three therapy sessions every other day for one week. The local pain intensity and Pressure pain threshold (PPT) were measured via Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and algometry, respectively, before interventions and repeated 5 min after the first and third treatment sessions in each group. One-way ANOVA was used for data analysis. After treatment, between groups comparison revealed that for PPT and VAS, there were significant differences between the two groups (VAS and PPT; P < 0.05). Both groups (PRT and sham control) showed alleviation of pain and increase in PPT during three sessions of therapy although PRT showed to be more effective in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biogeochemistry of the surficial sediments of the western and eastern continental shelves of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, J.; Chandramohanakumar, N.; Jayaraj, K.A.; Raveendran, T.V.; Balachandran, K.K.; Joseph, T.; Nair, M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, K.K.C.; George, R.; Ravi, Z.P.

    was found to be 4.4%. Proteins (PRTs) were analysed according to LOW- RY et al. (1951) as modified by RICE (1982) to account for the reactivity of phenolic compounds, after extraction with 1N NaOH for 30 minutes. The PRT concentrations are given as bovine...

  16. Dicty_cDB: SHA389 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available equence. 34 0.12 3 CR044130 |CR044130.1 Forward strand read from insert in 3'HPRT insertion targeting and chromosome engineering...PRT insertion targeting and chromosome engineering clone MHPP142o16. 50 0.13 1 CR...034434 |CR034434.1 Forward strand read from insert in 3'HPRT insertion targeting and chromosome engineering

  17. Energy Efficient Group Context Aware Sensor Management Strategy for Tactical Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    strict Islamic law characterized Taliban rule. Television, music, and dancing were prohibited. Women were not allowed to work, go school, or play...tactical EOD robot, the chemical IED is disposed. PRT engineers determine that the bridge received minor cosmetic damages from the detonated IED and

  18. Training pair-housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) using a combination of negative and positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wergård, Eva-Marie; Temrin, Hans; Forkman, Björn; Spångberg, Mats; Fredlund, Hélène; Westlund, Karolina

    2015-04-01

    When training animals, time is sometimes a limiting factor hampering the use of positive reinforcement training (PRT) exclusively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of negative and positive reinforcement training (NPRT). Twenty naïve female Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were trained in 30 sessions with either PRT (n=8) or NPRT (n=12) to respond to a signal, move into a selected cage section and accept confinement. In the NPRT-group a signal preceded the presentation of one or several novel, and thus aversive, stimuli. When the correct behaviour was performed, the novel stimulus was removed and treats were given. As the animal learned to perform the correct behaviour, the use of novel stimuli was decreased and finally phased out completely. None of the PRT-trained animals finished the task. Ten out of 12 monkeys in the NPRT-group succeeded to perform the task within the 30 training sessions, a significant difference from the PRT-group (p=0.0007). A modified approach test showed no significant difference between the groups (p=0.67) in how they reacted to the trainer. The results from this study suggest that carefully conducted NPRT can be an alternative training method to consider, especially when under a time constraint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Qualitative Review of Literature on Peer Review of Teaching in Higher Education: An Application of the SWOT Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan; Chie, Qiu Ting; Abraham, Mathew; Raj, Sony Jalarajan; Beh, Loo-See

    2014-01-01

    The issues of professional accountability, faculty member development, and enhancing higher education quality in universities are gaining importance. A strategy that could increase personal control over teaching practices in addition to improving professional development among faculty members is peer review of teaching (PRT). Five themes that are…

  20. An Experimental Investigation of the Antecedents and Consequences of Psychological Reactance in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Hannah; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2014-01-01

    Psychological reactance theory (PRT) is largely understudied in the classroom context. In this experiment, we manipulated instructors' use of clarity and forceful language as antecedents of psychological reactance and examined student communication outcomes (i.e., instructional dissent and challenge behavior) as ways in which students restore…

  1. 76 FR 71069 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Species Applicant: Kansas City Zoo, Kansas City, MO; PRT-58124A The applicant requests a permit to export two live, captive-born black-footed cats (Felis nigripes) to France, for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species. Applicant: Zoological Society of Cincinnati dba Cincinnati Zoo...

  2. 78 FR 16292 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... data you include. The comments and recommendations that will be most useful and likely to influence... Threskiornithidae Genus: Tragopan Species: Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) Applicant: Field Museum of Natural History..., Mobile, AL; PRT-98930A The applicant requests a permit to import a sport-hunted trophy of one male...

  3. 75 FR 30428 - Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... that will be most useful and likely to influence agency decisions are: (1) Those supported by... T. Ellis, Senoia, GA; PRT-10973A The applicant requests a permit to import a sport-hunted trophy of... be conducted under the remainder of the 5-year period of the permit. Applicant: Natural History...

  4. 77 FR 30547 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... data you include. The comments and recommendations that will be most useful and likely to influence... conducted by the applicant over a 1-year period. Applicant: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY... period. Applicant: Dana Kirk, Kerrville, TX; PRT-73864A The applicant requests a permit to import a sport...

  5. 77 FR 72882 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... data you include. The comments and recommendations that will be most useful and likely to influence... of Natural History, New York, NY; PRT-75897A The applicant requests a permit to import biological... the species. Multiple Applicants The following applicants each request a permit to import the sport...

  6. Probabilities of benefit and harms of preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer: What do radiation oncologists tell and what do patients understand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunneman, Marleen; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Marijnen, Corrie A M; Pieterse, Arwen H

    2015-09-01

    Probabilities of benefits and harms of treatment may help patients when making a treatment decision. This study aimed to examine (1) whether and how radiation oncologists convey probabilities to rectal cancer patients, and (2) patients' estimates of probabilities of major outcomes of rectal cancer treatment. First consultations of oncologists and patients eligible for preoperative radiotherapy (PRT) (N=90) were audio taped. Tapes were transcribed verbatim and coded to identify probabilistic information presented. Patients (N=56) filled in a post-consultation questionnaire on their estimates of probabilities. Probabilities were mentioned in 99% (local recurrence), 75% (incontinence), 72% and 40% (sexual dysfunction in males and females, respectively) of cases. Most patients (89%) correctly estimated that PRT decreases the probability of local recurrence, and 10% and 38%/54% that it increases the probability of incontinence and sexual dysfunction in males/females, respectively. Patients tended to underestimate the probabilities of harms of treatment. Our results show that oncologists almost always mention probabilities of benefit of PRT. In contrast, probabilities of harms often go unmentioned. The effect of PRT on adverse events is often underestimated. Oncologists should stay alert to patients' possible misunderstanding of probabilistic information and should check patients' perceptions of probabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Randomized Trial Comparison of the Effects of Verbal and Pictorial Naturalistic Communication Strategies on Spoken Language for Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreibman, Laura; Stahmer, Aubyn C.

    2014-01-01

    Presently there is no consensus on the specific behavioral treatment of choice for targeting language in young nonverbal children with autism. This randomized clinical trial compared the effectiveness of a verbally-based intervention, Pivotal Response Training (PRT) to a pictorially-based behavioral intervention, the Picture Exchange Communication…

  8. 77 FR 68809 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... conducted by the applicant over a 5-year period. Applicant: Utah's Hogle Zoo, Salt Lake City, UT; PRT-680356... Species Center, South Africa, for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species. Applicant... captive-bred female cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) from the De Wildt Cheetah Breeding Center, South Africa...

  9. Controlled Comparison of Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Psychoeducation/Relaxation Training for Child Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, John; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Peris, Tara; Wood, Jeffrey J.; McCracken, James

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus a structured family intervention (FCBT) versus psychoeducation plus relaxation training (PRT) for reducing symptom severity, functional impairment, and family accommodation in youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: A total of 71…

  10. Synergistic Approach Integrating Joint Capabilities for USSOCOM Contingency Contracting: Construction Management Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Project Planning Officer xviii PRT Provisional Reconstruction Team PVO Private Volunteer Organizations QAE Quality Assurance Evaluator QAP ...assurance personnel/evaluator ( QAP /E) (used most often to refer to oversight of services contracts). A customer is responsible for nominating a subject

  11. 76 FR 27660 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ...: Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, NY; PRT-41116A The applicant requests a permit to import 2 captive bred female snow leopards (Uncia uncia) from the Granby Zoo, Granby, Quebec, Canada for the purpose of... guarantee that we will be able to do so. II. Background To help us carry out our conservation...

  12. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy versus Progressive Relaxation Training for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.; Hayes, Steven C.; Plumb, Jennifer C.; Pruitt, Larry D.; Collins, Angela B.; Hazlett-Stevens, Holly; Woidneck, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Effective treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exist, but additional treatment options are needed. The effectiveness of 8 sessions of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for adult OCD was compared with progressive relaxation training (PRT). Method: Seventy-nine adults (61% female) diagnosed with OCD (mean age = 37…

  13. Handbook for Military Justice and Civil Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    medical counselling for problems such as: adult anti-social behavior; child and adolescent anti-social behavior; academic...Enuresis (bed-wetting). (c) Somnambulism (sleepwalking). (c) Allergies (e.g., uniform material, bee stings). (d) Excessive height. (e) Anorexia ...nervosa (Navy). (f) Bulimia nervosa (Navy) (g) Non-resolving physical or medical problems which regularly prevent PRT participation. See, MILPERSMAN

  14. McCallen Professional Research and Teaching Leave Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-16

    This end of assignment report for a Professional Research and Teaching (PRT) Leave award includes the attached assessment of success by the host organization, University of California Davis (UCD). The following summarizes the accomplishments and attached are a selection of documented items.

  15. Antimalarial activity of prodrugs of N-branched acyclic nucleoside phosphonate inhibitors of 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hocková, Dana; Janeba, Zlatko; Naesens, L.; Edstein, M. D.; Chavchich, M.; Keough, D. T.; Guddat, L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 17 (2015), s. 5502-5510 ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0108 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : nucleotide analogues * enzyme inhibitors * malaria * HG(X)PRT * ANP Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.923, year: 2015

  16. Protein-enriched diet, with the use of lean red meat, combined with progressive resistance training enhances lean tissue mass and muscle strength and reduces circulating IL-6 concentrations in elderly women: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Robin M; O'Connell, Stella L; Mundell, Niamh L; Grimes, Carley A; Dunstan, David W; Nowson, Caryl A

    2014-04-01

    Physical inactivity, inadequate dietary protein, and low-grade systemic inflammation contribute to age-related muscle loss, impaired function, and disability. We assessed the effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) combined with a protein-enriched diet facilitated through lean red meat on lean tissue mass (LTM), muscle size, strength and function, circulating inflammatory markers, blood pressure, and lipids in elderly women. In a 4-mo cluster randomized controlled trial, 100 women aged 60-90 y who were residing in 15 retirement villages were allocated to receive PRT with lean red meat (∼160 g cooked) to be consumed 6 d/wk [resistance training plus lean red meat (RT+Meat) group; n = 53] or control PRT [1 serving pasta or rice/d; control resistance training (CRT) group; n = 47)]. All women undertook PRT 2 times/wk and received 1000 IU vitamin D3/d. The mean (± SD) protein intake was greater in the RT+Meat group than in the CRT group throughout the study (1.3 ± 0.3 compared with 1.1 ± 0.3 g · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹, respectively; P muscle strength (18%; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.34) than did the CRT group (all P muscle strength and reducing circulating IL-6 concentrations in elderly women. This trial was registered at the Australian Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12609000223235.

  17. Pivotal Response Treatment Parent Training for Autism: Findings from a 3-Month Follow-Up Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengoux, Grace W.; Berquist, Kari L.; Salzman, Emma; Schapp, Salena; Phillips, Jennifer M.; Frazier, Thomas W.; Minjarez, Mendy B.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study's objective was to assess maintenance of treatment effects 3 months after completion of a 12-week Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) parent education group. Families who completed the active treatment (N = 23) were followed for an additional 12 weeks to measure changes in language and cognitive skills. Results indicated a significant…

  18. 77 FR 12870 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ..., Canada. Applicant: Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project, Baltimore, MD; PRT- 117181 The applicant requests renewal of a permit to import biological samples from wild and captive-held Eastern Gorilla (Gorilla beringei), Western Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), bonobo (Pan paniscus), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), and L...

  19. A comparison of assays for accurate copy number measurement of the low-affinity Fc gamma receptor genes FCGR3A and FCGR3B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Shakina Haridan

    Full Text Available The FCGR3 locus encoding the low affinity activating receptor FcγRIII, plays a vital role in immunity triggered by cellular effector and regulatory functions. Copy number of the genes FCGR3A and FCGR3B has previously been reported to affect susceptibility to several autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory conditions. However, such genetic association studies often yield inconsistent results; hence require assays that are robust with low error rate. We investigated the accuracy and efficiency in estimating FCGR3 CNV by comparing Sequenom MassARRAY and paralogue ratio test-restriction enzyme digest variant ratio (PRT-REDVR. In addition, since many genetic association studies of FCGR3B CNV were carried out using real-time quantitative PCR, we have also included the evaluation of that method's performance in estimating the multi-allelic CNV of FCGR3B. The qPCR assay exhibited a considerably broader distribution of signal intensity, potentially introducing error in estimation of copy number and higher false positive rates. Both Sequenom and PRT-REDVR showed lesser systematic bias, but Sequenom skewed towards copy number normal (CN = 2. The discrepancy between Sequenom and PRT-REDVR might be attributed either to batch effects noise in individual measurements. Our study suggests that PRT-REDVR is more robust and accurate in genotyping the CNV of FCGR3, but highlights the needs of multiple independent assays for extensive validation when performing a genetic association study with multi-allelic CNVs.

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 451 - 500 of 571 ... Joyce R.P. Masalu, Emil N. Kikwilu, Febronia K. Kahabuka, Matilda Mtaya, Ahadieli R. Senkoro. Vol 10, No 3 (2008), Socio-demographic characteristics and sexual health related attitudes and practices of men having sex with men in central and southern Malawi, Abstract PDF. PRT Ntata, AS Muula, ...

  1. Impact of short-term preoperative radiotherapy on health-related quality of life and sexual functioning in primary rectal cancer: report of a multicenter randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijnen, C.A.; Velde, C.J. van de; Putter, H.; Brink, M.; Maas, C.P.; Martijn, H.; Rutten, H.J.; Wiggers, T.; Kranenbarg, E.K.; Leer, J.W.H.; Stiggelbout, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few prospective studies have been performed about the impact of preoperative radiotherapy (PRT) or total mesorectal excision (TME) on health-related quality of life (HRQL) and sexual functioning in patients with resectable rectal cancer. This report describes the HRQL and sexual

  2. Costs and benefits of bacterial culturing and pathogen reduction in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.P.; van der Poel, C.L.; Buskens, E.; Bonneux, L.; Bonsel, G.J.; van Hout, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacterial contamination is a life-threatening risk of blood transfusion, especially with platelet (PLT) transfusions. Bacterial culturing (BCU) of PLTs as well as pathogen reduction (PRT) reduce the likelihood of such contamination. The cost-effectiveness (CE) of these interventions was

  3. Impact of short-term preoperative radiotherapy on health-related quality of life and sexual functioning in primary rectal cancer : Report of a multicenter randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijnen, CAM; van de Velde, CJH; Putter, H; van den Brink, M; Maas, CP; Martijn, H; Rutten, HJ; Wiggers, T; Kranenbarg, EK; Leer, JWH; Stiggelbout, AM

    2005-01-01

    Background Few prospective studies have been performed about the impact of preoperative radiotherapy (PRT) or total mesorectal excision (TME) on health-related quality of life (HRQL) and sexual functioning in patients with resectable rectal cancer. This report describes the HRQL and sexual

  4. PREWEANING GROWTH OF BRTTISH. BOS INDICUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depnrtment ol' Livt'sttx'k St'ience, Universitl' of. Prt' t o ri^a, Sou t lt A frt ca. 2. Stockowner's Co-operative, How,ic'k, Nutal, South. A I'rica. Materials and Methods. The Johannesburg City Council operates 2 beef cattle farms on the Tranwaal highveld utilizing the sewerage effluent emanating from the Johannesburg sewerage.

  5. Browse Author Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 370 ... N. Nagao, M · Naidoo, Prem · Namafe, C · Namafe, CM · Namiluko, Yaki · Nan, C · Naudé, P · Naude, L · Naude, Petro · Ncube, Portia · Ndaruga, AM · Nel, PRT · Nhamo, G · Nightingale, Singleton · Njuza, Mike · Nsubuga, Y · Nyamukunda, M · Nyando, V ...

  6. Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With Rectal Cancer After Preoperative Short-Course and Long-Course (Chemo) Radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiltink, Lisette M.; Nout, Remi A.; van der Voort van Zyp, Jochem R N|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326982728; Ceha, Heleen M.; Fiocco, Marta; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, Elma; Marinelli, Andreas W K S; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Marijnen, Corrie A M

    2016-01-01

    Background Both preoperative short-course radiotherapy (SC-PRT) and preoperative long-course chemo radiotherapy (CRT) have shown to reduce local recurrence rates after total mesorectal excision (TME), but neither resulted in improved survival. This study compared the long-term health-related quality

  7. Clinical nature and prognosis of locally recurrent rectal cancer after total mesorectal excision with or without preoperative radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, M.; Stiggelbout, AM; van den Hout, WB; Kievit, J; Kranenbarg, EK; Marijnen, CAM; Nagtegaal, ID; Rutten, HJT; Wiggers, T; van de Velde, CJH

    2004-01-01

    Purpose To document the clinical nature and prognosis of locally. recurrent rectal cancer after total mesorectal excision (TME) with or without 5 X 5 Gy preoperative radiotherapy (PRT) and to identify patient-, disease-, and treatment-related factors associated with differences in prognosis after

  8. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sample situation for estimating population prt portion with specified absolute precision". Assumed proportion of childhood population with malaria was 30.0%. Owing to prohibitive cost of investigation only ever3 other child originally recruited were sampled. Post treat1 1ent reviews were undertaken to determine response to ...

  9. Page 1 80 Chandra PSharma, Geetha Kurian and M K Sheela Table ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    "Since the yty value for ethylene glycol is 477, which is not included in table value 48 has been used for sy andys values as a fair approximation. Table 2. Platelet adhesion and plasma recalcification time (PRr) to nylon and trypsinated nylon surfaces,. Mean PRT (sec). Surfaces platelets SD. Glass surface reer 862.

  10. Rapid and collaborative development of socially relevant computing solutions for developing communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mtsweni, J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Relevant Computing through Com- munity Engagement: an ODeL perspective. In iNEER ICEE ICIT Conference. Cape Town, South Africa. NASA. (2010). Random Hacks of Kindness (RHoK). Retrieved from http://www.nasa.gov/open/rhok_2010_prt.htm NDP. (2011). National...

  11. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 10, No 3 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... characteristics and sexual health related attitudes and practices of men having sex with men in central and southern Malawi · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. PRT Ntata, AS Muula, S Siziya, 124-130. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v10i3.14351 ...

  12. Determining the influence of temperature on various types of standard resistors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, EL

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available to date The oil bath was characterised for temperatures from 18 °C to 28 °C. This was done using four platinum resistance thermometers (PRT), a four terminal scanner and a digital voltmeter. The reason for performing this experiment was primarily...

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood pressure. (SBP and DBP), creatinine (CRT), blood urea nitrogen. (BUN) and proteinuria (PRT) were significantly in- creased in the CKD subjects compared to the control group. Marker of oxidative stress (MDA) increased sig- nificantly in the CKD patients compared to the controls.

  14. In vitro cell quality of buffy coat platelets in additive solution treated with pathogen reduction technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Bochsen, Louise; Salado-Jimena, José A

    2010-01-01

    Pathogen reduction technologies (PRTs) may induce storage lesion in platelet (PLT) concentrates. To investigate this, buffy coat PLTs (BCPs) in PLT additive solution (AS; SSP+) with or without Mirasol PRT (CaridianBCT Biotechnologies) were assessed by quality control tests and four-color flow...

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ntata, PRT. Vol 10, No 3 (2008) - Articles Socio-demographic characteristics and sexual health related attitudes and practices of men having sex with men in central and southern Malawi Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1821-9241. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  16. Clinical nature and prognosis of locally recurrent rectal cancer after total mesorectal excision with or without preoperative radiotherapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Hout, W.B. van den; Kievit, J.; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E.; Marijnen, C.A.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Rutten, H.J.; Wiggers, T.; Velde, C.J. van de

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To document the clinical nature and prognosis of locally recurrent rectal cancer after total mesorectal excision (TME) with or without 5 x 5 Gy preoperative radiotherapy (PRT) and to identify patient-, disease-, and treatment-related factors associated with differences in prognosis after

  17. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    knowledge of the director orientation. In computer simulations the director is not known-a prt'ori and it may fluctuate during the evolution of the system. In general the second rank orientational order parameter and the direction of the director for a given configuration can be calculated from a second rank tensor defined as [8].

  18. Experimental Method for Determination of Self-Heating at the Point of Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestan, D.; Zvizdic, D.; Grgec-Bermanec, L.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a new experimental method and algorithm for the determination of self-heating of platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) when the temperature instability of medium of interest would prevent an accurate self-heating determination using standard methods. In temperature measurements performed by PRT, self-heating is one of the most common sources of error and arises from the increase in sensor temperature caused by the dissipation of electrical heat when measurement current is applied to the temperature sensing element. This increase depends mainly on the applied current and the thermal resistances between thermometer sensing element and the environment surrounding the thermometer. The method is used for determination of self-heating of a 100 Ω industrial PRT which is intended for measurement of air temperature inside the saturation chamber of the primary dew/frost point generator at the Laboratory for Process Measurement (HMI/FSB-LPM). Self-heating is first determined for conditions present during the comparison calibration of the thermometer, using the calibration bath. The measurements were then repeated with thermometer being placed in an air stream inside the saturation chamber. The experiment covers the temperature range between -65°C and 10°C. Self-heating is determined for two different air velocities and two different vertical positions of PRT in relation to the chamber bottom.

  19. Physical Exercise and Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Ulrik

    Baggrund: Kun få ikke-kontrollerede studier har undersøgt effekten af progressive styrketræning hos patienter med multipel sklerose (MS).  Formål: Undersøgelsens formål var at teste om progressiv styrketræning (PRT) af benene forbedrer muskelstyrke, muskelmorfologi, funktionel kapacitet, træthed,...

  20. The influence of passenger flow on the topology characteristics of urban rail transit networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yingyue; Chen, Feng; Chen, Peiwen; Tan, Yurong

    2017-05-01

    Current researches on the network characteristics of metro networks are generally carried out on topology networks without passenger flows running on it, thus more complex features of the networks with ridership loaded on it cannot be captured. In this study, we incorporated the load of metro networks, passenger volume, into the exploration of network features. Thus, the network can be examined in the context of operation, which is the ultimate purpose of the existence of a metro network. To this end, section load was selected as an edge weight to demonstrate the influence of ridership on the network, and a weighted calculation method for complex network indicators and robustness were proposed to capture the unique behaviors of a metro network with passengers flowing in it. The proposed method was applied on Beijing Subway. Firstly, the passenger volume in terms of daily origin and destination matrix was extracted from exhausted transit smart card data. Using the established approach and the matrix as weighting, common indicators of complex network including clustering coefficient, betweenness and degree were calculated, and network robustness were evaluated under potential attacks. The results were further compared to that of unweighted networks, and it suggests indicators of the network with consideration of passenger volumes differ from that without ridership to some extent, and networks tend to be more vulnerable than that without load on it. The significance sequence for the stations can be changed. By introducing passenger flow weighting, actual operation status of the network can be reflected more accurately. It is beneficial to determine the crucial stations and make precautionary measures for the entire network’s operation security.

  1. A flow model for optimization of highway toll stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yifan

    2017-09-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a highway toll stations route optimization model (HTSROM) for cost-effective and sustainable highway infrastructure planning and design. There are many factors for the locations of highway toll stations, including potential ridership, costs of land, construction and operation, and travel times. We developed HTSROM algorithm which used a genetic model to optimize and integrate a geographic information system for transfer of land-use, environmental, and topographic data during the optimal search process. The experimental results are discussed on the application, and more extensions of the HTSROM model remain to be studied in the future work.

  2. Image-aided Suicide Gene Therapy Utilizing Multifunctional hTERT-targeting Adenovirus for Clinical Translation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Kyung Tae; Lee, Sang-Jin; Hong, Seung-Hee; Moon, Ju Young; Yoon, Eun Kyung; Kim, Sukyoung; Kim, Eun Ok; Kang, Se Hun; Kim, Seok Ki; Choi, Sun Il; Goh, Sung Ho; Kim, Daehong; Lee, Seong-Wook; Ju, Mi Ha; Jeong, Jin Sook; Kim, In-Hoo

    2016-01-01

    Trans-splicing ribozyme enables to sense and reprogram target RNA into therapeutic transgene and thereby becomes a good sensing device for detection of cancer cells, judging from transgene expression. Previously we proposed PEPCK-Rz-HSVtk (PRT), hTERT targeting trans-splicing ribozyme (Rz) driven by liver-specific promoter phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) with downstream suicide gene, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) gene therapy. Here, we describe success of a re-engineered adenoviral vector harboring PRT in obtaining greater antitumor activity with less off-target effect for clinical application as a theranostics. We introduced liver-selective apolipoprotein E (ApoE) enhancer to the distal region of PRT unit to augment activity and liver selectivity of PEPCK promoter, and achieved better transduction into liver cancer cells by replacement of serotype 35 fiber knob on additional E4orf1-4 deletion of E1&E3-deleted serotype 5 back bone. We demonstrated that our refined adenovirus harboring PEPCK/ApoE-Rz-HSVtk (Ad-PRT-E) achieved great anti-tumor efficacy and improved ability to specifically target HCC without damaging normal hepatocytes. We also showed noninvasive imaging modalities were successfully employed to monitor both how well a therapeutic gene (HSVtk) was expressed inside tumor and how effectively a gene therapy took an action in terms of tumor growth. Collectively, this study suggests that the advanced therapeutic adenoviruses Ad-PRT-E and its image-aided evaluation system may lead to the powerful strategy for successful clinical translation and the development of clinical protocols for HCC therapy. PMID:26909111

  3. Mirasol Pathogen Reduction Technology® treatment does not affect acute lung injury in a two-event in vivo model caused by stored blood components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, C. C.; Khan, S. Y.; Ball, J. Bradley; Kelher, M. R.; Marschner, S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Mirasol Pathogen Reduction Technology® (PRT) treatment uses riboflavin and UV light to inactivate pathogens in blood components. Neutrophil [polymorphonuclear cells (PMN)] priming activity accumulates during routine storage of cellular blood components, and this activity has been implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). We hypothesize that PRT-treatment of blood components affects the priming activity generated during storage of packed RBCs (PRBCs) or platelet concentrates (PCs), which can elicit ALI in vivo. Methods Plasma, PRBCs and PCs were isolated from healthy donor’s whole blood or by apheresis. Half of a collected unit was treated with PRT treatment and the remainder was left as an unmodified control. Supernatant was collected during storage of PCs and PRBCs and assayed for PMN priming activity and used as the second event in a two-event in vivo model of TRALI. Results PRT treatment did not induce priming activity in plasma or affect the priming activity generated during storage of PCs or PRBCs as compared with the unmodified controls. The supernatants from stored, but not fresh, PCs and PRBCs did cause ALI as the second event in a two-event animal model of TRALI, which was unaffected by PRT treatment. We conclude that the PRT® treatment does not induce priming activity in plasma nor does it affect the priming activity generated during storage of PCs or PRBCs or their ability to cause ALI as the second event in a two-event in vivo model of TRALI. Moreover, the amount of priming activity in TRIMA®-isolated PCs was significantly less than SPECTRA®-isolated PCs. PMID:19951305

  4. Proteinase PI and lactococcin A genes are located on the largest plasmid in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis S50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojic, Milan; Strahinic, Ivana; Topisirovic, Ljubisa

    2005-04-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis S50 produces a lactococcin A-like bacteriocin named bacteriocin S50, and cell envelope-associated PI-type proteinase activity. This strain harbours 3 small size plasmids: pS6 (6.3 kb), pS7a (7.31 kb), and pS7b (7.27 kb). Plasmid curing using a combination of novobiocin treatment (10 microg.mL-1) and sublethal temperature (40 degrees C) resulted in a very low yield (0.17%) of Prt-, Bac-, Bacs derivatives, which retained all 3 small size resident plasmids. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of DNA isolated from the strain S50 and cured derivatives in combination with restriction enzyme analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization revealed that S50 contains 2 additional large plasmids: pS140 (140 kb) and pS80 (80 kb). Conjugation experiments using strain S50 as a donor and various lactococcal recipients resulted in Prt+, Bac+, Bacr transconjugants. Analysis of these transconjugants strongly indicated that plasmid pS140 harbours the prt and bac genes encoding proteinase and bacteriocin production, and immunity to bacteriocin, since each Prt+, Bac+, Bacr tranconjugant contained pS140. Accordingly, none of the Prt-,Bac-, Bacs transconjugants contained this plasmid. pS140 was a self-transmissible conjugative plasmid regardless of the host lactococcal recipient used in the test. Frequency of conjugation of plasmid pS140 did not depend on either the donor or recipient strain.

  5. Biological control of wheat root diseases by the CLP-producing strain Pseudomonas fluorescens HC1-07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Ming; Wen, Shan-Shan; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Mavrodi, Olga V; von Wettstein, Diter; Thomashow, Linda S; Guo, Jian-Hua; Weller, David M

    2014-03-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens HC1-07, previously isolated from the phyllosphere of wheat grown in Hebei province, China, suppresses the soilborne disease of wheat take-all, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. We report here that strain HC1-07 also suppresses Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8. Strain HC1-07 produced a cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) with a molecular weight of 1,126.42 based on analysis by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Extracted CLP inhibited the growth of G. graminis var. tritici and R. solani in vitro. To determine the role of this CLP in biological control, plasposon mutagenesis was used to generate two nonproducing mutants, HC1-07viscB and HC1-07prtR2. Analysis of regions flanking plasposon insertions in HC1-07prtR2 and HC1-07viscB revealed that the inactivated genes were similar to prtR and viscB, respectively, of the well-described biocontrol strain P. fluorescens SBW25 that produces the CLP viscosin. Both genes in HC1-07 were required for the production of the viscosin-like CLP. The two mutants were less inhibitory to G. graminis var. tritici and R. solani in vitro and reduced in ability to suppress take-all. HC1-07viscB but not HC-07prtR2 was reduced in ability to suppress Rhizoctonia root rot. In addition to CLP production, prtR also played a role in protease production.

  6. Prophylactic lower para-aortic irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy mitigates the risk of para-aortic recurrence in locally advanced cervical cancer: A 10-year institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jie; Lin, Jhen-Bin; Chang, Chih-Long; Jan, Ya-Ting; Sun, Fang-Ju; Wu, Meng-Hao; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of prophylactic sub-renal vein radiotherapy (SRVRT) using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for cervical cancer. A total of 206 patients with FIGO stage IB2-IVA cervical cancer and negative para-aortic lymph nodes (PALNs) who underwent pelvic IMRT (PRT) or SRVRT between 2004 and 2013 at our institution were reviewed. SRVRT cranially extended the PRT field for PALNs up to the left renal vein level. The prescribed dose was consistent 50.4Gy in 28 fractions. Overall, 110 and 96 patients underwent PRT and SRVRT, respectively. The SRVRT group had more advanced disease based on FIGO stage and positive pelvic lymph nodes (PLNs). The median follow-up time was 60months (range, 7-143). For the total study population, the 5-year PALN recurrence-free survival (PARFS) and overall survival (OS) for PRT vs. SRVRT were 87.6% vs. 97.9% (p=0.03) and 74.5% vs. 87.8% (p=0.04), respectively. In patients with FIGO III-IVA or positive PLNs, the 5-year PARFS and OS for PRT vs. SRVRT were 80.1% vs. 96.4% (p=0.02) and 58.1% vs. 83.5% (p=0.012), respectively. However, there were no significant differences in these outcomes for patients with FIGO IB-IIB and negative PLNs. In a multivariate analysis, only SRVRT was associated with better PARFS (HR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.06-0.78; p=0.02). The SRVRT did not significantly increase severe late toxicities. Prophylactic SRVRT using IMRT reduced PALN recurrence with tolerable toxicities, supporting the application of risk-based radiation fields for cervical cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Progressive exercise for anabolism in kidney disease (PEAK): a randomized, controlled trial of resistance training during hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Bobby; Abas, Haifa; Smith, Benjamin; O'Sullivan, Anthony; Chan, Maria; Patwardhan, Aditi; Kelly, John; Gillin, Adrian; Pang, Glen; Lloyd, Brad; Singh, Maria Fiatarone

    2007-05-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting is common and insidious in patients who receive maintenance hemodialysis treatment for the management of ESRD. The objective of this study was to determine whether 12 wk of high-intensity, progressive resistance training (PRT) administered during routine hemodialysis treatment could improve skeletal muscle quantity and quality versus usual care. Forty-nine patients (62.6 +/- 14.2 yr; 0.3 to 16.7 yr on dialysis) were recruited from the outpatient hemodialysis unit of the St. George Public Hospital (Sydney, Australia). Patients were randomized to PRT + usual care (n = 24) or usual care control only (n = 25). The PRT group performed two sets of 10 exercises at a high intensity (15 to 17/20 on the Borg Scale) using free weights, three times per week for 12 wk during routine hemodialysis treatment. Primary outcomes included thigh muscle quantity (cross-sectional area [CSA]) and quality (intramuscular lipid content via attenuation) evaluated by computed tomography scan. Secondary outcomes included muscle strength, exercise capacity, body circumference measures, proinflammatory cytokine C-reactive protein, and quality of life. There was no statistically significant difference in muscle CSA change between groups. However, there were statistically significant improvements in muscle attenuation, muscle strength, mid-thigh and mid-arm circumference, body weight, and C-reactive protein in the PRT group relative to the nonexercising control group. These findings suggest that patients with ESRD can improve skeletal muscle quality and derive other health-related adaptations solely by engaging in a 12-wk high-intensity PRT regimen during routine hemodialysis treatment sessions. Longer training durations or more sensitive analysis techniques may be required to document alterations in muscle CSA.

