WorldWideScience

Sample records for prrs virus prrsv

  1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    This PhD thesis presents the diversity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) circulating in the Danish pig population. PRRS is a disease in pigs caused by the PRRS virus resulting in reproductive failures in sows and gilts and respiratory diseases in pigs . Due to genetic...

  2. Cross-protection of a new type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) modified live vaccine (Fostera PRRS) against heterologous type 1 PRRSV challenge in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changhoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Jeong, Jiwoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2015-05-15

    The objective of the present study was to determine the cross-protection of a new type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) modified live vaccine against heterologous type 1 PRRSV challenge in growing pigs. The mean rectal temperature and respiratory score was significantly (Pprotection of a new type 2 PRRSV modified live vaccine against heterologous type 1 PRRSV challenge in growing pigs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical, Pathological and Immunological Aspects of Transplacental PRRS Virus Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    isolate of PRRS vaccine-derived virus (VDV) could cause disease in swine consistent with PRRS, thus confirming the etiological role of VDV. Since the complex pathology following in utero infection with PRRSV indicates impairment of the immune system of congenitally infected pigs, we studied various aspect......The present paper describes Danish research activities on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) with emphasis on experimental infections in pregnant swine. The first case of PRRS was diagnosed in Denmark in 1992 and subsequently the disease spread to most other parts of the country...... PRRSV in the previously unaffected Danish pig population. Acute PRRS like disease was observed in non-vaccinated as well as in vaccinated herds, and it was demonstrated that the vaccine strain had reverted to virulence. By experimental infection of late term pregnant sows, we demonstrated that a field...

  4. Distinction between infections with European and American/vaccine type PRRS virus after vaccination with a modified-live PRRS virus vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Strandbygaard, Bertel; Sørensen, K. J.

    2000-01-01

    In July 1996 a modified live Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine, based on an American (US) strain of the PRRS virus (PRRSV), was licensed in Denmark. The vaccine was licensed for use in 3-18 week old pigs, exclusively. Starting during the middle of October 1996, several...... herds who had recently begun vaccination, experienced acute PRRS-like symptoms including an increasing number of abortions and stillborn piglets and an increasing mortality in the nursing period. During the period from October 1996 until May 1997, the PRRS virus (PRRSV), identified as the vaccine....../US type of PRRSV, was isolated from fetuses, dead piglets, pleural fluids and/or lung tissues from 114 of such herds. These findings indicated the spread of the vaccine virus to non-vaccinated sows followed by transplacental infection of fetuses. Also, a number of not previously PRRSV infected and non...

  5. Emergence of fatal PRRSV variants: unparalleled outbreaks of atypical PRRS in China and molecular dissection of the unique hallmark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegong Tian

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a severe viral disease in pigs, causing great economic losses worldwide each year. The causative agent of the disease, PRRS virus (PRRSV, is a member of the family Arteriviridae. Here we report our investigation of the unparalleled large-scale outbreaks of an originally unknown, but so-called "high fever" disease in China in 2006 with the essence of PRRS, which spread to more than 10 provinces (autonomous cities or regions and affected over 2,000,000 pigs with about 400,000 fatal cases. Different from the typical PRRS, numerous adult sows were also infected by the "high fever" disease. This atypical PRRS pandemic was initially identified as a hog cholera-like disease manifesting neurological symptoms (e.g., shivering, high fever (40-42 degrees C, erythematous blanching rash, etc. Autopsies combined with immunological analyses clearly showed that multiple organs were infected by highly pathogenic PRRSVs with severe pathological changes observed. Whole-genome analysis of the isolated viruses revealed that these PRRSV isolates are grouped into Type II and are highly homologous to HB-1, a Chinese strain of PRRSV (96.5% nucleotide identity. More importantly, we observed a unique molecular hallmark in these viral isolates, namely a discontinuous deletion of 30 amino acids in nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2. Taken together, this is the first comprehensive report documenting the 2006 epidemic of atypical PRRS outbreak in China and identifying the 30 amino-acid deletion in NSP2, a novel determining factor for virulence which may be implicated in the high pathogenicity of PRRSV, and will stimulate further study by using the infectious cDNA clone technique.

  6. In utero infection with PRRS virus modulates cellular functions of blood monocytes and alveolar lung macrophages in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Nielsen, Jens; Lind, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The putative immunosuppressive effect of PRRS virus (PRRSV) on innate immune responses was studied in piglets infected in utero with PRRSV. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst capacities in 2-, 4- and 6-week-old in utero infected piglets were investigated and compared with age-matched control piglet...

  7. Genetic and antigenic characterization of complete genomes of Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) isolated in Denmark over a period of 10 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Kristensen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV) is considered one of the most devastating swine diseases worldwide. PRRS viruses are divided into two major genotypes, Type 1 and Type 2, with pronounced diversity between and within the genotypes. In Denmark more...

  8. Experimental airborne transmission of PRRS virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.S.; Bøtner, Anette; Takai, H.

    2004-01-01

    A series of three experiments, differing primarily in airflow volume, were performed to evaluate the likelihood of airborne transmission of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) from infected to non-infected pigs. Pigs were housed in two units (unit A and unit B) located 1 m...

  9. Effect of formalin fixation on the immunohistochemical detection of PRRS virus antigen in experimentally and naturally infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alstine, W G; Popielarczyk, M; Albregts, S R

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of formalin fixation on the immunohistochemical detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) viral antigen in lungs of experimentally and naturally infected pigs. In separate trials, five 24-day-old pigs and six 10-day-old pigs were housed as separate groups in isolation and inoculated intranasally with 10(5.5) TCID50 of an isolate of PRRS virus (PRRSV; P129). The older and younger pigs were euthanatized at 7 and 10 days post inoculation (dpi), respectively. At necropsy, all pigs had gross and microscopic lung lesions typical of PRRS, and PRRSV was isolated from all pigs. To insure uniform fixation, lungs from each pig were cut into 1-cm-thick slices and immersed into 10% neutral-buffered formalin. After fixation in formalin for 8 hours or 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 15 days, 3 lung sections from some or all pigs were processed for histological examination using routine methods. Immunohistochemical staining for PRRSV antigen was positive at the following times (days unless otherwise stated) after fixation (percentage of pigs staining positive for PRRSV in parentheses): 8 hours (100); 1 (100); 2 (100); 3 (80); 5 (33); and 6, 8, 10, and 15 (0-all negative). To further evaluate the effects of formalin fixation on PRRSV immunodetection, 31 field cases of PRRS were selected for immunohistochemistry (IHC). Over a 3-month period, submitted cases were selected from the Purdue University Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, W. Lafayette, Indiana, for IHC if 1) the clinical history included respiratory disease, 2) PRRSV was isolated from lung and/or serum from the submitted pigs or tissues, 3) at least 1 section of lung fixed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin was submitted for IHC, and 4) the duration of fixation could be accurately determined from the case history. Of the 31 PRRSV-infected pig cases meeting the selection criteria, 23 were fixed in formalin for 4 days or less. Twenty-one of these 23 (91

  10. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus neutralizing antibodies provide in vivo cross-protection to PRRSV1 and PRRSV2 viral challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sally R; Rahe, Michael C; Gray, Diem K; Martins, Kyra V; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2018-02-03

    Vaccine control and prevention of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), the most important disease of swine, is difficult to achieve. However, the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibody activity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) under typical field conditions opens the door to new immunologic approaches for robust protection. We show here that passive administration of purified immunoglobulins with neutralizing antibodies reduced PRRSV2 infection by up to 96%, and PRRSV1 infection by up to 87%, whereas immune immunoglobulins lacking neutralizing activity had no effect on viral infection. Hence, immune competence of passive immunoglobulin transfer was associated specifically with antibody neutralizing activity. Current models of PRRSV infection implicate a minor envelope glycoprotein (GP) complex including GP2, GP3, and GP4, as critical to permissive cell infection. However, conserved peptides comprising the putative cell attachment structure did not attenuate neutralization or viral infection. The results show that immunological approaches aimed at induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies may substantially enhance immune protection against PRRSV. The findings further show that naturally occurring viral isolates are able to induce protective humoral immunity against unrelated PRRSV challenge, thus removing a major conceptual barrier to vaccine development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Examination of the selective pressures on a live PRRS vaccine virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Torben; Oleksiewicz, M.; Bøtner, Anette

    1999-01-01

    We determined the ORF5 and 7 sequences of 20 pathogenic revertants of a live PRRSV vaccine. The sequence analysis confirmed all 20 isolates to be of vaccine origin. Having established that clonal introduction of American (vaccine) PRRS virus had occurred in Denmark, we could perform analysis...... of the selective pressure this attenuated virus had experienced during reversion. An analysis of nucleotide mutations showed a similar rate of mutations in the two genes (ORF5 and 7). However, non-synonymous mutations in ORF7 were eliminated by purifying selection. In contrast, non-synonymous mutations in ORF5...... were tolerated or even selected for. The cDNA sequencing of the 20 vaccine virus revertants identified two single nucleotide mutations located in ORF5 and in ORF6 that we suggest are involved or at least linked to the attenuation of the vaccine virus and to the subsequent reversion to virulence....

  12. Heterologous challenge with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus: no evidence of reactivation of previous European-type PRRS virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Nielsen, Jens; Oleksiewicz, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    In Denmark, a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) control programme, comprising vaccination of seropositive herds with a live American type PRRSV vaccine, was started in 1996. In several of these herds, spread of vaccine virus from vaccinated 3-18 week old pigs to non...... in previously European PRRSV infected pigs after challenge with the vaccine strain seems to be the result of a boosting effect on the immune system, induced by the heterologous vaccine PRRSV strain....

  13. Genetic and antigenic drift of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) in a closed population evaluated by full genome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik

    of circulating PRRS viruses in Danish pigs and to investigate the genetic drift of the virus in a closed population with very limited introductions of new animals. The study included phylogenetic analysis of full genome sequences of eight Type 1 and nine Type 2 PRRS viruses, including the very first Danish......Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) viruses are divided into two major genotypes (Type 1 and Type 2) based on their genetic diversity. Type 1 PRRSV is further divided into at least 3 subtypes, but until now only subtype 1 has been detected in Western Europe and North America. Both...... isolated Type 1 virus and the very first Danish Type 2 PRRS virus isolated from a non-vaccinated pig herd. Furthermore, by sequencing ORF5 and ORF7 of 43 Type 1 and 57 Type 2 viruses isolated between 2003 and 2013, the level of genetic diversity was assessed. The results showed a very high genetic...

  14. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) up-regulates IL-15 through PKCβ1-TAK1-NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li; Liu, Yihao; Du, Yinping; Wang, Honglei; Zhang, Meijie; Du, Yijun; Feng, Wen-Hai

    2016-09-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important infectious diseases in swine industry. IL-15 is a pleiotropic cytokine and has been shown to be essential to transform NKs, CD8 T cells, and other cells of the immune systems into functional effectors. Here, we demonstrated that the broad-spectrum or conventional PKC inhibitors repressed PRRSV-induced IL-15 expression and NF-κB activation. Subsequently, we found that the PKCβ specific inhibitor inhibited PRRSV-induced IL-15 production, which was also confirmed by knock-down of PKCβ1, suggesting that PKCβ1 is involved in the PRRSV-induced IL-15 expression. In addition, we demonstrated that PRRSV activated NF-κB through PKCβ1-induced TAK1 activation. Finally, we demonstrated that PRRSV activated PKCβ1 dependent on the participation of TRIF and MAVS. These data indicate that PRRSV up-regulates IL-15 through TRIF/MAVS-PKCβ1-TAK1-NF-κB signaling pathway. These findings will provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of IL-15 production induced by PRRSV. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Pathology and Virus Distribution in the Lung and Lymphoid Tissues of Pigs Experimentally Inoculated with Three Distinct Type 1 PRRS Virus Isolates of Varying Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, S B; Frossard, J P; Pallares, F J; Gough, J; Stadejek, T; Graham, S P; Steinbach, F; Drew, T W; Salguero, F J

    2016-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) continues to be the most economically important disease of swine worldwide. The appearance of highly pathogenic PRRS virus (PRRSV) strains in Europe and Asia has raised concerns about this disease and initiated increased efforts to understand the pathogenesis. In this study, we have compared the pathology and the virus distribution in tissues of pigs experimentally inoculated with three different genotype 1 PRRSV isolates. Sixty 5-week-old pigs were inoculated intranasally with a) the Lelystad virus (LV), b) a field strain from the UK causing respiratory clinical signs (UK) or c) a highly pathogenic strain from Belarus (BE). Sixteen animals were mock-infected and used as controls. The animals were euthanized at 3, 7 and 35 days post-infection (dpi), and lung and lymphoid tissues collected for histopathological examination and PRRSV detection by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Histopathological lesions consisted of interstitial pneumonia with mononuclear cell infiltrates in the lungs, lymphoid depletion, apoptosis and follicular hyperplasia in the spleen, lymph nodes and tonsil and lymphoid depletion in the thymus. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus was detected mainly in monocytes-macrophages. BE-infected animals showed the highest pathological scores and the highest presence of virus at 3 and 7 dpi, followed by the UK field strain and then LV. Moderate lesions were observed at 35 dpi with lesser detection of PRRSV by IHC in each infected group. The highly pathogenic BE strain induced more severe pathology in both lungs and lymphoid organs of pigs compared with the classic field isolate and the prototype LV. The increased severity of pathology was in correlation with the presence of a higher number of PRRSV-infected cells in the tissues. © 2014 Crown copyright. This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO/Queen‘s Printer for Scotland and Animal and Plant Health Agency.

  16. Risk factors for infection of sow herds with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sten; Stryhn, Henrik; Søgaard, Rikke

    2002-01-01

    In 1992, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) of European type (PRRSV-EU) was introduced in Denmark. By 1996, the virus had spread to approximately 25% of the Danish herds. In January 1996, a modified-live vaccine based on the American type of the virus (PRRSV-US) was u......In 1992, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) of European type (PRRSV-EU) was introduced in Denmark. By 1996, the virus had spread to approximately 25% of the Danish herds. In January 1996, a modified-live vaccine based on the American type of the virus (PRRSV......-US) was used in replacement boars for Danish artificial insemination (AI) centres and from July 1996, the vaccine was used in PRRSV-EU infected herds for prevention of disease. Soon after vaccine introduction, PRRSV non-infected herds experienced outbreaks of disease due to infection with PRRSV......-US. In this study, we investigated the risk factors (biosecurity level, animals, exposure from PRRSV-US-infected neighbour herds, semen, herd size, pig density and herd density) for infection with PRRSV-US in a cohort of 1071 sow herds; we used a nested case-control study. The retrospective observation period...

  17. PRRSV outbreak with high mortality in northern part of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Rathkjen, P. H.

    , respectively, due to their geographical origin. In Denmark the type 1 virus was first recognized in 1992, and since 1996 both types of PRRSV are widely spread. Approximately 50 % of the herds are seropositive for PRRSV antibodies against either or both types of PRRSV. In November 2010, a severe case of PRRSV...... with high mortality rate in piglets occurred in Northern Jutland. PRRSV type 2 was detected by real-time RT-PCR in lung tissue from 10 days old piglets. The outbreak was treated by extensive vaccination with Ingelvac® PRRS MLV and strict management procedures. 6 weeks later, the mortality of liveborn...

