WorldWideScience

Sample records for prsv systemic infection

  1. New species in the papaya ringspot virus cluster: insights into the evolution of the PRSV lineage

    OpenAIRE

    Romay, Gustavo; Millot, Pauline; Wipf-Scheibel, Catherine; Dafalla, Gasim; Lecoq, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    The “Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) cluster” of cucurbit-infecting potyviruses contains five acknowledged species that have similar biological, serological and molecular properties. Additional data suggest there are other uncharacterized species from various locations in the world that likely belong to the PRSV cluster including a new PRSV-like virus reported from Sudan in 2003. Molecular and biological data indicated that the virus from Sudan belongs to a new species, tentatively named wild me...

  2. Algerian watermelon mosaic virus (AWMV): a new potyvirus species in the PRSV cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoubi, Soumaya; Lecoq, Hervé; Desbiez, Cécile

    2008-08-01

    A potyvirus was isolated from a naturally infected squash plant in Algeria in 1986. Biological and serological data have revealed that the virus, initially described as H4, is related to other cucurbit-infecting potyviruses, particularly Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV) and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). To establish unequivocally the taxonomic status of H4, its full-length genome sequence was established. H4 shared identities of 70% and 65% at the amino acid level with MWMV and PRSV, respectively, indicating that H4 is a distinct species of the PRSV cluster. The name Algerian watermelon mosaic virus (AWMV) is proposed for this new potyvirus species.

  3. Genetic diversity in the 3'-terminal region of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W) isolates from watermelon in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Osama A; Ali, Akhtar

    2012-03-01

    The 3'-terminal region (1191 nt) containing part of the NIb gene, complete coat protein (CP) and poly-A tail of 64 papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W) isolates collected during 2008-2009 from watermelon in commercial fields of four different counties of Oklahoma were cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities ranged from 95.2-100% and 97.1-100%, respectively, among the Oklahoman PRSV-W isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PRSW-W isolates clustered according to the locations where they were collected within Oklahoma, and each cluster contained two subgroups. All subgroups of Oklahoman PRSV-W isolates were on separate branches when compared to 35 known isolates originating from other parts of the world, including the one reported previously from the USA. This study helps in our understanding about the genetic diversity of PRSV-W isolates infecting cucurbits in Oklahoma.

  4. New species in the papaya ringspot virus cluster: Insights into the evolution of the PRSV lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiez, C; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Millot, P; Verdin, E; Dafalla, G; Lecoq, H

    2017-09-15

    The "Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) cluster" of cucurbit-infecting potyviruses contains five acknowledged species that have similar biological, serological and molecular properties. Additional data suggest there are other uncharacterized species from various locations in the world that likely belong to the PRSV cluster including a new PRSV-like virus reported from Sudan in 2003. Molecular and biological data indicated that the virus from Sudan belongs to a new species, tentatively named wild melon vein banding virus (WMVBV). The complete nucleotide sequence of a second virus from Sudan revealed it was a divergent relative of Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV). Based on sequence similarity this virus was determined to be a distinct species and tentatively named Sudan watermelon mosaic virus (SuWMV). Molecular analyses indicate that SuWMV is a recombinant between WMVBV- and MWMV-related viruses. Based on surveys performed in Sudan between 1992 and 2012, SuWMV appeared 10 times more frequent than WMVBV in that country (14.6% vs. 1.5% of the samples tested). The geographic structure and molecular diversity patterns of the putative and acknowledged species suggest that the PRSV-like cluster originated in the Old World about 3600 years ago, with an important diversification in Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Interlaboratory validation data on real-time polymerase chain reaction detection for unauthorized genetically modified papaya line PRSV-YK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Nakamura

    2016-06-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection method for unauthorized genetically modified (GM papaya (Carica papaya L. line PRSV-YK (PRSV-YK detection method was developed using whole genome sequence data (DDBJ Sequenced Read Archive under accession No. PRJDB3976. Interlaboratory validation datasets for PRSV-YK detection method were provided. Data indicating homogeneity of samples prepared for interlaboratory validation were included. Specificity and sensitivity test data for PRSV-YK detection method were also provided.

  6. Protection and coexistence of conventional papaya productions with PRSV resistant transgenic papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. Transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny ‘SunUp’ and ‘Rainbow’ are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. In small...

  7. Isolation and Characterisation of PRSV-P Resistance Genes in Carica and Vasconcellea

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    M. R. Razean Haireen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya L. is one of the major tropical fruit crops worldwide, but it is limited throughout its range by papaya ringspot virus type P (PRSV-P. Previous genetic studies identified a functional PRSV-P resistance marker in a mapping population of F2 plants of Vasconcellea pubescens (resistant to PRSV-P × Vasconcellea parviflora (susceptible to PRSV-P and showed that the marker exhibited homology to a serine threonine protein kinase (STK gene. Full length cDNAs of putative PRSV-P resistance genes designated CP_STK from C. papaya and VP_STK1 and VP_STK2 from V. pubescens were cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. Due to a frame-shift mutation, the two homologous sequences are transcribed and edited differently such that the gene product in V. pubescens is two separate transcripts, whereas in C. papaya they are fused into a single message. A peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS2 present in VP_STK2 but absent in the other transcripts may be the functional source of PRSV resistance in V. pubescens. The STK gene from V. pubescens may have been derived from an alternative splicing to confer resistance. The putative resistance gene, VP_STK2, that was identified in this study is a potential new source of PRSV-P resistance for papaya genotypes.

  8. Combining ability of summer-squash lines with different degrees of parthenocarpy and PRSV-W resistance

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    Douglas Willian Nogueira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess heterosis in a set of 16 summer-squash hybrids, and evaluate the combining capacity of the respective parental lines, which differed as to the degree of parthenocarpy and resistance to PRSV-W (Papaya Ringspot Virus-Watermelon strain. The hybrids were obtained using a partial diallel cross design (4 x 4. The lines of parental group I were 1 = ABX-037G-77-03-05-01-01-bulk, 2 = ABX-037G-77-03-05-03-10-bulk, 3 = ABX-037G77-03-05-01-04-bulk and 4 = ABX-037G-77-03-05-05-01-bulk, and of group II, 1' = ABX-037G-77-03-05-04-08-bulk, 2' = ABX-037G-77-03-05-02-11-bulk, 3' = Clarice and 4' = Caserta. The 16 hybrids and eight parental lines were evaluated for PRSV-W resistance, parthenocarpic expression and yield in randomized complete-block designs, with three replications. Parthenocarpy and the resistance to PRSV-W were rated by means of a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 = non-parthenocarpic or high resistance to PRSV-W, and 5 = parthenocarpic or high susceptibility to PRSV-W. Both additive and non-additive gene effects were important in the expression of parthenocarpy and resistance to PRSV-W. Whereas estimates of heterosis in parthenocarpy usually tended towards a higher degree, resistance to PRSV-W was towards higher susceptibility. At least one F1 hybrid was identified with a satisfactory degree of parthenocarpy, resistance to PRSV-W and high fruit-yield.

  9. Development of transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) = Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, M.T.; Níckel, O.; Gonsalves, D.

    2005-01-01

    Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform

  10. Inheritance of resistance to papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W in ‘Whitaker’ summer squash line

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    Cícero B Menezes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the genetic control of the PRSV-W (Papaya Ringspot Virus – Watermelon Strain resistance in Cucurbita pepo ‘Whitaker’ line. Plants of parental lines Whitaker (resistant and Caserta (susceptible, and of the generations F1, F2, BC11 and BC12 were evaluated for their reactions to PRSV-W. Caserta plants showed severe mosaic symptoms, while Whitaker grew vigorously and remained almost totally symptom-free. Most of the F1, F2and backcross plants also presented severe mosaic symptoms. Data were used to test a hypothesis of monogenic inheritance under different presumed degrees of dominance, and genetic models were tested using maximum likelihood tests of genetic control. Broad-sense heritability was of 0.57 for the first evaluation. Resistance to PRSV-W in C. pepo ‘Whitaker’ is due to a major gene effect summed to polygenic effects.

  11. Antagonism or synergism between papaya ringspot virus and papaya mosaic virus in Carica papaya is determined by their order of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Calvillo, Gabriela; Contreras-Paredes, Carlos A; Mora-Macias, Javier; Noa-Carrazana, Juan C; Serrano-Rubio, Angélica A; Dinkova, Tzvetanka D; Carrillo-Tripp, Mauricio; Silva-Rosales, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Antagonism between unrelated plant viruses has not been thoroughly described. Our studies show that two unrelated viruses, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce different symptomatic outcomes during mixed infection depending on the inoculation order. Synergism occurs in plants infected first with PRSV or in plants infected simultaneously with PRSV and PapMV, and antagonism occurs in plants infected first with PapMV and later inoculated with PRSV. During antagonism, elevated pathogenesis-related (PR-1) gene expression and increased reactive oxygen species production indicated the establishment of a host defense resulting in the reduction in PRSV titers. Polyribosomal fractioning showed that PRSV affects translation of cellular eEF1α, PR-1, β-tubulin, and PapMV RNAs in planta, suggesting that its infection could be related to an imbalance in the translation machinery. Our data suggest that primary PapMV infection activates a defense response against PRSV and establishes a protective relationship with the papaya host. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Resistance to papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) in the desert watermelon Citrullus colocynthis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bitter desert watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis) is a valuable source for improving disease or pest resistance in watermelon cultivars. The objective of this study was to identify C. colocynthis accessions displaying resistance to the papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) that could ...

  13. A set of host proteins interacting with papaya ringspot virus NIa-Pro protein identified in a yeast two-hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L; Shen, W T; Yan, P; Tuo, D C; Li, X Y; Zhou, P

    2012-01-01

    The protein-protein interactions between viral and host proteins play an essential role in plant virus infection and host defense. The potyviral nuclear inclusion protein a protease (NIa-Pro) is involved in various steps of viral infection. In this study, the host proteins interacting with papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro were screened in a Carica papaya L. plant cDNA library using a Sos recruitment two-hybrid system (SRS). We confirmed that the full-length EIF3G, FBPA1, FK506BP, GTPBP, MSRB1, and MTL from papaya can interact specifically with PRSV NIa-Pro in yeast, respectively. These proteins fufill important functions in plant protein translation, biotic and abiotic stress, energy metabolism and signal transduction. In this paper, we discuss possible functions of interactions between these host proteins and NIa-Pro in PRSV infection and their role in host defense. Sos recruitment two-hybrid system; papaya ringspot virus; NIa-Pro; protein-protein interaction.

  14. Microbiology of systemic fungal infections

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    Chakrabarti A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of systemic fungal infections in the past two decades has been overwhelming. Earlier, it was pathogenic dimorphic fungi, which were known to cause systemic infections. However, starting from the 1960s, opportunistic fungi started causing more number of infections, especially in the immunocompromised host. More recently, newer and less common fungal agents are being increasingly associated with infection in immunosuppressed hosts. Amongst dimorphic fungi, infections due to Histoplasma capsulatum and Penicillium marneffei are increasingly reported in patients with AIDS in India. H. capsulatum is found country wide, but P. marneffei remains restricted to Manipur state. Although both varieties of C. neoformans , C. neoformans var. neoformans (serotypes A & D, and C. neoformans var. gattii (serotypes B & C are reported in India, most of the cases reported are of serotype A. Increased incidence of cryptococcosis is reported from all centers with the emergence of AIDS. Systemic infection due to species under Candida , Aspergillus and zygomycetes is widely prevalent in nosocomial setting, and outbreaks due to unusual fungi are reported occasionally from tertiary care centers. This global change in systemic fungal infections has emphasized the need to develop good diagnostic mycology laboratories in this country and to recognize this increasingly large group of potential fungal pathogens.

  15. Infections and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skare, Thelma Larocca; Dagostini, Jéssica Scherer; Zanardi, Patricia Imai; Nisihara, Renato Mitsunori

    2016-01-01

    To determine the incidence of infections in a population of systemic lupus erythematosus individuals and the characteristics of infections regarding original site, as well as to study the possible associations between infections and treatment. An analytical retrospective study using data from medical charts of systemic lupus erythematosus patients from a single university hospital. A total of 144 patients followed up for five years were included. Data collected comprised age of patients and age at onset of lupus, sex and ethnicity, disease duration before the study period, medications, cumulative dose of prednisone, occurrence of infections and their original site. The most frequent infections were urinary tract infections (correlated to use of prednisone - p<0.0001 and cyclophosphamide - p=0.045), upper airways infections (correlated to use of prednisone - p=0.0004, mycophenolate mofetil - p=0.0005, and cyclosporine - p=0.025), and pneumonia (associated to prednisone - p=0.017). Prednisone was the drug more often associated with presence of infections, pointing to the need for a more judicious management of this drug.

  16. CIED infection with either pocket or systemic infection presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Møller-Hansen, Michael; Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections are increasing in numbers. The objective was to review the clinical presentation and outcome in patients affected with CIED infections with either local pocket or systemic presentation. DESIGN: All device removals due to CIED...... infection during the period from 2005 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. CIED infections were categorized as systemic or pocket infections. Treatment included complete removal of the device, followed by antibiotic treatment of six weeks. RESULTS: Seventy-one device removals due to infection (32 systemic...... and 39 pocket infections) were recorded during the study period. Median follow-up time was 26 (IQR 9-41) months, 30 day and 12 month mortality were 4% and 14%, respectively. There was no long-term difference in mortality between patients with pocket vs. systemic infection (p = 0.48). During follow...

  17. Systems biology of fungal infection

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    Fabian eHorn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections.A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviours in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions.We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modelling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy.

  18. Central Nervous System Infections in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-04

    Central Nervous System Infections; Bacterial Meningitis; Viral Meningitis; Aseptic Meningitis; Encephalitis; Brain Abscess; Neuroborreliosis; Neurosyphilis; Lyme Disease; Tertiary Syphilis; Cerebral Abscess; Meningitis

  19. Potential threat of a new pathotype of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus infecting transgenic papaya resistant to Papaya ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bau, H-J; Kung, Y-J; Raja, J A J; Chan, S-J; Chen, K-C; Chen, Y-K; Wu, H-W; Yeh, S-D

    2008-07-01

    A virus identified as a new pathotype of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV, P-TW-WF) was isolated from diseased papaya in an isolated test-field in central Taiwan, where transgenic papaya lines resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) were evaluated. The infected plants displayed severe mosaic, distortion and shoe-stringing on leaves; stunting in apex; and water-soaking on petioles and stems. This virus, which did not react in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the antiserum to the PRSV coat protein, infected only papaya, but not the other 18 plant species tested. Virions studied under electron microscope exhibited morphology and dimensions of potyvirus particles. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction conducted using potyvirus-specific primers generated a 1,927-nucleotide product corresponding to the 3' region of a potyvirus, showing high sequence identity to the CP gene and 3' noncoding region of PLDMV. Search for similar isolates with the antiserum against CP of P-TW-WF revealed scattered occurrence of PLDMV in Taiwan. Phylogenetic analysis of PLDMV isolates of Taiwan and Japan indicated that the Taiwan isolates belong to a separate genetic cluster. Since all the Taiwan isolates infected only papaya, unlike the cucurbit-infecting Japanese P type isolates, the Taiwan isolates are considered a new pathotype of PLDMV. Susceptibility of all our PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya lines to PLDMV indicates that the virus is an emerging threat for the application of PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in Taiwan and elsewhere.

  20. Systemic lupus erythematous revealed by cytomegalovirus infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection have been described as exacerbing systemic lupus erythematous (SLE). The role of CMV in starting off SLE remains object of debate. We report a severe presentation of SLE revealed by CMV infection with hemophogocytic syndrome. A 22 old women without a history of systemic disease ...

  1. Oral infections and systemic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Poulsen, Anne Havemose; Andersen, Lone

    2003-01-01

    An association between periodontal infection and CVD has been revealed in some epidemiologic studies, whereas other studies were unable to demonstrate such an association. A link between the two diseases may be explained by shared established or nonestablished risk factors. Future studies...... with extended control of confounding factors and intervention studies may add to the understanding of a possible relationship between the diseases. In some cases, IE is caused by dental plaque bacteria. Several studies are suggestive of oral bacteria causing respiratory infection. The pathogenesis and course...... of a number of other diseases including DM and rheumatoid arthritis have been associated wish periodontitis, but more research is necessary to elucidate possible pathogenic interactions....

  2. Image-based systems biology of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medyukhina, Anna; Timme, Sandra; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2015-06-01

    The successful treatment of infectious diseases requires interdisciplinary studies of all aspects of infection processes. The overarching combination of experimental research and theoretical analysis in a systems biology approach can unravel mechanisms of complex interactions between pathogens and the human immune system. Taking into account spatial information is especially important in the context of infection, since the migratory behavior and spatial interactions of cells are often decisive for the outcome of the immune response. Spatial information is provided by image and video data that are acquired in microscopy experiments and that are at the heart of an image-based systems biology approach. This review demonstrates how image-based systems biology improves our understanding of infection processes. We discuss the three main steps of this approach--imaging, quantitative characterization, and modeling--and consider the application of these steps in the context of studying infection processes. After summarizing the most relevant microscopy and image analysis approaches, we discuss ways to quantify infection processes, and address a number of modeling techniques that exploit image-derived data to simulate host-pathogen interactions in silico. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  3. Mechanisms underlying Cowpea mosaic virus systemic infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Silva, M.

    2004-01-01

    Systemic virus infection of plants involves; intracellularreplication, cell-to-cell movement within the inoculated leaf, and subsequently, long-distance spread to other plant parts via the vasculature (vascular movement).Cell-to-cell movement

  4. Surviving mousepox infection requires the complement system.

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    Elizabeth A Moulton

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Poxviruses subvert the host immune response by producing immunomodulatory proteins, including a complement regulatory protein. Ectromelia virus provides a mouse model for smallpox where the virus and the host's immune response have co-evolved. Using this model, our study investigated the role of the complement system during a poxvirus infection. By multiple inoculation routes, ectromelia virus caused increased mortality by 7 to 10 days post-infection in C57BL/6 mice that lack C3, the central component of the complement cascade. In C3(-/- mice, ectromelia virus disseminated earlier to target organs and generated higher peak titers compared to the congenic controls. Also, increased hepatic inflammation and necrosis correlated with these higher tissue titers and likely contributed to the morbidity in the C3(-/- mice. In vitro, the complement system in naïve C57BL/6 mouse sera neutralized ectromelia virus, primarily through the recognition of the virion by natural antibody and activation of the classical and alternative pathways. Sera deficient in classical or alternative pathway components or antibody had reduced ability to neutralize viral particles, which likely contributed to increased viral dissemination and disease severity in vivo. The increased mortality of C4(-/- or Factor B(-/- mice also indicates that these two pathways of complement activation are required for survival. In summary, the complement system acts in the first few minutes, hours, and days to control this poxviral infection until the adaptive immune response can react, and loss of this system results in lethal infection.

  5. Opportunistic fungal infections: superficial and systemic candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedderwick, S; Kauffman, C A

    1997-10-01

    Age alone is not usually sufficient for the development of disease due to Candida, but it appears to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Mucocutaneous Candida infections such as thrush and denture stomatitis are associated with local and mechanical factors. A rare and sight-threatening complication of cataract surgery is Candida endophthalmitis. Systemic Candida infections are becoming more common due to increasing use of immunosuppressive drugs and the increasing risk of nosocomial candidiasis in the intensive care unit. Candiduria is increasingly common in older patients with diabetes mellitus, indwelling urinary catheters, and a history of antibiotic therapy.

  6. Systems mapping of HIV-1 infection

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    Hou Wei

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mathematical models of viral dynamics in vivo provide incredible insights into the mechanisms for the nonlinear interaction between virus and host cell populations, the dynamics of viral drug resistance, and the way to eliminate virus infection from individual patients by drug treatment. The integration of these mathematical models with high-throughput genetic and genomic data within a statistical framework will raise a hope for effective treatment of infections with HIV virus through developing potent antiviral drugs based on individual patients’ genetic makeup. In this opinion article, we will show a conceptual model for mapping and dictating a comprehensive picture of genetic control mechanisms for viral dynamics through incorporating a group of differential equations that quantify the emergent properties of a system.

  7. Corticosteroids In Infections Of Central Nervous System

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    Meena AK

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections of central nervous system are still a major problem. Despite the introduction of newer antimicrobial agents, mortality and long-term sequelace associated with these infections is unacceptably high. Based on the evidence that proinflammtory cytokines have a role in pathophysiology of bacterial and tuberculous meningitis, corticosteroids with a potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effect have been tested and found to be of use in experimental and clinical studies, Review of the available literature suggests steroid administration just prior to antimicrobial therapy is effective in decreasing audiologic and neurologic sequelae in childern with H. influenzae nenigitis. Steroid use for bacterial meningitis in adults is found to be beneficial in case of S. pneumoniae. The value of adjunctive steroid therapy for other bacterial causes of meningitis remains unproven. Corticocorticoids are found to be of no benefit in viral meningitis, Role of steroids in HIV positive patients needs to be studied.

  8. Interferon Response in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV Infection: Lessons from Cell Culture Systems of HCV Infection

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    Pil Soo Sung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a positive-stranded RNA virus that infects approximately 130–170 million people worldwide. In 2005, the first HCV infection system in cell culture was established using clone JFH-1, which was isolated from a Japanese patient with fulminant HCV infection. JFH-1 replicates efficiently in hepatoma cells and infectious virion particles are released into the culture supernatant. The development of cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc systems has allowed us to understand how hosts respond to HCV infection and how HCV evades host responses. Although the mechanisms underlying the different outcomes of HCV infection are not fully understood, innate immune responses seem to have a critical impact on the outcome of HCV infection, as demonstrated by the prognostic value of IFN-λ gene polymorphisms among patients with chronic HCV infection. Herein, we review recent research on interferon response in HCV infection, particularly studies using HCVcc infection systems.

  9. Systemic Trichosporon loubieri infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissi, Daniel R; Kirby, Kerry D; Sanchez, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Our study describes a case of systemic Trichosporon loubieri infection in a cat with acute dyspnea, anorexia, and aggressiveness. Physical examination revealed multiple ulcerative cutaneous lesions on the abdomen, neck, and thorax. Thoracic radiographs and ultrasound showed multiple mediastinal nodules and marked pleural effusion, respectively. A cutaneous biopsy from the ulcerated wounds revealed necrogranulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis with numerous intralesional fungal hyphae. Fungal culture on fresh swab samples from the cutaneous lesions yielded growth of a fungal organism that was further identified as Trichosporon loubieri by PCR and DNA sequencing. The cat was subsequently euthanized and submitted to autopsy. Gross pathology changes consisted of multifocal to coalescing white nodules ranging from 5 to 10 mm in diameter that expanded the mediastinal fat, intrathoracic lymph nodes, lungs, and costal pleura. These lesions consisted of areas of necrogranulomatous inflammation with numerous intralesional fungal hyphae morphologically similar to those observed in the cutaneous biopsy sample. Gross and histologic changes were consistent with a systemic fungal infection, and the etiologic diagnosis was supported by fungal culture. Fungal identity was confirmed by DNA sequencing of D1-D2 and TS1 regions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. A Case of Systemic Infection Caused by Streptococcus pyogenes Oral Infection in an Edentulous Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Yumi; Abe, Masanobu; Inaki, Ryoko; Zong, Liang; Suenaga, Hideyuki; Abe, Takahiro; Hoshi, Kazuto

    2017-08-18

    Infections in the oral and maxillofacial region can sometimes extend beyond the oral cavity, with serious consequences. Most oral infections are odontogenic, occurring through the root apex of the tooth or the periodontal pocket. It thus makes sense that edentulous patients have a much lower risk of oral bacterial infection. For this reason, while there are many reports on systemic infections caused by oral infections, few of these describe such infections in edentulous patients. We present a case of oral and maxillofacial cellulitis followed by sepsis due to Streptococcus pyogenes infection in an 89-year-old Japanese edentulous woman. S. pyogenes was detected in the wound of left maxilla and the blood sample. S. pyogenes has been reported to be one of the most common and influential aerobic bacteria associated with deep neck infection and subsequent systemic infection. Left maxillary sinusitis was observed, and this could be the origin of the S. pyogenes infection. S. pyogenes derived from the sinusitis and leaked to the oral cavity might have caused systemic infection through wounding of the oral mucosa. Fortunately, intensive antibiotic therapy was effective, and the patient recovered without any surgical procedures. We experienced a rare case of oral and maxillofacial cellulitis followed by sepsis due to a Streptococcus pyogenes infection in an old edentulous woman. This result indicated that, while edentulous patients are considered to have no risk of odontogenic infection, they still carry a risk of bacterial infection.

  11. Viral infections and malformations of the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R T

    1971-02-01

    Experimental viral infections are described which cause malformations of the developing nervous system. These include influenza virus infection of chick embryos causing defects in neural tube closure and flexion, parvovirus infections of rodents and cats resulting in a granuloprival cerebellar malformation, and myxovirus infections of rodents inducing stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius. In each experimental model the pathogenesis of the malformation is different, but in each the resultant noninflammatory malformation bears resemblances to malformations in man considered to have a genetic basis.

  12. PERIODONTAL INFECTION AS A POTENTIAL RISK FACTOR FOR SYSTEMIC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumintarti Sumintarti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral infection can have an adverse effect on other organs of the body. Oral infections, especially periodontitis, may affect the course and pathogenesis of a number of systemic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, pre-term low birth weight infant and respiratory disease. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the current status of oral infection especially periodontitis as a potential risk factor of systemic diseases. Three main pathways linking oral infection to secondary systemic effects have been proposed: metastatic infection, metastatic injury and metastatic inflammation. Periodontitis can cause bacteria to enter the blood stream and activate immune cells. These activated cells produce inflammatory cytokines that have a destructive effect throughout the entire body. Therefore, periodontitis as a major oral infection may affect the host’s susceptibility to systemic disease.

  13. NIa-pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Le; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Tuo, Decai; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2012-12-05

    A chloroplast-localized papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (PaMsrB1) interacting with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was identified using a Sos recruitment two-hybrid system (SRS). SRS analysis of several deletion mutants of PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1 demonstrated that the C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and residues 112-175 of PaMsrB1 were necessary for this interaction between PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1. MsrB1 can repair Met-oxidized proteins damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS). We confirmed that PRSV infection leads to ROS accumulation and a slight upregulation of level PaMsrB1 mRNA in papaya. This interaction between PaMsrB1 with PRSV NIa-Pro may disturb the import of PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts. These results suggest that this specific interaction could interfere with PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts to scavenge ROS caused by PRSV infection. This may be a novel mechanism of PRSV towards the host defense. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Toorn, Ronald van [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  15. viral infections of the central nervous system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, can restore this pathway. Shyam Biswal at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, and colleagues, exposed defective macrophages from the lungs of 43 people with COPD to two bacterial strains that are common causes of COPD-associated infections. In the presence of.

  16. Stroke in central nervous system infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carod-Artal Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke subtypes and etiology may differ between developing and developed countries. Infections are a relatively common cause of stroke in tropical regions. Objective: To review the main infectious diseases associated with stroke. Discussion: Prevalence of stroke in HIV patients is around 1%. Pathogenic mechanisms include HIV vasculopathy, vasculitis, cardioembolism, acquired hypercoagulability, and the effect of opportunistic infections. Treatment with protease inhibitors has been associated with premature atherosclerotic vascular disease. Emerging viral infections that are associated with stroke include viral hemorrhagic fevers, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and West Nile virus. Vasculitis involving perforating vessels of the brain is a cerebrovascular complication of tuberculous meningitis. Small, medium, and large arteries of the anterior circulation can be involved. A progressive intracranial arteriopathy after Leptospira interrogans infection has been described, which involves the large intracranial arteries. Cerebrovascular complications of mycosis are associated with large vessel vasculitis, direct vessel damage by invasion or embolization, and subarachnoid hemorrhage due to mycotic aneurysm rupture. Pathological findings of cerebral malaria include diffuse cerebral edema, perivascular ring hemorrhages, white matter necrosis, parenchyma petechial hemorrhages, occlusion of brain vessels, and sequestration of infected erythrocytes in cortical and perforating arteries. Stroke can occur in subarachnoid neurocysticercosis and the lesions in such cases consist mostly of deep lacunar infarctions resulting from endarteritis of small penetrating arteries. Cardiac arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, apical aneurysm, and mural thrombus are the conditions that predispose patients with American trypanosomiasis to cardioembolism. Gnathostoma spinigerum infestation is a cause of hemorrhagic stroke in Asia. Conclusion: Infectious and

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid HIV infection and pleocytosis: Relation to systemic infection and antiretroviral treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petropoulos Christos J

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central nervous system (CNS exposure to HIV is a universal facet of systemic infection. Because of its proximity to and shared barriers with the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF provides a useful window into and model of human CNS HIV infection. Methods Prospective study of the relationships of CSF to plasma HIV RNA, and the effects of: 1 progression of systemic infection, 2 CSF white blood cell (WBC count, 3 antiretroviral therapy (ART, and 4 neurological performance. One hundred HIV-infected subjects were cross-sectionally studied, and 28 were followed longitudinally after initiating or changing ART. Results In cross-sectional analysis, HIV RNA levels were lower in CSF than plasma (median difference 1.30 log10 copies/mL. CSF HIV viral loads (VLs correlated strongly with plasma VLs and CSF WBC counts. Higher CSF WBC counts associated with smaller differences between plasma and CSF HIV VL. CSF VL did not correlate with blood CD4 count, but CD4 counts In subjects starting ART, those with lower CD4 counts had slower initial viral decay in CSF than in plasma. In all subjects, including five with persistent plasma viremia and four with new-onset ADC, CSF HIV eventually approached or reached the limit of viral detection and CSF pleocytosis resolved. Conclusion CSF HIV infection is common across the spectrum of infection and is directly related to CSF pleocytosis, though whether the latter is a response to or a contributing cause of CSF infection remains uncertain. Slowing in the rate of CSF response to ART compared to plasma as CD4 counts decline indicates a changing character of CSF infection with systemic immunological progression. Longer-term responses indicate that CSF infection generally responds well to ART, even in the face of systemic virological failure due to drug resistance. We present simple models to explain the differing relationships of CSF to plasma HIV in these settings.

  18. Systemic infection with Alaria americana (Trematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, B. J.; Cooper, J. D.; Cullen, J. B.; Freeman, R. S.; Ritchie, A. C.; Scott, A. A.; Stuart, P. F.

    1976-01-01

    Alaria americana is a trematode, the adult of which is found in mammalian carnivores. The first case of disseminated human infection by the mesocercarial stage of this worm occurred in a 24-year-old man. The infection possibly was acquired by the eating of inadequately cooked frogs, which are intermediate hosts of the worm. The diagnosis was made during life by lung biopsy and confirmed at autopsy. The mesocercariae were present in the stomach wall, lymph nodes, liver, myocardium, pancreas and surrounding adipose tissue, spleen, kidney, lungs, brain and spinal cord. There was no host reaction to the parasites. Granulomas were present in the stomach wall, lymph nodes and liver, but the worms were not identified in them. Hypersensitivity vasculitis and a bleeding diathesis due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and a circulating anticoagulant caused his death 8 days after the onset of his illness. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:1000445

  19. Central nervous system infections in heart transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Patel, Robin; Daly, Richard C.; McGregor, Christopher G. A.; Wijdicks, Eelco F. M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study central nervous system infections after heart transplantations. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Cardiac Transplant Program at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Patients Three hundred fifteen consecutive patients who underwent heart transplantation from January 1988

  20. Staphylococcus aureus Central Nervous System Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Jesus G; Cain, Alexandra N; Mason, Edward O; Kaplan, Sheldon L; Hultén, Kristina G

    2017-10-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are uncommon in pediatric patients. We review the epidemiology, clinical features and treatment in 68 patients with a S. aureus CNS infection evaluated at Texas Children's Hospital. Cases of CNS infection in children with positive cerebrospinal fluid cultures or spinal epidural abscess (SEA) for S. aureus at Texas Children's Hospital from 2001 to 2013 were reviewed. Seventy cases of S. aureus CNS infection occurred in 68 patients. Forty-nine cases (70%) were secondary to a CNS device, 5 (7.1%) were postoperative meningitis, 9 (12.8%) were hematogenous meningitis and 7 (10%) were SEAs. Forty-seven (67.2%) were caused by methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 23 (32.8%) by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Community-acquired infections were more often caused by MRSA that was clone USA300/pvl. Most patients were treated with nafcillin (MSSA) or vancomycin (MRSA) with or without rifampin. Among patients with MRSA infection, 50% had a serum vancomycin trough obtained with the median level being 10.6 μg/mL (range: 5.4-15.7 μg/mL). Only 1 death was associated with S. aureus infection. The epidemiology of invasive of S. aureus infections continues to evolve with MSSA accounting for most of the infections in this series. The majority of cases were associated with neurosurgical procedures; however, hematogenous S. aureus meningitis and SEA occurred as community-acquired infections in patients without predisposing factors. Patients with MRSA CNS infections had a favorable response to vancomycin, but the beneficial effect of combination therapy or targeting vancomycin trough concentrations of 15-20 μg/mL remains unclear.

  1. Prevalence of Systemic Diseases in Patients with Dental Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Khoshniat Nikoo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of diabetes and other risk factors in patients with dental infections.Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 50 patients who preferred in maxillofacial word of shariaty hospital with acute dental infections in 9 months. A self-administered questionnaire was administered during a dental appointment in order to gather demographic information and recorded past history of systemic disease, OPG radiography, gingival examination, and the result of lab tests such as CBC , FBS, PT, Bilirubin , Creat, T3, T4, TSH, HIVAb and HBSAg.Results: 28% of the subjects and diabetes, 28% Anemia, 4% Hepatitis and 4% suffered from thyroid deficiency.28% were smokers and 18% declared using alcohol. 6% of this population was addicted to narcotic substances.There was a significant correlation between age, education, diabetes and dental infections (P<0.05. DMFT forpeople with dental infections without any systemic disease were 8, for diabetic patients, smokers and alcohol users were respectively 17.16, 17 and 14.Conclusion: Diabetes found highly prevalent in patients with dental infection and high DMFT.It indicates a need to establish a comprehensive oral health promotion program based on whole examination and blood glucose control in diabetic patients who have acute dental infection by collaboration between dental and general health care professionals. Moreover, it is recommended that all patients should be educated in dental and oral health forprevention of dental infections.

  2. Herpes Simplex Virus Infections of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    This article summarizes knowledge of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Disease pathogenesis, detection of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis and prognosis, and approaches to therapy warrant consideration. HSV infection of the CNS is one of few treatable viral diseases. Clinical trials indicate that outcome following neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections of the CNS is significantly improved when 6 months of suppressive oral acyclovir therapy follows IV antiviral therapy. In contrast, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections of the brain do not benefit from extended oral antiviral therapy. This implies a difference in disease pathogenesis between HSV-2 and HSV-1 infections of the brain. PCR detection of viral DNA in the CSF is the gold standard for diagnosis. Use of PCR is now being adopted as a basis for determining the duration of therapy in the newborn. HSV infections are among the most common encountered by humans; seropositivity occurs in 50% to 90% of adult populations. Herpes simplex encephalitis, however, is an uncommon result of this infection. Since no new antiviral drugs have been introduced in nearly 3 decades, much effort has focused on learning how to better use acyclovir and how to use existing databases to establish earlier diagnosis.

  3. Novel mechanisms of central nervous system damage in HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy E Hazleton

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Joy E Hazleton1, Joan W Berman1,2, Eliseo A Eugenin11Department of Pathology and 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USAAbstract: Human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection of the central nervous system is an early event after primary infection, resulting in motor and cognitive defects in a significant number of individuals despite successful antiretroviral therapy. The pathology of the infected brain is characterized by enhanced leukocyte infiltration, microglial activation and nodules, aberrant expression of inflammatory factors, neuronal dysregulation and loss, and blood–brain barrier disruption. Months to years following the primary infection, these central nervous system insults result in a spectrum of motor and cognitive dysfunction, ranging from mild impairment to frank dementia. The mechanisms that mediate impairment are still not fully defined. In this review we discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms that facilitate impairment and new data that implicate intercellular communication systems, gap junctions and tunneling nanotubes, as mediators of human immunodeficiency virus-1 toxicity and infection within the central nervous system. These data suggest potential targets for novel therapeutics.Keywords: AIDS, dementia, inflammation, gap junctions, nanotubes, chemokines

  4. Toxocara canis infection: Unusual trigger of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Michaël; Bourrat, Emmanuelle; Baudouin, Véronique; Guillem, Colette; Peuchmaur, Michel; Deschênes, Georges; Fila, Marc

    2015-08-01

    Infection by Toxocara canis can cause systemic vasculitis. We report here a unique case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) triggered by T. canis infection. An 8-year-old girl was treated with albendazole therapy for common toxocariasis, but she developed two weeks later, asthenia, fever, infiltrated maculopapular eruption of the face, peripheral vascular disease with necrosis of the fingers and inflammatory anemia with proteinuria. Anti-nuclear, anti-DNA and anti-Sm antibodies positivity, together with minimal change nephritis with mesangial exclusive IgM deposit on renal biopsy and clinical relapse after initially successful steroid therapy, led to the diagnosis of SLE. T. canis infection can trigger systemic lupus but must also be ruled out of the differential diagnosis given its association with autoimmunity. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. Infections of Intrathecal Baclofen Delivery Systems and Ventriculoperitoneal Shunting Systems: Clinical Series Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abousamra, Oussama; Duque Orozco, Maria Del Pilar; Rogers, Kenneth J; Miller, Freeman; Sees, Julieanne P

    2018-01-01

    The physiological interaction between the intrathecal baclofen (ITB) delivery system and the ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting system in a patient who had both systems implanted has not been reported previously. The aim of our report is to evaluate the effect that one system's infection might have on the other. Records of children who were followed at our institution between 2004 and 2015 for management of their ITB systems were reviewed. In this group, children who had VP shunts were identified, and those who had any of their ITB or VP systems infected were included. Out of 313 children managed with ITB therapy at our institution, 31 (24%) children had VP shunts. Two patients had infection in both systems, and 3 patients had infection in 1 system. This report suggests that if aspiration from both systems showed positive cultures, the treatment would be removal of both systems. If the primarily not infected system does not show positive cultures, it does not need to be removed. Close follow-up is recommended, and any sign of infection or malfunction of the primarily not infected device should be approached with a high level of suspicion. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. A Case of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Confused with Infective Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Serin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multisystemic autoimmune disease resulting from immune system-mediated tissue damage. Clinical findings of SLE can involve skin, kidney, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, serosal membranes, and the hematologic and immune systems. In the differential diagnosis, other connective tissue diseases, infective endocarditis, infections such as viral hepatitis, endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism, sarcoidosis, and some malignant tumors should be considered. Infective endocarditis can imitate all the symptoms of SLE depending on immune complex accumulation glomerulonephritis. Hemolytic anemia, skin lesions, arthralgia, arthritis, decreased complement levels, and autoantibody positivity, including antinuclear autoantibody (ANA, positivity can be seen. Therefore, high fever, blood cultures, eye examination, and echocardiographic findings are of particular value. Here, we present a case of SLE that was confused with infective endocarditis (IE due to the presence of high fever associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA and proteinuria as well as increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, cardiac murmur, and Roth’s spots. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 212-15

  7. Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-16

    lost by diuresis in early convalescence (1). Severe retention of body water, especially during central nervous system infection, has now been widely...adrenocortical production of glucocorticoid and ketosteroid hormones often declines into a subnormal range. The labile pool of body nitrogen is...may not become apparent until early convalescence when postfebrile diuresis causes excessive fluid to be excreted. (3) Protein requirements ’- Despite

  8. Systemic fungal infections in patients with human inmunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cerdeira, C; Arenas, R; Moreno-Coutiño, G; Vásquez, E; Fernández, R; Chang, P

    2014-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a systemic infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. In immunocompromised patients, primary pulmonary infection can spread to the skin and meninges. Clinical manifestations appear in patients with a CD4(+) lymphocyte count of less than 150 cells/μL. Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis caused by Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. It can present as diffuse pulmonary disease or as a disseminated form primarily affecting the central nervous system, the bones, and the skin. Cryptococcosis is caused by Cryptococcus neoformans (var. neoformans and var. grubii) and Cryptococcus gattii, which are members of the Cryptococcus species complex and have 5 serotypes: A, B, C, D, and AD. It is a common opportunistic infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS, even those receiving antiretroviral therapy. Histopathologic examination and culture of samples from any suspicious lesions are essential for the correct diagnosis of systemic fungal infections in patients with HIV/AIDS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  9. Ascarid infections in laying hens kept in different housing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Désirée S; Nyman, Ann; Vågsholm, Ivar; Christensson, Dan; Göransson, Magnus; Fossum, Oddvar; Höglund, Johan

    2010-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of ascarid infections in Swedish commercial laying hens in 2004 and 2008 following a recent nationwide change to alternative housing systems but before anthelmintics became available. Also, the influence on prevalence of farm and flock characteristics and management was studied in 2004. The results showed that the overall prevalence was significantly higher in 2008 (38%; n = 64/169) compared with 2004 (24%; n = 44/186) (P = 0.001). Ascarid infections were rare in caged flocks, including furnished (enriched) cages, both years (2.4 to 4.3%), and were significantly more common in non-cage systems in both years (16.7 to 48.6% in 2004, and 28.6 to 77.1% in 2008 depending on the housing system). There was no significant difference in prevalence between hens kept on litter indoors and free-range/organic hens. The absence of a hygiene barrier at the entrance of the house or unit increased the risk of infection (P parasite eggs were introduced horizontally to the farms. The risk of infection also increased with the age of equipment used in the barn; for example, the risk increased with an odds ratio of 7.5 (95% confidence interval = 2.3 to 25) when comparing equipment 1 year old with equipment ≥7 years old. The results of this study show that ascarid infections may re-emerge following a change to alternative housing. With the impending ban on conventional battery cages in the member states of the European Union, ascarid infections are likely to increase in importance and efficient control options such as hygiene barriers should be implemented on all farms.

  10. Leishmania major infection in humanized mice induces systemic infection and provokes a nonprotective human immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Kathrin Wege

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmania (L. species are the causative agent of leishmaniasis. Due to the lack of efficient vaccine candidates, drug therapies are the only option to deal with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Unfortunately, chemotherapeutic interventions show high toxicity in addition to an increased risk of dissemination of drug-resistant parasites. An appropriate laboratory animal based model is still missing which allows testing of new drug strategies in the context of human immune cells in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Humanized mice were infected subcutaneously with stationary phase promastigote L. major into the footpad. The human immune response against the pathogen and the parasite host interactions were analyzed. In addition we proved the versatility of this new model to conduct drug research studies by the inclusion of orally given Miltefosine. We show that inflammatory human macrophages get infected with Leishmania parasites at the site of infection. Furthermore, a Leishmania-specific human-derived T cell response is initiated. However, the human immune system is not able to prevent systemic infection. Thus, we treated the mice with Miltefosine to reduce the parasitic load. Notably, this chemotherapy resulted in a reduction of the parasite load in distinct organs. Comparable to some Miltefosine treated patients, humanized mice developed severe side effects, which are not detectable in the classical murine model of experimental leishmaniasis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study describes for the first time L. major infection in humanized mice, characterizes the disease development, the induction of human adaptive and innate immune response including cytokine production and the efficiency of Miltefosine treatment in these animals. In summary, humanized mice might be beneficial for future preclinical chemotherapeutic studies in systemic (visceral leishmaniasis allowing the investigation of human immune response, side effects of the drug

  11. [Sensitivity and antibiotic resistance in infections of the musculoskeletal system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Hernández, Argenis; Rivera-Villa, Adrián Huematzin; Miguel-Pérez, Adrián; Pérez-Atanasio, José Manuel; Torres-González, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    Infections of the musculoskeletal system are a devastating complication for patients, due to it's long rehabilitation process and even sometimes the removal of the implant, the chronicity of infection, is often due to lack of coverage in empirical antibiotics. A retrospective, observational, descriptive cohort study was performed. All cultures form musculoskeletal system infected patients reported of sensitivity and resistance of germs isolated were analyzed. A total of 143 positive results were included. Reported more frequent germ Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 75 positive cases, followed by Escherichia coli with 31 positive results. Antibiotics with better sensitivity according to the type of microorganisms were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and vancomycin, levofloxacin and linezolid, gentamicin, erythromycin and amikacin. Regarding antibiotic resistance, those reported with the highest percentage were penicillin G, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid and ampicillin. We recommend using empirical treatments in musculoskeletal system infections, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are the best choice because they have the same sensitivity compare with vancomycin and a resistance rate of 7.6%. Betalactamics have a high percentage of resistance and low sensitivity so we must consider alternatives.

  12. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems: promising approaches against infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranghar, Shweta; Sirohi, Parul [Department of Applied Mechanics, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (India); Verma, Pritam; Agarwal, Vishnu, E-mail: vishnu_agarwal02@rediffmail.com [Department of Biotechnology, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (India)

    2014-03-15

    Despite the fact that many new drugs and technologies have been developed to combat the infectious diseases, these have continued to be global health challenges. The use of conventional antimicrobial agents against these infections is always associated with problems such as the development of multiple drug resistance and adverse side effects. In addition, the inefficient traditional drug delivery system results in inadequate therapeutic index, low bioavailability of drugs and many other limitations. In this regard, antimicrobial nanoparticles and nanosized drug delivery carriers have emerged as potent effective agents against the infections. Nanoparticles have unique properties owing to their ultra small and controllable size such as high surface area, enhanced reactivity, and functionalizable structure. This review focused on different classes of antimicrobial nanoparticles, including metal, metal oxide and others along with their mechanism of action and their potential use against the infections. The review also focused on the development of nanoparticle systems for antimicrobial drug delivery and use of these systems for delivery of various antimicrobial agents, giving an overview about modern nanoparticle based therapeutic strategies against the infections. (author)

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid features in adults with enteroviral nervous system infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrecht, Jonas; Hillebrand, Lilly Katrin; Schwenkenbecher, Philipp; Ganzenmueller, Tina; Heim, Albert; Wurster, Ulrich; Stangel, Martin; Sühs, Kurt-Wolfram; Skripuletz, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate clinical and laboratory features in adults with enteroviral nervous system infection with special emphasis on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Data of 46 patients with positive PCR for enteroviruses in the CSF between 2002 and 2017 were evaluated. Meningitis was the most common clinical manifestation (89%), followed by encephalitis (7%) and isolated cranial nerve affection (4%). 20% of patients reported a sudden onset of severe headache that misled to the initial suspected diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage. General signs of infection such as fever, elevated CRP values, or elevated white blood cell counts were only found in 61%. Most patients exhibited consistent inflammatory CSF changes with elevated cell counts (85%) and blood-CSF barrier dysfunction (83%). Patients with normal CSF cell counts were significantly older, presented less frequently as meningitis and exhibited lower peripheral white blood cell counts. Sequencing revealed species Enterovirus-B in all patients with most sequences related to Echovirus 30. The absence of CSF plecocytosis, isolated cranial nerve affection and only infrequent general signs of infection may impede the diagnosis of enteroviral nervous system infection. A thorough CSF analysis including PCR is essential for a reliable diagnosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. EBV Infection of Mice with Reconstituted Human Immune System Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was discovered 50 years ago as the first candidate human tumor virus. Since then, we have realized that this human γ-herpesvirus establishes persistent infection in the majority of adult humans, but fortunately causes EBV-associated diseases only in few individuals. This is an incredible success story of the human immune system, which controls EBV infection and its transforming capacity for decades. A better understanding of this immune control would not only benefit patients with EBV-associated malignancies, but could also provide clues how to establish such a potent, mostly cell-mediated immune control against other pathogens and tumors. However, the functional relevance of EBV-specific immune responses can only be addressed in vivo, and mice with reconstituted human immune system components (huMice) constitute a small animal model to interrogate the protective value of immune compartments during EBV infection, but also might provide a platform to test EBV-specific vaccines. This chapter will summarize the insights into EBV immunobiology that have already been gained in these models and provide an outlook into promising future avenues to develop this in vivo model of EBV infection and human immune responses further.

  15. Identification of novel antigens that protect against systemic meningococcal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yaohui; Li, Yanwen; Exley, Rachel M; Winterbotham, Megan; Ison, Catherine; Smith, Harry; Tang, Christoph M

    2005-07-14

    Systemic infection with Neisseria meningitidis leads to a devastating, septicaemic illness with a high mortality, particularly in children. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N. meningitidis serogroup B, the commonest isolate in developed countries. Here, we describe the identification of vaccine candidates that protect mice against lethal challenge with this bacterium. A total 11 meningococcal proteins that are necessary for establishing systemic infection were expressed as recombinant antigens and assessed for their ability to protect animals against live bacterial challenge; the lactate permease (LctP) and ExbB, which is required for iron acquisition, elicited protective immunity. Both LctP and ExbB are expressed by a wide range of pathogenic isolates of N. meningitidis. Targeting bacterial factors required for pathogenesis may lead to new vaccines to protect individuals from this important human pathogen.

  16. Managing Atypical and Typical herpetic central nervous system infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cag, Yasemin; Erdem, Hakan; Leib, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    There have been many studies pertaining to the management of herpetic meningoencephalitis (HME), but the majority of them have focussed on virologically unconfirmed cases or included only small sample sizes. We have conducted a multicentre study aimed at providing management strategies for HME. O...... the subtle nature of HME, CSF HSV PCR, EEG and MRI data should be collected for all patients with a central nervous system infection....

  17. Role of Honey in Topical and Systemic Bacterial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muhammad Barkaat

    2018-01-01

    The development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has made it more difficult and expensive to treat infections. Honey is getting worldwide attention as a topical therapeutic agent for wound infections and potential future candidate for systemic infections. The purpose of this review was to summarise different antibacterial bio-active compounds in honey, their synergistic interaction and their clinical implications in topical and systemic infections. In addition, contemporary testing methods for evaluating peroxide and non-peroxide antibacterial activity of honey were also critically appraised. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Pub Med, reference lists and databases were used to review the literature. Honey contains several unique antibacterial components. These components are believed to act on diverse bacterial targets, are broad spectrum, operate synergistically, prevent biofilm formation, and decrease production of virulence factors. Moreover, honey has the ability to block bacterial communication (quorum sensing), and therefore, it is unlikely that bacteria develop resistance against honey. Bacterial resistance against honey has not been documented so far. Unlike conventional antibiotics, honey only targets pathogenic bacteria without disturbing the growth of normal gastrointestinal flora when taken orally. It also contains prebiotics, probiotics, and zinc and enhances the growth of beneficial gut flora. The presence of such plethora of antibacterial properties in one product makes it a promising candidate not only in wound infections but also in systemic and particularly for gastrointestinal infections. Agar diffusion assay, being used for evaluating antibacterial activity of honey, is not the most appropriate and sensitive assay as it only detects non-peroxide activity when present at a higher level. Therefore, there is a need to develop more sensitive techniques that may be capable of detecting and evaluating different important components in honey as

  18. Global analysis of viral infection in an archaeal model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid S. Maaty

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The origin and evolutionary relationship of viruses is poorly understood. This makes archaeal virus-host of particular interest because the hosts generally root near the base of phylogenetic trees, while some of the viruses have clear structural similarities to those that infect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Despite the advantageous position for use in evolutionary studies, little is known about archaeal viruses or how they interact with their hosts, compared to viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes. In addition, many archaeal viruses have been isolated from extreme environments and present a unique opportunity for elucidating factors that are important for existence at the extremes.. In this article we focus on virus-host interactions using a proteomics approach to study Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus (STIV infection of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2. Using cultures grown from the ATCC cell stock, a single cycle of STIV infection was sampled 6 times over a 72 hr period. More than 700 proteins were identified throughout the course of the experiments. Seventy one host proteins were found to change by nearly two-fold (p<0.05 with 40 becoming more abundant and 31 less abundant. The modulated proteins represent 30 different cell pathways and 14 COG groups. 2D gel analysis showed that changes in post translational modifications were a common feature of the affected proteins. The results from these studies showed that the prokaryotic antiviral adaptive immune system CRISPR associated proteins (CAS proteins were regulated in response to the virus infection. It was found that regulated proteins come from mRNAs with a shorter than average half-life. In addition, activity-based protein profiling (ABPP profiling on 2D gels showed caspase, hydrolase and tyrosine phosphatase enzyme activity labeling at the protein isoform level. Together, this data provides a more detailed global view of archaeal cellular responses to viral infection, demonstrates the

  19. Infection of the central nervous system due to Acanthamoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A J

    1991-01-01

    It is well established that Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba culbertsoni, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and probably other species of free-living amebas are virulent opportunists capable of producing disease in humans and animals. Human infections involving brain, eyes, skin, and lungs have been reported from all continents. Central nervous system (CNS) infection due to Acanthamoeba species usually occurs in chronically ill, debilitated individuals, some of them receiving immunosuppressive therapy or taking broad-spectrum antibiotics. The disease runs a protracted, insidious clinical course and is known as granulomatous amebic encephalitis. Histopathologically, Acanthamoeba species may produce a multifocal, chronic, or subacute granulomatous encephalitis, with trophozoites and cysts present in CNS lesions. The portal of entry of the amebas into the CNS is probably the respiratory tract or a skin lesion, and the organisms reach the CNS by hematogenous spread. As of 1 January 1989, about 50 cases of granulomatous amebic encephalitis had been reported worldwide, 27 in the United States alone.

  20. Excess molar volume of acetonitrile + alcohol systems at 298.15 K. Part II: Correlation by cubic equation of state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLOBODAN P. SERBANOVIC

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The excess molar volume VE of the binary liquid systems acetonitrile + methanol and acetonitrile + ethanol, experimentally determined in the previous part, were correlated by the PRSV CEOS coupled with the vdW and TCBT mixing rules. The results obtained show that the number and position of the interaction parameters of these models are of great importance for a satisfactory fitting of VE data.

  1. Detecting borderline infection in an automated monitoring system for healthcare-associated infection using fuzzy logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Jeroen S; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Blacky, Alexander; Koller, Walter

    2016-05-01

    Many electronic infection detection systems employ dichotomous classification methods, classifying patient data as pathological or normal with respect to one or several types of infection. An electronic monitoring and surveillance system for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) known as Moni-ICU is being operated at the intensive care units (ICUs) of the Vienna General Hospital (VGH) in Austria. Instead of classifying patient data as pathological or normal, Moni-ICU introduces a third borderline class. Patient data classified as borderline with respect to an infection-related clinical concept or HAI surveillance definition signify that the data nearly or partly fulfill the definition for the respective concept or HAI, and are therefore neither fully pathological nor fully normal. Using fuzzy sets and propositional fuzzy rules, we calculated how frequently patient data are classified as normal, borderline, or pathological with respect to infection-related clinical concepts and HAI definitions. In dichotomous classification methods, borderline classification results would be confounded by normal. Therefore, we also assessed whether the constructed fuzzy sets and rules employed by Moni-ICU classified patient data too often or too infrequently as borderline instead of normal. Electronic surveillance data were collected from adult patients (aged 18 years or older) at ten ICUs of the VGH. All adult patients admitted to these ICUs over a two-year period were reviewed. In all 5099 patient stays (4120 patients) comprising 49,394 patient days were evaluated. For classification, a part of Moni-ICU's knowledge base comprising fuzzy sets and rules for ten infection-related clinical concepts and four top-level HAI definitions was employed. Fuzzy sets were used for the classification of concepts directly related to patient data; fuzzy rules were employed for the classification of more abstract clinical concepts, and for top-level HAI surveillance definitions. Data for each

  2. Diffusion imaging in pediatric central nervous system infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, J. [Dept. de Imagiologia, Hospital Geral De Santo Antonio, Porto (Portugal); Zimmerman, R.A.; Haselgrove, J.C.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hunter, J.V. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the role of diffusion imaging (DI) in central nervous system (CNS) infections in pediatric patients. It was anticipated that DI would be more sensitive than conventional MRI in the detection of the infarctive complications of infection, and possibly, in the detection of the infectious process as well. Seventeen pediatric patients, eight having meningitis'' five with herpes encephalitis, three with brain abscess or cerebritis and one with sepsis, were evaluated at 1.5-T with DI. All herpes patients had positive DI at the site of herpetic involvement, and two had the addition of watershed infarctions. DI demonstrated more lesions in three of the four cases of herpetic encephalitis. Half the meningitis cases had watershed infarction where DI was better and half had vasculitic infarctions in which DI was equal to or better than conventional MRI. Diffusion imaging was more sensitive than conventional MRI alone in detection of changes due to infections and ischemic lesions, but did not differentiate between them by DI or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), although anatomic distribution of lesions proved useful. (orig.)

  3. Aberrant Epstein–Barr viral infection in systemic lupus erythematosus☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Brian D.; Templeton, Amanda K.; Guthridge, Joel M.; Brown, Eric J.; Harley, John B.; James, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    Serologic association, cross-reactivity of select EBV-specific antibodies with SLE autoantigens, SLE-like autoimmunity after immunization with EBV peptides, increased EB viral load in SLE patients, and SLE-specific alterations in EBV humoral and cellular immunity implicate Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To investigate SLE-specific differences in EBV gene expression, levels of eight EBV genes were compared between SLE patients and controls by using both ex vivo-infected and un-manipulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Expression levels of mRNA were significantly greater by Wilcoxen signed rank test in the ex vivo-infected SLE patient-derived cells for 4 of 8 EBV genes, including BLLF1, 3.2-fold (p<0.004); LMP-2, 1.7-fold (p<0.008); EBNA-1, 1.7-fold (p<0.01); and BcRF1, a proposed DNA binding protein, 1.7-fold (p<0.02). The frequency of LMP-1 gene expression was significantly greater by Chi square analysis in the peripheral blood from SLE patients than controls (44% of patients, 10% of controls p<0.05). PBMCs from SLE patients had greater expression of latent genes as well as increased expression of both latent and lytic genes after infection, suggesting that EBV may participate in SLE etiology through several mechanisms. Such altered infection patterns may contribute to the increased levels of EBV and the molecular mimicry seen in sera from SLE patients. PMID:19167523

  4. Role of disinfection in the Infection Prevention Multibarrier System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Axel

    2007-09-13

    The role of disinfection in infection prevention has been analyzed over the past 50 years both in the form of benefit-risk evaluations as well as in an epidemiological sense. This has served as the basis for not only national and international guidelines and recommendations, but has also created the legal and normative framework for regulation of infection control (and hence of disinfection) in numerous and acts and ordinances. Likewise, today the efficacy of disinfection measures, user safety and environmental compatibility in line with the state of the art are assured. Compliance as regards the conductance of disinfection measures has increased accordingly. The user is able to select and correctly employ the disinfectant most suited to the intended disinfection procedure. The quality of the apparatus used has vastly improved since the coming into force of the German Medical Devices Act (MPG). And finally the preconditions for conductance of disinfection have become so matter of fact that it is easy to forget just what progress has been made here. This applies e.g. to the facilities now available for hand hygiene, for decontamination of instruments, laundry and bedpans with washer-disinfectors as well as for surface disinfection and drinking water disinfection. But it is the human being who continues to pose the greatest risk. Risk awareness does not always result in proper action being taken: it is hard to really grasp something that one cannot experience. As such, hand disinfection is often dispensed with, and without any sense of having done something wrong, the debate about the evidence of the usefulness of floor disinfection continues, and often medical practitioners fail to resort to exclusive automated decontamination of medical devices because of the costs incurred. Hospitals, nursing homes and rehabilitation establishments are obliged to set up a quality management system, and to continue developing this. This calls for a quality assurance system

  5. Candida infection of the central nervous system following neurosurgery: a 12-year review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2011-06-01

    Candida infection of the central nervous system (CNS) following neurosurgery is relatively unusual but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present our experience with this infection in adults and discuss clinical characteristics, treatment options, and outcome.

  6. Infection Probability Score, APACHE II and KARNOFSKY scoring systems as predictors of bloodstream infection onset in hematology-oncology patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzis Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bloodstream Infections (BSIs in neutropenic patients often cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the surveillance and early identification of patients at high risk for developing BSIs might be useful for the development of preventive measures. The aim of the current study was to assess the predictive power of three scoring systems: Infection Probability Score (IPS, APACHE II and KARNOFSKY score for the onset of Bloodstream Infections in hematology-oncology patients. Methods A total of 102 patients who were hospitalized for more than 48 hours in a hematology-oncology department in Athens, Greece between April 1st and October 31st 2007 were included in the study. Data were collected by using an anonymous standardized recording form. Source materials included medical records, temperature charts, information from nursing and medical staff, and results on microbiological testing. Patients were followed daily until hospital discharge or death. Results Among the 102 patients, Bloodstream Infections occurred in 17 (16.6% patients. The incidence density of Bloodstream Infections was 7.74 per 1,000 patient-days or 21.99 per 1,000 patient-days at risk. The patients who developed a Bloodstream Infection were mainly females (p = 0.004, with twofold time mean length of hospital stay (p Conclusion Between the three different prognostic scoring systems, Infection Probability Score had the best sensitivity in predicting Bloodstream Infections.

  7. Systemic acquired resistance: turning local infection into global defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zheng Qing; Dong, Xinnian

    2013-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an induced immune mechanism in plants. Unlike vertebrate adaptive immunity, SAR is broad spectrum, with no specificity to the initial infection. An avirulent pathogen causing local programmed cell death can induce SAR through generation of mobile signals, accumulation of the defense hormone salicylic acid, and secretion of the antimicrobial PR (pathogenesis-related) proteins. Consequently, the rest of the plant is protected from secondary infection for a period of weeks to months. SAR can even be passed on to progeny through epigenetic regulation. The Arabidopsis NPR1 (nonexpresser of PR genes 1) protein is a master regulator of SAR. Recent study has shown that salicylic acid directly binds to the NPR1 adaptor proteins NPR3 and NPR4, regulates their interactions with NPR1, and controls NPR1 protein stability. However, how NPR1 interacts with TGA transcription factors to activate defense gene expression is still not well understood. In addition, redox regulators, the mediator complex, WRKY transcription factors, endoplasmic reticulum-resident proteins, and DNA repair proteins play critical roles in SAR.

  8. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    whether BMPs maintain their osteoinductive capability in infected human wounds. The authors are aware of only one series describing the use of BMP in an...et al. Osteogenic protein-1 induces bone formation in the presence of bacterial infection in a rat intramuscular osteoinduction model. J Orthop Trauma

  9. Central nervous system infections caused by varicella-zoster virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, Francisco J; Gilarranz, Raúl; Hernández, Melisa; Ramos, Diana; Pena, María José

    2016-08-01

    We carried out a clinical and epidemiological study of adult patients with varicella-zoster virus central nervous system infection diagnosed by PCR in cerebrospinal fluid. Twenty-six patients were included. Twelve (46.2 %) patients were diagnosed with meningitis and fourteen (53.8 %) with meningoencephalitis. Twelve (46.2 %) had cranial nerves involvement (mainly the facial (VII) and vestibulocochlear (VIII) nerves), six (23.1 %) had cerebellar involvement, fourteen (53.8 %) had rash, and four (15.4 %) developed Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Three (11.5 %) patients had sequelae. Length of stay was significantly lower in patients diagnosed with meningitis and treatment with acyclovir was more frequent in patients diagnosed with meningoencephalitis. We believe routine detection of varicella-zoster virus, regardless of the presence of rash, is important because the patient may benefit from a different clinical management.

  10. Acute Schistosoma mansoni infection increases susceptibility to systemic SHIV clade C infection in rhesus macaques after mucosal virus exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès-Laurence Chenine

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals living in sub-Saharan Africa represent 10% of the world's population but almost 2/3 of all HIV-1/AIDS cases. The disproportionate HIV-1 infection rates in this region may be linked to helminthic parasite infections that affect many individuals in the developing world. However, the hypothesis that parasite infection increases an individual's susceptibility to HIV-1 has never been prospectively tested in a relevant in vivo model.We measured whether pre-existing infection of rhesus monkeys with a parasitic worm would facilitate systemic infection after mucosal AIDS virus exposure. Two groups of animals, one consisting of normal monkeys and the other harboring Schistosoma mansoni, were challenged intrarectally with decreasing doses of R5-tropic clade C simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-C. Systemic infection occurred in parasitized monkeys at viral doses that remained sub-infectious in normal hosts. In fact, the 50% animal infectious (AID(50 SHIV-C dose was 17-fold lower in parasitized animals compared to controls (P<0.001. Coinfected animals also had significantly higher peak viral RNA loads than controls (P<0.001, as well as increased viral replication in CD4(+ central memory cells (P = 0.03.Our data provide the first direct evidence that acute schistosomiasis significantly increases the risk of de novo AIDS virus acquisition, and the magnitude of the effect suggests that control of helminth infections may be a useful public health intervention to help decrease the spread of HIV-1.

  11. Establishment of an Artificial Tick Feeding System to Study Theileria lestoquardi Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Shahin Tajeri; Gholamreza Razmi; Alireza Haghparast

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of good experimental models for Theileria sp. infection is important for theileriosis research. Routinely, infection of ticks is accomplished by feeding on parasite-infected animals (sheep, cows and horses), which raises practical and ethical problems, driving the search for alternative methods of tick infection. Artificial tick feeding systems are based mainly on rearing ticks on host-derived or hand-made artificial membranes. We developed a modified feeding assay for infec...