  8. Effectiveness of progressive resistance strength training versus traditional balance exercise in improving balance among the elderly - a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua, Abraham M; D'Souza, Vivian; Unnikrishnan, B; Mithra, Prasanna; Kamath, Asha; Acharya, Vishak; Venugopal, Anand

    2014-03-01

    Falls are important health issues among the elderly people. Most falls in elderly result from abnormal balance control mechanisms. Balance and muscle force generation are directly related, and are associated with age related muscular changes. Studies addressing fall prevention have focused on various group and individualised strength training. However, evidence on strengthening of key muscles necessary for maintaining balance and postural control is lacking. To evaluate the effectiveness of individualised progressive resistance strength training (PRT) programme in improving balance for forward limits of stability in elderly with balance impairment, compared to traditional balance exercise (TBE), and combination of both (COMBI). This randomised controlled trial included three groups; 18 subjects in each aged ≥ 65 years, from the elderly care centres of Mangalore city in Southern India (between June 2008 and December 2012). Block randomisation technique was used and allocation concealment was done using sequentially arranged sealed opaque envelopes. The TBE group received 8 component traditional balance exercise; 4 times a week for 6 months. The PRT group received resistance training for the key muscles of lower extremities, using DeLormes and Watkins protocol. The COMBI group received PRT and TBE alternately (2 days of PRT and 2 days of TBE per week). Functional reach test (FRT) was used for measurement of forward limits of stability. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15. For functional reach, PRT group had steady progression from baseline to 6 months (pmuscles of lower limbs is more effective than TBE in improving forward limits of stability among non-frail elderly aged ≥65 years.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF BALL VELOCITY AND COURT ILLUMINATION ON REACTION TIME FOR TENNIS VOLLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-hung Tu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The he purpose of this study is to examine the effects of ball velocity, court illumination, and volley type on the reaction time (RT of a tennis athlete for a volley stroke. Eights cases with two different ball velocities (high and low, two volley types (forehand and backhand and two court illumination levels (dark and bright were studied. The 30 participating subjects consisted of 18 male and 12 female college tennis athletes (age: 24 ± 3.2 yr, with a United States Tennis Association (USTA ranking above 2.5. In order to ensure the validity of real-world correlations, the experiments were designed to simulate real competition situations. Reaction times were measured for volley strokes in response to different approaching ball velocities (high: 25.05 ± 0.37 m/s and low: 17.56 ± 0.92 m·s-1 for several volley types (forehand and backhand and court illumination levels (55649 ± 4292 lux and 363.24 ± 6.53 lux on the court. During the tests, the signals from an electromyogram sensor and a 3-axis accelerometer (± 50 g were recorded using an NI DAQ card (NI PXI-6251 and then analyzed to determine reaction time (RT, premotor reaction time (PRT, and motor reaction time (MRT through the LabVIEW system. Subsequent 3-way ANOVA analysis indicated no RT, PRT, or MRT interaction between ball velocity, volley type and illumination. The ball velocity and illumination parameters did affect RT and PRT values significantly with p < 0.05, no significant variation in MRT was observed across any implemented experimental conditions. All experimental results indicate that ball velocity and illumination levels strongly affect the value of PRT, but have no significant effect on the value of MRT, the changes in RT were dominated by PRT

  10. The Tolbachik volcanic massif: A review of the petrology, volcanology and eruption history prior to the 2012-2013 eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churikova, T. G.; Gordeychik, B. N.; Edwards, B. R.; Ponomareva, V. V.; Zelenin, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to summarize all of the published data on the Tolbachik volcanic massif in order to provide a clear framework for the geochronologic, petrologic, geochemical and to a lesser extent the geophysical and tectonic characteristics of the Tolbachik system established prior to the 2012-2013 eruption. The Tolbachik massif forms the southwestern part of the voluminous Klyuchevskoy volcanic group in Kamchatka. The massif includes two large stratovolcanoes, Ostry (;Sharp;) Tolbachik and Plosky (;Flat;) Tolbachik, and a 70 km long zone of the basaltic monogenetic cones that form an arcuate rift-like structure running across the Plosky Tolbachik summit. The Tolbachik massif gained international attention after the 1975-1976 Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption (GTFE), which was one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century and one of the six largest basaltic fissure eruptions in historical time. By the end of the GTFE, 2.2 km3 of volcanic products of variable basaltic compositions with MORB-like isotopic characteristics covered an area of > 1000 km2. During the following three decades more than 700 papers on various aspects of this eruption have been published both in national and international journals. Although the recent 2012-2013 eruption, which is the main topic of this volume, was not as long as the GTFE in duration or as large in area and volume of the erupted deposits, it brought to the surface a unique volcanic material never found before. In order to understand the data from new eruptions and make significant progress towards a better understanding of the Tolbachik magmatic system it is important to be able to put the new results into the historic context of previous research.

  11. The long-term impacts of fisheries on epifaunal assemblage function and structure, in a Special Area of Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, E. M. A.; Allcock, A. L.; Goodwin, C. E.; Maggs, C. A.; Picton, B. E.; Roberts, D.

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries can have profound effects on epifaunal community function and structure. We analysed the results from five dive surveys (1975-1976, 1980, 1983, 2003 and 2007), taken in a Special Area of Conservation, Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland before and after a ten year period of increased trawling activity between 1985 and 1995. There were no detectable differences in the species richness or taxonomic distinctiveness before (1975-1983) and after (2003-2007) this period. However, there was a shift in the epifaunal assemblage between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. In general, the slow-moving, or sessile, erect, filter-feeders were replaced by highly mobile, swimming, scavengers and predators. There were declines in the frequency of the fished bivalve Aequipecten opercularis and the non-fished bivalves Modiolus modiolus and Chlamys varia and some erect sessile invertebrates between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. In contrast, there were increases in the frequency of the fished and reseeded bivalves Pecten maximus and Ostrea edulis, the fished crabs Cancer pagurus and Necora puber and the non-fished sea stars Asterias rubens, Crossaster papposus and Henricia oculata between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. We suggest that these shifts could be directly and indirectly attributed to the long-term impacts of trawl fishing gear, although increases in the supply of discarded bait and influxes of sediment may also have contributed to changes in the frequency of some taxa. These results suggest that despite their limitations, historical surveys and repeat sampling over long periods can help to elucidate the inferred patterns in the epifaunal community. The use of commercial fishing gear was banned from two areas in Strangford Lough in 2011, making it a model ecosystem for assessing the long-term recovery of the epifaunal community from the impacts of mobile and pot fishing gear.

  12. Acute viral hepatitis morbidity and mortality associated with hepatitis E virus infection: Uzbekistan surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, Makhmudkhan B; Favorov, Michael O; Yashina, Tatiana L; Brown, Matthew S; Onischenko, Gennady G; Margolis, Harold S; Chorba, Terence L

    2009-03-25

    In Uzbekistan, routine serologic testing has not been available to differentiate etiologies of acute viral hepatitis (AVH). To determine the age groups most affected by hepatitis E virus (HEV) during documented AVH epidemics, trends in AVH-associated mortality rate (MR) per 100,000 over a 15-year period and reported incidence of AVH over a 35-year period were examined. Reported AVH incidence data from 1971 to 2005 and AVH-associated mortality data from 1981 to 1995 were examined. Serologic markers for infection with hepatitis viruses A, B, D, and E were determined from a sample of hospitalized patients with AVH from an epidemic period (1987) and from a sample of pregnant women with AVH from a non-epidemic period (1992). Two multi-year AVH outbreaks were identified: one during 1975-1976, and one during 1985-1987. During 1985-1987, AVH-associated MRs were 12.3-17.8 per 100,000 for the general population. Highest AVH-associated MRs occurred among children in the first 3 years of life (40-190 per 100,000) and among women aged 20-29 (15-21 per 100,000). During 1988-1995 when reported AVH morbidity was much lower in the general population, AVH-associated MRs were markedly lower among these same age groups. In 1988, AVH-associated MRs were higher in rural (21 per 100,000) than in urban (8 per 100,000) populations (RR 2.6; 95% CI 1.16-5.93; p Uzbekistan during 1985-1987. High mortality among pregnant women but not among children less than 3 years has been observed in previous descriptions of epidemic hepatitis E. The high mortality among younger children observed in an AVH outbreak associated with hepatitis E merits corroboration in future outbreaks.

  13. Survival, site and mate fidelity in south polar skuas Catharacta maccormicki at Anvers Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietz, P.J.; Parmelee, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    In 1974-1975, 34 adult South Polar Skuas Catharacta maccormicki were colour-ringed on 18 nest territories at Bonaparte Point, Anvers Island, near Palmer Station along the Antarctic Peninsula. Subsequently, the area was searched for these birds during the austral summers of 1975-1976 to 1984-1985 and in 1987-1988 and 1989-1990. Fifty-three percent were seen in 1984-1985, 32% in 1987-1988 and 21% in 1989-1990. Annual survival rate averaged 95% from 1974-1975 to 1984-1985; no sexual differences were detected (n = 28 of known sex). Strong territory and mate fidelity were apparent; 34 skuas averaged 1.1 nest territories and 1.7 mates each in 16 years. Only 4 of 34 individuals (all females) were known to change territories, and each territory change involved a change of mates. Although males showed higher territory fidelity than females (P < 0.01), most females (four of five) retained their territories when previous mates failed to return. Seventeen of 34 birds changed mates a total of 24 times; at least 20 mate changes followed the death or disappearance of the former mate. Males showed slightly higher mate fidelity than females (P < 0.04). Female South Polar and Brown Skuas Catharacta lonnbergi did not differ in territory or mate fidelity. From 1974-1975 to 1984-1985, 120 South Polar Skua chicks were ringed on 18 nest territories on Bonaparte Point; 17 were resighted in the Palmer area when they were 3-10 years old. All 17 returnees were found within 3 km of their natal nest sites, and four of them occupied nest territories on Bonaparte Point.

  14. Genome-wide association study for hereditary ataxia in the Parson Russell Terrier and DNA-testing for ataxia-associated mutations in the Parson and Jack Russell Terrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Alana Christina; Metzger, Julia; Tipold, Andrea; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-10-10

    Spinocerebellar ataxia also referred to as hereditary ataxia comprises different forms of progressive neurodegenerative diseases. A complex mode of inheritance was most likely in Parson Russell Terriers (PRT) and in Jack Russell Terriers (JRT). Recently, the missense mutation KCNJ10:c.627C > G was shown to be associated with the spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) in JRT and related Russell group of terriers, whereas the missense mutation CAPN1:c.344G > A was associated with late onset ataxia (LOA) in PRT. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in PRT including 15 cases and 29 controls and found a statistically strong signal in the genomic region on dog chromosome 38 (CFA38) where KCNJ10 is located. We tested the CAPN1:c.344G > A and KCNJ10:c.627C > G (Transcript XM_545752.4) mutations in a sample of 77 PRT and 9 JRT from Germany as well as further 179 controls from 20 different dog breeds. All cases and controls genotyped carried the wild-type for the CAPN1:c.344G > A mutation. Among the PRT, 17/77 (22.1 %) dogs were homozygous for the mutant KCNJ10 allele and 22/77 (28.6 %) dogs were heterozygous. Three cases of PRT had the homozygous KCNJ10 wild-type. In JRT, 1/3 cases did show the mutant KCNJ10 allele homozygous. Thus, we sequenced the KCNJ10 exons with their adjacent regions from 10 PRT and 3 JRT including the animals with imperfect co-segregation of the c.627C > G mutation. We identified a total of 45 genetic variants within KCNJ10. The most likely variant explaining the cases appeared a 1-bp-insertion in a C-stretch within exon 3 (KCNJ10:g.22141027insC). In silico analysis showed that this indel may influence the regulation of gene expression. In the present study, 16/21 cases of hereditary ataxia perfectly co-segregated with the KCNJ10:c.627C > G mutation. The CAPN1:c.344G > A mutation could not be validated and seems to be a rare variant in the samples screened. Screening KCNJ10 for further mutations did result in a

  15. Platelet-rich therapies for musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Vinícius Y; Lenza, Mário; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun; Faloppa, Flávio; Belloti, João Carlos

    2014-04-29

    95% confidence intervals. Where appropriate, data were pooled using the fixed-effect model for RR and MD, and the random-effects model for SMD. The quality of the evidence for each outcome was assessed using GRADE criteria. We included data from 19 small single centre trials (17 randomised and two quasi-randomised; 1088 participants) that compared platelet-rich therapy with placebo, autologous whole blood, dry needling or no platelet-rich therapy. These trials covered eight clinical conditions: rotator cuff tears (arthroscopic repair) (six trials); shoulder impingement syndrome surgery (one trial); elbow epicondylitis (three trials); anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (four trials), ACL reconstruction (donor graft site application) (two trials), patellar tendinopathy (one trial), Achilles tendinopathy (one trial) and acute Achilles rupture surgical repair (one trial). We also grouped trials into 'tendinopathies' where platelet-rich therapy (PRT) injections were the main treatment (five trials), and surgical augmentation procedures where PRT was applied during surgery (14 trials). Trial participants were mainly male, except in trials including rotator cuff tears, and elbow and Achilles tendinopathies.Three trials were judged as being at low risk of bias; the other 16 were at high or unclear risk of bias relating to selection, detection, attrition or selective reporting, or combinations of these. The methods of preparing platelet-rich plasma (PRP) varied and lacked standardisation and quantification of the PRP applied to the patient.We were able to pool data for our primary outcomes (function, pain, adverse events) for a maximum of 11 trials and 45% of participants. The evidence for all primary outcomes was judged as being of very low quality.Data assessing function in the short term (up to three months) were pooled from four trials that assessed PRT in three clinical conditions and used four different measures. These showed no significant difference

  16. Transit Traffic Analysis Zone Delineating Method Based on Thiessen Polygon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwei Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A green transportation system composed of transit, busses and bicycles could be a significant in alleviating traffic congestion. However, the inaccuracy of current transit ridership forecasting methods is imposing a negative impact on the development of urban transit systems. Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ delineating is a fundamental and essential step in ridership forecasting, existing delineating method in four-step models have some problems in reflecting the travel characteristics of urban transit. This paper aims to come up with a Transit Traffic Analysis Zone delineation method as supplement of traditional TAZs in transit service analysis. The deficiencies of current TAZ delineating methods were analyzed, and the requirements of Transit Traffic Analysis Zone (TTAZ were summarized. Considering these requirements, Thiessen Polygon was introduced into TTAZ delineating. In order to validate its feasibility, Beijing was then taken as an example to delineate TTAZs, followed by a spatial analysis of office buildings within a TTAZ and transit station departure passengers. Analysis result shows that the TTAZs based on Thiessen polygon could reflect the transit travel characteristic and is of in-depth research value.

  17. Transit Use, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index Changes: Objective Measures Associated With Complete Street Light-Rail Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Carol M.; Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Smith, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed effects on physical activity (PA) and weight among participants in a complete street intervention that extended a light-rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah. Methods. Participants in the Moving Across Places Study resided within 2 kilometers of the new line. They wore accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) loggers for 1 week before and after rail construction. Regression analyses compared change scores of participants who never rode transit with continuing, former, and new riders, after adjustment for control variables (total n = 537). Results. New riders had significantly more accelerometer-measured counts per minute than never-riders (P < .01), and former riders had significantly fewer (P < .01). New riders lost (P < .05) and former riders gained (P < .01) weight. Former riders lost 6.4 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) per 10 hours of accelerometer wear (P < .01) and gained 16.4 minutes of sedentary time (P < .01). New riders gained 4.2 MVPA minutes (P < .05) and lost 12.8 (P < .05) sedentary minutes per 10 hours accelerometer wear. Conclusions. In light of the health benefits of transit ridership in the complete street area, research should address how to encourage more sustained ridership. PMID:25973829

  18. A preliminary survey analysis of school shuttle bus system towards smart mobility solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wong Seng; Hoy, Cheong Wan; Chye, Koh Keng

    2017-10-01

    Mobility and accessibility are crucial indicators of urban development. Public transport in the urban areas came into existence to fulfil transportation needs as well as mobility and accessibility demands. Ridership can be affected by the quality and quantity of transit service. However, technical improvements are needed for such as real-time bus information, controlling run time and headway delay. Thus, this paper is aimed to carry out a preliminary survey to determine the problems of school shuttle bus that faced by the students in a selected educational institution, their perceptions of using shuttle bus tracking and information mobile application and impacts of real-time information of public transits on bus ridership and towards smart mobility solutions. Efficient public transportation system needs further investigation about the role of mobile application for the bus tracking system in supporting smart mobility actions and real-time information. The proposed application also provides a smart solution for the management of public infrastructures and urban facilities in Malaysia in future. Eventually, this study opens an opportunity to improve Malaysian quality of life on the public value that created for the city as a whole.

  19. Shaping travels and land use with bus rapid transit: a developed city’s visualisation with smartcard and census data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transit and land-use integration is regarded as one of the most important means of avoiding or reducing car dependence and urban sprawl, which are thought as major culprits of unsustainability. In developing countries, rail rapid transit could be too expensive to become the predominant component of their respective systems. However, bus rapid transit (BRT as one of the cheapest forms of mass transit is a better alternative for those countries. In developing countries, BRT has transformed numerous cities such as Curitiba, Brazil; Bogota, Columbia; and Guangzhou, China. Can BRT have the same transformative impacts for cities in developed countries as well? Can the impacts of BRT be visualized using the transit population? Given that few cities in developed countries have BRT and ridership data of BRT are not always available, the above questions have not been well addressed before. To answer these two questions, we analysed smartcard swipes over a five-day weekday period (11–15 March 2013 for Brisbane in Queensland, Australia, and reconstructed trip trajectories of those 255,887 transit riders. We found that BRT serves a significant percentage and number of travellers, thus shaping travel behaviour and ultimately land use – when transit ridership and rate of transit usage are used as indicators. This is a significant achievement in Australia, a country known for its car dependence and urban sprawl.

  20. Keberlanjutan Transportasi di Kota Surabaya Melalui Pengembangan Kawasan Berbasis TOD (Transit Oriented Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Dewi Martha Erli Handayani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Development plan of monorail and tramway in Surabaya City aimed to encourage the movement based transit. TOD (Transit Oriented Development is model for integration of transportation and land use in order to encourage the transit ridership. The result of study in worldwide show the success of TOD application in increasing the usage of transit mode by developing policies on land uses around station/terminal. Therefore, it needs to adopt TOD in transit area of Surabaya City to achieve the sustainable transportation. This study conclude criteria of TOD that can be applied in transit area of Surabaya City are mixed land uses, high intensity of activities around station/terminal, integrated design of circulation and road network, and pedestrians/cyclists friendly design.Development plan of monorail and tramway in Surabaya City aimed to encourage the movement based transit. TOD (Transit Oriented Development is model for integration of transportation and land use in order to encourage the transit ridership. The result of study in worldwide show the success of TOD application in increasing the usage of transit mode by developing policies on land uses around station/terminal. Therefore, it needs to adopt TOD in transit area of Surabaya City to achieve the sustainable transportation. This study conclude criteria of TOD that can be applied in transit area of Surabaya City are mixed land uses, high intensity of activities around station/terminal, integrated design of circulation and road network, and pedestrians/cyclists friendly design.

  1. Reward Learning, Neurocognition, Social Cognition, and Symptomatology in Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Kathryn E; Whitton, Alexis E; Pizzagalli, Diego A; Norris, Lesley A; Ongur, Dost; Hall, Mei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Patients with psychosis spectrum disorders exhibit deficits in social and neurocognition, as well as hallmark abnormalities in motivation and reward processing. Aspects of reward processing may overlap behaviorally and neurobiologically with some elements of cognitive functioning, and abnormalities in these processes may share partially overlapping etiologies in patients. However, whether reward processing and cognition are associated across the psychoses and linked to state and trait clinical symptomatology is unclear. The present study examined associations between cognitive functioning, reward learning, and clinical symptomatology in a cross-diagnostic sample. Patients with schizophrenia (SZ; n = 37), bipolar I disorder with psychosis (BD; n = 42), and healthy controls (n = 29) were assessed for clinical symptoms (patients only), neurocognitive functioning using the MATRICS Battery (MCCB) and reward learning using the probabilistic reward task (PRT). Groups were compared on neurocognition and PRT response bias, and associations between PRT response bias and neurocognition or clinical symptoms were examined controlling for demographic variables and PRT task difficulty (discriminability). Patients with SZ performed worse than controls on most measures of neurocognition; patients with BD exhibited deficits in some domains between the level of patients with SZ and controls. The SZ - but not BD - group exhibited deficits in social cognition compared to controls. Patients and controls did not differ on PRT response bias, but did differ on PRT discriminability. Better response bias across the sample was associated with poorer social cognition, but not neurocognition; conversely, discriminability was associated with neurocognition but not social cognition. Symptoms of psychosis, particularly negative symptoms, were associated with poorer response bias across patient groups. Reward learning was associated with symptoms of psychosis - in particular negative

  2. Benthic trophic status of sediments in a metropolitan area (Rio de la Plata estuary): Linkages with natural and human pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Natalia; Pita, Ana Laura; Brugnoli, Ernesto; García-Rodríguez, Felipe; Burone, Leticia; Kandratavicius, Noelia; Hutton, Marisa; Muniz, Pablo

    2012-10-01

    We evaluated the benthic trophic status of the Montevideo coastal zone-Rio de la Plata estuary using the quantity and the biochemical composition of sedimentary organic matter as synthetic descriptors. The spatio-temporal patterns in the biochemical composition of sedimentary organic matter were related to the presence of some natural and human pressures. Biochemical features were analyzed correlatively with the type and proximity of certain impacts to investigate the usefulness of this biochemical approach for assessing the levels of natural and anthropogenic perturbations. Chlorophyll-a, phaeopigment and the biopolymeric carbon concentrations were similar to those reported in very productive, eutrophic and anthropised estuarine areas. Total proteins (PRT) and lipids (LIP) showed the highest concentrations in the inner portion of Montevideo Bay, decreasing towards the nearby coastal areas of Punta Carretas and Punta Yeguas. Total carbohydrates (CHO) presented the lowest values in the outer stations of Montevideo Bay, but similar and higher concentrations were recorded in the inner stations of the bay and the adjacent coastal zones. PRT:CHO ratios >1 were always observed for the inner stations of Montevideo Bay thus suggesting intense detritus mineralization and an increment in their protein content due to bacterial activity. The biopolymeric carbon showed the same spatial trend observed for PRT, LPD and the PRT: CHO ratios with highest concentrations in the inner bay than in Pta. Carretas and Pta. Yeguas. Elevated contributions of PRT and LIP in the inner Montevideo Bay may be associated with anthropogenic inputs of organic matter such as sewage, food industry and petroleum hydrocarbons. Conversely, high CHO contributions in the nearby coastal areas of Pta. Carretas and Pta. Yeguas seemed to be related to autochthonous primary production and CHO temporal variability with natural oscillations in the productivity of the system. Biochemical composition of organic

  3. Projected Second Tumor Risk and Dose to Neurocognitive Structures After Proton Versus Photon Radiotherapy for Benign Meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvold, Nils D. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Niemierko, Andrzej; Broussard, George P.; Adams, Judith; Fullerton, Barbara; Loeffler, Jay S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To calculated projected second tumor rates and dose to organs at risk (OAR) in patients with benign intracranial meningioma (BM), according to dosimetric comparisons between proton radiotherapy (PRT) and photon radiotherapy (XRT) treatment plans. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with BM treated at Massachusetts General Hospital during 2006-2010 with PRT were replanned with XRT (intensity-modulated or three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy), optimizing dose to the tumor while sparing OAR. Total dose was 54 Gy in 1.8 Gy per fraction for all plans. We calculated equivalent uniform doses, normal tissue complication probabilities, and whole brain-based estimates of excess risk of radiation-associated intracranial second tumors. Results: Excess risk of second tumors was significantly lower among PRT compared with XRT plans (1.3 vs. 2.8 per 10,000 patients per year, p < 0.002). Mean equivalent uniform doses were lower among PRT plans for the whole brain (19.0 vs. 22.8 Gy, p < 0.0001), brainstem (23.8 vs. 35.2 Gy, p = 0.004), hippocampi (left, 13.5 vs. 25.6 Gy, p < 0.0001; right, 7.6 vs. 21.8 Gy, p = 0.001), temporal lobes (left, 25.8 vs. 34.6 Gy, p = 0.007; right, 25.8 vs. 32.9 Gy, p = 0.008), pituitary gland (29.2 vs. 37.0 Gy, p = 0.047), optic nerves (left, 28.5 vs. 33.8 Gy, p = 0.04; right, 25.1 vs. 31.1 Gy, p = 0.07), and cochleas (left, 12.2 vs. 15.8 Gy, p = 0.39; right,1.5 vs. 8.8 Gy, p = 0.01). Mean normal tissue complication probability was <1% for all structures and not significantly different between PRT and XRT plans. Conclusions: Compared with XRT, PRT for BM decreases the risk of RT-associated second tumors by half and delivers significantly lower doses to neurocognitive and critical structures of vision and hearing.

  4. The Effect of Physical Readiness Training on Reserve Officers' Training Corps Freshmen Cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jonathan M; Stone, Jason D; Holt, Chris; Jenke, Shane C; Jagim, Andrew R; Jones, Margaret T

    2017-11-01

    The U.S. Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) is the largest commissioning source among all branches. Physical Readiness Training (PRT) is fundamental to ROTC cadet training. However, although studies have evaluated the effectiveness of PRT in cadets with prior PRT experience, no study has examined the early phase adaptations in those cadets with no prior PRT experience. To determine the effect of PRT over the course of an academic year (9 months) in freshmen ROTC cadets, thirteen (n = 13; 7 male [180.8 ± 4.7 cm, 77.4 ± 10.0 kg; 19.8 ± 6.5 % body fat], 6 female [159.5 ± 12.1 cm; 63.4 ± 8.4 kg; 29.6 ± 6.2% body fat]) cadets with no prior PRT performed laboratory (body composition, 1-repetition maximum [1RM] bench and squat, countermovement vertical jump, maximal aerobic capacity [VO2max]) and field-based ([Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) (2 minutes maximum push-ups and sit-ups, 2-mile run)]) measures of performance before (PRE), mid-year (MID), and at the conclusion of the academic year (POST). PRT was performed 3 times per week in accordance with Army standards. No changes occurred in body composition, VO2max, or countermovement vertical jump. 1RM bench improved at MID in men (PRE, 78.5 ± 8.4 kg; MID, 84.7 ± 8.0 kg) and women (PRE, 42.0 ± 10.2 kg; MID, 46.2 ± 10.9 kg) with no further improvement. Women improved 1RM back squat (PRE, 55.3 ± 13.5 kg; POST, 74.6 ± 14.6 kg) and APFT tests: push-ups (PRE, 27 ± 10; POST, 39 ± 12), sit-ups (PRE, 55 ± 19; POST, 74 ± 12), 2-mile run (PRE, 18.6 ± 2.9; POST, 17.2 ± 1.3 minutes); although men improved in push-ups (PRE, 54 ± 6; POST, 67 ± 8) and sit-ups (PRE, 63 ± 8; POST, 75 ± 9). Nine months of PRT improved APFT scores of freshmen cadets while minor effects were noted in laboratory-based performance. Given the lack of improvements in strength and power, it would be advisable to provide supplemental strength and power training. Being a large commissioning resource for the Army with greater access

  5. Neurorehabilitation with versus without resistance training after botulinum toxin treatment in children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Jensen, Bente Rona; Nielsen, Lone M

    2012-01-01

    PRT (n=7) or CON (n=7) two times per week for 12 weeks, following the BoNT-treatment. Outcome measurements were performed at baseline (pre BoNT), and 4 and 12 weeks post BoNT. They consisted of: ankle muscle function (maximal torque and submaximal torque steadiness of isometric ankle dorsi......- and plantarflexion and associated ankle muscle [EMG] activity), gait function (3-dimensional gait analysis), balance function (sway analysis), gross motor function (GMFM-66), and spasticity (modified Ashworth). Results: Submaximal torque control (torque steadiness) of isometric dorsiflexion improved similarly...... in the two groups, and the improvement was related to the reduction in antagonist (soleus) co-activity (Ptorque increased after PRT, whereas a reduction was seen after CON (P

  6. The use of positive reinforcement in training zebra sharks (Stegostoma fasciatum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marranzino, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) was used on 4 adult zebra sharks, Stegostoma fasciatum, housed at the Downtown Aquarium, Denver, to determine the ability of zebra sharks to become desensitized to various stimuli associated with veterinary procedures. One male and 3 female sharks were trained for 12 weeks. As a result of PRT, all 4 zebra sharks were desensitized to staying within a closed holding tank off of the main exhibit, the presence of multiple trainers in the closed holding tank, and tactile stimulation. One of the 4 zebra sharks was also successfully desensitized to the presence of a stretcher being brought into the holding tank. All of these procedures are common in veterinary examinations, and it is hoped that desensitization to these stimuli will reduce the stress associated with examinations. The training accomplished has allowed for easier maintenance of the zebra sharks by the aquarium staff and an improvement in the care of the sharks.

  7. Publication bias in studies of an applied behavior-analytic intervention: an initial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Elyssa; Smith, Tristram

    2014-01-01

    Publication bias arises when studies with favorable results are more likely to be reported than are studies with null findings. If this bias occurs in studies with single-subject experimental designs(SSEDs) on applied behavior-analytic (ABA) interventions, it could lead to exaggerated estimates of intervention effects. Therefore, we conducted an initial test of bias by comparing effect sizes, measured by percentage of nonoverlapping data (PND), in published SSED studies (n=21) and unpublished dissertations (n=10) on 1 well-established intervention for children with autism, pivotal response treatment (PRT). Although published and unpublished studies had similar methodologies, the mean PND in published studies was 22% higher than in unpublished studies, 95% confidence interval (4%, 38%). Even when unpublished studies are included, PRT appeared to be effective (PNDM=62%). Nevertheless, the disparity between published and unpublished studies suggests a need for further assessment of publication bias in the ABA literature.

  8. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J

    2014-01-01

    participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger......Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary...... the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor "openness" were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training...

  9. Numerical Heat Transfer Model for a Heat-Barrier-Piston Engine with Hypergolic Combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    6vs~g PrI ’ .- where T gin= temperature of atmosphere. *. For rvs > 11.63: 43 . . ...-...-. Pin C C1 I/4 kinI/2 ( Tgvs Tvs) (2-67) .rt + . .- - loge...nodal points Non-flow region T /vle gVext Tgv ~ T Vt ?;-’ ’ 0. Open valve f rom viewpoint of non-flow energy equation. Figure 5-2 Open valve from...17) regv Prl If Xvalvee > 11.63: Cv/4 e ( (5-19)*I, Pgev Cpgev C V kgevI/2 ( Tgv -int Tvext) q valve e (5-18) Prt loge (E xvalve e + Prt (P 4 - ) K

  10. KWIK Smoke Obscuration Model: User’s Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    t ’ustr ( td I IK,j) 384: prt 3o :: pr t 6 k AC 1-4G" 36~b : pr t " ~ L 3b7: if j~i;prt &t(t1,] 3 8 8: it J=2;pr. "&str(Zjl,1,KI) 3 0 9: j~r t "I 39u...t.2~t71. * j3 3 2u: w r t 7uX ,"i(Lz~j i21iJ "c3wt70, )i: lnt 4 5X, "irI I U uIL - = 01 17.2;wrt 701,kq3 j~b: Lirt. 45x,"a..~c4 uAT - LiLY = g,t4.2

  11. Intensity-modulated proton therapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and 3D conformal radiotherapy in anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma. A dosimetric comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeberg, S.; Debus, J. [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Clinical Cooperation Unit Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Harrabi, S.B.; Bougatf, N.; Rieber, J.; Koerber, S.A.; Herfarth, K.; Rieken, S. [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Bernhardt, D.; Syed, M.; Sprave, T.; Mohr, A. [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Abdollahi, A. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Haberer, T. [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Combs, S.E. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Muenchen (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institut fuer Innovative Radiotherapie (iRT), Department of Radiation Sciences (DRS), Neuherberg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    The prognosis for high-grade glioma (HGG) patients is poor; thus, treatment-related side effects need to be minimized to conserve quality of life and functionality. Advanced techniques such as proton radiation therapy (PRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) may potentially further reduce the frequency and severity of radiogenic impairment. We retrospectively assessed 12 HGG patients who had undergone postoperative intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). VMAT and 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) plans were generated and optimized for comparison after contouring crucial neuronal structures important for neurogenesis and neurocognitive function. Integral dose (ID), homogeneity index (HI), and inhomogeneity coefficient (IC) were calculated from dose statistics. Toxicity data were evaluated. Target volume coverage was comparable for all three modalities. Compared to 3D-CRT and VMAT, PRT showed statistically significant reductions (p < 0.05) in mean dose to whole brain (-20.2 %, -22.7 %); supratentorial (-14.2 %, -20,8 %) and infratentorial (-91.0 %, -77.0 %) regions; brainstem (-67.6 %, -28.1 %); pituitary gland (-52.9 %, -52.5 %); contralateral hippocampus (-98.9 %, -98.7 %); and contralateral subventricular zone (-62.7 %, -66.7 %, respectively). Fatigue (91.7 %), radiation dermatitis (75.0 %), focal alopecia (100.0 %), nausea (41.7 %), cephalgia (58.3 %), and transient cerebral edema (16.7 %) were the most common acute toxicities. Essential dose reduction while maintaining equal target volume coverage was observed using PRT, particularly in contralaterally located critical neuronal structures, areas of neurogenesis, and structures of neurocognitive functions. These findings were supported by preliminary clinical results confirming the safety and feasibility of PRT in HGG. (orig.) [German] Die Prognose bei ''High-grade''-Gliomen (HGG) ist infaust. Gerade bei diesen Patienten sollten therapieassoziierte Nebenwirkungen minimiert werden

  12. Resistance training improves muscle strength and functional capacity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Stenager, E; Jakobsen, J

    2009-01-01

    of KE and FS in the exercise group persisted at follow-up after 24 weeks. Also, the exercise effects were reproduced in the control group during the 12-week posttrial PRT period. CONCLUSIONS: Twelve weeks of intense progressive resistance training of the lower extremities leads to improvements of muscle...... strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis, the effects persisting after 12 weeks of self-guided physical activity. Level of evidence: The present study provides level III evidence supporting the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training can improve muscle......OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training (PRT) can improve muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to evaluate whether the improvements are maintained after the trial. METHODS: The present study was a 2-arm...