  18. Reproductive, productivity, and mortality outcomes in late-gestation gilts and their litters following simulation of inadvertent exposure to a modified-live vaccine strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkopf, Adam; Nerem, Joel; Cowles, Bobby; Amodie, Deb; Swalla, Richard; Dee, Scott

    2014-08-06

    The study evaluated the safety of a modified live-virus (MLV) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine in susceptible, pregnant gilts. To simulate inadvertent exposure secondary to postvaccination shedding of PRRS-MLV, seronegative gilts (n=51) were exposed by IM vaccination at 90 days of gestation. Vaccinated and nonvaccinated, seronegative control gilts (n=25) were maintained in separate facilities. The PRRS-MLV vaccine was given in a 2mL dose on day 0. On day 7 all vaccinated gilts were PRRSV-PCR-positive for PRRSV and had responded serologically as determined by an ELISA. All control gilts remained PRRSV-PCR- and ELISA-negative throughout the study. Abortions did not occur in gilts from either group. The difference between vaccinated and control gilts in average number of piglets per litter (12.43 and 12.16, respectively), number of live births per litter (11.21 and 11.54), and mean piglet birth weight (3.22 and 3.26 lbs) were not significantly different. Piglets in the control group had significantly greater average daily gain versus piglets from vaccinated gilts (0.52 vs. 0.46 lbs, Pgilts (19.7% vs. 10.9%). A single gilt accounted for 18.2% of stillbirths in the vaccinated group. Air samples were borderline PRRSV-PCR-positive for PRRSV on days 29 and 32, after more than 98% of gilts had farrowed. Results demonstrated that vaccination of pregnant gilts at the time of peak fetal susceptibility was non-abortigenic and that the PRRS-MLV agent did not significantly affect reproductive outcomes. Lower ADG in piglets from vaccinated gilts may be due to PRRS-MLV viremia following transplacental or post-farrowing exposure. Air sampling results indicated that environmental contamination with PRRS-MLV shed from vaccinated gilts was minimal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improved Vaccine against PRRSV: Current Progress and Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Nan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, one of the most economically significant pathogens worldwide, has caused numerous outbreaks during the past 30 years. PRRSV infection causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disease in growing and finishing pigs, leading to huge economic losses for the swine industry. This impact has become even more significant with the recent emergence of highly pathogenic PRRSV strains from China, further exacerbating global food security. Since new PRRSV variants are constantly emerging from outbreaks, current strategies for controlling PRRSV have been largely inadequate, even though our understanding of PRRSV virology, evolution and host immune response has been rapidly expanding. Meanwhile, practical experience has revealed numerous safety and efficacy concerns for currently licensed vaccines, such as shedding of modified live virus (MLV, reversion to virulence, recombination between field strains and MLV and failure to elicit protective immunity against heterogeneous virus. Therefore, an effective vaccine against PRRSV infection is urgently needed. Here, we systematically review recent advances in PRRSV vaccine development. Antigenic variations resulting from PRRSV evolution, identification of neutralizing epitopes for heterogeneous isolates, broad neutralizing antibodies against PRRSV, chimeric virus generated by reverse genetics, and novel PRRSV strains with interferon-inducing phenotype will be discussed in detail. Moreover, techniques that could potentially transform current MLV vaccines into a superior vaccine will receive special emphasis, as will new insights for future PRRSV vaccine development. Ultimately, improved PRRSV vaccines may overcome the disadvantages of current vaccines and minimize the PRRS impact to the swine industry.

  20. Generation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus-like-particles (VLPs) with different protein composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Durán, Marga; Costa, Sofia; Sarraseca, Javier; de la Roja, Nuria; García, Julia; García, Isabel; Rodríguez, Maria José

    2016-10-01

    The causative agent of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is an enveloped ssRNA (+) virus belonging to the Arteriviridae family. Gp5 and M proteins form disulfide-linked heterodimers that constitute the major components of PRRSV envelope. Gp2, Gp3, Gp4 and E are the minor structural proteins, being the first three incorporated as multimeric complexes in the virus surface. The disease has become one of the most important causes of economic losses in the swine industry. Despite efforts to design an effective vaccine, the available ones allow only partial protection. In the last years, VLPs have become good vaccine alternatives because of safety issues and their potential to activate both branches of the immunological response. The characteristics of recombinant baculoviruses as heterologous expression system have been exploited for the production of VLPs of a wide variety of viruses. In this work, two multiple baculovirus expression vectors (BEVs) with PRRS virus envelope proteins were engineered in order to generate PRRS VLPs: on the one hand, Gp5 and M cDNAs were cloned to generate the pBAC-Gp5M vector; on the other hand, Gp2, Gp3, Gp4 and E cDNAs have been cloned to generate the pBAC-Gp234E vector. The corresponding recombinant baculoviruses BAC-Gp5M and BAC-Gp234E were employed to produce two types of VLPs: basic Gp5M VLPs, by the simultaneous expression of Gp5 and M proteins; and complete VLPs, by the co-expression of the six PRRS proteins after co-infection. The characterization of VLPs by Western blot confirmed the presence of the recombinant proteins using the available specific antibodies (Abs). The analysis by Electron microscopy showed that the two types of VLPs were indistinguishable between them, being similar in shape and size to the native PRRS virus. This system represents a potential alternative for vaccine development and a useful tool to study the implication of specific PRRS proteins in the response against the virus. Copyright

  1. Transcriptome profile of lung dendritic cells after in vitro porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröll, Maren Julia; Neuhoff, Christiane; Schellander, Karl; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Sahadevan, Sudeep; Qu, Xueqi; Islam, Md Aminul; Poirier, Mikhael; Müller, Marcel A; Drosten, Christian; Tesfaye, Dawit; Tholen, Ernst; Große-Brinkhaus, Christine

    2017-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious disease that leads to high financial and production losses in the global swine industry. The pathogenesis of this disease is dependent on a multitude of factors, and its control remains problematic. The immune system generally defends against infectious diseases, especially dendritic cells (DCs), which play a crucial role in the activation of the immune response after viral infections. However, the understanding of the immune response and the genetic impact on the immune response to PRRS virus (PRRSV) remains incomplete. In light of this, we investigated the regulation of the host immune response to PRRSV in porcine lung DCs using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Lung DCs from two different pig breeds (Pietrain and Duroc) were collected before (0 hours) and during various periods of infection (3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours post infection (hpi)). RNA-Seq analysis revealed a total of 20,396 predicted porcine genes, which included breed-specific differentially expressed immune genes. Pietrain and Duroc infected lung DCs showed opposite gene expression courses during the first time points post infection. Duroc lung DCs reacted more strongly and distinctly than Pietrain lung DCs during these periods (3, 6, 9, 12 hpi). Additionally, cluster analysis revealed time-dependent co-expressed groups of genes that were involved in immune-relevant pathways. Key clusters and pathways were identified, which help to explain the biological and functional background of lung DCs post PRRSV infection and suggest IL-1β1 as an important candidate gene. RNA-Seq was also used to characterize the viral replication of PRRSV for each breed. PRRSV was able to infect and to replicate differently in lung DCs between the two mentioned breeds. These results could be useful in investigations on immunity traits in pig breeding and enhancing the health of pigs.

  2. Transcriptome profile of lung dendritic cells after in vitro porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pröll, Maren Julia; Neuhoff, Christiane; Schellander, Karl

    2017-01-01

    generally defends against infectious diseases, especially dendritic cells (DCs), which play a crucial role in the activation of the immune response after viral infections. However, the understanding of the immune response and the genetic impact on the immune response to PRRS virus (PRRSV) remains incomplete....... In light of this, we investigated the regulation of the host immune response to PRRSV in porcine lung DCs using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Lung DCs from two different pig breeds (Pietrain and Duroc) were collected before (0 hours) and during various periods of infection (3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours post...... could be useful in investigations on immunity traits in pig breeding and enhancing the health of pigs....

  3. Challenges for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccinology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimman, T.G.; Cornelissen, A.H.M.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Stockhofe, N.

    2009-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be a threat for the pig industry. Vaccines have been developed, but these failed to provide sustainable disease control, in particular against genetically unrelated strains. Here we give an overview of current knowledge and

  4. Novel insights into host responses and the reproductive pathophysiology of type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large-scale challenge experiment using type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) provided new insights into the pathophysiology of reproductive PRRS in third-trimester pregnant gilts. Deep phenotyping enabled identification of maternal and fetal factors predictive of PRRS severity ...

  5. Proteome changes of lungs artificially infected with H-PRRSV and N-PRRSV by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Kongju

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome with PRRS virus (PRRSV infection, which causes significant economic losses annually, is one of the most economically important diseases affecting swine industry worldwide. In 2006 and 2007, a large-scale outbreak of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS happened in China and Vietnam. However little data is available on global host response to PRRSV infection at the protein level, and similar approaches looking at mRNA is problematic since mRNA levels do not necessarily predict protein levels. In order to improve the knowledge of host response and viral pathogenesis of highly virulent Chinese-type PRRSV (H-PRRSV and Non-high-pathogenic North American-type PRRSV strains (N-PRRSV, we analyzed the protein expression changes of H-PRRSV and N-PRRSV infected lungs compared with those of uninfected negative control, and identified a series of proteins related to host response and viral pathogenesis. Results According to differential proteomes of porcine lungs infected with H-PRRSV, N-PRRSV and uninfected negative control at different time points using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry identification, 45 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs were identified. These proteins were mostly related to cytoskeleton, stress response and oxidation reduction or metabolism. In the protein interaction network constructed based on DEPs from lungs infected with H-PRRSV, HSPA8, ARHGAP29 and NDUFS1 belonged to the most central proteins, whereas DDAH2, HSPB1 and FLNA corresponded to the most central proteins in those of N-PRRSV infected. Conclusions Our study is the first attempt to provide the complex picture of pulmonary protein expression during H-PRRSV and N-PRRSV infection under the in vivo environment using 2D-DIGE technology and bioinformatics tools, provides large scale valuable information for better

  6. Proteome changes of lungs artificially infected with H-PRRSV and N-PRRSV by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuqi; Wang, Qiwei; Jia, Jianyu; Cong, Peiqing; Mo, Delin; Yu, Xiangchun; Qin, Limei; Li, Anning; Niu, Yuna; Zhu, Kongju; Wang, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiaohong; Chen, Yaosheng

    2010-05-26

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome with PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection, which causes significant economic losses annually, is one of the most economically important diseases affecting swine industry worldwide. In 2006 and 2007, a large-scale outbreak of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) happened in China and Vietnam. However little data is available on global host response to PRRSV infection at the protein level, and similar approaches looking at mRNA is problematic since mRNA levels do not necessarily predict protein levels. In order to improve the knowledge of host response and viral pathogenesis of highly virulent Chinese-type PRRSV (H-PRRSV) and Non-high-pathogenic North American-type PRRSV strains (N-PRRSV), we analyzed the protein expression changes of H-PRRSV and N-PRRSV infected lungs compared with those of uninfected negative control, and identified a series of proteins related to host response and viral pathogenesis. According to differential proteomes of porcine lungs infected with H-PRRSV, N-PRRSV and uninfected negative control at different time points using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry identification, 45 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified. These proteins were mostly related to cytoskeleton, stress response and oxidation reduction or metabolism. In the protein interaction network constructed based on DEPs from lungs infected with H-PRRSV, HSPA8, ARHGAP29 and NDUFS1 belonged to the most central proteins, whereas DDAH2, HSPB1 and FLNA corresponded to the most central proteins in those of N-PRRSV infected. Our study is the first attempt to provide the complex picture of pulmonary protein expression during H-PRRSV and N-PRRSV infection under the in vivo environment using 2D-DIGE technology and bioinformatics tools, provides large scale valuable information for better understanding host proteins-virus interactions of these two

  7. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on alveolar lung macrophage survival and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Nielsen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) recently emerged as an important cause of reproductive disorders and pneumonia in domestic pigs throughout the world. Acute cytocidal replication of PRRSV in alveolar lung macrophages causes the acute pneumonia; however, it remains largely....... Monitored by flow cytometric detection of intracellular PRRSV nucleocapsid protein, acute (24 h post infection) PRRSV replication did not impede the ability of alveolar macrophages to ingest fluorescently labelled Escherichia coli. At 48 h post infection, PRRSV-induced cytotoxicity (quantitated by flow...... analysis of cell size and membrane integrity) led to 40% reduction in the total number of phagocytozing cells. However, viable/uninfected macrophages in PRRSV-infected cultures exhibited normal phagocytic ability at 48 h, indicating that no soluble phagocytosis-suppressive mediators were induced by PRRSV...

  8. Genetic dissection of complete genomes of Type 2 PRRS viruses isolated in Denmark over a period of 15 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Brar, Manreetpal Singh

    2013-01-01

    , the genetic and antigenic diversity of 11 complete genomes and 49 ORF5 and 55 ORF7 nucleotide sequences obtained from 57 viruses in Denmark from 2003 to 2012 were examined. The genetic identity of the 11 complete genomes to the vaccine strain (Ingelvac PRRS MLV) ranged between 93.6 and 99.6% while the 49 ORF5...... sequences examined were 94.0–99.8% identical to the vaccine strain. Among the Danish sequences, the pairwise nucleotide identity was 90.9–100% and 93.0–100.0% for ORF5 and ORF7, respectively. Analysis of the genetic region encoding NSP2 revealed high diversity among the Danish viruses with an 86.......6–98.9% range in similarity. Furthermore, several of the sequenced viruses harbored deletions in the NSP2 coding region. Phylogenetic analysis in a global Type 2 PRRSV framework classified all Danish isolates to a single cluster (sub-lineage 5.1) which comprised strains closely-related to the Type 2 prototype...

  9. Long-term administration of a commercial porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-inactivated vaccine in PRRSV-endemically infected sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatsiros, V G; Alexopoulos, C; Kritas, S K; Koptopoulos, G; Nauwynck, H J; Pensaert, M B; Kyriakis, S C

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of a commercial European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-inactivated vaccine after 18-month use in gilts/sows at a farm with high seroprevalence. In a farrow-to-finish farm with 1100 sows, all sows and gilts were systematically vaccinated with the PRRS-inactivated PROGRESSIS vaccine for a period of 18 months. Farm's reproductive and litter characteristics were longitudinally recorded for this period and historically compared with those of the year prior to vaccination. Serology, employing immunoperoxidase monolayer assay, had confirmed a high prevalence of PRRS-specific antibodies in most age groups within the farm prior to vaccination. Seroprevalence during the experiment ranged between 0% and 100% in weaners and growers, but remained at stable high levels (> 93%) in finishing pigs and gilts throughout all 2-year period of serology measurements. No local or systemic vaccine side effects were noted throughout the trial period. Vaccinations had resulted over time in a significant improvement of sow reproductive performance (e.g. reduction of premature farrowings, abortions and increase of farrowing rate) and litter characteristics (e.g. increase of the number of live born and weaned pigs and decrease of stillborn, mummified, weak and splay-legged piglets). It has also been observed that the higher the degree of immunization of a sow, the better the improvement of her reproductive parameters. Sows after vaccination have shown improved characteristics compared to homoparous sows prior to the application of vaccinations in the farm.

  10. DNA vaccination of pigs with open reading frame 1-7 of PRRS virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Annette Malene; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete; Jensen, Merethe Holm

    2004-01-01

    We cloned all open reading frames of a Danish isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus in DNA vaccination vectors. Pigs were vaccinated using a gene gun with each single construct (ORF1, ORF2, ORF3, ORF4, ORF5, ORF6, or ORF7) or combinations thereof. Vaccination...