  12. [Healthcare-associated infection rates: measuring and comparing. Experiences from the German National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (KISS) and from other surveillance systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastmeier, P; Behnke, M; Breier, A-C; Piening, B; Schwab, F; Dettenkofer, M; Geffers, C

    2012-11-01

    Surveillance of nosocomial infections is meanwhile a cornerstone of infection prevention activities in hospitals. The objective of this article is to compare healthcare-associated infection rates in intensive care patients, neonatal intensive care patients and operated patients (ICU-KISS, OP-KISS, NEO-KISS) of the German nosocomial infection surveillance system (KISS) with the corresponding data of the US American National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). In general, the methodological differences among the three surveillance systems are minor but there are some exceptions. Therefore, differences between countries have to be interpreted very carefully as they may be due to differences in diagnostics, patient mix, types of interventions, length of stay, selection of participating hospitals, post-discharge surveillance activities and interpretation of case definitions. Organizational aspects, such as mandatory participation with public disclosure on infection rates may also have an impact.

  13. Dissecting Phaseolus vulgaris Innate Immune System against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Bablu; Caldas, Danielle Gregório Gomes; Tsai, Siu Mui; Camargo, Luis Eduardo Aranha; Melotto, Maeli

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Colletotrichum is one of the most economically important plant pathogens, causing anthracnose on a wide range of crops including common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Crop yield can be dramatically decreased depending on the plant cultivar used and the environmental conditions. This study aimed to identify potential genetic components of the bean immune system to provide environmentally friendly control measures against this fungus. Methodology and Principal Findings As the common bean is not amenable to reverse genetics to explore functionality and its genome is not fully curated, we used putative Arabidopsis orthologs of bean expressed sequence tag (EST) to perform bioinformatic analysis and experimental validation of gene expression to identify common bean genes regulated during the incompatible interaction with C. lindemuthianum. Similar to model pathosystems, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that hormone biosynthesis and signaling in common beans seem to be modulated by fungus infection. For instance, cytokinin and ethylene responses were up-regulated and jasmonic acid, gibberellin, and abscisic acid responses were down-regulated, indicating that these hormones may play a central role in this pathosystem. Importantly, we have identified putative bean gene orthologs of Arabidopsis genes involved in the plant immune system. Based on experimental validation of gene expression, we propose that hypersensitive reaction as part of effector-triggered immunity may operate, at least in part, by down-regulating genes, such as FLS2-like and MKK5-like, putative orthologs of the Arabidopsis genes involved in pathogen perception and downstream signaling. Conclusions/Significance We have identified specific bean genes and uncovered metabolic processes and pathways that may be involved in the immune response against pathogens. Our transcriptome database is a rich resource for mining novel defense-related genes, which enabled us to develop a model of

  14. Dissecting Phaseolus vulgaris innate immune system against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rodrigues Oblessuc

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genus Colletotrichum is one of the most economically important plant pathogens, causing anthracnose on a wide range of crops including common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Crop yield can be dramatically decreased depending on the plant cultivar used and the environmental conditions. This study aimed to identify potential genetic components of the bean immune system to provide environmentally friendly control measures against this fungus. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As the common bean is not amenable to reverse genetics to explore functionality and its genome is not fully curated, we used putative Arabidopsis orthologs of bean expressed sequence tag (EST to perform bioinformatic analysis and experimental validation of gene expression to identify common bean genes regulated during the incompatible interaction with C. lindemuthianum. Similar to model pathosystems, Gene Ontology (GO analysis indicated that hormone biosynthesis and signaling in common beans seem to be modulated by fungus infection. For instance, cytokinin and ethylene responses were up-regulated and jasmonic acid, gibberellin, and abscisic acid responses were down-regulated, indicating that these hormones may play a central role in this pathosystem. Importantly, we have identified putative bean gene orthologs of Arabidopsis genes involved in the plant immune system. Based on experimental validation of gene expression, we propose that hypersensitive reaction as part of effector-triggered immunity may operate, at least in part, by down-regulating genes, such as FLS2-like and MKK5-like, putative orthologs of the Arabidopsis genes involved in pathogen perception and downstream signaling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified specific bean genes and uncovered metabolic processes and pathways that may be involved in the immune response against pathogens. Our transcriptome database is a rich resource for mining novel defense-related genes, which enabled us to

  15. [Systemic therapy with anti-infective agents. Principles of rational use of systemic antibiotics in dermatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderkötter, C; Brehler, R; Becker, K

    2014-02-01

    Antibiotics are frequently prescribed and extremely valuable drugs, because they are curative. However, their often incorrect use is the main reason for the increase of multiresistant pathogens. Inappropriate prescription of broad spectrum antibiotics for skin and soft tissue infections favors the selection and spread of multiresistant bacteria not only in the skin, but also in remote visceral organs (e.g. in the intestines), due to their systemic distribution and effects in the body (so-called collateral damage). For this reason basic knowledge and special prudence when using antibiotics are just as desirable as an awareness of responsibility for the public welfare. This article intends to convey basic knowledge on the indications and selection of suitable antibiotics as well as on the development of bacterial resistance and it gives recommendations for allergological procedures when patients report alleged drug reactions to antibiotics. Systemic antibiotics for soft tissue infections are indicated when the infection spreads within the tissue so that it is no longer accessible for local antiseptics. In addition to the clinical symptoms, important parameters are high blood sedimentation rates (BSR) and high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocytosis with neutrophilia and fever (not always present in elderly or immunosuppressed patients). Certain constellations, such as the presence of severe underlying diseases, perfusion disorders or a particular localization (e.g. infection of the face) may necessitate early or parenteral administration. There is no need for systemic administration of antibiotics for uncomplicated wounds without soft tissue infections. Due to their curative effects, the decisive criterion for the use of antibiotics is their sufficient antimicrobial efficacy at the site of infection. An inappropriate administration increases both the selection pressure and costs of treatment and can have fatal consequences in serious situations. In

  16. Role of ventilation systems in the prevention of hospital infection; Innai kansen boshi ni okeru kanki system no yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayliffe, G.

    1996-05-05

    This paper investigates and considers the actual state of hospital infection. The 80% or more of surgical wound infection is self-infection, for which the factor is the microorganisms that exist in a surgical wound at the completion of an operation. Airborne infection is generally due to staphylococcus aureus. There rarely is a bacteria carrier, and the germ is dispersed from him in some instances. Staphylococcus epidermis sticks to prosthesis, propagates and causes wound infection in rare occasions. Clostridium perfringens and escherichia coli also sometimes cause self-infection from wound. An ordinary plenum ventilation system is less effective for the prevention of wound infection. A remarkable example for reduction in infection is the employment of an ultra clean air system in joint replacement operations, showing reduction in joint septicemic infection from 1.5 to 0.3%. A vertical air flow system may be effectively employed in an operation room for the purpose of improving the air stream. No interrelation exists between the total number of indoor bacteria and infection without staphylococcus aureus. A person infected by methicillin-resistant staphylococcus has to be isolated into a unit. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. A novel single virus infection system reveals that influenza virus preferentially infects cells in g1 phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Ueda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza virus attaches to sialic acid residues on the surface of host cells via the hemagglutinin (HA, a glycoprotein expressed on the viral envelope, and enters into the cytoplasm by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The viral genome is released and transported in to the nucleus, where transcription and replication take place. However, cellular factors affecting the influenza virus infection such as the cell cycle remain uncharacterized. METHODS/RESULTS: To resolve the influence of cell cycle on influenza virus infection, we performed a single-virus infection analysis using optical tweezers. Using this newly developed single-virus infection system, the fluorescence-labeled influenza virus was trapped on a microchip using a laser (1064 nm at 0.6 W, transported, and released onto individual H292 human lung epithelial cells. Interestingly, the influenza virus attached selectively to cells in the G1-phase. To clarify the molecular differences between cells in G1- and S/G2/M-phase, we performed several physical and chemical assays. Results indicated that: 1 the membranes of cells in G1-phase contained greater amounts of sialic acids (glycoproteins than the membranes of cells in S/G2/M-phase; 2 the membrane stiffness of cells in S/G2/M-phase is more rigid than those in G1-phase by measurement using optical tweezers; and 3 S/G2/M-phase cells contained higher content of Gb3, Gb4 and GlcCer than G1-phase cells by an assay for lipid composition. CONCLUSIONS: A novel single-virus infection system was developed to characterize the difference in influenza virus susceptibility between G1- and S/G2/M-phase cells. Differences in virus binding specificity were associated with alterations in the lipid composition, sialic acid content, and membrane stiffness. This single-virus infection system will be useful for studying the infection mechanisms of other viruses.

  18. Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection of the musculoskeletal system in immunocompetent hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manit K Gundavda

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Whenever a case of chronic granulomatous infection is encountered that does not respond to standard anti-tuberculous treatment, with a history of open trauma, surgical intervention, or injection as shown in this study, a possible NTM infection should be considered and managed appropriately.

  19. Superficial skin infections and the use of topical and systemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Superficial bacterial infections of the skin are very common. With the increasing burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), this is likely to worsen. Examples of such infections include impetigo, erysipelas, cellulitis, ecthyma, furuncles, carbuncles and subcutaneous abscesses. Common causative organisms are ...

  20. Central nervous system infections masquerading as cerebrovascular accidents: Case series and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lisa; Malhotra, Prashant

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infections can have various presentations including Cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) which may go unrecognized as a presentation of infection. We describe three cases of different CNS infections complicated by CVA. Case 1 describes a 27-year-old man, presenting with symptoms consistent with a transient ischemic attack found to have racemose neurocysticercosis. Case 2 describes a 55-year-old man with low grade fevers for 4 weeks accompanied by visual and gait disturbances and delayed speech diagnosed with multiple small left thalamocapsular and superior cerebellar infarcts secondary to cryptococcal meningitis. The third case describes a man with pneumococcal meningitis complicated by cerebellar infarcts. CNS vascular compromise secondary to infections may be due to vasculitis, an immune-mediated parainfectious process causing vasospasm or thrombosis, or a hypercoagulable state with endothelial dysfunction. Patients with CVAs are at risk for aspiration pneumonia, urinary tract infections (especially catheter related) and other nosocomial infections and their clinical presentation may be very similar to CNS infections. The cases described demonstrate that CNS infections need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of CVAs presenting with fevers. The signs and symptoms of non-CNS infections associated with CVAs may be clinically indistinguishable from those of CNS infections. The outcomes of untreated CNS infections are extremely poor. It is thus imperative to have a high index of suspicion for CNS infection when evaluating CVAs with fevers or other signs of infection.

  1. Systemic anti-infective periodontal therapy. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffajee, Anne D; Socransky, Sigmund S; Gunsolley, John C

    2003-12-01

    Periodontal diseases are infections and thus systemically administered antibiotics are often employed as adjuncts for their control. There are conflicting reports as to whether these agents provide a therapeutic benefit. The purpose of this systematic review is to determine whether systemically administered antibiotics improve a primary clinical outcome measure, periodontal attachment level change. In patients with periodontitis, what is the effect of systemically administered antibiotics as compared to controls on clinical measures of attachment level? The Pub/Med database was searched from 1966 to May 2002. Searches were limited to human studies published in English. Hand searches were performed on the Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Periodontology, and Journal of Periodontal Research. References in relevant papers and review articles were also examined. Trials were selected if they met the following criteria: randomized controlled clinical trials, quasi-experimental studies, and cohort studies of > 1 month duration with a comparison group; subjects with aggressive, chronic, or recurrent periodontitis and periodontal abscess; use of a single or a combination of systemically administered antibiotics(s) versus non-antibiotic therapy; and a primary outcome of mean attachment level change (AL). Studies involving the use of low-dose doxycycline, combinations of locally plus systemic antibiotics, or where the control group included a systemically administered antibiotic were excluded. A mean difference in AL between groups was available for all papers used in the meta-analysis. A standard deviation (SD) for the difference was used if provided or calculated from the SD or standard error of the mean (SEM) when provided for single measurements. Data were subset by antibiotic employed, type of adjunctive therapy, and disease type. Results were assessed with both fixed-effects and random-effects models. 1. Twenty-nine studies, 26 RCTs and 3 quasi

  2. Infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from the neonatal period to school age.' In Saudi Arabia, the rate of 5.3 per cent was reported' while in Nigeria,. Okafor et a1,7 found the prevalence rate .... the multiplication of the organisms in the urine, resulting in lalse diagnosis of urinary tract infection. This over-diagnosis ofl ITI may account for the high prevalence rate ...

  3. Incidence of cervical human papillomavirus infection in systemic lupus erythematosus women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Pinto, C; García-Carrasco, M; Vallejo-Ruiz, V; Méndez-Martínez, S; Taboada-Cole, A; Etchegaray-Morales, I; Muñóz-Guarneros, M; Reyes-Leyva, J; López-Colombo, A

    2017-08-01

    Objectives Our objective was to study the incidence, persistence and clearance of human papillomavirus infection in systemic lupus erythematosus women and assess risk factors for persistence of human papillomavirus infection. Methods We carried out a prospective, observational cohort study of 127 systemic lupus erythematosus women. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at three years. Traditional and systemic lupus erythematosus women-related disease risk factors were collected. Gynaecological evaluations and cervical cytology screening were made. Human papillomavirus detection and genotyping were made by polymerase chain reaction and linear array. Results The cumulative prevalence of human papillomavirus infection increased from 22.8% at baseline to 33.8% at three years; p = human papillomavirus infection was 10.1 per 1000 patient-months. At three years, 47 (88.6%) prevalent infections were cleared. Independent risk factors associated with incident human papillomavirus infection included more lifetime sexual partners (odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.11-3.0) and cumulative cyclophosphamide dose (odds ratio = 3.9, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-12.8). Conclusions In systemic lupus erythematosus women, the cumulative prevalence of human papillomavirus infection, including high risk-human papillomavirus and multiple human papillomavirus infections, may increase over time. Most persistent infections were low risk-human papillomavirus. The number of lifetime sexual partners and the cumulative cyclophosphamide dose were independently associated with incident human papillomavirus infection.

  4. Mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms and susceptibility to infection in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garred, P; Madsen, H O; Halberg, P

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether variant alleles in the coding portion of the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene are associated with increased susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and concomitant infections.......To determine whether variant alleles in the coding portion of the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene are associated with increased susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and concomitant infections....

  5. Annual Surveillance Summary: Clostridium difficile Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Annual Surveillance Summary: Clostridium difficile Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016...incidence among all beneficiaries seeking care within the Military Health System (MHS). This report is a calendar year (CY) 2016 update to the CY...factors related to CD. Health Level 7 (HL7)-formatted microbiology and chemistry data identified CDI. These infections were matched to HL7-formatted

  6. Annual Surveillance Summary: Acinetobacter Species Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Annual Surveillance Summary: Acinetobacter Species Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016...incidence and prevalence among all beneficiaries seeking care within the Military Health System (MHS). This report describes demographics, clinical...Several data sources were linked to assess a variety of descriptive and clinical factors related to Acinetobacter species infections. Health Level 7

  7. Systemic Staphylococcus aureus infection mediated by Candida albicans hyphal invasion of mucosal tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlecht, L.M.; Peters, B.M.; Krom, B.P.; Freiberg, J.A.; Hänsch, G.M.; Filler, S.G.; Jabra-Rizk, M.A.; Shirtliff, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus are often co-isolated in cases of biofilm-associated infections. C. albicans can cause systemic disease through morphological switch from the rounded yeast to the invasive hyphal form. Alternatively, systemic S. aureus infections arise from seeding through

  8. A systemic macrophage response is required to contain a peripheral poxvirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Davies

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the innate immune system is to reduce pathogen spread prior to the initiation of an effective adaptive immune response. Following an infection at a peripheral site, virus typically drains through the lymph to the lymph node prior to entering the blood stream and being systemically disseminated. Therefore, there are three distinct spatial checkpoints at which intervention to prevent systemic spread of virus can occur, namely: 1 the site of infection, 2 the draining lymph node via filtration of lymph or 3 the systemic level via organs that filter the blood. We have previously shown that systemic depletion of phagocytic cells allows viral spread after dermal infection with Vaccinia virus (VACV, which infects naturally through the skin. Here we use multiple depletion methodologies to define both the spatial checkpoint and the identity of the cells that prevent systemic spread of VACV. Subcapsular sinus macrophages of the draining lymph node have been implicated as critical effectors in clearance of lymph borne viruses following peripheral infection. We find that monocyte populations recruited to the site of VACV infection play a critical role in control of local pathogenesis and tissue damage, but do not prevent dissemination of virus. Following infection with virulent VACV, the subcapsular sinus macrophages within the draining lymph node become infected, but are not exclusively required to prevent systemic spread. Rather, small doses of VACV enter the bloodstream and the function of systemic macrophages, but not dendritic cells, is required to prevent further spread. The results illustrate that a systemic innate response to a peripheral virus infection may be required to prevent widespread infection and pathology following infection with virulent viruses, such as poxviruses.

  9. Evaluación de barreras vegetales en el manejo integrado de la mancha anular del papayo (PRSV-P en Michoacán, México Evaluation of plant barriers in an integrated management of papayo ringspot in Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rivas-Valencia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de barreras vegetales como componente de un programa de manejo integrado (MI, se validó y adaptó en 1999 en Michoacán, México, para controlar la Mancha Anular del Papayo, enfermedad causada por el Papaya ringspot potyvirus type-P (PRSV-P. Se estableció un experimento en parcelas divididas con dos factores experimentales: barreras vegetales (Hibiscus sabdariffa, y componentes de MI: MI sin aspersión de citrolina (1.5% (MI-A, MI sin eliminación de plantas con síntomas iniciales de virosis antes de floración (MI-D y MI. Las barreras vegetales sembradas 20 días antes del trasplante del papayo y el desplante retrasaron en 19 días el inicio del progreso de epidemias en el MI lo que resultó en una mayor producción (14.2% que el resto de tratamientos, aunque fue superado por MI-A en vigor (4% en diámetro de tallo. La citrolina fue fitotóxica, disminuyó el vigor de plantas (5.3% y no limitó significativamente el desarrollo de la enfermedad ya que la intensidad de las epidemias (X0 = 47días, Yf = 84% y ABCPE = 3220% días fue similar al testigo. El uso de barreras vegetales por si sola aparentemente no es suficiente para la reducción de la incidencia y dispersión de la enfermedad. Los áfidos más abundantes, con reconocida capacidad transmisora del PRSV-P, fueron Aphis gossypii, A. nerii, A. spiraecola y Macrosiphum euphorbiae, los cuales representaron aproximadamente el 13% del total de áfidos capturados.The effect of plant barriers as a component of an integrated management program (IM was validated and adapted in 1999, in Michoacan, Mexico, to control papaya ringspot, caused by papaya ringspot potyvirus type-P (PRSV-P. A split-plot design was established with two experimental factors: plant barriers and components of IM: IM without oil sprinkling (IM-O, IM without plant rouging (IM-R, and complete IM. Plant barriers (Hibiscus sabdariffa, sowed 20 days before papaya transplanting, and plant rouging delayed the epidemics

  10. Viral Infection of the Central Nervous System and Neuroinflammation Precede Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption during Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Wang, Yueyun; Yu, Lan; Cao, Shengbo; Wang, Ke; Yuan, Jiaolong; Wang, Chong; Wang, Kunlun; Cui, Min; Fu, Zhen F

    2015-05-01

    Japanese encephalitis is an acute zoonotic, mosquito-borne disease caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Japanese encephalitis is characterized by extensive inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, the pathogenic mechanisms contributing to the BBB disruption are not known. Here, using a mouse model of intravenous JEV infection, we show that virus titers increased exponentially in the brain from 2 to 5 days postinfection. This was accompanied by an early, dramatic increase in the level of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the brain. Enhancement of BBB permeability, however, was not observed until day 4, suggesting that viral entry and the onset of inflammation in the CNS occurred prior to BBB damage. In vitro studies revealed that direct infection with JEV could not induce changes in the permeability of brain microvascular endothelial cell monolayers. However, brain extracts derived from symptomatic JEV-infected mice, but not from mock-infected mice, induced significant permeability of the endothelial monolayer. Consistent with a role for inflammatory mediators in BBB disruption, the administration of gamma interferon-neutralizing antibody ameliorated the enhancement of BBB permeability in JEV-infected mice. Taken together, our data suggest that JEV enters the CNS, propagates in neurons, and induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which result in the disruption of the BBB. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, resulting in 70,000 cases each year, in which approximately 20 to 30% of cases are fatal, and a high proportion of patients survive with serious neurological and psychiatric sequelae. Pathologically, JEV infection causes an acute encephalopathy accompanied by BBB dysfunction; however, the mechanism is not clear. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of BBB disruption in JEV infection is important. Our data demonstrate

  11. Short communication: Local infection of opium poppy leaves by Peronospora somniferi sporangia can give rise to systemic infections and seed infection in resistant cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Montes-Borrego

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Downy mildew (DM of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum caused by Peronospora somniferi is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop due to the systemic nature of infection as compared with local infections caused by Peronospora meconopsidis, the other downy mildew pathogen of this crop. We developed an inoculation method using Peronospora somniferi sporangia as inoculum and demonstrated for the first time that local infection of leaves by sporangia give rise to systemic infections in the plant as well as of seeds. Our results also showed that this inoculation protocol was very effective in reproducing disease symptoms and assessing the resistance response to DM in opium poppy genotypes under field conditions. More interestingly, results indicate that up to 100% of seed samples from some genotypes showing a complete (symptomless resistant phenotype were infected by the pathogen when seeds were analyzed by a P. somniferi-specific nested-PCR protocol. This latter aspect deserves further attention while breeding opium poppy for resistance to P. somniferi.

  12. Role of disinfection in the Infection Prevention Multibarrier System

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The role of disinfection in infection prevention has been analyzed over the past 50 years both in the form of benefit-risk evaluations as well as in an epidemiological sense. This has served as the basis for not only national and international guidelines and recommendations, but has also created the legal and normative framework for regulation of infection control (and hence of disinfection) in numerous and acts and ordinances. Likewise, today the efficacy of disinfection measures, user safet...

  13. NTCP-Reconstituted In Vitro HBV Infection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yinyan; Qi, Yonghe; Peng, Bo; Li, Wenhui

    2017-01-01

    Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) has been identified as a functional receptor for hepatitis B virus (HBV). Expressing human NTCP in human hepatoma HepG2 cells (HepG2-NTCP) renders these cells susceptible for HBV infection. The HepG2-NTCP stably transfected cell line provides a much-needed and easily accessible platform for studying the virus. HepG2-NTCP cells could also be used to identify chemicals targeting key steps of the virus life cycle including HBV covalent closed circular (ccc) DNA, and enable the development of novel antivirals against the infection.Many factors may contribute to the efficiency of HBV infection on HepG2-NTCP cells, with clonal differences among cell line isolates, the source of viral inoculum, and infection medium among the most critical ones. Here, we provide detailed protocols for efficient HBV infection of HepG2-NTCP cells in culture; generation and selection of single cell clones of HepG2-NTCP; production of infectious HBV virion stock through DNA transfection of recombinant plasmid that enables studying primary clinical HBV isolates; and assessing the infection with immunostaining of HBV antigens and Southern blot analysis of HBV cccDNA.

  14. IL-10 in Antilipopolysaccharide Immunity Against Systemic Klebsiella Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Rukavina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study was undertaken in order to determine whether anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 is responsible for a previously described protection against Klebsiella infection mediated by antilipopolysaccharide antibodies. Methods. BALB/c mice were infected intraperitoneally with a lethal challenge of Klebsiella pneumoniae Caroli. One group was protected with monoclonal antibodies prior to infection and the second was not. We measured plasma levels of interleukin-10 at different time points by enzyme immunoassay and analyzed the relation between interleukin-10 and proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in order to determine the association of these ratios with the outcome of infection. Major findings and conclusions. We found different pattern of interleukin-10 production in protected mice compared with unprotected ones. The difference is greatest 24 hours postinfection. The ratios between IL-10 and proinflammatory cytokines confirmed the suppressed proinflammatory response in protected animals, especially 24 hours postinfection. Hence the mortality in unprotected mice begins immediately after we conclude that such cytokine relation and IL-10 production are, at least partially, responsible for the destiny of infected animals and the outcome of infection.

  15. Wolbachia increases susceptibility to Plasmodium infection in a natural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zélé, F.; Nicot, A.; Berthomieu, A.; Weill, M.; Duron, O.; Rivero, A.

    2014-01-01

    Current views about the impact of Wolbachia on Plasmodium infections are almost entirely based on data regarding artificially transfected mosquitoes. This work has shown that Wolbachia reduces the intensity of Plasmodium infections in mosquitoes, raising the exciting possibility of using Wolbachia to control or limit the spread of malaria. Whether natural Wolbachia infections have the same parasite-inhibiting properties is not yet clear. Wolbachia–mosquito combinations with a long evolutionary history are, however, key for understanding what may happen with Wolbachia-transfected mosquitoes after several generations of coevolution. We investigate this issue using an entirely natural mosquito–Wolbachia–Plasmodium combination. In contrast to most previous studies, which have been centred on the quantification of the midgut stages of Plasmodium, we obtain a measurement of parasitaemia that relates directly to transmission by following infections to the salivary gland stages. We show that Wolbachia increases the susceptibility of Culex pipiens mosquitoes to Plasmodium relictum, significantly increasing the prevalence of salivary gland stage infections. This effect is independent of the density of Wolbachia in the mosquito. These results suggest that naturally Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes may, in fact, be better vectors of malaria than Wolbachia-free ones. PMID:24500167

  16. Study on the pathogenesis of pathophysiological changes of burn systemic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ao (Ngao

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The present prospective study showed that incidence of systemic infection in severe burn patients was 30.9%. Toxic shock and multiple organ failure (MOF developed in all patients with uncontrolled systemic infection. Both morbidity and mortality of MOF were 76.5%. In the infection group, plasma TXB2 and TXB2/6-keto-PGF1α ratio increased markedly. Their changes were closely correlated with the clinical course and deterioration of systemic infection. Circulatory platelet aggregate ratio decreased significantly, while myocardiac enzyme spectrum greatly increased. Thrombi were observed in visceral tissues from patients dying of systemic infection. These suggested that TXA2/PGI2. imbalance promoting microaggregate and thrombus formation may be one of the pathogenic effects of toxic shock and MOF in burn patients.

  17. Cigarette smoking and mechanisms of susceptibility to infections of the respiratory tract and other organ systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Charles; Anderson, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    The predisposition of cigarette smokers for development of oral and respiratory infections caused by microbial pathogens is well recognised, with those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at particularly high risk. Smoking cigarettes has a suppressive effect on the protective functions of airway epithelium, alveolar macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells and adaptive immune mechanisms, in the setting of chronic systemic activation of neutrophils. Cigarette smoke also has a direct effect on microbial pathogens to promote the likelihood of infective disease, specifically promotion of microbial virulence and antibiotic resistance. In addition to interactions between smoking and HIV infection, a number of specific infections/clinical syndromes have been associated epidemiologically with cigarette smoking, including those of the upper and lower respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous and other organ systems. Smoking cessation benefits patients in many ways, including reduction of the risk of infectious disease. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the HIV infection and compartmentalization of HIV in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system plays an important role in HIV infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis in HIV infection in clinical practice. CSF analysis in HIV infection is indicated for the diagnosis of opportunistic infections and co-infections, diagnosis of meningitis caused by HIV, quantification of HIV viral load, and analysis of CNS HIV compartmentalization. Although several CSF biomarkers have been investigated, none are clinically applicable. The capacity of HIV to generate genetic diversity, in association with the constitutional characteristics of the CNS, facilitates the generation of HIV quasispecies in the CNS that are distinct from HIV in the systemic circulation. CSF analysis has a well-defined and valuable role in the diagnosis of CNS infections in HIV/AIDS patients. Further research is necessary to establish a clinically applicable biomarker for the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

  19. Systemic Fungal Infections in Donors for Corneal Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Sheila; Lindquist, Thomas D; Miller, Thomas D; Jeng, Bennie H

    2017-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of postkeratoplasty fungal infection when corneal tissue from donors with a recent medical history of oral thrush or respiratory, urine, wound, sputum, bronchial, tracheal, or throat culture positive for fungus is identified before recovery and after decontamination of the corneal tissue with 5% povidone-iodine flush to the donors' eyes during recovery. This is a prospective analysis of corneas from 42 donors with a documented medical history of fungus or positive fungal culture, which were recovered between January 2010 and November 2010. Standard aseptic swab of the donors' corneas before and after application of 5% povidone-iodine solution was performed. Culture results were analyzed in relationship to the donors' medical history and potential posttransplantation infections. Eighty-four eyes from 42 patients were swabbed for cultures during the study period. Seven eyes (8.3%) were positive for fungal growth before treatment with 5% povidone-iodine, whereas there were no positive fungal cultures after treatment (P = 0.007). Fifty-four corneas from this study group were used for corneal transplantation. There were no cases of fungal infection in any postkeratoplasty eyes transplanted from this study group. In this small study, the overall prevalence of fungal infections after corneal transplantation using corneal donor tissue from donors with a fungal-positive medical history is low. Corneal fungal contamination in donors with a history of fungal infection or a positive fungal culture can be significantly reduced with a 5% povidone-iodine flush.

  20. Risk factors for infection in Malaysian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, N I; Cheong, I K; Kong, N C; Segasothy, M

    1996-07-01

    To determine the incidence, types and risk factors for infection in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 102 patients with definite SLE attending a specialist clinic. Details of major infections (pneumonia or severe infection requiring intravenous therapy) and minor infections, and their time of onset in relation to immunosuppressive therapy and disease flares were recorded. There were 77 major and 163 minor infections during 564 patient-years of follow-up. In the month following a course of pulse methylprednisolone, the incidence of major infection was 20 times higher and the incidence of minor infection was 10 times higher than at other periods (p < 0.0001). In the month after disease flare, the incidence of major infection was 10 times higher and the incidence of minor infection six times higher than at other times (p < 0.0001). After allowing for methylprednisolone therapy and disease flares, there was no increase in the rate of infections during treatment with azathioprine, oral or intravenous cyclophosphamide. There was no effect of renal involvement on infection rate.

  1. Analysis of Cryptic, Systemic Botrytis Infections in Symptomless Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Michael W.; Emmanuel, Christy J.; Emilda, Deni; Terhem, Razak B.; Shafia, Aminath; Tsamaidi, Dimitra; Emblow, Mark; van Kan, Jan A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Botrytis species are generally considered to be aggressive, necrotrophic plant pathogens. By contrast to this general perception, however, Botrytis species could frequently be isolated from the interior of multiple tissues in apparently healthy hosts of many species. Infection frequencies reached 50% of samples or more, but were commonly less, and cryptic infections were rare or absent in some plant species. Prevalence varied substantially from year to year and from tissue to tissue, but some host species routinely had high prevalence. The same genotype was found to occur throughout a host, representing mycelial spread. Botrytis cinerea and Botrytis pseudocinerea are the species that most commonly occur as cryptic infections, but phylogenetically distant isolates of Botrytis were also detected, one of which does not correspond to previously described species. Sporulation and visible damage occurred only when infected tissues were stressed, or became mature or senescent. There was no evidence of cryptic infection having a deleterious effect on growth of the host, and prevalence was probably greater in plants grown in high light conditions. Isolates from cryptic infections were often capable of causing disease (to varying extents) when spore suspensions were inoculated onto their own host as well as on distinct host species, arguing against co-adaptation between cryptic isolates and their hosts. These data collectively suggest that several Botrytis species, including the most notorious pathogenic species, exist frequently in cryptic form to an extent that has thus far largely been neglected, and do not need to cause disease on healthy hosts in order to complete their life-cycles. PMID:27242829

  2. Selective Infection of Antigen-Specific B Lymphocytes by Salmonella Mediates Bacterial Survival and Systemic Spreading of Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Jelle; Martinoli, Chiara; Zagato, Elena; Janssen, Hans; Jorritsma, Tineke; Bar-Ephraïm, Yotam E.; Rescigno, Maria; Neefjes, Jacques; van Ham, S. Marieke

    2012-01-01

    Background The bacterial pathogen Salmonella causes worldwide disease. A major route of intestinal entry involves M cells, providing access to B cell-rich Peyer’s Patches. Primary human B cells phagocytose Salmonella typhimurium upon recognition by the specific surface Ig receptor (BCR). As it is unclear how Salmonella disseminates systemically, we studied whether Salmonella can use B cells as a transport device for spreading. Methodology/Principal Findings Human primary B cells or Ramos cell line were incubated with GFP-expressing Salmonella. Intracellular survival and escape was studied in vitro by live cell imaging, flow cytometry and flow imaging. HEL-specific B cells were transferred into C57BL/6 mice and HEL-expressing Salmonella spreading in vivo was analyzed investigating mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen and blood. After phagocytosis by B cells, Salmonella survives intracellularly in a non-replicative state which is actively maintained by the B cell. Salmonella is later excreted followed by reproductive infection of other cell types. Salmonella-specific B cells thus act both as a survival niche and a reservoir for reinfection. Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific B cells before oral infection of mice showed that these B cells mediate in vivo systemic spreading of Salmonella to spleen and blood. Conclusions/Significance This is a first example of a pathogenic bacterium that abuses the antigen-specific cells of the adaptive immune system for systemic spreading for dissemination of infection. PMID:23209805

  3. Activation of innate immunity during systemic Candida infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ifrim, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased knowledge on the mechanisms of Candida recognition and the networks of innate and adaptive host defense activated during infection, much remains to be learned regarding the distinctive modulatory effects of Candida spp on host immune responses. We showed that the chronic

  4. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Animal-Friendly Pig Production Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Eissen, O.A.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Munniksma, K.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.; Kortbeek, T.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE. Consumption of undercooked pork meat products has been considered a major risk factor for contracting toxoplasmosis in humans. Indoor farming and improved hygiene have drastically reduced Toxoplasma infections in pigs over the past decades. Whether introduction of animal-friendly production

  5. Analysis of Cryptic, Systemic Botrytis Infections in Symptomless Hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaw, Michael W.; Emmanuel, Christy J.; Emilda, Deni; Terhem, Razak B.; Shafia, Aminath; Tsamaidi, Dimitra; Emblow, Mark; Kan, Van Jan A.L.

    2016-01-01


    Botrytis species are generally considered to be aggressive, necrotrophic plant pathogens. By contrast to this general perception, however, Botrytis species could frequently be isolated from the interior of multiple tissues in apparently healthy hosts of many species. Infection frequencies

  6. Neuro-HIV: Nervous System Manifestations of HIV Infection- A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nervous system manifestations of HIV infection are protean. Initially assumed to be a late feature of HIV infection, neurologic involvement can occur quite early. Recognition and management of this condition can be very challenging. A review of the literature is presented. An extensive search of all materials related to the ...

  7. Predicting nosocomial lower respiratory tract infections by a risk index based system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Yong; Shan, Xue; Zhao, Jingya; Han, Xuelin; Tian, Shuguang; Chen, Fangyan; Su, Xueting; Sun, Yansong; Huang, Liuyu; Grundmann, Hajo; Wang, Hongyuan; Han, Li

    2017-01-01

    Although belonging to one of the most common type of nosocomial infection, there was currently no simple prediction model for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). This study aims to develop a risk index based system for predicting nosocomial LRTIs based on data from a large point-prevalence

  8. HPV infection and vaccination in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients: What we really should know

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Grein (Ingrid); N. Groot (Noortje); Lacerda, M.I. (Marcela Ignacchiti); N.M. Wulffraat (Nico); G. Pileggi (Gecilmara)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPatients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) are at increased risk for infections. Vaccination is a powerful tool to prevent infections, even in immunocompromised patients. Most non-live vaccines are immunogenic and safe in patients with SLE, even if antibody titres are frequently

  9. HPV infection and vaccination in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients : what we really should know

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotstein Grein, Ingrid Herta; Groot, Noortje; Lacerda, Marcela Ignacchiti; Wulffraat, Nico; Pileggi, Gecilmara

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) are at increased risk for infections. Vaccination is a powerful tool to prevent infections, even in immunocompromised patients. Most non-live vaccines are immunogenic and safe in patients with SLE, even if antibody titres are frequently lower than

  10. Herpes simplex virus type 2 infections of the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Vestergaard, Bent Faber; Wandall, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare with meningitis as the most common clinical presentation. We have investigated the clinical spectrum of CNS infections in 49 adult consecutive patients with HSV-2 genome in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). HSV...

  11. Comparison of antibody repertoires produced by HIV-1 infection, other chronic and acute infections, and systemic autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Breden

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies (Abs produced during HIV-1 infection rarely neutralize a broad range of viral isolates; only eight broadly-neutralizing (bNt monoclonal (MAbs have been isolated. Yet, to be effective, an HIV-1 vaccine may have to elicit the essential features of these MAbs. The V genes of all of these bNt MAbs are highly somatically mutated, and the V(H genes of five of them encode a long (≥ 20 aa third complementarity-determining region (CDR-H3. This led us to question whether long CDR-H3s and high levels of somatic mutation (SM are a preferred feature of anti-HIV bNt MAbs, or if other adaptive immune responses elicit them in general.We assembled a V(H-gene sequence database from over 700 human MAbs of known antigen specificity isolated from chronic (viral infections (ChI, acute (bacterial and viral infections (AcI, and systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD, and compared their CDR-H3 length, number of SMs and germline V(H-gene usage. We found that anti-HIV Abs, regardless of their neutralization breadth, tended to have long CDR-H3s and high numbers of SMs. However, these features were also common among Abs associated with other chronic viral infections. In contrast, Abs from acute viral infections (but not bacterial infections tended to have relatively short CDR-H3s and a low number of SMs, whereas SAD Abs were generally intermediate in CDR-H3 length and number of SMs. Analysis of V(H gene usage showed that ChI Abs also tended to favor distal germline V(H-genes (particularly V(H1-69, especially in Abs bearing long CDR-H3s.The striking difference between the Abs produced during chronic vs. acute viral infection suggests that Abs bearing long CDR-H3s, high levels of SM and V(H1-69 gene usage may be preferentially selected during persistent infection.

  12. Coincident helminth infection modulates systemic inflammation and immune activation in active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parakkal Jovvian George

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are known to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses in active and latent tuberculosis (TB. However, the role of helminth infections in modulating responses associated with inflammation and immune activation (reflecting disease activity and/or severity in TB is not known.We measured markers of inflammation and immune activation in active pulmonary TB individuals (ATB with co-incidental Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss infection. These included systemic levels of acute phase proteins, matrix metalloproteinases and their endogenous inhibitors and immune activation markers. As a control, we measured the systemic levels of the same molecules in TB-uninfected individuals (NTB with or without Ss infection.Our data confirm that ATB is associated with elevated levels of the various measured molecules when compared to those seen in NTB. Our data also reveal that co-incident Ss infection in ATB individuals is associated with significantly decreased circulating levels of acute phase proteins, matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases as well as the systemic immune activation markers, sCD14 and sCD163. These changes are specific to ATB since they are absent in NTB individuals with Ss infection.Our data therefore reveal a profound effect of Ss infection on the markers associated with TB disease activity and severity and indicate that co-incidental helminth infections might dampen the severity of TB disease.

  13. Activation of innate immunity during systemic Candida infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ifrim, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased knowledge on the mechanisms of Candida recognition and the networks of innate and adaptive host defense activated during infection, much remains to be learned regarding the distinctive modulatory effects of Candida spp on host immune responses. We showed that the chronic exposure of primary human immune cells to C. albicans primes them for subsequent stimulation with different microorganisms, mechanism that could explain the potential stimulatory effects of the fungus in...

  14. The importance of integrated system design for the effectiveness of portable air cleaners in airborne infection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Reenen, T

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available design to the effectiveness of PACs in airborne infection control. The objective of this further study was to quantitatively evaluate the contributions of combined ventilation and PAC systems and identify factors with the potential to reduce...

  15. Subgenomic reporter RNA system for detection of alphavirus infection in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jordan Steel

    Full Text Available Current methods for detecting real-time alphavirus (Family Togaviridae infection in mosquitoes require the use of recombinant viruses engineered to express a visibly detectable reporter protein. These altered viruses expressing fluorescent proteins, usually from a duplicated viral subgenomic reporter, are effective at marking infection but tend to be attenuated due to the modification of the genome. Additionally, field strains of viruses cannot be visualized using this approach unless infectious clones can be developed to insert a reporter protein. To circumvent these issues, we have developed an insect cell-based system for detecting wild-type sindbis virus infection that uses a virus inducible promoter to express a fluorescent reporter gene only upon active virus infection. We have developed an insect expression system that produces sindbis virus minigenomes containing a subgenomic promoter sequence, which produces a translatable RNA species only when infectious virus is present and providing viral replication proteins. This subgenomic reporter RNA system is able to detect wild-type Sindbis infection in cultured mosquito cells. The detection system is relatively species specific and only detects closely related viruses, but can detect low levels of alphavirus specific replication early during infection. A chikungunya virus detection system was also developed that specifically detects chikungunya virus infection. Transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquito families were established that constitutively express the sindbis virus reporter RNA and were found to only express fluorescent proteins during virus infection. This virus inducible reporter system demonstrates a novel approach for detecting non-recombinant virus infection in mosquito cell culture and in live transgenic mosquitoes.

  16. A widespread bacteriophage abortive infection system functions through a Type IV toxin–antitoxin mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Dy, Ron L.; Przybilski, Rita; Semeijn, Koen; Salmond, George P. C.; Fineran, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial abortive infection (Abi) systems are ‘altruistic’ cell death systems that are activated by phage infection and limit viral replication, thereby providing protection to the bacterial population. Here, we have used a novel approach of screening Abi systems as a tool to identify and characterize toxin–antitoxin (TA)-acting Abi systems. We show that AbiE systems are encoded by bicistronic operons and function via a non-interacting (Type IV) bacteriostatic TA mechanism. The abiE operon w...

  17. Diversity of Papaya ringspot virus isolates in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) devastates papaya production worldwide. In Puerto Rico, papaya fields can be completely infected with PRSV within a year of planting. Information about the diversity of the Puerto Rican PRSV population is relevant in order to establish a control strategy in the island. T...

  18. Vaccinia viruses isolated from skin infection in horses produced cutaneous and systemic disease in experimentally infected rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnelutti, Juliana Felipetto; Schmidt, Candice; Masuda, Eduardo Kenji; Nogueira, Paula Rochelle Kurrle; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo Furtado

    2012-10-01

    The susceptibility of rabbits to two isolates of Vaccinia virus (VACV) recovered from cutaneous disease in horses in Southern Brazil was investigated. Rabbits were inoculated in the ear skin with both VACV isolates, either in single or mixed infection. All inoculated animals presented local skin lesions characterized by hyperaemia, papules, vesicles, pustules and ulcers. Infectious virus was detected in the lungs and intestine of rabbits that died during acute disease. Histological examination of the skin revealed changes characteristic of those associated with members of the genus Orthopoxvirus. These results demonstrate that rabbits develop skin disease accompanied by systemic signs upon intradermal inoculation of these two equine VACV isolates, either alone or in combination, opening the way for using rabbits to study selected aspects of the biology and pathogenesis of VACV infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Establishment of an Artificial Tick Feeding System to Study Theileria lestoquardi Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeri, Shahin; Razmi, Gholamreza; Haghparast, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of good experimental models for Theileria sp. infection is important for theileriosis research. Routinely, infection of ticks is accomplished by feeding on parasite-infected animals (sheep, cows and horses), which raises practical and ethical problems, driving the search for alternative methods of tick infection. Artificial tick feeding systems are based mainly on rearing ticks on host-derived or hand-made artificial membranes. We developed a modified feeding assay for infecting nymphal stages of Hyalomma anatolicum ticks with Theileria lestoquardi, a highly pathogenic parasite of sheep. We compared two different membranes: an artificial silicone membrane and a natural alternative using mouse skin. We observed high attachment rates with mouse skin, whereas in vitro feeding of H. anatolicum nymphs on silicone membranes was unsuccessful. We could infect H. anatolicum nymphs with T. lestoquardi and the emerging adult ticks transmitted infective parasites to sheep. In contrast, similar infections with Rhipicephalus bursa, a representative tick with short mouth-parts that was proposed as a vector for T. lestoquardi, appeared not to be a competent vector tick species. This is the first report of an experimentally controlled infection of H. anatolicum with T. lestoquardi and opens avenues to explore tick-parasite dynamics in detail.

  20. Toscana meningoencephalitis: a comparison to other viral central nervous system infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaijakul, Siraya; Arias, Cesar A.; Hossein, Monir; Arduino, Roberto C.; Wootton, Susan H.; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Background Toscana virus (TOSV) is an emerging pathogen causing central nervous system (CNS) infection in Mediterranean countries, mostly during summer season. Objectives To compare the clinical and laboratory characteristics of Toscana CNS infections to the most common viral pathogens seen in the United States. Study Design We performed a case series of patients with 41 TOSV infection and compared the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, imaging results and clinical outcomes to the most commonly recognized viral causes of meningoencephalitis in the US (enterovirus (n=60), herpes simplex virus (n=48), and west nile virus (n=30) from our multi-center study of patients with aseptic meningoencephalitis syndromes in the Greater Houston area. Results TOSV infection occurs in different age groups compared to enterovirus, HSV, and WNV. All infections most frequently occur during summer-fall except HSV which distributes throughout the year. All patients with TOSV had history of travel to endemic areas. There are differences in clinical presentation and CSF findings comparing TOSV and enterovirus, HSV, and WNV infection. There are no significant differences in outcomes of each infection except WNV meningoencephalitis which had a poorer outcome compared to TOSV infection. Conclusions TOSV is an emerging pathogen that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with CNS infections and a recent travel history to endemic areas. PMID:22867730

  1. Host-Imposed Copper Poisoning Impacts Fungal Micronutrient Acquisition during Systemic Candida albicans Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mackie

    Full Text Available Nutritional immunity is a process whereby an infected host manipulates essential micronutrients to defend against an invading pathogen. We reveal a dynamic aspect of nutritional immunity during infection that involves copper assimilation. Using a combination of laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP MS and metal mapping, immunohistochemistry, and gene expression profiling from infected tissues, we show that readjustments in hepatic, splenic and renal copper homeostasis accompany disseminated Candida albicans infections in the mouse model. Localized host-imposed copper poisoning manifests itself as a transient increase in copper early in the kidney infection. Changes in renal copper are detected by the fungus, as revealed by gene expression profiling and fungal virulence studies. The fungus responds by differentially regulating the Crp1 copper efflux pump (higher expression during early infection and down-regulation late in infection and the Ctr1 copper importer (lower expression during early infection, and subsequent up-regulation late in infection to maintain copper homeostasis during disease progression. Both Crp1 and Ctr1 are required for full fungal virulence. Importantly, copper homeostasis influences other virulence traits-metabolic flexibility and oxidative stress resistance. Our study highlights the importance of copper homeostasis for host defence and fungal virulence during systemic disease.

  2. Establishment of an Artificial Tick Feeding System to Study Theileria lestoquardi Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Tajeri

    Full Text Available The establishment of good experimental models for Theileria sp. infection is important for theileriosis research. Routinely, infection of ticks is accomplished by feeding on parasite-infected animals (sheep, cows and horses, which raises practical and ethical problems, driving the search for alternative methods of tick infection. Artificial tick feeding systems are based mainly on rearing ticks on host-derived or hand-made artificial membranes. We developed a modified feeding assay for infecting nymphal stages of Hyalomma anatolicum ticks with Theileria lestoquardi, a highly pathogenic parasite of sheep. We compared two different membranes: an artificial silicone membrane and a natural alternative using mouse skin. We observed high attachment rates with mouse skin, whereas in vitro feeding of H. anatolicum nymphs on silicone membranes was unsuccessful. We could infect H. anatolicum nymphs with T. lestoquardi and the emerging adult ticks transmitted infective parasites to sheep. In contrast, similar infections with Rhipicephalus bursa, a representative tick with short mouth-parts that was proposed as a vector for T. lestoquardi, appeared not to be a competent vector tick species. This is the first report of an experimentally controlled infection of H. anatolicum with T. lestoquardi and opens avenues to explore tick-parasite dynamics in detail.

  3. Long-term impact of systemic bacterial infection on the cerebral vasculature and microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Püntener Ursula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic infection leads to generation of inflammatory mediators that result in metabolic and behavioural changes. Repeated or chronic systemic inflammation leads to a state of innate immune tolerance: a protective mechanism against overactivity of the immune system. In this study, we investigated the immune adaptation of microglia and brain vascular endothelial cells in response to systemic inflammation or bacterial infection. Methods Mice were given repeated doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS or a single injection of live Salmonella typhimurium. Inflammatory cytokines were measured in serum, spleen and brain, and microglial phenotype studied by immunohistochemistry. To assess priming of the innate immune response in the brain, mice were infected with Salmonella typhimurium and subsequently challenged with a focal unilateral intracerebral injection of LPS. Results Repeated systemic LPS challenges resulted in increased brain IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-12 levels, despite attenuated systemic cytokine production. Each LPS challenge induced significant changes in burrowing behaviour. In contrast, brain IL-1β and IL-12 levels in Salmonella typhimurium-infected mice increased over three weeks, with high interferon-γ levels in the circulation. Behavioural changes were only observed during the acute phase of the infection. Microglia and cerebral vasculature display an activated phenotype, and focal intracerebral injection of LPS four weeks after infection results in an exaggerated local inflammatory response when compared to non-infected mice. Conclusions These studies reveal that the innate immune cells in the brain do not become tolerant to systemic infection, but are primed instead. This may lead to prolonged and damaging cytokine production that may have a profound effect on the onset and/or progression of pre-existing neurodegenerative disease.

  4. Systemic Cytokine Profiles in Strongyloides stercoralis Infection and Alterations following Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; Munisankar, Saravanan; Bhootra, Yukti; Jagannathan, Jeeva; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Shen, Kui; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth organism that infects ∼50 to 100 million people worldwide. Despite its widespread prevalence, very little is known about the immune response that characterizes human S. stercoralis infection. To study the systemic cytokine profile characteristic of Strongyloides infection, we measured the circulating levels of a large panel of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in asymptomatic, infected individuals (n = 32) and compared them to those in uninfected, controls (n = 24). Infected individuals exhibited significantly lower circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], and interleukin-1β [IL-1β]) and significantly higher levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, IL-27, IL-37, and transforming growth factor β [TGF-β]). Moreover, treatment of Strongyloides infection resulted in a significant reversal of the cytokine profile, with increased levels of proinflammatory (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, IL-23, and IL-1β) and decreased levels of anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, IL-27, IL-37, and TGF-β) cytokines following treatment. Thus, S. stercoralis infection is characterized by alterations in the levels of systemic cytokines, reflecting major alterations in the underlying immune response to this chronic helminth infection. PMID:26597982

  5. Agroinoculation of Citrus tristeza virus causes systemic infection and symptoms in the presumed nonhost Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrós, Silvia; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Peña, Leandro; Guerri, José; Dawson, William O; Moreno, Pedro

    2011-10-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) naturally infects only some citrus species and relatives and within these it only invades phloem tissues. Failure to agroinfect citrus plants and the lack of an experimental herbaceous host hindered development of a workable genetic system. A full-genome cDNA of CTV isolate T36 was cloned in binary plasmids and was used to agroinfiltrate Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, with or without coinfiltration with plasmids expressing different silencing-suppressor proteins. A time course analysis in agroinfiltrated leaves indicated that CTV accumulates and moves cell-to-cell for at least three weeks postinoculation (wpi), and then, it moves systemically and infects the upper leaves with symptom expression. Silencing suppressors expedited systemic infection and often increased infectivity. In systemically infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants, CTV invaded first the phloem, but after 7 wpi, it was also found in other tissues and reached a high viral titer in upper leaves, thus allowing efficient transmission to citrus by stem-slash inoculation. Infected citrus plants showed the symptoms, virion morphology, and phloem restriction characteristic of the wild T36 isolate. Therefore, agroinfiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana provided the first experimental herbaceous host for CTV and an easy and efficient genetic system for this closterovirus.

  6. Local Antibiotic Delivery Systems: Current and Future Applications for Diabetic Foot Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakis, Konstantinos; Faris, Alan Robert; Sharaf, Hamed; Faris, Barzo; Rees, Sharon; Bowling, Frank L

    2018-02-01

    Foot infections are common among diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy and/or peripheral arterial disease, and it can be the pivotal event leading to a minor or major amputation of the lower extremity. Treatment of diabetic foot infections, especially deep-seated ones, remains challenging, in part because impaired blood perfusion and the presence of biofilms can impair the effectiveness of systemic antibiotics. The local application of antibiotics is an emerging field in the treatment of diabetic foot infections, with demonstrable advantages. These include delivery of high concentrations of antibiotics in the affected area, limited systemic absorption, and thus negligible side effects. Biodegradable vehicles, such as calcium sulfate beads, are the prototypical system, providing a good elution profile and the ability to be impregnated with a variety of antibiotics. These have largely superseded the nonbiodegradable vehicles, but the strongest evidence available is for calcium bead implantation for osteomyelitis management. Natural polymers, such as collagen sponge, are an emerging class of delivery systems, although thus far, data on diabetic foot infections are limited. There is recent interest in the novel antimicrobial peptide pexiganan in the form of cream, which is active against most of the microorganisms isolated in diabetic foot infections. These are promising developments, but randomized trials are required to ascertain the efficacy of these systems and to define the indications for their use. Currently, the role of topical antibiotic agents in treating diabetic foot infections is limited and outside of routine practice.

  7. Leukogram and serum globulin values in two dogs with systemic Xylohypha bantiana infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobetti, R G

    1996-06-01

    Phaeohyphomycosis is a rare fungal disease of animals and man, generally thought to occur in compromised or debilitated hosts, although in man the majority of infections have occurred in otherwise healthy patients. To investigate the possible role of immune suppression in systemic phaeohyphomycosis, certain aspects of the immune system of 2 dogs with systemic Xylohypha bantiana infection were investigated. White cell and differential cell counts, serum protein electrophoresis and serum immunoglobulin fractions were determined. The only consistent finding was lymphopaenia. Although there is no specific evidence for it, a lymphopaenic state might predispose to systemic phaeohyphomycosis.

  8. Infection Rates of Electrical Leads Used for Percutaneous Neurostimulation of the Peripheral Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilfeld, Brian M; Gabriel, Rodney A; Saulino, Michael F; Chae, John; Peckham, P Hunter; Grant, Stuart A; Gilmore, Christopher A; Donohue, Michael C; deBock, Matthew G; Wongsarnpigoon, Amorn; Boggs, Joseph W

    2017-07-01

    Percutaneous neurostimulation of the peripheral nervous system involves the insertion of a wire "lead" through an introducing needle to target a nerve/plexus or a motor point within a muscle. Electrical current may then be passed from an external generator through the skin via the lead for various therapeutic goals, including providing analgesia. With extended use of percutaneous leads sometimes greater than a month, infection is a concern. It was hypothesized that the infection rate of leads with a coiled design is lower than for leads with a noncoiled cylindrical design. The literature was retrospectively reviewed for clinical studies of percutaneous neurostimulation of the peripheral nervous system of greater than 2 days that included explicit information on adverse events. The primary endpoint was the number of infections per 1,000 indwelling days. Forty-three studies were identified that met inclusion criteria involving coiled (n = 21) and noncoiled (n = 25) leads (3 studies involved both). The risk of infection with noncoiled leads was estimated to be 25 times greater than with coiled leads (95% confidence interval [CI] 2 to 407, P = 0.006). The infection rates were estimated to be 0.03 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.13) infections per 1,000 indwelling days for coiled leads and 0.83 (95% CI 0.16 to 4.33) infections per 1,000 indwelling days for noncoiled leads (P = 0.006). Percutaneous leads used for neurostimulation of the peripheral nervous system have a much lower risk of infection with a coiled design compared with noncoiled leads: approximately 1 infection for every 30,000 vs. 1,200 indwelling days, respectively. © 2016 The Authors. Pain Practice published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of World Institute of Pain.

  9. MONI: an intelligent database and monitoring system for surveillance of nosocomial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzali-Bonfadin, C; Adlassnig, K P; Koller, W

    1995-01-01

    Recording, recognition, and prevention of nosocomial infections are the primary responsibilities of the hospital infection control unit. To perform these tasks, this unit needs information from diverse sources--the patient's symptoms and signs, microbiological and virological test results, and information regarding antibiotics and treatment come from different levels of healthcare delivery. Because of the large amount of data (e.g., about 300 microbiological requests daily) a computer system is required to store this information and to provide a means for subsequent evaluation. MONI (Monitoring of nosocomial infections) is an intelligent database and monitoring system for surveillance and detection of nosocomial infections. Data can be entered into the system manually as well as transferred automatically from external information systems. The central feature of the system is the automatic detection of and calling attention to conditions that may be a detriment to patient recovery, such as possible hospital-acquired infections, risk factors, diseases to be reported, etc. By using this system, we seek to reduce the frequency of infection and the frequency of nosocomial deaths by improving the quality of patient treatment, shortening the length of stay in a hospital, and the use of fewer and/or cheaper antibiotics. MONI provides a means to access relevant medical data (names of infectious agents, antibiotics, department names, monitoring rules, etc.) from a library. This library can be updated or otherwise modified, even during use. An infection control team using this system can customize it to suit the demands of that particular unit. Automatic data transfer from external information systems is made possible by tables that translate between different code systems. The system also offers flexibility; the program can be configured to adapt it for use in other hospitals and institutions. The core element of MONI is the monitoring module, which is implemented as a layer

  10. Candida infection of the central nervous system following neurosurgery: a 12-year review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Candida infection of the central nervous system (CNS) following neurosurgery is relatively unusual but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present our experience with this infection in adults and discuss clinical characteristics, treatment options, and outcome. METHODS: All episodes of Candida isolated from the central nervous system were identified by searching our laboratory database. Review of the cases was performed by means of a retrospective chart review. RESULTS: Eleven episodes of Candida CSF infection following neurosurgery were identified over a 12-year period. Candida albicans was the predominant species isolated (n = 8, 73%). All infections were associated with foreign intracranial material, nine with external ventricular drains (82%), one with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, one with a lumbar drain, and one with Gliadel wafers (1,3-bis [2-chloroethyl]-1-nitrosurea). Fluconazole or liposomal amphotericin B were the most common anti-fungal agents used. The mortality rate identified in our series was 27%. CONCLUSIONS: Candida infection following neurosurgery remains a relatively rare occurrence but one that causes significant mortality. These are complex infections, the management of which benefits from a close liaison between the clinical microbiologist and neurosurgeon. Prompt initiation of antifungal agents and removal of infected devices offers the best hope of a cure.

  11. Central Nervous System Strongyloidiasis and Cryptococcosis in an HIV-Infected Patient Starting Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome with central nervous system involvement, in a patient with late human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection starting antiretroviral therapy, in whom Strongyloides stercoralis larvae and Cryptococcus neoformans were isolated antemortem from cerebrospinal fluid. Our patient was not from an endemic region for the parasite, so strongyloidiasis was not originally suspected. For this reason, we conclude that Strongyloides stercoralis infection should be suspected in HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy in order to avoid potential fatal outcomes.

  12. Automated surveillance system for hospital-acquired urinary tract infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Condell, Orla; Gubbels, Sophie; Nielsen, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Danish Hospital-Acquired Infections Database (HAIBA) is an automated surveillance system using hospital administrative, microbiological, and antibiotic medication data. AIM: To define and evaluate the case definition for hospital-acquired urinary tract infection (HA...... HAIBA and PPS, including laboratory results being unavailable at the time of the survey, the results considered clinically irrelevant by the surveyor due to an indwelling urinary catheter or lack of clinical signs of infection, and UTIs being considered HA-UTI in PPS even though the first sample...

  13. Annual Surveillance Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    for analysis.18 Antimicrobial Resistance Classification To evaluate changes in antimicrobial susceptibility for P. aeruginosa infections, an...M2 Military Health System (MHS) Management Analysis and Reporting Tool MDR multidrug- resistant MDRO multidrug- resistant organism MEPRS Medical...multidrug- resistant (MDR) infections (3.8 per 100,000 persons per year and 2.2 per 100,000 persons per year, respectively). Among all MHS beneficiaries

  14. Transcriptome analysis of Nicotiana tabacum infected by Cucumber mosaic virus during systemic symptom development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Lu

    Full Text Available Virus infection of plants may induce a variety of disease symptoms. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of systemic symptom development in infected plants. Here we performed the first next-generation sequencing study to identify gene expression changes associated with disease development in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi nc induced by infection with the M strain of Cucumber mosaic virus (M-CMV. Analysis of the tobacco transcriptome by RNA-Seq identified 95,916 unigenes, 34,408 of which were new transcripts by database searches. Deep sequencing was subsequently used to compare the digital gene expression (DGE profiles of the healthy plants with the infected plants at six sequential disease development stages, including vein clearing, mosaic, severe chlorosis, partial and complete recovery, and secondary mosaic. Thousands of differentially expressed genes were identified, and KEGG pathway analysis of these genes suggested that many biological processes, such as photosynthesis, pigment metabolism and plant-pathogen interaction, were involved in systemic symptom development. Our systematic analysis provides comprehensive transcriptomic information regarding systemic symptom development in virus-infected plants. This information will help further our understanding of the detailed mechanisms of plant responses to viral infection.

  15. Systems Biology Investigations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Evolution in Association with Human Airway Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Damkiær

    environments. The model system used for these investigations has been long-term chronic airway infections in Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients caused by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using a systems biology approach, we have monitored the adaptive development of the clinically important P...

  16. Nutritional modulation of age-related changes in the immune system and risk of infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The immune system undergoes some adverse alterations during aging, many of which have been implicated in the increased morbidity and mortality associated with infection in the elderly. In addition to intrinsic changes to the immune system with aging, the elderly are more likely to have poor nutritio...

  17. Annual Surveillance Summary: Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Annual Surveillance Summary: Vancomycin- Resistant Enterococci (VRE) Infections in the Military Health ...VRE) incidence and prevalence among all beneficiaries seeking care within the Military Health System (MHS). This report describes demographics...sources were linked to assess descriptive and clinical factors related to VRE. Health Level 7 (HL7)-formatted Composite Health Care System (CHCS

  18. Immunological Aspects of Candida and Aspergillus Systemic Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Mueller-Loebnitz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT have a high risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs even after neutrophil regeneration. Immunological aspects might play a very important role in the IFI development in these patients. Some data are available supporting the identification of high-risk patients with IFI for example patients receiving stem cells from TLR4 haplotype S4 positive donors. Key defense mechanisms against IFI include the activation of neutrophils, the phagocytosis of germinating conidia by dendritic cells, and the fight of the cells of the innate immunity such as monocytes and natural killer cells against germlings and hyphae. Furthermore, immunosuppressive drugs interact with immune effector cells influencing the specific fungal immune defense and antimycotic drugs might interact with immune response. Based on the current knowledge on immunological mechanism in Aspergillus fumigatus, the first approaches of an immunotherapy using human T cells are in development. This might be an option for the future of aspergillosis patients having a poor prognosis with conventional treatment.

  19. Medications that Weaken Your Immune System and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... January 25, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  20. Effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on mouse resistance to systemic Candida albicans infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon W Blumstein

    Full Text Available Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC, the psychoactive component of marijuana, is known to suppress the immune responses to bacterial, viral and protozoan infections, but its effects on fungal infections have not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic Δ9-THC treatment on mouse resistance to systemic Candida albicans (C. albicans infection. To determine the outcome of chronic Δ9-THC treatment on primary, acute systemic candidiasis, c57BL/6 mice were given vehicle or Δ9-THC (16 mg/kg in vehicle on days 1-4, 8-11 and 15-18. On day 19, mice were infected with 5×10(5 C. albicans. We also determined the effect of chronic Δ9-THC (4-64 mg/kg treatment on mice infected with a non-lethal dose of 7.5×10(4 C. albicans on day 2, followed by a higher challenge with 5×10(5 C. albicans on day 19. Mouse resistance to the infection was assessed by survival and tissue fungal load. Serum cytokine levels were determine to evaluate the immune responses. In the acute infection, chronic Δ9-THC treatment had no effect on mouse survival or tissue fungal load when compared to vehicle treated mice. However, Δ9-THC significantly suppressed IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 as well as marginally suppressed IL-17 versus vehicle treated mice. In comparison, when mice were given a secondary yeast infection, Δ9-THC significantly decreased survival, increased tissue fungal burden and suppressed serum IFN-γ and IL-12p40 levels compared to vehicle treated mice. The data showed that chronic Δ9-THC treatment decreased the efficacy of the memory immune response to candida infection, which correlated with a decrease in IFN-γ that was only observed after the secondary candida challenge.