  13. "Leaving it to chance"-Passive risk taking in everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruty Keinan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available While risk research focuses on actions that put people at risk, this paper introduces the concept of ``passive risk''---risk brought on or magnified by inaction. We developed a scale measuring personal tendency for passive risk taking (PRT, validated it using a 150 undergraduate student sample, and obtained three factors indicating separate domains of passive risk taking: risk involving resources, medical risks and ethical risks. The scale has criterion validity, as it is correlated with reported passive risk taking in everyday life, and also has high test-retest reliability. While correlated with the DOSPERT scale, the PRT shows divergent validity from classic risk taking constructs like sensation seeking, and convergent validity with tendencies previously not linked to risk taking, such as procrastination and avoidance. The results indicate that passive risk is a separate and unique domain of risk taking, which merits further research to understand the cognitive and motivational mechanism perpetuating it.

  14. Pivotal Response Treatment Parent Training for Autism: Findings from a 3-Month Follow-Up Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengoux, Grace W; Berquist, Kari L; Salzman, Emma; Schapp, Salena; Phillips, Jennifer M; Frazier, Thomas W; Minjarez, Mendy B; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2015-09-01

    This study's objective was to assess maintenance of treatment effects 3 months after completion of a 12-week Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) parent education group. Families who completed the active treatment (N = 23) were followed for an additional 12 weeks to measure changes in language and cognitive skills. Results indicated a significant improvement in frequency of functional utterances, with maintenance at 3-month follow-up [F(2, 21): 5.9, p = .009]. Children also made significant gains on the Vineland Communication Domain Standard Score [F(2, 12):11.74, p = .001] and the Mullen Scales of Early Learning Composite score [F(1, 20) = 5.43, p = .03]. These results suggest that a brief PRT parent group intervention can lead to improvements in language and cognitive functioning that are maintained 12 weeks post treatment.

  15. Teaching symbolic play skills to children with autism using pivotal response training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmer, A C

    1995-04-01

    Used Pivotal Response Training (PRT) to teach 7 children with autism to engage in symbolic play behaviors. Symbolic play, complexity of play behavior, and creativity of play were assessed. In addition, generalization measures were obtained across settings, toys, and play partners. Interaction with the play partners and comparison with typical controls were also examined. Results indicated that children with autism rarely exhibited symbolic play before training or after a control condition. After specific symbolic play training using PRT, all of the children learned to perform complex and creative symbolic play actions at levels similar to that of language-matched typical controls. In most cases the children generalized their play to new toys, environments, and play partners and continued to engage in symbolic play behavior after a 3-month follow-up period. In addition, interaction skills improved after training. Treatment implications for these findings are discussed.

  16. Domestic Worker, Transnational Advocacy and the State of Exception: A Case Study on The Advocacy of Domestic Worker’s Rights in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Ramadhan Bastari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains why domestic workers (PRT remain not considered as formal workers in Indonesia. This problem becomes very urgent as PRT covers 76% of the national labor population and there has been considerable pressure from transnational community. This question is answered by applying  Agamben's theory of state of exception. This paper deploysdiscourse analysis method to examine a number of texts related to the Government of Indonesian's stance and the advocacy for PRT’s rights in Indonesia. This study finds that the Government of Indonesia has established a state of exception allowing to ignore PRT’s rights as workers under existing law. The study, then, concludes that the Government of Indonesian cannot be expected to meet PRT’s rights. Consequently, the strategy of advocacy should be directed to encourage other countries to push Indonesia so as to meet PRT’s rights.

  17. Palliative radiotherapy in head and neck cancers: Evidence based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talapatra Kaustav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN is one of the commonest cancers seen in India, constituting up to 25% of their overall cancer burden. Advanced SCCHN is a bad disease with a poor prognosis and patients usually die of uncontrolled loco-regional disease. Curative intent management of loco-regionally advanced SCCHN has become more evidence-based with active clinical research in the form of large prospective randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. However, little has been written about palliative radiotherapy (PRT in head and neck cancers. It is widely recognized that PRT provides effective palliation and improved quality-of-life in advanced incurable malignancies. It is in this context that this study proposes to review the existing literature on palliative radiotherapy in advanced incurable SCCHN to help formulate consensus guidelines and recommendations.

  18. Synchronous Routing for Personal Rapid Transit Pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mrad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal rapid transit (PRT is a public and automated transport system in which a fleet of small driverless vehicles operate in order to transport passengers between a set of stations through a network of guided ways. Each customer is carried from one station to another directly with no stop in intermediate stations. This mode of transport can result in a high level of unused capacity due to the empty moves of the vehicles. In this paper, we model the problem of minimizing the energy consumed by the PRT system while assuming predeterministic list of orders; then we solve it using some constructive heuristics. Experiments are run on 1320 randomly generated test problems with various sizes. Our algorithms are shown to give good results over large trip instances.

  19. PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION AND INJURY PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR THE ARMY PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST: TECHNIQUE MATTERS

    OpenAIRE

    Thelen, Mark; Koppenhaver, Shane

    2015-01-01

    The Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) is a biannual training requirement for all soldiers. The Army has made significant overall fitness gains by developing functional and comprehensive Physical Readiness Training (PRT) programs, but more emphasis on individualized physical fitness test taking technique is warranted in order to optimize performance. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to provide clinicians with several examples of APFT performance enhancement techniques that can potent...

  20. Incidence of CNS Injury for a Cohort of 111 Patients Treated With Proton Therapy for Medulloblastoma: LET and RBE Associations for Areas of Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Sethi, Roshan V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Yeap, Beow Y. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Eaton, Bree R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ebb, David H. [Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Caruso, Paul A.; Rapalino, Otto [Department of Radiology (O.R.) at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chen, Yen-Lin E.; Adams, Judith A.; Yock, Torunn I.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Paganetti, Harald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); MacDonald, Shannon M., E-mail: smacdonald@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Background: Central nervous system (CNS) injury is a rare complication of radiation therapy for pediatric brain tumors, but its incidence with proton radiation therapy (PRT) is less well defined. Increased linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) at the distal end of proton beams may influence this risk. We report the incidence of CNS injury in medulloblastoma patients treated with PRT and investigate correlations with LET and RBE values. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 111 consecutive patients treated with PRT for medulloblastoma between 2002 and 2011 and selected patients with clinical symptoms of CNS injury. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings for all patients were contoured on original planning scans (treatment change areas [TCA]). Dose and LET distributions were calculated for the treated plans using Monte Carlo system. RBE values were estimated based on LET-based published models. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.2 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence of CNS injury was 3.6% for any grade and 2.7% for grade 3+. Three of 4 symptomatic patients were treated with a whole posterior fossa boost. Eight of 10 defined TCAs had higher LET values than the target but statistically nonsignificant differences in RBE values (P=.12). Conclusions: Central nervous system and brainstem injury incidence for PRT in this series is similar to that reported for photon radiation therapy. The risk of CNS injury was higher for whole posterior fossa boost than for involved field. Although no clear correlation with RBE values was found, numbers were small and additional investigation is warranted to better determine the relationship between injury and LET.

  1. Expression and characterization of alkaline protease from the metagenomic library of tannery activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Selvaraju Gayathri; Fathima, Anwar Aliya; Sanitha, Mary; Iyappan, Sellamuthu; Curtis, Wayne R; Ramya, Mohandass

    2016-12-01

    Metagenomics has the potential to facilitate the discovery of novel enzymes; however, to date, only a few alkaline proteases have been characterized from environmentally-sourced DNA. We report the identification and characterization of an alkaline serine protease designated as Prt1A from the metagenomic library of tannery activated sludge. Sequence analysis revealed that Prt1A is closely related to S8A family subtilisins with a catalytic triad of Asp143, His173, and Ser326. The putative protease gene (prt-1A) was subcloned in pET 28a (+) vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS cells. This 38.8 KDa recombinant protease was purified to homogeneity by nickel affinity chromatography and exhibited optimal enzyme activity at elevated pH (11.0) and temperature (55°C). The enzyme activity was enhanced by the addition of 5 mM Ca(2+) ions, and was stable in the presence of anionic detergent, oxidizing agent and various organic solvents. The enzyme displayed high affinity and catalytic efficiency for casein under standard assay conditions (Vmax = 279 U/mg/min, Km = 1.70 mg/mL) and was also compatible with commercial detergents. These results suggest that Prt1A protease could act as an efficient enzyme in various industrial applications. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Losing Ground on the Afghanistan Provincial Reconstruction Team Mission and Recommendations for Regaining It

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    just as powerful to the mission success of the PRT as the official function underway. It is an opportunity to interact the child whose school may...facilities. Ailments can range from dehydration and malnutrition to gunshot wounds. Patients range from infants to elderly citizens. In some cases...Labor Statistics , “there is currently no universal form of certification required of interpreters and translators in the United States” 24 . As a

  3. Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART) in at risk individuals: a randomised double blind, sham controlled, longitudinal trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Nicola J; Valenzuela, Michael; Sachdev, Perminder S; Singh, Nalin A; Baune, Bernhard T; Brodaty, Henry; Suo, Chao; Jain, Nidhi; Wilson, Guy C; Wang, Yi; Baker, Michael K; Williamson, Dominique; Foroughi, Nasim; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2011-04-21

    The extent to which mental and physical exercise may slow cognitive decline in adults with early signs of cognitive impairment is unknown. This article provides the rationale and methodology of the first trial to investigate the isolated and combined effects of cognitive training (CT) and progressive resistance training (PRT) on general cognitive function and functional independence in older adults with early cognitive impairment: Study of Mental and Regular Training (SMART). Our secondary aim is to quantify the differential adaptations to these interventions in terms of brain morphology and function, cardiovascular and metabolic function, exercise capacity, psychological state and body composition, to identify the potential mechanisms of benefit and broader health status effects. SMART is a double-blind randomized, double sham-controlled trial. One hundred and thirty-two community-dwelling volunteers will be recruited. Primary inclusion criteria are: at risk for cognitive decline as defined by neuropsychology assessment, low physical activity levels, stable disease, and age over 55 years. The two active interventions are computerized CT and whole body, high intensity PRT. The two sham interventions are educational videos and seated calisthenics. Participants are randomized into 1 of 4 supervised training groups (2 d/wk×6 mo) in a fully factorial design. Primary outcomes measured at baseline, 6, and 18 months are the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog), neuropsychological test scores, and Bayer Informant Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (B-IADLs). Secondary outcomes are psychological well-being, quality of life, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function, body composition, insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and anabolic/neurotrophic hormones, and brain morphology and function via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (fMRS). SMART will provide a novel evaluation of the immediate and long term benefits of CT, PRT, and combined

  4. Health status of older adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus after aerobic or resistance training: A randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    Goh Su-Yen; Shyong Tai E; Ng Cindy; Wee Hwee-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A prior study showed positive effects of resistance training on health status in individuals with diabetes compared to aerobic or no exercise, the exercise regimens were either different in volume, duration or rate of progression. We aimed to compare the effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) or aerobic training (AT) of similar volume over an 8-week period on health status (measured using the Short-form 36 Questionnaire) in middle aged adults with type 2 diabetes...

  5. "Plan gubernamental de reinserción": una alternativa para la creación de empresas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaneth Prieto Forero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Uno de los planes destacados en este artículo  es un acuerdo de paz realizados con los grupos subversivos, que trata de la búsqueda de paz. El gobierno Nacional y los grupos subversivos: M-19, el partido revolucionario de los trabajadores (PRT., el ejército popular de liberación  (EPL. y quintín Lame (QL han logrado llegar a acuerdos.

  6. Acute effects of constant torque and constant angle stretching on the muscle and tendon tissue properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Andreas; Budini, Francesco; Tilp, Markus

    2017-08-01

    Static stretching induces acute structural changes of the muscle-tendon unit (MTU) that are related to the intensity or duration of stretching. It has been reported that stretching with a constant torque (CT) leads to greater joint range of motion changes than stretching with a constant angle (CA). Whether or not this difference is due to different structural changes of the MTUs of the lower leg and ankle plantar flexors is not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of single CA and CT stretching on various muscle and tendon mechanical properties. Seventeen young, healthy volunteers were tested on two separate days using either CT or CA stretching (4 × 30 s each). Before and after stretching, dorsiflexion range of motion (RoM), passive resistive torque (PRT), and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) were measured with a dynamometer. Ultrasonography of the medial gastrocnemius (GM) muscle-tendon junction (MTJ) displacement allowed us to determine the length changes in the tendon and muscle, respectively, and hence to calculate their stiffness. Maximum dorsiflexion increased while PRT, muscle-tendon stiffness, and muscle stiffness decreased following both CA and CT stretching. There was a greater increase in RoM following CT stretching compared to CA stretching. Moreover, the decline in PRT was greater during CT stretching compared to CA stretching. As expected, several functional adaptations (RoM, PRT) were different between CT and CA stretching due to the higher intensity of CT stretching. However, no structural differences in the adaptations to the stretching modalities could be detected. We suggest that the different functional adaptations between CA and CT stretching are the consequence of different adaptations in the perception of stretch and pain.

  7. Stability in the Offense: The Evolution of Civil Affairs During World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    FUSAG First United States Army Group GO General Orders ICU Information Control Unit JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff PRT Provincial Reconstruction... rehabilitation of liberated areas, it is quite apparent if prompt results are to be obtained the Army will have to assume the initial burden of...Information Control Units ( ICU ). 215 Perhaps the most surprising element of Operation ECLIPSE is how it was implemented. Instead of executing

  8. Electrical stimulation plus progressive resistance training for leg strength in spinal cord injury: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, L A; Fornusek, C; Bowden, J L; Pontifex, N; Glinsky, J; Middleton, J W; Gandevia, S C; Davis, G M

    2010-07-01

    A randomized controlled trial. To determine the effectiveness of electrical stimulation (ES)-evoked muscle contractions superimposed on progressive resistance training (PRT) for increasing voluntary strength in the quadriceps muscles of people with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Sydney, Australia. A total of 20 people with established SCI and neurologically induced weakness of the quadriceps muscles participated in the trial. Participants were randomized between experimental and control groups. Volunteers in the experimental group received ES superimposed on PRT to the quadriceps muscles of one leg thrice weekly for 8 weeks. Participants in the control group received no intervention. Assessments occurred at the beginning and at the end of the 8-week period. The four primary outcomes were voluntary strength (Nm) and endurance (fatigue ratio) as well as the performance and satisfaction items of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM; points). The between-group mean differences (95% confidence interval (CI)) for voluntary strength and endurance were 14 Nm (1-27; P=0.034) and 0.1 (-0.1 to 0.3; P=0.221), respectively. The between-group median differences (95% CI) for the performance and satisfaction items of the COPM were 1.7 points (-0.2 to 3.2; P=0.103) and 1.4 points (-0.1 to 4.6; P=0.058), respectively. ES superimposed on PRT improves voluntary strength, although there is uncertainty about whether the size of the treatment effect is clinically important. The relative effectiveness of ES and PRT is yet to be determined.

  9. A metalloprotease secreted by the insect pathogen Photorhabdus luminescens induces melanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Kiara G; LaRock, Christopher N; D'Argenio, David A; Berg, Celeste A; Collins, Carleen M

    2007-12-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens is a gram-negative insect pathogen that enters the hemocoel of infected hosts and produces a number of secreted proteins that promote colonization and subsequent death of the insect. In initial studies to determine the exact role of individual secreted proteins in insect pathogenesis, concentrated culture supernatants from various P. luminescens strains were injected into the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta. Culture supernatants from P. luminescens TT01, the genome-sequenced strain, stimulated a rapid melanization reaction in M. sexta. Comparison of the profiles of secreted proteins from the various Photorhabdus strains revealed a single protein of approximately 37 kDa that was significantly overrepresented in the TT01 culture supernatant. This protein was purified by DEAE ion-exchange and Superdex 75 gel filtration chromatography and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight analysis as the product of the TT01 gene plu1382 (NCBI accession number NC_005126); we refer to it here as PrtS. PrtS is a member of the M4 metalloprotease family. Injection of PrtS into larvae of M. sexta and Galleria mellonella and into adult Drosophila melanogaster and D. melanogaster melanization mutants (Bc) confirmed that the purified protein induced the melanization reaction. The prtS gene was transcribed by P. luminescens injected into M. sexta before death of the insect, suggesting that the protein was produced during infection. The exact function of this protease during infection is not clear. The bacteria might survive inside the insect despite the melanization process, or it might be that the bacterium is specifically activating melanization in an attempt to circumvent this innate immune response.

  10. Ciliates rapidly enhance the frequency of conjugation between Escherichia coli strains through bacterial accumulation in vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Junji; Oguri, Satoshi; Nakamura, Shinji; Hanawa, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Kouhei; Mizutani, Yoshihiko; Yao, Takashi; Akizawa, Kouzi; Suzuki, Haruki; Simizu, Chikara; MATSUNO, Kazuhiko; Kamiya, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism underlying bacterial conjugation through protozoa was investigated. Kanamycin-resistant Escherichia coli SM10λ+ carrying pRT733 with TnphoA was used as donor bacteria and introduced by conjugation into ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli clinical isolate recipient bacteria. Equal amounts of donor and recipient bacteria were mixed together in the presence or absence of protozoa (ciliates, free-living amoebae, myxamoebae) in Page's amoeba saline for 24 h. Transconjugants were selected...

  11. Standardizing operational vector sampling techniques for measuring malaria transmission intensity: evaluation of six mosquito collection methods in western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Jacklyn; Bayoh, Nabie; Olang, George; Killeen, Gerry; Hamel, Mary J; Vulule, John M.; Gimnig, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Background\\ud Operational vector sampling methods lack standardization, making quantitative comparisons of malaria transmission across different settings difficult. Human landing catch (HLC) is considered the research gold standard for measuring human-mosquito contact, but is unsuitable for large-scale sampling. This study assessed mosquito catch rates of CDC light trap (CDC-LT), Ifakara tent trap (ITT), window exit trap (WET), pot resting trap (PRT), and box resting trap (BRT) relative to HL...

  12. Executive functioning, academic skills, and quality of life in pediatric patients with brain tumors post-proton radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Lea M; Grieco, Julie A; Evans, Casey L; Kuhlthau, Karen A; MacDonald, Shannon M; Tarbell, Nancy J; Yock, Torunn I; Pulsifer, Margaret B

    2017-12-06

    Radiation therapy (RT) is integral in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors; however, photon RT (XRT) often results in intellectual decline, executive functioning (EF) deficits, academic underachievement/failure, and lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Proton RT (PRT) provides more targeted therapy, minimizing damage to the developing brain, yet few studies have examined its neuropsychological effects. This study investigated the role of EF in academic skills and HRQoL in a sample of children treated with PRT. A mediation model was proposed in which academic skills mediated relations between aspects of EF and school-based HRQoL (sHRQoL). Sixty-five children (x̅age = 12.4; 43.9% male) treated with PRT completed follow-up neuropsychological testing as part of routine care. Measures included assessment of intellectual functioning, EF, attention, and academic skills (reading, math, spelling). Parents reported on children's EF and attention problems. sHRQoL was assessed via child self-report. Children who underwent PRT demonstrated relatively intact intelligence, academics, attention, EF, and sHRQoL, but were at risk for reduced processing speed. Poorer working memory and processing speed were related to lower sHRQoL. Better EF and faster processing speed were associated with better academic skills, which were linked to higher sHRQoL. Better working memory was associated with better math performance, which was linked to higher sHRQoL; this relationship did not hold for reading or spelling. Results highlight the importance of EF skills in academic performance and sHRQoL, and the need for routine screening of EF deficits and proactive supports. Supports may include cognitive rehabilitation and in-class accommodations. Overall, results compare favorably to XRT outcomes reported in the literature.

  13. Evaluation of Telepathology Systems and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    wnplin, ptriod of 0 .47 )1IIl p<r pixel. The scanner "as <qUIpped wilh dual 2.~ Gilt Xeon prt:IUSSOIř with 4 GB of RAM. Di&iul .Iides " ..... placed...on a server " .jth dual J Gilt Xeon processors and 4 GB of RAM I’\\Illning Microsoft Window, Strv~r 20()0. The digital slides were vie",’ed u,ing

  14. Challenges in Assessing Progress in Multifunctional Operations: Experiences from a Provincial Reconstruction Team in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    these measures. Assessment of progress can thus be seen as a process consisting of monitoring and evaluation activities ( Sida , 2007). Input...limited integration and understanding between the Swedish Armed Forces and SIDA at the domestic interagency level. Four participants said that the...military and SIDA personnel had been sent to the PRT with different mandates, objectives and cultures, without practical instructions on how to

  15. Evaluation of Policy Implementation at Norm Strategy Criteria Procedure Safety Management System that Influence the Safety Culture in Building Construction, Housing, Waterworks, Road and Bridge Project in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Latief; Rossy Armyn Machfudiyanto; Brain Harryanto; Cahyadi Santoso

    2017-01-01

    Unideal Safety culture in Indonesia requires an evaluation of policy implementation refers to the construction safety regulation, Ministry Regulation 05/PRT/2014. Out of Norms, Standards, Procedures and Criteria (NSPK), we only have Norms and Procedure. As for Standard and Criteria are still being planned. This research on building, housing, water resource, roads and bridges construction at the Ministry of General Works and Housing resulted in having significant relation between safety policy...

  16. Quantitative proteomics analysis of the Arg/N-end rule pathway of targeted degradation in Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongtao; Deery, Michael J; Gannon, Lucy; Powers, Stephen J; Lilley, Kathryn S; Theodoulou, Frederica L

    2015-07-01

    According to the Arg/N-end rule pathway, proteins with basic N-termini are targeted for degradation by the Arabidopsis thaliana E3 ligase, PROTEOLYSIS6 (PRT6). Proteins can also become PRT6 substrates following post-translational arginylation by arginyltransferases ATE1 and 2. Here, we undertook a quantitative proteomics study of Arg/N-end rule mutants, ate1/2 and prt6, to investigate the impact of this pathway on the root proteome. Tandem mass tag labelling identified a small number of proteins with increased abundance in the mutants, some of which represent downstream targets of transcription factors known to be N-end rule substrates. Isolation of N-terminal peptides using terminal amine isotope labelling of samples (TAILS) combined with triple dimethyl labelling identified 1465 unique N-termini. Stabilising residues were over-represented among the free neo-N-termini, but destabilising residues were not markedly enriched in N-end rule mutants. The majority of free neo-N-termini were revealed following cleavage of organellar targeting signals, thus compartmentation may account in part for the presence of destabilising residues in the wild-type N-terminome. Our data suggest that PRT6 does not have a marked impact on the global proteome of Arabidopsis roots and is likely involved in the controlled degradation of relatively few regulatory proteins. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001719 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001719). © 2015 The Authors. PROTEOMICS published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Reirradiation of Head and Neck Cancers With Proton Therapy: Outcomes and Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Jack; Sio, Terence T; Nguyen, Theresa P; Takiar, Vinita; Gunn, G Brandon; Garden, Adam S; Rosenthal, David I; Fuller, Clifton D; Morrison, William H; Beadle, Beth; Ma, Dominic; Zafereo, Mark E; Hutcheson, Kate A; Kupferman, Michael E; William, William N; Frank, Steven J

    2016-09-01

    Reirradiation of head and neck (H&N) cancer is a clinical challenge. Proton radiation therapy (PRT) offers dosimetric advantages for normal tissue sparing and may benefit previously irradiated patients. Here, we report our initial experience with the use of PRT for H&N reirradiation, with focus on clinical outcomes and toxicity. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who received H&N reirradiation with PRT from April 2011 through June 2015. Patients reirradiated with palliative intent or without prior documentation of H&N radiation therapy were excluded. Radiation-related toxicities were recorded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 4.0. The conditions of 60 patients were evaluated, with a median follow-up time of 13.6 months. Fifteen patients (25%) received passive scatter proton therapy (PSPT), and 45 (75%) received intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Thirty-five patients (58%) received upfront surgery, and 44 (73%) received concurrent chemotherapy. The 1-year rates of locoregional failure-free survival, overall survival, progression-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival were 68.4%, 83.8%, 60.1%, and 74.9%, respectively. Eighteen patients (30%) experienced acute grade 3 (G3) toxicity, and 13 (22%) required a feeding tube at the end of PRT. The 1-year rates of late G3 toxicity and feeding tube independence were 16.7% and 2.0%, respectively. Three patients may have died of reirradiation-related effects (1 acute and 2 late). Proton beam therapy can be a safe and effective curative reirradiation strategy, with acceptable rates of toxicity and durable disease control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Agriculture and Provincial Reconstruction Teams: Assessing the Effectiveness of Agricultural Advisor Projects in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    problems.25 Afghanistan’s periodic but severe droughts have serious implications for wheat production, the country’s main food crop. Cereal grain ...focus on the role that USDA agricultural advisors play on PRTs and the degree to which PRT structural or administrative issues influence the success...provides a level of project consistency and continuity of effort that PRTs and other structures may often lack. While its traditional role in

  19. A randomized trial comparison of the effects of verbal and pictorial naturalistic communication strategies on spoken language for young children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Schreibman, L; Stahmer, AC

    2014-01-01

    Presently there is no consensus on the specific behavioral treatment of choice for targeting language in young nonverbal children with autism. This randomized clinical trial compared the effectiveness of a verbally-based intervention, Pivotal Response Training (PRT) to a pictorially-based behavioral intervention, the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on the acquisition of spoken language by young (2-4 years), nonverbal or minimally verbal (≤9 words) children with autism. Thirty-nin...

  20. Is the Cognitive Complexity of Commitment-to-Change Statements Associated With Change in Clinical Practice? An Application of Bloom's Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armson, Heather; Elmslie, Tom; Roder, Stefanie; Wakefield, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    This study categorizes 4 practice change options, including commitment-to-change (CTC) statements using Bloom's taxonomy to explore the relationship between a hierarchy of CTC statements and implementation of changes in practice. Our hypothesis was that deeper learning would be positively associated with implementation of planned practice changes. Thirty-five family physicians were recruited from existing practice-based small learning groups. They were asked to use their usual small-group process while exploring an educational module on peripheral neuropathy. Part of this process included the completion of a practice reflection tool (PRT) that incorporates CTC statements containing a broader set of practice change options-considering change, confirmation of practice, and not convinced a change is needed ("enhanced" CTC). The statements were categorized using Bloom's taxonomy and then compared to reported practice implementation after 3 months. Nearly all participants made a CTC statement and successful practice implementation at 3 months. By using the "enhanced" CTC options, additional components that contribute to practice change were captured. Unanticipated changes accounted for one-third of all successful changes. Categorizing statements on the PRT using Bloom's taxonomy highlighted the progression from knowledge/comprehension to application/analysis to synthesis/evaluation. All PRT statements were classified in the upper 2 levels of the taxonomy, and these higher-level (deep learning) statements were related to higher levels of practice implementation. The "enhanced" CTC options captured changes that would not otherwise be identified and may be worthy of further exploration in other CME activities. Using Bloom's taxonomy to code the PRT statements proved useful in highlighting the progression through increasing levels of cognitive complexity-reflecting deep learning. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for

  1. Best Practices for Fuel System Contamination Detection and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-14

    retain samples as soon as a significant contamination event is suspected. If initial test failures are replicated , the retain samples will be...Bacteria Yeasts Fungi BEL, CZE, NLD EASICULT COMBI (Orion Diag.) 96 h / Yeasts 103/ml 102/ml Slight Product is unfit for use if ONE OF THE THREE...bacteria and/or fungi (BF) in conjunction with yeasts and/or molds (YM). DEU, PRT Cult-Dip combi (Merck) 48 h / Bacteria 72 h / Yeasts and Fungi 103

  2. Identificación molecular de mutaciones puntuales relacionadas con resistencia a drogas en VIH-1 de pacientes peruanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Yabar V

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar mutaciones puntuales relacionadas con resistencia a drogas en VIH-1 de pacientes peruanos. Materiales y metodos: Se seleccionaron 11 muestras de VIH provenientes de sangre total de sujetos con tratamiento antirretroviral (ARV. Posteriormente se realizo la optimizacion de la amplificacion de 337 pb del gen de la transcriptasa reversa (tr y 377 pb de todo el gen de la proteasa (prt. Los productos de PCR fueron secuenciados directamente para el analisis de mutaciones de resistencia. Las secuencias finales fueron analizadas en programas de analisis de mutaciones de la HIV Drug Resistance Database de la Universidad de Stanford. mutaciones de la HIV Drug Resistance Database de la Universidad de Stanford. Resultados: La optimizacion de la concentracion de ADN (2,5 ng / µL asi como la concentracion de magnesio (4 mM fueron factores criticos para la amplificacion de la tr y la prt respectivamente. De otro lado, el analisis de secuencia revelo la presencia de las mutaciones T215Y y la M184V en tr, implicadas en conferir resistencia a zidovudina (AZT y estavudina (D4T asi como a lamivudina (3TC y emtricitabina (FTC respectivamente. En prt se observaron las mutaciones D30N y N88D implicadas en conferir resistencia a nelfinavir (NFV. Es importante senalar que solo tres muestras de VIH-1 presentaron mutaciones de resistencia, las demas mostraron mutaciones compensatorias. Conclusiones: Se demuestra la existencia de mutaciones de resistencia a ARV a nivel de tr y prt de VIH-1 en sujetos peruanos que reciben terapia TARGA. Se requieren de mayores estudios para establecer un perfil de resistencia a ARV en la poblacion peruana.

  3. Establishment of culture systems for Genotypes 3 and 4 hepatitis E virus (HEV) obtained from human blood and application of HEV inactivation using a pathogen reduction technology system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owada, Takashi; Kaneko, Moe; Matsumoto, Chieko; Sobata, Rieko; Igarashi, Masashi; Suzuki, Ko; Matsubayashi, Keiji; Mio, Kazuhiro; Uchida, Shigeharu; Satake, Masahiro; Tadokoro, Kenji

    2014-11-01

    It has been demonstrated that the hepatitis E virus (HEV) can be transmitted via blood transfusion, and the risk of HEV transmission via transfusion has become a major global concern. An HEV culture system for blood-derived HEV has been sought to obtain valuable knowledge of the virus and the risk of HEV infection through blood products. We endeavored to establish an HEV culture system using RNA-positive blood specimens for Genotypes (G) 3 and 4 and applied this system to evaluate tissue culture infectious dose (TCID). We applied this method to investigate the potential of the Mirasol pathogen reduction technology (PRT) system (Terumo BCT) to inactivate live HEV in contaminated platelet samples (PLTs). PLTs were spiked with cultured HEV G3 or G4 and then treated with the Mirasol PRT system. PLTs were examined before and after the treatment for HEV load using TCID titration. We successfully established two strains for HEV production: the JRC-HE3 strain for G3 and the UA1 strain for G4. The Mirasol PRT system expressed more than 3 log inactivation for JRC-HE3 and more than 2 log inactivation for UA1. The Mirasol PRT system inactivated greater than 2 to 3 logs of live HEV in PLTs and can potentially be used to lower the possibility of blood-borne HEV transmission. The G3 and G4 HEV inocula identified in this study and the hepatoma cell culture system provide a new means to assess HEV infectious titer and to evaluate other pathogen reduction strategies. © 2014 AABB.

  4. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Saavedra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of positional release therapy (PRT on the myofascial tension of the upper trapezius muscle with an active myofascial trigger point (TrP. We studied 30 subjects (18 men and 12 women, mean age 34.5 ± 9.4 years, with an active TrP in the upper trapezius muscle on one side. A search for TrPs was performed bilaterally and the points were considered to be active when both local and referred pain evoked by manual palpation reproduced a deep aching and burning pain. The patients were evaluated under three conditions: (a resting baseline, (b concentric contraction and (c isometric contraction, before and after treatment with PRT, regarding the following parameters: (i pain intensity during manual palpation (visual analogue pain scale and (ii upper trapezius muscle electromyographic (EMG signals. A significant decrease in painful symptoms from 5.3 ± 1.9 to 2.8 ± 1.8 (p< 0.001 was observed after treatment. There were no significant differences in EMG signals during resting baseline and in the presence of concentric contraction after the PRT session. It was concluded that PRT may be an effective treatment for pain relief and to reduce resting baseline EMG signals in the upper trapezius muscle with a TrP, suggesting that its use as an alternative or an adjunct to other therapies. The effectiveness of this type of treatment should be confirmed by further clinical studies.