  11. Unraveling the contact patterns and network structure of pig shipments in the United States and its association with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyuyoung; Polson, Dale; Lowe, Erin; Main, Rodger; Holtkamp, Derald; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2017-03-01

    The analysis of the pork value chain is becoming key to understanding the risk of infectious disease dissemination in the swine industry. In this study, we used social network analysis to characterize the swine shipment network structure and properties in a typical multisite swine production system in the US. We also aimed to evaluate the association between network properties and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) transmission between production sites. We analyzed the 109,868 swine shipments transporting over 93 million swine between more than 500 production sites from 2012 to 2014. A total of 248 PRRSV positive occurrences were reported from 79 production sites during those 3 years. The temporal dynamics of swine shipments was evaluated by computing network properties in one-month and three-month networks. The association of PRRS occurrence in sow farms with centrality properties from one-month and three-month networks was assessed by using the multilevel logistic regression. All monthly networks showed a scale-free network topology with positive degree assortativity. The regression model revealed that out-degree centrality had a negative association with PRRS occurrence in sow farms in both one-month and three-month networks [OR=0.79 (95% CI, 0.63-0.99) in one-month network and 0.56 (95% CI, 0.36, 0.88) in three-month network] and in-closeness centrality model was positively associated with PRRS occurrence in sow farms in the three-month network [OR=2.45 (95% CI, 1.14-5.26)]. We also describe how the occurrence of porcine epidemic diarrheac (PED) outbreaks severely affected the network structure as well as the PRRS occurrence reports and its association with centrality measures in sow farms. The structure of the swine shipment network and the connectivity between production sites influenced on the PRRSV transmission. The use of network topology and characteristics combining with spatial analysis based on fine scale geographical location

  12. Assessment of safety and reproductive performance after vaccination with a modified live-virus PRRS genotype 1 vaccine in pregnant sows at various stages of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Julia; Zoels, Susanne; Eddicks, Matthias; Kraft, Christian; Ritzmann, Mathias; Ladinig, Andrea

    2016-07-19

    The objective of the present study was to assess safety and efficacy of a new modified live-virus porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) genotype 1 vaccine in pregnant sows at various stages of gestation under field conditions. A total of 505 sows and gilts were allocated to two treatment groups and maintained in separate facilities. Animals of group 1 were vaccinated with a commercial modified live genotype 1 PRRSV vaccine (control product, CP), while animals of group 2 were immunized with a new modified live genotype 1 PRRSV vaccine (investigational veterinary product, IVP) (ReproCyc® PRRS EU, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica GmbH). Injection site reactions were noted to be significantly less frequent in the IVP group compared to the CP group for pain (p=0.039), redness (p=0.030), heat (p=0.016) and swelling (p=0.002). The mean total number of piglets alive at weaning did not differ significantly between both study groups (10.6 vs. 11.0, p=0.375). However, pre-weaning mortality was significantly higher (p=0.005) in piglets from the CP group (14.1% vs. 10.9%). Analyses of reproductive performance data for both groups did not result in statistically significant differences between CP group and IVP group for number of piglets alive (12.7 and 12.6, respectively), healthy live (11.9 and 11.8), weak (0.7 and 0.5), stillborn (1.0 and 0.8) and mummified piglets (0.3 and 0.2) per litter. No differences were detected between both groups for piglet birth weights, while body weights at weaning (7.2kg vs. 6.6kg, p=0.026) and average daily gain (0.2445kg vs. 0.2211kg, p=0.037) were significantly higher in piglets from the IVP group. In conclusion, the administration of a single dose of ReproCyc® PRRS EU to sows and gilts at various stages of gestation confirmed non-inferiority to a commercial PRRS vaccine regarding safety and efficacy parameters under field conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synergism between porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Salmonella choleraesuis in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, R W; Gray, J T; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Yoon, K J; Ladely, S; Zimmerman, J J

    2000-02-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Salmonella choleraesuis are two leading causes of economic loss in the swine industry. While respiratory disease is common in both S. choleraesuis and PRRSV infections, the factors that contribute to its development remain largely undefined. We investigated the interaction of PRRSV, S. choleraesuis, and stress in 5-week-old swine. All combinations of three factors (inoculation with S. choleraesuis on Day 0, PRRSV on Day 3, and treatment with dexamethasone on Days 3-7) were used to produce eight treatment groups in two independent trials. Fecal samples, tonsil and nasal swabs, serum samples and postmortem tissues were collected for bacteriologic and virologic examinations. No clinical signs were observed in pigs inoculated with only PRRSV or only S. choleraesuis. In contrast, pigs which were dually infected with S. choleraesuis and PRRSV exhibited unthriftiness, rough hair coats, dyspnea, and diarrhea. The pigs which received all three treatment factors were the most severely affected and 43% (three of seven) of the animals in this group died. Individuals in this group shed significantly higher quantities of S. choleraesuis in feces and had significantly higher serum PRRSV titers compared to other treatments (p syndrome similar to that observed in the field.

  14. Hematological and immunological parameters of 4-1/2-month-old pigs infected with PRRS virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Bøtner, Anette

    1997-01-01

    4-1/2-month old SPF pigs were experimentally infected with PRRS virus. Blood samples were collected with regular intervals up to day 35 post inoculation (PI). Serum was used for PRRS virus isolation and antibody detection and stabilized blood for total leucocyte counts, differential counts...... and characterization of lymphocyte subpopulations by flow cytometry analysis using monoclonal antibodies specific for porcine CD2, CD4 and CD8. After an initial viremic period of 1–7 days duration for individual pigs, PRRS virus was intermittently detected in pigs up to day 18 PI. All pigs had developed antibodies...... against PRRS virus by day 14 PI. Total blood leucocyte counts and lymphocyte counts were significantly decreased for a few days shortly after infection, but had returned to pre-infection levels on day 8–10 PI. A major change in the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations was observed on day 3 PI, where...

  15. Hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E) can enhance the immune responses of swine immunized with killed PRRSV vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Zhihong [State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); China Institute of Veterinary Drug Control, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, Quan [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Wang, Zaishi [China Institute of Veterinary Drug Control, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, Zhongqiu [State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Veterinary Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100125 (China); Guo, Pengju [Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong 510640 (China); Zhao, Deming, E-mail: zhaodm@cau.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the immunoadjuvant effects of HVJ-E on killed PRRSV vaccine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HVJ-E enhanced the humoral and cellular responses of the piglets to PRRSV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is suggested that HVJ-E could be developed as a new-type adjuvant for mammals. -- Abstract: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically detrimental pig pathogen that causes significant losses for the pig industry. The immunostimulatory effects of hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E) in cancer therapy and the adjuvant efficacy of HVJ-E have been previously evaluated. The objective of this study was to investigate the adjuvant effects of HVJ-E on immunization with killed PRRSV vaccine, and to evaluate the protective effects of this immunization strategy against virulent PRRSV infection in piglets. Next, the PRRSV-specific antibody response, lymphocyte proliferation, PRRSV-specific IL-2, IL-10 and IFN-{gamma} production, and the overall protection efficacy were evaluated to assess the immune responses of the piglets. The results showed that the piglets inoculated simultaneously with killed PRRSV vaccine and HVJ-E had a significantly stronger immune response than those inoculated with killed PRRSV vaccine alone. Our results suggest that HVJ-E could be employed as an effective adjuvant to enhance the humoral and cellular responses of piglets to PRRSV.

  16. Blood antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX), biochemical and haematological parameters in pigs naturally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukelj, M; Toplak, I; Svete, A Nemec

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has become one of the most economically important diseases for the swine industry worldwide. The objective of the study was to determine selected blood antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD)), biochemical and haematological parameters in PRRS positive and negative pigs of three different categories, mainly to test oxidative stress hypothesis in pigs naturally infected with PRRS virus. Ninety PRRS positive and 90 PRRS negative pigs were included in the study. The presence of PRRS was confirmed by serological detection of antibodies against PRRS virus (PRRSV) and detection of PRRS viral RNA by RT-PCR. Pigs were further divided into three groups of 30: piglets just before weaning (weaners), fatteners and finishers. Blood samples for determining selected blood parameters were collected from the vena cava cranialis. Significantly (P stress might be increased in PRRSV naturally infected pigs, especially in weaners.

  17. Evaluation of protective immunity in gilts inoculated with the NADC-8 isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and challenge-exposed with an antigenically distinct PRRSV isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, K M; Mengeling, W L; Brockmeier, S L

    1999-08-01

    To determine whether intrauterine inoculation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) interferes with conception and whether exposure to one strain of PRRSV provides protection against challenge-exposure (CE) with homologous or heterologous strains of PRRSV. 40 gilts. Gilts were inoculated by intrauterine administration of a PRRSV isolate (NADC-8) at breeding. Inoculated and noninoculated gilts were exposed oronasally to homologous (NADC-8) or heterologous (European isolate) PRRSV during late gestation. Specimens from gilts and fetuses were tested against CE virus. Lack of virus in gilts indicated protective immunity for the dam, in fetuses indicated protection of gilt from reproductive losses, and in both groups indicated complete protection. In the homologous CE group, interval from inoculation to CE ranged from 90 to 205 days, and protection was complete. In the heterologous CE group, interval from inoculation to CE ranged from 90 to 170 days, and protection was incomplete. The CE virus was detected in gilts necropsied 134 to 170 days after CE and in a litter necropsied 170 days after CE. Homologous protection can be induced in gilts by exposure to live PRRSV. Heterologous protection from reproductive losses can be induced in gilts by exposure to live PRRSV; however, this protection is incomplete and may have a shorter duration than homologous protection. Exposure of swine to enzootic PRRSV will provide protection against homologous PRRSV-induced reproductive losses. Extent and duration of protection against heterologous PRRSV may be variable and dependent on antigenic relatedness of the virus strains used for inoculation and CE.

  18. Genetic control of host resistance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript focuses on the advances made using genomic approaches to identify biomarkers that define genes and pathways that are correlated with swine resistance to infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), the most economically important swine viral pathogen wo...

  19. Genetic and biological characterization of a Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus 2 (PRRSV-2)causing significant clinical disease in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Larsen, Lars Erik; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2017-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is the cause of severe reproductive and respiratory disease in swine worldwide. In Denmark, both PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 are circulating and approximately 35% of pig herds are seropositive for PRRSV. In November 2010, a pig herd...... in the Northern part of Denmark experienced an infection with PRRSV-2 with clinical signs that were much more severe than normally reported from current Danish PRRSV-2 affected herds. Due to the clinical observations of reproductive failure in sows and high mortality in piglets, it was speculated that a new, more....... Virus shedding, acute phase protein responses and serological responses were comparable to those seen after experimental challenge with a Danish PRRSV-2 reference strain isolated in 1997. Vaccination with a commercial modified live PRRSV-2 vaccine had a clear reducing effect on virus shedding, magnitude...

  20. Live virus immunization (LVI) with a recent 1-7-4 PRRSV isolate elicits broad protection against PRRSV challenge in finishing age swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRRSV infection is the most economically important disease affecting domestic swine herds in the United States and in many countries. Commercially available vaccines are often based on older viral strains and offer limited efficacy against heterologous challenge. Live virus immunization (LVI), a for...

  1. Understanding PRRSV infection in porcine lung based on genome-wide transcriptome response identified by deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqi Xiao

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS has been one of the most economically important diseases affecting swine industry worldwide and causes great economic losses each year. PRRS virus (PRRSV replicates mainly in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs and dendritic cells (DCs and develops persistent infections, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE, interstitial pneumonia and immunosuppression. But the molecular mechanisms of PRRSV infection still are poorly understood. Here we report on the first genome-wide host transcriptional responses to classical North American type PRRSV (N-PRRSV strain CH 1a infection using Solexa/Illumina's digital gene expression (DGE system, a tag-based high-throughput transcriptome sequencing method, and analyse systematically the relationship between pulmonary gene expression profiles after N-PRRSV infection and infection pathology. Our results suggest that N-PRRSV appeared to utilize multiple strategies for its replication and spread in infected pigs, including subverting host innate immune response, inducing an anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory state as well as developing ADE. Upregulation expression of virus-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules and inflammatory enzymes and inflammatory cells, antibodies, complement activation were likely to result in the development of inflammatory responses during N-PRRSV infection processes. N-PRRSV-induced immunosuppression might be mediated by apoptosis of infected cells, which caused depletion of immune cells and induced an anti-inflammatory cytokine response in which they were unable to eradicate the primary infection. Our systems analysis will benefit for better understanding the molecular pathogenesis of N-PRRSV infection, developing novel antiviral therapies and identifying genetic components for swine resistance/susceptibility to PRRS.

  2. Hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E) can enhance the immune responses of swine immunized with killed PRRSV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhihong; Zhang, Quan; Wang, Zaishi; Zhang, Zhongqiu; Guo, Pengju; Zhao, Deming

    2011-11-11

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically detrimental pig pathogen that causes significant losses for the pig industry. The immunostimulatory effects of hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E) in cancer therapy and the adjuvant efficacy of HVJ-E have been previously evaluated. The objective of this study was to investigate the adjuvant effects of HVJ-E on immunization with killed PRRSV vaccine, and to evaluate the protective effects of this immunization strategy against virulent PRRSV infection in piglets. Next, the PRRSV-specific antibody response, lymphocyte proliferation, PRRSV-specific IL-2, IL-10 and IFN-γ production, and the overall protection efficacy were evaluated to assess the immune responses of the piglets. The results showed that the piglets inoculated simultaneously with killed PRRSV vaccine and HVJ-E had a significantly stronger immune response than those inoculated with killed PRRSV vaccine alone. Our results suggest that HVJ-E could be employed as an effective adjuvant to enhance the humoral and cellular responses of piglets to PRRSV. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A fast and robust method for full genome sequencing of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Type 1 and Type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Fahnøe, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    PRRSV is a positive-sense RNA virus with a high degree of genetic variability among isolates. For diagnostic sensitivity and vaccine design it is essential to monitor PRRSV genetic diversity. However, to date only a few full genome sequences of PRRSV isolates have been made publicly available. In...

  4. Recombinant Encephalomyocarditis Viruses Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies against PRRSV and CSFV in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu; Guo, Xin; Keyes, Lisa R; Yang, Hanchun; Ge, Xinna

    2015-01-01

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is capable of infecting a wide range of species and the infection can cause myocarditis and reproductive failure in pigs as well as febrile illness in human beings. In this study, we introduced the entire ORF5 of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) or the neutralization epitope regions in the E2 gene of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV), into the genome of a stably attenuated EMCV strain, T1100I. The resultant viable recombinant viruses, CvBJC3m/I-ΔGP5 and CvBJC3m/I-E2, respectively expressed partial PRRSV envelope protein GP5 or CSFV neutralization epitope A1A2 along with EMCV proteins. These heterologous proteins fused to the N-terminal of the nonstructural leader protein could be recognized by anti-GP5 or anti-E2 antibody. We also tested the immunogenicity of these fusion proteins by immunizing BALB/c mice with the recombinant viruses. The immunized animals elicited neutralizing antibodies against PRRSV and CSFV. Our results suggest that EMCV can be engineered as an expression vector and serve as a tool in the development of novel live vaccines in various animal species.