  1. Coronavirus Infections in the Central Nervous System and Respiratory Tract Show Distinct Features in Hospitalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Haipeng; Fan, Ruyan; Wen, Bo; Zhang, Jian; Cao, Xiaoying; Wang, Chengwu; Song, Zhanyi; Li, Shuochi; Li, Xiaojie; Lv, Xinjun; Qu, Xiaowang; Huang, Renbin; Liu, Wenpei

    2016-01-01

    Coronavirus (CoV) infections induce respiratory tract illnesses and central nervous system (CNS) diseases. We aimed to explore the cytokine expression profiles in hospitalized children with CoV-CNS and CoV-respiratory tract infections. A total of 183 and 236 hospitalized children with acute encephalitis-like syndrome and respiratory tract infection, respectively, were screened for anti-CoV IgM antibodies. The expression profiles of multiple cytokines were determined in CoV-positive patients. Anti-CoV IgM antibodies were detected in 22/183 (12.02%) and 26/236 (11.02%) patients with acute encephalitis-like syndrome and respiratory tract infection, respectively. Cytokine analysis revealed that the level of serum granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was significantly higher in both CoV-CNS and CoV-respiratory tract infection compared with healthy controls. Additionally, the serum level of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was significantly higher in CoV-CNS infection than in CoV-respiratory tract infection. In patients with CoV-CNS infection, the levels of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and GM-CSF were significantly higher in their cerebrospinal fluid samples than in matched serum samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing a high incidence of CoV infection in hospitalized children, especially with CNS illness. The characteristic cytokine expression profiles in CoV infection indicate the importance of host immune response in disease progression. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Escherichia coli infection induces distinct local and systemic transcriptome responses in the mammary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Eckhard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coliform bacteria are the most common etiologic agents in severe mastitis of cows. Escherichia coli infections are mostly restricted to a single udder quarter whereas neighboring quarters stay clinically inapparent, implicating the presence of a systemic defense reaction. To address its underlying mechanism, we performed a transcriptome study of mammary tissue from udder quarters inoculated with E. coli (6 h and 24 h post infection, from neighboring quarters of the same animals, and from untreated control animals. Results After 6 h 13 probe sets of differentially expressed genes (DEG were detected in infected quarters versus control animals. Eighteen hours later 2154 and 476 DEG were found in infected and in neighboring quarters vs. control animals. Cluster analysis revealed DEG found only in infected quarters (local response and DEG detected in both infected and neighboring quarters (systemic response. The first group includes genes mainly involved in immune response and inflammation, while the systemic reaction comprises antigen processing and presentation, cytokines, protein degradation and apoptosis. Enhanced expression of antimicrobial genes (S100A8, S100A9, S100A12, CXCL2, GNLY, acute phase genes (LBP, SAA3, CP, BF, C6, C4BPA, IF, and indicators of oxidative stress (GPX3, MT1A, MT2A, SOD2 point to an active defense reaction in infected and neighboring healthy quarters. Its early onset is indicated by increased transcription of NFIL3 at 6 h. NFIL3 is a predicted regulator of many genes of the systemic response at 24 h. The significance of our transcriptome study was evidenced by some recent findings with candidate gene based approaches. Conclusions The discovery and holistic analysis of an extensive systemic reaction in the mammary gland significantly expands the knowledge of host-pathogen interactions in mastitis which may be relevant for the development of novel therapies and for genetic selection towards mastitis

  3. Infection risk in systemic lupus erythematosus patients: susceptibility factors and preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danza, A; Ruiz-Irastorza, G

    2013-10-01

    Infection is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Bacterial infections are most frequent, followed by viral and fungal infections. The impaired cellular and humoral immune functions seen in patients with SLE are predisposing conditions, whilst disease activity, prednisone doses over 7.5-10 mg/day, high doses of methylprednisolone or cyclophosphamide are well-recognised risk factors for infection. The first six months after rituximab treatment and the use of more than three courses are also associated with an increased susceptibility for infection. It has not been established whether belimumab, azathioprine and mycophenolate mofetil increase the risk of serious infections. Most vaccines are effective and safe in SLE patients, although vaccination should be avoided during periods of active disease. Live virus vaccines are contraindicated for immunosuppressed patients. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccines are universally recommended. Tuberculosis prophylaxis should be considered in selected cases. Therefore, it is advisable not to exceed doses of 5 mg/day of prednisone in chronic treatment. Methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide should be used in low-dose regimens. Antimalarials have a well-known protective role against infection, in addition to other beneficial properties, thus, hydroxychloroquine is recommended for all SLE patients where no contraindication exists.

  4. Adjusted neutropenia is associated with early serious infection in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Won; Park, Min-Chan; Lee, Soo-Kon; Park, Yong-Beom

    2013-05-01

    The susceptibility to infection increases in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with neutropenia, but the link between infection risk and the cutoff neutrophil count still remains controversial. In this study, we investigated a valuable parameter associated with early serious infection in SLE patients during the first follow-up year. We reviewed the medical records of 160 patients with SLE. The initial levels were defined as the mean of the results of the first two consecutive tests. The adjusted levels were defined as the results of the accumulated area under the curve divided by interval follow-up days. Patients were divided into two groups according to early serious infection and initial and adjusted neutropenia and were then compared. Immunosuppressive-naïve SLE patients with early serious infection more frequently had initial, latest, and adjusted leukopenia and neutropenia (neutropenia was the only independent predictive value for early serious infection [odds ratio (OR 11.366)]. Initial neutropenia was the independent predictive value for adjusted neutropenia (OR 6.504). We suggest that adjusted neutropenia is useful for predicting early serious infection in SLE patients during the first follow-up year.

  5. Systems metabolic effects of a necator americanus infection in Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulan; Xiao, Shu-Hua; Xue, Jian; Singer, Burton H; Utzinger, Jürg; Holmes, Elaine

    2009-12-01

    Hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) are blood-feeding intestinal nematodes that infect approximately 700 million people worldwide. To further our understanding of the systems metabolic response of the mammalian host to hookworm infection, we employed a metabolic profiling strategy involving the combination of (1)H NMR spectroscopic analysis of urine and serum and multivariate data analysis techniques to investigate the biochemical consequences of a N. americanus infection in the hamster. The infection was characterized by altered energy metabolism, consistent with hookworm-induced anemia. Additionally, disturbance of gut microbiotal activity was associated with a N. americanus infection, manifested in the alterations of microbial-mammalian cometabolites, including phenylacetylglycine, p-cresol glucuronide, 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-phenylpropionic acid, hippurate, 4-hydroxyphenylactate, and dimethylamine. The correlation between worm burden and metabolite concentrations also reflected a changed energy metabolism and gut microbial state. Furthermore, elevated levels of urinary 2-aminoadipate was a characteristic feature of the infection, which may be associated with the documented neurological consequences of hookworm infection.

  6. Infection of the central nervous system, sepsis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    Full Text Available Severe infections may lead to chronic inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS which may in turn play a role in the etiopathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. The relentless progression and invasive supportive treatments of ALS may on the other hand induce severe infections among ALS patients.The present study included 4,004 ALS patients identified from the Swedish Patient Register during 1991-2007 and 20,020 age and sex matched general population controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs of ALS given a previous hospitalization for CNS infection or sepsis. Cox models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs of hospitalization for CNS infection or sepsis after ALS diagnosis. Overall, previous CNS infection (OR: 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8, 2.4 or sepsis (OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 0.9, 1.6 was not associated with ALS risk. However, compared to ALS free individuals, ALS cases were more likely to be hospitalized for sepsis after diagnosis (HR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.9, 3.5. We did not observe a higher risk of CNS infection after ALS diagnosis.Our results suggest that acute and severe infections unlikely contribute to the development of ALS; however, ALS patients are at a higher risk of sepsis after diagnosis, compared to ALS free individuals.

  7. Chronic Schistosome Infection Leads to Modulation of Granuloma Formation and Systemic Immune Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven K. Lundy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosome worms have been infecting humans for millennia, but it is only in the last half century that we have begun to understand the complexities of this inter-relationship. As our sophistication about the inner workings of every aspect of the immune system has increased, it has also become obvious that schistosome infections have broad ranging effects on nearly all of the innate and adaptive immune response mechanisms. Selective pressures on both the worms and their hosts, has no doubt led to co-evolution of protective mechanisms, particularly those that favor granuloma formation around schistosome eggs and immune suppression during chronic infection. The immune modulatory effects that chronic schistosome infection and egg deposition elicit have been intensely studied, not only because of their major implications to public health issues, but also due to the emerging evidence that schistosome infection may protect humans from severe allergies and autoimmunity. Mouse models of schistosome infection have been extremely valuable for studying immune modulation and regulation, and in the discovery of novel aspects of immunity. A progression of immune reactions occurs during granuloma formation ranging from innate inflammation, to activation of each branch of adaptive immune response, and culminating in systemic immune suppression and granuloma fibrosis. Although molecular factors from schistosome eggs have been identified as mediators of immune modulation and suppressive functions of T and B cells, much work is still needed to define the mechanisms of the immune alteration and determine whether therapies for asthma or autoimmunity could be developed from these pathways.

  8. Toxoplasma gondii infection modulate systemic allergic immune response in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoy, Ignacio M; Sánchez, Vanesa R; Soto, Ariadna S; Picchio, Mariano S; Martin, Valentina; Goldman, Alejandra

    2015-07-01

    The increased prevalence of allergies in developed countries has been attributed to a reduced exposure to some microbes. In agreement with epidemiological studies, we previously showed that Toxoplasma gondii infection prevents allergic airway inflammation. The mechanisms would be related to the strong Th1 response induced by the parasite and to regulatory cell induction. Herein we further characterized whether T. gondii allergy modulation extents to a systemic level or if it is limited to the lung. Parasite infection before allergic sensitization resulted in a diminished Th2 cytokine response and, when sensitized during acute infection, an increased in TGF-β production was detected. Allergen specific T cell proliferation was also reduced. Sensitization during both acute and chronic phases of infection resulted in a decreased anaphylaxis reaction. Our results extend earlier work and show that, in addition to lung airway inflammation, T. gondii infection can suppress allergic responses at systemic level. These results open the possibility that this protozoan infection could modulate other allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis or oral allergies. Understanding the mechanisms by which different microorganisms regulate inflammation may potentially lead to the development of strategies aimed to control atopic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. MANAGEMENT OF INFECTED NON-UNION OF LONG BONES WITH LIMB RE-CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CONTEXT: Infected nonunion of long bones are a great challenge to treating surgeons. Various factors such as devitalisation of bone, soft tissue scarring, deformity, limb length discrepancy, joint stiffness and secondary osteoporosis need to be addressed along with financial constraints and compliance in management of such situations to choose appropriate treatment. Limb reconstruction system provides single stage, easy to construct and less cumbersome option to the patient. PURPOSE To evaluate safety and efficacy of limb reconstruction system in management of infected nonunion of long bones. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING Retrospective study. METHODS Thirteen patients with infected nonunion of long bones (tibia-8 cases and femur-5 cases were operated using limb reconstruction system. There were 11 males and 2 females. The average age was 35 years (range 21-50 years. All cases had established nonunion for at least 6 months with evidence of infection. The infection was active in 8 patients and non-draining in 5 patients. Ilizarov study group ASAMI score was used for bone results and functional results. Complications assessed as per Paley classification. RESULTS The mean time for union was 9.8 months (7-12 months. The mean follow up after LRS removal was 35.2 months (range 24- 44 months. Two cases had angulation of about 8 degrees (femur and remaining cases did not have any angulation. Infection was eradicated in all cases. Functional outcome was excellent in five patients and eight good in patients. Bone outcome was excellent eleven patients and good in two patients. CONCLUSIONS Limb reconstruction system is a safe and effective tool for simultaneous correction of limb length discrepancy; achieve union and infection control in a single stage. It is easy to perform with reliable results and less complications.

  10. Changes in cell adhesion molecule expression on T cells associated with systemic virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, E C; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Marker, O

    1994-01-01

    Virus-induced changes in adhesion molecule expression on T cells were investigated to understand how antiviral effector cells migrate into infectious foci. FACS analysis revealed that after systemic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus a number of cell adhesion molecules, including VLA......, it was found that up-regulation of VLA-4 expression on splenic T cells correlated with influx of inflammatory cells into the cerebrospinal fluid of intracerebrally infected animals, and that the number of CD8+VLA-4hi cells increased from lymph nodes and spleen to blood and cerebrospinal fluid. These results......-4, LFA-1, and ICAM-1, are up-regulated on CD8+ cells, whereas the lymph node homing receptor MEL-14 is down-regulated during the infection; only marginal changes were observed for CD4+ cells. Basically similar but less marked results were obtained in mice infected with Pichinde virus. Further...

  11. A Morphological Approach to the Diagnosis of Protozoal Infections of the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Chimelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Protozoal infections, though endemic to certain regions, can be seen all around the world, because of the increase in travel and migration. In addition, immunosuppression associated with various conditions, particularly with HIV infection, favors the occurrence of more severe manifestations and failure to respond to treatments. The CNS may be the only affected system; when not, it is often the most severely affected. Despite information obtained from clinical, laboratory, and imaging procedures that help to narrow the differential diagnosis of intracranial infections, there are cases that need confirmation with biopsy or autopsy. Predominant presentations are meningoencephalitis (trypanosomiasis, encephalopathy (cerebral malaria, or as single or multiple pseudotumoral enhancing lesions (toxoplasmosis, reactivated Chagas' disease. The immune reconstitution disease, resulting from enhancement of pathogen-specific immune responses after HAART, has altered the typical presentation of toxoplasmosis and microsporidiosis. In this paper, a morphological approach for the diagnosis of protozoal infections affecting the CNS (amoebiasis, cerebral malaria, toxoplasmosis, trypanosomiasis, and microsporidiosis is presented.

  12. Acute viral infections of the central nervous system, 2014-2016, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Papadopoulou, Elpida

    2017-11-23

    In order to investigate the viral etiology of acute infections of central nervous system (CNS), multiplex and single PCRs combined with serology for arboviruses were applied on samples from 132 hospitalized patients in Greece during May 2014-December 2016. A viral pathogen was detected in 52 of 132 (39.4%) cases with acute CNS infection. Enteroviruses predominated (15/52, 28.8%), followed by West Nile virus (9/52, 17.3%). Phleboviruses, varicella-zoster virus, and Epstein-Barr virus accounted for 15.4%, 13.5%, and 11.5% of the cases, respectively. The study gives an insight into the etiology of viral CNS infections in a Mediterranean country, where arboviruses should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute CNS infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Aberrant Epstein–Barr viral infection in systemic lupus erythematosus☆

    OpenAIRE

    Poole, Brian D.; Templeton, Amanda K.; Guthridge, Joel M.; Brown, Eric J.; Harley, John B.; James, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    Serologic association, cross-reactivity of select EBV-specific antibodies with SLE autoantigens, SLE-like autoimmunity after immunization with EBV peptides, increased EB viral load in SLE patients, and SLE-specific alterations in EBV humoral and cellular immunity implicate Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To investigate SLE-specific differences in EBV gene expression, levels of eight EBV genes were compared between SLE patients and controls by...

  14. Systemic immune presentations of Coxiella burnetii infection (Q Fever).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Maeva; Grossi, Olivier; Agard, Christian; Perret, Christophe; Le Pape, Patrice; Raoult, Didier; Hamidou, Mohamed A

    2010-04-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Its presentation can be atypical, delaying and complicating the diagnosis. We report 7 cases of Q fever mimicking vasculitis, systemic inflammatory disease, or auto-immune disorder. Seven cases of Q fever diagnosed between 1995 and 2007 in Nantes University Hospital (France) are described. They occurred in a nonendemic region and were selected on the basis of initial clinical presentation suggesting systemic immune disease. C. burnetii was detected using indirect immunofluorescence serology. Q fever was acute in 4 of the 7 patients and chronic in 3. None had endocarditis. The initial presentations suggested Crohn's disease, Goodpasture's syndrome, polymyalgia rheumatica, adult-onset Still's disease, polyarteritis nodosa, giant-cell arteritis, and essential type II cryoglobulinemia. Two patients had antiphospholipid antibodies, 1 had transient IgG kappa monoclonal gammopathy, and 1 had polyclonal T CD8+ large granular lymphocyte expansion. Clinicians must be aware of the potential diagnosis of Q fever, and C. burnetii serology is a helpful diagnostic tool in the investigation of fever of unknown origin with atypical systemic symptoms suggesting vasculitis or inflammatory disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bimodal Influence of Vitamin D in Host Response to Systemic Candida Infection-Vitamin D Dose Matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, J.H.N.; Ravikumar, S.; Wang, Y.M.; Thamboo, T.P.; Ong, L.; Chen, J.; Goh, J.G.; Tay, S.H.; Chengchen, L.; Win, M.S.; Leong, W.; Lau, T.; Foo, R.; Mirza, H.; Tan, K.S.; Sethi, S.; Khoo, A.L.; Chng, W.J.; Osato, M.; Netea, M.G.; Chai, L.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D level is linked to susceptibility to infections, but its relevance in candidemia is unknown. We aimed to investigate the in vivo sequelae of vitamin D3 supplementation in systemic Candida infection. Implicating the role of vitamin D in Candida infections, we showed that candidemic patients

  16. Infection in systemic lupus erythematosus, similarities, and differences with lupus flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ju-Yang; Suh, Chang-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease with diverse manifestations, and its pathogenesis is unclear and complicated. Infection and SLE are similar in that they both cause inf lammatory reactions in the immune system; however, one functions to protect the body, whereas the other is activated to damage the body. Infection is known as one of the common trigger factors for SLE; there are a number of reports on infectious agents that provoke autoimmune response. Several viruses, bacteria, and protozoa were revealed to cause immune dysfunction by molecular mimicry, epitope spreading, and bystander activation. In contrast, certain pathogens were revealed to protect from immune dysregulation. Infection can be threatening to patients with SLE who have a compromised immune system, and it is regarded as one of the common causes of mortality in SLE. A clinical distinction between infection and lupus f lare up is required when patients with SLE present fevers. With a close-up assessment of symptoms and physical examination, C-reactive protein and disease activity markers play a major role in differentiating the different disease conditions. Vaccination is necessary because protection against infection is important in patients with SLE. PMID:28490724

  17. [Enteroviral central nervous system infections in children treated at a hospital in Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Iván O; Ochoa, Theresa J; Mosquito, Susan; Barletta, Francesca; Hernández, Roger; Medina, María del Pilar; Stiglich, María Luisa; Ugarte, Claudia; Guillén, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    To determine the frequency and clinical features of central nervous system infections caused by enterovirus in children treated at the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru. A prospective, descriptive study was performed from April 2008 to March 2010. Patients aged 1 month - 14 years with clinical diagnosis of encephalitis or aseptic meningitis were included. We investigated the presence of enterovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 97 patients were included, out of which 69 % had acute encephalitis and 31 % acute meningitis. Enteroviruses were identified in 52,6% of all acute non-bacterial central nervous system infections; corresponding to 83,3 % of meningitis and 38,8 % of encephalitis. There were no cases of infection due to HSV-1, HSV-2 or VZV. Enterovirus infections reached 82,9 % in the warm months (November-January) and 28,6 % in the colder months (May-July). Enteroviruses are the principal etiologic agents in acute aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in pediatric patients in Lima, Peru. Enteroviruses have a seasonal epidemiological pattern with a clear increase in the number of cases during the summer months. It is useful to have this rapid diagnostic method available as an aid in the management of acute central nervous system infections.

  18. Characterization of systemic and pneumonic murine models of plague infection using a conditionally virulent strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado-Sanchez, Gabriela; Ramirez, Karina; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; Diaz-McNair, Jovita; Rodriguez, Ana L; Galen, James E; Nataro, James P; Pasetti, Marcela F

    2013-03-01

    Yersinia pestis causes bubonic and pneumonic plague in humans. The pneumonic infection is the most severe and invariably fatal if untreated. Because of its high virulence, ease of delivery and precedent of use in warfare, Y. pestis is considered as a potential bioterror agent. No licensed plague vaccine is currently available in the US. Laboratory research with virulent strains requires appropriate biocontainment (i.e., Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) for procedures that generate aerosol/droplets) and secure facilities that comply with federal select agent regulations. To assist in the identification of promising vaccine candidates during the early phases of development, we characterized mouse models of systemic and pneumonic plague infection using the Y. pestis strain EV76, an attenuated human vaccine strain that can be rendered virulent in mice under in vivo iron supplementation. Mice inoculated intranasally or intravenously with Y. pestis EV76 in the presence of iron developed a systemic and pneumonic plague infection that resulted in disease and lethality. Bacteria replicated and severely compromised the spleen, liver and lungs. Susceptibility was age dependent, with younger mice being more vulnerable to pneumonic infection. We used these models of infection to assess the protective capacity of newly developed Salmonella-based plague vaccines. The protective outcome varied depending on the route and dose of infection. Protection was associated with the induction of specific immunological effectors in systemic/mucosal compartments. The models of infection described could serve as safe and practical tools for identifying promising vaccine candidates that warrant further potency evaluation using fully virulent strains in BSL-3 settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The incidence of MRSA infections in the United States: is a more comprehensive tracking system needed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin T. Kavanagh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A review of epidemiological studies on the incidence of MRSA infections overtime was performed along with an analysis of data available for download from Hospital Compare ( https://data.medicare.gov/data/hospital-compare . We found the estimations of the incidence of MRSA infections varied widely depending upon the type of population studied, the types of infections captured and in the definitions and terminology used to describe the results. We could not find definitive evidence that the incidence of MRSA infections in U.S. community or facilities is decreasing significantly. Of concern are recent data reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN on MRSA bloodstream infections which indicate that by the end of 2015 there had been little change in the average facility Standardized Infection Ratio (0.988, compared to a 2010–2011 baseline and is significantly increased compared to the previous year. This is in contradistinction to the recent Veterans Administration study which reported over an 80% reduction in MRSA infections. However, this discrepancy may be due to the inability to reconcile the baselines of the two data sets; and the observed increase may be artifactual due to aberrations in the NHSN tracking system. Our review supports the need for implementation of a comprehensive tracking and monitoring system involving all types of healthcare facilities for multi-drug resistant organisms, along with concomitant funding for both staff and infrastructure. Without such a system, determining the effectiveness of interventions such as antibiotic stewardship and chlorhexidine bathing will be hindered.

  20. CCR5 limits cortical viral loads during West Nile virus infection of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Douglas M; Daniels, Brian P; Pasieka, TracyJo; Dorsey, Denise; Klein, Robyn S

    2015-12-15

    Cell-mediated immunity is critical for clearance of central nervous system (CNS) infection with the encephalitic flavivirus, West Nile virus (WNV). Prior studies from our laboratory have shown that WNV-infected neurons express chemoattractants that mediate recruitment of antiviral leukocytes into the CNS. Although the chemokine receptor, CCR5, has been shown to play an important role in CNS host defense during WNV infection, regional effects of its activity within the infected brain have not been defined. We used CCR5-deficient mice and an established murine model of WNV encephalitis to determine whether CCR5 activity impacts on WNV levels within the CNS in a region-specific fashion. Statistical comparisons between groups were made with one- or two-way analysis of variance; Bonferroni's post hoc test was subsequently used to compare individual means. Survival was analyzed by the log-rank test. Analyses were conducted using Prism software (GraphPad Prism). All data were expressed as means ± SEM. Differences were considered significant if P ≤ 0.05. As previously shown, lack of CCR5 activity led to increased symptomatic disease and mortality in mice after subcutaneous infection with WNV. Evaluation of viral burden in the footpad, draining lymph nodes, spleen, olfactory bulb, and cerebellum derived from WNV-infected wild-type, and CCR5(-/-) mice showed no differences between the genotypes. In contrast, WNV-infected, CCR5(-/-) mice exhibited significantly increased viral burden in cortical tissues, including the hippocampus, at day 8 post-infection. CNS regional studies of chemokine expression via luminex analysis revealed significantly increased expression of CCR5 ligands, CCL4 and CCL5, within the cortices of WNV-infected, CCR5(-/-) mice compared with those of similarly infected WT animals. Cortical elevations in viral loads and CCR5 ligands in WNV-infected, CCR5(-/-) mice, however, were associated with decreased numbers of infiltrating mononuclear cells

  1. Effectiveness and efficiency of the two trolley system as an infection control mechanism in the operating theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuisawana, Viliame

    2009-11-01

    A good infection control manager understands the need to prevent a complete cycle of infection. The Infection Control Working Group Manual of Fiji, emphasised that the Cycle of Infection is the series of stage in which infection is spread. Operating theatres have infection control protocols. Most equipments and instruments used in operating theatre circulate within the theatre. The theatre trolleys are a main component in managing an operating theatre but the least recognised. This paper reviews the effectiveness and efficiency of the current two-trolley system as an infection control mechanism in theatre. The paper will discuss infection control using the current trolley system in relation to the layout of Labasa Hospital operating theatre, human resource, equipment standard and random swab results. The following are random swab results of theatre equipments taken by the Infection Control Nurse from 2006 to 2008. The Labasa Hospital Infection Committee have discouraged random swab sample from mid 2008 based on new guidelines on infection control. The two trolley system, in which an allocated outside trolley transports patients from the ward to a semi-sterile area in theatre. The inside trolley which transports the patient to the operating table. The two trolley system means more trolleys, extra staffs for lifting, additional handling of very sick patients, congestion and delay in taking patients to operating table in theatres should be considered. The one-trolley system in theatre greatly reduces the chances of manually lifting patients, thus reducing the risk of patient injury from fall and risk of back injuries to nurses. There are other evident based practices which can compliment the one trolley system for an effective infection control mechanism in theatres. The Fiji Infection Control Manual (2002) emphases the importance of regularly cleaning the environment and equipments in theatre but there is never a mention about using a two trolley system as an

  2. Revealing the kinetics of Leishmania chagasi infection in the male genital system of hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintal, Amanda P N; Borges, Bruna C; Brígido, Paula C; Silva, Rebecca T; Notário, Ana F; Santos, Marlus A; de Souza, Maria A; Nascimento, Fernanda G O; Mundim, Antônio V; Costa, Guilherme M J; Vasconcelos, André B; da Silva, Claudio V

    2016-03-29

    Leishmaniasis causes alterations and lesions in the genital system, which leads to azoospermia and testicular atrophy in animals during the chronic phase of the infection. The aim of this study was to reveal the kinetics of Leishmania chagasi infection in the genital system of male golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were intraperitoneally inoculated with amastigotes from L. chagasi. At different time points animals were euthanized and genital organs processed for histo-pathological, qPCR, cytokines and testosterone detection assays. Our results showed a high parasite load in testis, followed by an increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL1-β, TNF-α and IFN-γ, and testosterone. Subsequently, IL-4 expression was upregulated and basal parasite persistence in testis was observed using the experimental approach. Extracellular amastigotes migrated to the epididymis posing as a potential major factor of parasite persistence and venereal transmission of L. chagasi infection in hamsters.

  3. Mucosal and systemic immune modulation by Trichuris trichiura in a self-infected individual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Anders Kirch; Rasmussen, Tue Kruse; Nejsum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    trichiura colonization induced equally increased expressions of T-helper (h)1-, Th2-, Th17- and Treg-associated cytokines and transcription factors, measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We observed several indicators of modulation of systemic immunity during the T. trichiura infection. Plasma......Helminthic therapy of immune-mediated diseases has gained attention in recent years, but we know little of how helminths modulate human immunity. In this study, we investigated how self-infection with Trichuris (T.) trichiura in an adult man without intestinal disease affected mucosal and systemic...... immunity. Colonic mucosal biopsies were obtained at baseline, during T. trichiura infection, and after its clearance following mebendazole treatment. Unexpectedly, the volunteer experienced a Campylobacter colitis following T. trichiura clearance, and this served as a positive infectious control. Trichuris...

  4. Colonic perforation in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus accompanied by cytomegalovirus infection: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Yuichi; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Junichiro; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Hata, Keisuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Kazama, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Ishihara, Soichiro; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Fujisawa, Madoka; Takahashi, Katutoshi; Sakaguchi, Yoshiki; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Fukayama, Masashi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the gastrointestinal tract is an uncommon illness, but can be observed in immunocompromised patients. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are generally at high risk of CMV infection. Here we report a subacute progressive case of colitis in SLE accompanied by cytomegalovirus infection. Presentation of case The patient, a 79-year-old woman, was hospitalized complaining of fever, polyarthritis, and skin ulcer that had lasted seven days. She additionally manifested vomiting, high fever, and right abdominal pain within two weeks thereafter, and was diagnosed with perforation of the intestine. Emergency operation was carried out for panperitonitis due to perforation of one of the multiple colon ulcers. Multidisciplinary postoperative treatment could not save her life. Pathological examination suggested that cytomegalovirus infection as well as cholesterin embolization contributed to the rapid progression of colitis. Discussion There have been only a limited number of case reports of CMV enteritis in SLE. Moreover, only two SLE patients on multiple medications have been reported to experience gastrointestinal perforation. Viral infections, including CMV, can induce clinical manifestations resembling SLE and for this reason we suspect that there are potentially many more patients misdiagnosed and/or unreported. Conclusion Our case underscores the importance of exploring the possibility of CMV infection as a differential diagnosis in SLE patients with obvious gastrointestinal symptoms who were treated by immunosuppressive drugs. PMID:27093690

  5. Immune activation in the central nervous system throughout the course of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudich, Serena S

    2016-03-01

    Robust and dynamic innate and adaptive responses characterize the acute central nervous system (CNS) response to HIV and other viral infections. In a state of chronic infection or viral latency, persistent immune activation associates with abnormality in the CNS. Understanding this process is critical, as immune-mediated abnormality in nonrenewable CNS cells may result in long-term neurologic sequelae for HIV-infected individuals. In humans, immune activation is reduced by suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy, but persists at abnormally elevated levels on treatment. CNS immune activation is initiated in acute infection and progressively increases until combination antiretroviral therapy is started. Newly identified characteristics of the CNS immune surveillance network include features of homeostasis and function of brain microglial cells, lymphatic drainage from CNS to cervical lymph nodes, and cells in cerebrospinal fluid associated with neurocognitive impairment. More research is required to determine whether early intervention to reduce infection limits the immunopathology established by sustained immune responses that ultimately fail to resolve infection, and to unravel mechanisms of persistent immune activation during treated HIV so that strategies can be developed to therapeutically protect the brain.

  6. Postoperative spinal infection mimicking systemic vasculitis with titanium-spinal implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stathopoulos Konstantinos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary systemic vasculitis after posterior spinal fusion surgery is rare. It is usually related to over-reaction of immune-system, to genetic factors, toxicity, infection or metal allergies. Case Description A 14 year-old girl with a history of extended posterior spinal fusion due to idiopathic scoliosis presented to our department with diffuse erythema and nephritis (macroscopic hemuresis and proteinuria 5 months post surgery. The surgical trauma had no signs of inflammation or infection. The blood markers ESR and CRP were increased. Skin tests were positive for nickel allergy, which is a content of titanium alloy. The patient received corticosteroids systematically (hydrocortisone 10 mg for 6 months, leading to total recess of skin and systemic reaction. However, a palpable mass close to the surgical wound raised the suspicion of a late infection. The patient had a second surgery consisting of surgical debridement and one stage revision of posterior spinal instrumentation. Intraoperative cultures were positive to Staphylococcus aureus. Intravenous antibiotics were administered. The patient is now free of symptoms 24 months post revision surgery without any signs of recurrence of either vasculitis or infection. Literature Review Systemic vasculitis after spinal surgery is exceptionally rare. Causative factors are broad and sometimes controversial. In general, it is associated with allergy to metal ions. This is usually addressed with metal on metal total hip bearings. In spinal surgery, titanium implants are considered to be inert and only few reports have presented cases with systemic vasculitides. Therefore, other etiologies of immune over-reaction should always be considered, such as drug toxicity, infection, or genetic predisposition. Purposes and Clinical Relevance Our purpose was to highlight the difficulties during the diagnostic work-up for systemic vasculitis and management in cases of posterior spinal surgery.

  7. Interaction between Tat and Drugs of Abuse during HIV-1 Infection and Central Nervous System Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubert, Monique E; Pirrone, Vanessa; Rivera, Nina T; Wigdahl, Brian; Nonnemacher, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    In many individuals, drug abuse is intimately linked with HIV-1 infection. In addition to being associated with one-third of all HIV-1 infections in the United States, drug abuse also plays a role in disease progression and severity in HIV-1-infected patients, including adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Specific systems within the brain are known to be damaged in HIV-1-infected individuals and this damage is similar to that observed in drug abuse. Even in the era of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), CNS pathogenesis occurs with HIV-1 infection, with a broad range of cognitive impairment observed, collectively referred to as HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). A number of HIV-1 proteins (Tat, gp120, Nef, Vpr) have been implicated in the etiology of pathogenesis and disease as a result of the biologic activity of the extracellular form of each of the proteins in a number of tissues, including the CNS, even in ART-suppressed patients. In this review, we have made Tat the center of attention for a number of reasons. First, it has been shown to be synthesized and secreted by HIV-1-infected cells in the CNS, despite the most effective suppression therapies available to date. Second, Tat has been shown to alter the functions of several host factors, disrupting the molecular and biochemical balance of numerous pathways contributing to cellular toxicity, dysfunction, and death. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of ART suppression with regard to controlling the genesis and progression of neurocognitive impairment are currently under debate in the field and are yet to be fully determined. In this review, we discuss the individual and concerted contributions of HIV-1 Tat, drug abuse, and ART with respect to damage in the CNS, and how these factors contribute to the development of HAND in HIV-1-infected patients.

  8. Interaction between Tat and Drugs of Abuse during HIV-1 Infection and Central Nervous System Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique E Maubert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In many individuals, drug abuse is intimately linked with HIV-1 infection. In addition to being associated with one-third of all HIV-1 infections in the United States, drug abuse also plays a role in disease progression and severity in HIV-1-infected patients, including adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS. Specific systems within the brain are known to be damaged in HIV-1-infected individuals and this damage is similar to that observed in drug abuse. Even in the era of anti-retroviral therapy (ART, CNS pathogenesis occurs with HIV-1 infection, with a broad range of cognitive impairment observed, collectively referred to as HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. A number of HIV-1 proteins (Tat, gp120, Nef, Vpr have been implicated in the etiology of pathogenesis and disease as a result of the biologic activity of the extracellular form of each of the proteins in a number of tissues, including the CNS, even in ART-suppressed patients. In this review, we have made Tat the center of attention for a number of reasons. First, it has been shown to be synthesized and secreted by HIV-1-infected cells in the CNS, despite the most effective suppression therapies available to date. Second, Tat has been shown to alter the functions of several host factors, disrupting the molecular and biochemical balance of numerous pathways contributing to cellular toxicity, dysfunction, and death. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of ART suppression with regard to controlling the genesis and progression of neurocognitive impairment are currently under debate in the field and are yet to be fully determined. In this review, we discuss the individual and concerted contributions of HIV-1 Tat, drug abuse, and ART with respect to damage in the CNS, and how these factors contribute to the development of HAND in HIV-1-infected patients.

  9. Metabolic, immune, and gut microbial signals mount a systems response to Leishmania major infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamour, Sabrina D; Veselkov, Kirill A; Posma, Joram M; Giraud, Emilie; Rogers, Matthew E; Croft, Simon; Marchesi, Julian R; Holmes, Elaine; Seifert, Karin; Saric, Jasmina

    2015-01-02

    Parasitic infections such as leishmaniasis induce a cascade of host physiological responses, including metabolic and immunological changes. Infection with Leishmania major parasites causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans, a neglected tropical disease that is difficult to manage. To understand the determinants of pathology, we studied L. major infection in two mouse models: the self-healing C57BL/6 strain and the nonhealing BALB/c strain. Metabolic profiling of urine, plasma, and feces via proton NMR spectroscopy was performed to discover parasite-specific imprints on global host metabolism. Plasma cytokine status and fecal microbiome were also characterized as additional metrics of the host response to infection. Results demonstrated differences in glucose and lipid metabolism, distinctive immunological phenotypes, and shifts in microbial composition between the two models. We present a novel approach to integrate such metrics using correlation network analyses, whereby self-healing mice demonstrated an orchestrated interaction between the biological measures shortly after infection. In contrast, the response observed in nonhealing mice was delayed and fragmented. Our study suggests that trans-system communication across host metabolism, the innate immune system, and gut microbiome is key for a successful host response to L. major and provides a new concept, potentially translatable to other diseases.

  10. Systemic disease during Streptococcus pneumoniae acute lung infection requires 12-lipoxygenase-dependent inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Rudra; Maung, Nang; Hurley, Bryan P; Ghanem, Elsa Bou; Gronert, Karsten; McCormick, Beth A; Leong, John M

    2013-11-15

    Acute pulmonary infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae is characterized by high bacterial numbers in the lung, a robust alveolar influx of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), and a risk of systemic spread of the bacterium. We investigated host mediators of S. pneumoniae-induced PMN migration and the role of inflammation in septicemia following pneumococcal lung infection. Hepoxilin A3 (HXA3) is a PMN chemoattractant and a metabolite of the 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) pathway. We observed that S. pneumoniae infection induced the production of 12-LOX in cultured pulmonary epithelium and in the lungs of infected mice. Inhibition of the 12-LOX pathway prevented pathogen-induced PMN transepithelial migration in vitro and dramatically reduced lung inflammation upon high-dose pulmonary challenge with S. pneumoniae in vivo, thus implicating HXA3 in pneumococcus-induced pulmonary inflammation. PMN basolateral-to-apical transmigration in vitro significantly increased apical-to-basolateral transepithelial migration of bacteria. Mice suppressed in the expression of 12-LOX exhibited little or no bacteremia and survived an otherwise lethal pulmonary challenge. Our data suggest that pneumococcal pulmonary inflammation is required for high-level bacteremia and systemic infection, partly by disrupting lung epithelium through 12-LOX-dependent HXA3 production and subsequent PMN transepithelial migration.

  11. Annual Surveillance Summary: Bacterial Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    indicates a decreasing percent change . a Multidrug- resistance incidence rate (MDR IR). Rates are presented as the rate per 100,000 persons per year...prescription practices, and antimicrobial resistance for the following infections among Military Health System (MHS) beneficiaries for calendar year...CY) 2016: • Acinetobacter species • Clostridium difficile • Escherichia coli • Klebsiella species • Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus

  12. A case of central nervous system infection due to Cladophialophora bantiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantarcioglu, A Serda; Guarro, Josep; de Hoog, G Sybren; Apaydin, Hulya; Kiraz, Nuri; Balkan, Ilker Inanç; Ozaras, Resat

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cladophialophora bantiana is a melanised mold with a pronounced tropism for the central nervous system, almost exclusively causing human brain abscesses. CASE REPORT: We describe a case of cerebral infection by this fungus in an otherwise healthy 28-year-old coal-miner. Environmental

  13. Systemic Collyriclum faba (Trematoda: Collyriclidae) Infection in a Wild Common Raven ( Corvus corax ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mete, Aslı; Rogers, Krysta; Houston, Robin

    2017-01-01

    A hatch-year Common Raven ( Corvus corax ) with subcutaneous and internal pseudocysts, filled with fluid, containing a pair of adult trematodes and numerous eggs consistent with Collyriclum faba, died near a riverbank in California, US. While C. faba is incidental in many Passeriformes, this case was a fatal systemic infection.

  14. Infections Increase Risk of Arterial and Venous Thromboses in Danish Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baronaite Hansen, Renata; Jacobsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Infections and thromboses are known complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We investigated if infectious episodes in patients with SLE were followed by an increased risk of thrombotic events. METHODS: A cohort of 571 patients with prevalent or incident SLE was followed...

  15. Calcium sulphate as a drug delivery system in a deep diabetic foot infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Robert; Lopez, Felix; Webb, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Treating diabetic foot infection is costly, time consuming and challenging for the patient and clinician alike. It requires a multidisciplinary approach to provide a favourable outcome but all too often results in amputation. We present a patient with Type 2 diabetes who attended clinic with a limb threatening foot infection complicated by osteomyelitis and requiring emergency surgery and antibiotic administration. Our patient underwent surgery by means of an incision and drainage procedure with local antibiotic administration to augment systemic antibiotics. The wound was packed with calcium sulphate (Stimulan(®) Biocomposites Ltd.) impregnated with gentamicin and vancomycin to enable high antibiotic concentrations at the site of infection. The patient made a full recovery at four months requiring only minimal bone excision to maintain a functional foot. This case demonstrates an alternative route for antibiotic administration to overcome some of the limitations of systemic administration including penetration at the site of infection, systemic toxicity, prolonged hospital admission and cost. This route of administration is being increasingly used as an alternative to systemic antibiotics at our centre. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanized Packing and Delivery System for Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Infected Mealworm Cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes a mechanized system to pack mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes between two sheets of masking tape. The document is also an operation manual for the machine and provides all the machine specifications, and wiring and pneumatic diagram...

  17. Gut Microbiota-Induced Immunoglobulin G Controls Systemic Infection by Symbiotic Bacteria and Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Melody Y.; Cisalpino, Daniel; Varadarajan, Saranyaraajan; Hellman, Judith; Warren, H. Shaw; Cascalho, Marilia; Inohara, Naohiro; Núñez, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota is compartmentalized in the intestinal lumen and induces local immune responses, but it remains unknown whether the gut microbiota can induce systemic response and contribute to systemic immunity. We report that selective gut symbiotic gram-negative bacteria were able to disseminate systemically to induce immunoglobulin G (IgG) response, which primarily targeted gram-negative bacterial antigens and conferred protection against systemic infections by E. coli and Salmonella by directly coating bacteria to promote killing by phagocytes. T cells and Toll-like receptor 4 on B cells were important in the generation of microbiota-specific IgG. We identified murein lipoprotein (MLP), a highly conserved gram-negative outer membrane protein, as a major antigen that induced systemic IgG homeostatically in both mice and humans. Administration of anti-MLP IgG conferred crucial protection against systemic Salmonella infection. Thus, our findings reveal an important function for the gut microbiota in combating systemic infection through the induction of protective IgG. PMID:26944199

  18. [The capacities of current test systems to verify early HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, E N; Sharipova, I N; Denisova, N M; Susekina, M E; Puzyrev, V F; Sarkisian, K A; Vorob'eva, M S; Burkov, A N; Ulanova, T I

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to comparatively evaluate the performance characteristics of the test systems designed to verify the positive results of screening survey for HIV infection, such as the solid-phase immunoassay DS-EIA-HIV-AB/AG-SPECTR (Diagnosticheskiye Sistemy (Diagnostic Systems) Research-and-Production Association, Nizhni Novgorod) and tests based on immune blotting (IB). The investigation examined 15 seroconversion panels produced by ZeptoMetrix (USA) and BBI (USA). The use of the DS-EIA-HIV-AB/AG-SPECTR test system determined 88 of the 167 seroconversion panels as HIV positive. The IB-based tests revealed only 45 of the 167 samples as positive. Consequently, the application of the DS-EIA-HIV-AB/AG-SPECTR test system is more effective than the IB-based tests in early HIV infection.

  19. Infection tracers: past, present and future; Radiotraceurs et recherche d'infection du systeme musculo-squelettique: passe, present et futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin MD, S. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hotel Dieu de Montreal, Dept. de Medecine Nucleaire, Quebec (Canada)

    2006-06-15

    Clinical and para-clinical findings are still the mainstay for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal infections, especially osteomyelitis. No single complementary imaging technique has 100% specificity and sensitivity for every case of musculoskeletal infection. Depending on the age of the patient, presence of orthopedic hardware, location of infection, underlying bone and systemic conditions, the choice of imaging modalities must be tailored to the patient's condition. Plain radiographs are performed first and may be sufficient. In children, bone scan is highly accurate to diagnose osteomyelitis. Labeled leukocytes with complementary bone or bone marrow studies are recommended for orthopedic hardware or diabetic foot. Finally, gallium scanning is useful for the diagnosis of vertebral osteomyelitis. Current radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnosing infection also label inflammation, which limits specificity. Newer products, as Infecton and {sup 18}F-FDG, are currently under investigation for the differentiation between infection and sterile inflammation. (author)

  20. An experimental ovine Theileriosis: The effect of Theileria lestoquardi infection on cardiovascular system in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghfoori, Saeed; Razmi, Gholam Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Razavizadeh, Ali Reza Taghavi; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    The malignant ovine theileriosis is caused by Theileria lestoquardi, which is highly pathogenic in sheep. Theileriosis involves different organs in ruminants, but the effect of the disease on the cardiovascular system is unclear. To understand the pathogenesis of T. lestoquardi on the cardiovascular system, Baluchi breed sheep were infected with the mentioned parasite by releasing unfed adults of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, which were infected with T. lestoquardi. The infected sheep were clinically examined on days 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, and 21, and the blood samples were collected for biochemical parameters measurement. At termination of the experiment, the infected sheep were euthanized and pathological examinations of heart tissue were conducted. During experimental infection of sheep with T. lestoquardi, activities of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase, were significantly increased (P˂0.05), while a conspicuous decrease (P˂0.05) was observed in creatine phosphokinase activities. Alterations made in biochemical factors almost coincided with the presence of piroplasm in the blood and schizont in lymph nodes. Maximum and minimum of parasitemia in the sheep stood between 3.3% and 0.28%, respectively. In addition, electrocardiography revealed sinus tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sino-atrial block and ST-elevation, atrial premature beat, and alteration in QRS and in T waves' amplitude. Heart histopathological examination showed hyperemia, infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells into interstitial tissue, endocarditis, and focal necrosis of cardiac muscle cells. In addition, in one of the sheep, definite occurrence of infarction was observed. The results indicate that T. lestoquardi infection has devastating pathological impacts on the cardiovascular system of sheep. Furthermore, measurement of the cTnI amount is a useful biochemical factor for diagnosis and for better understanding of the severity and

  1. Elevated carbon monoxide in the exhaled breath of mice during a systemic bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan G Barbour

    Full Text Available Blood is the specimen of choice for most laboratory tests for diagnosis and disease monitoring. Sampling exhaled breath is a noninvasive alternative to phlebotomy and has the potential for real-time monitoring at the bedside. Improved instrumentation has advanced breath analysis for several gaseous compounds from humans. However, application to small animal models of diseases and physiology has been limited. To extend breath analysis to mice, we crafted a means for collecting nose-only breath samples from groups and individual animals who were awake. Samples were subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry procedures developed for highly sensitive analysis of trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the atmosphere. We evaluated the system with experimental systemic infections of severe combined immunodeficiency Mus musculus with the bacterium Borrelia hermsii. Infected mice developed bacterial densities of ∼10(7 per ml of blood by day 4 or 5 and in comparison to uninfected controls had hepatosplenomegaly and elevations of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. While 12 samples from individual infected mice on days 4 and 5 and 6 samples from uninfected mice did not significantly differ for 72 different VOCs, carbon monoxide (CO was elevated in samples from infected mice, with a mean (95% confidence limits effect size of 4.2 (2.8-5.6, when differences in CO2 in the breath were taken into account. Normalized CO values declined to the uninfected range after one day of treatment with the antibiotic ceftriaxone. Strongly correlated with CO in the breath were levels of heme oxygenase-1 protein in serum and HMOX1 transcripts in whole blood. These results (i provide further evidence of the informativeness of CO concentration in the exhaled breath during systemic infection and inflammation, and (ii encourage evaluation of this noninvasive analytic approach in other various other rodent models of infection and for utility in

  2. [Central nervous system infections in HIV patients in the era of high activity antiretroviral treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas González, P; Fernández Guerrero, M L

    2005-06-01

    Although the incidence of most central nervous system infections in HIV+ patients has decreased after the introduction of the modern antiretroviral treatments, they are still a major cause of morbidity and mortality. New technologies in molecular biology and neuroradiology establish the diagnosis in many cases and have decreased the need for cerebral biopsy. Prognosis has improved substantially after the introduction of high activity antiretroviral treatment; more active treatments are needed, however, for infections as PML or citomegalovirus encephalitis because of their still unacceptably high mortality.

  3. Progressive Pseudolithiasis Associated with the Intravenous Administration of Ceftriaxone in Patients with Central Nervous System Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukagoshi, Setsuki; Ishizawa, Kunihiko; Hirayanagi, Kimitoshi; Nagamine, Shun; Makioka, Kouki; Fujita, Yukio; Ikeda, Yoshio

    2017-10-11

    We report four adult cases of ceftriaxone (CTRX)-induced pseudolithiasis and nephrolithiasis. With the exception of case 1, none of our cases showed abdominal symptoms. Our patients, who had central nervous system (CNS) infections, had been treated with CTRX (4 g/day) for 35-69 days. CTRX-induced pseudolithiasis and nephrolithiasis can appear depending on the total dose of CTRX and the duration for which it is administered. Patients with bacterial CNS infections who are treated with CTRX are typically treated with higher doses for longer periods. It should be recognized that these patients are at higher risk of developing CTRX-induced pseudolithiasis and nephrolithiasis.

  4. Influence of GBV-C infection on the endogenous activation of the IFN system in HIV-1 co-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianchi, M R; Lalle, E; Martini, F; Poccia, F; D'Offizi, G; Antonucci, G; Abbate, I; Dianzani, F

    2006-05-15

    GB virus C (GBV-C) co-infection is associated with a better prognosis in HIV-infected persons. Since interferon activation can be one of the possible mechanisms involved in GBV-C-driven protection against HIV, we compared the endogenous activation of the interferon system in PBMC from GBV-C-positive and -negative patients infected with HIV-1. The expression of interferon related genes was analyzed in 20 GBV-C positive and 20 GBV-C-negative HIV-infected patients, comparable in terms of CD4 cell counts and HIV viral loads. The levels of mRNA for interferon-related genes (2-5-OAS, MxA, interferon AR-1 and PKR) in PBMC were measured by real time RT-PCR, using B-actin as internal control. The endogenous levels of all the Interferon-related genes in HIV/GBV-C co-infected patients were higher than in HIV mono-infected subjects. The difference was statistically significant for PKR mRNA. Direct positive correlation was found between PKR and all the other interferon-related genes, suggesting a coordinated activation of the interferon system. Enhanced activation of the interferon system occurs in GBV-C-positive, as compared to GBV-C-negative patients harbouring HIV-1. These data may be relevant to understand the GBV-C-driven protection against HIV, suggesting that the endogenous activation of the interferon system can contribute to the control of HIV replication.

  5. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular study of BHV-5 infection in the central nervous system of experimentally infected calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Q. Cagnini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bovine meningoencephalitis caused by BHV-5, a double-stranded DNA enveloped virus that belongs to the family Herpesviridae and subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, is an important differential diagnosis of central nervous diseases. The aim of this study was to describe the histological changes in the central nervous system of calves experimentally infected with BHV-5 and compare these changes with the PCR and IHC results. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded central nervous system samples from calves previously inoculated with BHV-5 were microscopically evaluated and tested using IHC and PCR. All the animals presented with nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis. From 18 evaluated areas of each calf, 32.41% and 35.19% were positive by IHC and PCR, respectively. The telencephalon presented more accentuated lesions and positive areas in the PCR than other encephalic areas and was the best sampling area for diagnostic purposes. Positive areas in the IHC and PCR were more injured than IHC and PCR negative areas. The animal with neurological signs showed more PCR- and IHC-positive areas than the other animals.

  6. Amphipathic DNA polymers exhibit antiviral activity against systemic Murine Cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juteau Jean-Marc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphorothioated oligonucleotides (PS-ONs have a sequence-independent, broad spectrum antiviral activity as amphipathic polymers (APs and exhibit potent in vitro antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of herpesviruses: HSV-1, HSV-2, HCMV, VZV, EBV, and HHV-6A/B, and in vivo activity in a murine microbiocide model of genital HSV-2 infection. The activity of these agents against animal cytomegalovirus (CMV infections in vitro and in vivo was therefore investigated. Results In vitro, a 40 mer degenerate AP (REP 9 inhibited both murine CMV (MCMV and guinea pig CMV (GPCMV with an IC50 of 0.045 μM and 0.16 μM, respectively, and a 40 mer poly C AP (REP 9C inhibited MCMV with an IC50 of 0.05 μM. Addition of REP 9 to plaque assays during the first two hours of infection inhibited 78% of plaque formation whereas addition of REP 9 after 10 hours of infection did not significantly reduce the number of plaques, indicating that REP 9 antiviral activity against MCMV occurs at early times after infection. In a murine model of CMV infection, systemic treatment for 5 days significantly reduced virus replication in the spleens and livers of infected mice compared to saline-treated control mice. REP 9 and REP 9C were administered intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days at 10 mg/kg, starting 2 days prior to MCMV infection. Splenomegaly was observed in infected mice treated with REP 9 but not in control mice or in REP 9 treated, uninfected mice, consistent with mild CpG-like activity. When REP 9C (which lacks CpG motifs was compared to REP 9, it exhibited comparable antiviral activity as REP 9 but was not associated with splenomegaly. This suggests that the direct antiviral activity of APs is the predominant therapeutic mechanism in vivo. Moreover, REP 9C, which is acid stable, was effective when administered orally in combination with known permeation enhancers. Conclusion These studies indicate that APs exhibit potent, well tolerated

  7. Fighting the Monster: Applying the Host Damage Framework to Human Central Nervous System Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil A. Panackal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The host damage-response framework states that microbial pathogenesis is a product of microbial virulence factors and collateral damage from host immune responses. Immune-mediated host damage is particularly important within the size-restricted central nervous system (CNS, where immune responses may exacerbate cerebral edema and neurological damage, leading to coma and death. In this review, we compare human host and therapeutic responses in representative nonviral generalized CNS infections that induce archetypal host damage responses: cryptococcal menigoencephalitis and tuberculous meningitis in HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected patients, pneumococcal meningitis, and cerebral malaria. Consideration of the underlying patterns of host responses provides critical insights into host damage and may suggest tailored adjunctive therapeutics to improve disease outcome.

  8. Systemic herpesvirus and morbillivirus co-infection in a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, S; González, B; Willoughby, K; Maley, M; Olvera, A; Kennedy, S; Marco, A; Domingo, M

    2012-01-01

    During 2007 a dolphin morbillivirus epizootic affected the western Mediterranean and several striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded on the Catalonian coasts. One of those animals had severe lymphoid depletion, necrosis and syncytial formation in lymph nodes and spleen, with large basophilic nuclear inclusions compatible with herpesvirus detected by immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examination. Non-suppurative encephalitis with associated morbillivirus antigen and morbillivirus antigen within alveolar macrophages were also observed. A pan-herpesvirus nested polymerase chain reaction amplified a sequence virtually identical to two cetacean herpesvirus sequences previously identified in systemic infections in an Atlantic Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) and in a Mediterranean striped dolphin. The herpesviral infection was probably secondary to the immunosuppression caused by the morbillivirus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a cetacean co-infected by dolphin morbillivirus and herpesvirus with evidence of lesions attributable to both viruses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of Microglia in Oxidative Toxicity Associated with Encephalomycarditis Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhisa Ano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The single-stranded RNA encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV can replicate in the central nervous system (CNS and lead to prominent brain lesions in the stratum pyramidale hippocampus and the stratum granulosum cerebelli. Activated microglia cells infected by EMCV produce a massive burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS via NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2 activation, leading to neuronal death. Balancing this effect is mechanisms by which ROS are eliminated from the CNS. Cellular prion protein (PrPC plays an important antioxidant role and contributes to cellular defense against EMCV infection. This review introduces recent knowledge on brain injury induced by EMCV infection via ROS generation as well as the involvement of various mediators and regulators in the pathogenesis.

  10. Strengths and Limitations of Model Systems for the Study of Urinary Tract Infections and Related Pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Amelia E.; Norton, J. Paul; Wiles, Travis J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are some of the most common bacterial infections worldwide and are a source of substantial morbidity among otherwise healthy women. UTIs can be caused by a variety of microbes, but the predominant etiologic agent of these infections is uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). An especially troubling feature of UPEC-associated UTIs is their high rate of recurrence. This problem is compounded by the drastic increase in the global incidence of antibiotic-resistant UPEC strains over the past 15 years. The need for more-effective treatments for UTIs is driving research aimed at bettering our understanding of the virulence mechanisms and host-pathogen interactions that occur during the course of these infections. Surrogate models of human infection, including cell culture systems and the use of murine, porcine, avian, teleost (zebrafish), and nematode hosts, are being employed to define host and bacterial factors that modulate the pathogenesis of UTIs. These model systems are revealing how UPEC strains can avoid or overcome host defenses and acquire scarce nutrients while also providing insight into the virulence mechanisms used by UPEC within compromised individuals, such as catheterized patients. Here, we summarize our current understanding of UTI pathogenesis while also giving an overview of the model systems used to study the initiation, persistence, and recurrence of UTIs and life-threatening sequelae like urosepsis. Although we focus on UPEC, the experimental systems described here can also provide valuable insight into the disease processes associated with other bacterial pathogens both within the urinary tract and elsewhere within the host. PMID:26935136

  11. Coordinated regulation of virulence during systemic infection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjin Yoon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available To cause a systemic infection, Salmonella must respond to many environmental cues during mouse infection and express specific subsets of genes in a temporal and spatial manner, but the regulatory pathways are poorly established. To unravel how micro-environmental signals are processed and integrated into coordinated action, we constructed in-frame non-polar deletions of 83 regulators inferred to play a role in Salmonella enteriditis Typhimurium (STM virulence and tested them in three virulence assays (intraperitoneal [i.p.], and intragastric [i.g.] infection in BALB/c mice, and persistence in 129X1/SvJ mice. Overall, 35 regulators were identified whose absence attenuated virulence in at least one assay, and of those, 14 regulators were required for systemic mouse infection, the most stringent virulence assay. As a first step towards understanding the interplay between a pathogen and its host from a systems biology standpoint, we focused on these 14 genes. Transcriptional profiles were obtained for deletions of each of these 14 regulators grown under four different environmental conditions. These results, as well as publicly available transcriptional profiles, were analyzed using both network inference and cluster analysis algorithms. The analysis predicts a regulatory network in which all 14 regulators control the same set of genes necessary for Salmonella to cause systemic infection. We tested the regulatory model by expressing a subset of the regulators in trans and monitoring transcription of 7 known virulence factors located within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2. These experiments validated the regulatory model and showed that the response regulator SsrB and the MarR type regulator, SlyA, are the terminal regulators in a cascade that integrates multiple signals. Furthermore, experiments to demonstrate epistatic relationships showed that SsrB can replace SlyA and, in some cases, SlyA can replace SsrB for expression of SPI-2 encoded

  12. Accumulation of the 126 kDa protein of tobacco mosaic virus during systemic infection analysed by immunocytochemistry and ELISA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijdeveld, M.M.G.; Goldbach, R.W.; Meurs, C.; Loon, van L.C.

    1992-01-01

    Systemic infection of tobacco with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) strain WU1, is accompanied by massive accumulation of the virus-coded non-structural 126 kDa protein in X-bodies. The development of X-bodies and the time course of the increase in 126 kDa protein in systemically infected leaves were

  13. Serious infections among a large cohort of subjects with systemically treated psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobry, Allison S; Quesenberry, Charles P; Ray, G Thomas; Geier, Jamie L; Asgari, Maryam M

    2017-11-01

    Biologic therapy is effective for treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis but may be associated with an increased risk for serious infection. To estimate the serious infection rate among patients with psoriasis treated with biologic as compared with nonbiologic systemic agents within a community-based health care delivery setting. We identified 5889 adult Kaiser Permanente Northern California health plan members with psoriasis who had ever been treated with systemic therapies and calculated the incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for serious infections over 29,717 person-years of follow-up. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) were calculated using Cox regression. Adjusting for age, sex, race or ethnicity, and comorbidities revealed a significantly increased risk for overall serious infection among patients treated with biologics as compared with those treated with nonbiologics (aHR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.02-1.68). More specifically, there was a significantly elevated risk for skin and soft tissue infection (aHR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.19-2.56) and meningitis (aHR, 9.22; 95% CI, 1.77-48.10) during periods of active biologic use. Risk associated with individual drugs was not examined. We found an increased rate of skin and soft tissue infections among patients with psoriasis treated with biologic agents. There also was a signal suggesting increased risk for meningitis. Clinicians should be aware of these potential adverse events when prescribing biologic agents. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Anopheles gambiae antiviral immune response to systemic O'nyong-nyong infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Waldock

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne viral diseases cause significant burden in much of the developing world. Although host-virus interactions have been studied extensively in the vertebrate host, little is known about mosquito responses to viral infection. In contrast to mosquitoes of the Aedes and Culex genera, Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of human malaria, naturally transmits very few arboviruses, the most important of which is O'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV. Here we have investigated the A. gambiae immune response to systemic ONNV infection using forward and reverse genetic approaches.We have used DNA microarrays to profile the transcriptional response of A. gambiae inoculated with ONNV and investigate the antiviral function of candidate genes through RNAi gene silencing assays. Our results demonstrate that A. gambiae responses to systemic viral infection involve genes covering all aspects of innate immunity including pathogen recognition, modulation of immune signalling, complement-mediated lysis/opsonisation and other immune effector mechanisms. Patterns of transcriptional regulation and co-infections of A. gambiae with ONNV and the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei suggest that hemolymph immune responses to viral infection are diverted away from melanisation. We show that four viral responsive genes encoding two putative recognition receptors, a galectin and an MD2-like receptor, and two effector lysozymes, function in limiting viral load.This study is the first step in elucidating the antiviral mechanisms of A. gambiae mosquitoes, and has revealed interesting differences between A. gambiae and other invertebrates. Our data suggest that mechanisms employed by A. gambiae are distinct from described invertebrate antiviral immunity to date, and involve the complement-like branch of the humoral immune response, supressing the melanisation response that is prominent in anti-parasitic immunity. The antiviral immune response in A. gambiae is thus

  15. Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori does not provoke major systemic inflammation in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, H; Berg, Gabriele; Fröhlich, M

    1999-01-01

    with H. pylori was unrelated to C-reactive protein and the leukocyte count, regardless of CagA status. There was an inverse relation between H. pylori infection and serum albumin. The adjusted OR (95% CI) of an albumin level in the bottom versus the top third were 2.2 (1.5-3.1) and 2.0 (1......It has been suggested that chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), in particular infection with virulent strains producing the cytotoxin-associated protein CagA, may increase the risk of coronary heart disease by generation of a persistent low-grade inflammatory stimulus. We...... assessed the relation between serological markers of H. pylori infection and various markers of systemic inflammation in a population-based sample of 1834 men and women aged 18-88. A total of 39.3% of the sample had a positive IgG response, and among these a slight majority was CagA positive. Infection...

  16. Differential diagnosis of acute central nervous system infections in children using modern microbiological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Pasi; Lappalainen, Maija; Salo, Eeva; Lönnqvist, Tuula; Jokela, Pia; Hyypiä, Timo; Peltola, Heikki

    2009-08-01

    Except bacterial meningitis, the agents causing acute central nervous system (CNS) infections in children are disclosed in only approximately half of the cases, and even less in encephalitis. We studied the potential of modern microbiological assays to improve this poor situation. In a prospective study during 3 years, all children attending hospital with suspected CNS infection were examined using a wide collection of microbiological tests using samples from the cerebrospinal fluid, serum, nasal swabs and stool. Among 213 patients, 66 (31%) cases suggested CNS infection and specific aetiology was identified in 56 patients. Of these microbiologically confirmed cases, viral meningitis/encephalitis was diagnosed in 25 (45%), bacterial meningitis in 21 (38%) and neuroborreliosis in 9 (16%) cases while 1 child had fungal infection. In meningitis patients, the causative agent was identified in 85% (35/41) cases and in encephalitis in 75% (12/16). The most common bacteria were Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcous pneumonie and Neisseria meningitidis, while the most frequently detected viruses were enteroviruses and varicella zoster virus. In 75% to 85% of paediatric CNS infections, specific microbiological diagnosis was obtained with modern laboratory techniques. The results pose a basis for prudent approach to these potentially serious diseases.

  17. A systems approach to understanding human rhinovirus and influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taek-Kyun; Bheda-Malge, Anjali; Lin, Yakang; Sreekrishna, Koti; Adams, Rachel; Robinson, Michael K; Bascom, Charles C; Tiesman, Jay P; Isfort, Robert J; Gelinas, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Human rhinovirus and influenza virus infections of the upper airway lead to colds and the flu and can trigger exacerbations of lower airway diseases including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets are still needed to differentiate between the cold and the flu, since the clinical course of influenza can be severe while that of rhinovirus is usually more mild. In our investigation of influenza and rhinovirus infection of human respiratory epithelial cells, we used a systems approach to identify the temporally changing patterns of host gene expression from these viruses. After infection of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) with rhinovirus, influenza virus or co-infection with both viruses, we studied the time-course of host gene expression changes over three days. We modeled host responses to these viral infections with time and documented the qualitative and quantitative differences in innate immune activation and regulation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells contribute to systemic but not local antiviral responses to HSV infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Swiecki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC produce type I interferons (IFN-I and proinflammatory cytokines in response to viruses; however, their contribution to antiviral immunity in vivo is unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of pDC depletion on local and systemic antiviral responses to herpes simplex virus (HSV infections using CLEC4C-DTR transgenic mice. We found that pDC do not appear to influence viral burden or survival after vaginal HSV-2 infection, nor do they seem to contribute to virus-specific CD8 T cell responses following subcutaneous HSV-1 infection. In contrast, pDC were important for early IFN-I production, proinflammatory cytokine production, NK cell activation and CD8 T cell responses during systemic HSV-2 and HSV-1 infections. Our data also indicate that unlike pDC, TLR3-expressing cells are important for promoting antiviral responses to HSV-1 regardless of the route of virus administration.