  5. Numerical Field Model Simulation of Full-Scale Fire Tests in a Closed Spherical/Cylindrical Vessel with Internal Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    tional speed and massive storage capability, offer a researcher the option of computer modeling of fires. The systems of partial differen- tial...SMP123+SMPP12 i’.S 00101800 RI(I,JK I=-BUOY* DROGA /(RtI,J,K)*STRAIN) 00101900 ABRIPR:ABTURB+RI(I ,J,K )/PRT 00102000 IF(AF’.IPR .LT. 0.) GO TO b00 00102100

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    type PIL 101 T) driven potentiometer (Tacussel PRT 30-0.1) and a recorder (Asea Brown. Boveri (ABB) model SE 790). In order to achieve quantitative oxidation or reduction of the electroactive material, low voltage scan rate was used (0.5 mV/s or 2.5 mV/s). All the cyclic voltammograms have been obtained by voltage ...

  7. Accuracy and differential bias in copy number measurement of CCL3L1 in association studies with three auto-immune disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter Danielle

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copy number variation (CNV contributes to the variation observed between individuals and can influence human disease progression, but the accurate measurement of individual copy numbers is technically challenging. In the work presented here we describe a modification to a previously described paralogue ratio test (PRT method for genotyping the CCL3L1/CCL4L1 copy variable region, which we use to ascertain CCL3L1/CCL4L1 copy number in 1581 European samples. As the products of CCL3L1 and CCL4L1 potentially play a role in autoimmunity we performed case control association studies with Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis clinical cohorts. Results We evaluate the PRT methodology used, paying particular attention to accuracy and precision, and highlight the problems of differential bias in copy number measurements. Our PRT methods for measuring copy number were of sufficient precision to detect very slight but systematic differential bias between results from case and control DNA samples in one study. We find no evidence for an association between CCL3L1 copy number and Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis or psoriasis. Conclusions Differential bias of this small magnitude, but applied systematically across large numbers of samples, would create a serious risk of false positive associations in copy number, if measured using methods of lower precision, or methods relying on single uncorroborated measurements. In this study the small differential bias detected by PRT in one sample set was resolved by a simple pre-treatment by restriction enzyme digestion.

  8. SOME THOUGHTS ON INTENSIVE ANIMAL PRODUCTION G.H. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p'roducerswho r'rould da$y assist and prt thtir units rt thc disposal of ths Depertment so thst hrgBrcale practical reseurch schernes could be srutcd. In emcluskrn, whilc on.the subjert of co.operation, rnay I appeal to all of you by suggesting that the only way to success is through cr-operation, end that this intensive production ...

  9. Reirradiation of Head and Neck Cancers With Proton Therapy: Outcomes and Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phan, Jack [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Sio, Terence T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Nguyen, Theresa P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Takiar, Vinita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio (United States); Gunn, G. Brandon; Garden, Adam S.; Rosenthal, David I.; Fuller, Clifton D.; Morrison, William H.; Beadle, Beth; Ma, Dominic [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zafereo, Mark E. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hutcheson, Kate A. [Department of Speech Pathology University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kupferman, Michael E. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); William, William N. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Frank, Steven J., E-mail: sjfrank@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: Reirradiation of head and neck (H&N) cancer is a clinical challenge. Proton radiation therapy (PRT) offers dosimetric advantages for normal tissue sparing and may benefit previously irradiated patients. Here, we report our initial experience with the use of PRT for H&N reirradiation, with focus on clinical outcomes and toxicity. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who received H&N reirradiation with PRT from April 2011 through June 2015. Patients reirradiated with palliative intent or without prior documentation of H&N radiation therapy were excluded. Radiation-related toxicities were recorded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 4.0. Results: The conditions of 60 patients were evaluated, with a median follow-up time of 13.6 months. Fifteen patients (25%) received passive scatter proton therapy (PSPT), and 45 (75%) received intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Thirty-five patients (58%) received upfront surgery, and 44 (73%) received concurrent chemotherapy. The 1-year rates of locoregional failure–free survival, overall survival, progression-free survival, and distant metastasis–free survival were 68.4%, 83.8%, 60.1%, and 74.9%, respectively. Eighteen patients (30%) experienced acute grade 3 (G3) toxicity, and 13 (22%) required a feeding tube at the end of PRT. The 1-year rates of late G3 toxicity and feeding tube independence were 16.7% and 2.0%, respectively. Three patients may have died of reirradiation-related effects (1 acute and 2 late). Conclusions: Proton beam therapy can be a safe and effective curative reirradiation strategy, with acceptable rates of toxicity and durable disease control.

  10. Early Cognitive Outcomes Following Proton Radiation in Pediatric Patients With Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulsifer, Margaret B., E-mail: mpulsifer@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sethi, Roshan V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kuhlthau, Karen A. [Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); MacDonald, Shannon M.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To report, from a longitudinal study, cognitive outcome in pediatric patients treated with proton radiation therapy (PRT) for central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients receiving PRT for medulloblastoma (38.3%), gliomas (18.3%), craniopharyngioma (15.0%), ependymoma (11.7%), and other CNS tumors (16.7%) were administered age-appropriate measures of cognitive abilities at or near PRT initiation (baseline) and afterward (follow-up). Patients were aged ≥6 years at baseline to ensure consistency in neurocognitive measures. Results: Mean age was 12.3 years at baseline; mean follow-up interval was 2.5 years. Treatment included prior surgical resection (76.7%) and chemotherapy (61.7%). Proton radiation therapy included craniospinal irradiation (46.7%) and partial brain radiation (53.3%). At baseline, mean Wechsler Full Scale IQ was 104.6; means of all 4 Index scores were also in the average range. At follow-up, no significant change was observed in mean Wechsler Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning/Organization, or Working Memory. However, Processing Speed scores declined significantly (mean 5.2 points), with a significantly greater decline for subjects aged <12 years at baseline and those with the highest baseline scores. Cognitive outcome was not significantly related to gender, extent of radiation, radiation dose, tumor location, histology, socioeconomic status, chemotherapy, or history of surgical resection. Conclusions: Early cognitive outcomes after PRT for pediatric CNS tumors are encouraging, compared with published outcomes from photon radiation therapy.

  11. Lifting and Carrying Capacities Relative to Physical Fitness Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-21

    26 FEB L 8’C-88) ~~~~FEB i 98 i0 i Approved mIn p’ibI~c roeleae distittmi’ton mijo nipt ,.J. NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER O SP.O. BOX 85122ii ! i SAN...METHODS............................................. 4 2.1 Subjects ...................................... 4 2.2 Testing Sequence...40 .......... SUMNARY Through the Physical Readiness Test (PRT), the Navy assesses the physical fitness and body composition of its members. Those

  12. Effects of technique-focused training in conjunction with physical readiness training on Army physical fitness test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Mark D; Koppenhaver, Shane L; Gill, Norman W; Shaffer, Scott W

    2017-01-01

    The Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) is a semiannual requirement. While conducting physical readiness training (PRT) is a requirement for all Soldiers, there is no requirement to train Soldiers on techniques that may help to optimize their performance on the APFT. A cohort of 34 officers that attended the Army Medical Department Basic Officer Leadership Course completed a technique-focused training program in conjunction with their required PRT program subsequent to failing one or more events on their initial APFT. The training consisted of a 30-minute video lesson and an individualized performance assessment completed by an Army physical therapist. Upon retest 10 days after the initial test, 27 (79.4%) participants passed the APFT with a mean improvement of 22.3 points on their overall APFT score. When evaluating change in performance by event based on failing the event initially, the observed improvement was an increase of over 9 push-ups, over 11 sit-ups, and nearly 2 minutes on the run event. The addition of a technique-focused training program to an existing PRT program can result in significant short-term improvement for those with substandard APFT performance.

  13. Magnetic resonance safety and compatibility of tantalum markers used in proton beam therapy for intraocular tumors: A 7.0 Tesla study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberacker, Eva; Paul, Katharina; Huelnhagen, Till; Oezerdem, Celal; Winter, Lukas; Pohlmann, Andreas; Boehmert, Laura; Stachs, Oliver; Heufelder, Jens; Weber, Andreas; Rehak, Matus; Seibel, Ira; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2017-10-01

    Proton radiation therapy (PRT) is a standard treatment of uveal melanoma. PRT patients undergo implantation of ocular tantalum markers (OTMs) for treatment planning. Ultra-high-field MRI is a promising technique for 3D tumor visualization and PRT planning. This work examines MR safety and compatibility of OTMs at 7.0 Tesla. MR safety assessment included deflection angle measurements (DAMs), electromagnetic field (EMF) simulations for specific absorption rate (SAR) estimation, and temperature simulations for examining radiofrequency heating using a bow-tie dipole antenna for transmission. MR compatibility was assessed by susceptibility artifacts in agarose, ex vivo pig eyes, and in an ex vivo tumor eye using gradient echo and fast spin-echo imaging. DAM (α mK). Susceptibility artifact size (<8 mm) and location suggest no restrictions for MRI of the nervus opticus. OTMs are not a per se contraindication for MRI. Magn Reson Med 78:1533-1546, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. EFFECTS OF A SHORT-TERM PLYOMETRIC AND RESISTANCE TRAINING PROGRAM ON FITNESS PERFORMANCE IN BOYS AGE 12 TO 15 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery D. Faigenbaum

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a six week training period of combined plyometric and resistance training (PRT, n = 13 or resistance training alone (RT, n = 14 on fitness performance in boys (12-15 yr. The RT group performed static stretching exercises followed by resistance training whereas the PRT group performed plyometric exercises followed by the same resistance training program. The training duration per session for both groups was 90 min. At baseline and after training all participants were tested on the vertical jump, long jump, medicine ball toss, 9.1 m sprint, pro agility shuttle run and flexibility. The PRT group made significantly (p < 0.05 greater improvements than RT in long jump (10.8 cm vs. 2.2 cm, medicine ball toss (39.1 cm vs. 17.7 cm and pro agility shuttle run time (-0.23 sec vs. -0.02 sec following training. These findings suggest that the addition of plyometric training to a resistance training program may be more beneficial than resistance training and static stretching for enhancing selected measures of upper and lower body power in boys

  15. Effectiveness of a Home Based Progressive Resistance Training Program in Reducing Pain and Disability in Patients with Osteoarthritis of Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. ISHANKA PRANEETH MUNUGODA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a home-based progressive resistance training (PRT program in reducing pain and disability in patients with Osteoarthritis of knee. This randomized controlled trial, conducted for 30 days, included 60 subjects, diagnosed with Osteoarthritis of a single knee, recruited from a clinical setting in Colombo. The subjects were randomized to experimental (EG and control groups (CG (n=30 and received their general treatments. The EG received a PRT program to be performed at home and regular telephone contacts. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire under four domains ; Perceived pain, Perceived stiffness, Level of Activities of Daily Living (ADL and Quality Of Life (QOL. The results showed that 50 (83.33% subjects completed the study. Pain was reduced by 7.18% for EG and 0.46% for CG. Stiffness for EG was decreased by 15%, but was increased by 2.6%, for CG. This trend was observed in levels of QOL and ADL for both these groups as well. Statistically significant improvements (p < 0.05 for four domains were present for EG, and the between group differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05. The introduced PRT program with the scientific approach and compliance strategy were effective in reducing pain and disability in patients with knee Osteoarthritis.

  16. Strength training in older adults: The benefits for osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Nancy; Liu, Chiung-ju

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The aim of this review was to summarize the findings of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of progressive resistance strength training (PRT) by older people with osteoarthritis (OA). When data from 8 RCTs were synthesized using meta-analysis, a significant benefit from PRT was found on lower extremity extensor strength (standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12, 0.54), function (SMD 0.33, 95% CI 0.18) and pain reduction −0.35 (95% CI −0.52, −0.18). Across all three outcomes, the estimated effect size was moderate, which contrasted with trials of PRT in non-OA specific groups of older adults where a large effect was found on strength, but a small effect on function. This suggests that strength training has particularly strong functional benefits for older adults with OA. Older adults with osteoarthritis will benefit from a strength training program that provides progressive overload to maintain intensity throughout the exercise program. Clinicians should encourage participation in exercise training programs, even in the oldest old with OA. PMID:20699165

  17. Microperimetric Biofeedback Training Improved Visual Acuity after Successful Macular Hole Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Ueda-Consolvo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of setting a preferred retinal locus relocation target (PRT and performing Macular Integrity Assessment (MAIA biofeedback training in patients showing insufficient recovery of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA despite successful closure of an idiopathic macular hole (MH. Methods. Retrospective interventional case series. Nine eyes of 9 consecutive patients with the decimal BCVA of less than 0.6 at more than 3 months after successful MH surgery were included. A PRT was chosen based on MAIA microperimetry and the patients underwent MAIA biofeedback training. BCVA, reading speed, fixation stability, and 63% bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA were evaluated before and after the training. Statistical analysis was carried out using paired Student’s t-test. Results. PRT was chosen on the nasal side of the closed MH fovea in 8 patients. After the MAIA training, BCVA improved in all patients. The mean logMAR value of BCVA significantly improved from 0.33 to 0.12 (p=0.007. Reading speed improved in all patients (p=0.29, fixation stability improved in 5 patients (p=0.70, and 63% BCEA improved in 7 patients (p=0.21, although these improvements were not statistically significant. Conclusion. MAIA biofeedback training improved visual acuity in patients with insufficient recovery of BCVA after successful MH surgery.

  18. Effect of progressive resistive exercise training in improving mobility and functional ability of middle adulthood patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv K Sah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD in their middle adulthood are more prone to reduced mobility than younger patients having the same medical condition. Progressive resistive exercise training (PRT is deemed an effective treatment approach for the management of muscular weakness in patients with CKD. The present review is an attempt to understand the effectiveness of PRT in the mobility and functional ability of patients suffering from CKD. We systematically searched electronic databases, including Medline, Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL, PEDRo and Cochrane, to review the published literature on this subject. Electronic searches were limited to training programs carried out on resistive, aerobic, endurance and therapeutic exercises reporting outcome measures including muscular strength, size, physical function and functional capacity in the clinical population with CKD aged >40 years. Studies with a minimum duration of eight weeks of exercise training or more were considered eligible for review. The methodological criteria of the included studies were assessed with the PEDro scale. A total of 80 articles were identified using the keywords in the above-mentioned databases. However, based on the study′s inclusion and exclusion criteria, only 11 articles were finally included. The results of this review substantiate the effectiveness of PRT in patients with CKD. However, further research is warranted in this area due to the limited availability of high-quality published evidence.

  19. Novel stand-alone RAM domain protein-mediated catalytic control of anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase in tryptophan biosynthesis in Thermus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Tetsuo; Matsushita, Hajime; Tomita, Takeo; Kosono, Saori; Yoshida, Minoru; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Regulation of amino acid metabolism (RAM) domains are widely distributed among prokaryotes. In most cases, a RAM domain fuses with a DNA-binding domain to act as a transcriptional regulator. The extremely thermophilic bacterium, Thermus thermophilus, only carries a single gene encoding a RAM domain-containing protein on its genome. This protein is a stand-alone RAM domain protein (SraA) lacking a DNA-binding domain. Therefore, we hypothesized that SraA, which senses amino acids through its RAM domain, may interact with other proteins to modify its functions. In the present study, we identified anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase (AnPRT), the second enzyme in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway, as a partner protein that interacted with SraA in T. thermophilus. In the presence of tryptophan, SraA was assembled to a decamer and exhibited the ability to form a stable hetero-complex with AnPRT. An enzyme assay revealed that AnPRT was only inhibited by tryptophan in the presence of SraA. This result suggests a novel feedback control mechanism for tryptophan biosynthesis through an inter-RAM domain interaction in bacteria.

  20. Diminished Effort on a Progressive Ratio Task in Both Unipolar and Bipolar Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershenberg, Rachel; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Daldal, Aylin; Katchmar, Natalie; Moore, Tyler M.; Kable, Joseph W.; Wolf, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Amotivation, or decisional anhedonia, is a prominent and disabling feature of depression. However, this aspect of depression remains understudied, and no prior work has applied objective laboratory tests of motivation in both unipolar and bipolar depression. Methods We assessed motivation deficits using a Progressive Ratio Task (PRT) that indexes willingness to exert effort for monetary reward. The PRT was administered to 96 adults ages 18–60 including 25 participants with a current episode of unipolar depression, 28 with bipolar disorder (current episode depressed), and 43 controls without any lifetime history of Axis I psychiatric disorders. Results Depressed participants exhibited significantly lower motivation than control participants as objectively defined by progressive ratio breakpoints. Both the unipolar and bipolar groups were lower than controls but did not differ from each other. Limitations Medication use differed across groups, and we did not have a separate control task to measure psychomotor activity; however neither medication effects or psychomotor slowing are likely to explain our findings. Conclusions Our study fills an important gap in the literature by providing evidence that diminished effort on the PRT is present across depressed patients who experience either unipolar or bipolar depression. This adds to growing evidence for shared mechanisms of reward and motivation dysfunction, and highlights the importance of improving the assessment and treatment of motivation deficits across the mood disorders spectrum. PMID:26919058

  1. In vivo screen of genetically conserved Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins for protective immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Richard J; Guru, Siradanahalli; Weeratna, Risini; Makinen, Shawn; Falconer, Derek J; Sheppard, Neil C; Lang, Susanne; Chang, Bingsheng; Goenaga, Anne-Laure; Green, Bruce A; Merson, James R; Gracheck, Stephen J; Eyles, Jim E

    2016-12-07

    We evaluated 52 different E. coli expressed pneumococcal proteins as immunogens in a BALB/c mouse model of S. pneumoniae lung infection. Proteins were selected based on genetic conservation across disease-causing serotypes and bioinformatic prediction of antibody binding to the target antigen. Seven proteins induced protective responses, in terms of reduced lung burdens of the serotype 3 pneumococci. Three of the protective proteins were histidine triad protein family members (PhtB, PhtD and PhtE). Four other proteins, all bearing LPXTG linkage domains, also had activity in this model (PrtA, NanA, PavB and Eng). PrtA, NanA and Eng were also protective in a CBA/N mouse model of lethal pneumococcal infection. Despite data inferring widespread genomic conservation, flow-cytometer based antisera binding studies confirmed variable levels of antigen expression across a panel of pneumococcal serotypes. Finally, BALB/c mice were immunized and intranasally challenged with a viulent serotype 8 strain, to help understand the breadth of protection. Those mouse studies reaffirmed the effectiveness of the histidine triad protein grouping and a single LPXTG protein, PrtA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive mapping deficits in schizophrenia: Evidence from clinical correlates of visuospatial transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sri Mahavir; Danivas, Vijay; Amaresha, Anekal C; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Kalmady, Sunil V; Bose, Anushree; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

    2015-08-30

    The 'cognitive mapping' component of spatial cognition, namely - the allocentric/egocentric function and its relation to symptoms in schizophrenia is relatively unexplored. In this study, we compared schizophrenia patients (N=44) to demographically-matched healthy controls (N=43) using computer-administered visuospatial transformation tasks with egocentric and allocentric components and analyzed their correlation with symptoms. Significant diagnosis X task-type interaction effect was seen on task accuracy. Patients performed significantly worse than controls in the allocentric letter rotation task (LRT) but not in the egocentric people rotation task (PRT). Accuracy in the LRT was significantly lesser than in PRT among patients but not among controls. Patients were significantly slower as compared to controls in both tasks. Both groups took longer to perform PRT as compared to LRT. LRT accuracy showed significant negative correlation with total positive symptoms as well as negative symptoms scores. Angle of rotation, perspective (front-facing/back-facing), orientation (mirrored/normal), and stimulus type (letter/number) were found to significantly influence performance in both groups of subjects. The present data support the finding that there is a differential impairment of allocentric abilities in schizophrenia patients. Further systematic research in this area may facilitate better understanding of schizophrenia pathogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. TU-F-12A-04: Differential Radiation Avoidance of Functional Liver Regions Defined by 99mTc-Sulfur Colloid SPECT/CT with Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, S; Miyaoka, R; Kinahan, P; Sandison, G; Vesselle, H; Nyflot, M; Apisarnthanarax, S [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Saini, J; Wong, T [SCCA Proton Therapy: A Procure Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma patients is conventionally planned without consideration of spatial heterogeneity in hepatic function, which may increase risk of radiation-induced liver disease. Pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton radiotherapy (pRT) plans were generated to differentially decrease dose to functional liver volumes (FLV) defined on [{sup 99m}Tc]sulfur colloid (SC) SPECT/CT images (functional avoidance plans) and compared against conventional pRT plans. Methods: Three HCC patients underwent SC SPECT/CT scans for pRT planning acquired 15 min post injection over 24 min. Images were reconstructed with OSEM following scatter, collimator, and exhale CT attenuation correction. Functional liver volumes (FLV) were defined by liver:spleen uptake ratio thresholds (43% to 90% maximum). Planning objectives to FLV were based on mean SC SPECT uptake ratio relative to GTV-subtracted liver and inversely scaled to mean liver dose of 20 Gy. PTV target coverage (V{sub 95}) was matched between conventional and functional avoidance plans. PBS pRT plans were optimized in RayStation for single field uniform dose (SFUD) and systematically perturbed to verify robustness to uncertainty in range, setup, and motion. Relative differences in FLV DVH and target dose heterogeneity (D{sub 2}-D{sub 98})/D50 were assessed. Results: For similar liver dose between functional avoidance and conventional PBS pRT plans (D{sub mean}≤5% difference, V{sub 18Gy}≤1% difference), dose to functional liver volumes were lower in avoidance plans but varied in magnitude across patients (FLV{sub 70%max} D{sub mean}≤26% difference, V{sub 18Gy}≤8% difference). Higher PTV dose heterogeneity in avoidance plans was associated with lower functional liver dose, particularly for the largest lesion [(D{sub 2}-D{sub 98})/D{sub 50}=13%, FLV{sub 90%max}=50% difference]. Conclusion: Differential avoidance of functional liver regions defined on sulfur colloid SPECT/CT is feasible with proton

  4. The effects of a protein enriched diet with lean red meat combined with a multi-modal exercise program on muscle and cognitive health and function in older adults: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Robin M; Gianoudis, Jenny; Prosser, Melissa; Kidgell, Dawson; Ellis, Kathryn A; O'Connell, Stella; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-08-08

    Age-related muscle wasting has been strongly implicated with falls and fractures in the elderly, but it has also been associated with cognitive decline and dementia. Progressive resistance training (PRT) and adequate dietary protein are recognised as important contributors to the maintenance of muscle health and function in older adults. However, both factors also have the potential to improve brain function and prevent cognitive decline via several pathways, including the regulation of various growth and neurotrophic factors [insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)]; brain-derived growth factor (BDNF)] and/or the modulation of systemic inflammation. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether a modest increase in dietary protein achieved through the consumption of lean red meat three days per week, when combined with PRT, can enhance muscle mass, size and strength and cognitive function in community-dwelling older people. The study design is a 48-week randomised controlled trial consisting of a 24-week intervention with a 24-week follow-up. Men and women (n=152) aged 65 years and over residing in the community will be randomly allocated to: 1) PRT and provided with 220 g (raw weight) of lean red meat to be cooked and divided into two 80 g servings on each of the three days that they complete their exercise session, or 2) control PRT in which participants will be provided with and advised to consume ≥1 serving (~1/2 cup) of rice and/or pasta or 1 medium potato on each of the three training days. The primary outcome measures will be muscle mass, size and strength and cognitive function. Secondary outcomes will include changes in: muscle function, neural health (corticospinal excitability and inhibition and voluntary activation), serum IGF-1 and BDNF, adipokines and inflammatory markers, fat mass and inter-/intra-muscular fat, blood pressure, lipids and health-related quality of life. All outcome measures will be assessed at baseline and 24 weeks, with the

  5. The effects of progressive resistance training combined with a whey-protein drink and vitamin D supplementation on glycaemic control, body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors in older adults with type 2 diabetes: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Robin M; Miller, Eliza G; Dunstan, David W; Kerr, Deborah A; Solah, Vicky; Menzies, David; Nowson, Caryl A

    2014-11-06

    While physical activity, energy restriction and weight loss are the cornerstone of type 2 diabetes management, less emphasis is placed on optimizing skeletal muscle mass. As muscle is the largest mass of insulin-sensitive tissue and the predominant reservoir for glucose disposal, there is a need to develop safe and effective evidence-based, lifestyle management strategies that optimize muscle mass as well as improve glycaemic control and cardiometabolic risk factors in people with this disease, particularly older adults who experience accelerated muscle loss. Using a two-arm randomized controlled trial, this 6-month study builds upon the community-based progressive resistance training (PRT) programme Lift for Life® to evaluate whether ingestion of a whey-protein drink combined with vitamin D supplementation can enhance the effects of PRT on glycaemic control, body composition and cardiometabolic health in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Approximately 200 adults aged 50 to 75 years with type 2 diabetes, treated with either diet alone or oral hypoglycaemic agents (not insulin), will be recruited. All participants will be asked to participate in a structured, supervised PRT programme based on the Lift for Life® programme structure, and randomly allocated to receive a whey-protein drink (20 g daily of whey-protein plus 20 g after each PRT session) plus vitamin D supplements (2000 IU/day), or no additional powder and supplements. The primary outcome measures to be collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months will be glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and insulin sensitivity (homeostatic model assessment). Secondary outcomes will include changes in: muscle mass, size and intramuscular fat; fat mass; muscle strength and function; blood pressure; levels of lipids, adipokines and inflammatory markers, serum insulin-like growth factor-1 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D; renal function; diabetes medication; health-related quality of life, and cognitive function. The findings from this study

  6. Effect of Irradiation on Tumor Microenvironment and Bone Marrow Cell Migration in a Preclinical Tumor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Jonathan L. [Department of Biological Sciences, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Krueger, Sarah A.; Hanna, Alaa [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Raffel, Thomas R. [Department of Biological Sciences, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan (United States); Wilson, George D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Madlambayan, Gerard J. [Department of Biological Sciences, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan (United States); Marples, Brian, E-mail: Brian.Marples@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: To characterize the tumor microenvironment after standard radiation therapy (SRT) and pulsed radiation therapy (PRT) in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) allografts. Methods and Materials: Subcutaneous LLC tumors were established in C57BL/6 mice. Standard RT or PRT was given at 2 Gy/d for a total dose of 20 Gy using a 5 days on, 2 days off schedule to mimic clinical delivery. Radiation-induced tumor microenvironment changes were examined after treatment using flow cytometry and antibody-specific histopathology. Normal tissue effects were measured using noninvasive {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography after naïve animals were given whole-lung irradiation to 40 Gy in 4 weeks using the same 2-Gy/d regimens. Results: Over the 2 weeks of therapy, PRT was more effective than SRT at reducing tumor growth rate (0.31 ± 0.02 mm{sup 3}/d and 0.55 ± 0.04 mm{sup 3}/d, respectively; P<.007). Histopathology showed a significant comparative reduction in the levels of Ki-67 (14.5% ± 3%), hypoxia (10% ± 3.5%), vascular endothelial growth factor (2.3% ± 1%), and stromal-derived factor-1α (2.5% ± 1.4%), as well as a concomitant decrease in CD45{sup +} bone marrow–derived cell (BMDC) migration (7.8% ± 2.2%) after PRT. The addition of AMD3100 also decreased CD45{sup +} BMDC migration in treated tumors (0.6% ± 0.1%). Higher vessel density was observed in treated tumors. No differences were observed in normal lung tissue after PRT or SRT. Conclusions: Pulsed RT–treated tumors exhibited slower growth and reduced hypoxia. Pulsed RT eliminated initiation of supportive mechanisms utilized by tumors in low oxygen microenvironments, including angiogenesis and recruitment of BMDCs.

  7. Dosimetric advantages of proton therapy over conventional radiotherapy with photons in young patients and adults with low-grade glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrabi, S.B.; Herfarth, K. [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Bougatf, N. [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Mohr, A. [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Haberer, T. [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Combs, S.E. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Department of Radiation Sciences (DRS), Institute of Innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Oberschleissheim (Germany); Deutsches Konsortium fuer Translationale Krebsforschung (dktk), Partner Site Munich, Munich (Germany); Debus, J.; Adeberg, S. [Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Clinical Cooperation Unit Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Low-grade glioma (LGG) is a very common brain tumor in pediatric patients typically associated with a very good prognosis. This prognosis makes it imperative that the risk of long-term treatment-related side effects be kept at an absolute minimum. Proton therapy (PRT) provides a radiation technique that has the potential to further reduce the genesis of radiogenic impairment. We retrospectively assessed 74 patients with LGG who underwent PRT. Conventional three-dimensional photon and PRT plans were generated after contouring structures of neurogenesis, crucial neuronal structures, and areas susceptible to secondary malignancies. Target volume coverage was evaluated using the homogeneity index (HI) and inhomogeneity coefficient (IC). Results were compared using the Wilcoxon-signed rank test, with p < 0.05 being statistically significant. Target volume coverage was comparable for the photon and proton plans. Overall, we could show an essential reduction in maximal, mean, and integral doses in critical neurologic structures, areas of neurogenesis, and structures of neurocognitive function. The study indicated specifically how contralaterally located structures could be spared with PRT. PRT is a highly conformal radiation technique offering superior dosimetric advantages over conventional radiotherapy by allowing significant dose reduction for organs at risk (OAR) that are essential for neurologic function, neurocognition, and quality of life, thus demonstrating the potential of this technique for minimizing long-term sequelae. (orig.) [German] Niedriggradige Gliome (LGG) zaehlen zu den haeufigsten Hirntumoren im Kindesalter und sind ueblicherweise mit einer sehr guten Prognose vergesellschaftet. Es gilt daher, das Risiko fuer therapieassoziierte Spaetfolgen so gering wie moeglich zu halten. Mit der Protonenbestrahlung steht eine Bestrahlungsmodalitaet zur Verfuegung, mit der das Auftreten radiogener Spaetfolgen im Vergleich zu konventionellen Bestrahlungstechniken

  8. Tracking volcanic unrest at Cotopaxi, Ecuador: - the use of the BET_EF tool during an unrest simulation exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Robert; Rouwet, Dmitri; Gottsmann, Joachim; Sandri, Laura; Tonini, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    As part of the EC-FP7 VUELCO project (#282759), a volcanic unrest simulation exercise for Cotopaxi volcano (5872 m.a.s.l.) has been performed on November 13th 2014 in Quito, Ecuador. The ice-capped stratovolcano, with an andesitic to rhyolitic composition, is one of the most active and hazardous volcanoes in Ecuador. Historic eruptions at Cotopaxi produced large lithic-rich pyroclastic flows, ash flows, lava flows as well as large lahars. Some lahars reached the Pacific Ocean at >200km distance. Recent unrest periods at Cotopaxi occurred in 1975-1976 and 2001 - 2002 and were characterized by increased fumarolic activity, elevated seismicity and edifice deformation that continues today. Fumarolic activity is a concern due to the heat transfer that may affect the ice cover resulting in non-eruptive debris flows. Here we report on the application of the BET_EF (Bayesian Event Tree for Eruption Forecasting) tool in the simulation exercise. The purpose of its application was to test its value in decision support by providing near-real time probabilities of i) the occurrence of unrest, ii) the origin and nature of unrest and iii) eruptive activity within a time frame of one month. Unlike traditional BET applications where the computational framework is established by expert elicitation long before its application, in Ecuador the tool was run based on an 'ad-hoc' and on the spot set-up of the code. We present the probabilities obtained at each computational node (i.e. unrest - origin of unrest - outcome of the unrest) based on information provided in 5 scientific bulletins provided successively during the simulation exercise. The simulated unrest covered a 4-year period. According to each scientific bulletin provided during the exercise, we have obtained the following results: i) Bulletin 1 - increase seismic activity comparing to background level - Punrest = 0.023; Peruption = 0.003; ii) Bulletin 2 - drastic increase in seismicity, increasing SO2 emission (5 x background

  9. Direct gravimetric measurements of the mass of the antarctic aerosol collected by high volume sampler: PM10 summer seasonal variation at Terra Nova Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, Cristina; Lambertucci, Luca; Illuminati, Silvia; Annibaldi, Anna; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    An on-site procedure was set up for direct gravimetric measurement of the mass of aerosol collected using high volume impactors (aerodynamic size cut point of 10 microm, PM10); this knowledge has hitherto been unavailable. Using a computerized microbalance in a clean chemistry laboratory, under controlled temperature (+/-0.5 degrees C) and relative humidity (+/-1%), continuous, long time filter mass measurements (hours) were carried out before and after exposure, after a 48 h minimun equilibration at the laboratory conditions. The effect of the electrostatic charge was exhausted in 30-60 min, after which stable measurements were obtained. Measurements of filters exposed for 7-11 days (1.13 m3 min(-1)) in a coastal site near Terra Nova Bay (December 2000 - February 2001), gave results for aerosol mass in the order of 10-20 mg (SD approximately 2 mg), corresponding to atmospheric concentrations of 0.52-1.27 microg m(-3). Data show a seasonal behaviour in the PM10 content with an increase during December - early January, followed by a net decrease. The above results compare well with estimates obtained from proxy data for the Antarctic Peninsula (0.30 microg m(-3)), the Ronne Ice Shelf (1.49 microg m(-3)), and the South Pole (0.18 microg m(-3), summer 1974-1975, and 0.37 microg m(-3), average summer seasons 1975-1976 and 1977-1978), and from direct gravimetric measurements recently obtained from medium volume samplers at McMurdo station (downwind 3.39 microg m(-3), upwind 4.15 microg m(-3)) and at King George Island (2.5 microg m(-3), summer, particle diameter <20 microm). This finding opens the way to the direct measurement of the chemical composition of the Antarctic aerosol and, in turn, to a better knowledge of the snow/air relationships as required for the reconstruction of the chemical composition of past atmospheres from deep ice core data.