  5. Control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS through genetic improvements in disease resistance and tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eRowland

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV have a severe economic impact on pig production in North America, Europe and Asia. The emergence and eventual predominance of PRRS in the 1990s are the likely result of changes in the pork industry initiated in the late 1970s, which allowed the virus to occupy a unique niche within a modern commercial production system. PRRSV infection is responsible for severe clinical disease, but can maintain a life-long subclinical infection, as well as participate in several polymicrobial syndromes. Current vaccines lessen clinical signs, but are of limited use for disease control and elimination. The relatively poor protective immunity following vaccination is a function of the virus’s capacity to generate a large degree of genetic diversity, combined with several strategies to evade innate and adaptive immune responses. In 2007, the PRRS Host Genetics consortium (PHGC was established to explore the role of host genetics as as an avenue for PRRS control. The PHGC model for PRRS incorporates the experimental infection of large numbers of growing pigs and has created the opportunity to study experimental PRRSV infection at the population level. The results show that pigs can be placed into distinct phenotypic groups, including pigs that show resistance or pigs that exhibit tolerance to infection. Tolerance is best illustrated by pigs that gain weight normally in the face of a relatively high virus load. Genome-wide association analysis has identified a region on chromosome 4 (SSC4 correlated with resistance; i.e., higher weight gain combined with lower virus load. The genomic region is near a family of genes involved in innate immunity. These results create the opportunity to develop breeding programs that will produce pigs with increased resistance to PRRS. The identification of genomic markers involved in tolerance will likely prove more difficult, primarily because tolerance

  6. Evaluation of a DNA vaccine candidate co-expressing GP3 and GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) with interferon α/γ in immediate and long-lasting protection against HP-PRRSV challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yijun; Qi, Jing; Lu, Yu; Wu, Jiaqiang; Yoo, Dongwan; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Xiumei; Li, Jun; Sun, Wenbo; Cong, Xiaoyan; Shi, Jianli; Wang, Jinbao

    2012-12-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has become one of the most economically important diseases to the global pork industry. Current vaccination strategies only provide a limited protective efficacy. In this study, a DNA vaccine, pVAX1(©)-α-γ-GP35, co-expressing GP3 and GP5 of PRRSV with interferon α/γ was constructed, and its immediate and long-lasting protection against highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) challenge were examined in pigs. For immediate protection, the results showed that pVAX1(©)-α-γ-GP35 could provide partially protective efficacy, which was similar to the pVAX1(©)-α-γ (expressing interferon α/γ). For long-lasting protection, pigs inoculated with pVAX1(©)-α-γ-GP35 developed significantly higher PRRSV-specific antibody response, T cell proliferation, IFN-γ, and IL-4, than those vaccinated with pVAX1(©)-GP35 (expressing GP3 and GP5 of PRRSV). Following homologous challenge with HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN, pigs inoculated with pVAX1(©)-α-γ-GP35 showed almost no clinical signs, no lung lesions, and significantly lower viremia, as compared to those in pVAX1(©)-GP35 group. It indicated that pVAX1(©)-α-γ-GP35 could induce enhanced immune responses and provide both immediate and long-lasting protection against HP-PRRSV challenge in pigs. The DNA vaccine pVAX1(©)-α-γ-GP35 might be an attractive candidate vaccine for the prevention and control of HP-PRRSV infections.

  7. Deciphering transcriptome profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to PRRSV vaccination in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Aminul; Große-Brinkhaus, Christine; Pröll, Maren Julia; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim; Rony, Sharmin Aqter; Tesfaye, Dawit; Tholen, Ernst; Hölker, Michael; Schellander, Karl; Neuhoff, Christiane

    2016-08-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically important viral diseases affecting swine industry worldwide. Despite routine farm vaccination, effective control strategies for PRRS remained elusive which underscores the need for in-depth studies to gain insight into the host immune response to vaccines. The current study aimed to investigate transcriptional responses to PRRS Virus (PRRSV) vaccine in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) within 3 days following vaccination in German Landrace pigs. Transcriptome profiling of PBMCs from PRRSV vaccinated and age-matched unvaccinated pigs at right before (0 h), and at 6, 24 and 72 h after PRRSV vaccination was performed using the Affymetrix gene chip porcine gene 1.0 st array. Comparison of PBMCs transcriptome profiles between vaccinated and unvaccinated pigs revealed a distinct host innate immune transcriptional response to PRRSV vaccine. There was a significant temporal variation in transcriptional responses of PRRSV vaccine in PBMCs accounting 542, 2,263 and 357 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 6, 24 and 72 h post vaccination, respectively compared to the time point before vaccination (controls). Gene ontology analysis revealed the involvement of these DEGs in various biological process including innate immune response, signal transduction, positive regulation of MAP kinase activity, TRIF-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway, T cell differentiation and apoptosis. Immune response specific pathways such as cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, chemokine signaling pathway, signal transduction, JAK-STAT pathway and regulation, TRAF6 mediated induction of NF-kB and MAPK, the NLRP3 inflammasome, endocytosis and interferon signaling were under regulation during the early stage of PRRSV vaccination. Network enrichment analysis revealed APP, TRAF6, PIN1, FOS, CTNNB1, TNFAIP3, TIP1, CDKN1, SIRT1, ESR1 and HDAC5 as the highly interconnected hubs of the

  8. Síndrome reproductivo y respiratorio del cerdo (PRRS. Revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maricruz López-Heydeck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome reproductivo y respiratorio del cerdo (PRRS, es una enfermedad de origen viral que ocasiona fallas reproductivas severas en cerdas gestantes, con menos grado en la calidad del semen en verracos y problemas respiratorios en cerdos de todas las edades pero principalmente en lechones; también se asocia o incrementa la manifestación de otras enfermedades respiratorias. Es una de las enfermedades de mayor importancia económica mundial, en la mayoría de los países de producción de porcinos, donde en gran parte de ellos permanece endémico. El virus de PRRS (PRRSV presenta un alto grado de mutabilidad, por lo que hay una gran diversidad genética de cepas del linaje norteamericano (PRRSV NA y entre el PRRSV NA y el linaje europeo (PRRSV EU, lo que afecta la homogeneidad y poca o nula antigenicidad cruzada para vacunas; el virus vacunal modificado, único comercialmente accesible para generar algún grado confiable de inmunidad, ha mostrado la capacidad de revertirse a patógeno, con replicabilidad y recombinación con virus de campo; las vacunas sólo se utilizan para disminuir el grado de afección de la enfermedad; el virus muestra una capacidad de inmunosupresión e inmunoregulación que le permite, prolongar el tiempo de viremia en los animales enfermos, quienes eliminan el virus por saliva, secreciones tras placentarias, mamarias y muy posiblemente excremento, siendo la transmisión principal por contacto directo o por objetos contaminados; además presenta una posterior selectividad a pocos tejidos linfoides, que le permite permanecer inadvertido hasta que, en condiciones favorables, vuelve a manifestarse la enfermedad, ya sea como pequeños brotes, o como pandemia.

  9. Detection and typing of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by multiplex real-time rt-PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Wernike

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS causes economic losses in the pig industry worldwide, and PRRS viruses (PRRSV are classified into the two distinct genotypes "North American (NA, type 2" and "European (EU, type 1". In 2006, a highly pathogenic NA strain of PRRSV (HP-PRRSV, characterized by high fever as well as high morbidity and mortality, emerged in swine farms in China. Therefore, a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR assay specific for HP-PRRSV was developed and combined with type 1- and type 2-specific RT-qPCR systems. Furthermore, an internal control, based on a heterologous RNA, was successfully introduced. This final multiplex PRRSV RT-qPCR, detecting and typing PRRSV, had an analytical sensitivity of less than 200 copies per µl for the type 1-assay and 20 copies per µl for the type 2- and HP assays and a high diagnostic sensitivity. A panel of reference strains and field isolates was reliably detected and samples from an animal trial with a Chinese HP-PRRS strain were used for test validation. The new multiplex PRRSV RT-qPCR system allows for the first time the highly sensitive detection and rapid differentiation of PRRSV of both genotypes as well as the direct detection of HP-PRRSV.

  10. Precision engineering for PRRSV resistance in pigs: Macrophages from genome edited pigs lacking CD163 SRCR5 domain are fully resistant to both PRRSV genotypes while maintaining biological function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Burkard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS is a panzootic infectious disease of pigs, causing major economic losses to the world-wide pig industry. PRRS manifests differently in pigs of all ages but primarily causes late-term abortions and stillbirths in sows and respiratory disease in piglets. The causative agent of the disease is the positive-strand RNA PRRS virus (PRRSV. PRRSV has a narrow host cell tropism, limited to cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. CD163 has been described as a fusion receptor for PRRSV, whereby the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain 5 (SRCR5 region was shown to be an interaction site for the virus in vitro. CD163 is expressed at high levels on the surface of macrophages, particularly in the respiratory system. Here we describe the application of CRISPR/Cas9 to pig zygotes, resulting in the generation of pigs with a deletion of Exon 7 of the CD163 gene, encoding SRCR5. Deletion of SRCR5 showed no adverse effects in pigs maintained under standard husbandry conditions with normal growth rates and complete blood counts observed. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs and peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs were isolated from the animals and assessed in vitro. Both PAMs and macrophages obtained from PBMCs by CSF1 stimulation (PMMs show the characteristic differentiation and cell surface marker expression of macrophages of the respective origin. Expression and correct folding of the SRCR5 deletion CD163 on the surface of macrophages and biological activity of the protein as hemoglobin-haptoglobin scavenger was confirmed. Challenge of both PAMs and PMMs with PRRSV genotype 1, subtypes 1, 2, and 3 and PMMs with PRRSV genotype 2 showed complete resistance to viral infections assessed by replication. Confocal microscopy revealed the absence of replication structures in the SRCR5 CD163 deletion macrophages, indicating an inhibition of infection prior to gene expression, i.e. at entry/fusion or unpacking stages.

  11. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in GB pig herds: farm characteristics associated with heterogeneity in seroprevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medley Graham F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The between- and within-herd variability of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV antibodies were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 103 British pig herds conducted 2003–2004. Fifty pigs from each farm were tested for anti-PRRSV antibodies using ELISA. A binomial logistic model was used to investigate management risks for farms with and without pigs with PRRSV antibodies and multilevel statistical models were used to investigate variability in pigs' log ELISA IRPC (relative index × 100 in positive herds. Results Thirty-five herds (34.0% were seronegative, 41 (39.8% were seropositive and 27 (26.2% were vaccinated. Herds were more likely to be seronegative if they had Conclusion These patterns are consistent with PRRSV failing to persist indefinitely on some infected farms, with fadeout more likely in smaller herds with little/no reintroduction of infectious stock. Persistence of infection may be associated with large herds in pig-dense regions with repeated reintroduction.

  12. Evaluation of a blocking ELISA for screening of antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.J.; Bøtner, Anette; Madsen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    A blocking Elisa was developed for the detection of antibodies against PRRS virus with a view to satisfying the need for examination of blood samples on a large scale. The test was evaluated in comparison with an indirect Elisa and the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. The blocking Elisa...... was sensitive and specific. It had a higher capacity and was cheaper to perform than the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay and the indirect Elisa. It was comparable to the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay and better than the indirect Elisa in detecting antibodies formed early after infection, and it was superior...... to both the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay and the indirect Elisa in detecting antibodies at a late stage of infection....

  13. Isolation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus in a Danish swine herd and experimental infection of pregnant gilts with the virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Nielsen, Jens; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1994-01-01

    , the virus particle was found to be spherical and enveloped, measuring 45–55 nm in diameter and containing a 30–35 nm nucleocapsid. Only minor antigenic differences were found between the Danish and a Dutch isolate. Following intranasal inoculation of 3 pregnant gilts with the Danish isolate transplacental...... infection was demonstrated by the re-isolation of PRRS virus from approximately 45% of the piglets from the experimentally infected gilts. However, the experimental infection produced no significant reproductive disorders or other clinical signs. At autopsy, histopathological examination revealed slight...

  14. Experimental inoculation of swine at various stages of gestation with a Danish isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranker, Søren; Nielsen, Jens; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1998-01-01

    Following intranasal inoculation of three groups of pregnant swine (in total 11 dams) with a Danish isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on or about day 85, 70 and 45 of gestation, respectively, reproductive disturbances were observed in the first two groups...... inflammatory conditions, especially in the lung and heart. In conclusion, the present results support the hypothesis, that PRRSV infection of dams late in pregnancy has the greatest likelihood of transplacental infection of fetuses....

  15. Influence of pig age on virus titer and bactericidal activity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanawongnuwech, R; Thacker, E L; Halbur, P G

    1998-10-01

    Twelve pigs (six 4-week-old and six 4-month-old cross-bred, specific pathogen free pigs) were used as donors for both pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) and pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs). The PIMs and PAMs were infected in vitro with low (ISU-55) or high (VR-2385) virulence strains of PRRSV at 1 multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) for comparisons of virus titers at 48 h post infection (PI). PIMs were as permissive as PAMs to infection with both PRRSV isolates yielding similar progeny titers (10(4.81) vs. 10(5.22) TCID50/ml, respectively). Both ISU-55 and VR-2385 were able to infect PIMs and no significant difference in virus replication as measured by virus titers between isolates was found (10(5.33) vs. 10(4.69) TCID50/ml, respectively). PIMs from 4-weak-old pigs yielded a higher virus titer following PRRSV infection than PIMs from 4-month-old pigs (10(5.43) vs. 10(4.59) TCID50/ml, respectively; p PIMs had significantly decreased bactericidal (Staphylococcus aureus) activity compared with uninfected PIMS at 48 h PI (p PIMs and VR-2385 (high virulence)-infected PIMs. Both ISU-55 and VR-2385 infection significantly decreased the production of superoxide anion (SOA) at 24 and 48 h PI (p PIMs, (2) PIMs from younger pigs were more permissive to PRRSV infection, and (3) the selected PRRSV strains, which differ in their abilities to induce pneumonia in vivo were not different when tested in vitro by measuring virus titer and bactericidal functions.

  16. Epidemiological investigations of the introduction of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Chile, 2013-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Neira

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is endemic in most pork producing countries. In Chile, eradication of PRRS virus (PRRSV was successfully achieved in 2009 as a result of the combined efforts of producers and the animal health authorities. In October 2013, after several years without detecting PRRSV under surveillance activities, suspected cases were confirmed on a commercial swine farm. Here, we describe the PRRS epidemic in Chile between October 2013 and April 2015, and we studied the origins and spread of PRRSV throughout the country using official surveillance data and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. Our results indicate that the outbreaks were caused by a PRRSV closely related to viruses present in swine farms in North America, and different from the strain that circulated in the country before 2009. Using divergence time estimation analysis, we found that the 2013-2015 PRRSV may have been circulating in Chile for at least one month before the first detection. A single strain of PRRSV spread into a limited number of commercial and backyard swine farms. New infections in commercial systems have not been reported since October 2014, and eradication is underway by clearing the disease from the few commercial and backyard farms that remain positive. This is one of the few documented experiences of PRRSV introduction into a disease-free country.

  17. Transcriptome Differences in Porcine Alveolar Macrophages from Tongcheng and Large White Pigs in Response to Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Liang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus that can cause devastating reproductive failure and respiratory tract lesions, which has led to serious damage to the swine industry worldwide. Our previous studies have indicated that Tongcheng (TC pigs, a Chinese local breed, have stronger resistance or tolerance to PRRSV infection than Large White (LW pigs. This study aims to investigate their host transcriptome differences in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs at 7 days post challenge. Transcriptome profiling of PAMs from PRRSV infected and control pigs of these two breeds were performed using RNA-sequencing. For both breeds, there were 1257 common differentially expressed genes (DEGs in response to PRRSV infection, involving hepatic fibrosis/hepatic stellate cell activation, phospholipase C, and granulocyte adhesion and diapedesis pathways. For TC pig, 549 specific DEGs were identified, including VAV2, BCL2 and BAX, which were enriched in activation of leukocyte extravasation and suppression of apoptosis. While, 898 specific DEGs were identified in LW pigs, including GNAQ, GNB5, GNG2, CALM4 and RHOQ, which were involved in suppression of Gαq and PI3K-AKT signaling. This study provides an insight into the transcriptomic comparison of resistant and susceptible pigs to PRRSV infection. TC pigs may promote the extravasation and migration of leukocytes to defend against PRRSV infections and suppress apoptosis of the infected macrophages to increase antigen presentation, thereby reducing the lung lesions.