  19. A systems immunology approach to plasmacytoid dendritic cell function in cytopathic virus infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Bocharov

    Full Text Available Plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC-mediated protection against cytopathic virus infection involves various molecular, cellular, tissue-scale, and organism-scale events. In order to better understand such multiscale interactions, we have implemented a systems immunology approach focusing on the analysis of the structure, dynamics and operating principles of virus-host interactions which constrain the initial spread of the pathogen. Using high-resolution experimental data sets coming from the well-described mouse hepatitis virus (MHV model, we first calibrated basic modules including MHV infection of its primary target cells, i.e. pDCs and macrophages (Mphis. These basic building blocks were used to generate and validate an integrative mathematical model for in vivo infection dynamics. Parameter estimation for the system indicated that on a per capita basis, one infected pDC secretes sufficient type I IFN to protect 10(3 to 10(4 Mphis from cytopathic viral infection. This extremely high protective capacity of pDCs secures the spleen's capability to function as a 'sink' for the virus produced in peripheral organs such as the liver. Furthermore, our results suggest that the pDC population in spleen ensures a robust protection against virus variants which substantially down-modulate IFN secretion. However, the ability of pDCs to protect against severe disease caused by virus variants exhibiting an enhanced liver tropism and higher replication rates appears to be rather limited. Taken together, this systems immunology analysis suggests that antiviral therapy against cytopathic viruses should primarily limit viral replication within peripheral target organs.

  20. Coordinated Regulation of Virulence during Systemic Infection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyunjin; McDermott, Jason E.; Porwollik, Steffen; Mcclelland, Michael; Heffron, Fred

    2009-02-20

    Salmonella must respond to a myriad of environmental cues during infection of a mouse and express specific subsets of genes in a temporal and spatial manner to subvert the host defense mechanisms but these regulatory pathways are poorly established. To unravel how micro-environmental signals are processed and integrated into coordinated action, we constructed in-frame non-polar deletions of 84 regulators inferred to play a role in Salmonella typhimurium virulence and tested them in three virulence assays (intraperitoneal (i.p.), and intragastric (i.g.) infection in BALB/c mice, and persistence in SvJ129 mice). Overall 36 regulators were identified that were less virulent in at least one assay, and of those, 15 regulators were required for systemic mouse infection in an acute infection model. As a first step towards understanding the interplay between a pathogen and its host from a systems biology standpoint we focused on these 15 genes. Transcriptional profiles were obtained for each of these 15 regulators from strains grown under four different environmental conditions. These results as well as publicly available transcriptional profiles were analyzed using both network inference and cluster analysis algorithms. The analysis predicts a regulatory network in which all 15 regulators control a specific set of genes necessary for Salmonella to cause systemic infection. We tested the regulatory model by expressing a subset of the regulators in trans and monitoring transcription of 7 known virulence factors located within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2). These experiments validated the regulatory model and showed that, for these 7 genes, the response regulator SsrB and the marR type regulator SlyA co-regulate in a regulatory cascade by integrating multiple signals.

  1. A systems immunology approach to plasmacytoid dendritic cell function in cytopathic virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharov, Gennady; Züst, Roland; Cervantes-Barragan, Luisa; Luzyanina, Tatyana; Chiglintsev, Egor; Chereshnev, Valery A; Thiel, Volker; Ludewig, Burkhard

    2010-07-22

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC)-mediated protection against cytopathic virus infection involves various molecular, cellular, tissue-scale, and organism-scale events. In order to better understand such multiscale interactions, we have implemented a systems immunology approach focusing on the analysis of the structure, dynamics and operating principles of virus-host interactions which constrain the initial spread of the pathogen. Using high-resolution experimental data sets coming from the well-described mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) model, we first calibrated basic modules including MHV infection of its primary target cells, i.e. pDCs and macrophages (Mphis). These basic building blocks were used to generate and validate an integrative mathematical model for in vivo infection dynamics. Parameter estimation for the system indicated that on a per capita basis, one infected pDC secretes sufficient type I IFN to protect 10(3) to 10(4) Mphis from cytopathic viral infection. This extremely high protective capacity of pDCs secures the spleen's capability to function as a 'sink' for the virus produced in peripheral organs such as the liver. Furthermore, our results suggest that the pDC population in spleen ensures a robust protection against virus variants which substantially down-modulate IFN secretion. However, the ability of pDCs to protect against severe disease caused by virus variants exhibiting an enhanced liver tropism and higher replication rates appears to be rather limited. Taken together, this systems immunology analysis suggests that antiviral therapy against cytopathic viruses should primarily limit viral replication within peripheral target organs.

  2. What is evidence-based dentistry, and do oral infections increase systemic morbidity or mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederman, Richard; Richards, Derek

    2011-11-01

    From Celsus' first reports of rubor, calor, dolor, tumor, and functio laesa, has come an understanding of inflammation's manifestations at the organ, tissue, vascular, cellular, genetic, and molecular levels. Molecular medicine now raises the opposite question: can local oral infections and their inflammatory mediators increase systemic morbidity or mortality? From these perspectives we examine the clinical evidence relating caries, periodontal disease, and pericoronitis to systemic disease. Widespread affirmation of an oral-systemic linkage remains elusive, raising sobering cautions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of infected non-unions with segmental defects with a rail fixation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudiganty, Srikanth; Daolagupu, Arup Kumar; Sipani, Arun Kumar; Das, Satyendra Kumar; Dhar, Arijit; Gogoi, Parag Jyoti

    2017-04-01

    We conducted this study to evaluate the use of rail fixation system in infected gap non-union of femur and tibia as an alternative to the established Ilizarov circular fixator technique. Prospective study. The study was done in the Department of Orthopaedic surgery in a medical school and level I trauma center to which the authors are/were affiliated. Between June 2010 and June 2015, 40 patients with infected gap non-union of femur and tibia were treated with the rail fixation system. Patients who were willing to undergo surgery and participate in the post-operative rehabilitation were included in the study. After radical debridement, the system was applied and corticotomy done. For closure of bone gap, acute docking and distraction was done in 18 cases and segmental bone transport in 22 cases. Early mobilization of patient was done along with aggressive physiotherapy. Bone and functional results were calculated according to ASAMI scoring system, and complications were classified according to Paley classification. The mean follow-up period was 22.56 months (range 8-44). Bone union with eradication of infection was achieved in all but 1 case (97.5%). Bone results were excellent in 57.5%, good 40%, fair 0% and poor in 2.5% cases, while functional result was excellent in 32.5%, good 65%, fair 0% and poor in 2.5% cases. The rail fixation system is an excellent alternative method to treat infected gap non-union of femur and tibia. It is simple, easy to use and patient-friendly.

  4. Systemic and local antibiotic prophylaxis in the prevention of Staphylococcus epidermidis graft infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asan Ali

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate the in vivo efficacy of local and systemic antibiotic prophylaxis in the prevention of Staphylococcus (S. epidermidis graft infection in a rat model and to evaluate the bacterial adherence to frequently used prosthetic graft materials. Methods Graft infections were established in the subcutaneous tissue of 120 male Wistar rats by implantation of Dacron/ePTFE grafts followed by topical inoculation with 2 × 107 CFUs of clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis. Each of the graft series included a control group, one contaminated group that did not receive any antibiotic prophylaxis, two contaminated groups that received systemic prophylaxis with teicoplanin or levofloxacin and two contaminated groups that received teicoplanin-soaked or levofloxacin-soaked grafts. The grafts were removed 7 days after implantation and evaluated by quantitative culture. Results There was significant bacterial growth inhibition in the groups given systemic or local prophylaxis (P S. epidermidis had greater affinity to Dacron graft when compared with ePTFE graft in the untreated contaminated groups (P Conclusion The study demonstrated that the usage of systemic or local prophylaxis and preference of ePTFE graft can be useful in reducing the risk of vascular graft infections caused by staphylococcal strains with high levels of resistance.

  5. Risk of infective endocarditis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y S; Chang, C C; Chen, Y H; Chen, W S; Chen, J H

    2017-10-01

    Objectives Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus are considered vulnerable to infective endocarditis and prophylactic antibiotics are recommended before an invasive dental procedure. However, the evidence is insufficient. This nationwide population-based study evaluated the risk and related factors of infective endocarditis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods We identified 12,102 systemic lupus erythematosus patients from the National Health Insurance research-oriented database, and compared the incidence rate of infective endocarditis with that among 48,408 non-systemic lupus erythematosus controls. A Cox multivariable proportional hazards model was employed to evaluate the risk of infective endocarditis in the systemic lupus erythematosus cohort. Results After a mean follow-up of more than six years, the systemic lupus erythematosus cohort had a significantly higher incidence rate of infective endocarditis (42.58 vs 4.32 per 100,000 person-years, incidence rate ratio = 9.86, p lupus erythematosus cohort had lower risk (adjusted hazard ratio 11.64) than that of the younger-than-60-years systemic lupus erythematosus cohort (adjusted hazard ratio 15.82). Cox multivariate proportional hazards analysis revealed heart disease (hazard ratio = 5.71, p lupus erythematosus patients. Conclusions A higher risk of infective endocarditis was observed in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Risk factors for infective endocarditis in the systemic lupus erythematosus cohort included heart disease, chronic kidney disease, steroid pulse therapy within 30 days, and a recent invasive dental procedure within 30 days.

  6. Predictor of Mortality in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patients with Central Nervous System Opportunistic Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Lestari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indonesia’s increase of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS cases is one of the fastest. Mortality cases of AIDS also increase per year. Central nervous system (CNS opportunistic infection is one of the most likely manifestations on advanced stage of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS patients. Common CNS opportunistic infections are toxoplasma infection and tuberculous meningitis (TBM. The study aimed to analyze the predictor of mortality in AIDS patients with CNS opportunistic infections. Methods: This study reviewed 151 medical records from AIDS patients with CNS opportunistic infection admitted to the Department of Neurology, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung from 2007-2012. This study was conducted from April to November 2013. Patients’ clinical manifestations (seizure, headache, altered consciousness, laboratory examination (CD4+ level count and treatment history (antiretroviral or ART and cotrimoxazole were collected. Chi-square and logistic regression test were used to determine the mortality predictor in patients. Results: Mortality rate was 37.7%. Clinical manifestations from patients were seizure 29.8%, altered consciousness 66.2%, and headache 88.7%. Patients had cotrimoxazole treatment 44.4% and 38.4% patients had ART. CD4+ level count data from 86 patients were obtained, 94% had CD4+ level count ≤200. Bivariate analysis showed altered consciousness had significant mortality predictor (Odd ratio (OR: 29.944; 95% Confidence interval (CI 6.9–129.945; p<0,0. Multivariate analysis showed ART had highest predictive mortality value (OR: 2.968; 95% CI 1.236–7.126; p=0.015. Conclusions: Altered consciousness and no antiretroviral treatment are mortality predictors in AIDS patients with CNS opportunistic infections.

  7. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA in serum of patients with VZV central nervous system infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Anna; Bergström, Tomas; Runesson, Jim; Studahl, Marie

    2016-09-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a common viral agent causing central nervous system (CNS) infections, normally diagnosed by detection of VZV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Our aim was to investigate trends in VZV DNAemia in VZV CNS infections, which could potentially contribute to diagnosis and secondly, correlate the amount of VZV DNA in serum to severity of disease. Seventy-two patients with VZV CNS infections diagnosed by detection of VZV DNA in CSF and concomitant neurological symptoms were included. The amount of VZV DNA was measured by real-time PCR in paired serum and CSF samples and compared to a control group of herpes zoster (n = 36). An increased amount of VZV DNA was detected in serum in patients with encephalitis compared to patients with meningitis or Ramsay-Hunt syndrome, respectively (p = 0.003 and p = 0.024). A greater proportion of patients with VZV CNS infections and detectable VZV DNA in serum had ongoing rash compared to those without detectable VZV DNA in serum (p ≤ 0.001). The viral load in serum of patients with neurological symptoms was lower compared to in patients with herpes zoster without neurological symptoms (p ≤ 0.001) and only 32/72 of the patients with VZV CNS disease had VZV DNA detected in serum. Increased amount of VZV DNA in serum of patients with VZV CNS infections seems associated with encephalitis and ongoing rash. Additionally, viral DNA analysis by PCR in serum may be a helpful diagnostic tool although viral DNA analysis by PCR in CSF is the method of choice for diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A review of health system infection control measures in developing countries: what can be learned to reduce maternal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Sheetal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A functional health system is a necessary part of efforts to achieve maternal mortality reduction in developing countries. Puerperal sepsis is an infection contracted during childbirth and one of the commonest causes of maternal mortality in developing countries, despite the discovery of antibiotics over eighty years ago. Infections can be contracted during childbirth either in the community or in health facilities. Some developing countries have recently experienced increased use of health facilities for labour and delivery care and there is a possibility that this trend could lead to rising rates of puerperal sepsis. Drug and technological developments need to be combined with effective health system interventions to reduce infections, including puerperal sepsis. This article reviews health system infection control measures pertinent to labour and delivery units in developing country health facilities. Organisational improvements, training, surveillance and continuous quality improvement initiatives, used alone or in combination have been shown to decrease infection rates in some clinical settings. There is limited evidence available on effective infection control measures during labour and delivery and from low resource settings. A health systems approach is necessary to reduce maternal mortality and the occurrence of infections resulting from childbirth. Organisational and behavioural change underpins the success of infection control interventions. A global, targeted initiative could raise awareness of the need for improved infection control measures during childbirth.

  9. A widespread bacteriophage abortive infection system functions through a Type IV toxin-antitoxin mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy, Ron L; Przybilski, Rita; Semeijn, Koen; Salmond, George P C; Fineran, Peter C

    2014-04-01

    Bacterial abortive infection (Abi) systems are 'altruistic' cell death systems that are activated by phage infection and limit viral replication, thereby providing protection to the bacterial population. Here, we have used a novel approach of screening Abi systems as a tool to identify and characterize toxin-antitoxin (TA)-acting Abi systems. We show that AbiE systems are encoded by bicistronic operons and function via a non-interacting (Type IV) bacteriostatic TA mechanism. The abiE operon was negatively autoregulated by the antitoxin, AbiEi, a member of a widespread family of putative transcriptional regulators. AbiEi has an N-terminal winged-helix-turn-helix domain that is required for repression of abiE transcription, and an uncharacterized bi-functional C-terminal domain, which is necessary for transcriptional repression and sufficient for toxin neutralization. The cognate toxin, AbiEii, is a predicted nucleotidyltransferase (NTase) and member of the DNA polymerase β family. AbiEii specifically bound GTP, and mutations in conserved NTase motifs (I-III) and a newly identified motif (IV), abolished GTP binding and subsequent toxicity. The AbiE systems can provide phage resistance and enable stabilization of mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids. Our study reveals molecular insights into the regulation and function of the widespread bi-functional AbiE Abi-TA systems and the biochemical properties of both toxin and antitoxin proteins.

  10. A widespread bacteriophage abortive infection system functions through a Type IV toxin–antitoxin mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy, Ron L.; Przybilski, Rita; Semeijn, Koen; Salmond, George P.C.; Fineran, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial abortive infection (Abi) systems are ‘altruistic’ cell death systems that are activated by phage infection and limit viral replication, thereby providing protection to the bacterial population. Here, we have used a novel approach of screening Abi systems as a tool to identify and characterize toxin–antitoxin (TA)-acting Abi systems. We show that AbiE systems are encoded by bicistronic operons and function via a non-interacting (Type IV) bacteriostatic TA mechanism. The abiE operon was negatively autoregulated by the antitoxin, AbiEi, a member of a widespread family of putative transcriptional regulators. AbiEi has an N-terminal winged-helix-turn-helix domain that is required for repression of abiE transcription, and an uncharacterized bi-functional C-terminal domain, which is necessary for transcriptional repression and sufficient for toxin neutralization. The cognate toxin, AbiEii, is a predicted nucleotidyltransferase (NTase) and member of the DNA polymerase β family. AbiEii specifically bound GTP, and mutations in conserved NTase motifs (I-III) and a newly identified motif (IV), abolished GTP binding and subsequent toxicity. The AbiE systems can provide phage resistance and enable stabilization of mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids. Our study reveals molecular insights into the regulation and function of the widespread bi-functional AbiE Abi-TA systems and the biochemical properties of both toxin and antitoxin proteins. PMID:24465005

  11. Lactobacillus paracasei modulates the immune system of Galleria mellonella and protects against Candida albicans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Velloso, Marisol Dos Santos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics have been described as a potential strategy to control opportunistic infections due to their ability to stimulate the immune system. Using the non-vertebrate model host Galleria mellonella, we evaluated whether clinical isolates of Lactobacillus spp. are able to provide protection against Candida albicans infection. Among different strains of Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus fermentum, we verified that L. paracasei 28.4 strain had the greatest ability to prolong the survival of larvae infected with a lethal dose of C. albicans. We found that the injection of 107 cells/larvae of L. paracasei into G. mellonella larvae infected by C. albicans increased the survival of these insects compared to the control group (P = 0.0001). After that, we investigated the immune mechanisms involved in the protection against C. albicans infection, evaluating the number of hemocytes and the gene expression of antifungal peptides. We found that L. paracasei increased the hemocyte quantity (2.38 x 106 cells/mL) in relation to the control group (1.29 x 106 cells/mL), indicating that this strain is capable of raising the number of circulating hemocytes into the G. mellonella hemolymph. Further, we found that L. paracasei 28.4 upregulated genes that encode the antifungal peptides galiomicin and gallerymicin. In relation to the control group, L. paracasei 28.4 increased gene expression of galiomicin by 6.67-fold and 17.29-fold for gallerymicin. Finally, we verified that the prophylactic provision of probiotic led to a significant reduction of the number of fungal cells in G. mellonella hemolymph. In conclusion, L. paracasei 28.4 can modulate the immune system of G. mellonella and protect against candidiasis.

  12. Post-delivery mycobacterium tuberculosis infection misdiagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Li Yu; Shrestha, Bikash; Lu, Yi Lu; Ping, Fu

    2016-12-30

    Tuberculosis is a common infectious mycobacterial disease having a wide range of clinical and serological manifestations that are similar to rheumatic disease. Differential diagnosis is a crucial aspect in any rheumatic disease as many other infectious diseases portray clinical similarities and autoantibody positivity. Our case report illustrates of a young woman just after the delivery of a child presented an unusual case of extrapulmonary tuberculosis infection initially misdiagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

  13. Miliary tuberculosis: a severe opportunistic infection in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    OpenAIRE

    Freire, Priscilla S.; Montoni, João D.; Ribeiro, Aline S.M.; Marques, Heloísa H.; Mauad, Thais; Silva, Clovis A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction One of the main issues in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients is infection, such as tuberculosis (TB). Of note, SLE patients are susceptible to pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB. However, to our knowledge, this contagious disease was rarely reported in pediatric lupus population, particularly diffuse or miliary TB. Therefore, from January 1983 to December 2011, 5,635 patients were followed-up at our Pediatric Rheumatology Unit and 285 (5%) of them met th...

  14. Clinical features, outcomes, and cerebrospinal fluid findings in adult patients with central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by varicella-zoster virus: comparison with enterovirus CNS infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyo-Lim; Lee, Eun Mi; Sung, Heungsup; Kang, Joong Koo; Lee, Sang-Ahm; Choi, Sang-Ho

    2014-12-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is known to be associated with central nervous system (CNS) infections in adults. However, the clinical characteristics of VZV CNS infections are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical manifestations, outcomes, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings in patients with VZV CNS infections with those in patients with enterovirus (EV) CNS infections. This retrospective cohort study was performed at a 2,700-bed tertiary care hospital. Using a clinical microbiology computerized database, all adults with CSF PCR results positive for VZV or EV that were treated between January 1999 and February 2013 were identified. Thirty-eight patients with VZV CNS infection and 68 patients with EV CNS infection were included in the study. Compared with the EV group, the median age in the VZV group was higher (VZV, 35 years vs. EV, 31 years; P = 0.02), and showed a bimodal age distribution with peaks in the third and seventh decade. Encephalitis was more commonly encountered in the VZV group (VZV, 23.7% vs. EV, 4.4%; P = 0.01). The median lymphocyte percentage in the CSF (VZV, 81% vs. EV, 36%; P < 0.001) and the CSF protein level (VZV, 100 mg/dl vs. EV, 46 mg/dl; P < 0.001) were higher in the VZV group. Compared with patients with EV CNS infection, patients with VZV CNS infection developed encephalitis more often and exhibited more intense inflammatory reaction. Nevertheless, both VZV and EV CNS infections were associated with excellent long-term prognosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Primed Immune Responses Triggered by Ingested Bacteria Lead to Systemic Infection Tolerance in Silkworms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Miyashita

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined whether microorganisms collaterally ingested by insects with their food activate the innate immune system to confer systemic resistance against subsequent bacterial invasion. Silkworms orally administered heat-killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells showed resistance against intra-hemolymph infection by P. aeruginosa. Oral administration of peptidoglycans, cell wall components of P. aeruginosa, conferred protective effects against P. aeruginosa infection, whereas oral administration of lipopolysaccharides, bacterial surface components, did not. In silkworms orally administered heat-killed P. aeruginosa cells, P. aeruginosa growth was inhibited in the hemolymph, and mRNA amounts of the antimicrobial peptides cecropin A and moricin were increased in the hemocytes and fat body. Furthermore, the amount of paralytic peptide, an insect cytokine that activates innate immune reactions, was increased in the hemolymph of silkworms orally administered heat-killed P. aeruginosa cells. These findings suggest that insects sense bacteria present in their food by peptidoglycan recognition, which activates systemic immune reactions to defend the insects against a second round of infection.

  16. IMMUNITY AND INFECTION IN WOMEN WITH HYPERPLASTIC STATES OF IMMUNE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lukach

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. One hundred and ninety-nine patients with hyperplastic processes of reproductive system were examined, and 131 (66.16% of them were found to be infected with Chlamydia or Ureaplasma. The mean age of female patients was 42,7±1,35 years. Different infectious agents (e.g. Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealiticum, Mycoplasma hominis were identified in cervical canal of uterine cervix and surgical specimens (biopsy samples of excised myoma, adenomyosis or endometrial hyperplasia. The infected patients were found to have decreased monocytes and neutrophils in blood counts, lower phagocytic activity of monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased bactericidal activity of leukocytes. Other findings included lower CD20+, CD8+ and rFAS CD 95 lymphocytes. Assessment of cytokine-synthesizing activity of CD3+ lymphocytes showed a decrease in both spontaneous and stimulated response (р < 0,001. A weakest spontaneous and stimulated response was found in CD3+/IL-4+ lymphocytes. Analysis of results obtained shows systemic immune disorders and impaired cytokine-synthesizing activity of CD3+ lymphocytes correlating with infection factors in the women with hyperplastic processes of reproductive system. (Med. Immunol., 2008, vol. 10, N 2-3, pp 223-228.

  17. Heterogeneity in infection outcome: lessons from a bumblebee-trypanosome system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadd, B M; Barribeau, S M

    2013-11-01

    Interactions between insect hosts and their parasites are significant because their parasites can also be parasites of humans and of species that we utilize. Host-parasite interactions are complex, even in insects, and there can be heterogeneous outcomes in infection success, load, virulence and transmission, with consequences for the evolution of hosts and their parasites, and also for epidemiology. A comprehension that the triad of host, parasite and environment interact to dictate infection outcome is key for anyone interested in host-parasite research. Studies in model systems used to good effect to characterize insect immunity and infection rarely scrutinize such heterogeneity. Evolutionary ecology studies addressing natural variation offer a window on the causes and consequences of such heterogeneity. A system at the forefront in this area is that of bumblebees and their trypanosome parasite Crithidia. Placing results and interpretations in a broader context we synthesize the plethora of work on bumblebee immunity and parasite interactions. We describe and discuss the sources of heterogeneity that should also be considered in human-relevant insect-parasite systems, including genotypic variation in both parasites and hosts, the mediating role of the environment, and explore the emerging evidence for microbiota modulating defence against parasites. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Etiologic agents of central nervous system infections among febrile hospitalized patients in the country of Georgia.

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    Tamar Akhvlediani

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is a large spectrum of viral, bacterial, fungal, and prion pathogens that cause central nervous system (CNS infections. As such, identification of the etiological agent requires multiple laboratory tests and accurate diagnosis requires clinical and epidemiological information. This hospital-based study aimed to determine the main causes of acute meningitis and encephalitis and enhance laboratory capacity for CNS infection diagnosis. METHODS: Children and adults patients clinically diagnosed with meningitis or encephalitis were enrolled at four reference health centers. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was collected for bacterial culture, and in-house and multiplex RT-PCR testing was conducted for herpes simplex virus (HSV types 1 and 2, mumps virus, enterovirus, varicella zoster virus (VZV, Streptococcus pneumoniae, HiB and Neisseria meningitidis. RESULTS: Out of 140 enrolled patients, the mean age was 23.9 years, and 58% were children. Bacterial or viral etiologies were determined in 51% of patients. Five Streptococcus pneumoniae cultures were isolated from CSF. Based on in-house PCR analysis, 25 patients were positive for S. pneumoniae, 6 for N. meningitidis, and 1 for H. influenzae. Viral multiplex PCR identified infections with enterovirus (n = 26, VZV (n = 4, and HSV-1 (n = 2. No patient was positive for mumps or HSV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings indicate that S. pneumoniae and enteroviruses are the main etiologies in this patient cohort. The utility of molecular diagnostics for pathogen identification combined with the knowledge provided by the investigation may improve health outcomes of CNS infection cases in Georgia.

  19. Systems-Level Overview of Host Protein Phosphorylation During Shigella flexneri Infection Revealed by Phosphoproteomics*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Christoph; Ahrné, Erik; Kasper, Christoph A.; Tschon, Therese; Sorg, Isabel; Dreier, Roland F.; Schmidt, Alexander; Arrieumerlou, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    The enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri invades the intestinal epithelium of humans. During infection, several injected effector proteins promote bacterial internalization, and interfere with multiple host cell responses. To obtain a systems-level overview of host signaling during infection, we analyzed the global dynamics of protein phosphorylation by liquid chromatography-tandem MS and identified several hundred of proteins undergoing a phosphorylation change during the first hours of infection. Functional bioinformatic analysis revealed that they were mostly related to the cytoskeleton, transcription, signal transduction, and cell cycle. Fuzzy c-means clustering identified six temporal profiles of phosphorylation and a functional module composed of ATM-phosphorylated proteins related to genotoxic stress. Pathway enrichment analysis defined mTOR as the most overrepresented pathway. We showed that mTOR complex 1 and 2 were required for S6 kinase and AKT activation, respectively. Comparison with a published phosphoproteome of Salmonella typhimurium-infected cells revealed a large subset of coregulated phosphoproteins. Finally, we showed that S. flexneri effector OspF affected the phosphorylation of several hundred proteins, thereby demonstrating the wide-reaching impact of a single bacterial effector on the host signaling network. PMID:23828894

  20. Systems-level overview of host protein phosphorylation during Shigella flexneri infection revealed by phosphoproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Christoph; Ahrné, Erik; Kasper, Christoph A; Tschon, Therese; Sorg, Isabel; Dreier, Roland F; Schmidt, Alexander; Arrieumerlou, Cécile

    2013-10-01

    The enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri invades the intestinal epithelium of humans. During infection, several injected effector proteins promote bacterial internalization, and interfere with multiple host cell responses. To obtain a systems-level overview of host signaling during infection, we analyzed the global dynamics of protein phosphorylation by liquid chromatography-tandem MS and identified several hundred of proteins undergoing a phosphorylation change during the first hours of infection. Functional bioinformatic analysis revealed that they were mostly related to the cytoskeleton, transcription, signal transduction, and cell cycle. Fuzzy c-means clustering identified six temporal profiles of phosphorylation and a functional module composed of ATM-phosphorylated proteins related to genotoxic stress. Pathway enrichment analysis defined mTOR as the most overrepresented pathway. We showed that mTOR complex 1 and 2 were required for S6 kinase and AKT activation, respectively. Comparison with a published phosphoproteome of Salmonella typhimurium-infected cells revealed a large subset of coregulated phosphoproteins. Finally, we showed that S. flexneri effector OspF affected the phosphorylation of several hundred proteins, thereby demonstrating the wide-reaching impact of a single bacterial effector on the host signaling network.

  1. Systemic non-albicans infections presented as meningitis in chronic hepatitis B patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jing Lv

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-albicans candida meningitis is a relatively rare disease, with nonspecific clinical manifestation, which makes the misdiagnosis occur sometimes, especially in the early stage of the disease. Abuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids, central vein cannulas, senility, big operation, malignancy, and total parenteral alimentation were all the susceptible factors of non-albicans candida infection. We present a case of this type of non-albicans infection in a 42-year-old woman who was early misdiagnosed as tuberculous meningitis and was treated with antibiotics and antituberculosis agents. The diagnosis of non-albicans infection was confirmed by fungus culture of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF with a low detectable rate. This case reminds us that the non-albicans candida meningitis had a nonspecific clinical presentations and laboratory data, and was difficult to differentiate from tuberculosis meningitis. Hence, we should highly suspect this disease if central nervous system infections with uncertain pathogens. Test cell counts; protein and fungus culture of CSF should be used to confirm the diagnosis. Once the diagnosis was established, the patients should receive antifungal treatment based on drug sensitivity tests as early as possible.

  2. Automated surveillance system for hospital-acquired urinary tract infections in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condell, O; Gubbels, S; Nielsen, J; Espenhain, L; Frimodt-Møller, N; Engberg, J; Møller, J K; Ellermann-Eriksen, S; Schønheyder, H C; Voldstedlund, M; Mølbak, K; Kristensen, B

    2016-07-01

    The Danish Hospital-Acquired Infections Database (HAIBA) is an automated surveillance system using hospital administrative, microbiological, and antibiotic medication data. To define and evaluate the case definition for hospital-acquired urinary tract infection (HA-UTI) and to describe surveillance data from 2010 to 2014. The HA-UTI algorithm defined a laboratory-diagnosed UTI as a urine culture positive for no more than two micro-organisms with at least one at ≥10(4)cfu/mL, and a probable UTI as a negative urine culture and a relevant diagnosis code or antibiotic treatment. UTI was considered hospital-acquired if a urine sample was collected ≥48h after admission and urinary catheter or lack of clinical signs of infection, and UTIs being considered HA-UTI in PPS even though the first sample was taken within 48h of admission. The HAIBA algorithm was found to give valid and valuable information and has, among others, the advantages of covering the whole population and allowing continuous standardized monitoring of HA-UTI. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Innate immunity in the pathogenesis of polytropic retrovirus infection in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Karin E; Du, Min

    2009-01-01

    Neuroinflammation, including astrogliosis, microgliosis, and the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines is a common response in the central nervous system (CNS) to virus infection, including retrovirus infection. However, the contribution of this innate immune response in disease pathogenesis remains unresolved. Analysis of the neuroinflammatory response to polytropic retrovirus infection in the mouse has provided insight into the potential contribution of the innate immune response to retrovirus-induced neurologic disease. In this model, retroviral pathogenesis correlates with the induction of neuroinflammatory responses including the activation of astrocytes and microglia, as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Studies of the neurovirulent determinants of the polytropic envelope protein as well as studies with knockout mice suggest that retroviral pathogenesis in the brain is multifaceted and that cytokine and chemokine production may be only one mechanism of disease pathogenesis. Analysis of the activation of the innate immune response to retrovirus infection in the CNS indicates that toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is a contributing factor to retrovirus-induced neuroinflammation, but that other factors can compensate for the lack of TLR7 in inducing both neuroinflammation and neurologic disease.

  4. [Diseases of the peripheral and visual nervous system during infection with human immunodeficiency virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova-Sotolongo, P; Casanova-Carrillo, P; Casanova-Carrillo, C

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is often accompanied by neurological complications. One of these includes disorders affecting the peripheral and visual nervous system, especially during the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) stage. The peripheral neuropathies associated with infection by HIV are an assorted group of disorders, which include acute or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, multiple mononeuropathy and neuropathies related to the herpes zoster virus or cytomegalovirus. The most common and clinically important of the neuropathies is painful distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP). The most severely affected cranial nerves are V and VII. The isolation of HIV from the affected nerves suggests a direct role, but an immune mechanism is also possible. Although cytomegalovirus may be associated with a variety of peripheral nerve syndromes, its clinical presentation as a primary demyelinating polyneuropathy is unusual. DSP and antiretroviral toxic neuropathy are the most common HIV-associated neuropathies. Both HIV infection, by itself, and the neurotoxicity of certain drugs in tritherapy contribute to the development of painful peripheral sensory neuropathy. In researching into the cause of HIV-associated neuropathy further studies are needed to determine the relative roles played by the viral infection and the activation of the immunological factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of the damage done in axons, the dorsal root ganglion and in the sensory pathways in the spinal cord.

  5. Animals devoid of pulmonary system as infection models in the study of lung bacterial pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Hernández, Yamilé; Yero, Daniel; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan M.; Gibert, Isidre

    2015-01-01

    Biological disease models can be difficult and costly to develop and use on a routine basis. Particularly, in vivo lung infection models performed to study lung pathologies use to be laborious, demand a great time and commonly are associated with ethical issues. When infections in experimental animals are used, they need to be refined, defined, and validated for their intended purpose. Therefore, alternative and easy to handle models of experimental infections are still needed to test the virulence of bacterial lung pathogens. Because non-mammalian models have less ethical and cost constraints as a subjects for experimentation, in some cases would be appropriated to include these models as valuable tools to explore host–pathogen interactions. Numerous scientific data have been argued to the more extensive use of several kinds of alternative models, such as, the vertebrate zebrafish (Danio rerio), and non-vertebrate insects and nematodes (e.g., Caenorhabditis elegans) in the study of diverse infectious agents that affect humans. Here, we review the use of these vertebrate and non-vertebrate models in the study of bacterial agents, which are considered the principal causes of lung injury. Curiously none of these animals have a respiratory system as in air-breathing vertebrates, where respiration takes place in lungs. Despite this fact, with the present review we sought to provide elements in favor of the use of these alternative animal models of infection to reveal the molecular signatures of host–pathogen interactions. PMID:25699030

  6. Interferon-induced protein Ifit2 protects mice from infection of the peripheral nervous system by vesicular stomatitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensterl, Volker; Wetzel, Jaime L; Sen, Ganes C

    2014-09-01

    The interferon system provides the first line of host defense against virus infection. Mouse pathogenesis studies have revealed the importance of specific interferon-induced proteins in providing protection against specific viruses. We have previously reported that one such protein, Ifit2, protects neurons of the central nervous system from intranasal infection by the neurotropic rhabdovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Here, we demonstrate that Ifit2 protects the peripheral nervous system from VSV infection as well. In Ifit2(-/-) mice, VSV, injected subcutaneously into the footpad, entered the proximal lymph node, where it replicated and infected the nodal nerve endings. The infection spread to the sciatic nerve, the spinal cord, and the brain, causing paralysis. In contrast, in the wild-type mice, although VSV replicated equally well in the lymph node, infection of the sciatic nerve and the rest of the nervous system was impaired, thus preventing paralysis. Ifit2 protected only the nervous system from VSV infection; other tissues were well protected even in Ifit2(-/-) mice. These results indicate that Ifit2 is the interferon-induced protein that prevents VSV infection of neurons of both the peripheral and the central nervous systems, thus inhibiting the consequent neuropathy, but it is dispensable for protecting the cells of other tissues from VSV infection. Although viral infection is quite common, the immune system effectively protects us from viral diseases. A major part of this protection is mediated by interferon, the antiviral cytokine secreted by virus-infected cells. To empower the neighboring uninfected cells in combating the oncoming infection, interferon induces the synthesis of more than 200 new proteins, many of which have antiviral activities. The virus studied here, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), like its relative, rabies virus, can cause neuropathy in mice if it enters the peripheral nervous system through skin lesions; however

  7. The p19 protein of Grapevine Algerian latent virus is a determinant of systemic infection of Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Semin; Cho, Won Kyong; Lee, Hyeok-Geun; Park, Sang-Ho; Sohn, Seong-Han; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2012-04-01

    A previous study showed that both Grapevine Algerian latent virus (GALV) and Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) systemically infect Nicotiana benthamiana, but GALV causes systemic infection whereas TBSV causes only local lesions in Chenopodium quinoa (C. quinoa). We recently isolated GALV strain Naju (GALV-N) from Limonium sinense and TBSV strain Sacheon (TBSV-S) from tomato. Both viruses belong to the genus Tombusvirus and have a similar genome organization. To identify determinants of systemic infection of GALV-N in C. quinoa in the current study, we generated infectious clones and capsid protein (CP)-deletion clones for the two viruses and confirmed that CP of GALV-N is required for systemic infection of C. quinoa due to its primary structural role in virus assembly. Through the use of chimeras, we identified a viral factor in addition to CP that contributes to systemic infection by GALV-N. Inactivation of the p19 demonstrated that host-specific activities of p19 are necessary for efficient systemic infection of C. quinoa by GALV-N. Our study is the first report to determine the viral factors required for systemic infection of GALV in C. quinoa. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Susceptibility of KSHV-Infected PEL Cell Lines to the Human Complement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hyungtaek; Lee, Suhyuk; Lee, Myung-Shin

    2016-03-01

    Pleural effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare B-cell lymphoma that has a very poor prognosis with a median survival time of around 6 months. PEL is caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, and is often co-infected with the Epstein Barr virus. The complement system is fundamental in the innate immune system against pathogen invasion and tumor development. In the present study, we investigated the activation of the complement system in PEL cells using human serum complements. Interestingly, two widely used PEL cell lines, BCP-1 and BCBL-1, showed different susceptibility to the complement system, which may be due to CD46 expression on their cell membranes. Complement activation did not induce apoptosis but supported cell survival considerably. Our results demonstrated the susceptibility of PEL to the complement system and its underlying mechanisms, which would provide insight into understanding the pathogenesis of PEL.

  9. Pathoadaptive Mutations of Escherichia coli K1 in Experimental Neonatal Systemic Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex J McCarthy

    Full Text Available Although Escherichia coli K1 strains are benign commensals in adults, their acquisition at birth by the newborn may result in life-threatening systemic infections, most commonly sepsis and meningitis. Key features of these infections, including stable gastrointestinal (GI colonization and age-dependent invasion of the bloodstream, can be replicated in the neonatal rat. We previously increased the capacity of a septicemia isolate of E. coli K1 to elicit systemic infection following colonization of the small intestine by serial passage through two-day-old (P2 rat pups. The passaged strain, A192PP (belonging to sequence type 95, induces lethal infection in all pups fed 2-6 x 106 CFU. Here we use whole-genome sequencing to identify mutations responsible for the threefold increase in lethality between the initial clinical isolate and the passaged derivative. Only four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, in genes (gloB, yjgV, tdcE or promoters (thrA involved in metabolic functions, were found: no changes were detected in genes encoding virulence determinants associated with the invasive potential of E. coli K1. The passaged strain differed in carbon source utilization in comparison to the clinical isolate, most notably its inability to metabolize glucose for growth. Deletion of each of the four genes from the E. coli A192PP chromosome altered the proteome, reduced the number of colonizing bacteria in the small intestine and increased the number of P2 survivors. This work indicates that changes in metabolic potential lead to increased colonization of the neonatal GI tract, increasing the potential for translocation across the GI epithelium into the systemic circulation.

  10. Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System in Small Animals: Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Timothy; Taylor, Amanda R; Thomovsky, Stephanie A

    2018-01-01

    Small animal mycoses vary geographically. Different clinical presentations are seen in animals with infection of the central nervous system (CNS), including multifocal meningoencephalomyelitis, intracranial lesions that accompany sinonasal lesions, rapidly progressive ventriculitis, or solitary granuloma of the brain or spinal cord. Systemic, nasal, or extraneural clinical signs are common but, especially in granuloma cases, do not always occur. Surgery may have a diagnostic and therapeutic role in CNS granuloma. There have been recent advancements in serology. Fluconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole cross the blood-brain barrier, but voriconazole is neurotoxic to cats. Liposomal and lipid-encapsulated formulations of amphotericin B are preferred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic adaptation of a human pathogen during chronic infections - a systems biology approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Juliane Charlotte

    modeling to uncover how human pathogens adapt to the human host. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis patients are used as a model system for under-­‐ standing these adaptation processes. The exploratory systems biology approach facilitates identification of important phenotypes...... by classical molecular biology approaches where genes and reactions typically are investigated in a one to one relationship. This thesis is an example of how mathematical approaches and modeling can facilitate new biologi-­‐ cal understanding and provide new surprising ideas to important biological processes....

  12. Development of a magnetic system for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Érica L.; Carvalho, Juliana F.; Pontes, Thales R. F.; Oliveira, Elquio E.; Francelino, Bárbara L.; Medeiros, Aldo C.; do Egito, E. Sócrates T.; Araujo, José H.; Carriço, Artur S.

    2009-05-01

    We report a study to develop a magnetic system for local delivery of amoxicillin. Magnetite microparticles produced by coprecipitation were coated with a solution of amoxicillin and Eudragit ®S100 by spray drying. Scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the particles were superparamagnetic, with an average diameter of 17.2 μm, and an initial susceptibility controllable by the magnetite content in the suspension feeding the sprayer. Our results suggest a possible way to treat Helicobacter pylori infections, using an oral drug delivery system, and open prospects to coat magnetic microparticles by spray drying for biomedical applications.

  13. Development of a magnetic system for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Erica L.; Carvalho, Juliana F.; Pontes, Thales R.F.; Oliveira, Elquio E. [Departamento de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Rua Gal Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias s.n, Petropolis, 59010-180 Natal-RN (Brazil); Francelino, Barbara L.; Medeiros, Aldo C. [Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Rua Gal Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias s.n, Petropolis, 59010-180 Natal-RN (Brazil); Egito, E. Socrates T. do [Departamento de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Rua Gal Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias s.n, Petropolis, 59010-180 Natal-RN (Brazil); Araujo, Jose H. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario, 59078-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Carrico, Artur S. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario, 59078-970 Natal-RN (Brazil)], E-mail: ascarrico@dfte.ufrn.br

    2009-05-15

    We report a study to develop a magnetic system for local delivery of amoxicillin. Magnetite microparticles produced by coprecipitation were coated with a solution of amoxicillin and Eudragit S100 by spray drying. Scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the particles were superparamagnetic, with an average diameter of 17.2 {mu}m, and an initial susceptibility controllable by the magnetite content in the suspension feeding the sprayer. Our results suggest a possible way to treat Helicobacter pylori infections, using an oral drug delivery system, and open prospects to coat magnetic microparticles by spray drying for biomedical applications.

  14. Clam focal and systemic immune responses to QPX infection revealed by RNA-seq technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kailai; del Castillo, Carmelo; Corre, Erwan; Pales Espinosa, Emmanuelle; Allam, Bassem

    2016-02-27

    The hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria is an important seafood species widely exploited along the eastern coasts of the United States and play a crucial role in coastal ecology and economy. Severe hard clam mortalities have been associated with the protistan parasite QPX (Quahog Parasite Unknown). QPX infection establishes in pallial organs with the lesions typically characterized as nodules, which represent inflammatory masses formed by hemocyte infiltration and encapsulation of parasites. QPX infection is known to induce host changes on both the whole-organism level and at specific lesion areas, which imply systemic and focal defense responses, respectively. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these alterations. RNA-seq was performed using Illumina Hiseq 2000 (641 Million 100 bp reads) to characterize M. mercenaria focal and systemic immune responses to QPX. Transcripts were assembled and the expression levels were compared between nodule and healthy tissues from infected clams, and between these and tissues from healthy clams. De novo assembly reconstructed a consensus transcriptome of 62,980 sequences that was functionally-annotated. A total of 3,131 transcripts were identified as differentially expressed in different tissues. Results allowed the identification of host immune factors implicated in the systemic and focal responses against QPX and unraveled the pathways involved in parasite neutralization. Among transcripts significantly modulated upon host-pathogen interactions, those involved in non-self recognition, signal transduction and defense response were over-represented. Alterations in pathways regulating hemocyte focal adhesion, migration and apoptosis were also demonstrated. Our study is the first attempt to thoroughly characterize M. mercenaria transcriptome and identify molecular features associated with QPX infection. It is also one of the first studies contrasting focal and systemic responses to infections in

  15. The burden of common infections in children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus: A Pediatric Health Information System study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbel, Lindsey; Easterling, Robert S; Punja, Nidhi; Spencer, John David

    2017-11-02

    People with diabetes mellitus (DM) have increased infection risk. The healthcare utilization of pediatric and adolescent diabetic patients with infection is not well defined. This study evaluates the number of pediatric and adolescent patients with DM that seek medical treatment for infection management and assesses its socioeconomic impact. A retrospective analysis was performed using the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database on children and adolescents with DM who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) or were hospitalized for infection management from 2008 to 2014. The PHIS database collects admission, demographic, and economic data from 44 freestanding children's hospitals across the United States. In total, 123 599 diabetic patient encounters were identified (77% type 1 DM, 23% type 2 DM). ED visits and hospitalizations for type 1 DM and type 2 DM increased throughout the study period. Total charges for these encounters were greater than $250 million dollars per year and increased each year. Infection encounters make up more than 30% of that cost while accounting for only 14% of the visits. Respiratory infections were the most common type of infection followed by skin and soft tissue infections for both ED care and inpatient hospitalizations. Patients with infections had longer hospital length of stay and higher cost per day than those without infections. Children and adolescents with type 1 and type 2 DM commonly present to the ED and require hospitalization for infection evaluation and management. Encounters with infection make up a large proportion of a growing economic burden on the United States' healthcare system. As the prevalence of DM grows, this burden can be expected to become even more significant. Cost-effective strategies for the prevention of infection in pediatric patients with DM are needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Intraventricular ciprofloxacin usage in treatment of multidrug-resistant central nervous system infections: report of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Karaaslan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, multidrug-resistant microorganisms appear as important nosocomial pathogens which treatment is quite difficult. As sufficient drug levels could not be achieved in cerebrospinal fluid during intravenous antibiotic therapy for central nervous system infections and due to multidrug-resistance treatment alternatives are limited. In this study, four cases of central nervous system infections due to multidrug-resistant microorganisms who were successfully treated with removal of the devices and intraventricular ciprofloxacin are presented. In conclusion, intraventricular ciprofloxacin can be used for treatment of central nervous system infections if the causative microorganism is sensitive to the drug and no other alternative therapy is available.

  17. Trends in the incidence rate of device-associated infections in intensive care units after the establishment of the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J Y; Kwak, Y G; Yoo, H; Lee, S-O; Kim, H B; Han, S H; Choi, H J; Kim, Y K; Kim, S R; Kim, T H; Lee, H; Chun, H K; Kim, J-S; Eun, B W; Kim, D W; Koo, H-S; Bae, G-R; Lee, K

    2015-09-01

    The effectiveness of continuous nationwide surveillance on healthcare-associated infections should be investigated in each country. To assess the rate of device-associated infections (DAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs) since the establishment of the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS). Nationwide data were obtained on the incidence rate of DAI in ICUs reported to KONIS by all participating hospitals. The three major DAIs were studied: ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CABSI), and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). The pooled and year-wise incidence rates (cases per 1000 device-days) of these DAIs were determined for the period 2006 and 2012. In addition, data from institutions that had participated in KONIS for at least three consecutive years were analysed separately. The number of ICUs participating in KONIS gradually increased from 76 in 2006 to 162 in 2012. Between 2006 and 2012, the incidence rate per 1000 device-days for VAP decreased significantly from 3.48 to 1.64 (F = 11, P Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of metal-on-metal wear on the host immune system and infection in hip arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosman, Anton H.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Busscher, Henk J.; Neut, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Methods We reviewed the available literature on the influence of degradation products of MOM bearings in total hip arthroplasties on infection risk. Results Wear products were found to influence the risk of infection by hampering the immune system, by inhibiting or accelerating bacterial growth, and

  19. Harmonisation of the acute respiratory infection reporting system in the Czech Republic with the European community networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyncl, J.; Paget, W.J.; Havlickova, M.; Kriz, B.

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory virus activity is detected in Europe each winter, yet the precise timing and size of this activity is highly unpredictable. The impact of influenza infection and/or acute respiratory infection in European countries is continuously monitored through a variety of surveillance systems. All

  20. Toxoplasma gondii Infections Alter GABAergic Synapses and Signaling in the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Justin M.; Carrillo, Gabriela L.; Su, Jianmin; Lindsay, David S.; Blader, Ira J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During infections with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is utilized as a carbon source for parasite metabolism and also to facilitate parasite dissemination by stimulating dendritic-cell motility. The best-recognized function for GABA, however, is its role in the nervous system as an inhibitory neurotransmitter that regulates the flow and timing of excitatory neurotransmission. When this pathway is altered, seizures develop. Human toxoplasmosis patients suffer from seizures, suggesting that Toxoplasma interferes with GABA signaling in the brain. Here, we show that while excitatory glutamatergic presynaptic proteins appeared normal, infection with type II ME49 Toxoplasma tissue cysts led to global changes in the distribution of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), a key enzyme that catalyzes GABA synthesis in the brain. Alterations in GAD67 staining were not due to decreased expression but rather to a change from GAD67 clustering at presynaptic termini to a more diffuse localization throughout the neuropil. Consistent with a loss of GAD67 from the synaptic terminals, Toxoplasma-infected mice develop spontaneous seizures and are more susceptible to drugs that induce seizures by antagonizing GABA receptors. Interestingly, GABAergic protein mislocalization and the response to seizure-inducing drugs were observed in mice infected with type II ME49 but not type III CEP strain parasites, indicating a role for a polymorphic parasite factor(s) in regulating GABAergic synapses. Taken together, these data support a model in which seizures and other neurological complications seen in Toxoplasma-infected individuals are due, at least in part, to changes in GABAergic signaling. PMID:26507232

  1. The ubiquitin proteasome system plays a role in venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection.

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    Moushimi Amaya

    Full Text Available Many viruses have been implicated in utilizing or modulating the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS to enhance viral multiplication and/or to sustain a persistent infection. The mosquito-borne Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV belongs to the Togaviridae family and is an important biodefense pathogen and select agent. There are currently no approved vaccines or therapies for VEEV infections; therefore, it is imperative to identify novel targets for therapeutic development. We hypothesized that a functional UPS is required for efficient VEEV multiplication. We have shown that at non-toxic concentrations Bortezomib, a FDA-approved inhibitor of the proteasome, proved to be a potent inhibitor of VEEV multiplication in the human astrocytoma cell line U87MG. Bortezomib inhibited the virulent Trinidad donkey (TrD strain and the attenuated TC-83 strain of VEEV. Additional studies with virulent strains of Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV demonstrated that Bortezomib is a broad spectrum inhibitor of the New World alphaviruses. Time-of-addition assays showed that Bortezomib was an effective inhibitor of viral multiplication even when the drug was introduced many hours post exposure to the virus. Mass spectrometry analyses indicated that the VEEV capsid protein is ubiquitinated in infected cells, which was validated by confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation assays. Subsequent studies revealed that capsid is ubiquitinated on K48 during early stages of infection which was affected by Bortezomib treatment. This study will aid future investigations in identifying host proteins as potential broad spectrum therapeutic targets for treating alphavirus infections.

  2. Elevated Systemic Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Older Women with Persistent Cervical HPV Infection1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Troy J.; Hildesheim, Allan; García-Piñeres, Alfonso; Williams, Marcus C.; Shearer, Gene M.; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Burk, Robert; Freer, Enrique; Bonilla, Jose; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Defects in lymphoproliferative responses to mitogen/antigens in women >45 years old ith a persistent type-specific HPV infection have been reported. Methods To determine whether these defects were associated with altered cytokine profiles, plasma and PBMC culture supernatants from 50 cases (persistent HPV infection and weak lymphoproliferative responses) and 50 uninfected controls were examined for 24 cytokines using multiplexed bead-based immunoassays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The following plasma cytokines were significantly increased from cases relative to controls: (cases vs. controls (median pg/ml); IL-6: 393.1 vs. 14.5, IL-8: 1128.5 vs. 43.9, TNF-α: 164.1 vs. 9.2, MIP-1α: 1368.9 vs. 25.5, GM-CSF: 13.8 vs. 7.3, IL-1β: 8.3 vs. 1.6, all p10) and highly statistically significant difference between cases and controls. Moreover, length of persistence or type of infection (high risk and low risk) did not affect these differences. IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α levels were increased in unstimulated PBMC culture supernatants from cases compared to controls (p <0.05), except for IL-8 (p=0.09). However, the cytokine levels from PHA-stimulated PBMC culture supernatants were significantly lower in the cases (p<0.0001). Conclusions Persistent HPV infection in older women with evidence of immune deficit is associated with an increase in systemic inflammatory cytokines. Impact Future studies are needed to determine whether the inflammatory profile is age dependent and to examine the role inflammatory cytokines play in HPV-induced progression from infection to cervical cancer. PMID:20647411

  3. Relapsing Campylobacter jejuni Systemic Infections in a Child with X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia

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    Paola Ariganello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA is a primary immunodeficiency of the humoral compartment, due to a mutation in the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK gene, characterized by a severe defect of circulating B cells and serum immunoglobulins. Recurrent infections are the main clinical manifestations; although they are especially due to encapsulated bacteria, a specific association with Campylobacter species has been reported. Here, we report the case of a boy with XLA who presented with relapsing Campylobacter jejuni systemic infections. His clinical history supports the hypothesis of the persistence of C. jejuni in his intestinal tract. Indeed, as previously reported, XLA patients may become chronic intestinal carriers of Campylobacter, even in absence of symptoms, with an increased risk of relapsing bacteraemia. The humoral defect is considered to be crucial for this phenomenon, as well as the difficulties to eradicate the pathogen with an appropriate antibiotic therapy; drug resistance is raising in Campylobacter species, and the appropriate duration of treatment has not been established. C. jejuni should always be suspected in XLA patients with signs and symptoms of systemic infection, and treatment should be based on antibiogram to assure the eradication of the pathogen.

  4. Incidence, risk factors and outcome of nosocomial pneumonia in patients with central nervous system infections

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    Gajović Olgica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pneumonia is the most frequent nosocomial infection in intensive care units. The reported frequency varies with definition, the type of hospital or intensive care units and the population of patients. The incidence ranges from 6.8-27%. Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency, risk factors and mortality of nosocomial pneumonia in intensive care patients. Methods. We analyzed retrospectively and prospectively the collected data of 180 patients with central nervous system infections who needed to stay in the intensive care unit for more than 48 hours. This study was conducted from 2003 to 2009 at the Clinical Centre of Kragujevac. Results. During the study period, 54 (30% patients developed nosocomial pneumonia. The time to develop pneumonia was 10±6 days. We found that the following risk factors for the development of nosocomial pneumonia were statistically significant: age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score <9, mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy, presence of nasogastric tube and enteral feeding. The most commonly isolated pathogens were Klebsiella-Enterobacter spp. (33.3%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24.1%, Acinetobacter spp. (16.6% and Staphylococcus aureus (25.9%. Conclusion. Nosocomial pneumonia is the major cause of morbidity and mortality of patients with central nervous system infections. Patients on mechanical ventilation are particularly at a high risk. The mortality rate of patients with nosocomial pneumonia was 54.4% and it was five times higher than in patients without pneumonia.

  5. Trichoderma harzianum T-22 induces systemic resistance in tomato infected by Cucumber mosaic virus

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    Antonella Vitti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the induction of plant defenses against viruses using biocontrol agents is essential for developing new strategies against these pathogens, given the ineffectiveness of chemical treatments. The ability of Trichoderma harzianum, strain T-22 (T22 to control Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV in Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme plants and the changes in the physiology of tomato treated/infected with T22/CMV were examined. Plant growth-promoting effects, photosynthetic performance, reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging enzymes, and phytohormones were investigated. T22 improved tomato growth in terms of plant height and improved photosynthesis, total chlorophyll content and plant gas exchange. In contrast, CMV induced a negative effect on dry matter accumulation and inhibited the photosynthetic capacity. The analysis of plant hormones demonstrated that treating with T22 before or simultaneously to CMV infection, led to a systemic resistance by jasmonic acid/ethylene and salicylic acid signaling pathways. Conversely, systemic resistance was abscissic acid-dependent when T22 treatment was administered after the CMV infection. In conclusion, the data reported here indicate that the T22-based strategy may be the most effective measure against CMV.

  6. Diversity, Prevalence, and Longitudinal Occurrence of Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Systems of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infecting Cystic Fibrosis Lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum Andersen, Sandra; Ghoul, Melanie; Griffin, Ashleigh S.

    2017-01-01

    responses responsible for pathogen virulence, formation of drug-tolerant persister cells and biofilms—all implicated in causing recalcitrant chronic infections. We use a bioinformatics approach to explore the distribution and evolution of type II TA loci of the opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa......, across longitudinally sampled isolates from cystic fibrosis lungs. We identify their location in the genome, mutations, and gain/loss during infection to elucidate their function(s) in stabilizing selfish elements and pathogenesis. We found (1) 26 distinct TA systems, where all isolates harbor four...... infection, but those with a particular TA, are more successful in establishing a chronic infection....

  7. Schistosomiasis and infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 in rural Zimbabwe: systemic inflammation during co-infection and after treatment for schistosomiasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, C.; Kallestrup, P.; Zinyama-Gutsire, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported that treatment for schistosomiasis in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) attenuated HIV replication as measured by plasma HIV RNA. We investigated systemic inflammation as measured by plasma levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor II...

  8. Systemic signature of the lung response to respiratory syncytial virus infection.

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    Jeroen L A Pennings

    Full Text Available Respiratory Syncytial Virus is a frequent cause of severe bronchiolitis in children. To improve our understanding of systemic host responses to RSV, we compared BALB/c mouse gene expression responses at day 1, 2, and 5 during primary RSV infection in lung, bronchial lymph nodes, and blood. We identified a set of 53 interferon-associated and innate immunity genes that give correlated responses in all three murine tissues. Additionally, we identified blood gene signatures that are indicative of acute infection, secondary immune response, and vaccine-enhanced disease, respectively. Eosinophil-associated ribonucleases were characteristic for the vaccine-enhanced disease blood signature. These results indicate that it may be possible to distinguish protective and unfavorable patient lung responses via blood diagnostics.

  9. Role of very late antigen-1 in T-cell-mediated immunity to systemic viral infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Kauffmann, Susanne; Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard

    2006-01-01

    The T-cell response to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was studied in mice lacking very late antigen-1 (VLA-1). The generation of virus-specific effector T cells was unimpaired in VLA-1(-/-) mice. In the memory phase, VLA-1 deficiency did not influence the number of memory CD8(+) T cells...... significant differences between the two strains. Expression of VLA-1 was also found to be redundant regarding the ability of effector T cells to eliminate virus from internal organs of i.v. infected mice. Using delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) assays to evaluate subdermal CD8(+) T......, the current findings indicate that the expression of VLA-1 is not pivotal for T-cell-mediated antiviral immunity to a systemic infection....

  10. Disseminated cytomegalovirus infection complicating active treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: an emerging problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, N; Belmont, H M

    2017-04-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) often require immunosuppression to induce remission of active disease exacerbations. Over the past two decades, treatment modalities for this condition have emerged leading to improved morbidity from disease related outcomes. However, as a result, infection risks and patterns have changed, leading to higher rates of opportunistic infections among this population. We report four cases of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in patients with SLE who received immunosuppressive therapy, including pulse steroids, antimetabolites such as mycophenolate mofetil, and alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide. We propose that given the rise in prevalence of CMV, there is a need for appropriate screening for this opportunistic pathogen and studies to determine the risks and benefits of prophylactic or preemptive treatment for this virus.

  11. The apoplastic antioxidant system in Prunus: response to long-term plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Vivancos, P; Rubio, M; Mesonero, V; Periago, P M; Barceló, A Ros; Martínez-Gómez, P; Hernández, J A

    2006-01-01

    This work describes, for the first time, the changes taking place in the antioxidative system of the leaf apoplast in response to plum pox virus (PPV) in different Prunus species showing different susceptibilities to PPV. The presence of p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid (pHMB)-sensitive ascorbate peroxidase (APX) (class I APX) and pHMB-insensitive APX (class III APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), NADH-POX, and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was described in the apoplast from both peach and apricot leaves. PPV infection produced different changes in the antioxidant system of the leaf apoplast from the Prunus species, depending on their susceptibility to the virus. In leaves of the very susceptible peach cultivar GF305, PPV brought about an increase in class I APX, POX, NADH-POX, and PPO activities. In the susceptible apricot cultivar Real Fino, PPV infection produced a decrease in apoplastic POX and SOD activities, whereas a strong increase in PPO was observed. However, in the resistant apricot cultivar Stark Early Orange, a rise in class I APX as well as a strong increase in POX and SOD activities was noticed in the apoplastic compartment. Long-term PPV infection produced an oxidative stress in the apoplastic space from apricot and peach plants, as observed by the increase in H2O2 contents in this compartment. However, this increase was much higher in the PPV-susceptible plants than in the resistant apricot cultivar. Only in the PPV-susceptible apricot and peach plants was the increase in apoplastic H2O2 levels accompanied by an increase in electrolyte leakage. No changes in the electrolyte leakage were observed in the PPV-inoculated resistant apricot leaves, although a 42% increase in the apoplastic H2O2 levels was produced. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analyses revealed that the majority of the polypeptides in the apoplastic fluid had isoelectric points in the range of pI 4-6. The identification of proteins using MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser

  12. New Paradigms for the Study of Ocular Alphaherpesvirus Infections: Insights into the Use of Non-Traditional Host Model Systems

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    Matthew R. Pennington

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ocular herpesviruses, most notably human alphaherpesvirus 1 (HSV-1, canid alphaherpesvirus 1 (CHV-1 and felid alphaherpesvirus 1 (FHV-1, infect and cause severe disease that may lead to blindness. CHV-1 and FHV-1 have a pathogenesis and induce clinical disease in their hosts that is similar to HSV-1 ocular infections in humans, suggesting that infection of dogs and cats with CHV-1 and FHV-1, respectively, can be used as a comparative natural host model of herpesvirus-induced ocular disease. In this review, we discuss both strengths and limitations of the various available model systems to study ocular herpesvirus infection, with a focus on the use of these non-traditional virus-natural host models. Recent work has demonstrated the robustness and reproducibility of experimental ocular herpesvirus infections in dogs and cats, and, therefore, these non-traditional models can provide additional insights into the pathogenesis of ocular herpesvirus infections.

  13. Evidence for Systemic Infection by Puccinia horiana, Causal Agent of Chrysanthemum White Rust, in Chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, M R; Murphy, C A; Bauchan, G R; Luster, D G; Palmer, C L; Nester, S E; Revell, J M; Berner, D K

    2015-01-01

    Puccinia horiana, causal agent of the disease commonly known as chrysanthemum white rust (CWR), is a quarantine-significant fungal pathogen of chrysanthemum in the United States and indigenous to Asia. The pathogen was believed to have been eradicated in the United States but recently reappeared on several occasions in northeastern United States. The objective of the study presented here was to determine whether P. horiana could systemically infect chrysanthemum plants, thus providing a means of survival through winters. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed the development of P. horiana on the surface and within leaves, stems, or crowns of inoculated chrysanthemum plants artificially exposed to northeastern U.S. winter temperatures. P. horiana penetrated leaves directly through the cuticle and then colonized the mesophyll tissue both inter- and intracellularly. An electron-dense material formed at the interface between fungal and host mesophyll cells, suggesting that the pathogen adhered to the plant cells. P. horiana appeared to penetrate mesophyll cell walls by enzymatic digestion, as indicated by the absence of deformation lines in host cell walls at penetration sites. The fungus was common in vascular tissue within the infected crown, often nearly replacing the entire contents of tracheid cell walls. P. horiana frequently passed from one tracheid cell to an adjacent tracheid cell by penetration either through pit pairs or nonpitted areas of the cell walls. Individual, presumed, fungal cells in mature tracheid cells of the crown and stems arising from infected crowns suggested that the pathogen might have been moving at least partially by means of the transpiration stream. The demonstration that chrysanthemum plants can be systemically infected by P. horiana suggests that additional disease control measures are required to effectively control CWR.

  14. Immunologic Storm Simulating Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Following Parvovirus B19 Infection

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    Roxana González-Mazarío

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The appearance of symptoms compatible with systemic autoimmune diseases has been described in relation to several viral infections like HIV, cytomegalovirus and especially PVB19, depending on the evolution of the immunological condition of the host and their age. We present a young immunocompetent male patient, with clinical manifestations simulating systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE with important activation of cytokines. Methods: For quantification of the different cytokines in plasma, a commercially available multiplex bead immunoassay, based on the Luminex platform (Cat # HSCYTO-60SK-08, Milliplex® MAP High Sensitivity, Millipore, was used according to the manufacturer’s instructions. All samples were run in duplicate and the data (mean fluorescence intensity were analyzed using a Luminex reader. The mean concentration was calculated using a standard curve. Results: The clinical evolution was favourable without the need for any specific treatment, showing complete recovery after two months. Whilst the symptoms and viral charge were disappearing, the anti-DNA continued to increase and we demonstrate important activation of IL-10, IL-6 and TNFα cytokines as a result of a hyperstimulating response by an immunocompetent hyperfunctional system, which persists after clinical improvement. We should emphasize the behaviour of two cytokines: IL-12p70 and IL-2, which showed opposite tendencies. Conclusions: Viral infections, especially PVB19, can produce or simulate several autoimmune diseases as a hyperstimulation response from an immunocompetent hyperfunctional system. Consequently, a persistent increase of autoantobodies and important activation of cytokines, even after clinical improvement and seroconversion, can be demonstrated.