  10. Hermannjahnite, CuZn(SO4)2, a new mineral with chalcocyanite derivative structure from the Naboko scoria cone of the 2012-2013 fissure eruption at Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siidra, Oleg I.; Nazarchuk, Evgeny V.; Agakhanov, Atali A.; Lukina, Evgeniya A.; Zaitsev, Anatoly N.; Turner, Rick; Filatov, Stanislav K.; Pekov, Igor V.; Karpov, Gennady A.; Yapaskurt, Vasiliy O.

    2017-07-01

    A new mineral hermannjahnite, ideally CuZn(SO4)2, was found in the sublimates of Saranchinaitovaya fumarole, Naboko scoria cone, where the recent Fissure Tolbachik Eruption occurred in 2012-2013. The cotype specimen was found in the Arsenatnaya fumarole, on the Second scoria cone of the Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption (GTFE 1975-1976). The mineral is named in honour of Hermann Arthur Jahn. Jahn-Teller effect is pronounced in the structure of hermannjahnite. The empirical formula of the holotype hermannjahnite, calculated on the basis of 8 O apfu is: Cu1.00(Zn0.43Cu0.31Mg0.25)∑0.99S2.00O8. Hermannjahnite is optically biaxial (+), α = 1.642(2), β = 1.652(2), γ = 1.675(2) (589 nm) with 2 V (calc.) = 67.6°. Hermannjahnite is monoclinic, P21/n, a = 4.8076(2), b = 8.4785(3), c = 6.7648(3) Å, β = 93.041(3) °, V = 275.35(2) Å3, Z = 2, R 1 = 0.047. The eight strongest lines of the X-ray powder diffraction pattern are (I-d-hkl): 31-4.231-(020), 100-4.177-(110), 72-3.630-(11-1), 25-3.486-(111), 29-2.681-(11-2), 69-2.648-(02-2), 29-2.561-(112), 63-2.428-(130). The structure of hermannjahnite is isotypic to that of dravertite, CuMg(SO4)2, and represents a monoclinically distorted chalcocyanite CuSO4 structure. Crystallographic and structural data on a natural sample of chalcocyanite are provided. Zinc is very close in ionic radii to copper, but the Jahn-Teller effect on Cu2+ causes the segregation of these elements over two symmetrically independent crystallographic sites in hermannjahnite. Bond-length distortion parameters (∆oct) were evaluated for 44 different MO6 (M = Cu, Zn) octahedra in Cu, Zn oxysalt minerals containing Cu- or/and Zn-dominated octahedra. In hermannjahnite CuO6 octahedra exhibit a value of ∆oct × 103 = 14.71, whereas ∆oct × 103 = 0.83 is calculated for ZnO6. In chalcocyanite CuO6 octahedra have a value of ∆oct × 103 = 8.25. Relationships between calculated ∆oct parameters and occupancy of MO6 (M = Cu, Zn) octahedra by Cu2+ and Zn2

  11. Evidence for a counter-wind current in winter off the southeast coast of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Bingxian

    1986-12-01

    Regarding the current pattern in winter in the near-sea region of Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong (including the western and central parts of the Taiwan Strait), oceanographers both at home and abroad had considered unanimously that under the intense influence of the northerly monsoon, the current (not only at the surface but also in the deep and near-bottom layers) flows southwestward with the wind. It was not until the end of the fifties that scientists began to question such a traditional concept. In this paper, based on the results of more than 20 years’ studies on the current patterns of the East China and South China Seas, all kinds of current data available are reanalysed comprehensively. These data include: 1) current measurements at day-night anchored stations, and with mooring buoys, collected mostly from 1959 to 1982 by many Chinese oceanographic and fisheries organizations; 2) current vectors derived from the ship-drift of Japanese naval vessels in the period from 1910 to 1921; and 3) geostrophic current velocities deduced from hydrographic observations in the periods of the CSK and 1975 1976 conducted by the Fisheries Research Station, Hong Kong, and the SOA. A combination of all the evidences revealed in the above data suggests and confirms that, besides the China Coastal Current flowing southwestward at a shallow layer of a zone closely adjacent to the coast, there also exists a northeastward counter-wind current in winter off the southeast coast of China (though its surface current may be weakened or even covered up by the drift current when the northerly monsoon strengthens). Furthermore, the two parts of the winter counter-wind current in the South China Sea and the East China Sea are connected through the Taiwan Strait. This suggestion now has been confirmed by the recent observations in the Taiwan Strait, i.e., 1) with sea-bed drifters released in 1984 (Zhang, 1985) and 2) with current meter moorings deployed in 1983 (Chuang, 1985). It is

  12. Performing impact evaluations in industrial retrofit: The Energy Savings Plan Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riewer, S. [USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States); Spanner, G.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-08-01

    The Energy Savings Plan (ESP) is Bonneville Power Administration`s retrofit program for the industrial sector. The program pays incentives for energy conservation measures involving electrical energy efficiency improvements in manufacturing, processing, and refining industries. This paper will describe the ESP program, recount the techniques selected to evaluate the retrofits, and report the findings from five ESP project impact evaluations completed to date. The impact evaluations provide a framework for assessing the energy saving achieved by the provides implemented under the ESP. In addition to energy savings, the evaluations assess process changes, net utility impacts, levelized costs, and ``free ridership.`` The five ESP projects evaluated include: a waste heat recovery system for a food processing blancher, an energy management control system used to upgrade refrigeration, a variable speed drive for a fan motor in a lumber mill, a sludge screw press for waste water treatment, and replacement of rod anodes with blades anodes in mercury cells in an electrochemical plant.

  13. A review of the program of the Office of the Commission for the Management of Road Traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraswadi, K.

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the development of a Mass Rapid Transit Systems Master Plan by the Office for the Commission of Road Traffic (OCMRT) for Bangkok as detailed in the full Master Plan document. The Master Plan document addresses the following topic areas: evolution of the Master Plan Concept; socio-economic and development benefits; transport model development and applications; ridership findings; environmental considerations; capital and operating costs; economic and financial analysis findings; priority projects and construction program phasing; and implementation of the Master Plan - institutional issues. Each of these topics is discussed in further detail in its own chapter in the document. For purposes of this workshop and subsequent proceedings, the last section is highlighed in this presentation.

  14. Dallas area rapid transit impact study: A framework for assessing land use and development impacts. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, P.J.; Euritt, M.A.; Walton, C.M.

    1993-05-01

    Seven transit system impact reports were reviewed in an effort to identify strategies for measuring land-use impacts for Dallas Area Rapid Transit's (DART) light rail starter line. These systems were selected on the basis of impact study quality, system characteristics (type, size, and age), and city demographics. From these existing studies some commonly used techniques are identified and then used to form the basis for the land use component of the DART impact study design. The report concludes that DART's success in fostering economic growth will depend on many factors, including interagency coordination and, perhaps most importantly, how public/private opportunities are promoted. Other variables range from the tangible (ridership, on-time performance, operating efficiency) to the abstract (civic pride, world-class-city status, desirable urban form).

  15. Retail redlining in New York City: racialized access to day-to-day retail resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Loh, Ji Meng; White, Kellee; Saldana, Nelson

    2013-08-01

    Racial residential segregation is associated with health inequalities in the USA, and one of the primary mechanisms is through influencing features of the neighborhood physical environment. To better understand how Black residential segregation might contribute to health risk, we examined retail redlining; the inequitable distribution of retail resources across racially distinct areas. A combination of visual and analytic methods was used to investigate whether predominantly Black census block groups in New York City had poor access to retail stores important for health. After controlling for retail demand, median household income, population density, and subway ridership, percent Black was associated with longer travel distances to various retail industries. Our findings suggest that Black neighborhoods in New York City face retail redlining. Future research is needed to determine how retail redlining may perpetuate health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantage.

  16. Combined effects of compact cevelopment, transportation investments, and road user pricing on vehicle miles traveled in urbanized areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Reid; Hamidi, Shima; Gallivan, Frank; Nelson, Arthur C.; Grace, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) is the primary determinant of traffic congestion, vehicle crashes, greenhouse gas emissions, and other effects of transportation. Two previous studies have sought to explain VMT levels in urbanized areas. This study updates and expands on previous work with more recent data, additional metrics, and structural equation modeling (SEM) to explain VMT levels in 315 urbanized areas. According to SEM, population, income, and gasoline prices are primary exogenous drivers of VMT. Development density is a primary endogenous driver. Urbanized areas with more freeway capacity are significantly less dense and have significantly higher VMT per capita. Areas with more transit service coverage and service frequency have higher development densities and per capita transit use, which leads to lower VMT per capita. The indirect effect of transit on VMT through land use, the so-called land use multiplier, is more than three times greater than the direct effect through transit ridership.

  17. Spatial welfare effects of shared taxi operating policies for first mile airport access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyi Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing availability of alternative mobility options for first/last mile, it is necessary to better understand how shared taxis are impacting airport access demand and consumer surplus. However, no study has been conducted to evaluate the welfare effects of the range of shared taxi matching and fare allocation policies for airport access. Using several data sources primarily from Port Authority of NY and NJ and The Taxi and Limousine Commission, a mode choice model is estimated for access to John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City. The baseline model and data show that passengers have a value of time of $101 per hour, consistent with Harvey’s study from 1986. Airport taxi travelers are also elastic to cost in a similar manner to public transit. The model is used to evaluate two policies: a first (we call this wait-share policy where taxis can offer shared rides for two passengers from the same zip code, incorporating an endogenous expected wait time variable; and a second (we call this space-share policy where taxis match randomly arriving passengers from any zip codes in the city. These two policies reflect extreme ends of a spectrum of policies between waiting and detouring. Findings suggest that having a shared taxi option benefit passengers in NYC going to JFK airport by at least 10% increase in consumer surplus. However, the increase in taxi ridership comes at a cost to transit ridership. Furthermore, the population in NYC that benefits most is highly dependent on the type of shared taxi policy. A wait-share policy benefits passengers from the dense parts of Manhattan most, while a space-share policy distributes the benefits more to other boroughs. These insights can help policymakers set regulations in providing first/last mile ride-sharing taxi options in different cities around the world.

  18. An Assessment of Public Transport Facility in Johor Bahru: a case study in Taman Ungku Tun Aminah Area, Majlis Perbandaran Johor Bahru Tengah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musarrat Zaman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Provision of public transport infrastructure is important to increase the ridership and at the same time decrease the use of private transport. Like the other Malaysian cities, Johor Bahru is mostly dependent on private vehicles such as motor cars and motor cycles. The ridership on public transport especially public bus is getting lower over the years. In this situation the sustainability in transportation and land use cannot be ensured. This paper aims to assess the public transport facility in Taman Ungku Tun Aminah in Johor Bahru which is very old and traditional residential area with some major extent of commercial and educational land uses. The actual scenario of public transport service and underlying problems that impeded the residents to use public bus service is observed in this paper. The possible options for the improvement of the bus service and turning it into an effective short and medium length inter town travel media are also discussed as well. Both the primary and secondary information are collected for the purpose of study. Various descriptive statistical data analysis are done in order to get the expected outcome from the collected data. According to this study only 26.7% of the respondents use public bus for their daily travel. The opinion of the respondents is taken for the underlying causes of their reluctance on using public bus service and also the effective measures for the enhancement of this service to the users like them. Finally some recommendations and strategic actions and policy frameworks are also suggested in this paper.

  19. Privatisation of fixed-rail transit systems : a case study of Malaysia's STAR and PUTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul-Aziz, A.R. [St. Malaysia Univ., (Malaysia). School of Housing, Building and Planning

    2006-06-15

    Malaysia was the first developing country to embrace the idea of privatizing its public utilities in an effort to reduce public expenditure and improve services. Many public utilities were sold in the early 1980s under Malaysia's privatization program. Some, however, have returned to government hands. Among them are the two light-rail transit (LRT) systems in the capital city of Kuala Lumpur. The main objective of privatization had been to expand transportation capabilities to keep pace with economic development. The private sector was allowed to construct various rail-based mass transportation systems to alleviate vehicular traffic congestion in the city. The STAR and PUTRA light-rail transit systems were built in the 1990s by 2 concession companies at a total cost of US$2.27 billion with the bulk of the expenditure going into infrastructure and rolling stock. Generous financial incentives were offered by the Malaysian government. However, the 2 LRTs suffered below-expectation ridership right from the beginning. Even a reduction in rates to promote greater public use, failed to meet projected ridership figures. The concession companies began defaulting on their loan servicing obligations within months of becoming operational. In 2002, the government took over the operation of the 2 LRT systems. The pre- and post-privatization events of both facilities were chronicled in this paper. It examined how the entire process was administered and tried to rationalize why private ownership of the 2 LRT systems was short-lived. Based on publicly available material, this paper argued that neither the quality of government negotiators nor the length of time devoted to negotiating could be attributed to the bailout. There was no indication that political favouritism and corruption were at play. Rather, the 2 projects proved to be financially unviable, despite the large financial incentives provided to the two concession companies. 83 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. The cost-effectiveness of bike lanes in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jing; Mohit, Babak; Muennig, Peter Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Our objective is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of investments in bike lanes using New York City's (NYC) fiscal year 2015 investment as a case study. We also provide a generalizable model, so that localities can estimate their return on bike lane investments. We evaluate the cost-effectiveness of bike lane construction using a two-stage model. Our regression analysis, to estimate the marginal addition of lane miles on the expansion in bike ridership, reveals that the 45.5 miles of bike lanes NYC constructed in 2015 at a cost of $8 109 511.47 may increase the probability of riding bikes by 9.32%. In the second stage, we constructed a Markov model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of bike lane construction. This model compares the status quo with the 2015 investment. We consider the reduced risk of injury and increased probability of ridership, costs associated with bike lane implementation and maintenance, and effectiveness due to physical activity and reduced pollution. We use Monte Carlo simulation and one-way sensitivity analysis to test the reliability of the base-case result. This model reveals that over the lifetime of all people in NYC, bike lane construction produces additional costs of $2.79 and gain of 0.0022 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per person. This results in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $1297/QALY gained (95% CI -$544/QALY gained to $5038/QALY gained). We conclude that investments in bicycle lanes come with an exceptionally good value because they simultaneously address multiple public health problems. Investments in bike lanes are more cost-effective than the majority of preventive approaches used today. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Unhealthful Food-and-Beverage Advertising in Subway Stations: Targeted Marketing, Vulnerable Groups, Dietary Intake, and Poor Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucan, Sean C; Maroko, Andrew R; Sanon, Omar C; Schechter, Clyde B

    2017-04-01

    Unhealthful food-and-beverage advertising often targets vulnerable groups. The extent of such advertising in subway stations has not been reported and it is not clear how ad placement may relate to subway ridership or community demographics, or what the implications might be for diets and diet-related health in surrounding communities. Riding all subway lines (n = 7) in the Bronx, NY, USA, investigators systematically assessed all print ads (n = 1586) in all stations (n = 68) in 2012. Data about subway ridership came from the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Demographic data on surrounding residential areas came from the U.S. Census Bureau. Data on dietary intake and diet-related conditions came from a city health-department survey. There were no ads promoting "more-healthful" food-or-beverage items (i.e., fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, water or milk). There were many ads for "less-healthful" items (e.g., candies, chips, sugary cereals, frozen pizzas, "energy" drinks, coffee confections, hard alcohol, and beer). Ad placement did not relate to the number of riders entering at stations. Instead, exposure to food-or-beverage ads generally, and to "less-healthful" ads particularly (specifically ads in Spanish, directed at youth, and/or featuring minorities), was directly correlated with poverty, lower high-school graduation rates, higher percentages of Hispanics, and/or higher percentages of children in surrounding residential areas. Correlations were robust to sensitivity analyses. Additional analyses suggested correlations between ad exposures and sugary-drink consumption, fruit-and-vegetable intake, and diabetes, hypertension, and high-cholesterol rates. Subway-station ads for "less-healthful" items were located disproportionately in areas home to vulnerable populations facing diet and diet-related-health challenges. The fact that uneven ad placement did not relate to total rider counts suggests ads were not directed at the largest

  2. Tissue As A Medium For Laser Light Transport-Implications For Photoradiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, L. E.; Bolin, F. P.; Cain, B. W.

    1982-12-01

    An important medical laser application is in the emerging field of photoradiation therapy (PRT). PRT is the process in which malignant tissue is destroyed by administration of light to a specific photosensitized site. Filtered arcs, incandescents and dye lasers have been used as sources of activating light. We have carried out light experiments in tissue to study such PRT light distributions. The results of this research have shown that a number of important optical phenomena occurring within illuminated tissue must be accounted for in order to make good predictions of tumor light dosage. Among these are; tissue type, interface effects and anomalies due to composition. These effects substantially influence light levels in PRT and, thus, the therapeutic effect. The uniqueness of tissue as a medium for light transport presents special problems for optics research and instrumentation. Successful solutions necessarily will involve collaboration between the life sciences and optic specialists. Attempts at treatment of human disease using non-ionizing radiation have a history archaeologically traceable to archaic societies (in which the sun's photons were used and often worshipped).1 Western medicine in the past, has used visible light beneficially, albeit empirically, on a few ailments. However, in this century, a significant development in the understanding and in the therapeutic use of this electromagnetic radiation in the UV, visible and IR has occurred, based on scientific study. This utilization of radiation in the visible and ultraviolet can be by two distinct processes. One is through the direct action of the photons which serve as the sole treatment agent. In this case the photon interacts with the cell, or its components, in a single step, to produce a desired effect. An example is the successful use of blue light for treatment of bilirubinemia in newborns. The second process is a biological effect produced through the combination of electromagnetic radiation

  3. Progressive resistance training for community-dwelling women aged 90 or older; a single-subject experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idland, Gro; Sylliaas, Hilde; Mengshoel, Anne Marit; Pettersen, Renate; Bergland, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effect and feasibility of a 12-week programme of progressive resistance exercise on a group of nonagenarian (≥90 years) community-dwelling women. An A-B single-subject experimental design was applied. Visual analyses were used for estimating the effect of the intervention. Outcome measurements were: Timed Up and Go (TUG), comfortable walking speed and 30-s chair stands. The programme comprised four exercises, following the principle of overload, aiming at improving strength in the main muscle groups. Feasibility of the progressive resistance intervention was assessed by recording the recruitment of participants, adherence to the intervention and adverse events. Twenty-seven women were invited; eight women aged 90 and above agreed to participate and six completed the study. They suffered from one to 10 chronic medical conditions. All improved their performance in the TUG test. Five of the six participants achieved a higher walking speed (11-59%) and four of them improved on the 30-s chair-stand test with five to 10 stands. No major adverse events were reported. Progressive resistance training was a safe and efficient method to enhance mobility and increase lower body strength in this heterogeneous group of nonagenarian community-dwelling women. Progressive resistance (PRT) training was found to be a safe and efficient method to enhance mobility and increase lower body strength in a group of community-dwelling women 90+. Participants with the poorest initial functional performance had great benefits, and the improvements appeared already after a few weeks of PRT. PRT might be useful in the rehabilitation field and could be implemented in facilities such as day care and senior centres frequented by very old persons with mobility limitations.

  4. The influence of humidity, temperature, and oral contraceptive in tear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Raul A. R. C.; Ribeiro, Tânia L. C.; Moreira, Sandra M. B.; Baptista, António M. G.

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to ascertain whether the quantity and quality of tear and eye subjective comfort are influenced by the temperature, humidity and oral Contraceptives Taking or Non-taking (CTNT). Forty-one students, females, from the University of Minho, Braga, Portugal, aged (mean+/-1standard deviation) of 21.51+/-1.85 years, ranging from 20 to 30 years, participated in this study. The McMonnies Questionnaire (MMQ), Break Up Time (BUT) and Phenol Red Test (PRT) were accessed between 14-17 hours in four sets of visits throughout the year: Visit 1, Visit 2, Visit 3 and Visit 4. The PRT and BUT values (mean+/-1standard deviation) for Visit 1, Visit 2, Visit 3 and Visit 4 were respectively 23.88+/-6.50mm, 22.29+/-8.00mm, 23.61+/-6.75mm, 22.88+/-7.00mm and 6.02+/-1.58s, 5.62+/-1.22s, 5.23+/-0.88s, 5.53+/-1. 42s. The MMQ scores for Visit 1, Visit 2, Visit 3 and Visit 4 ranged from 2-13, 2-15, 1-14 and 2-14 with medians of 6, 7, 6 and 6, respectively. The influence of temperature, humidity and CTNT on PRT, BUT and MMQ were evaluated using generalized linear mixed model. For BUT and MMQ statistical significant effects were found regarding temperature and humidity. The temperature and humidity influenced the tear quality and subjective comfort but did not influence the tear quantity. The CTNT did not influence tear quantity, quality or subjective eye comfort.

  5. Comparison of Multiple Methods for Determination of FCGR3A/B Genomic Copy Numbers in HapMap Asian Populations with Two Public Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Xu-Jie; Bu, Ding-Fang; Hou, Ping; Lv, Ji-Cheng; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Low FCGR3 copy numbers (CNs) has been associated with susceptibility to several systemic autoimmune diseases. However, inconsistent associations were reported and errors caused by shaky methods were suggested to be the major causes. In large scale case control association studies, robust copy number determination method is thus warranted, which was the main focus of the current study. In the present study, FCGR3 CNs of 90 HapMap Asians were firstly checked using four assays including paralog ratio test combined with restriction enzyme digest variant ratio (PRT-REDVR), real-time quantitative (qPCR) using TaqMan assay, real-time qPCR using SYBR Green dye and short tenden repeat (STR). To improve the comparison precision reproductively, the results were compared with those from recently released sequencing data from 1000 genomes project as well as whole-genome tiling BAC array data. The tendencies of inconsistent samples by these methods were also characterized. Refined in-home TaqMan qPCR assay showed the highest correlation with array-CGH results (r = 0.726, p < 0.001) and the highest concordant rate with 1000 genome sequencing data (FCGR3A 91.76%, FCGR3B 85.88%, and FCGR3 81.18%). For samples with copy number variations, comprehensive analysis of multiple methods was required in order to improve detection accuracy. All these method were prone to detect copy number to be higher than that from direct sequencing. All the four PCR based CN determination methods (qPCR using TaqMan probes or SYBR Green, PRT, STR) were prone to higher estimation errors and thus may lead to artificial associations in large-scale case-control association studies. But different to previous reports, we observed that properly refined TaqMan qPCR assay was not inferior to or even more accurate than PRT when using sequencing data as the reference.

  6. The Effect of the Peer-Review Technique on Students’ Writing Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kustati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The  aim of this  study  was  to investigate  if  there could be a  significant positive effect by using Peer-Review Technique (PRT on students‟ ability in writing  English. An experimental research  method  was used in this study. A writing test based on the indicators of Jacobs et al. (1981 was completed by 65  undergraduate  students  in  English  from  the  English Department  at  the Faculty  of Education and Teacher Training in the  State Institute for Islamic Studies “Imam Bonjol‟  at  Padang.  The students  were divided into two groups:  an  experimental group (n=33 and  a  control group (n=32. Both groups  were similar in terms of academic level,  the  given writing task and their  target language  [English]   proficiency. The experimental participants were introduced to  Peer-Review  Technique in  essay writing sessions whilst the control group participants were taught through the teacher’s traditional feedback (TTF whereby  students worked individually to produce their texts. The findings  showed that PRT gave  a  significant  improvement  effect on  the students‟ writing abilities. This study is expected to serve as (1  data  for further  developing PRT; (2 input for  lecturers  in  writing  to  develop more effective and innovative learning; and (3  additional  material  for  the development of critical and cooperative learning theories in teaching writing.

  7. Hydrolysis of milk-derived bioactive peptides by cell-associated extracellular peptidases of Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Zeeshan; Cakir-Kiefer, Céline; Girardet, Jean-Michel; Jardin, Julien; Perrin, Clarisse; Dary, Annie; Miclo, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    The trend to confer new functional properties to fermented dairy products by supplementation with bioactive peptides is growing in order to encounter the challenge of health-promoting foods. But these functional ingredients have not to be hydrolysed by proteases of bacteria used in the manufacture of these products. One of the two yoghurt bacteria, Streptococcus thermophilus, has long been considered as weakly proteolytic since its only cell wall-associated subtilisin-like protease, called PrtS, is not always present. Nevertheless, a recent study pointed out a possible peptidase activity in certain strains. In this present study, the stability of milk-derived bioactive peptides, e.g. the anxiolytic peptide, αs1-CN-(f91-97), in the presence of two different S. thermophilus strains with PrtS+ or PrtS− phenotype was studied. Both strains appeared to be capable of hydrolysing the αs1-CN-(f91-97) and other bioactive peptides by recurrent removal of N-terminal residues. The hydrolysis was neither due to intracellular peptidases nor to HtrA protease. Results obtained showed that the observed activity originates from the presence at the surface of both strains of an extracellular aminopeptidase activity. Moreover, a cell wall-associated X-prolyl dipeptidyl peptidase activity was also highlighted when β-casomorphin-7 was used as substrate. All of these findings suggest that, in order to use fermented milks as vector of bioactive peptides, the stability of these bioactive peptides in this kind of products implies to carefully characterize the potential action of the surface proteolytic enzymes of S. thermophilus.

  8. Risk factors for the development of diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Miodrag

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Results of epidemiological analysis show that one third of patients with diabetes mellitus develop diabetic nephropathy (DN. Strategies used until now to slow down the progression of DN were initiated when the symptoms of DN were already present. Objective. Our objective was to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of DN and to determine the factors leading to DN. Methods. Fifty-two patients with diabetes mellitus (DM - 32 with type 1 aged 32 years and 20 with type 2 aged 59 years - were referred from the Institute of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases to the Department of Nephrology for kidney function evaluation. Apart from routine laboratory analyses, glomerular filtration rate was calculated using the MDRD formula (modification of diet in renal disease, the size of the kidney was measured by ultrasound, and kidney volume was calculated using the ellipsoid formula. Results Thirty percent of the patients revealed normal (eight patients with DM type 1 or satisfactory kidney function (eight patients with DM type 1 with physiological proteinuria. Micro-albuminuria (MAU or pathological proteinuria (PRT were found in 10 and 9 patients, respectively, with DM type 1, while decreased kidney function was found in one patient without proteinuria. MAU or PRT were found in four and eight patients, respectively, with DM type 2 and decreased kidney function in four patients without proteinuria. Kidney function was significantly lower in patients with DM type 2 in comparison to DM type 1, while the patients with decreased kidney function had a higher PRT. Compared to DM type 2, in DM type 1 patients, the kidney was longer, and parenchymal artery resistance index was lower in DM type 1 patients compared to DM type 2. Factors associated with DN were patient's age, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c and kidney volume. Conclusion. The prevalence of DN among the studied patients was 70%. Treatable factors

  9. Effects of a targeted multimodal exercise program incorporating high-speed power training on falls and fracture risk factors in older adults: a community-based randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoudis, Jenny; Bailey, Christine A; Ebeling, Peter R; Nowson, Caryl A; Sanders, Kerrie M; Hill, Keith; Daly, Robin M

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal exercise programs incorporating traditional progressive resistance training (PRT), weight-bearing impact training and/or balance training are recommended to reduce risk factors for falls and fracture. However, muscle power, or the ability to produce force rapidly, has emerged as a more crucial variable to functional decline than muscle strength or mass. The aim of this 12-month community-based randomized controlled trial, termed Osteo-cise: Strong Bones for Life, was to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of a multimodal exercise program incorporating high-velocity (HV)-PRT, combined with an osteoporosis education and behavioral change program, on bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, muscle strength and functional muscle performance in older adults. Falls incidence was evaluated as a secondary outcome. A total of 162 older adults (mean ± SD; 67 ± 6 years) with risk factors for falls and/or low BMD were randomized to the Osteo-cise program (n = 81) or a control group (n = 81). Exercise consisted of fitness center-based HV-PRT, weight-bearing impact and challenging balance/mobility activities performed three times weekly. After 12 months, the Osteo-cise program led to modest but significant net gains in femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD (1.0% to 1.1%, p exercise program represents an effective approach to improve multiple musculoskeletal and functional performance measures in older adults with risk factors for falls and/or low BMD. Although this did not translate into a reduction in the rate of falls, further large-scale trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this multimodal approach on reducing falls and fracture. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  10. Pattern of palliative care, pain management and referral trends in patients receiving radiotherapy at a tertiary cancer center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain is a common primary symptom of advanced cancer and metastatic disease, occurring in 50-75% of all patients. Although palliative care and pain management are essential components in oncology practice, studies show that these areas are often inadequately addressed. Materials and Methods: We randomly selected 152 patients receiving palliative radiotherapy (PRT from October 2006 to August 2008, excluding metastatic bone lesions. Patients′ records were studied retrospectively. Results: A median follow-up of 21 weeks was available for 119 males and 33 females with a median age of 55 years. Maximum (60% patients were of head and neck cancers followed by esophagus (14%, lung (10% and others. Dysphagia, growth/ulcer and pain were the chief indications for PRT. Pain was present in 93 (61% cases out of which, 56 (60% were referred to pain clinic. All except one consulted pain clinic with a median pain score of 8 (0-10 point scale. Fifty-three of these 56 patients (96% received opioid-based treatment with adequate pain relief in 33% cases and loss of follow-up in 40% cases. Only five (3% cases were referred to a hospice. Twenty-two (14% cases were considered for radical treatment following excellent response to PRT. Conclusion: In this selective sample, the standard of analgesic treatment was found to be satisfactory. However, there is a lot of scope for improvement regarding referral to pain clinic and later to the hospice. Patients′ follow-up needs to be improved along with future studies evaluating those patients who were considered for further RT till radical dose. Programs to change the patients′ attitude towards palliative care, physicians′ (residents′ training to improve communication skills, and institutional policies may be promising strategies.

  11. Independent and Combined Effects of Exercise and Vitamin D on Muscle Morphology, Function and Falls in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin M. Daly

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Regular exercise, particularly progressive resistance training (PRT, is recognized as one of the most effective strategies to prevent age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia, but its effects on muscle function are mixed. However, emerging data indicates that high velocity PRT (fast concentric muscle contractions is more effective for improving functional outcomes than traditional PRT. In terms of falls prevention, high-challenging balance training programs appear to be most effective. There is also compelling evidence that supplemental vitamin D is an effective therapeutic option for falls prevention. The findings from a recent meta-analysis revealed that supplemental vitamin D at a dose of at least 700–1,000 IU/d or an achieved serum 25(OHD level of at least 60 nmol/L was associated with reduced falls risk among older individuals. Based on these findings, it is possible that the combination of exercise and vitamin D could have a synergistic effect on muscle morphology and function, particularly since both interventions have been shown to have beneficial effects on type II “fast twitch” muscle fibers and systemic inflammation, which have both been linked to losses in muscle mass and function. Unfortunately however, the findings from the limited number of factorial 2 × 2 design RCTs indicate that additional vitamin D does not enhance the effects of exercise on measures of muscle morphology, function or falls risk. However, none of these trials were adequately powered to detect a “synergistic” effect between the two treatment strategies, but it is likely that if an exercise-by-vitamin D interaction does exist, it may be limited to situations when vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is corrected. Further targeted research in “high risk” groups is still needed to address this question, and evaluate whether there is a threshold level of serum 25(OHD to maximize the effects of exercise on muscle and falls risk.