  18. [Correlation between antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and pathological-anatomical organ findings in slaughter pigs at farm level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünberger, B; Schleicher, C; Stüger, H-P; Reisp, K; Schmoll, F; Köfer, J; Sattler, T

    2015-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) worldwide causes important economic losses in pig production. Its causative agent, the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is one of the most frequently detected infectious agents in relation to respiratory diseases in pigs in Austria. We investigated the correlation between the PRRSV status of pig farms, determined by detection of PRRSV antibodies in the serum of slaughter pigs, and the prevalence of pathological-anatomical lung lesions in slaughter pigs of the respective farms. Between December 1, 2011 and April 16, 2012, a total of 1056 serum samples of slaughter pigs from 66 pig farms were collected at an Austrian abattoir. The presence of PRRSV antibodies was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in each sample and the PRRSV status of the respective farms was determined. No PRRSV vaccination was performed on any of the farms. In addition, the pathological-anatomical lung lesions of all slaughter pigs of the 66 farms that were slaughtered between September 1, 2011 and December 11, 2012 were recorded by authorized veterinarians at the abattoir. The prevalence of lung lesions and pleuritis in PRRSV-positive and unsuspected farms was compared and statistically interpreted. Slaughter pigs of PRRSV positive farms had a significantly higher prevalence of severe lung lesions and pleuritis visceralis and parietalis than slaughter pigs of PRRSV unsuspected farms. Pigs of combined farms (nursery and fattening unit at the same location) displayed a tendency for more moderate and severe lung lesions than pigs of exclusive fattening farms. In the present study, the PRRSV status of pig farms displayed a significant influence on the prevalence of lung lesions in the slaughter pigs. Findings untypical for PRRS, including pleuritis, were also found significantly more often on those farms. This leads to the conclusion that other primary and/or secondary infections are involved, which can be exacerbated by the immunosuppressive

  19. Type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection increases apoptosis at the maternal-fetal interface in late gestation pregnant gilts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Novakovic

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of fetal death associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is hypothesized to be a consequence of PRRS virus-induced apoptosis at the maternal-fetal interface (MFI. The objectives of this study were to evaluate distribution and degree of apoptosis in the uterine and fetal placental tissues during the experimental type 2 PRRS virus (PRRSV infection and determine associations between apoptosis at the MFI, PRRSV RNA concentration and antigen staining intensity, PRRSV-induced microscopic lesions, and fetal preservation status. A total of 114 naïve, high-health pregnant gilts were inoculated with type 2 PRRSV on gestation day 85±1 with euthanasia 21 days later; 19 sham-inoculated gilts served as controls. Two hundred and fifty samples of uterine tissue with fetal placenta were selected based on negative, low PRRSV RNA, and high PRRSV RNA concentration (0, 2.7 log10 copies/mg, respectively. TUNEL assay was used to detect apoptosis in the endometrium and at the MFI. PRRSV RNA concentration and numbers of PRRSV immunopositive cells in uterine and placental tissue were positively associated with the severity of apoptosis in the endometrium and the MFI (P<0.001, P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively. The number of TUNEL positive cells at the MFI was also positively associated with the severity (P<0.001 of vasculitis, but not total numbers of inflammatory cells in the endometrium. Increased numbers of TUNEL positive cells at the MFI were associated with PRRSV load in the fetal thymus, and greater odds of meconium staining of the fetus at 21 days post infection (P<0.001 for both. These findings suggest an important role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of uterine epithelial and trophoblastic cell death at the MFI. Moreover, apoptosis at the MFI is significantly associated with fetal demise during in utero type 2 PRRSV infection.

  20. Type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection increases apoptosis at the maternal-fetal interface in late gestation pregnant gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, John C. S.; Al-Dissi, Ahmad N; Detmer, Susan E.

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenesis of fetal death associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is hypothesized to be a consequence of PRRS virus-induced apoptosis at the maternal-fetal interface (MFI). The objectives of this study were to evaluate distribution and degree of apoptosis in the uterine and fetal placental tissues during the experimental type 2 PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection and determine associations between apoptosis at the MFI, PRRSV RNA concentration and antigen staining intensity, PRRSV-induced microscopic lesions, and fetal preservation status. A total of 114 naïve, high-health pregnant gilts were inoculated with type 2 PRRSV on gestation day 85±1 with euthanasia 21 days later; 19 sham-inoculated gilts served as controls. Two hundred and fifty samples of uterine tissue with fetal placenta were selected based on negative, low PRRSV RNA, and high PRRSV RNA concentration (0, 2.7 log10 copies/mg, respectively). TUNEL assay was used to detect apoptosis in the endometrium and at the MFI. PRRSV RNA concentration and numbers of PRRSV immunopositive cells in uterine and placental tissue were positively associated with the severity of apoptosis in the endometrium and the MFI (P<0.001, P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). The number of TUNEL positive cells at the MFI was also positively associated with the severity (P<0.001) of vasculitis, but not total numbers of inflammatory cells in the endometrium. Increased numbers of TUNEL positive cells at the MFI were associated with PRRSV load in the fetal thymus, and greater odds of meconium staining of the fetus at 21 days post infection (P<0.001 for both). These findings suggest an important role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of uterine epithelial and trophoblastic cell death at the MFI. Moreover, apoptosis at the MFI is significantly associated with fetal demise during in utero type 2 PRRSV infection. PMID:28253336

  1. Alternative codon usage of PRRS virus ORF5 gene increases eucaryotic expression of GP(5) glycoprotein and improves immune response in challenged pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheyar, Ali; Jabrane, Ahmed; Zhu, Chengru; Cléroux, Patrick; Massie, Bernard; Dea, Serge; Gagnon, Carl A

    2005-07-01

    Pigs exposed to GP(5) protein of PRRSV by means of DNA immunization develop specific neutralizing and protecting antibodies. Herein, we report on the consequences of codon bias, and on the favorable outcome of the systematic replacement of native codons of PRRSV ORF5 gene with codons chosen to reflect more closely the codon preference of highly expressed mammalian genes. Therefore, a synthetic PRRSV ORF5 gene (synORF5) was constructed in which 134 nucleotide substitutions were made in comparison to wild-type gene (wtORF5), such that 59% (119) of wild-type codons were replaced with known preferable codons in mammalian cells. In vitro expression in mammalian cells of synORF5 was considerably increased comparatively to wtORF5, following infection with tetracycline inducible replication-defective human adenoviral vectors (hAdVs). After challenge inoculation, SPF pigs vaccinated twice with recombinant hAdV/synORF5 developed earlier and higher antibody titers, including virus neutralizing antibodies to GP(5) than pigs vaccinated with hAdV/wtORF5. Data obtained from animal inoculation studies suggest direct correlation between expression levels of immunogenic structural viral proteins and immune response.

  2. Temporary CD8(+) T-cell depletion in pigs does not exacerbate infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Eriksen, Lis

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a consistent increase in the CD8(+) T-cell subset of pigs following infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV). Consequently, it has been suggested that CD8(+) T-cells may play an important role in protection against this infection. In order...

  3. The diversity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Type 1 and 2 in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Kristensen, Charlotte Sonne

    Both Type 1 and Type 2 PRRS viruses are circulating among Danish pigs. The first appearance of Type 1 PRRSV in Denmark was in 1992 whereas the Type 2 PRRSV was introduced in 1996 after the use of a live attenuated vaccine that reverted to virulence. Since then, vaccination to control the disease...... strains were sequenced. Denmark exports more than 50.000 living pigs each month. A portion of these pigs inevitably harbor PRRSV. Thus, the diversity of PRRSV in Denmark is of interest to other countries besides Denmark. The main objective of the present study was to close the gap in knowledge...... of the results showed that the Type 1 strains all belonged to subtype 1. Based on the ORF5 sequences, the Danish Type 1 viruses clustered into two groups. These two groups shared 84 % to 92 % and 94 % to 99% nucleotide identity to the Lelystad virus, respectively. The sequenced Type 2 viruses showed...

  4. Experimental infection and comparative genomic analysis of a highly pathogenic PRRSV-HBR strain at different passage levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanwu; Li, Shengbin; Huang, Liping; Tang, Qinghai; Liu, Jianbo; Liu, Dan; Wang, Yiping; Wu, Hongli; Liu, Changming

    2013-10-25

    A highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV-HBR) was passaged on Marc-145 cells for 125 passages. In order to elucidate the change in virulence of PRRSV-HBR strain during the process of passage in vitro, swine infection experiment was performed with the viruses of low (F5 and F10) and high passage (F125). In addition, to identify the mutations related to the change in virulence of PRRSV-HBR strain, we compared and analyzed the genomic sequences of the F5, F10 and F125 of the strain. The virulence of F125 was significantly lower than that of F5 in the virus-infected pigs. In comparison with F5 and F125, there were 45 amino acids (aa) mutations and a deletion of 2 continuous aa by means of the virus genome sequence analysis. For these mutations, 33 aa (73.3%) occurred in the viral nonstructural proteins and the other 12 aa (26.7%) were contained in the viral structural proteins. Of the mutations, only 15 aa (33.3%) appeared in F10 and 30 aa (66.7%) occurred during passage from F10 to F125. The data showed that the latter 30 aa mutations were probably associated with attenuation of PRRSV-HBR strain, and that the change in virulence of the virus was determined by multiple alterations both in the structural and nonstructural genes. The virulence of PRRSV-HBR strain was remarkably attenuated after serial passages, and it can be used as vaccine candidate for control of the PRRS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. PBMC transcriptome profiles identifies potential candidate genes and functional networks controlling the innate and the adaptive immune response to PRRSV vaccine in Pietrain pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Aminul; Große-Brinkhaus, Christine; Pröll, Maren Julia; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim; Aqter Rony, Sharmin; Tesfaye, Dawit; Tholen, Ernst; Hoelker, Michael; Schellander, Karl; Neuhoff, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a devastating viral disease affecting swine production, health and welfare throughout the world. A synergistic action of the innate and the adaptive immune system of the host is essential for mounting a durable protective immunity through vaccination. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the transcriptome profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to characterize the innate and the adaptive immune response to PRRS Virus (PRRSV) vaccination in Pietrain pigs. The Affymetrix gene chip porcine gene 1.0 ST array was used for the transcriptome profiling of PBMCs collected at immediately before (D0), at one (D1) and 28 days (D28) post PRRSV vaccination with three biological replications. With FDR activation, cytokine activity and inflammatory response were enriched during the innate immunity; cytolysis, T cell mediated cytotoxicity, immunoglobulin production were enriched during adaptive immunity to PRRSV vaccination. Significant enrichment of cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, signaling by interleukins, signaling by the B cell receptor (BCR), viral mRNA translation, IFN-gamma pathway and AP-1 transcription factor network pathways were indicating the involvement of altered genes in the antiviral defense. Network analysis revealed that four network modules were functionally involved with the transcriptional network of innate immunity, and five modules were linked to adaptive immunity in PBMCs. The innate immune transcriptional network was found to be regulated by LCK, STAT3, ATP5B, UBB and RSP17. While TGFß1, IL7R, RAD21, SP1 and GZMB are likely to be predictive for the adaptive immune transcriptional response to PRRSV vaccine in PBMCs. Results of the current immunogenomics study advances our understanding of PRRS in term of host-vaccine interaction, and thereby contribute to design a rationale for disease control strategy. PMID:28278192

  6. Dual infections of PRRSV / influenza or PRRSV / Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in the respiratory tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, J.M.A.; Leengoed, van L.A.M.G.; Stockhofe, N.; Kok, G.; Wensvoort, G.

    1997-01-01

    To study the effect of a previous porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome-infection (PRRS) of the respiratory tract on influenza virus and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) infections, 3-week-old specific-pathogen-free (spf) piglets were intranasally infected with PRRS virus. One week

  7. Fast and robust methods for full genome sequencing of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Type 1 and Type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Fahnøe, Ulrik

    followed by cycle sequencing of clones. The genome lengths were determined to be 14,876-15,098 and 15,342-15,408 nucleotides long for the Type 1 and Type 2 strains, respectively. These methods will greatly facilitate the generation of more complete genome PRRSV sequences globally which in turn may lead....... In the present study, fast and robust methods for long range RT-PCR amplification and subsequent next generation sequencing (NGS) of PRRSV Type 1 and Type 2 viruses were developed and validated on nine Type 1 and nine Type 2 PRRSV viruses. The methods were shown to generate robust and reliable sequences both...... on primary material and cell culture adapted viruses and the protocols were shown to perform well on all three NGS platforms tested (Roche 454 FLX, Illumina HiSeq 2000, and Ion Torrent PGM™ Sequencer). To complete the sequences at the 5’ end, 5’ Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (5’ RACE) was conducted...

  8. Phylogenetic Analysis of PRRSV from Danish Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Larsen, Lars Erik

    by phylogenetic analysis, in order to asses the applicability of vaccines currently used to control PRRSV infection in Danish pig herds. Materials and methods Lung tissue from samples submitted to the National Veterinary Institute during 2003-2008 for PRRSV diagnosis were screened for PRRSV by real-time RT......-PCR, essentially as described by Egli et al. 2001, on RNA extracted with RNeasy Mini Kit (QIAGEN). Complete open reading frames (ORF) ORF5 and ORF7 were PCR amplified as described (Oleksiewicz et al. 1998) and sequenced. Sequences were aligned and Neighbour-Joining trees were constructed with ClustalX. Trees were...... visualized with NJ-plot software. Genbank entries of Danish PRRSV sequences from the 1990’ties were included in the phylogenetic analysis. Translated sequences were aligned with current vaccine isolates. Results Both PRRSV EU and US type viruses were isolated from material submitted from Danish pigs...

  9. Financial implications of installing air filtration systems to prevent PRRSV infection in large sow herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmen; Davies, Peter R; Polson, Dale D; Dee, Scott A; Lazarus, William F

    2013-09-01

    Air filtration systems implemented in large sow herds have been demonstrated to decrease the probability of having a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) outbreak. However, implementation of air filtration represents a considerable capital investment, and does not eliminate the risk of new virus introductions. The specific objectives of the study were: 1) to determine productivity differences between a cohort of filtered and non-filtered sow farms; and 2) to employ those productivity differences to model the profitability of filtration system investments in a hypothetical 3000 sow farm. Variables included in the study were production variables (quarterly) from respective herds; air filtration status; number of pig sites within 4.7 km of the farm; occurrence of a PRRSV outbreak in a quarter, and season. For the investment analyses, three Scenarios were compared in a deterministic spreadsheet model of weaned pig cost: (1) control, (2) filtered conventional attic, and (3) filtered tunnel ventilation. Model outputs indicated that a filtered farm produced 5927 more pigs than unfiltered farms. The payback periods for the investments, were estimated to be 5.35 years for Scenario 2 and 7.13 years for Scenario 3 based solely on sow herd productivity. Payback period sensitivity analyses were performed for both biological and financial inputs. The payback period was most influenced by the premium for weaned pig sales price for PRRSV-negative pigs, and the relative proportions of time that filtered vs. unfiltered farms produced PRRSV-negative pigs. A premium of $5 per pig for PRRS-negative weaned pigs reduced the estimated payback periods to 2.1 years for Scenario 2 and 2.8 years for Scenario 3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Attenuation and Immunogenicity of a Live High Pathogenic PRRSV Vaccine Candidate with a 32-Amino Acid Deletion in the nsp2 Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV QY1 was serially passed on Marc-145 cells. Virulence of different intermediate derivatives of QY1 (P5, P60, P80, and P100 were determined. The study found that QY1 had been gradually attenuated during the in vitro process. Pathogenicity study showed that pigs inoculated with QY1 P100 and P80 did not develop any significant PRRS clinic symptoms. However, mild-to-moderate clinical signs and acute HP-PRRSV symptoms of infection were observed in pigs inoculated with QY1 P60 and P5, respectively. Furthermore, we determined the whole genome sequences of these four intermediate viruses. The results showed that after 100 passages, compared to QY1 P5, a total of 32 amino acid mutations were found. Moreover, there were one nucleotide deletion and a unique 34-amino acid deletion found at 5′UTR and in nsp2 gene during the attenuation process, respectively. Such deletions were genetically stable in vivo. Following PRRSV experimental challenge, pigs inoculated with a single dose of QY1 P100 developed no significant clinic symptoms and well tolerated lethal challenge, while QY1 P80 group still developed mild fever in the clinic trial after challenge. Thus, we concluded that QY1 P100 was a promising and highly attenuated PRRSV vaccine candidate.