  15. Infection control at an urban hospital in Manila, Philippines: a systems engineering assessment of barriers and facilitators

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    Kaitlin F. Mitchell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare facilities in low- and middle-income countries, including the Philippines, face substantial challenges in achieving effective infection control. Early stages of interventions should include efforts to understand perceptions held by healthcare workers who participate in infection control programs. Methods We performed a qualitative study to examine facilitators and barriers to infection control at an 800-bed, private, tertiary hospital in Manila, Philippines. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 nurses, physicians, and clinical pharmacists using a guide based on the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS. Major facilitators and barriers to infection control were reported for each SEIPS factor: person, organization, tasks, physical environment, and technology and tools. Results Primary facilitators included a robust, long-standing infection control committee, a dedicated infection control nursing staff, and innovative electronic hand hygiene surveillance technology. Barriers included suboptimal dissemination of hand hygiene compliance data, high nursing turnover, clinical time constraints, and resource limitations that restricted equipment purchasing. Conclusions The identified facilitators and barriers may be used to prioritize possible opportunities for infection control interventions. A systems engineering approach is useful for conducting a comprehensive work system analysis, and maximizing resources to overcome known barriers to infection control in heavily resource-constrained settings.

  16. Infection control at an urban hospital in Manila, Philippines: a systems engineering assessment of barriers and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kaitlin F; Barker, Anna K; Abad, Cybele L; Safdar, Nasia

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare facilities in low- and middle-income countries, including the Philippines, face substantial challenges in achieving effective infection control. Early stages of interventions should include efforts to understand perceptions held by healthcare workers who participate in infection control programs. We performed a qualitative study to examine facilitators and barriers to infection control at an 800-bed, private, tertiary hospital in Manila, Philippines. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 nurses, physicians, and clinical pharmacists using a guide based on the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS). Major facilitators and barriers to infection control were reported for each SEIPS factor: person, organization, tasks, physical environment, and technology and tools. Primary facilitators included a robust, long-standing infection control committee, a dedicated infection control nursing staff, and innovative electronic hand hygiene surveillance technology. Barriers included suboptimal dissemination of hand hygiene compliance data, high nursing turnover, clinical time constraints, and resource limitations that restricted equipment purchasing. The identified facilitators and barriers may be used to prioritize possible opportunities for infection control interventions. A systems engineering approach is useful for conducting a comprehensive work system analysis, and maximizing resources to overcome known barriers to infection control in heavily resource-constrained settings.

  17. DRUG PROVISION OF HIV INFECTED CRIMINALS IN INSTITUTIONS OF CRIMINAL-EXECUTIVE SYSTEM OF KRASNODAR REGION

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    I. V. Kalinin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV leads not only to loss of health in persons held in penitentiary institutions, but also to an increase in material costs for drug coverage of the infected, causing the deficit in the budget of the Russian Federation.The aim of the study is the investigation of the problems in drug supply of HIV-infected people and to search for their solutions.Materials and methods. The investigation was conducted on the basis of statistic data, medical statements and accounting to reports of the penitentiary medical organization using methods of analysis, documentary observation, grouping and comparison of data.Results and discussion. It has been established that in institutions of the penal system the number of HIV-infected criminals continues to grow rapidly. It has been determined that currently in the criminal-executive system (CES of Kuban’ only 5 classes of antiretroviral drugs out of the 10 classes represented on the Russian pharmacy market are used. Hereby the greatest number of drugs used in prison medical organization for conducting antiretroviral therapy (ARVT, are classified as “Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors” and “Protease Inhibitors”, and other classes of art drugs are represented by only one international nonproprietary name (raltegravir, enfuvirtide, etravirine. Drug treatment of socially significant infectious diseases is supplied centrally and completely satisfies regional needs. The structure of suppliers has been identified and determined. In 2016 the main suppliers were Joint-stock companies (JSC “National Immunobiological Company” and “R-PHARM”. An acute shortage of drugs for opportunistic infections due to insufficient funding has also been determined. The necessity for urgent replacement of material-technical base in prison pharmacies for compliance with the rules of storage of medicines which can ensure their safety was identified. The imperfection of

  18. Central nervous system infections masquerading as cerebrovascular accidents: Case series and review of literature

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    Lisa Hayes

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The cases described demonstrate that CNS infections need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of CVAs presenting with fevers. The signs and symptoms of non-CNS infections associated with CVAs may be clinically indistinguishable from those of CNS infections. The outcomes of untreated CNS infections are extremely poor. It is thus imperative to have a high index of suspicion for CNS infection when evaluating CVAs with fevers or other signs of infection.

  19. Effector Mechanisms of Neutrophils within the Innate Immune System in Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

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    Eric Warren

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils have a significant yet controversial role in the innate immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb infection, which is not yet fully understood. In addition to neutrophils’ well-known effector mechanisms, they may also help control infection of M. tb through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs, which are thought to further promote the killing of M. tb by resident alveolar macrophages. Cytokines such as IFN-γ have now been shown to serve an immunomodulatory role in neutrophil functioning in conjunction to its pro-inflammatory function. Additionally, the unique transcriptional changes of neutrophils may be used to differentiate between infection with M. tb and other bacterial and chronic rheumatological diseases such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Adversely, during the innate immune response to M. tb, inappropriate phagocytosis of spent neutrophils can result in nonspecific damage to host cells due to necrotic lysis. Furthermore, some individuals have been shown to be more genetically susceptible to tuberculosis (TB due to a “Trojan Horse” phenomenon whereby neutrophils block the ability of resident macrophages to kill M. tb. Despite these aforementioned negative consequences, through the scope of this review we will provide evidence to support the idea that neutrophils, while sometimes damaging, can also be an important component in warding off M. tb infection. This is exemplified in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. These individuals are at an increased risk of developing tuberculosis (TB due to a diminished innate immune response associated with decreased levels of glutathione. Consequently, there has been a worldwide effort to limit and contain M. tb infection through the use of antibiotics and vaccinations. However, due to several significant limitations, the current bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine (BCG

  20. Effector Mechanisms of Neutrophils within the Innate Immune System in Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Eric; Teskey, Garrett; Venketaraman, Vishwanath

    2017-02-07

    Neutrophils have a significant yet controversial role in the innate immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tb ) infection, which is not yet fully understood. In addition to neutrophils' well-known effector mechanisms, they may also help control infection of M. tb through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are thought to further promote the killing of M. tb by resident alveolar macrophages. Cytokines such as IFN-γ have now been shown to serve an immunomodulatory role in neutrophil functioning in conjunction to its pro-inflammatory function. Additionally, the unique transcriptional changes of neutrophils may be used to differentiate between infection with M. tb and other bacterial and chronic rheumatological diseases such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Adversely, during the innate immune response to M. tb , inappropriate phagocytosis of spent neutrophils can result in nonspecific damage to host cells due to necrotic lysis. Furthermore, some individuals have been shown to be more genetically susceptible to tuberculosis (TB) due to a "Trojan Horse" phenomenon whereby neutrophils block the ability of resident macrophages to kill M. tb . Despite these aforementioned negative consequences, through the scope of this review we will provide evidence to support the idea that neutrophils, while sometimes damaging, can also be an important component in warding off M. tb infection. This is exemplified in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. These individuals are at an increased risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) due to a diminished innate immune response associated with decreased levels of glutathione. Consequently, there has been a worldwide effort to limit and contain M. tb infection through the use of antibiotics and vaccinations. However, due to several significant limitations, the current bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine (BCG, vaccine against TB

  1. Syk signaling in dendritic cells orchestrates innate resistance to systemic fungal infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G Whitney

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Host protection from fungal infection is thought to ensue in part from the activity of Syk-coupled C-type lectin receptors and MyD88-coupled toll-like receptors in myeloid cells, including neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs. Given the multitude of cell types and receptors involved, elimination of a single pathway for fungal recognition in a cell type such as DCs, primarily known for their ability to prime T cell responses, would be expected to have little effect on innate resistance to fungal infection. Here we report that this is surprisingly not the case and that selective loss of Syk but not MyD88 in DCs abrogates innate resistance to acute systemic Candida albicans infection in mice. We show that Syk expression by DCs is necessary for IL-23p19 production in response to C. albicans, which is essential to transiently induce GM-CSF secretion by NK cells that are recruited to the site of fungal replication. NK cell-derived-GM-CSF in turn sustains the anti-microbial activity of neutrophils, the main fungicidal effectors. Thus, the activity of a single kinase in a single myeloid cell type orchestrates a complex series of molecular and cellular events that underlies innate resistance to fungal sepsis.

  2. Parasitic infections in mixed system-based heliciculture farms: dynamics and key epidemiological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segade, P; García-Estévez, J; Arias, C; Iglesias, R

    2013-04-01

    Heliciculture is an excellent alternative to obtain edible snails but its viability is seriously threatened by pathogens. A parasitological survey was conducted in 3 mixed system-based heliciculture farms in Galicia (NW Spain), with the species Tetrahymena rostrata, Tetrahymena limacis, Tetratrichomonas limacis, Cryptobia helicogenae, Brachylaima aspersae (metacercariae and sporocysts), Alloionema appendiculatum, Nemhelix bakeri, and Riccardoella limacum being commonly found infecting Helix aspersa aspersa (petit-gris) snails. With the exception of C. helicogenae, N. bakeri, and B. aspersae sporocysts, all species were also detected in Helix aspersa maxima (gros-gris) snails, although generally with lower parameters. Most monoxenous infections, and consequently multiple parasitism, exhibited a rising trend during the first 2 months of intensive mating, with tendencies being slowed down or even reversed during the third month as a result of accumulated mortality and a sampling-derived reduction in host density. No parasites were vertically transmitted and infections were initially acquired from invading gastropod and micromammal reservoirs during fattening. Finally, artificial hibernation reduced significantly the prevalence of most species. These results confirm the importance of parasites in heliciculture and emphasize the need to prevent the entry of wild reservoirs into the farms and to rapidly remove the carcasses of dead snails from the reproduction units and fattening pens.

  3. Management of Viral Central Nervous System Infections: A Primer for Clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Brandon Bookstaver

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are a common cause of central nervous system (CNS infections with many host, agent, and environmental factors influencing the expression of viral diseases. Viruses can be responsible for CNS disease through a variety of mechanisms including direct infection and replication within the CNS resulting in encephalitis, infection limited to the meninges, or immune-related processes such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Common pathogens including herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster, and enterovirus are responsible for the greatest number of cases in immunocompetent hosts. Other herpes viruses (eg, cytomegalovirus, John Cunningham virus are more common in immunocompromised hosts. Arboviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus and Zika virus are important pathogens globally, but the prevalence varies significantly by geographic region and often season. Early diagnosis from radiographic evidence and molecular (eg, rapid diagnostics is important for targeted therapy. Antivirals may be used effectively against some pathogens, although several viruses have no effective treatment. This article provides a review of epidemiology, diagnostics, and management of common viral pathogens in CNS disease.

  4. Impact of Persistent Cytomegalovirus Infection on Dynamic Changes in Human Immune System Profile.

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    Rosanna Vescovini

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV imprints the immune system after primary infection, however its effect during chronic infection still needs to be deciphered. In this study we report the variation of blood cell count along with anti-HCMV IgG and T cell responses to pp-65 and IE-1 antigens, that occurred after an interval of five years in a cohort of 25 seropositive healthy adults. We found increased anti-viral IgG antibody responses and intracellular interferon-gamma secreting CD8+ T cell responses to pp-65: a result consistent with memory inflation. With the only exception of shortage in naive CD8+ T cells most memory T cell subsets as well as total CD8+ T cells, T cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and leukocytes had increased. By contrast, none of the cell types tested were found to have increased in 14 subjects stably seronegative. Rather, in addition to a shortage in naive CD8+ T cells, also memory T cell subsets and most other cell types decreased, either in a statistically significant or non-significant manner. The trend of T cell pool representation with regard to CD4/CD8 ratio was in the opposing directions depending on HCMV serology. Globally, this study demonstrates different dynamic changes of most blood cell types depending on presence or absence of HCMV infection. Therefore, HCMV plays a continual role in modulating homeostasis of blood T cells and a broader expanding effect on other cell populations of lymphoid and myeloid origin.

  5. Impact of Persistent Cytomegalovirus Infection on Dynamic Changes in Human Immune System Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovini, Rosanna; Telera, Anna Rita; Pedrazzoni, Mario; Abbate, Barbara; Rossetti, Pietro; Verzicco, Ignazio; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Medici, Maria Cristina; Calderaro, Adriana; Volpi, Riccardo; Sansoni, Paolo; Fagnoni, Francesco Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) imprints the immune system after primary infection, however its effect during chronic infection still needs to be deciphered. In this study we report the variation of blood cell count along with anti-HCMV IgG and T cell responses to pp-65 and IE-1 antigens, that occurred after an interval of five years in a cohort of 25 seropositive healthy adults. We found increased anti-viral IgG antibody responses and intracellular interferon-gamma secreting CD8+ T cell responses to pp-65: a result consistent with memory inflation. With the only exception of shortage in naive CD8+ T cells most memory T cell subsets as well as total CD8+ T cells, T cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and leukocytes had increased. By contrast, none of the cell types tested were found to have increased in 14 subjects stably seronegative. Rather, in addition to a shortage in naive CD8+ T cells, also memory T cell subsets and most other cell types decreased, either in a statistically significant or non-significant manner. The trend of T cell pool representation with regard to CD4/CD8 ratio was in the opposing directions depending on HCMV serology. Globally, this study demonstrates different dynamic changes of most blood cell types depending on presence or absence of HCMV infection. Therefore, HCMV plays a continual role in modulating homeostasis of blood T cells and a broader expanding effect on other cell populations of lymphoid and myeloid origin.

  6. Impact of Persistent Cytomegalovirus Infection on Dynamic Changes in Human Immune System Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovini, Rosanna; Telera, Anna Rita; Pedrazzoni, Mario; Abbate, Barbara; Rossetti, Pietro; Verzicco, Ignazio; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Medici, Maria Cristina; Calderaro, Adriana; Volpi, Riccardo; Sansoni, Paolo; Fagnoni, Francesco Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) imprints the immune system after primary infection, however its effect during chronic infection still needs to be deciphered. In this study we report the variation of blood cell count along with anti-HCMV IgG and T cell responses to pp-65 and IE-1 antigens, that occurred after an interval of five years in a cohort of 25 seropositive healthy adults. We found increased anti-viral IgG antibody responses and intracellular interferon-gamma secreting CD8+ T cell responses to pp-65: a result consistent with memory inflation. With the only exception of shortage in naive CD8+ T cells most memory T cell subsets as well as total CD8+ T cells, T cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and leukocytes had increased. By contrast, none of the cell types tested were found to have increased in 14 subjects stably seronegative. Rather, in addition to a shortage in naive CD8+ T cells, also memory T cell subsets and most other cell types decreased, either in a statistically significant or non-significant manner. The trend of T cell pool representation with regard to CD4/CD8 ratio was in the opposing directions depending on HCMV serology. Globally, this study demonstrates different dynamic changes of most blood cell types depending on presence or absence of HCMV infection. Therefore, HCMV plays a continual role in modulating homeostasis of blood T cells and a broader expanding effect on other cell populations of lymphoid and myeloid origin. PMID:26990192

  7. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses of teicoplanin in Japanese patients with systemic MRSA infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Ryuichi; Kobayashi, Seiichi; Sasaki, Yuki; Makimura, Mizue; Echizen, Hirotoshi

    2013-05-01

    Teicoplanin is a glycopeptide antibiotic used for the treatment of MRSA infection. An initial loading dose of 400 mg every 12 hours for three doses is the standard dosing regimen. This study aimed to assess whether this regimen was appropriate based on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analyses in Japanese patients. We conducted a population pharmacokinetic (PPK) analysis of teicoplanin by NONMEM using serum drug concentrations obtained from 116 patients with MRSA infection. PD of the drug was analyzed by a model assuming that the variability of therapeutic responses (assessed by body temperature, serum C-reactive protein concentrations, and white blood cell counts) on the 3rd, 7th or 14th day of treatment is associated with the logarithm of serum unbound drug concentration (Cmax,unbound) divided by the MIC against MRSA (log[Cmax,unbound/MIC]). The final PPK model showed that creatinine clearance and serum albumin concentration were significant (p teicoplanin, respectively. The PD analyses indicated that log[Cmax,unbound/MIC] of 0.30 on Day 3 of teicoplanin therapy was the threshold for achieving successful clinical responses. Integrating the PK and PD data, we consider that the standard loading dose regimen would attain the threshold serum level within the initial 3 days in only less than 50% of the patients. We propose that an extended loading regimen (400 mg every 12 hours for the first 5 doses) would be a treatment option to maximize the therapeutic effects of teicoplanin in patients with systemic MRSA infection.

  8. Intestinal microbiota, microbial translocation, and systemic inflammation in chronic HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Duy M; Volpe, Gretchen E; Duffalo, Chad; Bhalchandra, Seema; Tai, Albert K; Kane, Anne V; Wanke, Christine A; Ward, Honorine D

    2015-01-01

    Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), patients with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have increased microbial translocation and systemic inflammation. Alterations in the intestinal microbiota may play a role in microbial translocation and inflammation. We profiled the fecal microbiota by pyrosequencing the gene encoding 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and measured markers of microbial translocation and systemic inflammation in 21 patients who had chronic HIV infection and were receiving suppressive ART (cases) and 16 HIV-uninfected controls. The fecal microbial community composition was significantly different between cases and controls. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Enterobacteriales, Enterobacteriaceae, Erysipelotrichi, Erysipelotrichales, Erysipelotrichaceae, and Barnesiella was significantly enriched in cases, whereas that of Rikenellaceae and Alistipes was depleted. The plasma soluble CD14 level (sCD14) was significantly higher and the endotoxin core immunoglobulin M (IgM) level lower in cases, compared with controls. There were significant positive correlations between the relative abundances of Enterobacteriales and Enterobacteriaceae and the sCD14 level; the relative abundances of Gammaproteobacteria, Enterobacteriales, and Enterobacteriaceae and the interleukin 1β (IL-1β) level; the relative abundances of Enterobacteriales and Enterobacteriaceae and the interferon γ level; and the relative abundances of Erysipelotrichi and Barnesiella and the TNF-α level. There were negative correlations between endotoxin core IgM and IL-1β levels. Patients who have chronic HIV infection and are receiving suppressive ART display intestinal dysbiosis associated with increased microbial translocation and significant associations between specific taxa and markers of microbial translocation and systemic inflammation. This was an exploratory study, the findings of which need to be confirmed. © The Author 2014

  9. SPECT/CT with radiolabeled somatostatin analogues in the evaluation of systemic granulomatous infections

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    Paulo Henrique Silva Monteiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate SPECT/CT with radiolabeled somatostatin analogues (RSAs in systemic granulomatous infections in comparison with gallium-67 (67Ga citrate scintigraphy. Materials and Methods: We studied 28 patients with active systemic granulomatous infections, including tuberculosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, pneumocystosis, cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, leishmaniasis, infectious vasculitis, and an unspecified opportunistic infection. Of the 28 patients, 23 had started specific treatment before the study outset. All patients underwent whole-body SPECT/CT imaging: 7 after injection of 99mTc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC, and 21 after injection of 111In-DTPA-octreotide. All patients also underwent 67Ga citrate imaging, except for one patient who died before the 67Ga was available. Results: In 20 of the 27 patients who underwent imaging with both tracers, 27 sites of active disease were detected by 67Ga citrate imaging and by SPECT/CT with an RSA. Both tracers had negative results in the other 7 patients. RSA uptake was visually lower than 67Ga uptake in 11 of the 20 patients with positive images and similar to 67Ga uptake in the other 9 patients. The only patient who did not undergo 67Ga scintigraphy underwent 99mTc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT-guided biopsy of a lung cavity with focal RSA uptake, which turned to be positive for aspergillosis. Conclusion: SPECT/CT with 99mTc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC or 111In-DTPA-octreotide seems to be a good alternative to 67Ga citrate imaging for the evaluation of patients with systemic granulomatous disease.

  10. SPECT/CT with radiolabeled somatostatin analogues in the evaluation of systemic granulomatous infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Paulo Henrique Silva; Souza, Thiago Ferreira de; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Resende, Mariangela Ribeiro; Lima, Mariana da Cunha Lopes de; Santos, Allan Oliveira; Ramos, Celso Darío, E-mail: paulohsm42@gmail.com [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Medicina; Mengatti Jair [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    Objective: To evaluate SPECT/CT with radiolabeled somatostatin analogues (RSAs) in systemic granulomatous infections in comparison with gallium-67 ({sup 67}Ga) citrate scintigraphy. Materials And Methods: We studied 28 patients with active systemic granulomatous infections, including tuberculosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, pneumocystosis, cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, leishmaniasis, infectious vasculitis, and an unspecified opportunistic infection. Of the 28 patients, 23 had started specific treatment before the study outset. All patients underwent whole-body SPECT/CT imaging: 7 after injection of {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC, and 21 after injection of {sup 111}In-DTPA-octreotide. All patients also underwent {sup 67}Ga citrate imaging, except for one patient who died before the {sup 67}Ga was available. Results: In 20 of the 27 patients who underwent imaging with both tracers, 27 sites of active disease were detected by {sup 67}Ga citrate imaging and by SPECT/CT with an RSA. Both tracers had negative results in the other 7 patients. RSA uptake was visually lower than {sup 67}Ga uptake in 11 of the 20 patients with positive images and similar to {sup 67}Ga uptake in the other 9 patients. The only patient who did not undergo {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy underwent {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT-guided biopsy of a lung cavity with focal RSA uptake, which turned to be positive for aspergillosis. Conclusion: SPECT/CT with {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC or {sup 111}In-DTPA-octreotide seems to be a good alternative to {sup 67}Ga citrate imaging for the evaluation of patients with systemic granulomatous disease. (author)

  11. In Vitro Systems for the Study of Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrick K. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of a virus is made possible by the availability of culture systems in which the viral lifecycle can be realized. Such systems support robust virus entry, replication, assembly, and secretion of nascent virions. Furthermore, culture models provide a platform in which therapeutic interventions can be devised or monitored. Hepatitis C virus (HCV has a restricted tropism to human and chimpanzees; thus investigations of HCV biology have been hindered for many years due to a lack of small animal models. Nevertheless, significant efforts have been directed at developing cell culture models to elucidate the viral lifecycle in vitro. HCV primarily infects liver parenchymal cells commonly known as hepatocytes. The liver is a highly specialized and complex organ and the development of in vitro systems that reflects this complexity has proven difficult. Consequently, host cell receptor molecules that potentiate HCV infection were identified over a decade after the virus was discovered. A summary of the various HCV in vitro culture models, their advantages, and disadvantages are described.

  12. [Magnetic resonance imaging features of Cryptococcus infection in central nervous system in patients with AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuanjun; Hu, Zhiliang; Wei, Hongxia; Yang, Yongfeng; Du, Chao; Gu, Jianping

    2017-10-28

    To investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of Cryptococcus infection in central nervous system patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
 Methods: The retrospective study on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical data of cryptococcal meningitis (CM) was carried out between July 2011 and March 2017. These patients had not received anti-retroviral treatment. Patients with other specific or suspicious diseases in the central nervous system were not included in the analysis.
 Results: A total of 39 patients were included in the analysis, with CD4 cell counts of 13.0×106/L [(0-205)×106/L], and 94.9% (37/39) of patients with CD4 cell count system Cryptococcus infection may not be low, and the lesions are mostly located in the basal ganglia. It most frequently displays the dilated VRS/gelatinous spseudocysts. It can also be showed cryptococcal granuloma. Postcontrast T1-weighted MRI often reveals no enhancement or mild enhancement.

  13. Host cell remodeling by pathogens: the exomembrane system in Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherling, Emma S.; van Ooij, Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is caused by infection of erythrocytes by parasites of the genus Plasmodium. To survive inside erythrocytes, these parasites induce sweeping changes within the host cell, one of the most dramatic of which is the formation of multiple membranous compartments, collectively referred to as the exomembrane system. As an uninfected mammalian erythrocyte is devoid of internal membranes, the parasite must be the force and the source behind the formation of these compartments. Even though the first evidence of the presence these of internal compartments was obtained over a century ago, their functions remain mostly unclear, and in some cases completely unknown, and the mechanisms underlying their formation are still mysterious. In this review, we provide an overview of the different parts of the exomembrane system, describing the parasitophorous vacuole, the tubovesicular network, Maurer's clefts, the caveola-vesicle complex, J dots and other mobile compartments, and the small vesicles that have been observed in Plasmodium-infected cells. Finally, we combine the data into a simplified view of the exomembrane system and its relation to the alterations of the host erythrocyte. PMID:27587718

  14. Neuropeptide Y Negatively Influences Monocyte Recruitment to the Central Nervous System during Retrovirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Tyson A; Du, Min; Carmody, Aaron; Peterson, Karin E

    2015-12-30

    Monocyte infiltration into the CNS is a hallmark of several viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS), including retrovirus infection. Understanding the factors that mediate monocyte migration in the CNS is essential for the development of therapeutics that can alter the disease process. In the current study, we found that neuropeptide Y (NPY) suppressed monocyte recruitment to the CNS in a mouse model of polytropic retrovirus infection. NPY(-/-) mice had increased incidence and kinetics of retrovirus-induced neurological disease, which correlated with a significant increase in monocytes in the CNS compared to wild-type mice. Both Ly6C(hi) inflammatory and Ly6C(lo) alternatively activated monocytes were increased in the CNS of NPY(-/-) mice following virus infection, suggesting that NPY suppresses the infiltration of both cell types. Ex vivo analysis of myeloid cells from brain tissue demonstrated that infiltrating monocytes expressed high levels of the NPY receptor Y2R. Correlating with the expression of Y2R on monocytes, treatment of NPY(-/-) mice with a truncated, Y2R-specific NPY peptide suppressed the incidence of retrovirus-induced neurological disease. These data demonstrate a clear role for NPY as a negative regulator of monocyte recruitment into the CNS and provide a new mechanism for suppression of retrovirus-induced neurological disease. Monocyte recruitment to the brain is associated with multiple neurological diseases. However, the factors that influence the recruitment of these cells to the brain are still not well understood. In the current study, we found that neuropeptide Y, a protein produced by neurons, affected monocyte recruitment to the brain during retrovirus infection. We show that mice deficient in NPY have increased influx of monocytes into the brain and that this increase in monocytes correlates with neurological-disease development. These studies provide a mechanism by which the nervous system, through the production of NPY

  15. Suboptimal management of central nervous system infections in children: a multi-centre retrospective study

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    Kelly Christine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective We aimed to audit the regional management of central nervous system (CNS infection in children. Methods The study was undertaken in five district general hospitals and one tertiary paediatric hospital in the Mersey region of the UK. Children admitted to hospital with a suspected CNS infection over a three month period were identified. Children were aged between 4 weeks and 16 years old. Details were recorded from the case notes and electronic records. We measured the appropriateness of management pathways as outlined by national and local guidelines. Results Sixty-five children were identified with a median age of 6 months (range 1 month to 15 years. Ten had a CNS infection: 4 aseptic meningitis, 3 purulent meningitis, 3 encephalitis [2 with herpes simplex virus (HSV type 1]. A lumbar puncture (LP was attempted in 50 (77% cases but only 43 had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF available for analysis. Of these 24 (57% had a complete standard set of tests performed. Fifty eight (89% received a third generation cephalosporin. Seventeen (26% also received aciclovir with no obvious indication in 9 (53%. Only 11 (65% of those receiving aciclovir had CSF herpes virus PCR. Seventeen had cranial imaging and it was the first management step in 14. Treatment lengths of both antibiotics and aciclovir were highly variable: one child with HSV encephalitis was only treated with aciclovir for 7 days. Conclusions The clinical management of children with suspected CNS infections across the Mersey region is heterogeneous and often sub-optimal, particularly for the investigation and treatment of viral encephalitis. National guidelines for the management of viral encephalitis are needed.

  16. Decreases in colonic and systemic inflammation in chronic HIV infection after IL-7 administration.

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    Irini Sereti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART, some HIV-infected persons maintain lower than normal CD4(+ T-cell counts in peripheral blood and in the gut mucosa. This incomplete immune restoration is associated with higher levels of immune activation manifested by high systemic levels of biomarkers, including sCD14 and D-dimer, that are independent predictors of morbidity and mortality in HIV infection. In this 12-week, single-arm, open-label study, we tested the efficacy of IL-7 adjunctive therapy on T-cell reconstitution in peripheral blood and gut mucosa in 23 ART suppressed HIV-infected patients with incomplete CD4(+ T-cell recovery, using one cycle (consisting of three subcutaneous injections of recombinant human IL-7 (r-hIL-7 at 20 µg/kg. IL-7 administration led to increases of both CD4(+ and CD8(+ T-cells in peripheral blood, and importantly an expansion of T-cells expressing the gut homing integrin α4β7. Participants who underwent rectosigmoid biopsies at study baseline and after treatment had T-cell increases in the gut mucosa measured by both flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. IL-7 therapy also resulted in apparent improvement in gut barrier integrity as measured by decreased neutrophil infiltration in the rectosigmoid lamina propria 12 weeks after IL-7 administration. This was also accompanied by decreased TNF and increased FOXP3 expression in the lamina propria. Plasma levels of sCD14 and D-dimer, indicative of systemic inflammation, decreased after r-hIL-7. Increases of colonic mucosal T-cells correlated strongly with the decreased systemic levels of sCD14, the LPS coreceptor - a marker of monocyte activation. Furthermore, the proportion of inflammatory monocytes expressing CCR2 was decreased, as was the basal IL-1β production of peripheral blood monocytes. These data suggest that administration of r-hIL-7 improves the gut mucosal abnormalities of chronic HIV infection and attenuates the systemic inflammatory and coagulation

  17. Research progress of HIV-associated central nervous system infections and neurosyphilis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying PENG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and syphilis are widely epidemic all over the world, which has seriously jeopardized public health security. In China, studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated central nervous system (CNS damage and neurosyphilis are increasing. This paper reviews related literatures on HIV-associated CNS infection and neurosyphilis, and summarizes the epidemiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment strategies, so as to provide new clues for further exploration into clinical diagnosis and treatment. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.07.003

  18. Creatine kinase in the serum of patients with acute infections of the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterslund, N A; Heinsvig, E M; Christensen, K D

    1985-01-01

    Serum creatine kinase was assessed in 94 consecutive patients without convulsions admitted to hospital due to suspicion of infection of the central nervous system. No reliable discrimination between patients with aseptic and those with bacterial meningitis was obtained. Patients with bacterial...... of bacterial meningitis. The highest serum CK value found in patients with encephalitis was 725 U/l. Reference values for control patients with meningism were 16-269 U/1. In a subset of 9 patients creatine kinase isoenzyme analysis was performed. In all cases only muscle type (MM) isoenzyme was found...

  19. The role of systemic condition in the management of maxillofacial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Amit; Rajendra Prasad, B; Sharma, S M; Pai, Deepak; Karikal, Aravind

    2011-09-01

    Ludwig's Angina is a rare type of facial infection which formerly invariably was fatal but now with adequate surgical and antibiotic treatment has a much reduced mortality. In spite of the recent advances in therapy, rare and potentially life threatening complications may still arise from time to time and as a result account for significant morbidity and mortality. A case of Ludwig's angina reported at A.B Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, India resulting in fatality, in spite of surgical and antibiotic treatment, due to underlying systemic condition and involvement of multiple resistant organisms. The condition was worsened by subsequent esophageal rupture and death occurred due to multiple organ failure.

  20. West Nile Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System [version 1; referees: 3 approved

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    Evandro R. Winkelmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV, a neurotropic single-stranded flavivirus has been the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis worldwide.  Up to 50% of WNV convalescent patients in the United States were reported to have long-term neurological sequelae.  Neither antiviral drugs nor vaccines are available for humans.  Animal models have been used to investigate WNV pathogenesis and host immune response in humans.  In this review, we will discuss recent findings from studies in animal models of WNV infection, and provide new insights on WNV pathogenesis and WNV-induced host immunity in the central nervous system.

  1. Central Nervous System Infection with Borna Disease Virus Causes Kynurenine Pathway Dysregulation and Neurotoxic Quinolinic Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, Simone; Hornig, Mady; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha; Vasishtha, Mansi; Parsons, Loren H; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W Ian; Williams, Brent L

    2017-07-15

    Central nervous system infection of neonatal and adult rats with Borna disease virus (BDV) results in neuronal destruction and behavioral abnormalities with differential immune-mediated involvement. Neuroactive metabolites generated from the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation have been implicated in several human neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we report that brain expression of key enzymes in the kynurenine pathway are significantly, but differentially, altered in neonatal and adult rats with BDV infection. Gene expression analysis of rat brains following neonatal infection showed increased expression of kynurenine amino transferase II (KATII) and kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO) enzymes. Additionally, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expression was only modestly increased in a brain region- and time-dependent manner in neonatally infected rats; however, its expression was highly increased in adult infected rats. The most dramatic impact on gene expression was seen for KMO, whose activity promotes the production of neurotoxic quinolinic acid. KMO expression was persistently elevated in brain regions of both newborn and adult BDV-infected rats, with increases reaching up to 86-fold. KMO protein levels were increased in neonatally infected rats and colocalized with neurons, the primary target cells of BDV infection. Furthermore, quinolinic acid was elevated in neonatally infected rat brains. We further demonstrate increased expression of KATII and KMO, but not IDO, in vitro in BDV-infected C6 astroglioma cells. Our results suggest that BDV directly impacts the kynurenine pathway, an effect that may be exacerbated by inflammatory responses in immunocompetent hosts. Thus, experimental models of BDV infection may provide new tools for discriminating virus-mediated from immune-mediated impacts on the kynurenine pathway and their relative contribution to neurodegeneration.IMPORTANCE BDV causes persistent, noncytopathic infection in vitro yet still elicits

  2. Characterization of CRISPR-Cas system in clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis strains revealed its potential association with bacterial infection sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiuchun; Xie, Xiaolei; Yin, Kequan

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is considered as a major cause of nosocomial infections, bringing an immense burden to healthcare systems. Virulent phages have been confirmed to be efficient in combating the pathogen, but the prensence of CRISPR-Cas system, which is a bacterial immune system eliminating...

  3. Vector Borne Infections in Italy: Results of the Integrated Surveillance System for West Nile Disease in 2013

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    Christian Napoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response.

  4. Predicting hospital-acquired infections by scoring system with simple parameters.

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    Ying-Jui Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired infections (HAI are associated with increased attributable morbidity, mortality, prolonged hospitalization, and economic costs. A simple, reliable prediction model for HAI has great clinical relevance. The objective of this study is to develop a scoring system to predict HAI that was derived from Logistic Regression (LR and validated by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN simultaneously. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 476 patients from all the 806 HAI inpatients were included for the study between 2004 and 2005. A sample of 1,376 non-HAI inpatients was randomly drawn from all the admitted patients in the same period of time as the control group. External validation of 2,500 patients was abstracted from another academic teaching center. Sixteen variables were extracted from the Electronic Health Records (EHR and fed into ANN and LR models. With stepwise selection, the following seven variables were identified by LR models as statistically significant: Foley catheterization, central venous catheterization, arterial line, nasogastric tube, hemodialysis, stress ulcer prophylaxes and systemic glucocorticosteroids. Both ANN and LR models displayed excellent discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC]: 0.964 versus 0.969, p = 0.507 to identify infection in internal validation. During external validation, high AUC was obtained from both models (AUC: 0.850 versus 0.870, p = 0.447. The scoring system also performed extremely well in the internal (AUC: 0.965 and external (AUC: 0.871 validations. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a scoring system to predict HAI with simple parameters validated with ANN and LR models. Armed with this scoring system, infectious disease specialists can more efficiently identify patients at high risk for HAI during hospitalization. Further, using parameters either by observation of medical devices used or data obtained from EHR also provided good prediction

  5. Effects of Temperature on Systemic Infection and Symptom Expression of Turnip mosaic virus in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris

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    Bong Nam Chung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris cultivar ‘Chun-goang’ as a host and turnip mosaic virus (TuMV as a pathogen, we studied the effects of ambient temperature (13°C, 18°C, 23°C, 28°C and 33°C on disease intensity and the speed of systemic infection. The optimal temperature for symptom expression of TuMV was 18–28°C. However, symptoms of viral infection were initiated at 23–28°C and 6 days post infection (dpi. Plants maintained at 33°C were systemically infected as early as 6 dpi and remained symptomless until 12 or 22 dpi, depending on growth stage at the time of inoculation. It took 45 days for infection of plants grown at 13°C. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR results showed that the accumulation of virus coat protein was greater in plants grown at 23–28°C. The speed of systemic infection increased linearly with rising ambient temperature, up to 23°C. The zero-infection temperature was 10.1°C. To study the effects of abruptly elevated temperatures on systemic infection, plants inoculated with TuMV were maintained at 10°C for 20 d; transferred to a growth chamber at temperatures of 13°C, 18°C, 23°C, 28°C, or 33°C for 1, 2, or 3 d; and then moved back to 10°C. The numbers of plants infected increased as duration of exposure to higher temperatures and dpi increased.

  6. Fulminant listerial infection of the central nervous system in an otherwise healthy patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karakitsos Dimitrios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The mortality of listerial rhombo-encephalitis exceeds 26% and may involve otherwise healthy patients. A case is presented of a man with fatal listerial infection of the central nervous system that was monitored in an intensive care unit. Case presentation A 42-year-old, previously healthy man was admitted with fever of 39°C, blurred vision, confusion and headache. He had right-sided central facial paresis, bilateral absent gag reflex and bilateral cerebellar ataxia. After a few hours, he became septic and developed bilateral vocal cord paralysis and airway obstruction. He was intubated and put on mechanical ventilation. Computed tomography brain scans revealed multiple frontal hypodense areas and slight hydrocephalus. Cerebrospinal fluid findings included pleocytosis of 4200 cells/μL (77% neutrophils, protein of 114 mg/dL and normal glucose levels. Listerial infection was suspected; therefore ampicillin was added to his initial therapeutic regimen, already including ceftriaxone and gentamicin. All cultures were negative, and no immunologic abnormality could be documented, but the patient's clinical condition deteriorated rapidly. Continuous neuromonitoring by means of transcranial Doppler and optic nerve sonography along with follow-up computed tomography brain scans confirmed the severity of the brain damage; hence, dexamethasone and mannitol were also administered. The patient was clinically documented as 'brain dead' 7 days after his admission to the intensive care unit; thereafter, blood- and post-mortem brain tissue cultures grew Listeria monocytogenes. Conclusion This case report illustrates the importance of neuromonitoring in patients with severe brain damage. We also show that, despite prompt antibiotic treatment and dexamethasone administration, listerial infection of the central nervous system can be lethal.

  7. Infection-Induced Interaction between the Mosquito Circulatory and Immune Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jonas G.; Hillyer, Julián F.

    2012-01-01

    Insects counter infection with innate immune responses that rely on cells called hemocytes. Hemocytes exist in association with the insect's open circulatory system and this mode of existence has likely influenced the organization and control of anti-pathogen immune responses. Previous studies reported that pathogens in the mosquito body cavity (hemocoel) accumulate on the surface of the heart. Using novel cell staining, microdissection and intravital imaging techniques, we investigated the mechanism of pathogen accumulation in the pericardium of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and discovered a novel insect immune tissue, herein named periostial hemocytes, that sequesters pathogens as they flow with the hemolymph. Specifically, we show that there are two types of endocytic cells that flank the heart: periostial hemocytes and pericardial cells. Resident periostial hemocytes engage in the rapid phagocytosis of pathogens, and during the course of a bacterial or Plasmodium infection, circulating hemocytes migrate to the periostial regions where they bind the cardiac musculature and each other, and continue the phagocytosis of invaders. Periostial hemocyte aggregation occurs in a time- and infection dose-dependent manner, and once this immune process is triggered, the number of periostial hemocytes remains elevated for the lifetime of the mosquito. Finally, the soluble immune elicitors peptidoglycan and β-1,3-glucan also induce periostial hemocyte aggregation, indicating that this is a generalized and basal immune response that is induced by diverse immune stimuli. These data describe a novel insect cellular immune response that fundamentally relies on the physiological interaction between the insect circulatory and immune systems. PMID:23209421

  8. Infection-induced interaction between the mosquito circulatory and immune systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas G King

    Full Text Available Insects counter infection with innate immune responses that rely on cells called hemocytes. Hemocytes exist in association with the insect's open circulatory system and this mode of existence has likely influenced the organization and control of anti-pathogen immune responses. Previous studies reported that pathogens in the mosquito body cavity (hemocoel accumulate on the surface of the heart. Using novel cell staining, microdissection and intravital imaging techniques, we investigated the mechanism of pathogen accumulation in the pericardium of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and discovered a novel insect immune tissue, herein named periostial hemocytes, that sequesters pathogens as they flow with the hemolymph. Specifically, we show that there are two types of endocytic cells that flank the heart: periostial hemocytes and pericardial cells. Resident periostial hemocytes engage in the rapid phagocytosis of pathogens, and during the course of a bacterial or Plasmodium infection, circulating hemocytes migrate to the periostial regions where they bind the cardiac musculature and each other, and continue the phagocytosis of invaders. Periostial hemocyte aggregation occurs in a time- and infection dose-dependent manner, and once this immune process is triggered, the number of periostial hemocytes remains elevated for the lifetime of the mosquito. Finally, the soluble immune elicitors peptidoglycan and β-1,3-glucan also induce periostial hemocyte aggregation, indicating that this is a generalized and basal immune response that is induced by diverse immune stimuli. These data describe a novel insect cellular immune response that fundamentally relies on the physiological interaction between the insect circulatory and immune systems.

  9. Higher risk of revision for infection using systemic clindamycin prophylaxis than with cloxacillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertsson, Otto; Thompson, Olof; W-Dahl, Annette; Sundberg, Martin; Lidgren, Lars; Stefánsdóttir, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Background and purpose - Clindamycin has not been compared with other antibiotics for prophylaxis in arthroplasty. Since 2009, the Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register (SKAR) has been collecting information on the prophylactic antibiotic regime used at every individual operation. In Sweden, when there is allergy to penicillin, clindamycin has been the recommended alternative. We examined whether there were differences in the rate of revision due to infection depending on which antibiotic was used as systemic prophylaxis. Patients and methods - Patients who had a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) performed due to osteoarthritis (OA) during the years 2009-2015 were included in the study. Information on which antibiotic was used was available for 80,018 operations (55,530 patients). Survival statistics were used to calculate the rate of revision due to infection until the end of 2015, comparing the group of patients who received cloxacillin with those who received clindamycin as systemic prophylaxis. Results - Cloxacillin was used in 90% of the cases, clindamycin in 7%, and cephalosporins in 2%. The risk of being revised due to infection was higher when clindamycin was used than when cloxacillin was used (RR =1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-2.0; p = 0.001). There was no significant difference in the revision rate for other causes (p = 0.2). Interpretation - We advise that patients reporting allergic reaction to penicillin should have their allergic history explored. In the absence of a clear history of type-I allergic reaction (e.g. urticaria, anaphylaxis, or bronchospasm), we suggest the use of a third-generation cephalosporin instead of clindamycin as perioperative prophylaxis when undergoing a TKR. No recommendation can be given regarding patients with type-1 allergy.

  10. DoD Global Emerging Infections System -- Partnering in the Fight Against Emerging Infections, Fiscal Year 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    pyogenes infections continue to be susceptible to penicillin treatment, but resistance to macrolide antibiotics has increased in recent years. As...infrastructure and training in Cambodia and Maldives, the National Pediatric Hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia and the regional hospital in Male, Maldives are now... Pediatric Populations with Diarrhea Between 1995 and 2000. Clin Microbiol Infec. 10(9):804-10, 2004. Putnam SD, Frenck RW, Riddle MS, El-Gendy A, Taha NN

  11. SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS AND INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS: CLINICAL AND DIAGNOSTIC PARALLELS AND IMAGINARY MIMICRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Filonenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study – draw attention to the differential diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and infective endocarditis.Materials and methods. Patient A., 44 years old, was admitted to the cardiologic department of Ryazan Regional Clinical Cardiology Clinic diagnosed with probable infective subacute endocarditis, glomerulonephritis, with complaints of weakness, fatigue, increase in body temperature up to 37.7 °C preferably in the evening, dry cough, shortness of breath on mild exertion, swelling of legs and feet. In early October 2015, the patient's body temperature increased up to 37.8 °C, there was a dry cough. Patient was treated on an outpatient basis for acute respiratory viral infections with antibiotics, decreased body temperature. Acute deterioration of the condition was observed in mid-October: severe shortness of breath even on mild physical exertion, heart rate increased, as well as lower limb edema, blood pressure (BP increased up to 240/140 mmHg. The patient was hospitalized in the therapeutic department. Against the background of the treatment (antibiotics, antihypertensive agents, diuretics, digoxin patient’s condition was improved: shortness of breath decreased, as well as the heart rate, limb edema, blood pressure down to 180/110–190/120 mmHg. However, there was persistent proteinuria (0.33–1.65–3.3 g/L, low grade fever persisting in the evening. On admission to the cardiological department of Ryazan Regional Clinical Cardiology Clinic patient underwent the following survey: assessment of lab parameters in dynamics, electrocardiography, heart echocardiography, computed tomography (CT of lungs.Results. We revealed left ventricular hypertrophy on heart ultrasonography; an increase in the volume of left atrium, right ventricle, right atrium; mitral, aortic, tricuspid valve insufficiency (grade II regurgitation; pulmonary hypertension; on lung CT – the picture of hydrothorax on the right side, hydropericardium

  12. Annual Surveillance Summary: Acinetobacter Infections in the Military Health System, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    7 Statistical Analysis...for infection in the prior calendar year. Admitted patients with a history of colonization or infection were identified by searching prevalence...infection MDROs from the prior calendar year to determine a history of infection. These beneficiaries were counted in both the admission and overall

  13. The step from a voluntary to a mandatory national nosocomial infection surveillance system: the influence on infection rates and surveillance effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The German national nosocomial infection surveillance system, KISS, has a component for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (called NEO-KISS) which changed from a system with voluntary participation and confidential data feedback to a system with mandatory participation and confidential feedback. Methods In order to compare voluntary and mandatory surveillance data, two groups were defined by the surveillance start date. Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) parameters and infection rates of the NICUs in both groups were compared. In order to analyze the surveillance effect on primary bloodstream infection rates (BSI), all VLBW infants within the first three years of participation in both groups were considered. The adjusted effect measures for the year of participation were calculated. Results An increase from 49 NICUs participating in 2005 to 152 in 2006 was observed after the introduction of mandatory participation. A total of 4280 VLBW infants was included in this analysis. Healthcare-associated incidence densities rates were similar in both groups. Using multivariate analysis with the endpoint primary BSI rate and comparing the first and third year of participation lead to an adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.78 (CI95 0.66-0.93) for old (voluntary) and 0.81 (CI95 0.68-0.97) for new (mandatory) participants. Conclusions The step from a voluntary to a mandatory HCAI surveillance system alone may lead to substantial improvements on a countrywide scale. PMID:22958509

  14. Incidence, associated factors and clinical impact of severe infections in a large, multicentric cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rúa-Figueroa, Íñigo; López-Longo, Javier; Galindo-Izquierdo, María; Calvo-Alén, Jaime; Del Campo, Víctor; Olivé-Marqués, Alejandro; Pérez-Vicente, Sabina; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Andrés, Mariano; Erausquin, Celia; Tomero, Eva; Horcada, Loreto; Uriarte, Esther; Freire, Mercedes; Montilla, Carlos; Sánchez-Atrio, Ana; Santos, Gregorio; Boteanu, Alina; Díez-Álvarez, Elvira; Narváez, Javier; Martínez-Taboada, Víctor; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Ruiz-Lucea, Esther; Andreu, José Luis; Hernández-Beriain, José Ángel; Gantes, Marian; Hernández-Cruz, Blanca; Pérez-Venegas, José; Pecondón-Español, Ángela; Marras, Carlos; Ibáñez-Barceló, Mónica; Bonilla, Gema; Torrente, Vicente; Castellví, Iván; Alegre, Juan José; Calvet, Joan; Marenco, Jose Luis; Raya, Enrique; Vázquez, Tomás; Quevedo, Victor; Muñoz-Fernández, Santiago; Rodríguez-Gómez, Manuel; Ibáñez, Jesús; Pego-Reigosa, José M

    2017-08-01

    To estimate the incidence of severe infection and investigate the associated factors and clinical impact in a large systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) retrospective cohort. All patients in the Spanish Rheumatology Society Lupus Registry (RELESSER) who meet ≥4 ACR-97 SLE criteria were retrospectively investigated for severe infections. Patients with and without infections were compared in terms of SLE severity, damage, comorbidities, and demographic characteristics. A multivariable Cox regression model was built to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for the first infection. A total of 3658 SLE patients were included: 90% female, median age 32.9 years (DQ 9.7), and mean follow-up (months) 120.2 (±87.6). A total of 705 (19.3%) patients suffered ≥1 severe infection. Total severe infections recorded in these patients numbered 1227. The incidence rate was 29.2 (95% CI: 27.6-30.9) infections per 1000 patient years. Time from first infection to second infection was significantly shorter than time from diagnosis to first infection (p < 0.000). Although respiratory infections were the most common (35.5%), bloodstream infections were the most frequent cause of mortality by infection (42.0%). In the Cox regression analysis, the following were all associated with infection: age at diagnosis (HR = 1.016, 95% CI: 1.009-1.023), Latin-American (Amerindian-Mestizo) ethnicity (HR = 2.151, 95% CI: 1.539-3.005), corticosteroids (≥10mg/day) (HR = 1.271, 95% CI: 1.034-1.561), immunosuppressors (HR = 1.348, 95% CI: 1.079-1.684), hospitalization by SLE (HR = 2.567, 95% CI: 1.905-3.459), Katz severity index (HR = 1.160, 95% CI: 1.105-1.217), SLICC/ACR damage index (HR = 1.069, 95% CI: 1.031-1.108), and smoking (HR = 1.332, 95% CI: 1.121-1.583). Duration of antimalarial use (months) proved protective (HR = 0.998, 95% CI: 0.997-0.999). Severe infection constitutes a predictor of poor prognosis in SLE patients, is more common in Latin-Americans and is associated with age, previous infection

  15. Systemic and placental productions of tumor necrosis factor contribute to induce fetal mortality in mice acutely infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjihdi, Abdelkarim; Truyens, Carine; Detournay, Olivier; Carlier, Yves

    2004-01-01

    Blood levels and placental productions of IFN-gamma and TNF, known to be harmful for pregnancy, were determined in pregnant mice acutely infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and suffering massive fetal losses without congenital infection. INF-gamma was detected mainly at day 9 and TNF at days 17 and 19 of pregnancy in plasma of infected mice. TNF levels were significantly correlated to the percentages of dead fetuses. Placental cells produced TNF but not IFN-gamma, and addition of T. cruzi lysate to such cells strongly stimulated TNF production. Treatment of infected mice with pentoxifylline, known to decrease IFN-gamma production and to inhibit the TNF-alpha gene transcription, reduced the placental production of TNF, and the fetal mortality in comparison to control animals. Altogether these result suggest that TNF produced at systemic and placental levels plays a role in the fetal mortality induced in mice acutely infected with T. cruzi.

  16. Nonhuman primate infants have an impaired respiratory but not systemic IgG antibody response following influenza virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Beth C.; Hayward, Sarah L.; Blevins, Lance K.; Kock, Nancy; Aycock, Tyler; Parks, Griffith D.; Alexander-Miller, Martha A.

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory infection of young infants results in increased morbidity and mortality compared to infection of adults. In spite of the significance of this health issue, our understanding of the immune response elicited in infants, especially in the respiratory tract is highly limited. We developed a nonhuman primate model to probe the virus-specific antibody response in infants following infection with influenza virus. Infection of infants resulted in more pulmonary damage and higher viral loads compared to adults. While the systemic IgG antibody response was similar in infant and adult animals, the response in the upper respiratory tract of the infant was compromised. This lower response was associated with an increased prevalence of Treg cells and low levels of BALT. These data suggest a defect in the ability to produce effective virus-specific antibody responses at the local infection site is a contributor to increased pulmonary damage in the at-risk infant population. PMID:25543963

  17. A portable immunomagnetic cell capture system to accelerate culture diagnosis of bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh; Upadhyay, Mohita; Sharma, Jyoti; Gupta, Shalini; Vivekanandan, Perumal; Elangovan, Ravikrishnan

    2016-05-23

    Bacterial infections continue to be a major cause of deaths globally, particularly in resource-poor settings. In the absence of rapid and affordable diagnostic solutions, patients are mostly administered broad spectrum antibiotics leading to antibiotics resistance and poor recovery. Culture diagnosis continues to be a gold standard for diagnosis of bacterial infection, despite its long turnaround time of 24 to 48 h. We have developed a portable immunomagnetic cell capture (iMC(2)) system that allows rapid culture diagnosis of bacterial pathogens. Our approach involves the culture growth of the blood samples in broth media for 6 to 8 h, followed by immunomagnetic enrichment of the target cells using the iMC(2) device. The device comprises a disposable capture chip that has two chambers of 5 ml and 50 μl volume connected through a channel with a manual valve. Bacterial cells bound to antibody coated magnetic nanoparticles are swept from the 5 ml sample chamber into the 50 μl recovery chamber by moving an external magnetic field with respect to the capture chip using a linear positioner. This enables specific isolation and up to 100× enrichment of the target cells. The presence of bacteria in the recovered sample is confirmed visually using a lateral flow immunoassay. The system is demonstrated in buffer and blood samples spiked with S. typhi. The method has high sensitivity (10 CFU ml(-1)), specificity and a rapid turnaround time of less than 7 h, a significant improvement over conventional methods.

  18. Development of an insect metalloproteinase inhibitor drug carrier system for application in chronic wound infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Michaela; Dobler, Dorota; Schlupp, Peggy; Schmidts, Thomas; Salzig, Mark; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Salzig, Denise; Czermak, Peter; Keusgen, Michael; Runkel, Frank

    2015-11-01

    The insect metalloproteinase inhibitor (IMPI) represents the first peptide capable of inhibiting virulence-mediating microbial M4-metalloproteinases and is promising as a therapeutic. The purpose of this study was to develop a suitable drug carrier system for the IMPI drug to enable treatment of chronic wound infections. Specifically, we studied on poloxamer 407 hydrogels, examining the influence of several additives and preservatives on the rheological parameters of the hydrogels, the bioactivity and release of IMPI. The rheological characterisation of the hydrogel was performed by oscillatory measurements. The bioactivity of IMPI was evaluated in a Casein fluoresence quenching assay. In this study, a suitable application form for the dermal treatment of chronic wound infections with IMPI was designed. The influences of poloxamer 407 concentration and various additives on the viscoelastic properties and preservation of a thermosensitive hydrogel were investigated. The incorporation of the precursor drug IMPI-gluthathione-s-transferase (GST) in the hydrogel had no influence on the rheological characteristics and will be released. The bioactivity of IMPI-GST is not influenced by the hydrogel and remains constant over 4 weeks of storage. This study reports the development of a poloxamer hydrogel as a suitable carrier system for the application of IMPI. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. Proteomic and systems biology analysis of the monocyte response to Coxiella burnetii infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Shipman

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of Q fever. Chronic Q fever can produce debilitating fatigue and C. burnetii is considered a significant bioterror threat. C. burnetii occupies the monocyte phagolysosome and although prior work has explained features of the host-pathogen interaction, many aspects are still poorly understood. We have conducted a proteomic investigation of human Monomac I cells infected with the Nine Mile Phase II strain of C. burnetii and used the results as a framework for a systems biology model of the host response. Our principal methodology was multiplex differential 2D gel electrophoresis using ZDyes, a new generation of covalently linked fluorescent protein detection dyes under development at Montana State University. The 2D gel analysis facilitated the detection of changes in posttranslational modifications on intact proteins in response to infection. The systems model created from our data a framework for the design of experiments to seek a deeper understanding of the host-pathogen interactions.

  20. Infection Spread and Virus Release in Vitro in Cell Populations as a System with Percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Juan G. Diaz

    The comprehension of the innate immune system of cell populations is not only of interest to understand systems in vivo but also in vitro, for example, in the control of the release of viral particles for the production of vaccines. In this report I introduce a model, based on dynamical networks, that simulates the cell signaling responsible for this innate immune response and its effect on the infection spread and virus production. The central motivation is to represent a cell population that is constantly mixed in a bio-reactor where there is a cell-to-cell signaling of cytokines (which are proteins responsible for the activation of the antiviral response inside the cell). Such signaling allows the definition of clusters of linked immune cells. Additionally, depending on the density of links, it is possible to identify critical threshold parameters associated to a percolation phase transition. I show that the control of this antiviral response is equivalent to a percolation process.

  1. [Autochthonous acute viral and bacterial infections of the central nervous system (meningitis and encephalitis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Vicente, Diego; Navarro-Marí, José María

    2008-07-01

    Rapid diagnosis of acute viral and bacterial infections of the central nervous system (meningitis and encephalitis) is highly important for the clinical management of the patient and helps to establish early therapy that may solve life-threatening situations, to avoid unnecessary empirical treatments, to reduce hospital stay, and to facilitate appropriate interventions in the context of public health. Molecular techniques, especially real-time polymerase chain reaction, have become the fastest and most sensitive diagnostic procedures for autochthonous viral meningitis and encephalitis, and their role is becoming increasingly important for the diagnosis and control of most frequent acute bacterial meningitides. Automatic and closed systems may encourage the widespread and systematic use of molecular techniques for the diagnosis of these neurological syndromes in most laboratories.

  2. Systems initiatives reduce healthcare-associated infections: a study of 22,928 device days in a single trauma unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard S; Norris, Patrick R; Jenkins, Judith M; Talbot, Thomas R; Starmer, John M; Hutchison, Sarah A; Carr, Devin S; Kleymeer, Christopher J; Morris, John A

    2010-01-01

    "Implementation research" promotes the systematic conversion of evidence-based principles into routine practice to improve the quality of care. We hypothesized a system-based initiative to reduce nosocomial infection would lower the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), urinary tract infection (UTI), and bloodstream infection (BSI). From January 2006 to April 2008, 7,364 adult trauma patients were admitted, of which 1,953 (27%) were admitted to the trauma intensive care unit and comprised the study group. Tight glycemic control was maintained using a computer algorithm for continuous insulin administration based on every 2-hour blood glucose testing. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions of nosocomial infections were used. Evidence-based infection reduction strategies included the following: a VAP bundle (spontaneous breathing, Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale, oral hygiene, bed elevation, and deep vein thrombosis/stress ulcer prophylaxis), UTI (expert insertion team and Foley removal/change at 5 days), and BSI (maximum barrier precautions, chlorhexidine skin prep, line management protocol). An electronic dashboard identified the at-risk population, and designated auditors monitored the compliance. Infection rates (events per 1,000 device days) were measured over time and compared annually using Fisher's exact test. The study group had 22,928 device exposure days: 6,482 ventilator days, 9,037 urinary catheter days, and 7,399 central line days. Patient acuity, demographics, and number of device days did not vary significantly year-to-year. Annual infection rates declined between 2006 and 2008, and decreases in UTI and BSI rates were statistically significant (p Control and Prevention norms. Over 28 months, a systems approach to reducing nosocomial infection rates after trauma decreased nosocomial infections: UTI (76.3%), BSI (74.1%), and VAP (24.9%). Our experience suggests that infection reduction requires (1) an evidence-based plan

  3. A mariner transposon-based signature-tagged mutagenesis system for the analysis of oral infection by Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Joanne; Casey, Pat G; Joyce, Susan A; Gahan, Cormac G M

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive foodborne pathogen and the causative agent of listerosis a disease that manifests predominately as meningitis in the non-pregnant individual or infection of the fetus and spontaneous abortion in pregnant women. Common-source outbreaks of foodborne listeriosis are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, relatively little is known concerning the mechanisms that govern infection via the oral route. In order to aid functional genetic analysis of the gastrointestinal phase of infection we designed a novel signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) system based upon the invasive L. monocytogenes 4b serotype H7858 strain. To overcome the limitations of gastrointestinal infection by L. monocytogenes in the mouse model we created a H7858 strain that is genetically optimised for oral infection in mice. Furthermore our STM system was based upon a mariner transposon to favour numerous and random transposition events throughout the L. monocytogenes genome. Use of the STM bank to investigate oral infection by L. monocytogenes identified 21 insertion mutants that demonstrated significantly reduced potential for infection in our model. The sites of transposon insertion included lmOh7858_0671 (encoding an internalin homologous to Lmo0610), lmOh7858_0898 (encoding a putative surface-expressed LPXTG protein homologous to Lmo0842), lmOh7858_2579 (encoding the HupDGC hemin transport system) and lmOh7858_0399 (encoding a putative fructose specific phosphotransferase system). We propose that this represents an optimised STM system for functional genetic analysis of foodborne/oral infection by L. monocytogenes.

  4. A mariner transposon-based signature-tagged mutagenesis system for the analysis of oral infection by Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Cummins

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive foodborne pathogen and the causative agent of listerosis a disease that manifests predominately as meningitis in the non-pregnant individual or infection of the fetus and spontaneous abortion in pregnant women. Common-source outbreaks of foodborne listeriosis are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, relatively little is known concerning the mechanisms that govern infection via the oral route. In order to aid functional genetic analysis of the gastrointestinal phase of infection we designed a novel signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM system based upon the invasive L. monocytogenes 4b serotype H7858 strain. To overcome the limitations of gastrointestinal infection by L. monocytogenes in the mouse model we created a H7858 strain that is genetically optimised for oral infection in mice. Furthermore our STM system was based upon a mariner transposon to favour numerous and random transposition events throughout the L. monocytogenes genome. Use of the STM bank to investigate oral infection by L. monocytogenes identified 21 insertion mutants that demonstrated significantly reduced potential for infection in our model. The sites of transposon insertion included lmOh7858_0671 (encoding an internalin homologous to Lmo0610, lmOh7858_0898 (encoding a putative surface-expressed LPXTG protein homologous to Lmo0842, lmOh7858_2579 (encoding the HupDGC hemin transport system and lmOh7858_0399 (encoding a putative fructose specific phosphotransferase system. We propose that this represents an optimised STM system for functional genetic analysis of foodborne/oral infection by L. monocytogenes.

  5. Prenatal complicated duplex collecting system and ureterocele-Important risk factors for urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visuri, Sofia; Jahnukainen, Timo; Taskinen, Seppo

    2017-05-11

    To evaluate the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in infants with prenatally detected complicated duplex collecting system (CDS) or ureterocele. All patients with prenatally detected CDS (n=34) or single system ureterocele (n=7) who were admitted to our institution between 2003 and 2013 were enrolled in this retrospective analysis. Duplex collecting systems with ureterocele (n=13), vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) (n=20) or nonrefluxing megaureter without ureterocele (n=7) were determined as complicated. Twenty-six (63%) patients were females. The prevalence of UTI was compared to 66 controls. The median follow-up time was 5.5 (1.7-12.2) years. Eighteen (44%) patients and 3 (5%) controls had at least one UTI (pinfections and 82% of those were non-Escherichia coli infections. UTIs occurred prior to any surgical intervention in 4/13 (31%) patients with ureterocele, in 2/14 (14%) patients with VUR, in 4/7 (57%) patients with both ureterocele and VUR, and in 3/7 (43%) patients with nonrefluxing megaureter without VUR or ureterocele (p-values 0.012, 0.209, 0.001 and 0.010, respectively, compared to controls). Postoperative UTIs were observed in 29% of the girls and in none of the 11 boys (p=0.072). The incidence of UTI after perforation of ureterocele was only 14%. Children with prenatally detected ureterocele or duplex collecting system associated with nonrefluxing megaureter are at high risk of UTI despite prophylactic antibiotics. In case of prenatally detected ureterocele we suggest to consider early endoscopic perforation. III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of HIV and HPV Co-infection on Cervical COX-2 Expression and Systemic Prostaglandin E2 Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Bezak, Karl; Ocheretina, Oksana; Riviere, Cynthia; Wright, Thomas C.; Milne, Ginger L.; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Du, Baoheng; Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Byrt, Erin; Goodwin, Matthew L.; Rafii, Arash; Dannenberg, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection causes chronic inflammation. COX-2 derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been linked to both inflammation and carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that HIV-1 could induce COX-2 in cervical tissue and increase systemic PGE2 levels and that these alterations could play a role in AIDS-related cervical cancer. Levels of cervical COX-2 mRNA and urinary PGE-M, a biomarker of systemic PGE2 levels, were determined in 17 HIV-negative women with a negative cervical HPV test, 18 HIV-infected women with a negative HPV test, and 13 HIV-infected women with cervical HPV and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions on cytology. Cervical COX-2 levels were significantly associated with HIV and HPV status (P=0.006 and 0.002, respectively). Median levels of urinary PGE-M were increased in HIV-infected compared to uninfected women (11.2 ng/mg creatinine vs. 6.8 ng/mg creatinine, P=0.02). Among HIV infected women, urinary PGE-M levels were positively correlated with plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (Pinfection is associated with increased cervical COX-2 and elevated systemic PGE2 levels. Drugs that inhibit the synthesis of PGE2 may prove useful in reducing the risk of cervical cancer or systemic inflammation in HIV infected women. PMID:22135046

  7. Abrogation of the Twin Arginine Transport System in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Leads to Colonization Defects during Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, M. Megan; Bogomolnaya, Lydia; Guo, Jinbai; Aldrich, Lindsay; Bokhari, Danial; Santiviago, Carlos A.; McClelland, Michael; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene

    2011-01-01

    TatC (STM3975) is a highly conserved component of the Twin Arginine Transport (Tat) systems that is required for transport of folded proteins across the inner membrane in gram-negative bacteria. We previously identified a ΔtatC mutant as defective in competitive infections with wild type ATCC14028 during systemic infection of Salmonella-susceptible BALB/c mice. Here we confirm these results and show that the ΔtatC mutant is internalized poorly by cultured J774-A.1 mouse macrophages a phenotype that may be related to the systemic infection defect. This mutant is also defective for short-term intestinal and systemic colonization after oral infection of BALB/c mice and is shed in reduced numbers in feces from orally infected Salmonella-resistant (CBA/J) mice. We show that the ΔtatC mutant is highly sensitive to bile acids perhaps resulting in the defect in intestinal infection that we observe. Finally, the ΔtatC mutant has an unusual combination of motility phenotypes in Salmonella; it is severely defective for swimming motility but is able to swarm well. The ΔtatC mutant has a lower amount of flagellin on the bacterial surface during swimming motility but normal levels under swarming conditions. PMID:21298091

  8. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant enhance neonatal resistance to systemic Escherichia coli K1 infection by accelerating development of intestinal defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaolong; Zeng, Qing; Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Zeng, Zhijie; Yang, Weijun; Qiu, Jiawen; Du, Lei; Boddu, Swapna; Wu, Tongwei; Cai, Danxian; Huang, Sheng-He; Cao, Hong

    2017-03-06

    The objective of this study was to determine whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant (LCS) has a preventive effect against gut-derived systemic neonatal Escherichia coli (E. coli) K1 infection. The preventive effects were evaluated in human colonic carcinoma cell line Caco-2 and neonatal rat models. Our in vitro results showed that LCS could block adhesion, invasion and translocation of E. coli K1 to Caco-2 monolayer via up-regulating mucin production and maintaining intestinal integrity. In vivo experiments revealed that pre-treatment with LCS significantly decrease susceptibility of neonatal rats to oral E. coli K1 infection as reflected by reduced bacterial intestinal colonization, translocation, dissemination and systemic infections. Further, we found that LCS treated neonatal rats have higher intestinal expressions of Ki67, MUC2, ZO-1, IgA, mucin and lower barrier permeability than those in untreated rats. These results indicated that LCS could enhance neonatal resistance to systemic E. coli K1 infection via promoting maturation of neonatal intestinal defense. In conclusions, our findings suggested that LCS has a prophylactic effect against systemic E. coli K1 infection in neonates. Future studies aimed at identifying the specific active ingredients in LCS will be helpful in developing effective pharmacological strategies for preventing neonatal E. coli K1 infection.