  12. Effect of PNF stretching training on the properties of human muscle and tendon structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, A; Gad, M; Tilp, M

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a 6-week proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching training program on the various parameters of the human gastrocnemius medialis muscle and the Achilles tendon. Therefore, 49 volunteers were randomly assigned into PNF stretching and control groups. Before and after the stretching intervention, we determined the maximum dorsiflexion range of motion (RoM) with the corresponding fascicle length and pennation angle. Passive resistive torque (PRT) and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the musculo-articular complex were measured with a dynamometer. Muscle-tendon junction (MTJ) displacement allowed us to determine the length changes in tendon and muscle, and hence to calculate stiffness. Mean RoM increased from 31.1 ± 7.2° to 33.1 ± 7.2° (P = 0.02), stiffness of the tendon decreased significantly in both active (from 21.1 ± 8.0 to 18.1 ± 5.5 N/mm) and passive (from 12.1 ± 4.9 to 9.6 ± 3.2 N/mm) conditions, and the pennation angle increased from 18.5 ± 1.8° to 19.5 ± 2.1° (P = 0.01) at the neutral ankle position (90°), only in the intervention group, whereas MVC and PRT values remained unchanged. We conclude that a 6-week PNF stretching training program increases RoM and decreases tendon stiffness, despite no change in PRT. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effects of acute static, ballistic, and PNF stretching exercise on the muscle and tendon tissue properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, A; Stafilidis, S; Tilp, M

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a single static, ballistic, or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching exercise on the various muscle-tendon parameters of the lower leg and to detect possible differences in the effects between the methods. Volunteers (n = 122) were randomly divided into static, ballistic, and PNF stretching groups and a control group. Before and after the 4 × 30 s stretching intervention, we determined the maximum dorsiflexion range of motion (RoM) with the corresponding fascicle length and pennation angle of the gastrocnemius medialis. Passive resistive torque (PRT) and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) were measured with a dynamometer. Observation of muscle-tendon junction (MTJ) displacement with ultrasound allowed us to determine the length changes in the tendon and muscle, respectively, and hence to calculate stiffness. Although RoM increased (static: +4.3%, ballistic: +4.5%, PNF: +3.5%), PRT (static: -11.4%, ballistic: -11.5%, PNF: -13,7%), muscle stiffness (static: -13.1%, ballistic: -20.3%, PNF: -20.2%), and muscle-tendon stiffness (static: -11.3%, ballistic: -10.5%, PNF: -13.7%) decreased significantly in all the stretching groups. Only in the PNF stretching group, the pennation angle in the stretched position (-4.2%) and plantar flexor MVC (-4.6%) decreased significantly. Multivariate analysis showed no clinically relevant difference between the stretching groups. The increase in RoM and the decrease in PRT and muscle-tendon stiffness could be explained by more compliant muscle tissue following a single static, ballistic, or PNF stretching exercise. © 2017 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Identificación de los biotipos presentes en poblaciones argentinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica RICCI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el comportamiento de líneas de trigo y cultivares diferenciales, portadores de genes de resistencia, a fin de determinar la composición biotípica del áfido Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov, “Pulgón Ruso del Trigo” (PRT, en Argentina; y se identifican aquellos hospederos con resistencia genética al PRT. Los 18 cultivares diferenciales y líneas Novel, se sembraron en invernáculo, en un diseño aleatorio con 2 repeticiones. Las observaciones se realizaron a los 21 y 51 días de la infestación, se determinó el grado de clorosis y de enrollamiento foliar. Los resultados se analizaron con ANOVA y el Test de Tuckey (=0,05. A los 21 días, las líneas 14 y 1 (Noveles presentaron el mejor comportamiento, pero se desconocen sus genes de resistencia. Los cultivares portadores de Dn2 y Dn7 resultaron con un alto nivel de tolerancia, mientras que Dn1 y dn3 fueron moderadamente tolerantes y las portadoras de Dn4 y Dn5, muy dañados por las poblaciones Argentinas de PRT. A los 51 días, solo Dn7 y las líneas 14 y 1 mantuvieron un comportamiento de tolerancia al áfido. Se infiere que en el país se encontrarían los biotipos 1, 2* y 5*, estos dos últimos con características diferentes a los identificados en EE.UU. Se concluye que los cultivares mejorados en otros países, pueden comportarse como susceptibles frente a las poblaciones locales.

  15. Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe supplementation and resistance training on some blood oxidative stress markers in obese men

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    Sirvan Atashak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive adiposity increases oxidative stress, and thus may play a critical role in the pathogenesis and development of obesity-associated comorbidities, in particular atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and arterial hypertension. Improved body composition, through exercise training and diet, may therefore significantly contribute to a reduction in oxidative stress. Further, some foods high in antioxidants (e.g., ginger provide additional defense against oxidation. This study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe supplementation and progressive resistance training (PRT on some nonenzymatic blood [total antioxidant capacity (TAC and malondialdehyde (MDA] oxidative stress markers in obese men. Thirty-two obese males (body mass index ≥30, aged 18–30 years were randomized to one of the following four groups: a placebo (PL; n = 8; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL; n = 8; resistance training plus ginger supplementation (RTGI; n = 8; and ginger supplementation only (GI; n = 8. Participants in the RTGI and GI groups consumed 1 g ginger/day for 10 weeks. At the same time, PRT was undertaken by the RTPL and RTGI groups three times/week. Resting blood samples were collected at baseline and at 10 weeks, and analyzed for plasma nonenzymatic TAC and MDA concentration. After the 10-week intervention, we observed significant training × ginger supplementation × resistance training interaction for TAC (p = 0.043 and significant interactions for training × resistance training and training × ginger supplementation for MDA levels (p < 0.05. The results of this study show that 10 weeks of either ginger supplementation or PRT protects against oxidative stress and therefore both of these interventions can be beneficial for obese individuals; however, when combined, the effects cancel each other out.

  16. PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION AND INJURY PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR THE ARMY PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST: TECHNIQUE MATTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Mark; Koppenhaver, Shane

    2015-06-01

    The Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) is a biannual training requirement for all soldiers. The Army has made significant overall fitness gains by developing functional and comprehensive Physical Readiness Training (PRT) programs, but more emphasis on individualized physical fitness test taking technique is warranted in order to optimize performance. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to provide clinicians with several examples of APFT performance enhancement techniques that can potentially be applied not only in the Army, but throughout the military and in the sports community where general fitness assessments are routinely administered. 5.

  17. Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART in at risk individuals: A randomised double blind, sham controlled, longitudinal trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which mental and physical exercise may slow cognitive decline in adults with early signs of cognitive impairment is unknown. This article provides the rationale and methodology of the first trial to investigate the isolated and combined effects of cognitive training (CT and progressive resistance training (PRT on general cognitive function and functional independence in older adults with early cognitive impairment: Study of Mental and Regular Training (SMART. Our secondary aim is to quantify the differential adaptations to these interventions in terms of brain morphology and function, cardiovascular and metabolic function, exercise capacity, psychological state and body composition, to identify the potential mechanisms of benefit and broader health status effects. Methods SMART is a double-blind randomized, double sham-controlled trial. One hundred and thirty-two community-dwelling volunteers will be recruited. Primary inclusion criteria are: at risk for cognitive decline as defined by neuropsychology assessment, low physical activity levels, stable disease, and age over 55 years. The two active interventions are computerized CT and whole body, high intensity PRT. The two sham interventions are educational videos and seated calisthenics. Participants are randomized into 1 of 4 supervised training groups (2 d/wk × 6 mo in a fully factorial design. Primary outcomes measured at baseline, 6, and 18 months are the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog, neuropsychological test scores, and Bayer Informant Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (B-IADLs. Secondary outcomes are psychological well-being, quality of life, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function, body composition, insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and anabolic/neurotrophic hormones, and brain morphology and function via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Spectroscopy (fMRS. Discussion SMART will provide a novel evaluation of the

  18. The Remote Sensing of Surface Radiative Temperature over Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    remote sensing of surface radiative temperature over Barbados was undertaken using a PRT-5 attached to a light aircraft. Traverses across the centre of the island, over the rugged east coast area, and the urban area of Bridgetown were undertaken at different times of day and night in the last week of June and the first week of December, 1969. These traverses show that surface variations in long-wave radiation emission lie within plus or minus 5% of the observations over grass at a representative site. The quick response of the surface to sunset and sunrise was

  19. Ground registration of data from an airborne Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (MfMR). [Colby, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The agricultural soil moisture experiment was conducted near Colby, Kansas, in July and August 1978. A portion of the data collected was taken with a five band microwave radiometer. A method of locating the radiometer footprints with respect to a ground based coordinate system is documented. The procedure requires that the airplane's flight parameters along with aerial photography be acquired simultaneously with the radiometer data. The software which documented reads in data from the precision radiation thermometer (PRT Model 5) and attaches the scene temperature to the corresponding multifrequency microwave radiometer data. Listings of the programs used in the registration process are included.

  20. Platelet activation by riboflavin and UV light: is it really the other side of the coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Proposto, Gianpaolo; Lanti, Alessandro; Fiorelli, Eleonora; Palazzo, Gloria; Guiducci, Giorgia; Messina, Francesca; De Masi, Alessandra; Ferraro, Angelo Salvatore; Chiru, Oana Marilena; Cerrone, Paola; Antonelli, Maddalena; Adorno, Gaspare

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays transfusion safety is still put at risk by contamination of pathogens. The Mirasol PRT System blocks the replication of pathogens and white blood cells. Our goal was to quantify the activation of platelets after treatment with the Mirasol device. From September to December 2013, 131 platelet collections were studied using a simple flow cytometric strategy. There was a significant correlation between the percentage of platelet activated before and after the treatment. Our results induced us to think that the activation of platelets after treatment was acceptable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of comorbidity on survival after palliative radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, Carsten [Nordland Hospital, Department of Oncology and Palliative Medicine, Bodoe (Norway); University of Tromsoe, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsoe (Norway); Engljaehringer, Kirsten [Nordland Hospital, Department of Oncology and Palliative Medicine, Bodoe (Norway); Angelo, Kent [University of Tromsoe, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsoe (Norway)

    2014-12-15

    To evaluate prognostic factors for survival after palliative radiotherapy (PRT) with consideration of different comorbidities and the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Between 2007 and 2012, 525 consecutive patients were treated with PRT and included in this retrospective study. Most patients received PRT for bone metastases, for brain metastases, or in order to improve thoracic symptoms from lung cancer. Median age was 69 years. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed. We recommend assessment of comorbidity when prescribing PRT and selecting the optimal fractionation regimen, because most patients with severe comorbidities had limited survival. One of the possible explanations could be that only a minority of these patients are fit for systemic therapy, which plays an important role in the overall treatment concept. (orig.) [German] Auswertung der prognostischen Faktoren nach palliativer Strahlentherapie (PST) unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung von Begleiterkrankungen und des Charlson Komorbiditaetsindex (CCI). Zwischen 2007 und 2012 wurden 525 konsekutive Patienten mit PST behandelt und in diese retrospektive Studie eingeschlossen. Die haeufigsten PST Indikationen waren Skelett- und Hirnmetastasen bzw. symptomatische Lungentumoren. Das mediane Alter betrug 69 Jahre. Die Ueberlebensdaten wurden in uni- und multivariaten Modellen analysiert. Nur 7 % der Patienten hatten keinerlei Begleiterkrankungen. Bei 49 % lag ein CCI von 1-2 vor, bei 36 % von 3-4 und bei 9 % von mehr als 4. Juengere Patienten, Frauen und Nichtraucher hatten signifikant weniger Begleiterkrankungen. Patienten ohne Begleiterkrankungen waren in signifikant besserem Allgemeinzustand (AZ) und erhielten oefter eine zusaetzliche palliative systemische Therapie. Sowohl Patienten mit niedrigem CCI als auch solche mit nur einer Krebserkrankung in der Anamnese ueberlebten signifikant laenger. In der multivariaten Analyse waren auch noch der AZ und die Anzahl der mit Metastasen befallenen Organe mit

  2. Estudio experimental de la estabilidad de micro implantes e influencia de los metales pesados sobre los sistemas antioxidantes (SOD-1 y glutatión) en portadores de amalgamas dentales : protocolos con filtros

    OpenAIRE

    Cabaña Muñoz, María Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la estabilidad de los Microimplantes bajo carga inmediata, a través de parámetros biomecánicos e histológicos (PIT: Torque máximo de Inserción, PRT: Torque máximo de Remoción y BIC: Superficie de contacto hueso-implante) en modelo canino. A los perros se les colocó un total de 144 Microimplantes en boca durante 16 semanas. Los perros se alimentaron con dietas de diferente consistencia física (dura/blanda), a partir de los 5 meses de edad hasta el fina...

  3. Schirmer tear test, phenol red thread tear test, eye blink frequency and corneal sensitivity in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Katrin; Skalicky, M; Nell, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    To establish reference values for Schirmer tear tests (STT) I and II, phenol red thread (PRT) tear test and eye blink frequency, and to determine corneal sensitivity for normal guinea pigs. One hundred and eight eyes of 54 adult Duncan-Hartley guinea pigs. Schirmer tear test (STT) I and then STT II were performed in 36 guinea pigs. PRT and STT I were compared in 18 adult Duncan-Hartley guinea pigs. Corneal sensitivity was determined in 23 guinea pigs by evaluating the corneal touch threshold (CTT) of five different regions using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Eye blink frequency was measured in 10 guinea pigs over a period of 20 min and in 17 guinea pigs over a period of 10 min. Mean STT I was 0.36 mm +/- 1.09 mm (wetting/min) and mean STT II was 0.43 mm +/- 1.29 mm (wetting/min). There was no significant difference between mean STT I and mean STT II (P = 0.79). The mean PRT-value was 16 +/- 4.7 mm (wetting/15 s), and the mean STT I-value in the same guinea pigs was 0.6 +/- 1.83 mm (wetting/min). Corneal sensitivity was significantly higher in the center than in the four limbal regions. The mean CTT for central, ventral, nasal, temporal and dorsal regions was 2, 1.7, 1.7, 1.7 and 1.6 cm or 3.7, 5.2, 5.6, 5.7 and 6.4 g/mm(2), respectively. Eye blink frequency was between two to five (mean 3.4 +/- 1.04) blinks per eye over 20 min in guinea pigs in their home environment, while in handheld and restrained guinea pigs eye blink frequency showed a variation between 0 and 17 blinks per eye (mean 3.24 +/- 3.64 blinks per eye) over 10 min. As there were no significant differences between STT I and STT II results, reflex tear secretion in the guinea pig may not exist. The most likely explanation is a lower corneal sensitivity in the guinea pig than in other species, such as cats, dogs and horses. Because of the small amount of tears, PRT is the preferred test for tear measurement in the guinea pig.

  4. Pupillary Response and Phenotype in ASD: Latency to Constriction Discriminates ASD from Typically Developing Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Georgina T F; James, Stephen M; VanDam, Mark

    2017-10-31

    Brain imaging data describe differences in the ASD brain, including amygdala overgrowth, neural interconnectivity, and a three-phase model of neuroanatomical changes from early post-natal development through late adolescence. The pupil reflex test (PRT), a noninvasive measure of brain function, may help improve early diagnosis and elucidate underlying physiology in expression of ASD endophenotype. Commonly observed characteristics of ASD include normal visual acuity but difficulty with eye gaze and photosensitivity, suggesting deficient neuromodulation of cranial nerves. Aims of this study were to confirm sensitivity of the PRT for identifying adolescents with ASD, determine if a phenotype for a subtype of ASD marked by pupil response is present in adolescence, and determine whether differences could be observed on a neurologic exam testing cranial nerves II and III (CNII; CNIII). Using pupillometry, constriction latency was measured serving as a proxy for recording neuromodulation of cranial nerves underlying the pupillary reflex. The swinging flashlight method, used to perform the PRT for measuring constriction latency and return to baseline, discriminated ASD participants from typically developing adolescents on 72.2% of trials. Results further confirmed this measure's sensitivity within a subtype of ASD in later stages of development, serving as a correlate of neural activity within the locus-coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. A brainstem model of atypical PRT in ASD is examined in relation to modulation of cranial nerves and atypical arousal levels subserving the atypical pupillary reflex. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Milder forms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be difficult to diagnose based on behavioral testing alone. This study used eye-tracking equipment and a hand-held penlight to measure the pupil reflex in adolescents with "high functioning" ASD and in adolescents without ASD

  5. Synthèse, dégradation et bio-propriétés du polyglyoxylate d'éthyle

    OpenAIRE

    Belloncle, Benjamine

    2008-01-01

    This work focuses on the study of poly(ethyl glyoxylate) (PRtG), from its synthesis and its characterization to its degradation to some biological applications. The chosen conditions for PEtG's synthesis were initiated by an anionic way (NEt3) in presence of CH2Cl2. Because the ceiling temperature of the monomer (EtG) is low (7°C), it is necessary to block the hydroxyl ended groups generated in situ. The use of PhNCO leads to stables PEtG. The PEtG can be used as a macroinitiator of atom tran...

  6. JOS JOURNAL MAY-AUGUST

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    2009-10-20

    f!\\' IHid rw'n~~-e resuil.v, prt'M?,•ce ('!/. I~'. 't'l ,. JJw.lor·wtcking. budv' ct.,/r(':VtsJ.:in pusruJ~s o~· wnbilit'u f fl''-" di.~d~art:.f! ~,r(J }J ~·alue.'\\ < 0. 05. Conduu(m: 11u. stud_-..· trugxe!l·Js ~hcU prP~it,ln! .r!!' l'e.'SfJt l~UJry J;~ I H.'.

  7. Role of the prion protein family in the gonads

    OpenAIRE

    Allais-Bonnet , Aurélie; Pailhoux, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The prion-gene family comprises four members named PRNP (PRP(c)), PRND (Doppel), PRNT (PRT), and SPRN (Shadoo). According to species, PRND is located 16-52 kb downstream from the PRNP locus, whereas SPRN is located on another chromosome. The fourth prion-family gene, PRNT, belongs to the same genomic cluster as PRNP and PRND in humans and bovidae. PRNT and PRND possibly resulted from a duplication event of PRND and PRNP, respectively, that occurred early during eutherian species divergence. A...

  8. Strains and Stresses Near Explosions and Earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-15

    ARY9 STRSSES P"t Prt A 1.213xl103 HPa SUaM 6:22 7:22 8:22 9: 22 lb. 22 11.22 12.22 TIME (SEC) 91 IMPERIAL VALLEY 10/15/79 23:19 Shean.F 6. 28 7. 28 8...John Ebel Professor John Ferguson Department of Geology & Geophysics Center for Lithospheric Studies Boston College The University of Texas at Dallas...Division of Maxwell Laboratory Dr. Alan Kafka P.O. 1620 Department of Geology & Geophysics La Jolla, CA 92038-1620 Boston College Chestnut Hill, MA

  9. OpenAIRE

    Francisco José Saavedra; Maria Teresa Cordeiro; José Vilaça Alves; Helder Miguel Fernandes; Victor Machado Reis; Daniela Gardano Bucharles Mont'Alverni

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of positional release therapy (PRT) on the myofascial tension of the upper trapezius muscle with an active myofascial trigger point (TrP). We studied 30 subjects (18 men and 12 women), mean age 34.5 ± 9.4 years, with an active TrP in the upper trapezius muscle on one side. A search for TrPs was performed bilaterally and the points were considered to be active when both local and referred pain evoked by manual palpation reproduced a deep...

  10. Creatine fails to augment the benefits from resistance training in patients with HIV infection: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos K Sakkas

    Full Text Available Progressive resistance exercise training (PRT improves physical functioning in patients with HIV infection. Creatine supplementation can augment the benefits derived from training in athletes and improve muscle function in patients with muscle wasting. The objective of this study was to determine whether creatine supplementation augments the effects of PRT on muscle strength, energetics, and body composition in HIV-infected patients.This is a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, clinical research center-based, outpatient study in San Francisco. 40 HIV-positive men (20 creatine, 20 placebo enrolled in a 14-week study. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive creatine monohydrate or placebo for 14 weeks. Treatment began with a loading dose of 20 g/day or an equivalent number of placebo capsules for 5 days, followed by maintenance dosing of 4.8 g/day or placebo. Beginning at week 2 and continuing to week 14, all subjects underwent thrice-weekly supervised resistance exercise while continuing on the assigned study medication (with repeated 6-week cycles of loading and maintenance. The main outcome measurements included muscle strength (one repetition maximum, energetics ((31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, composition and size (magnetic resonance imaging, as well as total body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Thirty-three subjects completed the study (17 creatine, 16 placebo. Strength increased in all 8 muscle groups studied following PRT, but this increase was not augmented by creatine supplementation (average increase 44 vs. 42%, difference 2%, 95% CI -9.5% to 13.9% in creatine and placebo, respectively. There were no differences between groups in changes in muscle energetics. Thigh muscle cross-sectional area increased following resistance exercise, with no additive effect of creatine. Lean body mass (LBM increased to a significantly greater extent with creatine. CONCLUSIONS / SIGNIFICANCE: Resistance exercise improved

  11. Biodiversité des ânes ( Equus asinus ) dans la zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'équation linéaire (PV = 2,28 PrT – 109,6) à cause de sa simplicité et de son coefficient de détermination plus élevé (R2 = 0,80) semblait mieux indiquée pour la prédiction du poids vif. Les ânes de la région d'étude mériteraient un approfondissement de leur caractérisation par d'autres moyens disponibles. Mots clés : Ane ...

  12. Browse Author Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 18 of 18 ... A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z All. N. Nagao, M · Naidoo, Prem · Namafe, C · Namafe, CM · Namiluko, Yaki · Nan, C · Naudé, P · Naude, L · Naude, Petro · Ncube, Portia · Ndaruga, AM · Nel, PRT · Nhamo, G · Nightingale, Singleton · Njuza, Mike · Nsubuga, Y · Nyamukunda, M · Nyando ...

  13. Determination of beta-defensin genomic copy number in different populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Peder; Jespersgaard, Cathrine; Hardwick, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    There have been conflicting reports in the literature on association of gene copy number with disease, including CCL3L1 and HIV susceptibility, and ß-defensins and Crohn's disease. Quantification of precise gene copy numbers is important in order to define any association of gene copy number with...... with disease. At present, real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR) is the most commonly used method to determine gene copy number, however the Paralogue Ratio Test (PRT) is being used in more and more laboratories....

  14. Antithrombotic activity of fractions and components obtained from raspberry leaves (Rubus chingii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na; Gu, Yuhong; Ye, Chun; Cao, Yan; Liu, Zhihui; Yin, Jun

    2012-05-01

    The 70% ethanol fraction from an aqueous extract of raspberry leaves was shown to be the most antithrombotic fraction in in vitro and in vivo tests. The total flavonoids and phenolics in this fraction were 0.286g/g and 0.518g/g by colorimetry. Six compounds, including salicylic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, tiliroside, quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the active fraction. Among them, kaempferol, quercetin and tiliroside obviously delayed plasma recalcification time (PRT) in blood. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Swallowing therapy and progressive resistance training in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajdú, Sara F; Wessel, Irene; Johansen, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients are often challenged by treatment induced dysphagia and trismus. Traditionally, rehabilitation is initiated when loss of function has already occurred. There is increasing evidence that it is of benefit to patients to initiate an early rehabilitation...... process before and during treatment. HNC patients have a unique set of functional challenges such as pre- and post-treatment dysphagia, pain and weight loss. The aim of the trial is to investigate the effects of swallowing and mouth-opening exercises combined with progressive resistance training (PRT...

  16. Effects of L-arginine immobilization on the anticoagulant activity and hemolytic property of polyethylene terephthalate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yun, E-mail: liuy@tgrc.org [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Yang Yun [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wu Feng [Research Centre of Blood, College of Medicine, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710065 (China)

    2010-04-01

    Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films was performed with L-arginine (L-Arg) to gain an improved anticoagulant surface. The surface chemistry changes of modified films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The in vitro anticoagulant activities of the surface-modified PET films were evaluated by blood clotting test, hemolytic test, and the measurement of clotting time including plasma recalcification time (PRT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). The data of blood coagulation index (BCI) for L-arginine modified PET films (PET-Arg) was larger than that for PET at the same blood-sample contact time. The hemolysis ratio for PET-Arg was less than that for PET and within the accepted standard for biomaterials. The PRT and APTT for PET-Arg were significantly prolonged by 189 s and 25 s, respectively, compared to those for the unmodified PET. All results suggested that the currently described modification method could be a possible candidate to create antithrombogenic PET surfaces which would be useful for further medical applications.

  17. Peptide and amino acid metabolism is controlled by an OmpR-family response regulator in Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Cristina; Bäuerl, Christine; Revilla-Guarinos, Ainhoa; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Monedero, Vicente; Zúñiga, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    A Lactobacillus casei BL23 strain defective in an OmpR-family response regulator encoded by LCABL_18980 (PrcR, RR11), showed enhanced proteolytic activity caused by overexpression of the gene encoding the proteinase PrtP. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that, in addition to prtP expression, PrcR regulates genes encoding peptide and amino acid transporters, intracellular peptidases and amino acid biosynthetic pathways, among others. Binding of PrcR to twelve promoter regions of both upregulated and downregulated genes, including its own promoter, was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays showing that PrcR can act as a transcriptional repressor or activator. Phosphorylation of PrcR increased its DNA binding activity and this effect was abolished after replacement of the phosphorylatable residue Asp-52 by alanine. Comparison of the transcript levels in cells grown in the presence or absence of tryptone in the growth medium revealed that PrcR activity responded to the presence of a complex amino acid source in the growth medium. We conclude that the PrcR plays a major role in the control of the peptide and amino acid metabolism in L. casei BL23. Orthologous prcR genes are present in most members of the Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae families. We hypothesize that they play a similar role in these bacterial groups. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Equipos de reconstrucción provincial en Afganistán y el proceso de construcción de paz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Uesugi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El derrocamiento del régimen taliban en Afganistán ha planteado enormes retos a las organizaciones que tienen por objetivo la reconstrucción física y el establecimiento de la democracia y el Estado de derecho en este país. Uno de los principales problemas es la situación de inseguridad que en muchas provincias todavía impide el trabajo de organizaciones que proveen ayuda humanitaria o asisten en proyectos de desarrollo. Para hacerle frente a esta situación se han creado los Equipos de Reconstrucción Provincial (PRT, compuestos tanto por personal civil como militar, los cuales buscan realizar proyectos que beneficien a la población afgana en regiones donde aún no pueden operar las organizaciones civiles convencionales. Este artículo presenta un análisis crítico de los PRT, explica las razones que llevaron a su creación, las críticas que ha recibido de parte de las organizaciones civiles y los retos que deben superar si se desea impulsar con ellos el desarrollo de Afganistán.

  19. Improvement in physical and biological properties of chitosan/soy protein films by surface grafted heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Hu, Ling; Li, Chen; Gan, Li; He, Meng; He, Xiaohua; Tian, Weiqun; Li, Mingming; Xu, Li; Li, Yinping; Chen, Yun

    2016-02-01

    A series of chitosan/soy protein isolate (SPI) composite films (CS-n, n=0, 10 and 30, corresponding to SPI content in the composites) were prepared. Heparin was grafted onto the surface of CS-n to fabricate a series of heparinized films (HCS-n). CS-n and HCS-n were characterized by ATR-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and water contact angle. The surface heparin density was measured by toluidine blue assay. The results showed that heparin has been successfully grafted onto the surface of CS-n. Heparin evenly distributed on the surface of the films and the heparin content increased with the increase of SPI content, and the hydrophilicity of the films was enhanced due to the grafted heparin. The cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility of CS-n and HCS-n were evaluated by cell culture (MTT assay, live/dead assay, cell morphology and cell density observation), platelet adhesion test, plasma recalcification time (PRT) measurement, hemolysis assay and thrombus formation test. HCS-n showed higher cell adhesion rate and improved cytocompatibility compared to the corresponding CS-n. HCS-n also exhibited lower platelet adhesion, longer PRT, higher blood anticoagulant indexes (BCI) and lower hemolysis rate than the corresponding CS-n. The improved cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility of HCS-n would shed light on the potential applications of chitosan/soy protein-based biomaterials that may come into contact with blood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. RANS Modeling of Stably Stratified Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows in OpenFOAM®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Jordan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying mixing processes relating to the transport of heat, momentum, and scalar quantities of stably stratified turbulent geophysical flows remains a substantial task. In a stably stratified flow, such as the stable atmospheric boundary layer (SABL, buoyancy forces have a significant impact on the flow characteristics. This study investigates constant and stability-dependent turbulent Prandtl number (Prt formulations linking the turbulent viscosity (νt and diffusivity (κt for modeling applications of boundary layer flows. Numerical simulations of plane Couette flow and pressure-driven channel flow are performed using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS framework with the standard k-ε turbulence model. Results are compared with DNS data to evaluate model efficacy for predicting mean velocity and density fields. In channel flow simulations, a Prandtl number formulation for wall-bounded flows is introduced to alleviate overmixing of the mean density field. This research reveals that appropriate specification of Prt can improve predictions of stably stratified turbulent boundary layer flows.

  1. Mapping myocardial viability using interleaved T1-T2* weighted imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Dai, Guangping; Xiang, Bo; Mark, John; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Liu, Hongyu; Deslauriers, Roxanne; Tian, Ganghong

    2004-04-01

    The present study was to evaluate the efficacy of our interleaved T1-T2* weighted imaging for assessing myocardial viability. The left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) of pig hearts (n = 7) were occluded for 2 h, followed by 1 h reperfusion. After removed from animals, the hearts were perfused in a Langendorff apparatus with a mixture of pig blood and crystalloid solution in 1:1 ratio. T1 relaxation times of the myocardium were measured with a TurboFLASH inversion-recovery sequence. Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) (0.05 mmol/kg body wt) was then injected as a bolus into the aortic perfusion line. The first pass of the contrast agent through the heart was followed using the interleaved T1-T2* imaging sequence. Once the concentration of the contrast agent was in an equilibrium state, T1 relaxation times were measured again. It was found that the percentage recovery of T2* intensity (PRT2*) at the maximum T1 intensity measured during the first pass of the contrast agent with the interleaved T1-T2* imaging was significantly higher in infarcted myocardium than in normal myocardium. Moreover, the regions showing a high T2* percentage recovery on PRT2* maps matched well with the infarcted myocardium demarcated with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. We therefore conclude that infarcted myocardium can be delineated using the interleaved T1-T2* imaging method.

  2. A close examination of trait reactance and issue involvement as moderators of psychological reactance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Brian L; Scott, Allison M; Ledbetter, Andrew M

    2011-07-01

    This study used psychological reactance theory (PRT) to investigate (a) the effectiveness of 2 message features (freedom-threatening language and character frame) and (b) the role of trait reactance and issue involvement as moderators of a perceived freedom threat. Within the context of organ donation, the results indicated no differences for character frame among the donor, recipient, or waiting list narratives. However, freedom-threatening language was positively associated with a perceived freedom threat. In turn, a perceived freedom threat was positively associated with state reactance, which was inversely, albeit nonsignificantly, associated with organ donation attitudes. Attitudes predicted intentions to be an organ donor. Results also revealed that trait reactance was positively associated with a perceived freedom threat. Although not associated with a freedom threat, issue involvement was positively associated with organ donation attitudes and intent to be a donor. Additionally, a trait reactance by issue involvement by freedom-threatening language interaction predicted a perceived freedom threat. Results are discussed with an emphasis on these moderators in PRT.

  3. Aspects on Transfer of Aided - Design Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goanta, A. M.; Anghelache, D. G.

    2016-08-01

    At this stage of development of hardware and software, each company that makes design software packages has a certain type of file created and customized in time to distinguish that company from its competitors. Thus today are widely known the DWG files belonging AutoCAD, IPT / IAM belonging to Inventor, PAR / ASM of Solid Edge's, PRT from the NX and so on. Behind every type of file there is a mathematical model which is common to more types of files. A specific aspect of the computer -aided design is that all softwares are working with both individual parts and assemblies, but their approach is different in that some use the same type of file both for each part and for the whole (PRT ), while others use different types of files (IPT / IAM, PAR / ASM, etc.). Another aspect of the computer -aided design is to transfer files between different companies which use different software packages or even the same software package but in different versions. Each of these situations generates distinct issues. Thus, to solve the partial reading by a project different from the native one, transfer files of STEP and IGES type are used

  4. Training effects of combined resistance and proprioceptive neck muscle exercising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael; Hohl, Kathrin; Bockholt, Ulrich; Schneider, Florian; Dehner, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    To investigate training effects of two different resistance and proprioceptive exercising concepts of neck muscles. Twenty-six healthy women participated in a randomized pilot trial. The test persons were randomized to two different neck-training programs (resistance training (RT) and proprioceptive resistance training (PRT)). They performed a standardized training program for the duration of ten weeks two times weekly. The neck strength, the cross-sectional area of three neck muscle groups (1. sternocleidomastoid muscles; 2. multifidus and semispinalis cervicis muscles; 3. semispinalis capitis and splenius muscles) and the proprioceptive capability evaluated by the dynamic joint repositioning error (DJRE) of the head were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Strength gain did not differ significantly between the two resistance training groups (PRT group: 8.2% to 29.3%; RT group: 1.4% to 19.8%). Change of hypertrophy of all neck muscle groups was significantly (ptraining, proprioceptive training led to a significantly higher muscle hypertrophy and didn't effect a significant deterioration of the proprioceptive capability compared to isolated resistance training.

  5. Hemodynamic Based Coronary Artery Aneurysm Thrombosis Risk Stratification in Kawasaki Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande Gutierrez, Noelia; Mathew, M.; McCrindle, B.; Kahn, A.; Burns, J.; Marsden, A.

    2017-11-01

    Coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) as a result of Kawasaki Disease (KD) put patients at risk for thrombosis and myocardial infarction. Current AHA guidelines recommend CAA diameter >8 mm or Z-score >10 as the criterion for initiating systemic anticoagulation. Our hypothesis is that hemodynamic data derived from computational blood flow simulations is a better predictor of thrombosis than aneurysm diameter alone. Patient-specific coronary models were constructed from CMRI for a cohort of 10 KD patients (5 confirmed thrombosis cases) and simulations with fluid structure interaction were performed using the stabilized finite element Navier-Stokes solver available in SimVascular. We used a closed-loop lumped parameter network (LPN) to model the heart and vascular boundary conditions coupled numerically to the flow solver. An automated parameter estimation method was used to match LPN values to clinical data for each patient. Hemodynamic data analysis resulted in low correlation between Wall Shear Stress (WSS)/ Particle Residence Time (PRT) and CAA diameter but demonstrates the positive correlation between hemodynamics and adverse patient outcomes. Our results suggest that quantifying WSS and PRT should enable identification of regions at higher risk of thrombosis. We propose a quantitative method to non-invasively assess the abnormal flow in CAA following KD that could potentially improve clinical decision-making regarding anticoagulation therapy.