  11. Occurrence of swine salmonellosis in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) affected pigs concurrently infected with porcine reproduction and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Satoshi; Ogawa, Akihiro; Kinoshita, Tomohide; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Ito, Noriko; Nakane, Takashi

    2006-04-01

    Fourteen diseased pigs from four farms in which there had been an outbreak of salmonellosis were investigated. Granulomatous inflammation with depletion of lymphocytes was observed in the swollen lymph nodes in these pigs. Antigens to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were immunolabeled in the lesions along with detection of viral DNA as PCV2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, antigens to porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were immunodetected in the lungs and Salmonella Choleraesuis was isolated from the affected pigs. The nine salmonellosis affected pigs, five (55.6%) with salmonellosis and PMWS concurrently infected with PRRSV were much higher than those infected with salmonellosis and PMWS (22.2%) or with salmonellosis and PPPRV (22.2%).

  12. Time-course of antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotti, S; Guadagnini, G; Salvini, F; Razzuoli, E; Ferrari, M; Alborali, G L; Amadori, M

    2013-06-01

    Major discrepancies are observed between experimental trials of PRRS-virus (PRRSV) infection in isolation facilities and observations made in the field on farm. Owing to the above, a cohort study was carried out in a farrow-to-finish, PRRSV-infected pig farm to characterize the time-course of the virus-specific immune response in two groups of replacement gilts. Despite the occurrence of three and two distinct waves of infection in groups 1 and 2, respectively, the large majority of animals showed little if any PRRSV-specific response in an interferon-gamma release assay on whole blood, whereas non-specific responses were consistently observed. To rule out any possible bias of our test procedure, this was used along with an ELISPOT assay for interferon-gamma-secreting cells with the same reagents on a group of PRRS-virus infected pigs in isolation facilities. A very good agreement was shown between the two sets of results. Also, as opposed to the PRRS model, plenty of Pseudorabies virus-vaccinated pigs under field conditions scored positive in another experiment in the interferon-gamma release assay, ad hoc modified for the Pseudorabies virus. Our results indicate that under field conditions poor or no development rather than delayed development of the PRRS virus-specific interferon-gamma response could be the rule for a long time in non-adult pigs after PRRS virus infection. Housing and hygiene conditions, as well as heavy exposure to environmental microbial payloads in intensive pig farms could adversely affect the host's immune response to PRRS virus and partly account for the discrepancies between experimental and field studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of the effectiveness of an antimicrobial air filter to avoid porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) aerosol transmission, after 16 months of exposure to a commercial swine environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, L. [Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO (United States); Pouliot, F.; Urizar, L. [Centre de developpement du porc du Quebec Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The effectiveness of Noveko's antimicrobial filter was evaluated after 16 months of exposure to commercial swine production. The experiment involved the use of a scaled model of a commercial swine facility consisting of 2 small chambers connected by a duct containing the filters. A 5 kg naive pig was placed in the reception chamber for a period of 6 hours after aerosolization with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Blood samples from pigs were collected before and after aerosolization to test for the presence of PRRSV RNA. Only blood samples were tested for PRRSV antibodies by IDEXX 2XR ELISA. None of the 9 pigs tested were found to be infected. The study showed that the technology used to integrate the antimicrobial agent into the filter fibers allows the filter combination to withstand extreme weather and endure commercial swine production for at least 16 months, and can maintain its effectiveness to avoid airborne transmission of PRRSV.

  14. Characterization of the microRNAome in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infected macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Hicks

    Full Text Available Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV, a member of the arterivirus family, is the causative agent of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS. PRRS is characterized by late term abortions and respiratory disease, particularly in young pigs. Small regulatory RNAs termed microRNA (miRNA are associated with gene regulation at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNAs are known to play many diverse and complex roles in viral infections. To discover the impact of PRRSV infections on the cellular miRNAome, Illumina deep sequencing was used to construct small RNA expression profiles from in vitro cultured PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs. A total of forty cellular miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed within the first 48 hours post infection (hpi. The expression of six miRNAs, miR-30a-3p, miR-132, miR-27b*, miR-29b, miR-146a and miR-9-2, were altered at more than one time point. Target gene identification suggests that these miRNAs are involved in regulating immune signaling pathways, cytokine, and transcription factor production. The most highly repressed miRNA at 24 hpi was miR-147. A miR-147 mimic was utilized to maintain miR-147 levels in PRRSV-infected PAMs. PRRSV replication was negatively impacted by high levels of miR-147. Whether down-regulation of miR-147 is directly induced by PRRSV or if it is part of the cellular response and PRRSV indirectly benefits remains to be determined. No evidence could be found of PRRSV-encoded miRNAs. Overall, the present study has revealed that a large and diverse group of miRNAs are expressed in swine alveolar macrophages and that the expression of a subset of these miRNAs is altered in PRRSV infected macrophages.

  15. Antibiotic-Mediated Inhibition of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV Infection: A Novel Quinolone Function Which Potentiates the Antiviral Cytokine Response in MARC-145 Cells and Pig Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Cafruny

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is an economically significant agent for which there currently are no effective treatments. Development of antiviral agents for PRRSV as well as many other viruses has been limited by toxicity of known antiviral compounds. In contrast, antibiotics for non-virus microbial infections have been widely useful, in part because of their acceptable toxicity in animals. We report here the discovery that the quinolonecontaining compound Plasmocin™, as well as the quinolones nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, have potent anti-PRRSV activity in vitro. PRRSV replication was inhibited by these antibiotics in both cultured MARC-145 cells and cultured primary alveolar porcine macrophages (PAMs. Furthermore, sub-optimal concentrations of nalidixic acid synergized with antiviral cytokines (AK-2 or IFN-γ to quantitatively and qualitatively inhibit PRRSV replication in MARC-145 cells or PAMs. The antiviral activity of Plasmocin and nalidixic acid correlated with reduced actin expression in MARC-145 cells. Replication of the related lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV was also inhibited in primary mouse macrophages by Plasmocin. These results are significant to the development of antiviral strategies with potentially reduced toxicity, and provide a model system to better understand regulation of arterivirus replication.

  16. Highly efficient expression of interleukin-2 under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene enhances protective immune responses of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS DNA vaccine in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Du

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV had caused catastrophic losses in swine industry in China. The current inactivated vaccine provided only limited protection, and the attenuated live vaccine could protect piglets against the HP-PRRSV but there was a possibility that the attenuated virus returned to high virulence. In this study, the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1© was modified under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene and the modified vector pMVAX1© was constructed. Porcine interleukin-2 (IL-2 and GP3-GP5 fusion protein of HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN were highly expressed by pMVAX1©. Mice inoculated with pMVAX1©-GP35 developed significantly higher PRRSV-specific antibody responses and T cell proliferation than those vaccinated with pVAX1©-GP35. pMVAX1©-GP35 was selected as PRRS DNA vaccine candidate and co-administrated with pVAX1©-IL-2 or pMVAX1©-IL-2 in pigs. pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 could provide enhanced PRRSV-specific antibody responses, T cell proliferation, Th1-type and Th2-type cytokine responses and CTL responses than pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35. Following homologous challenge with HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN, similar with attenuated PRRS vaccine group, pigs inoculated with pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 showed no clinical signs, almost no lung lesions and no viremia, as compared to those in pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 groups. It indicated that pMVAX1©-IL-2 effectively increases humoral and cell mediated immune responses of pMVAX1©-GP35. Co-administration of pMVAX1©-IL-2 and pMVAX1©-GP35 might be attractive candidate vaccines for preventing HP-PRRSV infections.

  17. The development of a rapid SYBR one step real-time RT-PCR for detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Prompt detection of PRRSV in the field samples is important for effective PRRS control, thereby reducing the potentially serious economic damage which can result from an outbreak. In this study, a rapid SYBR-based, one step real-time RT-PCR quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) has been developed for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Primers were designed based on the sequence of highly conservative region of PRRSV N gene. Results The sensitivity of the real-time qRT-PCR assay was achieved through PRRSV ch-1a RNA for the generation of a standard curve. The detection limit of the assay was found to be 9.6 RNA copies per reaction mixture. This assay had excellent intra- and inter-assay reproducibility as in total 65 field samples were screened for the presence of PRRSV by conventional RT-PCR in parallel with qRT-PCR, and the detection rate increased from 60.0% to 76.9%. Moreover, the specificity result indicated that this assay could reliably differentiate PRRSV from the other swine viral diseases, such as classical swine fever virus (CSFV), swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV). Conclusion The real-time qRT-PCR assay described in this report allows the rapid, specific and sensitive laboratory detection of PRRSV in field samples. PMID:20459705

  18. The development of a rapid SYBR one step real-time RT-PCR for detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu XiangTao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt detection of PRRSV in the field samples is important for effective PRRS control, thereby reducing the potentially serious economic damage which can result from an outbreak. In this study, a rapid SYBR-based, one step real-time RT-PCR quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR has been developed for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. Primers were designed based on the sequence of highly conservative region of PRRSV N gene. Results The sensitivity of the real-time qRT-PCR assay was achieved through PRRSV ch-1a RNA for the generation of a standard curve. The detection limit of the assay was found to be 9.6 RNA copies per reaction mixture. This assay had excellent intra- and inter-assay reproducibility as in total 65 field samples were screened for the presence of PRRSV by conventional RT-PCR in parallel with qRT-PCR, and the detection rate increased from 60.0% to 76.9%. Moreover, the specificity result indicated that this assay could reliably differentiate PRRSV from the other swine viral diseases, such as classical swine fever virus (CSFV, swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV. Conclusion The real-time qRT-PCR assay described in this report allows the rapid, specific and sensitive laboratory detection of PRRSV in field samples.

  19. Pathogenesis of European subtype3 and subtype 1 PRRSV strains in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weesendorp, E.; Stockhofe, N.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) results often in limited protection. Understanding host immune responses and pathogenesis elicited by different PRRSV strains could help to develop more efficacious vaccines. Differences in host response between the

  20. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) (isolate ATCC VR-2385) infection on bactericidal activity of porcine pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs): in vitro comparisons with pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanawongnuwech, R; Thacker, E L; Halbur, P G

    1997-11-01

    Porcine pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) were recovered by in situ pulmonary vascular perfusion with 0.025% collagenase in saline from six 8-week old, crossbred pigs. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) were recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage from the same pigs for comparisons in each assay. The macrophages were exposed to PRRSV (ATCC VR-2385) in vitro for 24 h and infection was confirmed by an indirect immunofluorescence test or transmission electron microscopy. Viral particles tended to accumulate in the vesicles of the Golgi apparatus or endoplasmic reticulum. Bactericidal function assays were performed on the recovered macrophages to determine the effects of the virus on macrophage functions. In vitro PRRSV infection reduced the bactericidal ability of PIMs from 68.3% to 56.4% (P 0.1) at 24 h post-infection. The mean percentage of bacteria killed by macrophages after PRRSV infection was not significantly different among the treatment groups or between the treatment groups and non-infected controls based on colorimetric MTT bactericidal (Staphylococcus aureus) assay. PRRSV did not affect the ability of PIMs or PAMs to internalize opsonized 125I-iododeoxyuridine-labeled S. aureus (P > 0.05). PRRSV infection significantly decreased the production of superoxide anion (P PIMs and by 69.4% in PAMs. PRRSV reduced the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-halide product (P PIMs and by 48.1% for PAMs. The results suggest: (1) PIMs should be considered as an important replication site of PRRSV; (2) PRRSV may have a detrimental effect on both PIMs and PAMs; (3) loss of bactericidal function in PIMs may facilitate hematogenous bacterial infections.

  1. Udvikling af antistoffer efter vaccination mod og podning med PRRSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne Kristensen, Charlotte; Qvist Pawlowski, Mia; Thoning, Henrik

    SEGES Videncenter for Svineproduktion har undersøgt, om det er muligt at opnå den samme udvikling i antistoffer i grise, der var dobbelt-vaccineret med MLV-vaccine mod både PRRSV Type 1 og Type 2 samtidig, sammenlignet med grise, der kun havde fået den ene af vaccinerne. Ud fra forsøget kan vi...... konkludere, at det er muligt at vaccinere med begge PRRS vacciner på samme tid og opnå antistofsvar for begge typer PRRSV. Husk dog altid at give forskellige vacciner i hver sin side af nakken. Blodprøver fra grisene viste, at de havde dannet antistoffer og blev positive i ELISA-testen for PRRSV Type 1 21......-35 dage og PRRSV Type 2 6-14 dage efter vaccination. I IPT-testen testede grisene positive 6-14 dage efter vaccination. Den østeuropæiske PRRSV Type 1 subtype 2 (PRRSV Type Øst), som 1/3 af grisene blev podet med, gav ligeledes anledning til antistofudvikling, der kunne måles i både ELISA-EU og ELISA...

  2. In utero infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus modulates leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar fluid of suviving piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.; Bøtner, Anette; Tingstedt, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that piglets congenitally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be viremic at birth, and that preweaning mortality due to secondary infections often increases during acute outbreaks of PRRS. Therefore, an immunosuppressive effect of in utero...... infection has been suggested. The aim of the present study was to characterise the changes of leukocyte populations in piglets surviving in utero infection with PRRSV. A total of 27 liveborn uninfected control piglets and 22 piglets infected transplacentally with a Danish strain of PRRSV were included. At 2...... and 4 weeks of age, 21 of 22 (96%) and 7 of 14 (50%) examined infected piglets were still viremic, whereas PRRSV could not be detected in the six infected piglets examined at 6 weeks of age. Flow cytometry analysis was used to determine the phenotypic composition of leukocytes in peripheral blood...

  3. Development of a swine specific 9-plex Luminex cytokine assay and assessment of immunity after porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination: Elevated serum IL-12 levels are not predictive of protect

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Luminex multiplex swine cytokine assay was developed to measure 9 cytokines simultaneously in pig serum and tested in a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine/challenge study. This assay detects innate (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IFNa, TNFa); regulatory (IL-10), Th1 (IL-12, I...