  9. Abrogation of the twin arginine transport system in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium leads to colonization defects during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Megan Reynolds

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available TatC (STM3975 is a highly conserved component of the Twin Arginine Transport (Tat systems that is required for transport of folded proteins across the inner membrane in gram-negative bacteria. We previously identified a ΔtatC mutant as defective in competitive infections with wild type ATCC14028 during systemic infection of Salmonella-susceptible BALB/c mice. Here we confirm these results and show that the ΔtatC mutant is internalized poorly by cultured J774-A.1 mouse macrophages a phenotype that may be related to the systemic infection defect. This mutant is also defective for short-term intestinal and systemic colonization after oral infection of BALB/c mice and is shed in reduced numbers in feces from orally infected Salmonella-resistant (CBA/J mice. We show that the ΔtatC mutant is highly sensitive to bile acids perhaps resulting in the defect in intestinal infection that we observe. Finally, the ΔtatC mutant has an unusual combination of motility phenotypes in Salmonella; it is severely defective for swimming motility but is able to swarm well. The ΔtatC mutant has a lower amount of flagellin on the bacterial surface during swimming motility but normal levels under swarming conditions.

  10. Real-Time Microbiology Laboratory Surveillance System to Detect Abnormal Events and Emerging Infections, Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abat, Cédric; Chaudet, Hervé; Colson, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Infectious diseases are a major threat to humanity, and accurate surveillance is essential. We describe how to implement a laboratory data-based surveillance system in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Two historical Microsoft Excel databases were implemented. The data were then sorted and used to execute the following 2 surveillance systems in Excel: the Bacterial real-time Laboratory-based Surveillance System (BALYSES) for monitoring the number of patients infected with bacterial species isolated at least once in our laboratory during the study periodl and the Marseille Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System (MARSS), which surveys the primary β-lactam resistance phenotypes for 15 selected bacterial species. The first historical database contained 174,853 identifications of bacteria, and the second contained 12,062 results of antibiotic susceptibility testing. From May 21, 2013, through June 4, 2014, BALYSES and MARSS enabled the detection of 52 abnormal events for 24 bacterial species, leading to 19 official reports. This system is currently being refined and improved.

  11. Clinical manifestations of human T lymphotropic virus type I-infected patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Masaki; Matsushita, Kakushi; Suruga, Yukio; Aoki, Noriko; Ozaki, Atsuo; Uozumi, Kimiharu; Tei, Chuwa; Arima, Naomichi

    2007-09-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) may be associated with some connective tissue autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To determine the relationship between HTLV-I infection and SLE, we examined the clinical manifestations of SLE patients with HTLV-I infection. Eighty-nine patients with SLE were screened for antibodies to HTLV-I by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The presence of HTLV-I proviral sequences in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) quantification and Southern blotting analysis. The differences in clinical manifestations between HTLV-I-seropositive and seronegative patients with SLE were analyzed statistically. Fourteen of 89 (15.7%) patients were HTLV-I seropositive. All PBMC samples from 11 patients tested by PCR and 3 samples from 10 patients tested by Southern blotting analysis were positive for HTLV-I-related sequences. The age of HTLV-I-seropositive patients with SLE was significantly higher than that of seronegative patients (median 60 vs 42 yrs; p seronegative patients (median 45.5 vs 30 yrs; p seronegative patients (median 1740 vs 1066/microl; p = 0.027). The maintenance dose of prednisolone in HTLV-I-seropositive patients with SLE was significantly lower than that in seronegative patients (median 5 vs 9 mg/day; p = 0.012). This is the first report of the differences in clinical manifestations between SLE patients with and without HTLV-I infection. Our results suggest some involvement of HTLV-I in the pathogenesis of SLE.

  12. Improved expression systems for regulated expression in Salmonella infecting eukaryotic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Medina

    Full Text Available In this work we describe a series of improvements to the Salmonella-based salicylate-inducible cascade expression system comprised of a plasmid-borne expression module, where target gene expression is driven by the P(m promoter governed by the XylS2 regulator, and a genome-integrated regulatory module controlled by the nahR/P(sal system. We have constructed a set of high and low-copy number plasmids bearing modified versions of the expression module with a more versatile multiple cloning site and different combinations of the following elements: (i the nasF transcriptional attenuator, which reduces basal expression levels, (ii a strong ribosome binding site, and (iii the Type III Secretion System (TTSS signal peptide from the effector protein SspH2 to deliver proteins directly to the eukaryotic cytosol following bacterial infection of animal cells. We show that different expression module versions can be used to direct a broad range of protein production levels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the efficient reduction of basal expression by the nasF attenuator allows the cloning of genes encoding highly cytotoxic proteins such as colicin E3 even in the absence of its immunity protein. Additionally, we show that the Salmonella TTSS is able to translocate most of the protein produced by this regulatory cascade to the cytoplasm of infected HeLa cells. Our results indicate that these vectors represent useful tools for the regulated overproduction of heterologous proteins in bacterial culture or in animal cells, for the cloning and expression of genes encoding toxic proteins and for pathogenesis studies.

  13. A comparison of tuberculosis diagnostic systems in a retrospective cohort of HIV-infected children in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Solange Gonçalves; Lovero, Kathryn L; Pombo March, Maria de Fátima B; Abreu, Thalita G; Ruffino Netto, Antonio; Kritski, Afranio L; Sant'Anna, Clemax C

    2017-06-01

    The diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) presents many challenges, and is further complicated in HIV-infected patients. While many diagnostic systems have been proposed, there is no pediatric TB diagnosis gold standard. The outcomes of four TB diagnostic systems in HIV-infected children were compared in this study. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a TB/HIV reference hospital in Rio de Janeiro. HIV-infected pediatric patients evaluated for TB from 1998 to 2010 were reassessed using four diagnostic systems: Kenneth Jones, 1969; Tidjani, 1986; Ben Marais, 2006; Brazilian Ministry of Health, 2010. Results were compared to standardized diagnoses made by an expert panel of physicians. Of the 121 patients in the study cohort, the expert panel diagnosed 64 as TB and 57 as not TB cases. The Tidjani system showed the highest diagnostic accuracy, with and without the inclusion of microbiological data. The Tidjani and Kenneth Jones systems produced fewer false-positives, and the Ben Marais and Ministry of Health fewer false-negatives. Across systems, there was little agreement between TB diagnoses. In HIV-infected pediatric patients, the Ben Marais and Ministry of Health systems are useful for TB diagnostic screening, whereas the Tidjani and Kenneth Jones systems are best used in a reference center setting. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of the analytical hierarchy process to establish health care waste management systems that minimise infection risks in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available . This is achieved by evaluating the way in which the AHP can best be combined with a life cycle management (LCM) approach, and addressing a main objective of HCWM systems, i.e. to minimize infection of patients and workers within the system. The modified approach...

  15. [Diagnosis of systemic Candida infections. Evaluation of serology, molecular biology and D-arabinitol detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär, W; Beyreiss, B; Rebentisch, G; Juretzek, T

    2004-01-01

    In order to diagnose systemic Candida infection in ICU patients, several methods were compared. In the first round, antigens and antibodies of 104 patients were investigated. Seventeen patients were infected; in nine of these patients a positive antigen was detected; elevated antibodies were detected in 11 patients. Only 42 patients were colonized. In this group, one positive antigen and six elevated antibody titres were detected. Combining these results, the sensitivity of the antigen only (58.5%) or the antibodies only (52.9%) increased to 100%. In the second round (n = 83 patients) the D-arabinitol/L-arabinitol quotient was also determined in the urine. 18.1% of the patients had elevated antibodies and 26.5% elevated D-arabinitol/L-arabinitol quotients. In the third round, PCR was also applied (n = 27 patients). Five patients had elevated D-arabinitol/L-arabinitol quotients and one of these had a positive PCR result. In conclusion, serological methods (antigen and antibody detection) should only be applied in strictly selected patients. In uncertain cases, the addition of PCR or determination of D-arabinitol/L-arabinitol might be helpful.

  16. Drosophila embryos as model systems for monitoring bacterial infection in real time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Vlisidou

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila embryos are well studied developmental microcosms that have been used extensively as models for early development and more recently wound repair. Here we extend this work by looking at embryos as model systems for following bacterial infection in real time. We examine the behaviour of injected pathogenic (Photorhabdus asymbiotica and non-pathogenic (Escherichia coli bacteria and their interaction with embryonic hemocytes using time-lapse confocal microscopy. We find that embryonic hemocytes both recognise and phagocytose injected wild type, non-pathogenic E. coli in a Dscam independent manner, proving that embryonic hemocytes are phagocytically competent. In contrast, injection of bacterial cells of the insect pathogen Photorhabdus leads to a rapid 'freezing' phenotype of the hemocytes associated with significant rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. This freezing phenotype can be phenocopied by either injection of the purified insecticidal toxin Makes Caterpillars Floppy 1 (Mcf1 or by recombinant E. coli expressing the mcf1 gene. Mcf1 mediated hemocyte freezing is shibire dependent, suggesting that endocytosis is required for Mcf1 toxicity and can be modulated by dominant negative or constitutively active Rac expression, suggesting early and unexpected effects of Mcf1 on the actin cytoskeleton. Together these data show how Drosophila embryos can be used to track bacterial infection in real time and how mutant analysis can be used to genetically dissect the effects of specific bacterial virulence factors.

  17. Nephrologists Hate the Dialysis Catheters: A Systemic Review of Dialysis Catheter Associated Infective Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyana C. Janga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 53-year-old Egyptian female with end stage renal disease, one month after start of hemodialysis via an internal jugular catheter, presented with fever and shortness of breath. She developed desquamating vesiculobullous lesions, widespread on her body. She was in profound septic shock and broad spectrum antibiotics were started with appropriate fluid replenishment. An echocardiogram revealed bulky leaflets of the mitral valve with a highly mobile vegetation about 2.3 cm long attached to the anterior leaflet. CT scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed bilateral pleural effusions in the chest, with triangular opacities in the lungs suggestive of infarcts. There was splenomegaly with triangular hypodensities consistent with splenic infarcts. Blood cultures repeatedly grew Candida albicans. Despite parenteral antifungal therapy, the patient deteriorated over the course of 5 days. She died due to a subsequent cardiac arrest. Systemic review of literature revealed that the rate of infection varies amongst the various types of accesses, and it is well documented that AV fistulas have a much less rate of infection in comparison to temporary catheters. All dialysis units should strive to make a multidisciplinary effort to have a referral process early on, for access creation, and to avoid catheters associated morbidity.

  18. A case of central nervous system infection due to Cladophialophora bantiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarcioglu, A Serda; Guarro, Josep; de Hoog, G Sybren; Apaydin, Hulya; Kiraz, Nuri; Balkan, Ilker Inanç; Ozaras, Resat

    Cladophialophora bantiana is a melanised mold with a pronounced tropism for the central nervous system, almost exclusively causing human brain abscesses. We describe a case of cerebral infection by this fungus in an otherwise healthy 28-year-old coal-miner. Environmental occurrence, route of entry, and incubation period of this fungus are unknown, but our case is informative in that the first symptoms occurred about eight weeks after known traumatic inoculation. Lesions were compatible with tuberculous granulomas, and the patient initially received antitubercular treatment. Melanised fungal cells were seen in a brain biopsy and abscess materials. Therapy was switched from empirical antitubercular treatment to amphotericin B (0.5mg/kg/d), but was changed to voriconazole 200mg/d, i.v. on the basis of antifungal susceptibility test results. The patient responded clinically, and gradually improved. The isolate was identified by sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer domain of rDNA. Given the non-specific clinical manifestations of C. bantiana cerebral abscesses, clinicians and laboratory workers should suspect infections caused by C. bantiana, particularly in immunocompromised patients with a trauma history. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. The Ubiquitin-Conjugating System: Multiple Roles in Viral Replication and Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Calistri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Through the combined action of ubiquitinating and deubiquitinating enzymes, conjugation of ubiquitin to a target protein acts as a reversible post-translational modification functionally similar to phosphorylation. Indeed, ubiquitination is more and more recognized as a central process for the fine regulation of many cellular pathways. Due to their nature as obligate intracellular parasites, viruses rely on the most conserved host cell machineries for their own replication. Thus, it is not surprising that members from almost every viral family are challenged by ubiquitin mediated mechanisms in different steps of their life cycle and have evolved in order to by-pass or exploit the cellular ubiquitin conjugating system to maximize their chance to establish a successful infection. In this review we will present several examples of the complex interplay that links viruses and the ubiquitin conjugation machinery, with a special focus on the mechanisms evolved by the human immunodeficiency virus to escape from cellular restriction factors and to exit from infected cells.

  20. Reducing neonatal nosocomial bloodstream infections through participation in a national surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, F; Geffers, C; Bärwolff, S; Rüden, H; Gastmeier, P

    2007-04-01

    A national nosocomial surveillance system for neonatal intensive care patients with a very low birthweight was set up in Germany in 2000 (NEO-KISS). Forty-eight neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) participated in the programme, which focused upon nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs) and pneumonia. Only data from NICUs participating for at least three years were included and the years compared. The relative risks and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and a multiple logistic regression analysis performed to identify significant risk factors. Twenty-four units that met the selection criteria accumulated data for 3856 patients and 152 437 patient-days in their first three years of participation. The incidence density of BSIs decreased significantly by 24% from 8.3 BSIs per 1000 patient-days in the first year to 6.4 in the third year. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, BSI in the third year of participation was significantly lower than in the first year of participation (odds ratio=0.73, 95% CI 0.60-0.89). The year of participation was an independent risk factor for BSI but not for pneumonia. Our data suggest that participation in ongoing surveillance of nosocomial infections in NICUs, requiring individual units to feedback data, may lead to a reduction in BSI rates.

  1. Comparison of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome between monomicrobial and polymicrobial Pseudomonas aeruginosa nosocomial bloodstream infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzel Richard P

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies of nosocomial bloodstream infection (nBSI have demonstrated a higher mortality for polymicrobial bacteremia when compared to monomicrobial nBSI. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in systemic inflammatory response and mortality between monomicrobial and polymicrobial nBSI with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods We performed a historical cohort study on 98 adults with P. aeruginosa (Pa nBSI. SIRS scores were determined 2 days prior to the first positive blood culture through 14 days afterwards. Monomicrobial (n = 77 and polymicrobial BSIs (n = 21 were compared. Results 78.6% of BSIs were caused by monomicrobial P. aeruginosa infection (MPa and 21.4% by polymicrobial P. aeruginosa infection (PPa. Median APACHE II score on the day of BSI was 22 for MPa and 23 for PPa BSIs. Septic shock occurred in 33.3% of PPa and in 39.0% of MPa (p = 0.64. Progression to septic shock was associated with death more frequently in PPa (OR 38.5, CI95 2.9–508.5 than MPa (OR 4.5, CI95 1.7–12.1. Maximal SIR (severe sepsis, septic shock or death was seen on day 0 for PPa BSI vs. day 1 for MPa. No significant difference was noted in the incidence of organ failure, 7-day or overall mortality between the two groups. Univariate analysis revealed that APACHE II score ≥20 at BSI onset, Charlson weighted comorbidity index ≥3, burn injury and respiratory, cardiovascular, renal and hematologic failure were associated with death, while age, malignant disease, diabetes mellitus, hepatic failure, gastrointestinal complications, inappropriate antimicrobial therapy, infection with imipenem resistant P. aeruginosa and polymicrobial nBSI were not. Multivariate analysis revealed that hematologic failure (p Conclusion In this historical cohort study of nBSI with P. aeruginosa, the incidence of septic shock and organ failure was high in both groups. Additionally, patients with PPa BSI were not more acutely ill, as judged by APACHE II

  2. Impact of revising the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System definition for catheter-related bloodstream infection in ICU: reproducibility of the National Healthcare Safety Network case definition in an Australian cohort of infection control professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Leon J; Brett, Judy; Bull, Ann L; McBryde, Emma S; Russo, Philip L; Richards, Michael J

    2009-10-01

    Effective and comparable surveillance for central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in the intensive care unit requires a reproducible case definition that can be readily applied by infection control professionals. Using a questionnaire containing clinical cases, reproducibility of the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (NNIS) surveillance definition for CLABSI was assessed in an Australian cohort of infection control professionals participating in the Victorian Hospital Acquired Infection Surveillance System (VICNISS). The same questionnaire was then used to evaluate the reproducibility of the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance definition for CLABSI. Target hospitals were defined as large metropolitan (1A) or other large hospitals (non-1A), according to the Victorian Department of Human Services. Questionnaire responses of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NHSN surveillance experts were used as gold standard comparator. Eighteen of 21 eligible VICNISS centers participated in the survey. Overall concordance with the gold standard was 57.1%, and agreement was highest for 1A hospitals (60.6%). The proportion of congruently classified cases varied according to NNIS criteria: criterion 1 (recognized pathogen), 52.8%; criterion 2a (skin contaminant in 2 or more blood cultures), 83.3%; criterion 2b (skin contaminant in 1 blood culture and appropriate antimicrobial therapy instituted), 58.3%; non-CLABSI cases, 51.4%. When survey questions regarding identification of cases of CLABSI criterion 2b were removed (consistent with the current NHSN definition), overall percentage concordance increased to 62.5% (72.2% for 1A centers). Further educational interventions are required to improve the discrimination of primary and secondary causes of bloodstream infection in Victorian intensive care units. Although reproducibility of the CLABSI case definition is relatively poor, adoption of the revised NHSN definition

  3. Five-year decreased incidence of surgical site infections following gastrectomy and prosthetic joint replacement surgery through active surveillance by the Korean Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H J; Adiyani, L; Sung, J; Choi, J Y; Kim, H B; Kim, Y K; Kwak, Y G; Yoo, H; Lee, Sang-Oh; Han, S H; Kim, S R; Kim, T H; Lee, H M; Chun, H K; Kim, J-S; Yoo, J D; Koo, H-S; Cho, E H; Lee, K W

    2016-08-01

    Surveillance of healthcare-associated infection has been associated with a reduction in surgical site infection (SSI). To evaluate the Korean Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (KONIS) in order to assess its effects on SSI since it was introduced. SSI data after gastrectomy, total hip arthroplasty (THA), and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between 2008 and 2012 were analysed. The pooled incidence of SSI was calculated for each year; the same analyses were also conducted from hospitals that had participated in KONIS for at least three consecutive years. Standardized SSI rates for each year were calculated by adjusting for SSI risk factors. SSI trends were analysed using the Cochran-Armitage test. The SSI rate following gastrectomy was 3.12% (522/16,918). There was a significant trend of decreased crude SSI rates over five years. This trend was also evident in analysis of hospitals that had participated for more than three years. The SSI rate for THA was 2.05% (157/7656), which decreased significantly from 2008 to 2012. The risk factors for SSI after THA included the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance risk index, trauma, reoperation, and age (60-69 years). The SSI rate for TKA was 1.90% (152/7648), which also decreased significantly during a period of five years. However, the risk-adjusted analysis of SSI did not show a significant decrease for all surgical procedures. The SSI incidence of gastrectomy and prosthetic joint replacement declined over five years as a result of active surveillance by KONIS. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk factors for device-associated infection related to organisational characteristics of intensive care units: findings from the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Y G; Lee, S-O; Kim, H Y; Kim, Y K; Park, E S; Jin, H Y; Choi, H J; Jeong, S Y; Kim, E S; Ki, H K; Kim, S R; Lee, J Y; Hong, H K; Kim, S; Lee, Y S; Oh, H-B; Kim, J M

    2010-07-01

    Device-associated infections (DAIs) have been the major causes of morbidity and mortality of patients in intensive care units (ICUs). This study evaluated the risk factors for DAIs in ICUs. Ninety-six medical or surgical ICUs of 56 hospitals participated in the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System between July 2007 and June 2008. The occurrence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CABSI), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) were monitored and DAI rates were calculated. Data associated with ICU characteristics were collected and Poisson regression was used for statistical analysis. Rates of CAUTI, CABSI, and VAP were 3.87 per 1000 urinary catheter days, 2.23 per 1000 central line days, and 1.89 per 1000 mechanical ventilator days, respectively. Rates of CAUTI were higher in ICUs in Seoul (P=0.032) and ICUs of major teaching hospitals (P=0.010). The ICUs of university-affiliated hospitals showed lower CAUTI rates (P=0.013). CABSI rates were higher in Seoul (P=0.001) and in medical ICUs (P=0.026). VAP rates were lower in ICUs of hospitals with more than 900 beds compared with hospitals with 400-699 beds (P=0.026). VAP rates were higher in surgical ICUs (P<0.0001) and increased 1.13-fold with each 100-unit increase in beds per infection control professional (P=0.003). The organisational and institutional characteristics of ICUs may influence DAI rates and there is a need for improvement in the incidence of VAP, CAUTI or CABSI. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Effective antiviral treatment of systemic orthopoxvirus disease: ST-246 treatment of prairie dogs infected with monkeypox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott K; Self, Josh; Weiss, Sonja; Carroll, Darin; Braden, Zach; Regnery, Russell L; Davidson, Whitni; Jordan, Robert; Hruby, Dennis E; Damon, Inger K

    2011-09-01

    Smallpox preparedness research has led to development of antiviral therapies for treatment of serious orthopoxvirus infections. Monkeypox virus is an emerging, zoonotic orthopoxvirus which can cause severe and transmissible disease in humans, generating concerns for public health. Monkeypox virus infection results in a systemic, febrile-rash illness closely resembling smallpox. Currently, there are no small-molecule antiviral therapeutics approved to treat orthopoxvirus infections of humans. The prairie dog, using monkeypox virus as a challenge virus, has provided a valuable nonhuman animal model in which monkeypox virus infection closely resembles human systemic orthopoxvirus illness. Here, we assess the efficacy of the antiorthopoxvirus compound ST-246 in prairie dogs against a monkeypox virus challenge of 65 times the 50% lethal dose (LD(50)). Animals were infected intranasally and administered ST-246 for 14 days, beginning on days 0, 3, or after rash onset. Swab and blood samples were collected every 2 days and analyzed for presence of viral DNA by real-time PCR and for viable virus by tissue culture. Seventy-five percent of infected animals that received vehicle alone succumbed to infection. One hundred percent of animals that received ST-246 survived challenge, and animals that received treatment before symptom onset remained largely asymptomatic. Viable virus and viral DNA were undetected or at greatly reduced levels in animals that began treatment on 0 or 3 days postinfection, compared to control animals or animals treated post-rash onset. Animals treated after rash onset manifested illness, but all recovered. Our results indicate that ST-246 can be used therapeutically, following onset of rash illness, to treat systemic orthopoxvirus infections.

  6. Effective Antiviral Treatment of Systemic Orthopoxvirus Disease: ST-246 Treatment of Prairie Dogs Infected with Monkeypox Virus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott K.; Self, Josh; Weiss, Sonja; Carroll, Darin; Braden, Zach; Regnery, Russell L.; Davidson, Whitni; Jordan, Robert; Hruby, Dennis E.; Damon, Inger K.

    2011-01-01

    Smallpox preparedness research has led to development of antiviral therapies for treatment of serious orthopoxvirus infections. Monkeypox virus is an emerging, zoonotic orthopoxvirus which can cause severe and transmissible disease in humans, generating concerns for public health. Monkeypox virus infection results in a systemic, febrile-rash illness closely resembling smallpox. Currently, there are no small-molecule antiviral therapeutics approved to treat orthopoxvirus infections of humans. The prairie dog, using monkeypox virus as a challenge virus, has provided a valuable nonhuman animal model in which monkeypox virus infection closely resembles human systemic orthopoxvirus illness. Here, we assess the efficacy of the antiorthopoxvirus compound ST-246 in prairie dogs against a monkeypox virus challenge of 65 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50). Animals were infected intranasally and administered ST-246 for 14 days, beginning on days 0, 3, or after rash onset. Swab and blood samples were collected every 2 days and analyzed for presence of viral DNA by real-time PCR and for viable virus by tissue culture. Seventy-five percent of infected animals that received vehicle alone succumbed to infection. One hundred percent of animals that received ST-246 survived challenge, and animals that received treatment before symptom onset remained largely asymptomatic. Viable virus and viral DNA were undetected or at greatly reduced levels in animals that began treatment on 0 or 3 days postinfection, compared to control animals or animals treated post-rash onset. Animals treated after rash onset manifested illness, but all recovered. Our results indicate that ST-246 can be used therapeutically, following onset of rash illness, to treat systemic orthopoxvirus infections. PMID:21697474

  7. Neisseria gonorrhoeae co-infection exacerbates vaginal HIV shedding without affecting systemic viral loads in human CD34+ engrafted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Stacey X; Leontyev, Danila; Kaul, Rupert; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2018-01-01

    HIV synergy with sexually transmitted co-infections is well-documented in the clinic. Co-infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae in particular, increases genital HIV shedding and mucosal transmission. However, no animal model of co-infection currently exists to directly explore this relationship or to bridge the gap in understanding between clinical and in vitro studies of this interaction. This study aims to test the feasibility of using a humanized mouse model to overcome this barrier. Combining recent in vivo modelling advancements in both HIV and gonococcal research, we developed a co-infection model by engrafting immunodeficient NSG mice with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells to generate humanized mice that permit both systemic HIV infection and genital N. gonorrhoeae infection. Systemic plasma and vaginal lavage titres of HIV were measured in order to assess the impact of gonococcal challenge on viral plasma titres and genital shedding. Engrafted mice showed human CD45+ leukocyte repopulation in blood and mucosal tissues. Systemic HIV challenge resulted in 104-105 copies/mL of viral RNA in blood by week 4 post-infection, as well as vaginal shedding of virus. Subsequent gonococcal challenge resulted in unchanged plasma HIV levels but higher viral shedding in the genital tract, which reflects published clinical observations. Thus, human CD34+ stem cell-transplanted NSG mice represent an experimentally tractable animal model in which to study HIV shedding during gonococcal co-infection, allowing dissection of molecular and immunological interactions between these pathogens, and providing a platform to assess future therapeutics aimed at reducing HIV transmission.

  8. Serious systemic infection caused by non-encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae biotype III in an adult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lester, Anne; Pedersen, P B

    1991-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is the aetiological agent in less than 1% of septic arthritis cases in adults and most often serotype b is involved. We report here a case of severe systemic infection due to non-encapsulated H. influenzae biotype III in a 40-year-old man, previously healthy although alcohol...... abuser. Cholangitis and acute alcoholic hepatitis were diagnosed simultaneously. The organism was grown from blood and from synovial fluid of the left knee, but several other joints were also affected. The close relationship between H. influenzae biotype III and H. aegyptius is mentioned in view...... of recent reports of fatal childhood illness caused by a special clone of H. aegyptius and the importance of reporting both serotype and biotype in severe H. influenzae induced disease is emphasized....

  9. [Practical aspects of implementation quality management system ISO 9001:2000 by hospital infection control team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuziemski, Arkadiusz; Czerniak, Beata; Frankowska, Krystyna; Gonia, Ewa; Salińska, Teresa; Motuk, Andrzej; Sobociński, Zbigniew

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 the Board of the Jan Biziel Hospital in Bydgoszcz decided to include procedures of health services in the implementation process within the confines of ISO 9001:2000 certification. The hospital infection control team that has operated in the hospital since 1989 performed the analysis of the forms of activities to date and on that basis the team prepared original plan of quality management. In April 2007, this plan was successfully accepted by the certifying team. The aim of this study is to present the aforementioned plan which is the result of 18 years experience of the team. At the same time, I hope that this study will be very helpful for all professionals interested in hospital epidemiology, especially in the context of implementing quality management systems.

  10. A retrospective study of viral central nervous system infections: relationship amongst aetiology, clinical course and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleri, Guido; Libanore, Valentina; Corcione, Silvia; De Rosa, Francesco G; Caramello, Pietro

    2017-04-01

    To describe the clinical pattern of viral central nervous system (CNS) infections and compare meningitis and encephalitis. This is a retrospective study reporting the clinical characteristics and outcome of 138 cases of viral meningitis and meningoencephalitis in a real life experience at a referral centre in Turin, Northern Italy. Enteroviruses were predominant in younger patients who were mainly presenting with signs of meningitis, had shorter hospital admission and absence of complications, whereas herpesviruses had more often signs of encephalitis, were more frequent in elderly patients, had longer hospital admission and frequent complications and sequelae. Two main clinical entities with different epidemiology, clinical aspects and prognosis may be identified within the group of viral CNS inefctions.

  11. Role of metabolism during viral infections, and crosstalk with the innate immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Plaza, Juan José; Hulak, Nataša; Kausova, Galina; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Akilzhanova, Ainur

    2016-05-01

    Viruses have been for long polemic biological particles which stand in the twilight of being living entities or not. As their genome is reduced, they rely on the metabolic machinery of their host in order to replicate and be able to continue with their infection process. The understanding of their metabolic requirements is thus of paramount importance in order to develop tailored drugs to control their population, without affecting the normal functioning of their host. New advancements in high throughput technologies, especially metabolomics are allowing researchers to uncover the metabolic mechanisms of viral replication. In this short review, we present the latest discoveries that have been made in the field and an overview of the intrinsic relationship between metabolism and innate immunity as an important part of the immune system.

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutations in lasl and rhll quorum sensing systems result in milder chronic lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, H.; Song, Z.J.; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2001-01-01

    number of lung bacteria, and minor serum IgG and IgG1 responses but increased lung interferon gamma production were detected in the group infected with the PAO1 double mutant when compared with the PAO1-infected group. Delayed immune responses were observed in the PAO1-infected group and they might...

  13. Apoptosis in the Mouse Central Nervous System in Response to Infection with Mouse-Neurovirulent Dengue Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desprès, Philippe; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel; Duarte Dos Santos, Claudia; Deubel, Vincent

    1998-01-01

    Apoptosis has been suggested as a mechanism by which dengue (DEN) virus infection may cause neuronal cell death (P. Desprès, M. Flamand, P.-E. Ceccaldi, and V. Deubel, J. Virol. 70:4090–4096, 1996). In this study, we investigated whether apoptotic cell death occurred in the central nervous system (CNS) of neonatal mice inoculated intracerebrally with DEN virus. We showed that serial passage of a wild-type human isolate of DEN virus in mouse brains selected highly neurovirulent variants which replicated more efficiently in the CNS. Infection of newborn mice with these neurovirulent variants produced fatal encephalitis within 10 days after inoculation. Virus-induced cell death and oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation were observed in mouse brain tissue by day 9. Infected mouse brain tissue was assayed for apoptosis by in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling and for virus replication by immunostaining of viral antigens and in situ hybridization. Apoptotic cell death and DEN virus replication were restricted to the neurons of the cortical and hippocampal regions. Thus, DEN virus-induced apoptosis in the CNS was a direct result of virus infection. In the murine neuronal cell line Neuro 2a, neuroadapted DEN virus variants showed infection patterns similar to those of the parental strain. However, DEN virus-induced apoptosis in these cells was more pronounced after infection with the neurovirulent variants than after infection with the parental strain. PMID:9420294

  14. Acute infection with venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles catalyzes a systemic antiviral state and protects from lethal virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Jennifer L; Thompson, Joseph M; Whitmore, Alan C; Webb, Drue L; Johnston, Robert E

    2009-12-01

    The host innate immune response provides a critical first line of defense against invading pathogens, inducing an antiviral state to impede the spread of infection. While numerous studies have documented antiviral responses within actively infected tissues, few have described the earliest innate response induced systemically by infection. Here, utilizing Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon particles (VRP) to limit infection to the initially infected cells in vivo, a rapid activation of the antiviral response was demonstrated not only within the murine draining lymph node, where replication was confined, but also within distal tissues. In the liver and brain, expression of interferon-stimulated genes was detected by 1 to 3 h following VRP footpad inoculation, reaching peak expression of >100-fold over that in mock-infected animals. Moreover, mice receiving a VRP footpad inoculation 6, 12, or 24 h prior to an otherwise lethal VEE footpad challenge were completely protected from death, including a drastic reduction in challenge virus titers. VRP pretreatment also provided protection from intranasal VEE challenge and extended the average survival time following intracranial challenge. Signaling through the interferon receptor was necessary for antiviral gene induction and protection from VEE challenge. However, VRP pretreatment failed to protect mice from a heterologous, lethal challenge with vesicular stomatitis virus, yet conferred protection following challenge with influenza virus. Collectively, these results document a rapid modulation of the host innate response within hours of infection, capable of rapidly alerting the entire animal to pathogen invasion and leading to protection from viral disease.

  15. Diminished IL-17A levels may protect filarial-infected individuals from development of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, A K; Das, B K

    2017-04-01

    Nematode infections have been observed to inversely correlate with autoimmune disorders. Recently, we have shown the absence of filarial infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who live in filarial-endemic areas. The mechanism(s) by which filarial-infected individuals are protected against the development of RA or SLE are unknown. In mice CIA, an experimental model for RA, ES-62, an execratory product of rodent filarial nematode , has been shown to improve arthritis through suppression of the IL-17 pathway. A total of 160 individuals, 40 each of endemic normal, filarial-infected cases, SLE and RA patients, from filarial-endemic areas, were enrolled in the study. Plasma levels of IL17-A, IFN-α and TNF-α were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RA and SLE patients displayed significantly higher plasma IL-17A, IFN-α and TNF-α levels compared to endemic normal and infected individuals. Furthermore, IL-17A levels were significantly low in participants with filarial infection compared to endemic controls ( p < 0.05). Interestingly, plasma IL-17A levels correlated inversely with circulating filarial antigen (CFA) ( p = 0.004, Spearman r = -0.51). Filarial infection was associated with low plasma IL-17A levels, a mechanism by which it possibly protects individuals in filarial-endemic areas from the development of autoimmune disorders like RA and SLE.

  16. SYSTEMIC ANTIBODY AND CELLULAR IMMUNE RESPONSES IN INFLUENZA INFECTION AND POSTSVACCINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Donina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Post-infection immunity represents an immunogenicity standard for antiviral vaccines, including those against influenza. To estimate the immunogenic properties of vaccine preparations, it is necessary to compare the quantitative and qualitative parameters of immune responses to the vaccine strain and the virulent virus from which it is prepared. However, for ethical reasons, such human studies are difficult, because there is the possibility of pathogenic viral infection.The aim of this experimental work was to compare systemic immune responses to the pathogenic mouse influenza virus A (H1N1, and an attenuated reassortant virus, genetic formula 2/6 (R 2/6, an experimental analogue to the live influenza vaccine.It was shown, that R 2/6 lagged behind the pathogenic parental virus (PPV in activated induction of circulating IgG-antibodies, secretion of a marker Th1-cytokine IFN-γ by splenocytes, and CTL (CD8+ production in the spleen. On the other hand, R 2/6 was highly competitive with PPV, with regard to quantitative proliferative parameters of pooled splenocytes, stimulation of Th (CD4+ cells, B-cells (CD19+, and Th2-cytokine IL-2. IL-6 production in the spleen was poorly induced by both viruses.Thus, attenuation of influenza A (H1N1 virus by the 2/6 genetic reassortment differentially influences the induction of systemic immunity constituents. i.e., some parameters of immune response may be reduced, while others are not altered. When preparing vaccine strains for live influenza vaccines, an attention should be given first of all to increased induction of circulating antibodies that comprise the major components of antiviral immunity.

  17. Evaluation of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections by cell culture and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Traulsen, J; Birkelund, Svend

    1993-01-01

    the two test systems were compared, the overall sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction was 96% and the specificity 94% when compared to the cell culture technique. By use of a closed system for DNA extraction and sample transfer for the polymerase chain reaction, contamination of the samples......Two hundred and fifty-four specimens from males and females consulting a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases were analyzed for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Each clinical sample was tested by the cell culture technique and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system. When...... was minimized. The polymerase chain reaction detected a higher number of Chlamydia trachomatis infections among both symptomatic and asymptomatic females and males, and it also detected Chlamydia trachomatis at an earlier stage of infection when compared to cell culture. The polymerase chain reaction did...

  18. Evaluation of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections by cell culture and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Traulsen, J; Birkelund, Svend

    1991-01-01

    the two test systems were compared, the overall sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction was 96% and the specificity 94% when compared to the cell culture technique. By use of a closed system for DNA extraction and sample transfer for the polymerase chain reaction, contamination of the samples......Two hundred and fifty-four specimens from males and females consulting a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases were analyzed for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Each clinical sample was tested by the cell culture technique and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system. When...... was minimized. The polymerase chain reaction detected a higher number of Chlamydia trachomatis infections among both symptomatic and asymptomatic females and males, and it also detected Chlamydia trachomatis at an earlier stage of infection when compared to cell culture. The polymerase chain reaction did...

  19. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus infection in aged nonhuman primates is associated with modulated pulmonary and systemic immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Many respiratory viruses disproportionately impact the elderly. Likewise, advanced age correlated with more adverse disease outcomes following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection in humans. We used an aged African green monkey SARS-CoV infection model to better understand age-related mechanisms of increased susceptibility to viral respiratory infections. Nonhuman primates are critical translational models for such research given their similarities to humans in immune-ageing as well as lung structure. Results Significant age- and infection-dependent differences were observed in both systemic and mucosal immune compartments. Peripheral lymphocytes, specifically CD8 T and B cells were significantly lower in aged monkeys pre- and post- SARS-CoV infection, while neutrophil and monocyte numbers were not impacted by age or infection status. Serum proinflammatory cytokines were similar in both age groups, whereas significantly lower levels of IL-1beta, IL-18, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-15 were detected in the lungs of SARS-CoV-infected aged monkeys at either 5 or 10 days post infection. Total lung leukocyte numbers and relative frequency of CD8 T cells, B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells were greatly reduced in the aged host during SARS-CoV infection, despite high levels of chemoattractants for many of these cells in the aged lung. Dendritic cells and monocytes/macrophages showed age-dependent differences in activation and chemokine receptor profiles, while the CD8 T cell and B cell responses were significantly reduced in the aged host. In examination of viral titers, significantly higher levels of SARS-CoV were detected in the nasal swabs early, at day 1 post infection, in aged as compared to juvenile monkeys, but virus levels were only slightly higher in aged animals by day 3. Although there was a trend of higher titers in respiratory tissues at day 5 post infection, this did not reach statistical significance and virus was

  20. Dynamic transcriptional signatures and network responses for clinical symptoms in influenza-infected human subjects using systems biology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linel, Patrice; Wu, Shuang; Deng, Nan; Wu, Hulin

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that human blood transcriptional signatures may be used to support diagnosis and clinical decisions for acute respiratory viral infections such as influenza. In this article, we propose to use a newly developed systems biology approach for time course gene expression data to identify significant dynamically response genes and dynamic gene network responses to viral infection. We illustrate the methodological pipeline by reanalyzing the time course gene expression data from a study with healthy human subjects challenged by live influenza virus. We observed clear differences in the number of significant dynamic response genes (DRGs) between the symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects and also identified DRG signatures for symptomatic subjects with influenza infection. The 505 common DRGs shared by the symptomatic subjects have high consistency with the signature genes for predicting viral infection identified in previous works. The temporal response patterns and network response features were carefully analyzed and investigated.

  1. Severe infective endocarditis with systemic embolism due to community associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST630

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beiwen Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA are increasingly causing infective endocarditis over the past decade. Here we report a healthy man who developed a severe acute infective endocarditis with systemic embolism caused by CA-MRSA. The strain was recovered from repeated blood cultures and was characterized using molecular detection and genotyping. The S. aureus isolate was typed as ST630 SCCmecV with spa-type t4549, agrI/IV and was PVL-negative. This is the only case report, to our knowledge, of CA-MRSA infective endocarditis in China. This case highlights the emergence and geographical spread of life-threatening CA-MRSA infection within China.

  2. Implementing systems thinking for infection prevention: The cessation of repeated scabies outbreaks in a respiratory care ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Sheuwen; Howley, Peter P; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Root cause analysis (RCA) is often adopted to complement epidemiologic investigation for outbreaks and infection-related adverse events in hospitals; however, RCA has been argued to have limited effectiveness in preventing such events. We describe how an innovative systems analysis approach halted repeated scabies outbreaks, and highlight the importance of systems thinking for outbreaks analysis and sustaining effective infection prevention and control. Following RCA for a third successive outbreak of scabies over a 17-month period in a 60-bed respiratory care ward of a Taiwan hospital, a systems-oriented event analysis (SOEA) model was used to reanalyze the outbreak. Both approaches and the recommendations were compared. No nosocomial scabies have been reported for more than 1975 days since implementation of the SOEA. Previous intervals between seeming eradication and repeat outbreaks following RCA were 270 days and 180 days. Achieving a sustainable positive resolution relied on applying systems thinking and the holistic analysis of the system, not merely looking for root causes of events. To improve the effectiveness of outbreaks analysis and infection control, an emphasis on systems thinking is critical, along with a practical approach to ensure its effective implementation. The SOEA model provides the necessary framework and is a viable complementary approach, or alternative, to RCA. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The efficacy of systemic corticosteroids in treatment of respiratory tract infections during hajj 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Aminreza; Heidarzadeh, Abbas; Shamspour, Navvab; Kolivand, Pirhosein

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of respiratory tract infections (RTI) in a mass-gathering situation such as hajj is a medical challenge that requires quick decision-making and considerable knowledge about its etiology and treatment methods. High prevalence of RTI during Hajj and tendency of caravan physicians to treat of patients quickly in such situation lead to prescription of parenteral steroids. Nonetheless, no study has focused on the short-term and long-term effects of systemic steroids in Hajj pilgrims with RTI. This study focuses on efficacy of systemic consumption of corticosteroids in alleviating symptoms of RTI. This clinical trial was included 1671 pilgrims in Hajj 2012 who had symptoms of RTI based on caravan physician's findings. The patients were divided to two groups to receive either parenteral corticosteroid or other drugs. Patients who received antibiotics for bacterial infections were excluded. This survey concentrated on general symptoms of RTI during Hajj such as fever, musculoskeletal pain, coryza, sore throat, cough, dyspnea, and hoarseness before, 24 hours after, and five days after drug consumption. For classification and analysis of data, SPSS 17 was used. Descriptive statistical and Chi square test were used to compare variables. In comparison to corticosteroid injection, treatment without systemic corticosteroids could reduce the fever more significantly within five days (P 0.05). Although corticosteroids alleviated the symptoms during the first 48 hours (P > 0.05), they had no more effect after five days of consumption (P > 0.05). Treatment with medications other than corticosteroid had less effect on reducing coryza (P > 0.05) while corticosteroids had significant alleviating effect on coryza, cough, and musculoskeletal pain (P < 0.05). There is a need to conduct more comprehensive studies on effect of combination therapy with corticosteroids and antibiotics as well as their short-term and long-term adverse effects on the immune system. While

  4. The mixed mating system of Impatiens capensis and infection by a foliar rust pathogen: patterns of resistance and fitness consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslow, Jennifer M; Clay, Keith

    2007-11-01

    Outcrossing by hosts may offer protection from natural enemies adapted to parental genotypes by creating diverse progeny that differ from their parents through genetic recombination. However, past experimental work addressing the relationship between mating system and disease in offspring has given conflicting results, suggesting that outcrossing might also cause the dissolution of resistant genotypes. To determine if selfed progeny are more susceptible to disease caused by the heteroecious rust, Puccinia recondita, or if selfing preserves existing resistant genotypes, we used a factorial design to compare levels of infection of selfed and outcrossed progeny of Impatiens capensis, a woodland annual with a mixed mating system. We compared the level of host infection when exposed to three pathogen sources in the field: the sympatric rust population, and two allopatric rust populations. Outcrossed progeny exposed to sympatric rust had higher infection scores than selfed progeny exposed to the same rust, suggesting that outcrossing breaks up resistant genotypes. In addition, there was a trend for the rust to be more infective on sympatric rather than allopatric hosts. We also examined whether rust infection differentially alters the fitness of selfed and outcrossed progeny. Outcrossed plants that escaped infection had higher fitness, as measured by fruit production, than selfed plants, but there was no difference in fitness between infected selfed and infected outcrossed plants. Thus, outcrossing was advantageous in the absence of disease, but there was no fitness difference between selfed and outcrossed progeny in the presence of disease. In sum, our results indicate that interactions with pathogens can eliminate or reverse the advantage of outcrossing.

  5. Isolation and identification of antibiotic resistance genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from respiratory system infections in shahrekord, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Reisi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : Staphylococcus aureus is considered as one of pathogenic agents in humans, that engages different body parts including respiratory system and causes to spend lots of costs and extending patient’s treatment period. This study which is performed to separate and investigate the pattern of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from upper respiratory system infections in Shahrekord.   Materials and methods: This study was done by sectional-descriptive method On 200 suspicious persons to the upper respiratory system infections who were referred to the Imam Ali clinic in Shahrekord in 2012. After isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from cultured nose discharges, antibiotic resistance genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR by using defined primer pairs .   Results : Among 200 investigated samples in 60 cases (30% Staphylococcus aureus infection (by culturing and PCR method was determined. Isolates showed the lowest amount of antibiotic resistance to vancomycin (0.5% and the highest amount of resistance to the penicillin G and cefotaxime (100%. mecA gene (encoding methicillin resistance with frequency of 85.18% and aacA-D gene (encoding resistance to aminoglycosides with frequency of 28.33% showed the highest and lowest frequency of antibiotic resistance genes coding in Staphylococcus aureus isolates respectively .   Discussion and conclusion : Notable prevalence of resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in community acquired respiratory infections, recommend continuous control necessity to impede the spreading of these bacteria and their infections.  

  6. Cheating by type 3 secretion system-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa during pulmonary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowska, Kamila; McKeithen-Mead, Saria; Al Moussawi, Khatoun; Kazmierczak, Barbara I

    2014-05-27

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa expresses a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) strongly associated with bacterial virulence in murine models and human patients. T3SS effectors target host innate immune mechanisms, and T3SS-defective mutants are cleared more efficiently than T3SS-positive bacteria by an immunocompetent host. Nonetheless, T3SS-negative isolates are recovered from many patients with documented P. aeruginosa infections, leading us to test whether T3SS-negative strains could have a selective advantage during in vivo infection. Mice were infected with mixtures of T3SS-positive WT P. aeruginosa plus isogenic T3SS-OFF or constitutively T3SS-ON mutants. Relative fitness of bacteria in this acute pneumonia model was reflected by the competitive index of mutants relative to WT. T3SS-OFF strains outcompeted WT PA103 in vivo, whereas a T3SS-ON mutant showed decreased fitness compared with WT. In vitro growth rates of WT and T3SS-OFF bacteria were determined under T3SS-inducing conditions and did not differ significantly. Increased fitness of T3SS-OFF bacteria was no longer observed at high ratios of T3SS-OFF to WT, a feature characteristic of bacterial cheaters. Cheating by T3SS-OFF bacteria occurred only when T3SS-positive bacteria expressed the phospholipase A2 effector Exotoxin U (ExoU). T3SS-OFF bacteria showed no fitness advantage in competition experiments carried out in immunodeficient MyD88-knockout mice or in neutrophil-depleted animals. Our findings indicate that T3SS-negative isolates benefit from the public good provided by ExoU-mediated killing of recruited innate immune cells. Whether this transient increase in fitness observed for T3SS-negative strains in mice contributes to the observed persistence of T3SS-negative isolates in humans is of ongoing interest.

  7. Hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction in acute nonmycobacterial infections of central nervous system

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    Dinesh K Dhanwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Acute and chronic central nervous system (CNS infections are not uncommon in tropical countries and are associated with high morbidity and mortality if specific targeted therapy is not instituted in time. Effects of tubercular meningitis, a form of chronic meningitis on hypothalamic pituitary axis, are well known both at the time of diagnosis and after few months to years of illness. However, there are few reports of pituitary dysfunction in subjects with acute CNS infections. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating the pituitary hormonal profile in patients with nonmycobacterial acute meningitis at the time of presentation. Materials and Methods: This prospective case series study included 30 untreated adult patients with acute meningitis, meningoencephalitis, or encephalitis, due to various nonmycobacterial agents, admitted and registered with Lok Nayak Hospital, Maulana Aazd Medical College, New Delhi, between September 2007 and March 2009. Patients with preexisting endocrine diseases, tubercular meningitis and patients on steroids were carefully excluded from the study. The basal pituitary hormonal profile was measured by the electrochemilumniscence technique for serum cortisol, luetinizing hormone (LH, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH, prolactin (PRL, thyrotropin (TSH, free tri-iodothyronine (fT3, and free thyroxine (fT4. Results: The cases (n = 30 comprised of patients with acute pyogenic meningitis (n = 23, viral meningoencephalitis (n = 4, brain abscess (n = 2, and cryptococcal meningitis (n = 1. The mean age of patients was 28.97 ± 11.306 years. Out of 30 patients, 14 (46.7% were males and 16 (58.1% were females. Adrenal insufficiency both absolute and relative was seen in seven (23.3% and hyperprolactinemia was seen in nine (30.0% of the patients. One study subject had central hypothyroidism and seven (23.3 showed low levels of LH and/or FSH. None of patients showed clinical features suggestive of

  8. Herpes zoster infection in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients: a large multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J C O A; Marques, H H; Ferriani, M P L; Gormezano, N W S; Terreri, M T; Pereira, R M; Magalhães, C S; Campos, L M; Bugni, V; Okuda, E M; Marini, R; Pileggi, G S; Barbosa, C M; Bonfá, E; Silva, C A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this multicenter study in a large childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) population was to assess the herpes zoster infection (HZI) prevalence, demographic data, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, treatment, and outcome. A retrospective multicenter cohort study (Brazilian cSLE group) was performed in ten Pediatric Rheumatology services in São Paulo State, Brazil, and included 852 cSLE patients. HZI was defined according to the presence of acute vesicular-bullous lesions on erythematous/edematous base, in a dermatomal distribution. Post-herpetic neuralgia was defined as persistent pain after one month of resolution of lesions in the same dermatome. Patients were divided in two groups for the assessment of current lupus manifestations, laboratory findings, and treatment: patients with HZI (evaluated at the first HZI) and patients without HZI (evaluated at the last visit). The frequency of HZI in cSLE patients was 120/852 (14%). Hospitalization occurred in 73 (61%) and overlap bacterial infection in 16 (13%). Intravenous or oral aciclovir was administered in 113/120 (94%) cSLE patients at HZI diagnosis. None of them had ophthalmic complication or death. Post-herpetic neuralgia occurred in 6/120 (5%). After Holm-Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, disease duration (1.58 vs 4.41 years, p < 0.0001) was significantly lower in HZI cSLE patients compared to those without HZI. Nephritis (37% vs 18%, p < 0.0001), lymphopenia (32% vs 17%, p < 0.0001) prednisone (97% vs 77%, p < 0.0001), cyclophosphamide (20% vs 5%, p < 0.0001) and SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (6.0 (0-35) vs 2 (0-45), p < 0.0001) were significantly higher in the former group. The logistic regression model showed that four independent variables were associated with HZI: disease duration < 1 year (OR 2.893 (CI 1.821-4.597), p < 0.0001), lymphopenia <1500/mm(3) (OR 1.931 (CI 1.183-3.153), p = 0.009), prednisone (OR 6.723 (CI 2

  9. Risk factors for prevalent hepatitis C virus-infection among inmates in a state prison system in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo F Belaunzarán-Zamudio

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence of HCV-infection and identify associated factors among inmates in the State Prison System of Guanajuato in Mexico (Sep-2011 to Feb-2012.Cross-sectional, observational study in 10 prisons in the State of Guanajuato in Mexico (2011-2012. We offered HCV-testing and applied audio computer-assisted self-interviews to all adults imprisoned in the State Prison System. We used a complex survey analysis to estimate the distribution of variables and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals, taking into consideration the expected cluster effect by common characteristics within prisons. Inverse probability weights were applied to correct potential biased estimates arising from non-participation in accrual activities and non-response rates. We fitted multivariate logistic regression models to identify risk-behaviors associated to HCV-infection.We included data of 2,519 participating inmates. Prevalence of HCV-infection was 4.9 (95%CI = 3.6-5.9. Most HCV-infected inmates were male (99%. Before being incarcerated, inmates with HCV-infection were more frequently tattooed, used and injected drugs more frequently, and were more likely to share materials for injecting, when compared with those non-infected. During incarceration, HCV-infected inmates got tattoos and used drugs more often than non-infected, including injecting-drugs and sharing materials. Injecting-drug use (OR = 7.6, 95%CI, 2.5-23.4, sharing materials for injecting-drugs (OR = 19.6, 95%CI, 4.7-81.7 and being tattooed at least once before incarceration (OR = 2.1, 95%CI, 1.1-3.9, but not during incarceration, were independently associated to HCV-infection.The prevalence of HCV-infection among inmates in the State of Guanajuato in Mexico is considerably higher than in the general population. The most important risk factors for HCV in this inmate population were injecting-drugs and sharing materials for injections before incarceration. High-risk behaviors during

  10. Risk factors for prevalent hepatitis C virus-infection among inmates in a state prison system in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Pablo F; Mosqueda-Gomez, Juan L; Macias-Hernandez, Alejando; Sierra-Madero, Juan G; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Beyrer, Chris

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of HCV-infection and identify associated factors among inmates in the State Prison System of Guanajuato in Mexico (Sep-2011 to Feb-2012). Cross-sectional, observational study in 10 prisons in the State of Guanajuato in Mexico (2011-2012). We offered HCV-testing and applied audio computer-assisted self-interviews to all adults imprisoned in the State Prison System. We used a complex survey analysis to estimate the distribution of variables and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals, taking into consideration the expected cluster effect by common characteristics within prisons. Inverse probability weights were applied to correct potential biased estimates arising from non-participation in accrual activities and non-response rates. We fitted multivariate logistic regression models to identify risk-behaviors associated to HCV-infection. We included data of 2,519 participating inmates. Prevalence of HCV-infection was 4.9 (95%CI = 3.6-5.9). Most HCV-infected inmates were male (99%). Before being incarcerated, inmates with HCV-infection were more frequently tattooed, used and injected drugs more frequently, and were more likely to share materials for injecting, when compared with those non-infected. During incarceration, HCV-infected inmates got tattoos and used drugs more often than non-infected, including injecting-drugs and sharing materials. Injecting-drug use (OR = 7.6, 95%CI, 2.5-23.4), sharing materials for injecting-drugs (OR = 19.6, 95%CI, 4.7-81.7) and being tattooed at least once before incarceration (OR = 2.1, 95%CI, 1.1-3.9), but not during incarceration, were independently associated to HCV-infection. The prevalence of HCV-infection among inmates in the State of Guanajuato in Mexico is considerably higher than in the general population. The most important risk factors for HCV in this inmate population were injecting-drugs and sharing materials for injections before incarceration. High-risk behaviors during imprisonment are very

  11. Prospective nationwide surveillance of surgical site infections after gastric surgery and risk factor analysis in the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eu Suk; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Young Keun; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Jin, Hye Young; Jeong, Sun Young; Sung, Joohon; Cho, Yong Kyun; Lee, Yeong-Seon; Oh, Hee-Bok; Kim, Eui-Chong; Kim, June Myung; Choi, Tae Yeol; Choi, Hee Jung; Kim, Hyo Youl

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) after gastric surgery in patients in Korea. A nationwide prospective multicenter study. Twenty university-affiliated hospitals in Korea. The Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS), a Web-based system, was developed. Patients in 20 Korean hospitals from 2007 to 2009 were prospectively monitored for SSI for up to 30 days after gastric surgery. Demographic data, hospital characteristics, and potential perioperative risk factors were collected and analyzed, using multivariate logistic regression models. Of the 4,238 case patients monitored, 64.9% (2,752) were male, and mean age (± SD) was 58.8 (± 12.3) years. The SSI rates were 2.92, 6.45, and 10.87 per 100 operations for the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system risk index categories of 0, 1, and 2 or 3, respectively. The majority (69.4%) of the SSIs observed were organ or space SSIs. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.67 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-2.58]), increased operation time (1.20 [1.07-1.34] per 1-hour increase), reoperation (7.27 [3.68-14.38]), combined multiple procedures (1.79 [1.13-2.83]), prophylactic administration of the first antibiotic dose after skin incision (3.00 [1.09-8.23]), and prolonged duration (≥7 days) of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP; 2.70 [1.26-5.64]) were independently associated with increased risk of SSI. Male sex, inappropriate SAP, and operation-related variables are independent risk factors for SSI after gastric surgery.

  12. Evaluation of a TaqMan Array Card for Detection of Central Nervous System Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Clayton O; Loparev, Vladimir; Lidechi, Shirley; Bhullar, Vinod; Schmid, D Scott; Radford, Kay; Lo, Michael K; Rota, Paul; Johnson, Barbara W; Munoz, Jorge; Oneko, Martina; Burton, Deron; Black, Carolyn M; Neatherlin, John; Montgomery, Joel M; Fields, Barry

    2017-07-01

    Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are often acute, with significant morbidity and mortality. Routine diagnosis of such infections is limited in developing countries and requires modern equipment in advanced laboratories that may be unavailable to a number of patients in sub-Saharan Africa. We developed a TaqMan array card (TAC) that detects multiple pathogens simultaneously from cerebrospinal fluid. The 21-pathogen CNS multiple-pathogen TAC (CNS-TAC) assay includes two parasites (Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba), six bacterial pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Bartonella), and 13 viruses (parechovirus, dengue virus, Nipah virus, varicella-zoster virus, mumps virus, measles virus, lyssavirus, herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus, enterovirus, cytomegalovirus, and chikungunya virus). The card also includes human RNase P as a nucleic acid extraction control and an internal manufacturer control, GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase). This CNS-TAC assay can test up to eight samples for all 21 agents within 2.5 h following nucleic acid extraction. The assay was validated for linearity, limit of detection, sensitivity, and specificity by using either live viruses (dengue, mumps, and measles viruses) or nucleic acid material (Nipah and chikungunya viruses). Of 120 samples tested by individual real-time PCR, 35 were positive for eight different targets, whereas the CNS-TAC assay detected 37 positive samples across nine different targets. The CNS-TAC assays showed 85.6% sensitivity and 96.7% specificity. Therefore, the CNS-TAC assay may be useful for outbreak investigation and surveillance of suspected neurological disease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Varicella-zoster virus infections of the central nervous system – Prognosis, diagnostics and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Anna; Studahl, Marie

    2015-09-01

    Both varicella and herpes zoster that are caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), are associated with central nervous system disease. Since the introduction of polymerase chain reaction, the opportunity to detect the virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has improved dramatically. As a result VZV is diagnosed as one of the most common viruses causing CNS disease and it has become evident that this disease includes a wide spectrum of different CNS manifestations. The most evaluated CNS manifestations are encephalitis which is associated with both varicella and herpes zoster and, cerebellitis which occurs predominantly in children with varicella. Other manifestations have been less widely investigated. The incidence of cerebrovascular disease caused by VZV has been only scarcely studied and, in addition, some data indicate that vasculitis might also be involved in other VZV CNS manifestations such as herpes zoster-associated encephalitis. For this reason, VZV CNS infection must be suspected in several CNS syndromes and diagnostics should be based on CSF analysis for detection of VZV DNA by PCR and/or intrathecal antibody production. The prognosis is reported as favourable in children but few follow-up studies are available. Moreover, in adults, the prognosis is reported to be good in overall terms, but later studies indicate more serious neurological sequelae including cognition. Despite considerable mortality and morbidity, so far also in vaccinating countries, few treatment studies are available. Further treatment studies including assessments of neurological and cognitive sequelae, are warranted. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The unexplored relationship between urinary tract infections and the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbing, Michael E; Conover, Matt S; Hultgren, Scott J

    2016-10-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs), the majority of which are caused by uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), are extremely common infections that preferentially effect women. Additional complicating factors, such as catheterization, diabetes, and spinal cord injuries can increase the frequency and severity of UTIs. The rise of antimicrobial resistant uropathogens and the ability of this disease to chronically recur make the development of alternative preventative and therapeutic modalities a priority. The major symptoms of UTIs, urgency, frequency, and dysuria, are readouts of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the majority of the factors that lead to complicated UTIs have been shown to impact ANS function. This review summarizes the decades' long efforts to understand the molecular mechanisms of the interactions between UPEC and the host, with a particular focus on the recent findings revealing the molecular, bacteriological, immunological and epidemiological complexity of pathogenesis. Additionally, we describe the progress that has been made in: i) generating vaccines and anti-virulence compounds that prevent and/or treat UTI by blocking bacterial adherence to urinary tract tissue and; and ii) elucidating the mechanism by which anti-inflammatories are able to alleviate symptoms and improve disease prognosis. Finally, the potential relationships between the ANS and UTI are considered throughout. While these relationships have not been experimentally explored, the known interactions between numerous UTI characteristics (symptoms, complicating factors, and inflammation) and ANS function suggest that UTIs are directly impacting ANS stimulation and that ANS (dys)function may alter UTI prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Peyer’s Patch Mononuclear Phagocyte System at Steady State and during Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Clément; Wagner, Camille; Bonnardel, Johnny; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Lelouard, Hugues

    2017-01-01

    The gut represents a potential entry site for a wide range of pathogens including protozoa, bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Consequently, it is protected by one of the largest and most diversified population of immune cells of the body. Its surveillance requires the constant sampling of its encounters by dedicated sentinels composed of follicles and their associated epithelium located in specialized area. In the small intestine, Peyer’s patches (PPs) are the most important of these mucosal immune response inductive sites. Through several mechanisms including transcytosis by specialized epithelial cells called M-cells, access to the gut lumen is facilitated in PPs. Although antigen sampling is critical to the initiation of the mucosal immune response, pathogens have evolved strategies to take advantage of this permissive gateway to enter the host and disseminate. It is, therefore, critical to decipher the mechanisms that underlie both host defense and pathogen subversive strategies in order to develop new mucosal-based therapeutic approaches. Whereas penetration of pathogens through M cells has been well described, their fate once they have reached the subepithelial dome (SED) remains less well understood. Nevertheless, it is clear that the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) plays a critical role in handling these pathogens. MPS members, including both dendritic cells and macrophages, are indeed strongly enriched in the SED, interact with M cells, and are necessary for antigen presentation to immune effector cells. This review focuses on recent advances, which have allowed distinguishing the different PP mononuclear phagocyte subsets. It gives an overview of their diversity, specificity, location, and functions. Interaction of PP phagocytes with the microbiota and the follicle-associated epithelium as well as PP infection studies are described in the light of these new criteria of PP phagocyte identification. Finally, known alterations affecting the different

  16. Characterisation of the primary local and systemic immune response in gnotobiotic lambs against rotavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pinxteren, L A; Bruce, M G; Campbell, I; Clarke, C J; Snodgrass, D R

    1998-08-31

    This study characterised the primary immune response in gnotobiotic lambs after infection with a lamb rotavirus (RV). Lambs were infected and killed over a 7 week period together with controls. RV-ELISA and neutralising antibodies were determined in serum, nasal secretions, and intestinal scrapings. RV-antibody secreting cells (ASC) were enumerated in blood. Lymphocyte proliferations were determined in blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissues and cytokine expression was analysed in jejunal Peyer's patches (JPPs) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). Infected lambs cleared the virus by 8-9 days after infection without showing any clinical signs. The first indication of a specific immune response to RV was an increased expression of IL-4 mRNA in the JPPs in the infected group compared to the control group 3 days after infection. Rotavirus-specific IgA ASC in blood and IgA antibodies in serum and nasal secretions were detected from 7 days after infection followed at 10 days after infection by RV-specific IgG ASC and antibodies. Rotavirus-specific IgA antibodies were not detected in intestinal scrapings in the first 10 days after infection, but were detected by 52 days after infection. No RV-specific neutralising antibodies were seen in the intestine during the course of the experiment.