  6. EFFECT OF POSITIONAL RELEASE TECHNIQUE IN SUBJECTS WITH SUBACUTE TRAPEZITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweety Charles Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trapezius stretching combined with positional release technique (PRT have found effective in trapezitis, studies are limited to find which technique has shown effective over the other due to lack of control group. The purpose of the study is to find the effect of PRT on pain intensity, functional disability and range of motion in subjects with subacute trapezitis. Method: An experimental study design, selected subjects with subacute trapezitis was randomized into Study and Control group. Total 40 subjects, 20 subjects in each group; data was collected who completed the study. Control group received passive trapezius muscle stretching while Study group received positional release technique with passive trapezius muscle stretching for 8 sessions in 2 weeks. Outcome measurements such as Visual Analogue scale, Neck disability index and cervical Range of motion were measured. Results: There is statistically significant difference (p<0.05 showing improvement in means of VAS, NDI and Range of motion before and after intervention within the groups and there is statistically significant difference when the post-intervention means after 2 weeks of treatment were compared between Study and Control group. Conclusion: It is concluded that the Positional Release Technique with trapezius stretching found to be significantly more added effect than trapezius stretching alone in improving pain, functional disability and cervical movements for subjects with subacute trapezitis.

  7. Characterization of Pneumococcal Genes Involved in Bloodstream Invasion in a Mouse Model.

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    Layla K Mahdi

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus continues to account for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, causing life-threatening diseases such as pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis, as well as less serious infections such as sinusitis, conjunctivitis and otitis media. Current polysaccharide vaccines are strictly serotype-specific and also drive the emergence of non-vaccine serotype strains. In this study, we used microarray analysis to compare gene expression patterns of either serotype 4 or serotype 6A pneumococci in the nasopharynx and blood of mice, as a model to identify genes involved in invasion of blood in the context of occult bacteremia in humans. In this manner, we identified 26 genes that were significantly up-regulated in the nasopharynx and 36 genes that were significantly up-regulated in the blood that were common to both strains. Gene Ontology classification revealed that transporter and DNA binding (transcription factor activities constitute the significantly different molecular functional categories for genes up-regulated in the nasopharynx and blood. Targeted mutagenesis of selected genes from both niches and subsequent virulence and pathogenesis studies identified the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (SodA as most likely to be essential for colonization, and the cell wall-associated serine protease (PrtA as important for invasion of blood. This work extends our previous analyses and suggests that both PrtA and SodA warrant examination in future studies aimed at prevention and/or control of pneumococcal disease.

  8. Why turbulence dominates the atmosphere and hydrosphere? (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2015-04-01

    It is widely recognised that in very stable stratifications, at Richardson numbers (Ri) exceeding the critical value Ric ~ 0.25, turbulence inevitably decays and the flow becomes laminar. This is so, indeed, in the low-Reynolds-number (Re) flows, e.g., in some laboratory experiments; but this is by no means always the case. Air flows in the free atmosphere and water currents in deep ocean are almost always turbulent in spite of the strongly supercritical stratifications, with typical values of Ri varying in the interval 10 Ric the familiar 'strong-mixing turbulence' regime, typical of boundary-layer flows and characterised by the practically invariable turbulent Prandtl number PrT ~ 1 (the so-called 'Reynolds analogy'), gives way to a previously unknown 'wave-like turbulence' regime, wherein PrT sharply increases with increasing Ri (rather than to the laminar regime as is often the case in lab experiments). It is precisely the wave-like turbulence that dominates the free flows in the atmosphere and ocean. Modellers have long been aware that the turbulent heat transfer in the free atmosphere/ocean is much weaker than the momentum transfer. Our theory gives authentic formulation for this heuristic rule and provides physically grounded method for modelling geophysical turbulence up to very stable startifications.

  9. Method development and validation for dieckol in the standardization of phlorotannin preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoung Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Phlorotannins are reported to have diverse biological properties. However, no analytical methods for the standardization of phlorotannin preparations have been reported. Herein, we developed and validated an analytical method for the determination of dieckol in phlorotannin extracts (PRT using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The optimum HPLC conditions consisted of a Supelco Discovery C18 column stationary phase, a mobile phase (A: 15 % HPLC grade methanol in deionized water, B: methanol, UV detection at 230 nm, and a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. The optimized chromatographic conditions were validated and exhibited good specificity and linearity (R 2 > 0.9994–1.0000. The recoveries were in the range of 100.9–102.3 %. The method had good intermediate (%RSD 1.2 and intra-day (%RSD 0.4–1.7 assay precisions. This HPLC method had good accuracy and quality in the determination of dieckol in PRT.

  10. Microflora of the oral cavity in patients with xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guobis, Žygimantas; Kareivienė, Violeta; Basevičienė, Nomeda; Paipalienė, Pajauta; Niedzelskienė, Irena; Sabalys, Gintautas; Kubilius, Ričardas; Gervickas, Albinas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dependence of the condition of the microflora of the oral cavity on the etiology of xerostomia, patients' sex, age, degree of hyposalivation, and duration of the sense of dryness. A total of 64 patients with complaints of oral dryness referred to the Clinic of Oral and Dental Diseases, Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, for consultation during the period from 2003 to 2005 were selected for the study. The etiological factors of xerostomia were as follows: radiotherapy (PRT) to the maxillofacial area, Sjögren's syndrome (SS), and xerogenic medications, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). There were 50 women and 14 men. Their mean age was 60.5 ± 1.6 years. All the patients in the PRT group had high counts of Candida spp. as compared with percentages of patients in the TCA and SS groups (100% vs. 66.7% and 56.2%, Phyposalivation (Phyposalivation and the duration of xerostomia were found to have a significant impact on the microflora of the oral cavity.

  11. Structure of a Type-1 Secretion System ABC Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jacob L W; Acheson, Justin F; Zimmer, Jochen

    2017-03-07

    Type-1 secretion systems (T1SSs) represent a widespread mode of protein secretion across the cell envelope in Gram-negative bacteria. The T1SS is composed of an inner-membrane ABC transporter, a periplasmic membrane-fusion protein, and an outer-membrane porin. These three components assemble into a complex spanning both membranes and providing a conduit for the translocation of unfolded polypeptides. We show that ATP hydrolysis and assembly of the entire T1SS complex is necessary for protein secretion. Furthermore, we present a 3.15-Å crystal structure of AaPrtD, the ABC transporter found in the Aquifex aeolicus T1SS. The structure suggests a substrate entry window just above the transporter's nucleotide binding domains. In addition, highly kinked transmembrane helices, which frame a narrow channel not observed in canonical peptide transporters, are likely involved in substrate translocation. Overall, the AaPrtD structure supports a polypeptide transport mechanism distinct from alternating access. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The predicted relative risk of premature ovarian failure for three radiotherapy modalities in a girl receiving craniospinal irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Andújar, A; Newhauser, W D; Taddei, P J; Mahajan, A; Howell, R M

    2013-05-21

    In girls and young women, irradiation of the ovaries can reduce the number of viable ovarian primordial follicles, which may lead to premature ovarian failure (POF) and subsequently to sterility. One strategy to minimize this late effect is to reduce the radiation dose to the ovaries. A primary means of reducing dose is to choose a radiotherapy technique that avoids irradiating nearby normal tissue; however, the relative risk of POF (RRPOF) due to the various therapeutic options has not been assessed. This study compared the predicted RRPOF after craniospinal proton radiotherapy, conventional photon radiotherapy (CRT) and intensity-modulated photon radiotherapy (IMRT). We calculated the equivalent dose delivered to the ovaries of an 11-year-old girl from therapeutic and stray radiation. We then predicted the percentage of ovarian primordial follicles killed by radiation and used this as a measure of the RRPOF; we also calculated the ratio of the relative risk of POF (RRRPOF) among the three radiotherapies. Proton radiotherapy had a lower RRPOF than either of the other two types. We also tested the sensitivity of the RRRPOF between photon and proton therapies to the anatomic position of the ovaries, i.e., proximity to the treatment field (2 ≤ RRRPOF ≤ 10). We found that CRT and IMRT have higher risks of POF than passive-scattering proton radiotherapy (PRT) does, regardless of uncertainties in the ovarian location. Overall, PRT represents a lower RRPOF over the two other modalities.

  13. Demonstrating Improved Multiple Transport-Mean-Free-Path Imaging Capabilities of Light Sheet Microscopy in the Quantification of Fluorescence Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckher, Matthias; Psycharakis Daniele Ancora, Stylianos E; Liapis, Evangelos; Zacharopoulos, Athanasios; Ripoll, Jorge; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Zacharakis, Giannis

    2017-11-23

    Optical microscopy constitutes, one of the most fundamental paradigms for the understanding of complex biological mechanisms in the whole-organism and live-tissue context. Novel imaging techniques such as light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) and optical projection tomography (OPT) combined with phase-retrieval algorithms (PRT) can produce highly resolved 3D images in multiple transport-mean-free-path scales. Our study aims to exemplify the microscopic capabilities of LSFM when imaging protein dynamics in Caenorhabditis elegans and the distribution of necrotic cells in cancer cell spheroids. To this end, we apply LSFM to quantify the spatio-temporal localization of the GFP-tagged aging and stress response factor DAF-16/FOXO in transgenic C. elegans. Our analysis reveals a linear nuclear localization of DAF-16::GFP across tissues in response to heat stress, using a system that outperforms confocal scanning fluorescent microscopy in imaging speed, 3D resolution and reduced photo-toxicity. Furthermore, we present how PRT can improve the depth-to-resolution-ratio when applied to image the far-red fluorescent dye DRAQ7 which stains dead cells in a T47D cancer cell spheroid recorded with a customized OPT/LSFM system. Our studies demonstrate that LSFM combined with our novel approaches enables higher resolution and more accurate 3D quantification than previously applied technologies, proving its advance as new gold standard for fluorescence microscopy. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A randomized trial comparison of the effects of verbal and pictorial naturalistic communication strategies on spoken language for young children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreibman, Laura; Stahmer, Aubyn C

    2014-05-01

    Presently there is no consensus on the specific behavioral treatment of choice for targeting language in young nonverbal children with autism. This randomized clinical trial compared the effectiveness of a verbally-based intervention, Pivotal Response Training (PRT) to a pictorially-based behavioral intervention, the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on the acquisition of spoken language by young (2-4 years), nonverbal or minimally verbal (≤9 words) children with autism. Thirty-nine children were randomly assigned to either the PRT or PECS condition. Participants received on average 247 h of intervention across 23 weeks. Dependent measures included overall communication, expressive vocabulary, pictorial communication and parent satisfaction. Children in both intervention groups demonstrated increases in spoken language skills, with no significant difference between the two conditions. Seventy-eight percent of all children exited the program with more than 10 functional words. Parents were very satisfied with both programs but indicated PECS was more difficult to implement.

  15. The predicted relative risk of premature ovarian failure for three radiotherapy modalities in a girl receiving craniospinal irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Andújar, A.; Newhauser, W. D.; Taddei, P. J.; Mahajan, A.; Howell, R. M.

    2013-05-01

    In girls and young women, irradiation of the ovaries can reduce the number of viable ovarian primordial follicles, which may lead to premature ovarian failure (POF) and subsequently to sterility. One strategy to minimize this late effect is to reduce the radiation dose to the ovaries. A primary means of reducing dose is to choose a radiotherapy technique that avoids irradiating nearby normal tissue; however, the relative risk of POF (RRPOF) due to the various therapeutic options has not been assessed. This study compared the predicted RRPOF after craniospinal proton radiotherapy, conventional photon radiotherapy (CRT) and intensity-modulated photon radiotherapy (IMRT). We calculated the equivalent dose delivered to the ovaries of an 11-year-old girl from therapeutic and stray radiation. We then predicted the percentage of ovarian primordial follicles killed by radiation and used this as a measure of the RRPOF; we also calculated the ratio of the relative risk of POF (RRRPOF) among the three radiotherapies. Proton radiotherapy had a lower RRPOF than either of the other two types. We also tested the sensitivity of the RRRPOF between photon and proton therapies to the anatomic position of the ovaries, i.e., proximity to the treatment field (2 ≤ RRRPOF ≤ 10). We found that CRT and IMRT have higher risks of POF than passive-scattering proton radiotherapy (PRT) does, regardless of uncertainties in the ovarian location. Overall, PRT represents a lower RRPOF over the two other modalities.

  16. CFD-based Thrombotic Risk Assessment in Kawasaki Disease Patients with Coronary Artery Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Dibyendu; Kung, Ethan; Kahn, Andrew; Burns, Jane; Marsden, Alison

    2012-11-01

    Coronary aneurysms occur in 25% of untreated Kawasaki Disease (KD) patients and put patients at increased risk for myocardial infarction and sudden death. Clinical guidelines recommend using aneurysm diameter >8 mm as the arbitrary criterion for treating with anti-coagulation therapy. This study uses patient-specific modeling to non-invasively determine hemodynamic parameters and quantify thrombotic risk. Anatomic models were constructed from CT angiographic image data from 5 KD aneurysm patients and one normal control. CFD simulations were performed to obtain hemodynamic data including WSS and particle residence times (PRT). Thrombosis was clinically observed in 4/9 aneurysmal coronaries. Thrombosed vessels required twice as many cardiac cycles (mean 8.2 vs. 4.2) for particles to exit, and had lower mean WSS (1.3 compared to 2.8 dynes/cm2) compared to vessels with non-thrombosed aneurysms of similar max diameter. 1 KD patient in the cohort with acute thrombosis had diameter < 8 mm. Regions of low WSS and high PRT predicted by simulations correlated with regions of subsequent thrombus formation. Thrombotic risk stratification for KD aneurysms may be improved by incorporating both hemodynamic and geometric quantities. Current clinical guidelines to assess patient risk based only on aneurysm diameter may be misleading. Further prospective study is warranted to evaluate the utility of patient-specific modeling in risk stratifying KD patients with coronary aneurysms. NIH R21.

  17. Effect of strontium tantalate surface texture on nickel nanoparticle dispersion by electroless deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compean-González, C.L. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Civil, Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energía, Av. Universidad s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Arredondo-Torres, V.M. [Facultad de Químico Farmacobiología, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Tzintzuntzan #173, Col. Matamoros, Morelia, Michoacán C.P. 58240 (Mexico); Zarazúa-Morin, M.E. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Civil, Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energía, Av. Universidad s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Figueroa-Torres, M.Z., E-mail: m.zyzlila@gmail.com [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Civil, Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energía, Av. Universidad s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66451 (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Efficient short-time procedure for nickel nanoparticles dispersion by electroless. • Nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average size of 15 nm. • Influence of surface texture on deposition temperature and time was observed. • Nickel deposition can be done below 50 °C. - Abstract: The present work studies the effect of smooth and porous texture of Sr{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 7} on its surface modification with nickel nanoparticles through electroless deposition technique. The influence of temperature to control Ni nanoparticles loading amount and dispersion were analyzed. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were used to examine surface texture characteristics. The morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (MEB) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometry system (EDS), which was used to determine the amount of deposited Ni. The material with smooth texture (SMT) consists of big agglomerates of semispherical shape particles of 400 nm. Whilst the porous texture (PRT) exhibit a pore-wall formed of needles shape particles of around 200 nm in size. Results indicated that texture characteristics strongly influence the deposition reaction rate; for PRT oxide, Ni deposition can be done from 20 °C while for SMT oxide deposition begins at 40 °C. Analysis of Sr{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 7} surface indicated that in both textures, Ni nanoparticles with spherical shape in the range of 10–20 nm were obtained.

  18. Testing the effect of medical positive reinforcement training on salivary cortisol levels in bonobos and orangutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Behringer

    Full Text Available The management of captive animals has been improved by the establishment of positive reinforcement training as a tool to facilitate interactions between caretakers and animals. In great apes, positive reinforcement training has also been used to train individuals to participate in simple medical procedures to monitor physical health. One aim of positive reinforcement training is to establish a relaxed atmosphere for situations that, without training, might be very stressful. This is especially true for simple medical procedures that can require animals to engage in behaviours that are unusual or use unfamiliar medical devices that can be upsetting. Therefore, one cannot exclude the possibility that the training itself is a source of stress. In this study, we explored the effects of medical positive reinforcement training on salivary cortisol in two groups of captive ape species, orangutans and bonobos, which were familiar to this procedure. Furthermore, we successfully biologically validated the salivary cortisol assay, which had already been validated for bonobos, for orangutans. For the biological validation, we found that cortisol levels in orangutan saliva collected during baseline conditions were lower than in samples collected during three periods that were potentially stressful for the animals. However, we did not find significant changes in salivary cortisol during medical positive reinforcement training for either bonobos or orangutans. Therefore, for bonobos and orangutans with previous exposure to medical PRT, the procedure is not stressful. Thus, medical PRT provides a helpful tool for the captive management of the two species.

  19. Heat Transfer Characteristics and Prediction Model of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2 in a Vertical Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Cai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to its distinct capability to improve the efficiency of shale gas production, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 fracturing has attracted increased attention in recent years. Heat transfer occurs in the transportation and fracture processes. To better predict and understand the heat transfer of SC-CO2 near the critical region, numerical simulations focusing on a vertical flow pipe were performed. Various turbulence models and turbulent Prandtl numbers (Prt were evaluated to capture the heat transfer deterioration (HTD. The simulations show that the turbulent Prandtl number model (TWL model combined with the Shear Stress Transport (SST k-ω turbulence model accurately predicts the HTD in the critical region. It was found that Prt has a strong effect on the heat transfer prediction. The HTD occurred under larger heat flux density conditions, and an acceleration process was observed. Gravity also affects the HTD through the linkage of buoyancy, and HTD did not occur under zero-gravity conditions.

  20. In vitro blood compatibility of poly (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyhexanoate) and the influence of surface modification by alkali treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Feng, E-mail: fengshen0513@gmail.com [School of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Zhang Erlin [School of Materials Science, Jiamusi Univeristy, Jiamusi 154007 (China); Wei Zunjie [School of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)

    2010-04-06

    In vitro blood compatibility of poly (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) was evaluated in comparison with poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) by a haemolysis assay, in vitro platelet adhesion test and coagulation measurements including plasma recalcification time (PRT), plasma prothrombin time (PT) and kinetic clotting time. The results showed that PHBHHx exhibited better blood compatibility than PLLA. Furthermore, PHBHHx film was modified by NaOH treatment to improve the surface hydrophilic property and the influence of the surface modification on the blood compatibility was investigated. Surface properties including hydrophilic property, surface appearance and functional groups were characterized by water contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the hydrophilic property of PHBHHx film was obviously improved by the NaOH treatment. It was also shown that the NaOH treatment could significantly enhance the blood compatibility of PHBHHx by prolonging PRT, PT, and kinetic clotting time and decreasing platelet activation. It is thought that the improvement in the hydrophilic property mainly contributes to the enhancement of blood compatibility.

  1. An Improved Clutter Suppression Method for Weather Radars Using Multiple Pulse Repetition Time Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of an improved clutter suppression method for the multiple pulse repetition time (PRT technique based on simulated radar data. The suppression method is constructed using maximum likelihood methodology in time domain and is called parametric time domain method (PTDM. The procedure relies on the assumption that precipitation and clutter signal spectra follow a Gaussian functional form. The multiple interleaved pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs that are used in this work are set to four PRFs (952, 833, 667, and 513 Hz. Based on radar simulation, it is shown that the new method can provide accurate retrieval of Doppler velocity even in the case of strong clutter contamination. The obtained velocity is nearly unbiased for all the range of Nyquist velocity interval. Also, the performance of the method is illustrated on simulated radar data for plan position indicator (PPI scan. Compared with staggered 2-PRT transmission schemes with PTDM, the proposed method presents better estimation accuracy under certain clutter situations.

  2. Description of macrolide-resistant and potential virulent clones of Streptococcus pyogenes causing asymptomatic colonization during 2000-2006 in the Lisbon area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, R; Rolo, D; Morais, A; Brito-Avô, A; Johansson, C; Henriques-Normark, B; Gonçalo-Marques, J; Santos-Sanches, I

    2012-05-01

    The asymptomatic oropharyngeal colonization rate by Streptococcus pyogenes was 10.7% in children (901 among 8,405 children 0-16 years old) and 3.3% in adults (37 among 1,126 households of children) in the Lisbon area during 2000-2006. Macrolide-resistant S. pyogenes from children (n = 149) was variable with time: 9.8-10.7% in 2000-2002, 28.1% in 2003, 19.6-2.7% in 2004-2005 and 14.6% in 2006. Eight lineages (97.3% of isolates) were identified based on at least 80% similarity of PFGE patterns, T types, emm types and multilocus sequence types (ST). The elevated frequency of macrolide resistance was associated with M phenotype lineages I (emm12/ST36) and V (emm4, emm75/ST39 and a novel emmstMrp6 type) and with one cMLS(B) lineage IV (emm28/ST52) known to be associated with upper respiratory tract and invasive infections. Significant associations (p 20%) of speC, prtF1 or ssa was probably caused either by clonal dissemination (speC), or to horizontal gene transfer events (prtF1 and ssa). This report contributes to a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology and evolution of macrolide-resistant S. pyogenes causing symptom-free oropharyngeal colonization. These colonizing strains carry macrolide resistance and virulence genes capable of being transferred to other bacterial species sharing the same niche.

  3. Prenatal role of the ductus arteriosus in absent pulmonary valve syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Scott B; Van Der Velde, Mary E; Waters, Brenda L; Sanders, Stephen P

    2002-08-01

    Absent pulmonary valve with ventricular septal defect is associated with ductal agenesis and markedly dilated main and branch pulmonary arteries. The less common variant with intact ventricular septum generally exhibits a patent ductus and smaller branch pulmonary arteries, and may be associated with tricuspid atresia. We identified 7 patients with the prenatal diagnosis of absent pulmonary valve, 5 with ventricular septal defect (Group 1) and 2 with an intact ventricular septum (Group 2). Imaging, color Doppler, and pulsed-Doppler recordings were analyzed. The branch and main pulmonary arteries were measured and expressed as a ratio with the descending aorta. Pulmonary regurgitation time (PRT) and diastolic acceleration time (DAT) were derived, and DAT/PRT was calculated to characterize diastolic pulmonary flow. Group 1 patients all had a large ventricular septal defect, normal biventricular size and function, and dilated main and branch pulmonary arteries. Group 2 patients had dilated main but smaller branch pulmonary arteries, moderate right ventricular dilation with severe dysfunction, and limited or absent tricuspid inflow. Group 1 demonstrated shorter acceleration time and earlier peak velocity, resulting in a smaller DAT/RT ratio. We speculate that free communication between the fetal aorta and the ventricles may limit atrial inflow and elevate diastolic pressure, affecting cardiac output, ventricular function, and atrioventricular valve development. With an intact ventricular septum, these physiologic and anatomic repercussions are limited to the right ventricle, but with a ventricular septal defect, both ventricles would experience similar consequences and cardiac performance could be critically impaired.

  4. Towards Energy Efficient and Shared Mobility Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rames, Clement L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Throughout the 20th century, automobiles have shaped urban and suburban landscapes, especially in North America. Globally, the car-centric transportation paradigm has contributed to unprecedented issues in terms of air quality, fossil-fuel dependence, carbon emissions lock-in, traffic congestion, road safety, parking scarcity, serious public health concerns, and socioeconomic inequality. Nonetheless, in the United States the percentage of single-occupant vehicle (SOV) commuters has continued to rise since 1960 while the proportion of carpooling has decreased by more than half since 1980. Evolving mobility services, in conjunction with new behavioral insights, have motivated recent inquiries in how to best foster sustainable growth while reducing traffic congestion and improving health outcomes. Few studies have assessed their true effectiveness, unanticipated effects (e.g., 'dead-head' or 'empty-vehicle' ride-hailing trips) or measured their impact on a specific city (e.g., modal shift, changes in personal miles traveled/vehicle miles traveled). This effort aims to answer the following questions: to what extent can shared mobility help invert the trend of increasing SOV trips? What are the energy risks and benefits of shared mobility? How do interactions between technology, policy, urban design, and behavioral change shape the transition to energy-efficient transportation? To this end, an assessment framework for sustainable urban mobility is developed, incorporating behavioral metrics (percent active transportation, percent transit ridership, percent shared trips), energy use (vehicle miles traveled per capita, percent SOV trips) and urban planning (population density, average commute time). We apply this framework to three cities (Denver, CO; San Francisco, CA; and Paris, France) to evaluate the sustainability of their transportation systems and explore their potential for shared mobility. The influence of incentives, social norms, and public

  5. Remote sensing, geographical information systems, and spatial modeling for analyzing public transit services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changshan

    Public transit service is a promising transportation mode because of its potential to address urban sustainability. Current ridership of public transit, however, is very low in most urban regions, particularly those in the United States. This woeful transit ridership can be attributed to many factors, among which poor service quality is key. Given this, there is a need for transit planning and analysis to improve service quality. Traditionally, spatially aggregate data are utilized in transit analysis and planning. Examples include data associated with the census, zip codes, states, etc. Few studies, however, address the influences of spatially aggregate data on transit planning results. In this research, previous studies in transit planning that use spatially aggregate data are reviewed. Next, problems associated with the utilization of aggregate data, the so-called modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP), are detailed and the need for fine resolution data to support public transit planning is argued. Fine resolution data is generated using intelligent interpolation techniques with the help of remote sensing imagery. In particular, impervious surface fraction, an important socio-economic indicator, is estimated through a fully constrained linear spectral mixture model using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data within the metropolitan area of Columbus, Ohio in the United States. Four endmembers, low albedo, high albedo, vegetation, and soil are selected to model heterogeneous urban land cover. Impervious surface fraction is estimated by analyzing low and high albedo endmembers. With the derived impervious surface fraction, three spatial interpolation methods, spatial regression, dasymetric mapping, and cokriging, are developed to interpolate detailed population density. Results suggest that cokriging applied to impervious surface is a better alternative for estimating fine resolution population density. With the derived fine resolution data, a multiple

  6. Fiscal instruments for regulating the sustainable development of urban transport systems in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayburov, I.; Leontyeva, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The article explains the role of public transport pricing. It proves the need for a systemic approach to building a modern public transit system. The authors argue that the main objective of the approach should be to reduce the use of private vehicles in the urban environment and increasing public transport use. It is proven that for the consumer of transport services the price per trip is an important factor when deciding whether to travel by car or by public transport. The authors analyze the available literature assessing the effects of widespread car ownership on users of the city transit system. Conflict situations that occur due to the unabated desire of city residents to travel by car are analyzed. A research method is proposed. It is shown that public transport fares have been growing in Russia at an accelerated pace when compared to the overall increase in prices of all goods and services, including motor vehicles, petrol and oils. The fare growth has resulted in a 3.6 fold drop in demand for public transport services over the 15 years being analyzed. Over the same period, the number of privately owned cars grew 120 percent. A conclusion is drawn that regular fare hikes have encouraged urban population to gradually opt against travelling by public transport. That resulted in higher demand for car travel and, eventually, in an accelerated growth in car usage. One can conclude that a persistent institutional trap has taken shape in Russian metropolises. Essentially, it means that higher public transport fares have led to lower demand for public transit services. As ridership goes down, public transport operators have to again increase prices, thus driving the demand for their services down. It is proven that escaping the trap will require restoring the ratio of prices to make sure that the price charged for a public transport trip is far lower than the cost of travelling by car. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of the factor of public

  7. Radiate Nature of Modal Oscillation Energy Flow in the Context of the Doctrine of Dynamics Monism With Implication to Physics of Seismic Rupture, Crumbling, Blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaurov, D.

    2011-12-01

    the seismic disturbance and perhaps cause a seismic rupture of some celestial body. Astrobleme by meteorites, bolides as projectiles can be considered in many ways due to various conditions. Thus, projectile intruding into atmosphere undertakes own excitation as seismoid owing to aerodynamics and then its fragmentation. The outcome can vary from a few fragments up to, in the case of absorption of an immense radiate quant, a gigantic blast of vaporizing seismoid on high altitudes with air blast, intense heat and light radiation. Otherwise, moderately excited projectile meets earth surface with a cosmic speed and intrudes into earth engrossing own volume on the expense of seizure of some target masses and undergoing compression until its kinetic energy will be exhausted by distribution to both: projectile's oscillation and compression. Then, at the stage of decompression the projectile probably is binary divided on a target and a new projectile. The projectile bouncing back will blow up near surface to final debris outcome forming a rim, or absorbing much higher cosmic energy in preceding time since its compression it can blast with consequences of a nuclear blast at low altitudes. [Zaurov, 1974, 1975, 1976a,b, 1978, 1994, 1995a,b, 1996a,b, 1997, 1998, 2006

  8. Hydrologic impacts of engineering projects on the Tigris Euphrates system and its marshlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.; Sultan, M.; Yan, E.; Milewski, A.; Hussein, M.; Al-Dousari, A.; Al-Kaisy, S.; Becker, R.

    2008-05-01

    extracted from temporal satellite data (1966, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987) acquired around the same approximate time period (July to September) of the year versus simulated AFV for the period preceding the onset (1987) of major local engineering projects (e.g., Crown of Battles River, Loyalty to the Leader Canal, Mother of Battles River) in and around the investigated marshes. Results indicate that the areal extent of the Central and Al-Hammar marshes (e.g., 1966: 7970 km 2, 1977: 6680 km 2, 1984: 5270 km 2) decreases with a decrease in AFV (e.g., 1966: 60.8 × 10 9 m 3, 1977: 56.9 × 10 9 m 3, 1984: 37.6 × 10 9 m 3). Using a relationship that describes the impact of reduced AFV on the areal extent of the marshes, we evaluated the impact of additional reductions in flow that will result from the implementation of the planned engineering projects on the Tigris-Euphrates system over the next few years. Upon completion of the ongoing South Eastern Anatolia project, with projected reductions in AFV exceeding 5 × 10 9 m 3/yr, the sustainable marshes in the Central and Al-Hammar area will be reduced by at least an additional 550 km 2.

  9. Hydrologic impacts of engineering projects on the Tigris-Euphrates System and its marshlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.; Sultan, M.; Yan, E.; Milewski, A.; Hussein, M.; Al-Dousari, A.; Al-Kaisy, S.; Becker, R.; Environmental Science Division; Western Michigan Univ.; Iraq Reconstruction Management Office, U.S. Embassy, Baghdad, Iraq; Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait City, Kuwait; University of Tikrit

    2008-05-30

    areal extent of the marshes, we examined the variation in marsh size extracted from temporal satellite data (1966, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987) acquired around the same approximate time period (July to September) of the year versus simulated AFV for the period preceding the onset (1987) of major local engineering projects (e.g., Crown of Battles River, Loyalty to the Leader Canal, Mother of Battles River) in and around the investigated marshes. Results indicate that the areal extent of the Central and Al-Hammar marshes (e.g., 1966: 7970 km2, 1977: 6680 km2, 1984: 5270 km2) decreases with a decrease in AFV (e.g., 1966: 60.8 x 109 m3, 1977: 56.9 x 109 m3, 1984: 37.6 x 109 m3). Using a relationship that describes the impact of reduced AFV on the areal extent of the marshes, we evaluated the impact of additional reductions in flow that will result from the implementation of the planned engineering projects on the Tigris-Euphrates system over the next few years. Upon completion of the ongoing South Eastern Anatolia project, with projected reductions in AFV exceeding 5 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}/yr, the sustainable marshes in the Central and Al-Hammar area will be reduced by at least an additional 550 km{sup 2}.

  10. Spatio-temporal development of streamflow droughts in north-west Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Zaidman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the spatial and temporal development of streamflow droughts in Europe over the last 40 years, differentiating the climatic factors that drive drought formation from catchment controls on drought manifestation. A novel approach for quantifying and comparing streamflow and precipitation depletion is presented. This approach considers atypical flow or rainfall events, as well as more severe droughts, regardless of the season in which they occur (although unlikely to constitute drought in an operational sense, sustained atypical flows are important with regard to understanding how droughts arise and develop. The amount of flow depletion is quantified at daily resolution based on the standardised departure from the mean day d flow, or flow anomaly. The index was derived for 2780 gauging points within north-west Europe using data from the FRIEND European Water Archive for the 1960-1995 period. Using a simple interpolation procedure these data were used to produce a time-series of grids, with a cell size of 18 km2, showing the spatial distribution of flow anomaly over the study area. A similar approach was used to characterise monthly precipitation anomalies, based on existing grid data (see New et al., 2000. The grids were analysed chronologically to examine the spatial and temporal coherency of areas showing large flow and/or precipitation anomalies, focussing on drought development during the 1975-1976 and 1989-1990 periods. Using a threshold approach, in which an anomaly of 2 standard deviations represents the onset of drought conditions, indices were developed to describe the time-varying extent and areal-severity (flow deficit of streamflow and precipitation drought. Similar indices were used to describe how the magnitude and temporal variation of flow depletion varied spatially. In terms of streamflow depletion, the 1976 drought was found to be a highly coherent event, having a well defined start (in January 1976 and end (in

  11. Saturday Driving Restrictions Fail to Improve Air Quality in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lucas W.

    2017-02-01

    Policymakers around the world are turning to license-plate based driving restrictions in an effort to address urban air pollution. The format differs across cities, but most programs restrict driving once or twice a week during weekdays. This paper focuses on Mexico City, home to one of the oldest and best-known driving restriction policies. For almost two decades Mexico City’s driving restrictions applied during weekdays only. This changed recently, however, when the program was expanded to include Saturdays. This paper uses hourly data from pollution monitoring stations to measure the effect of the Saturday expansion on air quality. Overall, there is little evidence that the program expansion improved air quality. Across eight major pollutants, the program expansion had virtually no discernible effect on pollution levels. These disappointing results stand in sharp contrast to estimates made before the expansion which predicted a 15%+ decrease in vehicle emissions on Saturdays. To understand why the program has been less effective than expected, the paper then turns to evidence from subway, bus, and light rail ridership, finding no evidence that the expansion was successful in getting drivers to switch to lower-emitting forms of transportation.