  4. Economic Analysis of Immunization Strategies for PRRS Control [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C L Linhares

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv is a swine-specific pathogen that causes significant increases in production costs. When a breeding herd becomes infected, in an attempt to hasten control and elimination of PRRSv, some veterinarians have adopted a strategy called load-close-expose which consists of interrupting replacement pig introductions into the herd for several weeks (herd closure and exposing the whole herd to a replicating PRRSv to boost herd immunity. Either modified-live virus (MLV vaccine or live field-virus inoculation (FVI is used. This study consisted of partial budget analyses to compare MLV to FVI as the exposure method of load-close-expose program to control and eliminate PRRSv from infected breeding herds, and secondly to estimate benefit / cost of vaccinating sow herds preventatively. Under the assumptions used in this study, MLV held economic advantage over FVI. However, sensitivity analysis revealed that decreasing margin over variable costs below $ 47.32, or increasing PRRSv-attributed cost above $18.89 or achieving time-to-stability before 25 weeks resulted in advantage of FVI over MLV. Preventive vaccination of sow herds was beneficial when the frequency of PRRSv infection was at least every 1 year and 9 months [corrected]. The economics of preventative vaccination was minimally affected by cost attributed to field-type PRRSv infection on growing pigs or by the breeding herd productivity level. The models developed and described in this paper provide valuable tools to assist veterinarians in their efforts to control PRRSv.

  5. Monitoring porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection status in swine herds based on analysis of antibodies in meat juice samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sten; Strandbygaard, Bertel; Bøtner, Anette

    2001-01-01

    An indirect ELISA test was developed as a novel tool aimed at monitoring the herd infection status of swine herds. Meat juice samples from pig carcasses were analysed for the presence of antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). A study of samples from herds...... was validated in 47 herds by collection of blood samples from the herds. Eighteen herds were classified as PRRS negative by both test systems. Twenty-nine herds were classified as PRRS seropositive by both test systems. Acceptable herd classification was achieved using this test....

  6. PBMC transcriptome profiles identifies potential candidate genes and functional networks controlling the innate and the adaptive immune response to PRRSV vaccine in Pietrain pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Aminul; Große-Brinkhaus, Christine; Pröll, Maren Julia; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim; Aqter Rony, Sharmin; Tesfaye, Dawit; Tholen, Ernst; Hoelker, Michael; Schellander, Karl; Neuhoff, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a devastating viral disease affecting swine production, health and welfare throughout the world. A synergistic action of the innate and the adaptive immune system of the host is essential for mounting a durable protective immunity through vaccination. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the transcriptome profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to characterize the innate and the adaptive immune response to PRRS Virus (PRRSV) vaccination in Pietrain pigs. The Affymetrix gene chip porcine gene 1.0 ST array was used for the transcriptome profiling of PBMCs collected at immediately before (D0), at one (D1) and 28 days (D28) post PRRSV vaccination with three biological replications. With FDR <0.05 and log2 fold change ±1.5 as cutoff criteria, 295 and 115 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in PBMCs during the stage of innate and adaptive response, respectively. The microarray expression results were technically validated by qRT-PCR. The gene ontology terms such as viral life cycle, regulation of lymphocyte activation, cytokine activity and inflammatory response were enriched during the innate immunity; cytolysis, T cell mediated cytotoxicity, immunoglobulin production were enriched during adaptive immunity to PRRSV vaccination. Significant enrichment of cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, signaling by interleukins, signaling by the B cell receptor (BCR), viral mRNA translation, IFN-gamma pathway and AP-1 transcription factor network pathways were indicating the involvement of altered genes in the antiviral defense. Network analysis revealed that four network modules were functionally involved with the transcriptional network of innate immunity, and five modules were linked to adaptive immunity in PBMCs. The innate immune transcriptional network was found to be regulated by LCK, STAT3, ATP5B, UBB and RSP17. While TGFß1, IL7R, RAD21, SP1 and GZMB are likely to

  7. Comparative analysis of apoptotic changes in peripheral immune organs and lungs following experimental infection of piglets with highly pathogenic and classical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; He, Yuli; Tu, Yabin; Liu, Yonggang; Zhou, En-Min; Han, Zifeng; Jiang, Chenggang; Wang, Shujie; Shi, Wenda; Cai, Xuehui

    2014-01-06

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that piglets infected with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) may develop significant thymus atrophy, which related to thymocytes apoptosis. However, apart from that detected in the thymus, there are no reports describing cell apoptosis induced by HP-PRRSV infection. In this study, we analyzed comparatively the pathological changes, cell apoptosis and viral load in peripheral immune organs including tonsil, inguinal lymph nodes (ILNs) and spleen and lungs following experimental infection of piglets with HP-PRRSV HuN4 and classical PRRSV CH-1a. HP-PRRSV HuN4 exhibited much stronger cell tropism than CH-1a in immune organs and lungs of piglets. HuN4 infection led to the serious injuries in tonsils, ILNs, spleens and lungs, especially apoptosis in these organs was significant. HuN4 infection induced severe lesions (gross pathology, histopathology and cell apoptosis) in the peripheral immune organs and lungs of infected piglets. Large numbers of apoptotic cells in immune organs and lung induced by HuN4 may play a role in the pathogenesis of the HP-PRRS and the distinct injuries caused by HuN4 infection may be associated with the high mortality rate of HP-PRRS in pigs.

  8. Antibody response and maternal immunity upon boosting PRRSV-immune sows with experimental farm-specific and commercial PRRSV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldhof, Marc F; Van Breedam, Wander; De Jong, Ellen; Lopez Rodriguez, Alfonso; Karniychuk, Uladzimir U; Vanhee, Merijn; Van Doorsselaere, Jan; Maes, Dominiek; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-12-27

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disease in pigs of all ages. Despite the frequent use of vaccines to maintain PRRSV immunity in sows, little is known on how the currently used vaccines affect the immunity against currently circulating and genetically divergent PRRSV variants in PRRSV-immune sows, i.e. sows that have a pre-existing PRRSV-specific immunity due to previous infection with or vaccination against the virus. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the capacity of commercially available attenuated/inactivated PRRSV vaccines and autogenous inactivated PRRSV vaccines - prepared according to a previously optimized in-house protocol - to boost the antibody immunity against currently circulating PRRSV variants in PRRSV-immune sows. PRRSV isolates were obtained from 3 different swine herds experiencing PRRSV-related problems, despite regular vaccination of gilts and sows against the virus. In a first part of the study, the PRRSV-specific antibody response upon booster vaccination with commercial PRRSV vaccines and inactivated farm-specific PRRSV vaccines was evaluated in PRRSV-immune, non-pregnant replacement sows from the 3 herds. A boost in virus-neutralizing antibodies against the farm-specific isolate was observed in all sow groups vaccinated with the corresponding farm-specific inactivated vaccines. Use of the commercial attenuated EU type vaccine boosted neutralizing antibodies against the farm-specific isolate in sows derived from 2 farms, while use of the commercial attenuated NA type vaccine did not boost farm-specific virus-neutralizing antibodies in any of the sow groups. Interestingly, the commercial inactivated EU type vaccine boosted farm-specific virus-neutralizing antibodies in sows from 1 farm. In the second part of the study, a field trial was performed at one of the farms to evaluate the booster effect of an inactivated farm-specific vaccine and a commercial

  9. Molecular evolution of type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses circulating in Vietnam from 2007 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hai Quynh; Trinh, Dinh Thau; Nguyen, Thi Lan; Vu, Thi Thu Hang; Than, Duc Duong; Van Lo, Thi; Yeom, Minjoo; Song, Daesub; Choe, SeEun; An, Dong-Jun; Le, Van Phan

    2016-11-17

    Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS) virus is one of the most economically significant pathogens in the Vietnamese swine industry. ORF5, which participates in many functional processes, including virion assembly, entry of the virus into the host cell, and viral adaptation to the host immune response, has been widely used in molecular evolution and phylogeny studies. Knowing of molecular evolution of PRRSV fields strains might contribute to PRRS control in Vietnam. The results showed that phylogenetic analysis indicated that all strains belonged to sub-lineages 8.7 and 5.1. The nucleotide and amino acid identities between strains were 84.5-100% and 82-100%, respectively. Furthermore, the results revealed differences in nucleotide and amino acid identities between the 2 sub-lineage groups. N-glycosylation prediction identified 7 potential N-glycosylation sites and 11 glycotypes. Analyses of the GP5 sequences, revealed 7 sites under positive selective pressure and 25 under negative selective pressure. Phylogenetic analysis based on ORF5 sequence indicated the diversity of PRRSV in Vietnam. Furthermore, the variance of N-glycosylation sites and position under selective pressure were demonstrated. This study expands existing knowledge on the genetic diversity and evolution of PRRSV in Vietnam and assists the effective strategies for PRRS vaccine development in Vietnam.

  10. A brief review of microRNA and its role in PRRSV infection and replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuekun GUO,Wenhai FENG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, a single-stranded RNA virus, mainly infects cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Recently, host microRNAs were shown to be capable of modulating PRRSV infection and replication by multiple ways such as targeting viral genomic RNA, targeting viral receptor and inducing antiviral response. MicroRNAs are small RNAs and have emerged as important regulators of virus-host cell interactions. In this review, we discuss the identified functions of host microRNAs in relation to PRRSV infection and propose that cellular microRNAs may have a substantial effect on cell or tissue tropism of PRRSV.

  11. Detection of PRRSV in 218 field samples using six molecular methods: What we are looking for?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toplak, Ivan; Štukelj, Marina; Gracieux, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity and the specificity of six molecular methods used for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Methods 218 field samples (serum, tissues) were collected between 2009 and 2011 from 50 PRRSV p......-time) Continuesly follow the genetic evaluation of especially Type I PRRSV subtype viruses and regularly update their primer sequences....

  12. Variation in Fetal Outcome, Viral Load and ORF5 Sequence Mutations in a Large Scale Study of Phenotypic Responses to Late Gestation Exposure to Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladinig, Andrea; Wilkinson, Jamie; Ashley, Carolyn; Detmer, Susan E.; Lunney, Joan K.; Plastow, Graham; Harding, John C. S.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of extensive research, the mechanisms of reproductive disease associated with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) are still poorly understood. The objectives of this large scale study were to evaluate associations between viral load and fetal preservation, determine the impact of type 2 PRRSv on fetal weights, and investigate changes in ORF5 PRRSv genome in dams and fetuses during a 21-day period following challenge. At gestation day 85 (±1), 114 gilts were experimentally infected with type 2 PRRSv, while 19 gilts served as reference controls. At necropsy, fetuses were categorized according to their preservation status and tissue samples were collected. PRRSv RNA concentrations were measured in gilt serum collected on days 0, 2, 6, and 21 post-infection, as well as in gilt and fetal tissues collected at termination. Fetal mortality was 41±22.8% in PRRS infected litters. Dead fetuses appeared to cluster in some litters but appeared solitary or random in others. Nine percent of surviving piglets were meconium-stained. PRRSv RNA concentration in fetal thymus, fetal serum and endometrium differed significantly across preservation category and was greatest in tissues of meconium-stained fetuses. This, together with the virtual absence of meconium staining in non-infected litters indicates it is an early pathological condition of reproductive PRRS. Viral load in fetal thymus and in fetal serum was positively associated with viral load in endometrium, suggesting the virus exploits dynamic linkages between individual maternal-fetal compartments. Point mutations in ORF5 sequences from gilts and fetuses were randomly located in 20 positions in ORF5, but neither nucleotide nor amino acid substitutions were associated with fetal preservation. PRRSv infection decreased the weights of viable fetuses by approximately 17%. The considerable variation in gilt and fetal outcomes provides tremendous opportunity for more detailed investigations of

  13. Differences in Whole Blood Gene Expression Associated with Infection Time-Course and Extent of Fetal Mortality in a Reproductive Model of Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jamie M.; Ladinig, Andrea; Bao, Hua; Kommadath, Arun; Stothard, Paul; Lunney, Joan K.; Harding, John C. S.; Plastow, Graham S.

    2016-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) infection of pregnant females causes fetal death and increased piglet mortality, but there is substantial variation in the extent of reproductive pathology between individual dams. This study used RNA-sequencing to characterize the whole blood transcriptional response to type 2 PRRSV in pregnant gilts during the first week of infection (at 0, 2, and 6 days post-inoculation), and attempted to identify gene expression signatures associated with a low or high level of fetal mortality rates (LFM and HFM; n = 8/group) at necropsy, 21 days post-inoculation. The initial response to infection measured at 2 days post-inoculation saw an upregulation of genes involved in innate immunity, such as interferon-stimulated antiviral genes and inflammatory markers, and apoptosis. A concomitant decrease in expression of protein synthesis and T lymphocyte markers was observed. By day 6 the pattern had reversed, with a drop in innate immune signaling and an increase in the expression of genes involved in cell division and T cell signaling. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with extremes of litter mortality rate were identified at all three time-points. Among the 15 DEGs upregulated in LFM gilts on all three days were several genes involved in platelet function, including integrins ITGA2B and ITGB3, and the chemokine PF4 (CXCL4). LFM gilts exhibited a higher baseline expression of interferon-stimulated and pro-inflammatory genes prior to infection, and of T cell markers two days post-infection, indicative of a more rapid progression of the immune response to PRRSV. This study has increased our knowledge of the early response to PRRSV in the blood of pregnant gilts, and could ultimately lead to the development of a biomarker panel that can be used to predict PRRSV-associated reproductive pathology. PMID:27093427

  14. Differences in Whole Blood Gene Expression Associated with Infection Time-Course and Extent of Fetal Mortality in a Reproductive Model of Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie M Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV infection of pregnant females causes fetal death and increased piglet mortality, but there is substantial variation in the extent of reproductive pathology between individual dams. This study used RNA-sequencing to characterize the whole blood transcriptional response to type 2 PRRSV in pregnant gilts during the first week of infection (at 0, 2, and 6 days post-inoculation, and attempted to identify gene expression signatures associated with a low or high level of fetal mortality rates (LFM and HFM; n = 8/group at necropsy, 21 days post-inoculation. The initial response to infection measured at 2 days post-inoculation saw an upregulation of genes involved in innate immunity, such as interferon-stimulated antiviral genes and inflammatory markers, and apoptosis. A concomitant decrease in expression of protein synthesis and T lymphocyte markers was observed. By day 6 the pattern had reversed, with a drop in innate immune signaling and an increase in the expression of genes involved in cell division and T cell signaling. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs associated with extremes of litter mortality rate were identified at all three time-points. Among the 15 DEGs upregulated in LFM gilts on all three days were several genes involved in platelet function, including integrins ITGA2B and ITGB3, and the chemokine PF4 (CXCL4. LFM gilts exhibited a higher baseline expression of interferon-stimulated and pro-inflammatory genes prior to infection, and of T cell markers two days post-infection, indicative of a more rapid progression of the immune response to PRRSV. This study has increased our knowledge of the early response to PRRSV in the blood of pregnant gilts, and could ultimately lead to the development of a biomarker panel that can be used to predict PRRSV-associated reproductive pathology.

  15. Differences in Whole Blood Gene Expression Associated with Infection Time-Course and Extent of Fetal Mortality in a Reproductive Model of Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jamie M; Ladinig, Andrea; Bao, Hua; Kommadath, Arun; Stothard, Paul; Lunney, Joan K; Harding, John C S; Plastow, Graham S

    2016-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) infection of pregnant females causes fetal death and increased piglet mortality, but there is substantial variation in the extent of reproductive pathology between individual dams. This study used RNA-sequencing to characterize the whole blood transcriptional response to type 2 PRRSV in pregnant gilts during the first week of infection (at 0, 2, and 6 days post-inoculation), and attempted to identify gene expression signatures associated with a low or high level of fetal mortality rates (LFM and HFM; n = 8/group) at necropsy, 21 days post-inoculation. The initial response to infection measured at 2 days post-inoculation saw an upregulation of genes involved in innate immunity, such as interferon-stimulated antiviral genes and inflammatory markers, and apoptosis. A concomitant decrease in expression of protein synthesis and T lymphocyte markers was observed. By day 6 the pattern had reversed, with a drop in innate immune signaling and an increase in the expression of genes involved in cell division and T cell signaling. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with extremes of litter mortality rate were identified at all three time-points. Among the 15 DEGs upregulated in LFM gilts on all three days were several genes involved in platelet function, including integrins ITGA2B and ITGB3, and the chemokine PF4 (CXCL4). LFM gilts exhibited a higher baseline expression of interferon-stimulated and pro-inflammatory genes prior to infection, and of T cell markers two days post-infection, indicative of a more rapid progression of the immune response to PRRSV. This study has increased our knowledge of the early response to PRRSV in the blood of pregnant gilts, and could ultimately lead to the development of a biomarker panel that can be used to predict PRRSV-associated reproductive pathology.