  17. Listeria Infection (Listeriosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria infection Overview Listeria infection is a foodborne bacterial illness that can be very serious for pregnant women and people with impaired immune systems. Listeria infection is most commonly contracted by eating improperly ...

  18. [Implementation of a post-discharge surgical site infection system in herniorrhaphy and mastectomy procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Juan Sanz, Isabel; Díaz-Agero-Pérez, Cristina; Robustillo-Rodela, Ana; Pita López, María José; Oliva Iñiguez, Lourdes; Monge-Jodrá, Vicente

    2014-10-01

    Monitoring surgical site infection (SSI) performed during hospitalization can underestimate its rates due to the shortening in hospital stay. The aim of this study was to determine the actual rates of SSI using a post-discharge monitoring system. All patients who underwent herniorraphy or mastectomy in the Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2011 were included. SSI data were collected prospectively according to the continuous quality improvement indicators (Indicadores Clinicos de Mejora Continua de la Calidad [INCLIMECC]) monitoring system. Post-discharge follow-up was conducted by telephone survey. A total of 409patients were included in the study, of whom 299 underwent a herniorraphy procedure, and 110 underwent a mastectomy procedure. For herniorrhaphy, the SSI rate increased from 6.02% to 7.6% (the post-discharge survey detected 21.7% of SSI). For mastectomy, the SSI rate increased from 1.8% to 3.6% (the post-discharge survey detected 50% of SSI). Post-discharge monitoring showed an increased detection of SSI incidence. Post-discharge monitoring is useful to analyze the real trend of SSI, and evaluate improvement actions. Post-discharge follow-up methods need to standardised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Central nervous system complications and neuroradiological findings in children with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Nobutsune; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Masao

    2013-02-01

    Although many neurological complications have been described in acute Epstein-Barr virus infection, few reports have discussed the central nervous system complications in chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection. We retrospectively surveyed the medical records of 14 patients with CAEBV infection in our institute. Neuroradiological studies were performed in 10 of these patients. Five had no neurological symptoms, whereas two presented with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, one presented with basal ganglia calcification, and one presented with falx cerebri hemorrhage. Although both of the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome cases developed epilepsy several years after recovering from prolonged neurological deterioration, the others had no neurological sequelae. This study revealed that various central nervous system complications may occur during the clinical course in pediatric CAEBV patients. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.

  20. Fluorescently-labeled RNA packaging into HIV-1 particles: Direct examination of infectivity across central nervous system cell types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruqiang; El-Hage, Nazira; Dever, Seth M.

    2015-01-01

    HIV penetrates the central nervous system (CNS), and although it is clear that microglia and to a lesser extent astrocytes are infected, whether certain other cell types such as neurons are infected remains unclear. Here, we confirmed the finding that RNAs of both cellular and viral origins are present in native HIV-1 particles and exploited this phenomenon to directly examine HIV-1 infectivity of CNS cell types. Using in vitro transcribed mRNAs that were labeled with a fluorescent dye, we showed that these fluorescent mRNAs were packaged into HIV-1 particles by directly examining infected cells using fluorescence microscopy. Cells in culture infected with these labeled HIV-1 particles showed the fluorescent signals of labeled mRNAs by a distinct pattern of punctate, focal signals within the cells which was used to demonstrate that the CXCR4-tropic NL4-3 strain was able to enter microglia and to a lesser extent astrocytes, but not neurons. The strategy used in the present study may represent a novel approach of simplicity, robustness and reliability for versatile applications in HIV studies, such as the determination of infectivity across a broad range of cell types and within subpopulations of an individual cell type by direct visualization of viral entry into cells. PMID:26272129

  1. Priming of CD8+ T cells during central nervous system infection with a murine coronavirus is strain dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Katherine C; Bender, Susan J; Chua, Ming Ming; Watson, Richard; Weiss, Susan R

    2008-07-01

    Virus-specific CD8(+) T cells are critical for protection against neurotropic coronaviruses; however, central nervous system (CNS) infection with the recombinant JHM (RJHM) strain of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) elicits a weak CD8(+) T-cell response in the brain and causes lethal encephalomyelitis. An adoptive transfer model was used to elucidate the kinetics of CD8(+) T-cell priming during CNS infection with RJHM as well as with two MHV strains that induce a robust CD8(+) T-cell response (RA59 and SJHM/RA59, a recombinant A59 virus expressing the JHM spike). While RA59 and SJHM/RA59 infections resulted in CD8(+) T-cell priming within the first 2 days postinfection, RJHM infection did not lead to proliferation of naïve CD8(+) T cells. While all three viruses replicated efficiently in the brain, only RA59 and SJHM/RA59 replicated to appreciable levels in the cervical lymph nodes (CLN), the site of T-cell priming during acute CNS infection. RJHM was unable to suppress the CD8(+) T-cell response elicited by RA59 in mice simultaneously infected with both strains, suggesting that RJHM does not cause generalized immunosuppression. RJHM was also unable to elicit a secondary CD8(+) T-cell response in the brain following peripheral immunization against a viral epitope. Notably, the weak CD8(+) T-cell response elicited by RJHM was unique to CNS infection, since peripheral inoculation induced a robust CD8(+) T-cell response in the spleen. These findings suggest that the failure of RJHM to prime a robust CD8(+) T-cell response during CNS infection is likely due to its failure to replicate in the CLN.

  2. Skin, soft tissue and systemic bacterial infections following aquatic injuries and exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H; Lopez, Fred A

    2015-03-01

    : Bacterial infections following aquatic injuries occur commonly in fishermen and vacationers after freshwater and saltwater exposures. Internet search engines were queried with the key words to describe the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic and treatment strategies and outcomes of both the superficial and the deeper invasive infections caused by more common, newly emerging and unusual aquatic bacterial pathogens. Main findings included the following: (1) aquatic injuries often result in gram-negative polymicrobial infections with marine bacteria; (2) most marine bacteria are resistant to 1st- and 2nd-generation penicillins and cephalosporins; (3) nontuberculous, mycobacterial infections should be considered in late-onset, culture-negative and antibiotic-resistant marine infections; (4) superficial marine infections and pre-existing wounds exposed to seawater may result in deeply invasive infections and sepsis in immunocompromised patients. With the exception of minor marine wounds demonstrating localized cellulitis, most other marine infections and all gram-negative and mycobacterial marine infections will require therapy with antibiotic combinations.

  3. Suggested guidelines for using systemic antimicrobials in bacterial skin infections (1): diagnosis based on clinical presentation, cytology and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beco, L; Guaguère, E; Lorente Méndez, C; Noli, C; Nuttall, T; Vroom, M

    2013-01-19

    Systemic antimicrobials are critically important in veterinary healthcare and resistance is a major concern. Antimicrobial stewardship will be important in maintaining clinical efficacy by reducing the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Bacterial skin infections are one of the most common reasons for using systemic antimicrobials in dogs and cats.Appropriate management of these infections is therefore crucial in any policy for responsible antimicrobial use. The goals of therapy are to confirm that an infection is present, identify the causative bacteria, select the most appropriate antimicrobial, ensure that the infection is treated correctly, and to identify and manage any underlying conditions. This is the first of two articles that will provide evidence-led guidelines to help practitioners address these issues. This article covers diagnosis, including descriptions of the different clinical presentations of surface, superficial and deep bacterial skin infections, how to perform and interpret cytology, and how to best use bacterial culture and sensitivity testing. The second article, to be published in a subsequent issue of Veterinary Record, will discuss therapy,including choice of drug and treatment regimens.

  4. Immunodiagnosis of systemic aspergillosis. I. Antigenemia detected by radioimmunoassay in experimental infection. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, M.H.; Coats-Stephen, M.

    1979-01-01

    Because systemic aspergillosis is difficult to diagnose ante mortem, a study to improve immunodiagnosis was undertaken in a rabbit model of disseminated infection. We found that the predominant humoral response of infected animals was directed against four Aspergillus antigens identified by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. One of these antigens, a cell-wall carbohydrate, was purified by gel-filtration chromatography and was used to develop a radiommunoassay. The sensitivity of this assay was increased by testing for serum-bound antigen as well as for free antigen. When the sensitivity of the RIA was evaluated in the animal model, antigenemia was detected in 78% of 51 rabbits with disseminated infection and ante mortem in 86% of 42 rabbits with lethal infection. By contrast, with immunoprecipitin analysis only eight of 51 rabbits were positive for antigen, and six of 51 rabbits were positive for Aspergillus antibody. The specificity of the RIA was also tested. Negative controls for antigen included sera from 76 normal rabbits and sera from 25 rabbits with systemic candidiasis. The Candida control group is pertinent because 48% of these rabbits had specific Candida antigenemia detected by a mannan RIA. This study demonstrates that Aspergillus antigenemia occurs during the course of experimental disseminated aspergillosis and illustrates the potential of an Aspergillus antigen RIA for sensitive, specific immunodiagnosis of human infections.

  5. Potential Clinical Impact of The Filmarray Meningitis Encephalitis Panel In Children With Suspected Central Nervous System Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messacar, Kevin; Breazeale, Garrett; Robinson, Christine C.; Dominguez, Samuel R.

    2016-01-01

    The FilmArray Meningitis Encephalitis Panel, a multiplex PCR for testing of cerebrospinal fluid, was compared to conventional diagnostic methods in children with suspected central nervous system infections. The panel had comparable diagnostic yield (96% agreement) and improved time-to-diagnosis by 10.3 hours with potential for more judicious antimicrobial use, particularly acyclovir. PMID:27342782

  6. Increased risk of respiratory tract infections in children with Down syndrome: the consequence of an altered immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemers, B.; Broers, C.J.M.; Bont, L.; Weijerman, M.E.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.; van Furth, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal abnormality among live-born infants. Respiratory tract infections are the most important cause of mortality in individuals with DS at all ages. In recent decades several studies have been performed to elucidate abnormalities of the immune system in

  7. Comorbidities and factors associated with central nervous system infections and death in non-perinatal listeriosis : a clinical case series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maertens De Noordhout, C; Devleesschauwer, B; Maertens De Noordhout, A; Blocher, J; Haagsma, J A; Havelaar, A H; Speybroeck, N

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Listeriosis is a rare disease caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes and mainly affects at risk people. Listeriosis can lead to sepsis, central nervous system (CNS) infections and death. The objectives of this study were to describe and quantify comorbidities and neurological

  8. Label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of systemic responses to local wounding and virus infection in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehl, Annette; Zhang, Zhe Jenny; Kuiper, Martin; Peck, Scott C; Heinlein, Manfred

    2013-06-07

    Plants are continuously exposed to changing environmental conditions and must, as sessile organisms, possess sophisticated acclimative mechanisms. To gain insight into systemic responses to local virus infection or wounding, we performed comparative LC-MS/MS protein profiling of distal, virus-free leaves four and five days after local inoculation of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with either Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV) or inoculation buffer alone. Our study revealed biomarkers for systemic signaling in response to wounding and compatible virus infection in Arabidopsis, which should prove useful in further addressing the trigger-specific systemic response network and the elusive systemic signals. We observed responses common to ORMV and mock treatment as well as protein profile changes that are specific to local virus infection or mechanical wounding (mock treatment) alone, which provides evidence for the existence of more than one systemic signal to induce these distinct changes. Comparison of the systemic responses between time points indicated that the responses build up over time. Our data indicate stress-specific changes in proteins involved in jasmonic and abscisic acid signaling, intracellular transport, compartmentalization of enzyme activities, protein folding and synthesis, and energy and carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, a virus-triggered systemic signal appears to suppress antiviral host defense.

  9. Role of β1 integrins and bacterial adhesins for Yop injection into leukocytes in Yersinia enterocolitica systemic mouse infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuschle, Eva; Keller, Birgit; Siegfried, Alexandra; Manncke, Birgit; Spaeth, Tanja; Köberle, Martin; Drechsler-Hake, Doreen; Reber, Julia; Böttcher, Ralph T; Autenrieth, Stella E; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Bohn, Erwin; Schütz, Monika

    2016-02-01

    Injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) into host cells by a type III secretion system is an important immune evasion mechanism of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye). In this process Ye invasin (Inv) binds directly while Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) binds indirectly via extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to β1 integrins on host cells. Although leukocytes turned out to be an important target of Yop injection by Ye, it was unclear which Ye adhesins and which leukocyte receptors are required for Yop injection. To explain this, we investigated the role of YadA, Inv and β1 integrins for Yop injection into leukocytes and their impact on the course of systemic Ye infection in mice. Ex vivo infection experiments revealed that adhesion of Ye via Inv or YadA is sufficient to promote Yop injection into leukocytes as revealed by a β-lactamase reporter assay. Serum factors inhibit YadA- but not Inv-mediated Yop injection into B and T cells, shifting YadA-mediated Yop injection in the direction of neutrophils and other myeloid cells. Systemic Ye mouse infection experiments demonstrated that YadA is essential for Ye virulence and Yop injection into leukocytes, while Inv is dispensable for virulence and plays only a transient and minor role for Yop injection in the early phase of infection. Ye infection of mice with β1 integrin-depleted leukocytes demonstrated that β1 integrins are dispensable for YadA-mediated Yop injection into leukocytes, but contribute to Inv-mediated Yop injection. Despite reduced Yop injection into leukocytes, β1 integrin-deficient mice exhibited an increased susceptibility for Ye infection, suggesting an important role of β1 integrins in immune defense against Ye. This study demonstrates that Yop injection into leukocytes by Ye is largely mediated by YadA exploiting, as yet unknown, leukocyte receptors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. Eimeria infection in calves under local farming system in and around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine coccidiosis is one of the most common livestock diseases worldwide, and usually affects cattle under one-year-old. High infection rates occur from environments that were already contaminated with infected animals. A study on the prevalence, species and risk of occurrence of Eimeria species in calves was ...

  11. Faecal contamination of a municipal drinking water distribution system in association with Campylobacter jejuni infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Tarja; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Takkinen, Johanna; Nieminen, Kalle; Siitonen, Anja; Kuusi, Markku; Holopainen, Arja; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2008-09-01

    After heavy rains Campylobacter jejuni together with high counts of Escherichia coli, other coliforms and intestinal enterococci were detected from drinking water of a municipal distribution system in eastern Finland in August 2004. Three patients with a positive C. jejuni finding, who had drunk the contaminated water, were identified and interviewed. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotypes from the patient samples were identical to some of the genotypes isolated from the water of the suspected contamination source. In addition, repetitive DNA element analysis (rep-PCR) revealed identical patterns of E. coli and other coliform isolates along the distribution line. Further on-site technical investigations revealed that one of the two rainwater gutters on the roof of the water storage tower had been in an incorrect position and rainwater had flushed a large amount of faecal material from wild birds into the drinking water. The findings required close co-operation between civil authorities, and application of cultivation and genotyping techniques strongly suggested that the municipal drinking water was the source of the infections. The faecal contamination associated with failures in cleaning and technical management stress the importance of instructions for waterworks personnel to perform maintenance work properly.

  12. Optical biosensor system for the quick and reliable detection of virus infections: VIROSENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proll, Günther; Hartjes, Anja; Sinclair, Alexander; Markovic, Goran; Pröll, Florian; Patel, Pranav; Niedrig, Matthias

    2014-10-01

    Viral infections are of special threat because they can induce severe courses of disease but only few medical treatments are available. Because of socio-economic and climate changes, increased worldwide mobility and population growth, the risk of newly occurring and quickly spreading viral pathogens has increased. A diagnosis of these diseases at an early stage is essential for a quick risk assessment and a proper health management as well as patient's treatment in an optimal way. Currently, the diagnosis of such diseases is based on time consuming and costly detection methods that can only be performed by specially trained personnel in laboratories at specific security levels. Aim of the project VIROSENS is the development of a biosensor platform that can specifically detect virus particles as well as virus-specific antibodies out of biological matrices like blood, serum, plasma and other body fluids. For this purpose, a disposable cartridge for such antibody- and virus-arrays is designed and developed within the project. The optical detection of viruses is performed with a portable device that will be benchmarked and evaluated concerning currently used standard detection methods in terms of its analytical performance. Within this project, a novel combination of serological tests and direct detection of virus particles will be developed, which will provide faster and more reliable results than presently available and used test systems.

  13. Report of Two Fatal Cases of Mycobacterium mucogenicum Central Nervous System Infection in Immunocompetent Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adékambi, Toïdi; Foucault, Cedric; La Scola, Bernard; Drancourt, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Neurological infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have rarely been reported. We recently investigated two unrelated immunocompetent patients, one with community-acquired lymphocytic meningitis and the other with cerebral thrombophlebitis. Mycobacterium mucogenicum was isolated in pure culture and detected by PCR sequencing of cerebrospinal fluid samples. Both patients eventually died. The two isolates exhibited an overlapping antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. They were susceptible in vitro to tetracyclines, macrolides, quinolones, amikacin, imipenem, cefoxitin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and resistant to ceftriaxone. They shared 100% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with M. mucogenicum ATCC 49650T over 1,482 bp. Their partial rpoB sequences shared 97.8% and 98.1% similarity with M. mucogenicum ATCC 49650T, suggesting that the two isolates were representative of two sequevars of M. mucogenicum species. This case report should make clinicians aware that M. mucogenicum, an RGM frequently isolated from tap water or from respiratory specimens and mostly without clinical significance, can even be encountered in the central nervous system of immunocompetent patients. PMID:16517863

  14. Zucchini tigré mosaic virus is a distinct potyvirus in the papaya ringspot virus cluster: molecular and biological insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romay, G; Lecoq, H; Desbiez, C

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, three new potyviruses have been described in the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) cluster. In addition, two types of PRSV are recognized, type W, infecting cucurbit plants, and type P, infecting papaya and also cucurbits. A third type, PRSV-T, was also partially described in Guadeloupe. Complete genome sequencing of four PRSV-T isolates showed that this virus is a related virus that is distinct from PRSV, and the name zucchini tigré mosaic virus (ZTMV) is proposed, in reference to the typical symptoms observed in zucchini squash. Eleven other viral isolates from different geographic origins were confirmed as ZTMV isolates using the complete sequence of the cylindrical inclusion (CI) coding region, whereas pairwise sequence similarities in the coat protein (CP) coding region did not unambiguously distinguish ZTMV isolates from PRSV isolates. The use of the CI coding region for species demarcation appears more suitable than the CP coding region for closely related viruses. Principal coordinates analysis based on the biological behavior of the viral isolates studied clustered PRSV-P, PRSV-W and ZTMV isolates into three different groups. Therefore, ZTMV is different from PRSV in its molecular and biological properties.

  15. Infection Dynamics of Coexisting Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria in the Nested Endosymbiotic System of Mealybugs▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Marie; Koga, Ryuichi; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the infection dynamics of endosymbiotic bacteria in the developmental course of the mealybugs Planococcus kraunhiae and Pseudococcus comstocki. Molecular phylogenetic analyses identified a betaproteobacterium and a gammaproteobacterium from each of the mealybug species. The former bacterium was related to the β-endosymbionts of other mealybugs, i.e., “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps,” and formed a compact clade in the Betaproteobacteria. Meanwhile, the latter bacterium was related to the γ-endosymbionts of other mealybugs but belonged to distinct clades in the Gammaproteobacteria. Whole-mount in situ hybridization confirmed the peculiar nested formation in the endosymbiotic system of the mealybugs: the β-endosymbiont cells were present in the cytoplasm of the bacteriocytes, and the γ-endosymbiont cells were located in the β-endosymbiont cells. In nymphal and female development, a large oval bacteriome consisting of a number of bacteriocytes was present in the abdomen, wherein the endosymbionts were harbored. In male development, strikingly, the bacteriome progressively degenerated in prepupae and pupae and became almost unrecognizable in adult males. In the degeneration process, the γ-endosymbionts disappeared more rapidly than the β-endosymbionts did. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed that (i) the population dynamics of the endosymbionts in female development reflected the reproductive activity of the insects, (ii) the population dynamics of the endosymbionts were strikingly different between female development and male development, (iii) the endosymbiont populations drastically decreased in male development, and (iv) the γ-endosymbiont populations decreased more rapidly than the β-endosymbiont populations in male development. Possible mechanisms underlying the uncoupled regulation of the β- and γ-endosymbiont populations are discussed in relation to the establishment and evolution of this unique prokaryote-prokaryote endosymbiotic

  16. Infection dynamics of coexisting beta- and gammaproteobacteria in the nested endosymbiotic system of mealybugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Marie; Koga, Ryuichi; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2008-07-01

    We investigated the infection dynamics of endosymbiotic bacteria in the developmental course of the mealybugs Planococcus kraunhiae and Pseudococcus comstocki. Molecular phylogenetic analyses identified a betaproteobacterium and a gammaproteobacterium from each of the mealybug species. The former bacterium was related to the beta-endosymbionts of other mealybugs, i.e., "Candidatus Tremblaya princeps," and formed a compact clade in the Betaproteobacteria. Meanwhile, the latter bacterium was related to the gamma-endosymbionts of other mealybugs but belonged to distinct clades in the Gammaproteobacteria. Whole-mount in situ hybridization confirmed the peculiar nested formation in the endosymbiotic system of the mealybugs: the beta-endosymbiont cells were present in the cytoplasm of the bacteriocytes, and the gamma-endosymbiont cells were located in the beta-endosymbiont cells. In nymphal and female development, a large oval bacteriome consisting of a number of bacteriocytes was present in the abdomen, wherein the endosymbionts were harbored. In male development, strikingly, the bacteriome progressively degenerated in prepupae and pupae and became almost unrecognizable in adult males. In the degeneration process, the gamma-endosymbionts disappeared more rapidly than the beta-endosymbionts did. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed that (i) the population dynamics of the endosymbionts in female development reflected the reproductive activity of the insects, (ii) the population dynamics of the endosymbionts were strikingly different between female development and male development, (iii) the endosymbiont populations drastically decreased in male development, and (iv) the gamma-endosymbiont populations decreased more rapidly than the beta-endosymbiont populations in male development. Possible mechanisms underlying the uncoupled regulation of the beta- and gamma-endosymbiont populations are discussed in relation to the establishment and evolution of this unique prokaryote

  17. Possibilities to breed for resistance to nematode parasite infections in small ruminants in tropical production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, S C

    2012-05-01

    Gastrointestinal nematode parasitism is the most important disease affecting livestock production systems in developing countries, particularly small ruminant production systems. Of particular importance are infections with the strongyle Haemonchus contortus. Integrated disease control strategies are required, including improved management, nutrition and wise use of anthelmintic chemicals. Increasingly, selection of sheep or goats for improved nematode resistance is viewed as a valuable option to complement other control measures. Breeding for resistance is possible because of the existence of extensive genetic variation in resistance, both within and between breeds of sheep and goats. Such breeding schemes are most likely to be based on choice of appropriate breeds adapted to the local environmental conditions, followed by phenotypic selection for resistance. Goal and selection objective traits are likely to include performance (e.g. growth rate) under conditions of parasite challenge, faecal egg count (FEC) and measures of anaemia. With current technologies, genetic markers are likely to be too expensive and logistically difficult to incorporate into breeding schemes in tropical or developing countries. Genotype by environment interactions may be expected, particularly when comparing animals in environments that differ in the extent of parasite challenge or differ in the quality of available nutrition. However, there is no reason to expect antagonistic genetic relationships between performance and resistance, and selection indices should be readily constructed that improve both performance and resistance. If FEC is decreased, then pasture contamination should also decrease, leading to additional benefits for all sheep grazing the same pasture. Finally, breeding for nematode resistance should lead to lasting and sustained improvements in resistance or tolerance. There is no empirical evidence to suggest that nematodes will evolve rapidly in response to resistant

  18. Effects of automatic milking system on teat tissues, intramammary infections and somatic cell counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Migliorati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the impact of automatic milking systems (AMS on the different aspects of milk production a research projectinvolving both commercial and experimental dairy farms with different AMS and different management was started. Thispaper reports the results of a follow-up study on primiparous cows focused on assessing some markers to be used tomonitor udder and teat health. Heifers were included after calving and sampled for at least 12 months. Quarter milk samplesand teat measurements were taken to assess: intramammary infection (IMI frequencies, somatic cell counts (SCC,teat thickness changes, teat skin and apex conditions. The study included 28 cows in herd A and 27 in herd B for a totalnumber of 2344 samples. Overall, teat apex and skin conditions were maintained along the lactation. Teat skin conditionstended to decrease because of the accumulated number of milkings while lactation proceeded, but at a largelyacceptable level in both herds. Teat apex conditions showed a decrease. Teat thickness changes displayed different patternsin the two herds, probably because of the different type of AMS, but in both cases a trend to decrease in thicknesscould be observed. The application of AMS in herd B, free from contagious pathogens, did not influence the frequency ofIMI and the SCC. In herd A, characterized by the presence of Staphylococcus aureus IMI, the frequency of IMI showeda progressive increase, very likely as a consequence of the spread of infections during milking. Teat skin had no associationwith the frequency of IMI. Teat thickness changes outside values considered as physiological proved to be associatedwith decreased conditions in the teat apex score in herd A, but not in herd B. However, a decrease in teat apex scoreproved to be associated with an increase in IMI frequency in both herds. The results of this field trial confirm that AMShave no negative impact on IMI incidence, SCC and teat tissue conditions when the initial cow health

  19. Transcriptome comparison and gene coexpression network analysis provide a systems view of citrus response to 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi-Liang; Zhao, Yihong

    2013-01-16

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is arguably the most destructive disease for the citrus industry. HLB is caused by infection of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter spp. Several citrus GeneChip studies have revealed thousands of genes that are up- or down-regulated by infection with Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus. However, whether and how these host genes act to protect against HLB remains poorly understood. As a first step towards a mechanistic view of citrus in response to the HLB bacterial infection, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis and found that a total of 21 Probesets are commonly up-regulated by the HLB bacterial infection. In addition, a number of genes are likely regulated specifically at early, late or very late stages of the infection. Furthermore, using Pearson correlation coefficient-based gene coexpression analysis, we constructed a citrus HLB response network consisting of 3,507 Probesets and 56,287 interactions. Genes involved in carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolic processes, transport, defense, signaling and hormone response were overrepresented in the HLB response network and the subnetworks for these processes were constructed. Analysis of the defense and hormone response subnetworks indicates that hormone response is interconnected with defense response. In addition, mapping the commonly up-regulated HLB responsive genes into the HLB response network resulted in a core subnetwork where transport plays a key role in the citrus response to the HLB bacterial infection. Moreover, analysis of a phloem protein subnetwork indicates a role for this protein and zinc transporters or zinc-binding proteins in the citrus HLB defense response. Through integrating transcriptome comparison and gene coexpression network analysis, we have provided for the first time a systems view of citrus in response to the Ca. Liberibacter spp. infection causing HLB.

  20. Genome-wide screen for salmonella genes required for long-term systemic infection of the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A microarray-based negative selection screen was performed to identify Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (serovar Typhimurium genes that contribute to long-term systemic infection in 129X1/SvJ (Nramp1(r mice. A high-complexity transposon-mutagenized library was used to infect mice intraperitoneally, and the selective disappearance of mutants was monitored after 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postinfection. One hundred and eighteen genes were identified to contribute to serovar Typhimurium infection of the spleens of mice by 28 d postinfection. The negatively selected mutants represent many known aspects of Salmonella physiology and pathogenesis, although the majority of the identified genes are of putative or unknown function. Approximately 30% of the negatively selected genes correspond to horizontally acquired regions such as those within Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI 1-5, prophages (Gifsy-1 and -2 and remnant, and the pSLT virulence plasmid. In addition, mutations in genes responsible for outer membrane structure and remodeling, such as LPS- and PhoP-regulated and fimbrial genes, were also selected against. Competitive index experiments demonstrated that the secreted SPI2 effectors SseK2 and SseJ as well as the SPI4 locus are attenuated relative to wild-type bacteria during systemic infection. Interestingly, several SPI1-encoded type III secretion system effectors/translocases are required by serovar Typhimurium to establish and, unexpectedly, to persist systemically, challenging the present description of Salmonella pathogenesis. Moreover, we observed a progressive selection against serovar Typhimurium mutants based upon the duration of the infection, suggesting that different classes of genes may be required at distinct stages of infection. Overall, these data indicate that Salmonella long-term systemic infection in the mouse requires a diverse repertoire of virulence factors. This diversity of genes presumably reflects the fact that

  1. Urinary free light chains may help to identify infection in patients with elevated systemic inflammation due to rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramlage, Carsten P; Froelich, Britta; Wallbach, Manuel; Minguet, Joan; Grupp, Clemens; Deutsch, Cornelia; Bramlage, Peter; Müller, Gerhard A; Koziolek, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The risk of infection in patients with rheumatic diseases is elevated, but a clear marker to differentiate the cause of the systemic inflammation is missing. We assessed the ability urinary immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs) to indicate the presence of infection in patients with rheumatic disease. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with rheumatic disease attending the Georg-August University Hospital in Goettingen, Germany, from January 2011 to December 2013. Subjects were included if they had urine levels of κ and λ FLCs available. A reference group of patients without autoimmune disease, but with documented infection, was constructed. A total of 1500 patients had their urinary FLCs quantified during the study period. Of the 382 patients with rheumatic disease, 172 (45%) displayed no systemic inflammation, 162 (42%) had inflammation due to the underlying disease activity, and 48 (13%) had inflammation due to a confirmed infection. Urinary FLC concentrations were much higher in patients with rheumatic diseases and infection (κ 68.8 ± 81.8 mg/L, λ 31.4 ± 53.5 mg/L) compared to those with inflammation due to rheumatic disease activity (κ 22.7 ± 26.3 mg/L, λ 8.1 ± 9.1 mg/L, κ p inflammation due to rheumatic disease activity from that due to the additional presence of infection. The ability to quantify these proteins in urine provides a simple alternative to the use of blood.

  2. Diagnosed HIV Infection in Transgender Adults and Adolescents: Results from the National HIV Surveillance System, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Hollie; Babu, Aruna Surendera; Wiewel, Ellen Weiss; Opoku, Jenevieve; Crepaz, Nicole

    2016-12-29

    Publications on diagnosed HIV infection among transgender people have been limited to state- or local-level data. We analyzed data from the National HIV Surveillance System and present results from the first national-level analysis of transgender people with diagnosed HIV infection. From 2009 to 2014, HIV surveillance jurisdictions from 45 states plus the District of Columbia identified and reported at least one case of newly diagnosed HIV infection for transgender people; jurisdictions from 5 states reported no cases for transgender people. Of 2351 transgender people with newly diagnosed HIV infection during 2009-2014, 84.0% were transgender women (male-to-female), 15.4% were transgender men (female-to-male), and 0.7% were additional gender identity (e.g., gender queer, bi-gender). Over half of both transgender women (50.8%; 1002/1974) and men (58.4%; 211/361) with newly diagnosed HIV infection were non-Hispanic black/African American. Improvements in data collection methods and quality are needed to gain a better understanding of HIV burden among transgender people.

  3. [Clinical Significance of Next-Generation Molecular Testing Systems for the Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases and Infection Control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2014-10-01

    The clinical significance of molecular testing for the diagnosis of infectious diseases and infection control has been increasing. Traditional molecular tests which required special pretreatment, such as nucleic acid extraction and pretreatment processes, have depended on manual methods. Therefore, different results were frequently observed between various methods and/or among facilities. In order to solve these problems, automated machines for nucleic acid extraction have been developed. Automated nucleic acid extraction systems, which automatize the nucleic acid separation and refinement processes, prevent contamination, reduce human errors, allow for stable processing, minimize differences among facilities, and promote the standardization of molecular tests. Rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases using various simplified molecular testing methods has led to increased success rates of infectious disease treatment and infection control measures by utilizing rapidity and accuracy. Herein, we introduce four automated molecular testing systems: Cepheid Xpert, BD MAX, Seegene kit, and Hologic Gen-Probe PANTHER system.

  4. Virulence genes and cytokine profile in systemic murine Campylobacter coli infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klančnik, Anja; Pogačar, Maja Šikić; Raspor, Peter; Abram, Maja; Možina, Sonja Smole; Vučković, Darinka

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter coli are one of the most common bacteria in bacterial gastroenteritis and acute enterocolitis in humans. However, relatively little is known regarding the mechanisms of pathogenesis and host response to C. coli infections. To investigate the influence of genetic changes, we first used PCR to demonstrate the presence of the known virulence genes cadF, virB11, cdtB, cdtC and ceuE in the clinical isolate C. coli 26536, which was isolated from the liver of infected BALB/c mice. Sequence analyses of the cadF, virB11, cdtB and ceuE genes in C. coli 26536 confirmed the stability in these virulence genes during their transmission through the host. We further investigated C. coli infection for the bacterial clearance from the liver and spleen of infected mice, and for their immune response. C. coli persisted well in both organs, with better survival in the liver. We also determined the levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., interleukin [IL]-6, IL-12, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in plasma and in liver homogenates from the infected mice, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The lowest levels among these cytokines were for tumor necrosis factor-α in the plasma and IL-6 in the liver on days 1, 3 and 8 post-infection. The most pronounced production was for IL-10, in both plasma (days 1 and 8 post-infection) and liver (day 8 post-infection), which suggests that it has a role in healing of the organ inflammation. Our findings showed dynamic relationships between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and thus contribute toward clarification of the healing processes involved in the resolution of C. coli infections.

  5. [Systemic cytomegalovirus infection: changes in serum calcium and magnesium levels with foscarnet treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzal-Alfaro, M B; Manrique-Rodríguez, S; Alcaraz Romero, A; García San Prudencio, M; Fernández-Llamazares, C M

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus infection is common in cardiac transplant patients. Foscarnet is used, with limited evidence, as second-line treatment after ganciclovir failure in these patients. We describe the case of a paediatric cardiac transplant patient who developed electrolyte disturbances during foscarnet treatment for cytomegalovirus infection. The infection resolved after 6 weeks of treatment. Low ionized calcium and magnesium levels were observed during the drug infusion, which were treated with supplements. The serum levels reverted to normal after drug withdrawal. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomass, virus concentration, and symptomatology of cucurbits infected by mild and severe strains of Papaya ringspot virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco Davi Andrade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-immunization with mild strains of Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRWV-W has allowed the mosaic disease to be controlled in different cucurbit species, with increases in marketable fruit yield. The objective of this study was to compare virus concentration, biomass and symptomatology of 'Caserta' zucchini squash, 'Menina Brasileira' long-neck squash and 'Crimson Sweet' watermelon plants infected by three mild strains and one severe strain of PRSV-W. Plants were inoculated at the cotyledonary stage, under greenhouse conditions, sampled at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after inoculation (DAI, and analyzed by PTA-ELISA. The severity of the symptoms was scored according to a scale from 1 to 5, and the fresh and dry biomass of the aerial part of the plants were evaluated at 40 DAI. Concentrations of the mild strains, based on absorbance values of the PTA-ELISA, were lower than the concentration of the severe strain for all species. The mild strains did not cause mosaic in infected plants of all species. Plants of zucchini squash and watermelon infected by the severe strain exhibited severe mosaic symptoms, but the same was not noticed for infected long-neck squash plants. Biomass values from zucchini squash and watermelon plants infected by the mild strains were 1.7 % to 12.4 % lower as compared to healthy plants. Biomass values of zucchini squash and watermelon plants infected by the severe strain presented greater reduction, varying from 29 % to 74 %. However, biomass values of long-neck squash plants infected by the mild and severe strains were similar for all treatments.

  7. Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli Infections after Transrectal Biopsy of the Prostate in the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Antoun Saade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent reports suggest that infections due to fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli are an increasingly common complication of transrectal biopsy of the prostate (TBP in the United States. A better understanding of the magnitude and scope of these infections is needed to guide prevention efforts. Our objective is to determine whether the incidence of infections due to fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli after TBP has increased nationwide in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System and to identify risk factors for infection. Methods: We performed a retrospective, observational cohort study and a nested case-control study within the US Deparment of Veterans Affairs Healthcare System. The primary outcomes were the incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI and bacteremia with E. coli and with fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains within 30 days after TBP. Secondary endpoints focused on the correlation between fluoroquinolone-resistance in all urinary E. coli isolates and post-TBP infection and risk factors for infection due to fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli infection. Results: 245 618 patients undergoing 302 168 TBP procedures from 2000 through 2013 were included in the cohort study, and 59 469 patients undergoing TBP from 2011 through 2013 were included in the nested case-control study. Between 2000 and 2013, there was a 5-fold increase in the incidence of E. coli UTI (0.18%–0.93% and a 4-fold increase in the incidence of E. coli bacteremia (0.04%–0.18% after TBP that was attributable to an increase in the incidence of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli UTI (0.03%–0.75% and bacteremia (0.01%–0.14%. The increasing incidence of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli infections after TBP occurred in parallel with increasing rates of fluoroquinolone-resistance in all urinary E. coli isolates. By multivariable logistic regression analysis, independent risk factors for fluoroquinolone

  8. Pathogenesis of H5N1 influenza virus infections in mice and ferret models differ between respiratory and digestive system exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data suggests H5N1 influenza viruses are transmitted through and predominantly affect the respiratory system of mammals. Some data suggests digestive system involvement. However, direct evidence of alimentary transmission and infection in mammal...

  9. Penetration of drugs through the blood-cerebrospinal fluid/blood-brain barrier for treatment of central nervous system infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Roland; Sörgel, Fritz; Eiffert, Helmut

    2010-10-01

    The entry of anti-infectives into the central nervous system (CNS) depends on the compartment studied, molecular size, electric charge, lipophilicity, plasma protein binding, affinity to active transport systems at the blood-brain/blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, and host factors such as meningeal inflammation and CSF flow. Since concentrations in microdialysates and abscesses are not frequently available for humans, this review focuses on drug CSF concentrations. The ideal compound to treat CNS infections is of small molecular size, is moderately lipophilic, has a low level of plasma protein binding, has a volume of distribution of around 1 liter/kg, and is not a strong ligand of an efflux pump at the blood-brain or blood-CSF barrier. When several equally active compounds are available, a drug which comes close to these physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties should be preferred. Several anti-infectives (e.g., isoniazid, pyrazinamide, linezolid, metronidazole, fluconazole, and some fluoroquinolones) reach a CSF-to-serum ratio of the areas under the curves close to 1.0 and, therefore, are extremely valuable for the treatment of CNS infections. In many cases, however, pharmacokinetics have to be balanced against in vitro activity. Direct injection of drugs, which do not readily penetrate into the CNS, into the ventricular or lumbar CSF is indicated when other effective therapeutic options are unavailable.

  10. New model cell systems (PK and XTC-2) for studying acute and persistent infections with herpes simplex and pseudorabies viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szántó, J; Lesso, J; Golais, F

    1980-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) showed limited replication in PK (pig kidney) and XTC-2 (Xenopus laevis frog) cell lines. Virus replication depended on the multiplicity of infection (MOI). At a high MOI, HSV-1 caused a typical cytopathic effect (CPE) in XTC-2 cells but a little marked CPE in PK cells. Pseudorabies virus (PRV) replicated intensively in PK cells (permissive system) but not in XTC-2 cells (nonpermissive system). Both viruses were adsorbed on to PK and XTC-2 cells. In infected PK cells, fluorescent HSV-1 antigen was demonstrated only in the vicinity of the nuclear membrane and in the paranuclear area of the cytoplasm but not in the nuclei. In XTC-2 cells, HSV-1 antigen was demonstrated also in the nuclei. Persistent HSV-1 infection was induced in PK but not in XTC-2 cells; it was of limited duration. PK cells which had lost HSV-1 multiplied further and proved susceptible to infection with HSV-1 or PRV.

  11. Colonic perforation in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus accompanied by cytomegalovirus infection: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Tachikawa

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Our case underscores the importance of exploring the possibility of CMV infection as a differential diagnosis in SLE patients with obvious gastrointestinal symptoms who were treated by immunosuppressive drugs.

  12. Epidemic of medical errors and hospital-acquired infections: systemic and social causes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charney, William

    2012-01-01

    ...) and pharmaceutical errors combined are the second or third leading killer of Americans annually: approximately 300,000 die from a combination of medical errors, hospital acquired infections (HAIs...

  13. Clinical comparison of the effectiveness of single-file reciprocating systems and rotary systems for removal of endotoxins and cultivable bacteria from primarily infected root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Frederico C; Gomes, Ana P M; Fernandes, Aletéia M M; Ferreira, Nádia S; Endo, Marcos S; Freitas, Lilian F; Camões, Izabel C G

    2014-05-01

    This clinical study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of single-file reciprocating systems and rotary systems in removing endotoxins and cultivable bacteria from primarily infected root canals. Forty-eight primarily infected root canals were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups: WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) (n = 12); Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) (n = 12), ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer) (n = 12), and Mtwo (VDW) (n = 12). Samples were collected before and after chemomechanical preparation. The irrigation was performed by using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. A chromogenic limulus amebocyte lysate assay test was used to quantify endotoxins. Culture techniques were used to determine bacterial colony-forming unit counts. In the baseline samples (ie, samples collected before chemomechanical preparation), endotoxins and cultivable bacteria were recovered from 100% of the root canal samples. No differences were found in the median percentage values of endotoxin reduction achieved with reciprocating systems (ie, WaveOne [95.15%] and Reciproc [96.21%]) and with rotary systems (ie, ProTaper [97.98%] and Mtwo [96.34%]) (P .05). Both single-file reciprocating systems (ie, WaveOne and Reciproc instruments) and rotary systems (ie, ProTaper and Mtwo instruments) showed similar effectiveness in reducing endotoxins and cultivable bacteria from primarily infected root canals, but they were not able to eliminate them from all root canals analyzed. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Occurrence of Leishmania infantum in the central nervous system of naturally infected dogs: Parasite load, viability, co-infections and histological alterations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valéria da Costa Oliveira; Viviane Cardoso Boechat; Augusto Velho Mendes Junior; Maria de Fátima Madeira; Luiz Claudio Ferreira; Fabiano Borges Figueiredo; Monique Paiva Campos; Chagas de Carvalho Rodrigues; Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de Oliveira; Maria Regina Reis Amendoeira; Rodrigo Caldas Menezes

    2017-01-01

    .... The aims of this study were to evaluate the occurrence, viability and load of L. infantum in the CNS, and to identify the neurological histological alterations associated with this protozoan and its co-infections in naturally infected dogs...

  15. Annual Surveillance Summary: Klebsiella Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    rapid expansion of USA300 among inpatients and outpatients. Microb Drug Resist . 2012;18(6):555-561. 15. Cohen AL, Calfee D, Fridkin SK, et al...year, reflecting a 24.6% increase of the weighted historic IR. The annual IR of multidrug- resistant (MDR) Klebsiella infections was 6.7 per 100,000...for research and surveillance assessing Klebsiella as a community- acquired infection. Elevated multidrug- resistant organism (MDRO) admission metrics

  16. Optimizing strategies for population-based chlamydia infection screening among young women: an age-structured system dynamics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yu; Kong, Nan; Tu, Wanzhu

    2015-07-11

    Chlamydia infection (CT) is one of the most commonly reported sexually transmitted diseases. It is often referred to as a "silent" disease with the majority of infected people having no symptoms. Without early detection, it can progress to serious reproductive and other health problems. Economical identification of asymptomatically infected is a key public health challenge. Increasing evidence suggests that CT infection risk varies over the range of adolescence. Hence, age-dependent screening strategies with more frequent testing for certain age groups of higher risk may be cost-saving in controlling the disease. We study the optimization of age-dependent screening strategies for population-based chlamydia infection screening among young women. We develop an age-structured compartment model for CT natural progress, screening, and treatment. We apply parameter optimization on the resultant PDE-based system dynamical models with the objective of minimizing the total care spending, including screening and treatment costs during the program period and anticipated costs of treating the sequelae afterwards). For ease of practical implementation, we also search for the best screening initiation age for strategies with a constant screening frequency. The optimal age-dependent strategies identified outperform the current CDC recommendations both in terms of total care spending and disease prevalence at the termination of the program. For example, the age-dependent strategy that allows monthly screening rate changes can save about 5% of the total spending. Our results suggest early initiation of CT screening is likely beneficial to the cost saving and prevalence reduction. Finally, our results imply that the strategy design may not be sensitive to accurate quantification of the age-specific CT infection risk if screening initiation age and screening rate are the only decisions to make. Our research demonstrates the potential economic benefit of age-dependent screening

  17. Employment and disability pension after central nervous system infections in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roed, Casper; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Rothman, Kenneth J; Skinhøj, Peter; Obel, Niels

    2015-05-15

    In this nationwide population-based cohort study using national Danish registries, in the period 1980-2008, our aim was to study employment and receipt of disability pension after central nervous system infections. All patients diagnosed between 20 and 55 years of age with meningococcal (n = 451), pneumococcal (n = 553), or viral (n = 1,433) meningitis or with herpes simplex encephalitis (n = 115), who were alive 1 year after diagnosis, were identified. Comparison cohorts were drawn from the general population, and their members were individually matched on age and sex to patients. Five years after diagnosis, the differences in probability of being employed as a former patient with pneumococcal meningitis or herpes simplex encephalitis versus being a member of the comparison cohorts were -19.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): -24.7, -15.1) and -21.1% (95% CI: -33.0, -9.3), respectively, and the corresponding differences in probability of receiving disability pension were 20.2% (95% CI: 13.7, 26.7) and 16.2% (95% CI: 6.2, 26.3). The differences in probability of being employed or receiving disability pension in former meningococcal or viral meningitis patients versus members of the comparison cohorts were small. In conclusion, pneumococcal meningitis and herpes simplex encephalitis were associated with substantially decreased employment and increased need for disability pension. These associations did not seem to apply to meningococcal meningitis or viral meningitis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Host resistance of CD18 knockout mice against systemic infection with Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huaizhu; Prince, Joseph E.; Brayton, Cory F.; Shah, Chirayu; Zeve, Daniel; Gregory, Stephen H.; Smith, C. Wayne; Ballantyne, Christie M.

    2003-01-01

    Mice with targeted mutations of CD18, the common beta2 subunit of CD11/CD18 integrins, have leukocytosis, impaired transendothelial neutrophil emigration, and reduced host defense to Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive extracellular bacterium. Previous studies using blocking monoclonal antibodies suggested roles for CD18 and CD11b in hepatic neutrophil recruitment and host innate response to Listeria monocytogenes, a gram-positive intracellular bacterium. We induced systemic listeriosis in CD18 knockout (CD18-ko) and wild-type (WT) mice by tail vein injection with Listeria. By 14 days postinjection (dpi), 8 of 10 WT mice died, compared with 2 of 10 CD18-ko mice (P Listeria organisms in livers and spleens were similar in both groups at 20 min postinfection. By 3, 5, and 7 dpi, however, numbers of Listeria organisms were significantly lower in livers and spleens of CD18-ko mice than in WT mice. Histopathology showed that following Listeria infection, CD18-ko mice had milder inflammatory and necrotizing lesions in both spleens and livers than did WT mice. Cytokine assays indicated that baseline interleukin-1beta and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels were higher in CD18-ko mice than in WT mice and that CD18-ko splenocytes produced higher levels of interleukin-1beta and G-CSF than WT splenocytes under the same amount of Listeria stimulation. These findings show that CD18 is not an absolute requirement for antilisterial innate immunity or hepatic neutrophil recruitment. We propose that the absence of CD18 in the mice results in the priming of innate immunity, as evidenced by elevated cytokine expression, and neutrophilic leukocytosis, which augments antilisterial defense.

  19. Development and evaluation of a sensitive PCR-ELISA system for detection of schistosoma infection in feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Luciana Inácia; Dos Santos Marques, Letícia Helena; Enk, Martin Johannes; de Oliveira, Maria Cláudia; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Rabello, Ana

    2010-04-20

    A PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA) was developed to overcome the need for sensitive techniques for the efficient diagnosis of Schistosoma infection in endemic settings with low parasitic burden. This system amplifies a 121-base pair tandem repeat DNA sequence, immobilizes the resultant 5' biotinylated product on streptavidin-coated strip-well microplates and uses anti-fluorescein antibodies conjugated to horseradish peroxidase to detect the hybridized fluorescein-labeled oligonucleotide probe. The detection limit of the Schistosoma PCR-ELISA system was determined to be 1.3 fg of S. mansoni genomic DNA (less than the amount found in a single cell) and estimated to be 0.15 S. mansoni eggs per gram of feces (fractions of an egg). The system showed good precision and genus specificity since the DNA target was found in seven Schistosoma DNA samples: S. mansoni, S. haematobium, S. bovis, S. intercalatum, S. japonicum, S. magrebowiei and S. rhodaini. By evaluating 206 patients living in an endemic area in Brazil, the prevalence of S. mansoni infection was determined to be 18% by examining 12 Kato-Katz slides (41.7 mg/smear, 500 mg total) of a single fecal sample from each person, while the Schistosoma PCR-ELISA identified a 30% rate of infection using 500-mg of the same fecal sample. When considering the Kato-Katz method as the reference test, artificial sensitivity and specificity rates of the PCR-ELISA system were 97.4% and 85.1%, respectively. The potential for estimating parasitic load by DNA detection in feces was assessed by comparing absorbance values and eggs per gram of feces, with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.700 (PSchistosoma PCR-ELISA, a system that may serve as an alternative for diagnosing Schistosoma infection.

  20. Development and evaluation of a sensitive PCR-ELISA system for detection of schistosoma infection in feces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Inácia Gomes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA was developed to overcome the need for sensitive techniques for the efficient diagnosis of Schistosoma infection in endemic settings with low parasitic burden. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This system amplifies a 121-base pair tandem repeat DNA sequence, immobilizes the resultant 5' biotinylated product on streptavidin-coated strip-well microplates and uses anti-fluorescein antibodies conjugated to horseradish peroxidase to detect the hybridized fluorescein-labeled oligonucleotide probe. The detection limit of the Schistosoma PCR-ELISA system was determined to be 1.3 fg of S. mansoni genomic DNA (less than the amount found in a single cell and estimated to be 0.15 S. mansoni eggs per gram of feces (fractions of an egg. The system showed good precision and genus specificity since the DNA target was found in seven Schistosoma DNA samples: S. mansoni, S. haematobium, S. bovis, S. intercalatum, S. japonicum, S. magrebowiei and S. rhodaini. By evaluating 206 patients living in an endemic area in Brazil, the prevalence of S. mansoni infection was determined to be 18% by examining 12 Kato-Katz slides (41.7 mg/smear, 500 mg total of a single fecal sample from each person, while the Schistosoma PCR-ELISA identified a 30% rate of infection using 500-mg of the same fecal sample. When considering the Kato-Katz method as the reference test, artificial sensitivity and specificity rates of the PCR-ELISA system were 97.4% and 85.1%, respectively. The potential for estimating parasitic load by DNA detection in feces was assessed by comparing absorbance values and eggs per gram of feces, with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.700 (P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reports the development and field evaluation of a sensitive Schistosoma PCR-ELISA, a system that may serve as an alternative for diagnosing Schistosoma infection.

  1. Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an infection in any part of your urinary system — your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Most infections ... begin to multiply in the bladder. Although the urinary system is designed to keep out such microscopic invaders, ...

  2. Neonatal enterovirus infections reported to the national enterovirus surveillance system in the United States, 1983-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetsuriani, Nino; Lamonte, Ashley; Oberste, M Steven; Pallansch, Mark

    2006-10-01

    Neonatal enterovirus (EV) infections lead to a wide range of clinical manifestations, from mild febrile illness to severe, sometimes fatal, sepsislike disease. To determine the relationship of EV serotypes with the risk of neonatal infection and its fatal outcome, we analyzed data reported to the National Enterovirus Surveillance System (NESS) during 1983-2003. Of the 26,737 EV detections reported during this period, neonates accounted for 2544 (11.4% of those with known age). Serotypes most commonly isolated from neonates included echovirus (E) 11 (14.0% of EV with known serotype), coxsackievirus (CV) B2 (8.9%), CVB5 (7.5%), E6, E9 and CVB4 (6.8% each). CVB1-4, E11, and E25 were significantly more common, whereas CVA16, E4, E9, E21, E30, and human parechovirus 1 (formerly E22) were less common among neonates than among persons aged > or =1 month. Fatal outcome was noted for 3.3% of reports, with neonates at a higher risk of death than persons aged > or =1 month (11.5% versus 2.5%; odds ratio [OR] 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.3-7.8). Neonates infected with CVB4 were at a higher risk of death (OR 6.5; 95% CI = 2.4-17.7) than those infected with other EV. EV are important neonatal pathogens associated with high risk of infection and death. Because of the limitations of the NESS (incomplete reporting, limited clinical data, bias towards more severe and younger cases), additional studies are needed to better evaluate the role of different EV in neonatal infections.

  3. Exploitation of the complement system by oncogenic Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus for cell survival and persistent infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Shin Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During evolution, herpesviruses have developed numerous, and often very ingenious, strategies to counteract efficient host immunity. Specifically, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV eludes host immunity by undergoing a dormant stage, called latency wherein it expresses a minimal number of viral proteins to evade host immune activation. Here, we show that during latency, KSHV hijacks the complement pathway to promote cell survival. We detected strong deposition of complement membrane attack complex C5b-9 and the complement component C3 activated product C3b on Kaposi's sarcoma spindle tumor cells, and on human endothelial cells latently infected by KSHV, TIME-KSHV and TIVE-LTC, but not on their respective uninfected control cells, TIME and TIVE. We further showed that complement activation in latently KSHV-infected cells was mediated by the alternative complement pathway through down-regulation of cell surface complement regulatory proteins CD55 and CD59. Interestingly, complement activation caused minimal cell death but promoted the survival of latently KSHV-infected cells grown in medium depleted of growth factors. We found that complement activation increased STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation (Y705 of KSHV-infected cells, which was required for the enhanced cell survival. Furthermore, overexpression of either CD55 or CD59 in latently KSHV-infected cells was sufficient to inhibit complement activation, prevent STAT3 Y705 phosphorylation and abolish the enhanced survival of cells cultured in growth factor-depleted condition. Together, these results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which an oncogenic virus subverts and exploits the host innate immune system to promote viral persistent infection.

  4. Comorbidities and factors associated with central nervous system infections and death in non-perinatal listeriosis: a clinical case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens De Noordhout, C; Devleesschauwer, B; Maertens De Noordhout, A; Blocher, J; Haagsma, J A; Havelaar, A H; Speybroeck, N

    2016-06-07

    Listeriosis is a rare disease caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes and mainly affects at risk people. Listeriosis can lead to sepsis, central nervous system (CNS) infections and death. The objectives of this study were to describe and quantify comorbidities and neurological sequelae underlying non-perinatal listeriosis cases and to describe the factors associated with death and CNS infections in non-perinatal listeriosis. We retrospectively collected clinical data through computerized, paper or microfilmed medical records in two Belgian university hospitals. Logistic regression models and likelihood ratio tests allowed identifying factors associated with death and CNS infections. Sixty-four cases of non-perinatal listeriosis were included in the clinical case series and 84 % were affected by at least one comorbid condition. The main comorbidities were cancer, renal and severe cardio-vascular diseases. Twenty-nine patients (45 %) suffered from a CNS infection and 14 patients (22 %) died during hospitalization, among whom six (43 %) had a CNS involvement. Among surviving patients, eleven suffered from neurological sequelae (22 %) at hospital discharge; all had CNS infection. Five of these patients (45 %) still suffered of their neurological sequelae after a median follow-up of one year (range: 0.08-19). The factor associated with death during the hospitalization was the presence of a severe cardiovascular disease (OR = 4.72, p = 0.015). Two factors inversely related with CNS infections were antibiotic monotherapy (OR = 0.28, p = 0.04) and the presence of renal disease (OR = 0.18, p = 0.02). In a public health context these results could be a starting point for future burden of listeriosis studies taking into account comorbidity.

  5. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling reveals two distinct outcomes in central Nervous system infections of rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiting eZhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies remains a major public health concern in many developing countries. The precise neuropathogenesis of rabies is unknown, though it is hypothesized to be due to neuronal death or dysfunction. Mice that received intranasal inoculation of an attenuated rabies virus (RABV strain HEP-Flury exhibited subtle clinical signs, and eventually recovered, which is different from the fatal encephalitis caused by the virulent RABV strain CVS-11. To understand the neuropathogenesis of rabies and the mechanisms of viral clearance, we applied RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq to compare the brain transcriptomes of normal mice versus HEP-Flury or CVS-11 intranasally inoculated mice. Our results revealed that both RABV strains altered positively and negatively the expression levels of many host genes, including genes associated with innate and adaptive immunity, inflammation and cell death. It is found that HEP-Flury infection can activate the innate immunity earlier through the RIG-I/MDA-5 signaling, and the innate immunity pre-activated by HEP-Flury or Newcastle disease virus (NDV infection can effectively prevent the CVS-11 to invade central nervous system (CNS, but fails to clear the CVS-11 after its entry into the CNS. In addition, following CVS-11 infection, genes implicated in cell adhesion, blood vessel morphogenesis and coagulation were mainly up-regulated, while the genes involved in synaptic transmission and ion transport were significantly down-regulated. On the other hand, several genes involved in the MHC class II-mediated antigen presentation pathway were activated to a greater extent after the HEP-Flury infection as compared with the CVS-11 infection suggesting that the collaboration of CD4+ T cells and MHC class II-mediated antigen presentation is critical for the clearance of attenuated RABV from the CNS. The differentially regulated genes reported here are likely to include potential therapeutic targets for expanding the postexposure treatment window

  6. Papaya Lethal Yellowing Virus (PLYV) Infects Vasconcellea cauliflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, P.P.R.; Resende, de R.O.; Souza, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da

  7. Fusarium solani fungal infection of the lateral line canal system in captive scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, G L; Brock, J A; Kaiser, S

    1995-10-01

    Two of five scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) captured May 1987 in Hawaii (USA) developed granulomatous exudative mycotic dermatitis localized in the lateral line canal system. The lesion initially was noted in the cephalic canals, but over a period of months extended into the lateral canal. Fusarium solani and Vibrio spp. were isolated from the canal exudate of both sharks. Bacterial colonies were not observed in the canal walls or surrounding tissues. Fusarium solani infection resulted in a chronic physical and behavioral deterioration of the two sharks; one shark was euthanized in September 1988 and the other in July 1989. This is the first report of Fusarium solani infection in the lateral line canal system and the third account in hammerhead sharks.

  8. Disease burden due to gastrointestinal infections among people living along the major wastewater system in Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Nauta, Maarten; Pham-Duc, Phuc

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite recent improvements of wastewater treatment capacities in urban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam, microbial pollution is still considerable. There is a paucity of burden estimates due to gastrointestinal infection in people living along the wastewater system, and among people who...... conveyance and treatment systems; (ii) urban farmers using wastewater from To Lich River; (iii) community members in urban areas exposed to flooding events in the districts of Hoang Mai and Thanh Tri; and (iv) peri-urban farmers in Thanh Tri district, where Red River water is used for agriculture......, pathogenic . Salmonella spp., . Cryptosporidium spp. and . Ascaris lumbricoides were employed to estimate annual risk of gastrointestinal infection and disease burden. Results: The QMRA estimated a disease burden of 0.011 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) per person per year in urban farmers, 0...

  9. Bloodstream infection following 217 consecutive systemic-enteric drained pancreas transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Walter

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combined kidney pancreas transplantation (PTx evolved as excellent treatment for diabetic nephropathy. Infections remain common and serious complications. Methods 217 consecutive enteric drained PTxs performed from 1997 to 2004 were retrospectively analyzed with regard to bloodstream infection. Immunosuppression consisted of antithymocyteglobuline induction, tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid and steroids for the majority of cases. Standard perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis consisted of pipercillin/tazobactam in combination with ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. Results One year patient, pancreas and kidney graft survival were 96.4%, 88.5% and 94.8%, surgical complication rate was 35%, rejection rate 30% and rate of infection 59%. In total 46 sepsis episodes were diagnosed in 35 patients (16% with a median onset on day 12 (range 1–45 post transplant. Sepsis source was intraabdominal infection (IAI (n = 21, a contaminated central venous line (n = 10, wound infection (n = 5, urinary tract infection (n = 2 and graft transmitted (n = 2. Nine patients (4% experienced multiple episodes of sepsis. Overall 65 pathogens (IAI sepsis 39, line sepsis 15, others 11 were isolated from blood. Gram positive cocci accounted for 50 isolates (77%: Coagulase negative staphylococci (n = 28, i.e. 43% (nine multi-resistant, Staphylococcus aureus (n = 11, i.e. 17% (four multi-resistant, enterococci (n = 9, i.e. 14% (one E. faecium. Gram negative rods were cultured in twelve cases (18%. Patients with blood borne infection had a two year pancreas graft survival of 76.5% versus 89.4% for those without sepsis (p = 0.036, patient survival was not affected. Conclusion Sepsis remains a serious complication after PTx with significantly reduced pancreas graft, but not patient survival. The most common source is IAI.

  10. Nail infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, K T; Bonar, P L

    1989-04-01

    Nail infections are and will continue to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to all foot physicians. Attention to basic concepts of accurate detailed history and physical examination will aid in the determination of the etiology of these infections. Following basic guidelines of incision and drainage, gram stain, soaks, and antibiotics will be the cornerstone of initial treatment of pyogenic infections. Upon resolution of the acute infection a permanent treatment plan can be constituted based on the etiology. Nail infections of mycotic nature require an understanding by both patient and doctor as to the difficulty and resistance to treatment of this problem. It is the authors' opinion that aggressive persistent treatment will provide the best long-term result when dealing with mycotic infections. This may require nail removal, local and systemic treatment as well as change in shoe environment. As we have seen and is stated throughout this text, the nail and its pathologic processes can be a mirror of systemic disease. Many times a dystrophic infected nail may be the initial clinical presentation of a much more involved disease process. It is the responsibility and duty of all foot physicians to have a total understanding of knowledge of normal and pathologic process that affect the nail plates, nail bed, and surrounding nail proper. I hope this article will stimulate the foot physician to approach the disease of the nail with a high index of suspicion and respect.

  11. Development of on-line sorting system for detection of infected seed potatoes using visible near-infrared transmittance spectral technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Yong; Cho, Byoung Kwan [Dept. of Biosystems Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Mo, Chang Yeun [Rural Development Administration, National Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jun Soon [Dept. of Horticultural Bioscience, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    In this study, an online seed potato sorting system using a visible and near infrared (40 1100 nm) transmittance spectral technique and statistical model was evaluated for the nondestructive determination of infected and sound seed potatoes. Seed potatoes that had been artificially infected with Pectobacterium atrosepticum, which is known to cause a soil borne disease infection, were prepared for the experiments. After acquiring transmittance spectra from sound and infected seed potatoes, a determination algorithm for detecting infected seed potatoes was developed using the partial least square discriminant analysis method. The coefficient of determination(R{sup 2}{sub p}) of the prediction model was 0.943, and the classification accuracy was above 99% (n = 80) for discriminating diseased seed potatoes from sound ones. This online sorting system has good potential for developing a technique to detect agricultural products that are infected and contaminated by pathogens.