  12. Modeling of passengers' safety perception for buses on mountainous roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hooi Ling; Ahmed, Muaid

    2018-01-31

    This study had developed a passenger safety perception model specifically for buses taking into consideration the various factors, namely driver characteristics, environmental conditions, and bus characteristics using Bayesian Network. The behaviour of bus driver is observed through the bus motion profile, measured in longitudinal, lateral, and vertical accelerations. The road geometry is recorded using GPS and is computed with the aid of the Google map while the perceived bus safety is rated by the passengers in the bus in real time. A total of 13 variables were derived and used in the model development. The developed Bayesian Network model shows that the type of bus and the experience of the driver on the investigated route could have an influence on passenger's perception of their safety on buses. Road geometry is an indirect influencing factor through the driver's behavior. The findings of this model are useful for the authorities to structure an effective strategy to improve the level of perceived bus safety. A high level of bus safety will definitely boost passenger usage confidence which will subsequently increase ridership. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performing impact evaluations in industrial retrofit: The Energy Savings Plan Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riewer, S. (USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)); Spanner, G.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The Energy Savings Plan (ESP) is Bonneville Power Administration's retrofit program for the industrial sector. The program pays incentives for energy conservation measures involving electrical energy efficiency improvements in manufacturing, processing, and refining industries. This paper will describe the ESP program, recount the techniques selected to evaluate the retrofits, and report the findings from five ESP project impact evaluations completed to date. The impact evaluations provide a framework for assessing the energy saving achieved by the provides implemented under the ESP. In addition to energy savings, the evaluations assess process changes, net utility impacts, levelized costs, and free ridership.'' The five ESP projects evaluated include: a waste heat recovery system for a food processing blancher, an energy management control system used to upgrade refrigeration, a variable speed drive for a fan motor in a lumber mill, a sludge screw press for waste water treatment, and replacement of rod anodes with blades anodes in mercury cells in an electrochemical plant.

  14. An Assessment of Future Demands for and Benefits of Public Transit Srevices in Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, F.

    2004-04-29

    This report documents results from a study carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee at Knoxville for the Office of Public Transportation, Tennessee Department of Transportation. The study team was tasked with developing a process and a supporting methodology for estimating the benefits accruing to the State from the operation of state supported public transit services. The team was also tasked with developing forecasts of the future demands for these State supported transit services at five year intervals through the year 2020, broken down where possible to the local transit system level. Separate ridership benefits and forecasts were also requested for the State's urban and rural transit operations. Tennessee's public transit systems are subsidized to a degree by taxpayers. It is therefore in the public interest that assessments of the benefits of such systems be carried out at intervals, to determine how they are contributing to the well-being of the state's population. For some population groups within the State of Tennessee these transit services have become essential as a means of gaining access to workplaces and job training centers, to educational and health care facilities, as well as to shops, social functions and recreational sites.

  15. An Assessment of Future Demands for and Benefits of Public Transit Services in Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, F.

    2003-06-10

    This report documents results from a study carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee at Knoxville for the Office of Public Transportation, Tennessee Department of Transportation. The study team was tasked with developing a process and a supporting methodology for estimating the benefits accruing to the State from the operation of state supported public transit services. The team was also tasked with developing forecasts of the future demands for these State supported transit services at five year intervals through the year 2020, broken down where possible to the local transit system level. Separate ridership benefits and forecasts were also requested for the State's urban and rural transit operations. Tennessee's public transit systems are subsidized to a degree by taxpayers. It is therefore in the public interest that assessments of the benefits of such systems be carried out at intervals, to determine how they are contributing to the well-being of the state's population. For some population groups within the State of Tennessee these transit services have become essential as a means of gaining access to workplaces and job training centers, to educational and health care facilities, as well as to shops, social functions and recreational sites.

  16. A STUDY ON THE INTRODUCTION OF BUS RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM IN ASIAN DEVELOPING CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaned SATIENNAM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has increasingly become an attractive urban transit alternative in many Asian developing cities due to its cost-effective and flexible implementation. However, it still seems to be difficult to introduce BRT to these cities because almost all of their city structures have been developed under solely a road transport development city plan and weakness of land use control gives rise to many problems, such as urban sprawl, traffic congestion, and air pollution. The purpose of this study was to introduce several strategies to support BRT implementation in Asian developing cities, such as a strategy to appropriately integrate the paratransit system into BRT system as being a feeder along a BRT corridor to supply demand. These proposed strategies were evaluated by applying demand forecasting and emission models to the BRT project plan of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA in Thailand. It was demonstrated that the proposed strategies could effectively improve the BRT ridership, traffic conditions, and air pollution emission of the entire system in Bangkok. This study could be further extended to include strategy recommendation if a BRT system were to be introduced to other Asian developing cities.

  17. Future Parking Demand at Rail Stations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Phooi Wai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Klang Valley, Malaysia is currently undergoing a massive development of rail transportation system expansion where the current integrated rail transit system will see new extensions of two MRT lines and an LRT line by year 2020. By year 2017, the first MRT line will be ready to run with 31 new rail stations connected to the current passenger rail network. The existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are commonly known as being unable to sufficiently cater for the current parking space demand. Therefore, with the expansion of many additional rail stations which are rapidly under construction, there are doubts that the future parking space at rail stations will be able to accommodate the sudden rise of rail passengers. Although the authorities are increasing parking bays at various locations, will the future parking demand at rail stations be sufficient? This paper studies the factors influencing parking demand in terms of population, car ownership, new car registrations and passenger rail ridership and estimating the future parking demand using Linear Regression method. Result shows that the forecasted parking demand at rail stations after the implementation of the first new MRT system in 2017 is 2.7 times more than in 2014.

  18. Agenda for action on air and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaffe, B.; Perrotta, K.; Campbell, M.; Li-Muller, A.; Macfarlane, R.; Gingrich, S. [Toronto Public Health, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Toronto's acting medical officer of health estimates that five common air pollutants contribute to thousands of premature deaths and even more hospital admissions in Toronto every year. This report includes information from studies around the world which show that air pollution causes reduced lung function, asthma attacks, emergency room visits, lung cancer, high blood pressure and reduced life expectancy. The medical officer of health calls for action on air quality. The transportation sector was identified as the most significant source of air pollutants within the city, followed by the industrial sector and fuel consumption for power generation and home heating. Air quality in Toronto is also affected by coal-fired power plants that are upwind in southwestern Ontario and mid-western United States. This report was divided into 4 priority areas: (1) reduce use of, and emissions from, the transportation sector by increasing ridership on public transit and curbing urban sprawl, (2) reducing emissions from fuel consumption for home heating and power generation by phasing out coal-fired power plants and promoting energy efficiency, (3) reducing emissions from point sources that contribute to local and regional air quality concerns, and (4) improving the support systems needed to promote air quality improvements. Some of the recommendations were to develop a regional air quality plan that mandates significant reductions in smog-forming precursors from the industrial sector. 95 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig., 2 appendices.

  19. Perceived traffic risk for cyclists: the impact of near miss and collision experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Rebecca L

    2015-02-01

    Though the percentage of people bicycling for transportation rose during the last decade, with an average increase in bicycle commuting of 47% (Flusche, 2012), still only 1% of all U.S. trips are made by bike (Flusche, 2010). Research suggests that people's concern regarding the risk of bicycling near traffic-namely the risk of being hit by a car-remain a significant barrier to widespread cycling. However, research has not disaggregated traffic risk to expose its many aspects and how they may affect bicyclists with differing skill levels, experiences, and behaviors. This study begins to address this gap in our understanding. Elaborating on results from an internet survey, this study examined various aspects of traffic risk among 406 potential and current bicyclists in the San Francisco Bay Area. The data indicate that perceived traffic risk negatively influences the decision to bicycle for potential and occasional bicyclists, although the influence decreases with cycling frequency. Additionally, cycling frequency seems to heighten awareness of traffic risk, particularly for cyclists who have experienced "near misses" or collisions. In particular, near misses were found to be (a) much more common than collisions and (b) more strongly associated than collisions with perceived traffic risk. The findings suggest that efforts targeting road user behaviors and roadway designs associated with these near misses could mitigate perceived and actual traffic risk for bicyclists, and thereby eventually help achieve higher cycling ridership. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Global bike share: What the data tells us about road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Elliot; Schepers, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Bike share has emerged as a rapidly growing mode of transport in over 800 cities globally, up from just a handful in the 1990s. Some analysts had forecast a rise in the number of bicycle crashes after the introduction of bike share, but empirical research on bike share safety is rare. The goal of this study is to examine the impact of bike share programs on cycling safety. The paper has two substudies. Study 1 was a secondary analysis of longitudinal hospital injury data from the Graves et al. (2014) study. It compared cycling safety in cities that introduced bike share programs with cities that did not. Study 2 combined ridership data with crash data of selected North American and European cities to compare bike share users to other cyclists. Study 1 indicated that the introduction of a bike share system was associated with a reduction in cycling injury risk. Study 2 found that bike share users were less likely than other cyclists to sustain fatal or severe injuries. On a per kilometer basis, bike share is associated with decreased risk of both fatal and non-fatal bicycle crashes when compared to private bike riding. The results of this study suggest that concerns of decreased levels of cycling safety are unjustified and should not prevent decision makers from introducing public bike share schemes, especially if combined with other safety measures like traffic calming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  1. The Use of Point-of-Decision Prompts to Increase Stair Climbing in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Alan Sloan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is a significant contributor to worldwide mortality and morbidity associated with non-communicable diseases. An excellent avenue to incorporate lifestyle physical activity into regular routine is to encourage the use of stairs during daily commutes. We evaluated the effectiveness of point-of-decision prompts (PODPs in promoting the use of stairs instead of the escalators in a Singapore Mass Rapid Transit (MRT station. We measured the number of stair climbers before the PODPs were put up, during the 4 weeks that they were in use, and 2 weeks after they were removed. Measurements at a no intervention control site were additionally taken. The use of stair-riser banners was associated with an increase in the number of people using the stairs by a factor of 1.49 (95% CI 1.34–1.64. After the banners were removed, the number of stair climbers at the experimental station dropped to slightly below baseline levels. The Singapore MRT serves a diverse multi-ethnic population with an average daily ridership of over 2 million and 88 stations island-wide. An increase of physical activity among these MRT commuters would have a large impact at the population level. Our findings can be translated into part of the national strategy to encourage an active lifestyle in Singaporeans.

  2. HOW TO FACILITATE THE MOVEMENT OF PASSENGERS BY INTRODUCING BAGGAGE COLLECTION SYSTEMS FOR TRAVEL FROM NORTH SHIELDS TO NEWCASTLE INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Connor REECE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews current systems that either transport baggage or have the potential to transport baggage, as well as proposed systems, before modelling some of them in a modal choice model to examine how effective they would be if implemented. It was hoped that the introduction of a baggage collection system would increase the number of passengers using public transport which would be good for the environment. The specific location of the study was Tyne and Wear and a journey from North Shields to Newcastle International Airport was chosen for the analysis. The system proposed is compared to an existing systems known as InPost and Virgin Bag Magic. It was found that for the average passenger in North Shields, a system based on the way InPost operates would offer the greatest utility. However, with the introduction of a new utility equation that could analyse mixed-mode travel, a baggage collection hub based in Newcastle upon Tyne city centre offered a more significant number of users provided that the cost of the system was either covered in the travel ticket or provided by the airport or airline free of charge. This dedicated baggage collection system would be much more expensive to introduce compared to the InPost system as the infrastructure to run the InPost system is already in place, however, the ridership of the newly proposed system would be much larger therefore it could potentially recoup the development costs.

  3. MODELLING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A BAGGAGE TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE FOR PASSENGERS USING MIXED-MODE TRAVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Connor REECE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper models a proposed system that has the potential to transport baggage. It makes use of a modal choice model to examine how effective the system would be if implemented. The introduction of a baggage collection system would increase the number of passengers using public transport which would be good for the environment. The specific location of the study was Tyne and Wear and a journey from North Shields to Newcastle International Airport was chosen for the analysis. With the introduction of a new utility equation that could analyse mixed-mode travel, a baggage collection hub based in Newcastle upon Tyne city centre offered a significant number of users provided that the cost of the system was either covered in the travel ticket or provided by the airport or airline free of charge. This dedicated baggage collection system would be very expensive to introduce due to the massive amounts of work that would be required to set up the system, however, its ridership would be large therefore it could potentially recoup the development costs.

  4. Season-ahead streamflow forecast informed tax strategies for semi-arid water rights markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorit, J. D.; Block, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    In many semi-arid regions multisectoral demands stress available water supplies. The Elqui River valley of north central Chile, which draws on limited capacity reservoirs supplied largely by annually variable snowmelt, is one of these cases. This variability forces water managers to develop demand-based allocation strategies which have typically resulted in water right volume reductions, applied equally per right. Compounding this issue is often deferred or delayed infrastructure investments, which has been linked Chile's Coasian approach to water markets, under which rights holders do not pay direct procurement costs, non-use fees, nor taxes. Here we build upon our previous research using forecasts of likely water rights reductions, informed by season-ahead prediction models of October-January (austral growing season) streamflow, to construct annual, forecast-sensitive, per right tax. We believe this tax, to be borne by right holders, will improve the beneficial use of water resources by stimulating water rights trading and improving system efficiency by generating funds for infrastructure investment, thereby reducing free-ridership and conflict between rights holders. Research outputs will include sectoral per right tax assessments, tax revenue generation, Elqui River valley economic output, and water rights trading activity.

  5. Saturday Driving Restrictions Fail to Improve Air Quality in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lucas W

    2017-02-02

    Policymakers around the world are turning to license-plate based driving restrictions in an effort to address urban air pollution. The format differs across cities, but most programs restrict driving once or twice a week during weekdays. This paper focuses on Mexico City, home to one of the oldest and best-known driving restriction policies. For almost two decades Mexico City's driving restrictions applied during weekdays only. This changed recently, however, when the program was expanded to include Saturdays. This paper uses hourly data from pollution monitoring stations to measure the effect of the Saturday expansion on air quality. Overall, there is little evidence that the program expansion improved air quality. Across eight major pollutants, the program expansion had virtually no discernible effect on pollution levels. These disappointing results stand in sharp contrast to estimates made before the expansion which predicted a 15%+ decrease in vehicle emissions on Saturdays. To understand why the program has been less effective than expected, the paper then turns to evidence from subway, bus, and light rail ridership, finding no evidence that the expansion was successful in getting drivers to switch to lower-emitting forms of transportation.

  6. Report on Canadian alternative transportation programs : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    Existing alternative transportation programs and initiatives in Canada were presented as part of an effort to achieve the Canada-Wide Standards on Particulate Matter and Ground-level Ozone. This document is intended for employers that could implement support services in their workplace that promote methods of commuting that reduce vehicle kilometers traveled and encourage alternative transportation to the single occupant vehicle with the objective or reducing particulate matter and ground-level ozone. Alternative transportation programs such as employers programs, youth programs and institutional programs have environmental, economic, social and community benefits such as reduced emissions and greater transportation efficiency which lead to improved quality of life, health and sustainability of the transportation system. Organizations implement alternative transportation programs because of a commitment to; environmental responsibility, improving air quality, offering employee benefits, GHG reductions and corporate leadership. The programs are often initiated by large urban centres experiencing transportation-related problems such as congestion, air pollution or infrastructure capacity constraints. The U-Pass was presented as example of a very successful program that promotes change in behaviour at institutions to increase transit ridership. Telework also offers the opportunity of eliminating commutes. Ridematching is another key marketing tool employed by many organizations. The most successful programs are those with the greatest financial resources because sustained funding is necessary for program delivery, expansion and community acceptance. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Human mobility in space from three modes of public transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shixiong; Guan, Wei; Zhang, Wenyi; Chen, Xu; Yang, Liu

    2017-10-01

    The human mobility patterns have drew much attention from researchers for decades, considering about its importance for urban planning and traffic management. In this study, the taxi GPS trajectories, smart card transaction data of subway and bus from Beijing are utilized to model human mobility in space. The original datasets are cleaned and processed to attain the displacement of each trip according to the origin and destination locations. Then, the Akaike information criterion is adopted to screen out the best fitting distribution for each mode from candidate ones. The results indicate that displacements of taxi trips follow the exponential distribution. Besides, the exponential distribution also fits displacements of bus trips well. However, their exponents are significantly different. Displacements of subway trips show great specialties and can be well fitted by the gamma distribution. It is obvious that human mobility of each mode is different. To explore the overall human mobility, the three datasets are mixed up to form a fusion dataset according to the annual ridership proportions. Finally, the fusion displacements follow the power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff. It is innovative to combine different transportation modes to model human mobility in the city.

  8. Bias of averages in life-cycle footprinting of infrastructure: truck and bus case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taptich, Michael N; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-11-18

    The life-cycle output (e.g., level of service) of infrastructure systems heavily influences their normalized environmental footprint. Many studies and tools calculate emission factors based on average productivity; however, the performance of these systems varies over time and space. We evaluate the appropriate use of emission factors based on average levels of service by comparing them to those reflecting a distribution of system outputs. For the provision of truck and bus services where fuel economy is assumed constant over levels of service, emission factor estimation biases, described by Jensen's inequality, always result in larger-than-expected environmental impacts (3%-400%) and depend strongly on the variability and skew of truck payloads and bus ridership. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emission factors for diesel trucks in California range from 87 to 1,500 g of CO2 equivalents per ton-km, depending on the size and type of trucks and the services performed. Along a bus route in San Francisco, well-to-wheel emission factors ranged between 53 and 940 g of CO2 equivalents per passenger-km. The use of biased emission factors can have profound effects on various policy decisions. If average emission rates must be used, reflecting a distribution of productivity can reduce emission factor biases.

  9. DIMENSI-DIMENSI PERLINDUNGAN HUKUM BAGI PEKERJA RUMAH TANGGA DI ERA INDUSTRIALISAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briliyan Erna Wati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pekerja Rumah Tangga (PRT adalah kelompok marginalyang paling rentan terhadap kelalaian yang dilakukanoleh majikan. Hal ini terbukti dengan tidak adanyakejelasan hukum atau perlindungan bagi status mereka.Seharusnya jaminan konstitusional sebagai bentukkepedulian negara untuk memberikan perlindunganekonomi, sosial serta keadilan dan kesejahteraan bagipekerja rumah tangga sudah ada sejak kemerdekaanIndonesia. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menunjukkanbetapa pentingnya regulasi perlindungan pekerjarumah tangga. Temuan dari artikel ini adalah bahwaada berbagai alasan baik normatif, hukum dan bahkanpraktis yang menunjukkan bahwa perlindungan hukumbagi pekerja rumah tangga harus diatur dalam undangundangkhusus dan harus direalisasikan. Pertama,keberadaan undang-undang tentang pekerja rumah tangga sebagai bentuk perlindungan hukum bagi pekerja rumah tangga sebagai titik tolak bagi pemerintah untuksecara bertahap merubah status hukum Pekerja RumahTangga (sebagai pekerja non formal menjadi pekerja formal. Pergeseran ini penting karena itu berdampakpositif pada nilai ekonomi mereka. kata kunci: Pekerja Rumah Tangga, PerlindunganHukum, Peraturan   Household Workers (PRT are marginal groups whichare the most vulnerable to the abuse of the employer.This proved by the absence of legal clarity or protectionfor their work. Constitutional Guarantees  as a formof  state contracts in order to provide Economical andSocial protection as well as justice and welfare for humanincluding domestic workers should be a fundamentalregulation since Indonesian independence. This articleaimed to show how important is the regulation in terms ofhousehold worker protection. The finding of this article isthat the existence of normative , legal and even practicalreasons to strengthen the argument that the protection ofthe law for domestic workers should be regulated in thelegislation specifically in  Drafts or Bill on Protection of Household Workers. There are many reasons

  10. Postural control and functional ankle stability in professional and amateur dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Susanne; Fabian, Tobias; Zwipp, Hans; Rammelt, Stefan; Weindel, Stefan

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the postural control and functional ankle stability between professional and amateur dancers as well as controls. Thirty professional dancers were compared to thirty amateur dancers and thirty controls. All participants (n=90) completed a questionnaire. Range of motion (ROM), ankle position sense and peroneal reaction time (PRT) were measured. Postural control was investigated with the Biodex Stability System (BSS) for the stable level 8 and the unstable level 2. Professional dancers showed a significantly increased plantarflexion of both feet in comparison to all other groups (P ≤ 0.017). Even amateur dancers had a significantly increased plantarflexion of both feet in comparison to controls (P ≤ 0.017). The position sense test only showed significant differences between professionals, amateurs and controls at the position of 130° for the right leg (P ≤ 0.017). The PRT showed no significant differences among all groups except for the left peroneus brevis of amateur dancers in comparison to controls (P ≤ 0.017). Professional dancers had a significant better postural control in comparison to amateurs and controls for levels 8 and 2 at all tested positions (P ≤ 0.017). In addition, professional dancers had a specific balance distribution, whereas they balanced significantly more in the antero-lateral and less in the postero-medial part of their feet in comparison with amateur dancers and controls (P ≤ 0.017). Despite a greater ROM, professional dancers have a better control of postural stability due to a specific balance distribution. However, the position sense test and the PRT were not influenced by the profession. The specific work-related demands of ankle joints did not improve all components of functional ankle stability in professional dancers. Therefore, the inclusion of proprioceptive exercises in the daily training program is highly recommended, aiming to improve functional ankle stability and thus to

  11. Standardizing operational vector sampling techniques for measuring malaria transmission intensity: evaluation of six mosquito collection methods in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jacklyn; Bayoh, Nabie; Olang, George; Killeen, Gerry F; Hamel, Mary J; Vulule, John M; Gimnig, John E

    2013-04-30

    Operational vector sampling methods lack standardization, making quantitative comparisons of malaria transmission across different settings difficult. Human landing catch (HLC) is considered the research gold standard for measuring human-mosquito contact, but is unsuitable for large-scale sampling. This study assessed mosquito catch rates of CDC light trap (CDC-LT), Ifakara tent trap (ITT), window exit trap (WET), pot resting trap (PRT), and box resting trap (BRT) relative to HLC in western Kenya to 1) identify appropriate methods for operational sampling in this region, and 2) contribute to a larger, overarching project comparing standardized evaluations of vector trapping methods across multiple countries. Mosquitoes were collected from June to July 2009 in four districts: Rarieda, Kisumu West, Nyando, and Rachuonyo. In each district, all trapping methods were rotated 10 times through three houses in a 3 × 3 Latin Square design. Anophelines were identified by morphology and females classified as fed or non-fed. Anopheles gambiae s.l. were further identified as Anopheles gambiae s.s. or Anopheles arabiensis by PCR. Relative catch rates were estimated by negative binomial regression. When data were pooled across all four districts, catch rates (relative to HLC indoor) for An. gambiae s.l (95.6% An. arabiensis, 4.4% An. gambiae s.s) were high for HLC outdoor (RR = 1.01), CDC-LT (RR = 1.18), and ITT (RR = 1.39); moderate for WET (RR = 0.52) and PRT outdoor (RR = 0.32); and low for all remaining types of resting traps (PRT indoor, BRT indoor, and BRT outdoor; RR type varied from district to district. ITT, CDC-LT, and WET appear to be effective methods for large-scale vector sampling in western Kenya. Ultimately, choice of collection method for operational surveillance should be driven by trap efficacy and scalability, rather than fine-scale precision with respect to HLC. When compared with recent, similar trap evaluations in Tanzania and Zambia, these data suggest

  12. Fractionation of Palliative Radiation Therapy for Bone Metastases in Ontario: Do Practice Guidelines Guide Practice?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, Allison [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen' s Cancer Research Institute, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Cancer Center of Southeastern Ontario, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Kong, Weidong [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen' s Cancer Research Institute, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Chow, Edward [Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mackillop, William J., E-mail: william.mackillop@krcc.on.ca [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen' s Cancer Research Institute, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Cancer Center of Southeastern Ontario, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a provincial practice guideline on the fractionation of palliative radiation therapy for bone metastases (PRT.B) in Ontario. Methods and Materials: The present retrospective study used electronic treatment records linked to Ontario's population-based cancer registry. Hierarchical multivariable regression analysis was used to evaluate temporal trends in the use of single fractions (SFs), controlling for patient-related factors associated with the use of SFs. Results: From 1984 to 2012, 43.9% of 161,835 courses of PRT.B were administered as SFs. The percentage of SF courses was greater for older patients (age <50 years, 39.8% vs age >80 years, 52.5%), those with a shorter life expectancy (survival >12 months, 36.9% vs < 1 month, 53.6%), and those who lived farther from a radiation therapy center (<10 km, 42.1% vs > 50 km, 47.3%). The percentage of SFs to spinal fields was lower than that to other skeletal sites (31.5% vs 57.1%). The percentage of SFs varied among the cancer centers (range, 26.0%-67.8%). These differences were all highly significant in the multivariable analysis (P<.0001). In 2004, Cancer Care Ontario released a practice guideline endorsing the use of SFs for uncomplicated bone metastases. The rate of use of SFs increased from 42.3% in the pre-guideline period (1999-2003) to 52.6% in the immediate post-guideline period (2004-2007). However, it subsequently decreased again to 44.0% (2009-2012). These temporal trends were significant after controlling for patient-related factors in the multivariable analysis (P<.0001). Large intercenter variations in the use of SFs persisted after publication of the guideline. Conclusions: The publication of an Ontario practice guideline endorsing the use of SF PRT.B was associated with only a transient increase in the use of SFs in Ontario and did little to reduce intercenter variations in fractionation.

  13. Technical considerations for genotyping multi-allelic copy number variation (CNV), in regions of segmental duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantsilieris, Stuart; Western, Patrick S; Baird, Paul N; White, Stefan J

    2014-05-01

    Intrachromosomal segmental duplications provide the substrate for non-allelic homologous recombination, facilitating extensive copy number variation in the human genome. Many multi-copy gene families are embedded within genomic regions with high levels of sequence identity (>95%) and therefore pose considerable analytical challenges. In some cases, the complexity involved in analyzing such regions is largely underestimated. Rapid, cost effective analysis of multi-copy gene regions have typically implemented quantitative approaches, however quantitative data are not an absolute means of certainty. Therefore any technique prone to degrees of measurement error can produce ambiguous results that may lead to spurious associations with complex disease. In this study we have focused on testing the accuracy and reproducibility of quantitative analysis techniques. With reference to the C-C Chemokine Ligand-3-like-1 (CCL3L1) gene, we performed analysis using real-time Quantitative PCR (QPCR), Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) and Paralogue Ratio Test (PRT). After controlling for potential outside variables on assay performance, including DNA concentration, quality, preparation and storage conditions, we find that real-time QPCR produces data that does not cluster tightly around copy number integer values, with variation substantially greater than that of the MLPA or PRT systems. We find that the method of rounding real-time QPCR measurements can potentially lead to mis-scoring of copy number genotypes and suggest caution should be exercised in interpreting QPCR data. We conclude that real-time QPCR is inherently prone to measurement error, even under conditions that would seem favorable for association studies. Our results indicate that potential variability in the physicochemical properties of the DNA samples cannot solely explain the poor performance exhibited by the real-time QPCR systems. We recommend that more robust approaches such as PRT or MLPA

  14. Evaluation of an adjustable epidemiologic information system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Shyan Julian Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to facilitate public health response and to achieve early control of infectious disease epidemics, an adjustable epidemiologic information system (AEIS was established in the Taiwan public health network in February 2006. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The performance of AEIS for the period 2006 through 2008 was evaluated based on a number of response times (RT and the public health impact. After implementation of the system, the apparent overall shortened RT was mainly due to the shortening of personnel response time (PRT and the time needed to draft a new questionnaire that incurred as personnel-system interface (PSI; PRT dropped from a fluctuating range of 9.8 ∼28.8 days in the first four months to <10 days in the following months and remained low till 2008 (0.88±1.52 days. The PSIs for newly emerged infectious diseases were 2.6 and 3.4 person-hours for H5N1 in 2007 and chikungunya in 2008, respectively, a much improvement from 1142.5 person-hours for SARS in 2003. The duration of each rubella epidemic cluster was evaluated as public health impact and showed a shortening trend (p = 0.019 that concurred with the shortening of PRT from 64.8±47.3 to 25.2±38.2 hours per cluster (p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first evaluation of the novel instrument AEIS that had been used to assist Taiwan's multi-level government for infectious diseases control demonstrated that it was well integrated into the existing public health infrastructure. It provided flexible tools and computer algorithms with friendly interface for timely data collection, integration, and analysis; as a result, it shortened RTs, filled in gaps of personnel lacking sufficient experiences, created a more efficient flow of response, and identified asymptomatic/mild cases early to minimize further spreading. With further development, AEIS is anticipated to be useful in the application of other acute public health events needing immediate

  15. AcEST: BP917217 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000097_G06 338 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000097_G06. BP917217 - Show BP917217...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000097_G06. Accession BP917217 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I... and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP917217...ect = 0.76 Identities = 21/69 (30%), Positives = 32/69 (46%), Gaps = 12/69 (17%) Frame = +3 Query: 132 TPSGS...ITYSAAICSSLSDVSN---IKRGTAFSAGTPSGSSPTVLLPRIST 179 P KHL T S++ SS S + N I G+ + TP SSPT PR++T Sbjct: 134 PWLKH

  16. Training paraprofessionals to implement interventions for people autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Mandy; Neely, Leslie; Lang, Russell; Ganz, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes studies in which paraprofessionals were trained to implement interventions for people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in school and rehabilitation settings. Systematic searches identified 12 studies meeting inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) intervention implemented, (c) training procedures, (d) outcomes and (e) certainty of evidence. Across the 12 studies intervention was provided to a total of 39 paraprofessionals including teacher aides and rehabilitation staff. Paraprofessionals were trained to implement: social stories, prompting, Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS), Discrete Trial Training (DTT), Pivotal Response Training (PRT), incidental teaching or activity schedules. Training procedures included written and verbal explanations, modelling, video demonstrations, role playing and feedback. Positive outcomes were reported in 92% of the included studies. Although the literature base is limited, this review highlights promising training procedures and areas in need of further research.

  17. A hierarchy of energy- and flux-budget (EFB) turbulence closure models for stably stratified geophysical flows

    CERN Document Server

    Zilitinkevich, S S; Kleeorin, N; Rogachevskii, I; Esau, I

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we advance physical background of the EFB turbulence closure and present its comprehensive description. It is based on four budget equations for the second moments: turbulent kinetic and potential energies (TKE and TPE) and vertical turbulent fluxes of momentum and buoyancy; a new relaxation equation for the turbulent dissipation time-scale; and advanced concept of the inter-component exchange of TKE. The EFB closure is designed for stratified, rotating geophysical flows from neutral to very stable. In accordance to modern experimental evidence, it grants maintaining turbulence by the velocity shear at any gradient Richardson number Ri, and distinguishes between the two principally different regimes: "strong turbulence" at Ri 1 typical of the free atmosphere or deep ocean, where Pr_T asymptotically linearly increases with increasing Ri that implies strong suppressing of the heat transfer compared to momentum transfer. For use in different applications, the EFB turbulence closure is formulated a...

  18. U.S. Naval Weather Service Command. Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations, North American Coastal Marine Areas - Revised. Pacific Coast. Volume 6. Area 36 - Point Arena, Area 37 - Eureka, Area 38 - Cape Blanco, Area 39 - Newport, Area 40 - Astoria, Area 41 - Vancouver Island SW

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    FE«CENT»6E ««EOUENCV OF CEILlNC HEIGHTS IFT>NH >*/•) »NO DCCL’MENCE OF NH ɡ/l »V VINO OUECTION 000 190 300 600 1000 2000 3900 5000 6500...IO0: (D»I»-»IL1 l»»J-l*7> JUNE Tlill II (CONTI PrT FKEO OF VINO SPEED IKTSI »ND DIRECTION VEHSuS $E« HEICHTS (FT) •HE« 001» POINT ««EN» M.SN...1.3 1.9 .a 16,6 •6.9 VINO SPEED IKTSI VS SE« HEIGHT (FTI 0-1 6-10 11-21 22-13 36-67 61» PCT (1 19.2 7.1 .0 .0

  19. Proceedings of the first users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-01

    The first national users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory - held November 13-14, 1986, at Argonne - brought together scientists and engineers from industry, universities, and national laboratories to exchange information on the design of the facility and expectations for its use. Presented papers and potential participating research team (PRT) plans are documented in these proceedings. Topics covered include the current status of the project, an overview of the APS conceptual design, scientific opportunities offered by the facility for synchrotron-radiation-related research, current proposals and funding mechanisms for beam lines, and user policies. A number of participants representing universities and private industry discussed plans for the possible formation of PRTs to build and use beam lines at the APS site. The meeting also provided an opportunity for potential users to organize their efforts to support and guide the facility's development.

  20. Advanced transport systems analysis, modeling, and evaluation of performances

    CERN Document Server

    Janić, Milan

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a systematic analysis, modeling and evaluation of the performance of advanced transport systems. It offers an innovative approach by presenting a multidimensional examination of the performance of advanced transport systems and transport modes, useful for both theoretical and practical purposes. Advanced transport systems for the twenty-first century are characterized by the superiority of one or several of their infrastructural, technical/technological, operational, economic, environmental, social, and policy performances as compared to their conventional counterparts. The advanced transport systems considered include: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) systems in urban area(s), electric and fuel cell passenger cars, high speed tilting trains, High Speed Rail (HSR), Trans Rapid Maglev (TRM), Evacuated Tube Transport system (ETT), advanced commercial subsonic and Supersonic Transport Aircraft (STA), conventionally- and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2)-fuelled commercial air trans...