  12. A new multidisciplinary home care telemedicine system to monitor stable chronic human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: a randomized study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe León

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy has changed the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in developed countries, where it has become a chronic disease. This clinical scenario requires a new approach to simplify follow-up appointments and facilitate access to healthcare professionals.We developed a new internet-based home care model covering the entire management of chronic HIV-infected patients. This was called Virtual Hospital. We report the results of a prospective randomised study performed over two years, comparing standard care received by HIV-infected patients with Virtual Hospital care. HIV-infected patients with access to a computer and broadband were randomised to be monitored either through Virtual Hospital (Arm I or through standard care at the day hospital (Arm II. After one year of follow up, patients switched their care to the other arm. Virtual Hospital offered four main services: Virtual Consultations, Telepharmacy, Virtual Library and Virtual Community. A technical and clinical evaluation of Virtual Hospital was carried out.Of the 83 randomised patients, 42 were monitored during the first year through Virtual Hospital (Arm I and 41 through standard care (Arm II. Baseline characteristics of patients were similar in the two arms. The level of technical satisfaction with the virtual system was high: 85% of patients considered that Virtual Hospital improved their access to clinical data and they felt comfortable with the videoconference system. Neither clinical parameters [level of CD4+ T lymphocytes, proportion of patients with an undetectable level of viral load (p = 0.21 and compliance levels >90% (p = 0.58] nor the evaluation of quality of life or psychological questionnaires changed significantly between the two types of care.Virtual Hospital is a feasible and safe tool for the multidisciplinary home care of chronic HIV patients. Telemedicine should be considered as an appropriate support service for the management

  13. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to pathogen infection in wild small mammals in intensive milk cattle and swine production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovera, Rosario; Fernández, María Soledad; Jacob, Jens; Lucero, Nidia; Morici, Gabriel; Brihuega, Bibiana; Farace, María Isabel; Caracostantogolo, Jorge; Cavia, Regino

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the ecological processes that are involved in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens by small mammals may aid adequate and effective management measures. Few attempts have been made to analyze the ecological aspects that influence pathogen infection in small mammals in livestock production systems. We describe the infection of small mammals with Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., Trichinella spp. and Cysticercus fasciolaris and assess the related intrinsic and extrinsic factors in livestock production systems in central Argentina at the small mammal community, population and individual levels. Ten pig farms and eight dairy farms were studied by removal trapping of small mammals from 2008 to 2011. Each farm was sampled seasonally over the course of one year with cage and Sherman live traps. The 505 small mammals captured (14,359 trap-nights) included three introduced murine rodents, four native rodents and two opossums. Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella spp. antibodies and Trichinella spp. were found in the three murine rodents and both opossums. Rattus norvegicus was also infected with C. fasciolaris; Akodon azarae and Oligoryzomys flavescens with Leptospira spp.; anti-Brucella spp. antibodies were found in A. azarae. Two or more pathogens occurred simultaneously on 89% of the farms, and each pathogen was found on at least 50% of the farms. Pathogen infections increased with host abundance. Infection by Leptospira spp. also increased with precipitation and during warm seasons. The occurrence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies was higher on dairy farms and during the winter and summer. The host abundances limit values, from which farms are expected to be free of the studied pathogens, are reported. Murine rodents maintain pathogens within farms, whereas other native species are likely dispersing pathogens among farms. Hence, we recommend preventing and controlling murines in farm dwellings and isolating farms from their surroundings to avoid contact with other

  14. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant enhance neonatal resistance to systemic Escherichia coli K1 infection by accelerating development of intestinal defense

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xiaolong; Zeng, Qing; Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Zeng, Zhijie; Yang, Weijun; Qiu, Jiawen; Du, Lei; Boddu, Swapna; Wu, Tongwei; Cai, Danxian; Huang, Sheng-He; Cao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant (LCS) has a preventive effect against gut-derived systemic neonatal Escherichia coli (E. coli) K1 infection. The preventive effects were evaluated in human colonic carcinoma cell line Caco-2 and neonatal rat models. Our in vitro results showed that LCS could block adhesion, invasion and translocation of E. coli K1 to Caco-2 monolayer via up-regulating mucin production and maintaining intestinal...

  15. Evaluation of the Staph-Ident and STAPHase systems for identification of staphylococci from bovine intramammary infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, J L; Pankey, J W; Nickerson, S C

    1984-01-01

    The Staph-Ident and STAPHase systems (Analytab Products, Plainview, N.Y.) were compared with conventional methods for identification of staphylococci isolated from bovine intramammary infections. Adjunct testing by colony morphology, pigmentation, and biochemical tests was conducted to resolve discrepant identifications. The initial accuracies of the conventional scheme and Staph-Ident were 92.1 and 89.2%, respectively. Staphylococcus hyicus subsp. chromogenes could not be identified by means...

  16. Yersinia enterocolitica targets cells of the innate and adaptive immune system by injection of Yops in a mouse infection model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Köberle

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye evades the immune system of the host by injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops via a type three secretion system into host cells. In this study, a reporter system comprising a YopE-beta-lactamase hybrid protein and a fluorescent staining sensitive to beta-lactamase cleavage was used to track Yop injection in cell culture and in an experimental Ye mouse infection model. Experiments with GD25, GD25-beta1A, and HeLa cells demonstrated that beta1-integrins and RhoGTPases play a role for Yop injection. As demonstrated by infection of splenocyte suspensions in vitro, injection of Yops appears to occur randomly into all types of leukocytes. In contrast, upon infection of mice, Yop injection was detected in 13% of F4/80(+, 11% of CD11c(+, 7% of CD49b(+, 5% of Gr1(+ cells, 2.3% of CD19(+, and 2.6% of CD3(+ cells. Taking the different abundance of these cell types in the spleen into account, the highest total number of Yop-injected cells represents B cells, particularly CD19(+CD21(+CD23(+ follicular B cells, followed by neutrophils, dendritic cells, and macrophages, suggesting a distinct cellular tropism of Ye. Yop-injected B cells displayed a significantly increased expression of CD69 compared to non-Yop-injected B cells, indicating activation of these cells by Ye. Infection of IFN-gammaR (receptor- and TNFRp55-deficient mice resulted in increased numbers of Yop-injected spleen cells for yet unknown reasons. The YopE-beta-lactamase hybrid protein reporter system provides new insights into the modulation of host cell and immune responses by Ye Yops.

  17. DETECTION OF CASES OF PARVOVIRUS INFECTION IN THE SYSTEM FOR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE OF EXANTHEMATIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Lavrentyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The drastic decrease of the incidence of Measles and Rubella at the stage of elimination of these infections is notified on the territory of North- Western Federal Region (NWFR of Russia. At the same time the number of cases with the error clinical diagnosis of Measles and Rubella increased. The most frequent error is the infection caused by Parvovirus (PVI. The disease is of the independent particular medical and social significance for obstetrics, maternity and childhood protection, blood donation service, transplantation of organs/tissue etc. The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of PVI on the territory of NWFR of Russia in different periods of 2009–2012 and 2015–2016. The data of the laboratory diagnosis of PVI for patients with exanthema were analyzed. Materials and methods. The serum specimens of patients with exanthema from bank of sera of St. Petersburg Subnational Measles/Rubella laboratory, collected in 2009–2012 (n = 495 and in 2015 (n = 336 as well as 69 sera of patients with exanthema from the “Infectious Disease Hospital N30” in St. Petersburg, collected in March-May, 2016 were studied. The specific IgM-PV B19 antibodies were determined by the «recomWELL Parvovirus B19 IgM» (MICROGEN GmbH, Germany ELISA test-system. The presen ce of the specific IgM-PV B19 antibodies in sera of patients was the evidence of the acute PVI. Results. The obtained results demonstrated the prevalence of PVI on the territory of NWFR. In 2009–2012 as well as in 2015 years PVI was revealed on the overwhelming majority (9 of 11 of administrative territories of the NWFR. The essential predominance of PVI was determined in St. Petersburg and bordering territories of NWFR (Kaliningrad Oblast’, Leningrad Oblast’, Republic of Karelia. In 2010, 2011 and 2015 years the part of sera detected as IgM-PV B19 positive on an average was equal to 14%. Meanwhile in 2012 the part of the detected IgM-PV B19 positive sera was

  18. The role of biopsy in the diagnosis of infections of the central nervous system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jansen, M

    2010-01-01

    CNS infections require prompt appropriate therapy, but do not usually require tissue biopsy for diagnosis. We performed a 5 year audit of CNS infections which required brain or spinal biopsy to determine or confirm a diagnosis of CNS infection. Sixteen cases were identified in which clinical, radiological or additional investigations including culture, serology or PCR for the suspected specific infective agents were not diagnostic. 6 (37.5%) were bacterial abscesses presenting as space-occupying intracerebral lesions with a differential diagnosis of neoplasm. There were 3 (18.7%) cases of toxoplasmosis and 2 (12.5%) cases of aspergillosis. There was one case (6.2%) of herpes simplex encephalitis, one cysticercosis and one progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy, all biopsied as possible neoplasms. There were 2 (12.5%) cases of spinal tuberculosis, one multifocal, mimicking neurofibromatosis. This review highlights the usefulness of targeted biopsy in the rapid diagnosis of CNS infections. It also emphasizes the lack of specificity of \\'negative\\' culture and serology in certain cases, especially in the setting of immune-compromise.

  19. Targeting the Immune System with Plant Lectins to Combat Microbial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannyson J. B. Jandú

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The arsenal of drugs available to treat infections caused by eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbes has been declining exponentially due to antimicrobial resistance phenomenon, leading to an urgent need to develop new therapeutic strategies. Host-directed immunotherapy has been reported as an attractive option to treat microbial infections. It consists in the improvement of host defenses by increasing the expression of inflammatory mediators and/or controlling of inflammation-induced tissue injury. Although the in vitro antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities of lectins have been extensively demonstrated, few studies have evaluated their in vivo effects on experimental models of infections. This review aims to highlight the experimental use of immunomodulatory plant lectins to improve the host immune response against microbial infections. Lectins have been used in vivo both prophylactically and therapeutically resulting in the increased survival of mice under microbial challenge. Other studies successfully demonstrated that lectins could be used in combination with parasite antigens in order to induce a more efficient immunization. Therefore, these plant lectins represent new candidates for management of microbial infections. Furthermore, immunotherapeutic studies have improved our knowledge about the mechanisms involved in host–pathogen interactions, and may also help in the discovery of new drug targets.

  20. Systemic Inflammatory Responses and Lung Injury following Hip Fracture Surgery Increases Susceptibility to Infection in Aged Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infections frequently occur following hip fracture surgery in aged patients. However, the underlying reasons are not fully understood. The present study investigates the systemic inflammatory response and pulmonary conditions following hip fracture surgery as a means of identifying risk factors for lung infections using an aged rodent model. Aged, male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 animals per group underwent a sham procedure or hip fracture plus femoral intramedullary pinning. Animals were sacrificed 1, 3, and 7 days after the injury. Markers of systemic inflammation and pulmonary injury were analyzed. Both sham-operated and injured/surgical group animals underwent intratracheal inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1, 3, and 7 days after surgery. P. aeruginosa counts in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid and survival rates were recorded. Serum TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-10 levels and markers of pulmonary injury were significantly increased at 1 and 3 days following hip fracture and surgery. Animals challenged with P. aeruginosa at 1 and 3 days after injury had a significantly decreased survival rate and more P. aeruginosa recovered from blood and BAL fluid. This study shows that hip fracture and surgery in aged rats induced a systemic inflammatory response and lung injury associated with increased susceptibility to infection during the acute phase after injury and surgery.

  1. Helicase domain encoded by Cucumber mosaic virus RNA1 determines systemic infection of Cmr1 in pepper.

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    Won-Hee Kang

    Full Text Available The Cmr1 gene in peppers confers resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus isolate-P0 (CMV-P0. Cmr1 restricts the systemic spread of CMV strain-Fny (CMV-Fny, whereas this gene cannot block the spread of CMV isolate-P1 (CMV-P1 to the upper leaves, resulting in systemic infection. To identify the virulence determinant of CMV-P1, six reassortant viruses and six chimeric viruses derived from CMV-Fny and CMV-P1 cDNA clones were used. Our results demonstrate that the C-terminus of the helicase domain encoded by CMV-P1 RNA1 determines susceptibility to systemic infection, and that the helicase domain contains six different amino acid substitutions between CMV-Fny and CMV-P1(. To identify the key amino acids of the helicase domain determining systemic infection with CMV-P1, we then constructed amino acid substitution mutants. Of the mutants tested, amino acid residues at positions 865, 896, 957, and 980 in the 1a protein sequence of CMV-P1 affected the systemic infection. Virus localization studies with GFP-tagged CMV clones and in situ localization of virus RNA revealed that these four amino acid residues together form the movement determinant for CMV-P1 movement from the epidermal cell layer to mesophyll cell layers. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CMV-P1 and a chimeric virus with four amino acid residues of CMV-P1 accumulated more genomic RNA in inoculated leaves than did CMV-Fny, indicating that those four amino acids are also involved in virus replication. These results demonstrate that the C-terminal region of the helicase domain is responsible for systemic infection by controlling virus replication and cell-to-cell movement. Whereas four amino acids are responsible for acquiring virulence in CMV-Fny, six amino acid (positions at 865, 896, 901, 957, 980 and 993 substitutions in CMV-P1 were required for complete loss of virulence in 'Bukang'.

  2. Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium systemic infection of wild type and immune-deficient mice.

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    Olusegun Oshota

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica are a threat to public health. Current vaccines are not fully effective. The ability to grow in infected tissues within phagocytes is required for S. enterica virulence in systemic disease. As the infection progresses the bacteria are exposed to a complex host immune response. Consequently, in order to continue growing in the tissues, S. enterica requires the coordinated regulation of fitness genes. Bacterial gene regulation has so far been investigated largely using exposure to artificial environmental conditions or to in vitro cultured cells, and little information is available on how S. enterica adapts in vivo to sustain cell division and survival. We have studied the transcriptome, proteome and metabolic flux of Salmonella, and the transcriptome of the host during infection of wild type C57BL/6 and immune-deficient gp91-/-phox mice. Our analyses advance the understanding of how S. enterica and the host behaves during infection to a more sophisticated level than has previously been reported.

  3. Mediators of protection against lethal systemic vesicular stomatitis virus infection in hamsters: defective interfering particles, polyinosinate-polycytidylate, and interferon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fultz, P.N.; Shadduck, J.A.; Kang, C.Y.; Streilein, J.W.

    1982-08-01

    Homologous defective interfering (DI) particles protected adult Syrian hamsters against lethal systemic infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) serotype Indiana. The DI particles had to be biologically active, but did not have to be administered at the same inoculation site as the infectious virus. Serum and tissue levels of VSV postinoculation were significantly lower in DI-protected animals than in unprotected controls, suggesting that true autointerference was occurring. However, some aspects of protection also must be mediated through nonspecific mechanisms, since susceptible hamsters could be protected against VSV Indiana by coinjection with heterologous DI particles prepared from VSV serotype New Jersey or by simultaneous administration of polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid. By measuring serum levels of putative hamster interferon (type 1), we found that animals coinjected with VSV and DI particles or polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid produced significant levels of interferon. Since similarly high serum levels of interferon were measured in recipients of VSV alone (animals that eventually died from infection), there appeared to be no correlation between protection against lethal disease and induced levels of serum interferon. Instead, serum interferon levels correlated positively with amounts of VSV PFU found in serum and tissues of infected animals, the lowest levels being found in serum of animals protected with homologous DI particles. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that autointerference by DI particles as well as various host defense mechanisms (possibly including induction of interferon) participates in protecting hamsters against lethal VSV infection.

  4. Evaluation of the protective immunity of a novel subunit fusion vaccine in a murine model of systemic MRSA infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Fei Zuo

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a common commensal organism in humans and a major cause of bacteremia and hospital acquired infection. Because of the spread of strains resistant to antibiotics, these infections are becoming more difficult to treat. Therefore, exploration of anti-staphylococcal vaccines is currently a high priority. Iron surface determinant B (IsdB is an iron-regulated cell wall-anchored surface protein of S. aureus. Alpha-toxin (Hla is a secreted cytolytic pore-forming toxin. Previous studies reported that immunization with IsdB or Hla protected animals against S. aureus infection. To develop a broadly protective vaccine, we constructed chimeric vaccines based on IsdB and Hla. Immunization with the chimeric bivalent vaccine induced strong antibody and T cell responses. When the protective efficacy of the chimeric bivalent vaccine was compared to that of individual proteins in a murine model of systemic S. aureus infection, the bivalent vaccine showed a stronger protective immune response than the individual proteins (IsdB or Hla. Based on the results presented here, the chimeric bivalent vaccine affords higher levels of protection against S. aureus and has potential as a more effective candidate vaccine.

  5. Aetiologies of central nervous system infection in Viet Nam: a prospective provincial hospital-based descriptive surveillance study.

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    Nghia Ho Dang Trung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at the provincial hospital level where most patients are seen. METHODS: We conducted a prospective Provincial Hospital-based descriptive surveillance study in adults and children at thirteen hospitals in central and southern Viet Nam between August 2007-April 2010. The pathogens of CNS infection were confirmed in CSF and blood samples by using classical microbiology, molecular diagnostics and serology. RESULTS: We recruited 1241 patients with clinically suspected infection of the CNS. An aetiological agent was identified in 640/1241 (52% of the patients. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in patients older than 14 years of age (147/617, 24% and Japanese encephalitis virus in patients less than 14 years old (142/624, 23%. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 34/617 (6% adult patients and 11/624 (2% paediatric patients. The acute case fatality rate (CFR during hospital admission was 73/617 (12% in adults and to 42/624 (7% in children. CONCLUSIONS: Zoonotic bacterial and viral pathogens are the most common causes of CNS infection in adults and children in Viet Nam.

  6. Integrated systems biology analysis of KSHV latent infection reveals viral induction and reliance on peroxisome mediated lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychev, Zoi E; Hu, Alex; DiMaio, Terri A; Gitter, Anthony; Camp, Nathan D; Noble, William S; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Lagunoff, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Kaposi's Sarcoma associated Herpesvirus (KSHV), an oncogenic, human gamma-herpesvirus, is the etiological agent of Kaposi's Sarcoma the most common tumor of AIDS patients world-wide. KSHV is predominantly latent in the main KS tumor cell, the spindle cell, a cell of endothelial origin. KSHV modulates numerous host cell-signaling pathways to activate endothelial cells including major metabolic pathways involved in lipid metabolism. To identify the underlying cellular mechanisms of KSHV alteration of host signaling and endothelial cell activation, we identified changes in the host proteome, phosphoproteome and transcriptome landscape following KSHV infection of endothelial cells. A Steiner forest algorithm was used to integrate the global data sets and, together with transcriptome based predicted transcription factor activity, cellular networks altered by latent KSHV were predicted. Several interesting pathways were identified, including peroxisome biogenesis. To validate the predictions, we showed that KSHV latent infection increases the number of peroxisomes per cell. Additionally, proteins involved in peroxisomal lipid metabolism of very long chain fatty acids, including ABCD3 and ACOX1, are required for the survival of latently infected cells. In summary, novel cellular pathways altered during herpesvirus latency that could not be predicted by a single systems biology platform, were identified by integrated proteomics and transcriptomics data analysis and when correlated with our metabolomics data revealed that peroxisome lipid metabolism is essential for KSHV latent infection of endothelial cells.

  7. Infection-induced coronary dysfunction and systemic inflammation in piglets are dampened in hypercholesterolemic milieu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene M.; Pesonen, Erkki; Odermarsky, Michal

    2011-01-01

    The synergism of infection with conventional cardiovascular risk factors in atherosclerosis is much debated. We hypothesized that coronary arterial injury correlates with infection recurrence and pathogen burden and is further aggravated by hypercholesterolemia. Forty-two Göttingen minipigs were...... assigned to repeated intratracheal inoculation of PBS, Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn), or both Cpn and influenza virus at 8, 11, and 14 wk of age. Animals were fed either standard or 2% cholesterol diet (chol-diet). At 19 wk of age coronary vasomotor responses to acetylcholine (ACh) and adenosine were assessed...... in vivo and blood and tissue samples were collected. Nonparametric tests were used to compare the groups. In cholesterol-fed animals, total cholesterol/HDL was significantly increased in infected animals compared with noninfected animals [3.13 (2.17–3.38) vs. 2.03 (1.53–2.41), respectively; P = 0.01]. C...

  8. Acute Bacterial Meningitis and Systemic Abscesses due to Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jourani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated abscesses due to group G β-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae were observed in a 57-year-old cirrhotic patient with the skin being the putative way of entry for the pathogen. S. dysgalactiae is a rare agent in human infections responsible for acute pyogenic meningitis. The mortality rate associated with S. dysgalactiae bacteraemia and meningitis may be as high as 50%, particularly in the presence of endocarditis or brain abscesses. In our patient, main sites of infections were meningitis and ventriculitis, spondylodiscitis, septic arthritis, and soft-tissue infections. In contrast, no endocarditis was evidenced. Cirrhosis-related immune suppression was considered as a pathophysiological cofactor for the condition. Fortunately, clinical status improved after long-term (3 months antimicrobial therapy.

  9. The Gustilo-Anderson classification system as predictor of nonunion and infection in open tibia fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, R V; Francois, E L; Nwosu, S K; Attum, B; Whiting, P S; Siuta, M A; Benvenuti, M A; Smith, A K; Shen, M S; Mousavi, I; Obremskey, W T; Sethi, M K

    2017-10-01

    We sought to conduct the largest retrospective study to date of open tibia fractures and describe the incidence of complications and evaluate the potential predictive risk factors for complications. Patients with open tibia fractures treated with reamed intramedullary nail (IMN) across a 10-year period were evaluated. Patient charts were reviewed for demographics, type of open fracture (T), comorbidities, and postoperative complications. A multivariate model was conducted to determine the risk factors for each type of complication. Of the 486 patients with open tibia fractures, 13 % (n = 64) had infections, 12 % (n = 56) had nonunions, and 1 % (n = 7) had amputations. TIII fractures had much higher rates of each complication than TI and TII fractures. Fracture type was the only significant risk factor for both nonunion and infection. Our study found that the Gustilo grade of open tibia fracture is by far the greatest predictor of nonunion and infection.

  10. Diversity and environmental relations of cryptic, systemic Botrytis infections in symptomless hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Shaw

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis species are generally considered to be aggressive, necrotrophic plant pathogens. By contrast to this general perception, however, Botrytis species could frequently be isolated from the interior of multiple tissues in apparently healthy hosts of many species. Infection frequencies reached 50% of samples or more, but were commonly less, and cryptic infections were rare or absent in some plant species. Prevalence varied substantially from year to year and from tissue to tissue, but some host species routinely had high prevalence. The same genotype was found to occur throughout a host, representing mycelial spread. B. cinerea and B. pseudocinerea are the species that most commonly occur as cryptic infections, but phylogenetically distant isolates of Botrytis were also detected, one of which does not correspond to previously described species. Sporulation and visible damage occurred only when infected tissues were stressed, or became mature or senescent. There was no evidence of cryptic infection having a deleterious effect on growth of the host, and prevalence was probably greater in plants grown in high light conditions. Isolates from cryptic infections were often capable of causing disease (to varying extents when spore suspensions were inoculated onto their own host as well as on distinct host species, arguing against co-adaptation between cryptic isolates and their hosts. These data collectively suggest that several Botrytis species, including the most notorious pathogenic species, exist frequently in cryptic form to an extent that has thus far largely been neglected, and do not need to cause disease on healthy hosts in order to complete their life-cycles.

  11. Systems Modeling of Interactions between Mucosal Immunity and the Gut Microbiome during Clostridium difficile Infection.

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    Andrew Leber

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infections are associated with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and result in an exuberant inflammatory response, leading to nosocomial diarrhea, colitis and even death. To better understand the dynamics of mucosal immunity during C. difficile infection from initiation through expansion to resolution, we built a computational model of the mucosal immune response to the bacterium. The model was calibrated using data from a mouse model of C. difficile infection. The model demonstrates a crucial role of T helper 17 (Th17 effector responses in the colonic lamina propria and luminal commensal bacteria populations in the clearance of C. difficile and colonic pathology, whereas regulatory T (Treg cells responses are associated with the recovery phase. In addition, the production of anti-microbial peptides by inflamed epithelial cells and activated neutrophils in response to C. difficile infection inhibit the re-growth of beneficial commensal bacterial species. Computational simulations suggest that the removal of neutrophil and epithelial cell derived anti-microbial inhibitions, separately and together, on commensal bacterial regrowth promote recovery and minimize colonic inflammatory pathology. Simulation results predict a decrease in colonic inflammatory markers, such as neutrophilic influx and Th17 cells in the colonic lamina propria, and length of infection with accelerated commensal bacteria re-growth through altered anti-microbial inhibition. Computational modeling provides novel insights on the therapeutic value of repopulating the colonic microbiome and inducing regulatory mucosal immune responses during C. difficile infection. Thus, modeling mucosal immunity-gut microbiota interactions has the potential to guide the development of targeted fecal transplantation therapies in the context of precision medicine interventions.

  12. Geotrichum candidum: A Rare Infection Agent in Urinary System: Case Report and Review of The Literature

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    Fulya Bayındır Bilman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Geotrichum is a species of fungi that can be found in every environment in nature, in soil, in water and in air. As it can be found in plants and in cereals and milk products, it has also been shown to be found in normal human flora (mucus and faeces. Geotrichum candidum, mostly saprophytic, can cause clinical picture called Geotrichosis. Neoplasms, leukosis, HIV infection, diabetes mellitus, and kidney transplantation are generally the underlying diseases in such cases. In a case in which we detected G.candidum reproduction in urinary tract infection, we aimed to present the case with its clinic findings and to review the literature.

  13. Annual Surveillance Summary: Bacterial Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA ) • Pseudomonas aeruginosa • Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) Note: To review the complete annual report for each...29.4 E. coli 702.3 592.2 157.4 ↑ 18.6 Klebsiella spp. 100.8 80.9 22.2 ↑ 24.6 MRSA 61.1 68.2 16.0 ↓ 10.4 P. aeruginosa 32.6 28.7 5.2 ↑ 13.6 VREc...VRE infections. c For MRSA only, the MDR IR column depicts the percentage of MRSA infections with inducible clindamycin resistance within the MHS

  14. Degradable magnesium implant-associated infections by bacterial biofilms induce robust localized and systemic inflammatory reactions in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Muhammad Imran; Babbar, Anshu; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Pils, Marina C; Rohde, Manfred

    2017-09-13

    Biomaterial-associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections constitute a cascade of host immune reactions ultimately leading to implant failure. Due to the lack of relevant in vivo biofilm models, the majority of the studies report host immune responses to free-living or planktonic bacteria, while bacteria in clinical situations live more frequently as biofilm communities than as single cells. The present study investigated host immune responses to biomaterial-associated P. aeruginosa biofilms in a clinically relevant mouse model. Previously, we reported metallic magnesium, a prospective biodegradable implant, to be permissive for bacterial biofilm in vivo even though it exhibits antibacterial properties in vitro. Therefore, magnesium was employed as biomaterial to investigate in vivo biofilm formation and associated host immune responses by using two P. aeruginosa strains and two mouse strains. P. aeruginosa formed biofilm on subcutaneously implanted magnesium disks. Non-invasive in vivo imaging indicated transient inflammatory responses at control sites, whereas robust prolonged interferon-β (IFN-β) expression was observed from biofilm in a transgenic animal reporter. Furthermore, immunohistology and electron microscopic results showed that bacterial biofilms were located in 2D immediately on the implant surface and at a short distance in the adjacent tissue. These biofilms were surrounded by inflammatory cells (mainly polymorphonuclear cells) compared to the controls. Interestingly, even though the number of live bacteria in various organs remained below detectable levels, splenomegaly indicated systemic inflammatory processes. Overall, these findings confirmed the resistance of biofilm infections in vivo to potentially antibacterial properties of magnesium degradation products. In vivo imaging and histology indicated the induction of both local and systemic host inflammatory responses to P. aeruginosa biofilms. Even though the innate host immune defenses

  15. An umbra-like virus of papaya discovered in Ecuador: detection, occurrence and phylogenetic relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) extractions from papaya leaves infected with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) revealed the presence of an unusual 4kb band, in addition to the presumed PRSV-associated 10kb band. Partial sequence of RT-PCR products from the 4kb dsRNA revealed homology to genomes of several me...

  16. Response of Cytokines and Hydrogen Peroxide to Sporothrix schenckii Exoantigen in Systemic Experimental Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Danielle Cardoso Geraldo; Gonçalves, Amanda Costa; Ferreira, Lucas Souza; Manente, Francine Alessandra; Portuondo, Deivys Leandro; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Polesi, Marisa Campos; Batista-Duharte, Alexander; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone

    2016-04-01

    The response of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and cytokines during an experimental sporotrichosis in male Swiss mice was assessed over a period of 10 weeks by monitoring macrophage activation challenged with exoantigen (ExoAg) from the fungus Sporothrix schenckii. The studied endpoints were: H2O2 production, fungal burden at spleen, apoptosis in peritoneal macrophages, and IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2, IL-10 production. During the two first weeks of infection was observed low burden of yeast in spleen and high response of H2O2, IL-2, and IL-1β. The weeks of highest fungal burden (fourth-sixth) coincided with major apoptosis in peritoneal macrophages, normal production of IL-6 and lower production of H2O2, IL-2, and IL-1β, suggesting a role for these three last in the early control of infection. On the other hand, IL-1β (but not IL-6) was recovered since the sixth week, suggesting a possible role in the late phase of infection, contributing to the fungal clearance in conjunction with the specific mechanisms. The IL-10 was elevated until the sixth, principally in the second week. These results evidences that ExoAg is involved in the host immune modulation, influencing the S. Schenckii virulence, and its role is related with the time of the infection in the model used.

  17. Concurrent monitoring of Trichinella and Toxoplasma infections in pigs from controlled housing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokken, G.C.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838578

    2017-01-01

    Historically, pork was the most prominent food source which contributed towards the transmission of Trichinella spp. and T. gondii infections. To prevent Trichinella transmission via pork an EU regulation specifies that 1) every pig carcass is systematically sampled and examined for Trichinella and

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs reared under different management in systems in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, T.; Lind, Peter; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2005-01-01

    Serum samples from 474 domestic pigs (Sus scrola) from Zimbabwe were tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. The results showed that T gondii infection is widespread in Zimbabwean pigs. Seroprevalence was lowest in fattening pigs from large...

  19. Down regulation of macrophage IFNGR1 exacerbates systemic L. monocytogenes infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M Eshleman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Interferons (IFNs target macrophages to regulate inflammation and resistance to microbial infections. The type II IFN (IFNγ acts on a cell surface receptor (IFNGR to promote gene expression that enhance macrophage inflammatory and anti-microbial activity. Type I IFNs can dampen macrophage responsiveness to IFNγ and are associated with increased susceptibility to numerous bacterial infections. The precise mechanisms responsible for these effects remain unclear. Type I IFNs silence macrophage ifngr1 transcription and thus reduce cell surface expression of IFNGR1. To test how these events might impact macrophage activation and host resistance during bacterial infection, we developed transgenic mice that express a functional FLAG-tagged IFNGR1 (fGR1 driven by a macrophage-specific promoter. Macrophages from fGR1 mice expressed physiologic levels of cell surface IFNGR1 at steady state and responded equivalently to WT C57Bl/6 macrophages when treated with IFNγ alone. However, fGR1 macrophages retained cell surface IFNGR1 and showed enhanced responsiveness to IFNγ in the presence of type I IFNs. When fGR1 mice were infected with the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes their resistance was significantly increased, despite normal type I and II IFN production. Enhanced resistance was dependent on IFNγ and associated with increased macrophage activation and antimicrobial function. These results argue that down regulation of myeloid cell IFNGR1 is an important mechanism by which type I IFNs suppress inflammatory and anti-bacterial functions of macrophages.

  20. Systemic Immune Activation Profiles of HIV-1 Subtype C-Infected Children and Their Mothers

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    Tinyiko G. Makhubele

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about immune activation profiles of children infected with HIV-1 subtype C. The current study compared levels of selected circulating biomarkers of immune activation in HIV-1 subtype C-infected untreated mothers and their children with those of healthy controls. Multiplex bead array, ELISA, and immunonephelometric procedures were used to measure soluble CD14 (sCD14, beta-2 microglobulin (β2M, CRP, MIG, IP-10, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1. Levels of all 6 biomarkers were significantly elevated in the HIV-infected mothers and, with the exception of MIG, in their children (P<0.01–P<0.0001. The effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART and maternal smoking on these biomarkers were also assessed. With the exception of TGF-β1, which was unchanged in the children 12 months after therapy, initiation of ART was accompanied by decreases in the other biomarkers. Regression analysis revealed that although most biomarkers were apparently unaffected by smoking, exposure of children to maternal smoking was associated with a significant increase in IP-10. These findings demonstrate that biomarkers of immune activation are elevated in HIV-infected children pre-ART and decline, with the exception of TGF-β1, after therapy. Although preliminary, elevation of IP-10 in smoke-exposed infants is consistent with a higher level of immune activation in this group.

  1. Annual Surveillance Summary: Klebsiella Species Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    prescription practices, and antibiotic resistance patterns observed for Klebsiella species infections in calendar year (CY) 2016. Multiple data...Guidance for Control of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae, November 2015 Update – CRE Toolkit. http://www.cdc.gov/hai/ pdfs /cre/CRE-guidance-508. pdf

  2. Air Distribution Systems and Cross-Infection Risk in the Hospital Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    2012-01-01

    We protect ourselves from airborne cross-infection in our indoor environment by supplying fresh air to the room by natural or mechanical ventilation. The air is distributed in the room according to different principles as e.g. mixing ventilation, downward ventilation, displacement ventilation, et...

  3. Viral aetiology of central nervous system infections in adults admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in southern Vietnam over 12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Le Van; Thai, Le Hong; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Chuong, Ly Van; Sinh, Dinh Xuan; Phong, Nguyen Duy; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Man, Dinh Nguyen Huy; Hien, Vo Minh; Vinh, Nguyen Thanh; Day, Jeremy; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D.; Thwaites, Guy; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Chau, Tran Thi Hong

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infections are important diseases in both children and adults worldwide. The spectrum of infections is broad, encompassing bacterial/aseptic meningitis and encephalitis. Viruses are regarded as the most common causes of encephalitis and aseptic meningitis. Better

  4. Evaluation of a new in-clinic test system to detect feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Christina; Englert, Theresa; Egberink, Herman; Lutz, Hans; Hartmann, Katrin

    2010-06-01

    Many in-house tests for the diagnosis of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection are licensed for use in veterinary practice. A new test with unknown performance has recently appeared on the market. The aims of this study were to define the efficacy of a new in-clinic test system, the Anigen Rapid FIV Ab/FeLV Ag Test, and to compare it with the current leading in-clinic test, the SNAP Kombi Plus FeLV Antigen/FIB Antibody Test. Three-hundred serum samples from randomly selected healthy and diseased cats presented to the Clinic of Small Animal Medicine at Ludwig Maximilian University were tested using both the Anigen Rapid Test and the SNAP Kombi Plus Test. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for both tests using Western blot as the gold standard for verification of FIV infection and PCR as the gold standard for FeLV infection. The presence of antibodies against FIV was confirmed by Western blot in 9/300 samples (prevalence 3%). FeLV DNA was detected by PCR in 15/300 samples (prevalence 5%). For FIV infection the Anigen Rapid Test had a sensitivity of 88.9%, specificity of 99.7%, positive predictive value of 88.9%, and negative predictive value of 99.7%. For FeLV infection, the Anigen Rapid Test had a sensitivity of 40.0%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 96.9%. Diagnostic accuracy was similar to that of the SNAP Kombi Plus Test. The new Anigen Rapid FIV Ab/FeLV Ag Test performed very well and can be recommended for use in veterinary practice.

  5. Infected dendritic cells facilitate systemic dissemination and transplacental passage of the obligate intracellular parasite Neospora caninum in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Collantes-Fernandez

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular parasite Neospora caninum disseminates across the placenta and the blood-brain barrier, to reach sites where it causes severe pathology or establishes chronic persistent infections. The mechanisms used by N. caninum to breach restrictive biological barriers remain elusive. To examine the cellular basis of these processes, migration of different N. caninum isolates (Nc-1, Nc-Liverpool, Nc-SweB1 and the Spanish isolates: Nc-Spain 3H, Nc-Spain 4H, Nc-Spain 6, Nc-Spain 7 and Nc-Spain 9 was studied in an in vitro model based on a placental trophoblast-derived BeWo cell line. Here, we describe that infection of dendritic cells (DC by N. caninum tachyzoites potentiated translocation of parasites across polarized cellular monolayers. In addition, powered by the parasite's own gliding motility, extracellular N. caninum tachyzoites were able to transmigrate across cellular monolayers. Altogether, the presented data provides evidence of two putative complementary pathways utilized by N. caninum, in an isolate-specific fashion, for passage of restrictive cellular barriers. Interestingly, adoptive transfer of tachyzoite-infected DC in mice resulted in increased parasitic loads in various organs, e.g. the central nervous system, compared to infections with free parasites. Inoculation of pregnant mice with infected DC resulted in an accentuated vertical transmission to the offspring with increased parasitic loads and neonatal mortality. These findings reveal that N. caninum exploits the natural cell trafficking pathways in the host to cross cellular barriers and disseminate to deep tissues. The findings are indicative of conserved dissemination strategies among coccidian apicomplexan parasites.

  6. Infected Dendritic Cells Facilitate Systemic Dissemination and Transplacental Passage of the Obligate Intracellular Parasite Neospora caninum in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collantes-Fernandez, Esther; Arrighi, Romanico B. G.; Álvarez-García, Gema; Weidner, Jessica M.; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Boothroyd, John C.; Ortega-Mora, Luis M.; Barragan, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The obligate intracellular parasite Neospora caninum disseminates across the placenta and the blood-brain barrier, to reach sites where it causes severe pathology or establishes chronic persistent infections. The mechanisms used by N. caninum to breach restrictive biological barriers remain elusive. To examine the cellular basis of these processes, migration of different N. caninum isolates (Nc-1, Nc-Liverpool, Nc-SweB1 and the Spanish isolates: Nc-Spain 3H, Nc-Spain 4H, Nc-Spain 6, Nc-Spain 7 and Nc-Spain 9) was studied in an in vitro model based on a placental trophoblast-derived BeWo cell line. Here, we describe that infection of dendritic cells (DC) by N. caninum tachyzoites potentiated translocation of parasites across polarized cellular monolayers. In addition, powered by the parasite's own gliding motility, extracellular N. caninum tachyzoites were able to transmigrate across cellular monolayers. Altogether, the presented data provides evidence of two putative complementary pathways utilized by N. caninum, in an isolate-specific fashion, for passage of restrictive cellular barriers. Interestingly, adoptive transfer of tachyzoite-infected DC in mice resulted in increased parasitic loads in various organs, e.g. the central nervous system, compared to infections with free parasites. Inoculation of pregnant mice with infected DC resulted in an accentuated vertical transmission to the offspring with increased parasitic loads and neonatal mortality. These findings reveal that N. caninum exploits the natural cell trafficking pathways in the host to cross cellular barriers and disseminate to deep tissues. The findings are indicative of conserved dissemination strategies among coccidian apicomplexan parasites. PMID:22403627

  7. Pseudo-outbreak of Enterococcus durans infections and colonization associated with introduction of an automated identification system software update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, D A; Jochimsen, E M; Gielerak, P; Jarvis, W R

    1996-11-01

    Enterococci are an important cause of hospital-acquired infections. Since 1989, there has been an increase in the number of nosocomial enterococcal infections caused by strains resistant to vancomycin in the United States. Although many enterococcal species can colonize humans, only Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, E. raffinosus, and E. casseliflavus have been implicated in clusters of infection. In January 1996, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention received a report of an outbreak of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in which 31 of 84 (36.9%) isolates were identified as E. durans. Twenty-nine isolates identified as E. durans were identified to the species level after the introduction of an automated identification system software update (Vitek gram-positive identification card, version R09.1) for the identification of species of gram-positive organisms. When seven isolates initially reported as E. durans were identified to the species level by alternate methods, they were found to be E. faecium. Subsequently, isolates identified as E. durans by the automated system were reidentified by using a rapid streptococcus test, and no further enterococcal isolate has been confirmed as E. durans. Automated microbial analysis is a potential source of error that is not easily recognized. When laboratory findings are discordant with expected clinical or epidemiologic patterns, confirmatory testing by alternate methods should be performed.

  8. A study on efficient detection of network-based IP spoofing DDoS and malware-infected Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung Woo; Lee, Sang Jin

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale network environments require effective detection and response methods against DDoS attacks. Depending on the advancement of IT infrastructure such as the server or network equipment, DDoS attack traffic arising from a few malware-infected systems capable of crippling the organization's internal network has become a significant threat. This study calculates the frequency of network-based packet attributes and analyzes the anomalies of the attributes in order to detect IP-spoofed DDoS attacks. Also, a method is proposed for the effective detection of malware infection systems triggering IP-spoofed DDoS attacks on an edge network. Detection accuracy and performance of the collected real-time traffic on a core network is analyzed thru the use of the proposed algorithm, and a prototype was developed to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. As a result, DDoS attacks on the internal network were detected in real-time and whether or not IP addresses were spoofed was confirmed. Detecting hosts infected by malware in real-time allowed the execution of intrusion responses before stoppage of the internal network caused by large-scale attack traffic.

  9. An Overview of Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems Implicated in Extra-Intestinal PathogenicE. coliInfections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Erin J; Eberly, Allison R; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) infections are common in mammals and birds. The predominant ExPEC types are avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), neonatal meningitis causing E. coli /meningitis associated E. coli (NMEC/MAEC), and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). Many reviews have described current knowledge on ExPEC infection strategies and virulence factors, especially for UPEC. However, surprisingly little has been reported on the regulatory modules that have been identified as critical in ExPEC pathogenesis. Two-component systems (TCSs) comprise the predominant method by which bacteria respond to changing environments and play significant roles in modulating bacterial fitness in diverse niches. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of manipulating signal transduction systems as a means to chemically re-wire bacterial pathogens, thereby reducing selective pressure and avoiding the emergence of antibiotic resistance. This review begins by providing a brief introduction to characterized infection strategies and common virulence factors among APEC, NMEC, and UPEC and continues with a comprehensive overview of two-component signal transduction networks that have been shown to influence ExPEC pathogenesis.

  10. An Overview of Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems Implicated in Extra-Intestinal Pathogenic E. coli Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin J. Breland

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC infections are common in mammals and birds. The predominant ExPEC types are avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC, neonatal meningitis causing E. coli/meningitis associated E. coli (NMEC/MAEC, and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC. Many reviews have described current knowledge on ExPEC infection strategies and virulence factors, especially for UPEC. However, surprisingly little has been reported on the regulatory modules that have been identified as critical in ExPEC pathogenesis. Two-component systems (TCSs comprise the predominant method by which bacteria respond to changing environments and play significant roles in modulating bacterial fitness in diverse niches. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of manipulating signal transduction systems as a means to chemically re-wire bacterial pathogens, thereby reducing selective pressure and avoiding the emergence of antibiotic resistance. This review begins by providing a brief introduction to characterized infection strategies and common virulence factors among APEC, NMEC, and UPEC and continues with a comprehensive overview of two-component signal transduction networks that have been shown to influence ExPEC pathogenesis.

  11. An Overview of Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems Implicated in Extra-Intestinal Pathogenic E. coli Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Erin J.; Eberly, Allison R.; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) infections are common in mammals and birds. The predominant ExPEC types are avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), neonatal meningitis causing E. coli/meningitis associated E. coli (NMEC/MAEC), and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). Many reviews have described current knowledge on ExPEC infection strategies and virulence factors, especially for UPEC. However, surprisingly little has been reported on the regulatory modules that have been identified as critical in ExPEC pathogenesis. Two-component systems (TCSs) comprise the predominant method by which bacteria respond to changing environments and play significant roles in modulating bacterial fitness in diverse niches. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of manipulating signal transduction systems as a means to chemically re-wire bacterial pathogens, thereby reducing selective pressure and avoiding the emergence of antibiotic resistance. This review begins by providing a brief introduction to characterized infection strategies and common virulence factors among APEC, NMEC, and UPEC and continues with a comprehensive overview of two-component signal transduction networks that have been shown to influence ExPEC pathogenesis. PMID:28536675

  12. Dual disseminated infection with Nocardia farcinica and Mucor in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Clerck, Frederik; Van Ryckeghem, Florence; Depuydt, Pieter; Benoit, Dominque; Druwé, Patrick; Hugel, Arnika; Claeys, Geert; Cools, Piet; Decruyenaere, Johan

    2014-11-20

    Infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients and require early diagnosis and treatment. However, correct diagnosis and treatment are often delayed by a multitude of factors. We report what we believe to be the first case of a combined disseminated infection with Nocardia and Mucor in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. A 74-year-old Caucasian woman with systemic lupus erythematosus presented with recurrent pneumonia. Despite empirical treatment with antibiotics, her condition gradually deteriorated. Microbiological sampling by thoracoscopy revealed the presence of Nocardia. Despite the institution of therapy for disseminated nocardiosis, she died of multi-organ failure. A post-mortem investigation confirmed nocardiosis, but showed concomitant disseminated mucormycosis infection as well. Members of the bacterial genus Nocardia and the fungal genus Mucor are ubiquitous in the environment, have the ability to spread to virtually any organ, and are remarkably resistant to appropriate therapy. Both pathogens can mimic other pathologies both on clinical and radiological investigations. Invasive sampling procedures are often needed to prove their presence. Establishing a timely, correct diagnosis and a specific treatment is essential for patient survival.

  13. Descriptive analysis of the economic costs of periprosthetic joint infection of the knee for the public health system of Andalusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Gómez, J; Arrabal-Polo, M A; Girón-Prieto, M S; Cabello-Salas, J; Torres-Barroso, J; Parra-Ruiz, J

    2013-08-01

    This study offers a descriptive analysis of the economic costs of Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the knee for the public health system of Andalusia (Spain) The data are based on consecutive patients with PJI treated in our Bone and Joint Infection Unit between January 2005 and January 2010. The total cost for all patients with knee PJI was 4,151,843 $ (3,202,841 €), i.e., a mean cost per patient of 52,555 $ (40,542 €). The mean cost per patient was 24,980 $ (19,270.80 €) for patients with early PJI and rose to 78,111 $ (60,257 €) for those with late PJI. The main cost was for the hospital stay and the specific in-hospital care received, followed by the cost of the surgical procedure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilization of cellulose microcapillary tubes as a model system for culturing and viral infection of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Eudri; Van Der Merwe, Christiaan F; Van Staden, Vida

    2012-10-01

    Cryofixation by high-pressure freezing (HPF) and freeze substitution (FS) gives excellent preservation of intracellular membranous structures, ideal for ultrastructural investigations of virus infected cells. Conventional sample preparation methods of tissue cultured cells can however disrupt the association between neighboring cells or of viruses with the plasma membrane, which impacts upon the effectiveness whereby virus release from cells can be studied. We established a system for virus infection and transmission electron microscopy preparation of mammalian cells that allowed optimal visualization of membrane release events. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is a nonenveloped virus that employs two different release mechanisms from mammalian cells, i.e., lytic release through a disrupted plasma membrane and a nonlytic budding-type release. Cellulose microcapillary tubes were used as support layer for culturing Vero cells. The cells grew to a confluent monolayer along the inside of the tubes and could readily be infected with AHSV. Sections of the microcapillary tubes proved easy to manipulate during the HPF procedure, showed no distortion or compression, and yielded well preserved cells in their native state. There was ample cell surface area available for visualization, which allowed detection of both types of virus release at the plasma membrane at a significantly higher frequency than when utilizing other methods. The consecutive culturing, virus infection and processing of cells within microcapillary tubes therefore represent a novel model system for monitoring intracellular virus life cycle and membrane release events, specifically suited to viruses that do not grow to high titers in tissue culture. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection of the central nervous system in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrows, S J; Hartley, J C; Bell, J; Silver, N; Losseff, N; Stevenson, S; Chapman, M; Thompson, E J; Ridgway, G L; Giovannoni, G

    2004-01-01

    Chlamydophila pneumoniae has been postulated as an aetiological agent in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis. Previous studies show conflicting results. To investigate patients with multiple sclerosis and other neurological diseases for evidence of past or present infection with C pneumoniae. 19 patients with multiple sclerosis and 29 with other neurological diseases were studied. Evidence was sought for past or present infection with C pneumoniae using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cell culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and microimmunofluorescence of serum. C pneumoniae was grown from the CSF of one patient with multiple sclerosis. PCR was negative in all cases. Anti-chlamydial antibodies were detected in the same proportion in each group. This study does not support the theory of an association between C pneumoniae and multiple sclerosis.

  16. The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center: Global Emerging Infections Surveillance & Response System, FY 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    hemorrhagic fever, yellow fever, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Oropouche fever, Mayaro fever, hantaviral syndromes, epidemic typhus...growing issues within the fields of medicine and public health. For instance, Acinetobacter baumanni has been found to cause serious wound infections...Torres, H Razuri, J Perez, Y Valderrama, E Gotuzzo, L Suarez, M Cespedes and TJ Kochel (2010), “Venezuelan equine encephalitis and 2 human deaths

  17. Heparin-Related Thrombocytopenia Triggered by Severe Status of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Bacterial Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suzuki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with severe lupus nephritis developed thrombocytopenia during treatment with high-dose steroids. In addition to viral- or disease-induced cytopenia, the pathology was believed to arise from diverse contributing factors, such as thrombotic microangiopathy and heparin-related thrombocytopenia (HIT. By combining plasma exchange therapy and intravenous cyclophosphamide, we successfully controlled the SLE activity and improved the thrombocytopenia. An antecedent bacterial infection or SLE activity is believed to have contributed to the concurrent HIT.

  18. Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    seemingly inflated IRs early in the calendar year. Seasonal rates and variability cannot be corroborated by the literature, which has yet to determine a...outpatient urinary E. coli isolates from The Surveillance Network (TSN) Database USA during 2010 found 17% met the MDR definition, demonstrating...Inpatient Data Record TSN The Surveillance Network (TSN) Database USA US United States UTI urinary tract infection XDR extensively drug-resistant

  19. Plasticity of the systemic inflammatory response to acute infection during critical illness: development of the riboleukogram.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E McDunn

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of acute infection in the critically ill remains a challenge. We hypothesized that circulating leukocyte transcriptional profiles can be used to monitor the host response to and recovery from infection complicating critical illness.A translational research approach was employed. Fifteen mice underwent intratracheal injections of live P. aeruginosa, P. aeruginosa endotoxin, live S. pneumoniae, or normal saline. At 24 hours after injury, GeneChip microarray analysis of circulating buffy coat RNA identified 219 genes that distinguished between the pulmonary insults and differences in 7-day mortality. Similarly, buffy coat microarray expression profiles were generated from 27 mechanically ventilated patients every two days for up to three weeks. Significant heterogeneity of VAP microarray profiles was observed secondary to patient ethnicity, age, and gender, yet 85 genes were identified with consistent changes in abundance during the seven days bracketing the diagnosis of VAP. Principal components analysis of these 85 genes appeared to differentiate between the responses of subjects who did versus those who did not develop VAP, as defined by a general trajectory (riboleukogram for the onset and resolution of VAP. As patients recovered from critical illness complicated by acute infection, the riboleukograms converged, consistent with an immune attractor.Here we present the culmination of a mouse pneumonia study, demonstrating for the first time that disease trajectories derived from microarray expression profiles can be used to quantitatively track the clinical course of acute disease and identify a state of immune recovery. These data suggest that the onset of an infection-specific transcriptional program may precede the clinical diagnosis of pneumonia in patients. Moreover, riboleukograms may help explain variance in the host response due to differences in ethnic background, gender, and pathogen. Prospective clinical trials are indicated

  20. Development of a Sensitive and Specific Antigen-Detection System for Strongyloides Stercoralis and Hookworm Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    endemic to certain areas in the southeastern United States. Adult females reproduce parthenogenetically and live buried in the mucosa of the duodenum...enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) proposed for diagnosis Strongyloides and hookworm infections currently used in rickettsia diagnosis utilizes...serial dilutions of rickettsial antigen spotted on nitrocellulose. Test kits (DS and reagents) for R. typhi, R. rickettsii , R. conorii, R

  1. The burden and epidemiology of community-acquired central nervous system infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, H; Inan, A; Guven, E

    2017-01-01

    , Staphylococcus aureus, M. tuberculosis, and S. pneumoniae were the most fatal forms, while sequelae were significantly higher for herpes simplex virus type 1 (p ... Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 206, 8%) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (n = 152, 5.9%). Varicella zoster virus and Listeria were other common pathogens in the elderly. Although staphylococci and Listeria resulted in frequent infections in immunocompromised patients, cryptococci were leading pathogens in human...

  2. Infection Dynamics of Coexisting Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria in the Nested Endosymbiotic System of Mealybugs▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kono, Marie; Koga, Ryuichi; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the infection dynamics of endosymbiotic bacteria in the developmental course of the mealybugs Planococcus kraunhiae and Pseudococcus comstocki. Molecular phylogenetic analyses identified a betaproteobacterium and a gammaproteobacterium from each of the mealybug species. The former bacterium was related to the β-endosymbionts of other mealybugs, i.e., “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps,” and formed a compact clade in the Betaproteobacteria. Meanwhile, the latter bacterium was relat...

  3. DoD Global Emerging Infections System Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    lance, prevention, and response is inadequate to protect the health of United States citizens from emerging infectious diseases.” “The mission of...Cairo) added specimens from Egypt and Syria. The Air Force has also developed the ability to correlate the immu- nization status of Air Force personnel...2 years had rotavirus infections. Among these children, 11.4% had Campylobacter spp, 11.4% had Shigella spp, and 1% had Salmonella. Overall 9.9% of

  4. Annual Surveillance Summary: Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    species have been identified, two are responsible for the majority of human infections, Enterococcus faecium or E. faecalis. Almost all nosocomial...antibiotic for drug- resistant E. faecium .3 In 1988, the first VRE outbreak was reported in Europe. Within a decade of identification, the emerging...with vancomycin resistance reportedly as high as 28.0% among E. faecium isolates.11 Experts believe that the continued, widespread use of

  5. Application of AHP for the development of waste management systems that minimize infection risks in developing countries: Case studies Lesotho and South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the establishment of waste management systems that minimize infection risks in the context of sustainable development in the developing country situations. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), a known multi-criteria decision...

  6. The Significance of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Parasitic Infections Involving the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Bruschi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs represent a large family of over twenty different secreted or membrane-bound endopeptidases, involved in many physiological (embryogenesis, precursor or stem cell mobilization, tissue remodeling during wound healing, etc., as well as pathological (inflammation, tumor progression and metastasis in cancer, vascular pathology, etc. conditions. For a long time, MMPs were considered only for the ability to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM molecules (e.g., collagen, laminin, fibronectin and to release hidden epitopes from the ECM. In the last few years, it has been fully elucidated that these molecules have many other functions, mainly related to the immune response, in consideration of their effects on cytokines, hormones and chemokines. Among others, MMP-2 and MMP-9 are endopeptidases of the MMP family produced by neutrophils, macrophages and monocytes. When infection is associated with leukocyte influx into specific organs, immunopathology and collateral tissue damage may occur. In this review, the involvement of MMPs and, in particular, of gelatinases in both protozoan and helminth infections will be described. In cerebral malaria, for example, MMPs play a role in the pathogenesis of such diseases. Also, trypanosomosis and toxoplasmosis will be considered for protozoan infections, as well as neurocysticercosis and angiostrongyloidosis, as regards helminthiases. All these situations have in common the proteolytic action on the blood brain barrier, mediated by MMPs.

  7. Infection with Haemoproteus iwa affects vector movement in a hippoboscid fly--frigatebird system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Iris I; Parker, Patricia G

    2014-02-01

    Haemosporidian parasites, which require both a vertebrate and invertebrate host, are most commonly studied in the life stages occurring in the vertebrate. However, aspects of the vector's behaviour and biology can have profound effects on parasite dynamics. We explored the effects of a haemosporidian parasite, Haemoproteus iwa, on a hippoboscid fly vector, Olfersia spinifera. Olfersia spinifera is an obligate ectoparasite of the great frigatebird, Fregata minor, living among bird feathers for all of its adult life. This study examined the movements of O. spinifera between great frigatebird hosts. Movement, or host switching, was inferred by identifying host (frigatebird) microsatellite genotypes from fly bloodmeals that did not match the host from which the fly was collected. Such host switches were analysed using a logistic regression model, and the best-fit model included the H. iwa infection status of the fly and the bird host sex. Uninfected flies were more likely to have a bird genotype in their bloodmeal that was different from their current host's genotype (i.e. to have switched hosts) than infected flies. Flies collected from female birds were more likely to have switched hosts than those collected on males. Reduced movement of infected flies suggests that there may be a cost of parasitism for the fly. The effect of host sex is probably driven by differences in the sex ratio of bird hosts available to moving flies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cerebral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karampekios, Spyros [University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Hesselink, John [UCSD, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Despite the development of many effective antibiotic therapies and the general improvement in hygiene and health care systems all over the world, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection has increased significantly in the past 15 years. This can be attributed primarily to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its devastating effect on the immune system and secondarily to various immunosuppressive agents that are being used in aggressive cancer treatment and in organ transplantations. The brain particularly is protected from infection by the calvarium, meninges and blood brain barrier. However, different types of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, can reach the brain hematogenously or, less likely, by direct extension from an adjacent infected focus. The early detection and specific diagnosis of infection are of great importance, since brain infections are potentially treatable diseases. Imaging studies play a crucial role in the diagnostic process, along with the history (exposure to infectious agents), host factors (open head trauma, CSF leak, sinusitis, otitis, immune status), physical examination and laboratory analysis of CSF. (orig.)

  9. Interleukin-10 Production by T and B Cells Is a Key Factor to Promote Systemic Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldyne A. Salazar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium is a Gram-negative bacterium that produces disease in numerous hosts. In mice, oral inoculation is followed by intestinal colonization and subsequent systemic dissemination, which leads to severe pathogenesis without the activation of an efficient anti-Salmonella immune response. This feature suggests that the infection caused by S. Typhimurium may promote the production of anti-inflammatory molecules by the host that prevent efficient T cell activation and bacterial clearance. In this study, we describe the contribution of immune cells producing the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10 to the systemic infection caused by S. Typhimurium in mice. We observed that the production of IL-10 was required by S. Typhimurium to cause a systemic disease, since mice lacking IL-10 (IL-10−/− were significantly more resistant to die after an infection as compared to wild-type (WT mice. IL-10−/− mice had reduced bacterial loads in internal organs and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum at 5 days of infection. Importantly, WT mice showed high bacterial loads in tissues and no increase of cytokines in serum after 5 days of S. Typhimurium infection, except for IL-10. In WT mice, we observed a peak of il-10 messenger RNA production in ileum, spleen, and liver after 5 days of infection. Importantly, the adoptive transfer of T or B cells from WT mice restored the susceptibility of IL-10−/− mice to systemic S. Typhimurium infection, suggesting that the generation of regulatory cells in vivo is required to sustain a systemic infection by S. Typhimurium. These findings support the notion that IL-10 production from lymphoid cells is a key process in the infective cycle of S. Typhimurium in mice due to generation of a tolerogenic immune response that prevents bacterial clearance and supports systemic dissemination.

  10. Trends in the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of causative pathogens of device-associated infection in Korean intensive care units from 2006 to 2013: results from the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J Y; Kwak, Y G; Yoo, H; Lee, S-O; Kim, H B; Han, S H; Choi, H J; Kim, H Y; Kim, S R; Kim, T H; Lee, H; Chun, H K; Kim, J-S; Eun, B W; Kim, D W; Koo, H-S; Cho, E-H; Lee, K

    2016-04-01

    For all countries, information on pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections is important in order to develop proper strategies for preventing and treating nosocomial infections. To assess the change in frequencies and antimicrobial resistance of pathogens causing device-associated infections (DAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs) in South Korea between July 2006 and June 2014. Data from the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS) were analysed, including three major DAI types in ICUs. The frequency of Gram-negative bacteria gradually increased for central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) (from 24.6% to 32.6% and from 52.8% to 73.5%, respectively). By contrast, the frequency of Gram-positive bacteria decreased from 58.6% to 49.2% for CLABSI, and from 44.3% to 23.8% for VAP (P infection. The meticillin resistance rate in S. aureus decreased from 95% to 90.2% (P nosocomial pathogens for CLABSI and VAP has increased. The prevalence of A. baumannii causing DAIs in Korean ICUs has increased rapidly, as has the rate of carbapenem resistance in these bacteria. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fosfomycin i.v. for Treatment of Severely Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-27

    Bacterial Infections; Bone Diseases, Infectious; Osteomyelitis; Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections; Meningitis, Bacterial; Encephalitis; Brain Abscess; Urinary Tract Infections; Respiratory Tract Infections; Pneumonia, Bacterial; Skin Diseases, Bacterial; Soft Tissue Infections; Intraabdominal Infections; Sepsis; Bacteremia; Endocarditis, Bacterial

  12. Construction of EGFP-labeling system for visualizing the infection process of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Ping; Deng, Zi-Niu; Qu, Jin-Wang; Yan, Jia-Wen; Catara, Vittoria; Li, Da-Zhi; Long, Gui-You; Li, Na

    2012-09-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is the causal agent of citrus bacterial canker, an economically important disease to world citrus industry. To monitor the infection process of Xac in different citrus plants, the enhanced green florescent protein (EGFP) visualizing system was constructed to visualize the propagation and localization in planta. First, the wild-type Xac was isolated from the diseased leaves of susceptible 'Bingtang' sweet orange, and then the isolated Xac was labeled with EGFP by triparental mating. After PCR identification, the growth kinetics and pathogenicity of the transformants were analyzed in comparison with the wild-type Xac. The EGFP-labeled bacteria were inoculated by spraying on the surface and infiltration in the mesophyll of 'Bingtang' sweet orange leaves. The bacterial cell multiplication and diffusion processes were observed directly under confocal laser scanning microscope at different intervals after inoculation. The results indicated that the EGFP-labeled Xac releasing clear green fluorescence light under fluorescent microscope showed the infection process and had the same pathogenicity as the wild type to citrus. Consequently, the labeled Xac demonstrated the ability as an efficient tool to monitor the pathogen infection.

  13. The effects of managerial systems on helminth infection in freerange chickens from northern Paraná, Brazil

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    Fernando Emmanuel Gonçalves Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of managerial systems on the occurrence of gastrointestinal helminths in Free-Range Chickens (FRCs from northern Paraná, Brazil were investigated. The most predominant (23.3%; 61/262 cestode observed was Raillietina cesticillus; Heterakis gallinarum (71.4%; 187/262 and Ascaridia galli (45%; 118/262 were the predominant nematodes; Postharmostomum commutatum was the only trematode observed in 2.7% (7/262 of FRCs. The most elevated parasitic burdens were associated with Heterakis gallinarum, Ascaridia galli, and Raillietina cesticillus. Significant (p ? 0.05 associations were observed when the effects of the types of bedding, soil type, and fence restriction of FRCs were considered relative to the possibility of helminthiasis. The type of bedding, the length of the sanitary break, and the presence of shading significantly (p ? 0.05 influenced the possibility of FRCs being infected by H. gallinarum. Most parameters evaluated were significantly associated with infection of FRCs by A. galli. These findings suggest that FRCs from northern Paraná are infected by a wide-range of gastrointestinal helminths, but more frequently by R. cesticillus, H. gallinarum, and A. galli. Moreover, the type of floor bedding, the soil type, and the usage of fences in the management of FRCs is directly related to gastrointestinal helminthiasis. 

  14. Induction of systemic IFITM3 expression does not effectively control foot-and-mouth disease viral infection in transgenic pigs.

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    Zhang, Huawei; Zheng, Haixue; Qian, Ping; Xu, Jinfang; Yang, Xi; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Xiangmin

    2016-08-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, and can cause severe economic loss. Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins constitute a family of viral restriction factors that can inhibit the replication of several types of viruses. Our previous study showed that overexpression of swine IFITM3 (sIFITM3) impeded replication of the FMD virus (FMDV) in BHK-21 cells and mice. In this study, sIFITM3-transgenic (TG) pigs were produced by handmade cloning. Results showed that sIFITM3 was highly overexpressed in many organs of sIFITM3-TG pigs compared to wild-type pigs. After a virulent FMDV strain (O/ES/2001) was intramuscularly inoculated, the sIFITM3-TG pigs showed slightly higher susceptibility to FMDV infection than wild-type pigs. Both groups displayed comparable degrees of clinical symptoms throughout the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the induction of systemic sIFITM3 expression does not protect pigs against FMDV infection. Based on these observations, we propose that a combination of interferons and vaccines be used to control FMDV infections and subsequent FMD outbreaks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Elevation of intact and proteolytic fragments of acute phase proteins constitutes the earliest systemic antiviral response in HIV-1 infection.

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    Holger B Kramer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The earliest immune responses activated in acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection (AHI exert a critical influence on subsequent virus spread or containment. During this time frame, components of the innate immune system such as macrophages and DCs, NK cells, beta-defensins, complement and other anti-microbial factors, which have all been implicated in modulating HIV infection, may play particularly important roles. A proteomics-based screen was performed on a cohort from whom samples were available at time points prior to the earliest positive HIV detection. The ability of selected factors found to be elevated in the plasma during AHI to inhibit HIV-1 replication was analyzed using in vitro PBMC and DC infection models. Analysis of unique plasma donor panels spanning the eclipse and viral expansion phases revealed very early alterations in plasma proteins in AHI. Induction of acute phase protein serum amyloid A (A-SAA occurred as early as 5-7 days prior to the first detection of plasma viral RNA, considerably prior to any elevation in systemic cytokine levels. Furthermore, a proteolytic fragment of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT, termed virus inhibitory peptide (VIRIP, was observed in plasma coincident with viremia. Both A-SAA and VIRIP have anti-viral activity in vitro and quantitation of their plasma levels indicated that circulating concentrations are likely to be within the range of their inhibitory activity. Our results provide evidence for a first wave of host anti-viral defense occurring in the eclipse phase of AHI prior to systemic activation of other immune responses. Insights gained into the mechanism of action of acute-phase reactants and other innate molecules against HIV and how they are induced could be exploited for the future development of more efficient prophylactic vaccine strategies.

  16. Characterization of epidemiological surveillance systems for healthcare-associated infections (HAI in the world and challenges for Brazil

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    Cassimiro Nogueira Junior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance systems for healthcare-associated infections (HAI are essential for planning actions in prevention and control. Important models have been deployed in recent decades in different countries. This study aims to present the historical and operational characteristics of these systems and discuss the challenges for Brazil. Various models around the world have drawn on the experience of the United States, which pioneered this process. In Brazil, several initiatives have been launched, but the country still lacks a full na