  16. Preparation for emergence of an Eastern European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain in Western Europe: Immunization with modified live virus vaccines or a field strain confers partial protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renson, P; Fablet, C; Le Dimna, M; Mahé, S; Touzain, F; Blanchard, Y; Paboeuf, F; Rose, N; Bourry, O

    2017-05-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes huge economic losses for the swine industry worldwide. In the past several years, highly pathogenic strains that lead to even greater losses have emerged. For the Western European swine industry, one threat is the possible introduction of Eastern European PRRSV strains (example Lena genotype 1.3) which were shown to be more virulent than common Western resident strains under experimental conditions. To prepare for the possible emergence of this strain in Western Europe, we immunized piglets with a Western European PRRSV field strain (Finistere: Fini, genotype 1.1), a new genotype 1 commercial modified live virus (MLV) vaccine (MLV1) or a genotype 2 commercial MLV vaccine (MLV2) to evaluate and compare the level of protection that these strains conferred upon challenge with the Lena strain 4 weeks later. Results show that immunization with Fini, MLV1 or MLV2 strains shortened the Lena-induced hyperthermia. In the Fini group, a positive effect was also demonstrated in growth performance. The level of Lena viremia was reduced for all immunized groups (significantly so for Fini and MLV2). This reduction in Lena viremia was correlated with the level of Lena-specific IFNγ-secreting cells. In conclusion, we showed that a commercial MLV vaccine of genotype 1 or 2, as well as a field strain of genotype 1.1 may provide partial clinical and virological protection upon challenge with the Lena strain. The cross-protection induced by these immunizing strains was not related with the level of genetic similarity to the Lena strain. The slightly higher level of protection established with the field strain is attributed to a better cell-mediated immune response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Recognition of Highly Diverse Type-1 and -2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses (PRRSVs by T-Lymphocytes Induced in Pigs after Experimental Infection with a Type-2 PRRSV Strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungwon J Chung

    Full Text Available Live attenuated vaccines confer partial protection in pigs before the appearance of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting the contribution of cell-mediated immunity (CMI. However, PRRSV-specific T-lymphocyte responses and protective mechanisms need to be further defined. To this end, the hypothesis was tested that PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes induced by exposure to type-2 PRRSV can recognize diverse isolates.An IFN-gamma ELISpot assay was used to enumerate PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes from PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts and piglets born after in utero infection against 12 serologically and genetically distinct type-1 and -2 PRRSV isolates. The IFN-gamma ELISpot assay using synthetic peptides spanning all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 was utilized to localize epitopes recognized by T-lymphocytes. Virus neutralization tests were carried out using the challenge strain (type-2 PRRSVSD23983 and another strain (type-2 PRRSVVR2332 with high genetic similarity to evaluate cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies in gilts after PRRSVSD23983 infection.At 72 days post infection, T-lymphocytes from one of three PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts recognized all 12 diverse PRRSV isolates, while T-lymphocytes from the other two gilts recognized all but one isolate. Furthermore, five of nine 14-day-old piglets infected in utero with PRRSVSD23983 had broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, including one piglet that recognized all 12 isolates. Overlapping peptides encompassing all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 were used to identify ≥28 peptides with T-lymphocyte epitopes from 10 viral proteins. This included one peptide from the M protein that was recognized by T-lymphocytes from all three gilts representing two completely mismatched MHC haplotypes. In contrast to the broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, neutralizing antibody responses were specific to the infecting PRRSVSD23983 isolate.These results demonstrated that T-lymphocytes recognizing antigenically and

  18. Recognition of Highly Diverse Type-1 and -2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses (PRRSVs) by T-Lymphocytes Induced in Pigs after Experimental Infection with a Type-2 PRRSV Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chungwon J; Cha, Sang-Ho; Grimm, Amanda L; Chung, Grace; Gibson, Kathleen A; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Parish, Steven M; Ho, Chak-Sum; Lee, Stephen S

    2016-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccines confer partial protection in pigs before the appearance of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting the contribution of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). However, PRRSV-specific T-lymphocyte responses and protective mechanisms need to be further defined. To this end, the hypothesis was tested that PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes induced by exposure to type-2 PRRSV can recognize diverse isolates. An IFN-gamma ELISpot assay was used to enumerate PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes from PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts and piglets born after in utero infection against 12 serologically and genetically distinct type-1 and -2 PRRSV isolates. The IFN-gamma ELISpot assay using synthetic peptides spanning all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 was utilized to localize epitopes recognized by T-lymphocytes. Virus neutralization tests were carried out using the challenge strain (type-2 PRRSVSD23983) and another strain (type-2 PRRSVVR2332) with high genetic similarity to evaluate cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies in gilts after PRRSVSD23983 infection. At 72 days post infection, T-lymphocytes from one of three PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts recognized all 12 diverse PRRSV isolates, while T-lymphocytes from the other two gilts recognized all but one isolate. Furthermore, five of nine 14-day-old piglets infected in utero with PRRSVSD23983 had broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, including one piglet that recognized all 12 isolates. Overlapping peptides encompassing all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 were used to identify ≥28 peptides with T-lymphocyte epitopes from 10 viral proteins. This included one peptide from the M protein that was recognized by T-lymphocytes from all three gilts representing two completely mismatched MHC haplotypes. In contrast to the broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, neutralizing antibody responses were specific to the infecting PRRSVSD23983 isolate. These results demonstrated that T-lymphocytes recognizing antigenically and genetically diverse

  19. Recognition of Highly Diverse Type-1 and -2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses (PRRSVs) by T-Lymphocytes Induced in Pigs after Experimental Infection with a Type-2 PRRSV Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Sang-Ho; Grimm, Amanda L.; Chung, Grace; Gibson, Kathleen A.; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Parish, Steven M.; Ho, Chak-Sum; Lee, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim Live attenuated vaccines confer partial protection in pigs before the appearance of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting the contribution of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). However, PRRSV-specific T-lymphocyte responses and protective mechanisms need to be further defined. To this end, the hypothesis was tested that PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes induced by exposure to type-2 PRRSV can recognize diverse isolates. Methods An IFN-gamma ELISpot assay was used to enumerate PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes from PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts and piglets born after in utero infection against 12 serologically and genetically distinct type-1 and -2 PRRSV isolates. The IFN-gamma ELISpot assay using synthetic peptides spanning all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 was utilized to localize epitopes recognized by T-lymphocytes. Virus neutralization tests were carried out using the challenge strain (type-2 PRRSVSD23983) and another strain (type-2 PRRSVVR2332) with high genetic similarity to evaluate cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies in gilts after PRRSVSD23983 infection. Results At 72 days post infection, T-lymphocytes from one of three PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts recognized all 12 diverse PRRSV isolates, while T-lymphocytes from the other two gilts recognized all but one isolate. Furthermore, five of nine 14-day-old piglets infected in utero with PRRSVSD23983 had broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, including one piglet that recognized all 12 isolates. Overlapping peptides encompassing all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 were used to identify ≥28 peptides with T-lymphocyte epitopes from 10 viral proteins. This included one peptide from the M protein that was recognized by T-lymphocytes from all three gilts representing two completely mismatched MHC haplotypes. In contrast to the broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, neutralizing antibody responses were specific to the infecting PRRSVSD23983 isolate. Conclusion These results demonstrated that T-lymphocytes recognizing

  20. Comparison of time to PRRSv-stability and production losses between two exposure programs to control PRRSv in sow herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares, D C L; Cano, J P; Torremorell, M; Morrison, R B

    2014-09-01

    To control and eliminate porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) from breeding herds, some veterinarians adopt a strategy called load-close-expose which consists of interrupting replacement pig introduction for several months and exposing the pigs to a replicating PRRSv. This was a prospective quasi-experiment that followed 61 breeding herds acutely infected with PRRSv that adopted one of two exposure programs: modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine or live-resident virus inoculation (LVI). Treatment groups (load-close-expose with MLV or LVI) were compared for: (a) time-to-PRRSv stability (TTS), defined as time in weeks it took to produce PRRSv negative pigs at weaning; (b) the time-to-baseline production (TTBP), defined using statistical process control methods to represent time to recover to the number of pigs weaned per week that herds had prior to PRRSv-detection; and (c) the total production loss in terms of number of pigs weaned per week. TTS and TTBP were compared between treatments using survival analysis. Day 1 of the program was considered to be the day that treatment was administered. Sampling at herds consisted of bleeding 30 due-to-wean piglets on a monthly basis. Serum was tested for PRRSv RNA by RT-PCR. Herds in which PRRSv was not detected over a 90-day period were classified as reaching stability. Multivariate analysis using proportional hazards regression was performed adjusting the effect of treatment on TTBP and TTS to 'severity of PRRSv infection', 'number of whole-herd exposures', 'days from PRRSv-detection to intervention', 'prior PRRSv-infection status' and 'veterinary clinic associated with the herd'. Total loss was compared between groups using multivariate regression analysis adjusted by selected covariates. The median TTS among participating herds was 26.6 weeks (25th to 75th percentile, 21.6-33.0 weeks). The overall TTBP was 16.5 weeks (range 0-29 weeks). The magnitude of production losses following whole-herd exposure

  1. Efficacy and safety of simultaneous vaccination with two modified live virus vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus types 1 and 2 in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Charlotte S.; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Pawlowski, Maciej

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare responses of pigs vaccinated with a PRRS MLV vaccine against PRRSV-1 or PRRSV-2 with the responses of pigs vaccinated simultaneously with both vaccines. Furthermore, the efficacy of the two PRRSV MLV vaccination strategies was assessed following challenge...

  2. Innate and adaptive immunity against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, Crystal L; Osorio, Fernando A; Murtaugh, Michael P; Zuckermann, Federico A

    2015-09-15

    Many highly effective vaccines have been produced against viruses whose virulent infection elicits strong and durable protective immunity. In these cases, characterization of immune effector mechanisms and identification of protective epitopes/immunogens has been informative for the development of successful vaccine programs. Diseases in which the immune system does not rapidly clear the acute infection and/or convalescent immunity does not provide highly effective protection against secondary challenge pose a major hurdle for clinicians and scientists. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) falls primarily into this category, though not entirely. PRRSV causes a prolonged infection, though the host eventually clears the virus. Neutralizing antibodies can provide passive protection when present prior to challenge, though infection can be controlled in the absence of detectable neutralizing antibodies. In addition, primed pigs (through natural exposure or vaccination with a modified-live vaccine) show some protection against secondary challenge. While peripheral PRRSV-specific T cell responses have been examined, their direct contribution to antibody-mediated immunity and viral clearance have not been fully elucidated. The innate immune response following PRRSV infection, particularly the antiviral type I interferon response, is meager, but when provided exogenously, IFN-α enhances PRRSV immunity and viral control. Overall, the quality of immunity induced by natural PRRSV infection is not ideal for informing vaccine development programs. The epitopes necessary for protection may be identified through natural exposure or modified-live vaccines and subsequently applied to vaccine delivery platforms to accelerate induction of protective immunity following vaccination. Collectively, further work to identify protective B and T cell epitopes and mechanisms by which PRRSV eludes innate immunity will enhance our ability to develop more effective methods

  3. Genomic prediction of piglet response to infection with one of two porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waide, Emily H; Tuggle, Christopher K; Serão, Nick V L; Schroyen, Martine; Hess, Andrew; Rowland, Raymond R R; Lunney, Joan K; Plastow, Graham; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2018-02-01

    Genomic prediction of the pig's response to the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) would be a useful tool in the swine industry. This study investigated the accuracy of genomic prediction based on porcine SNP60 Beadchip data using training and validation datasets from populations with different genetic backgrounds that were challenged with different PRRSV isolates. Genomic prediction accuracy averaged 0.34 for viral load (VL) and 0.23 for weight gain (WG) following experimental PRRSV challenge, which demonstrates that genomic selection could be used to improve response to PRRSV infection. Training on WG data during infection with a less virulent PRRSV, KS06, resulted in poor accuracy of prediction for WG during infection with a more virulent PRRSV, NVSL. Inclusion of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are in linkage disequilibrium with a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 4 was vital for accurate prediction of VL. Overall, SNPs that were significantly associated with either trait in single SNP genome-wide association analysis were unable to predict the phenotypes with an accuracy as high as that obtained by using all genotyped SNPs across the genome. Inclusion of data from close relatives into the training population increased whole genome prediction accuracy by 33% for VL and by 37% for WG but did not affect the accuracy of prediction when using only SNPs in the major QTL region. Results show that genomic prediction of response to PRRSV infection is moderately accurate and, when using all SNPs on the porcine SNP60 Beadchip, is not very sensitive to differences in virulence of the PRRSV in training and validation populations. Including close relatives in the training population increased prediction accuracy when using the whole genome or SNPs other than those near a major QTL.

  4. Survival of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in fresh pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Helena; Moura, Junior; Cox, Ryan B; Goyal, Sagar M; Patnayak, Devi P

    2014-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) remains one of the most economically important diseases of pigs. Transmission of PRRS virus has been reported through many routes, with aerosol route being the most predominant. There may also be a potential risk of transmission through contami-nated pork, but this has never been investigated. The purpose of this study was to experimentally contaminate fresh pork with three different concentrations of PRRSV and to study virus survival at ambient (25 °C), refrigerated (4 °C), and frozen (-20 °C) temperatures. Concentrations of virus representing natural infectivity level and 'worst case scenario' were studied. The virus was detected in fresh pork at all three virus concentrations for up to 48 h at ambient temperature. At 4 °C, the virus survived for 6 days in pork inoculated with the higher virus concentration and for 3 days in pork inoculated at the lower concentration. At frozen temperature, PRRSV was detected for up to 60 days in pork inoculated at the higher concentration and for 7 days in pork inoculated at the lower concentration. These results suggest that fresh pork has the potential to be a vehicle for virus dissemination depending upon temperature and time of storage.

  5. Pathogenicity of three genetically diverse strains of PRRSV Type 1 in specific pathogen free pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadejek, Tomasz; Larsen, Lars E; Podgórska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Studies from Eastern European countries proved that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Type 1 (PRRSV-1) harbours high genetic diversity and that genetically divergent subtypes 2-4 circulate in this area. In the present study, we compared the pathogenicity of two different PRRSV-1...

  6. Reactomes of porcine alveolar macrophages infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Jiang

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS has devastated pig industries worldwide for many years. It is caused by a small RNA virus (PRRSV, which targets almost exclusively pig monocytes or macrophages. In the present study, five SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression libraries derived from 0 hour mock-infected and 6, 12, 16 and 24 hours PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs produced a total 643,255 sequenced tags with 91,807 unique tags. Differentially expressed (DE tags were then detected using the Bayesian framework followed by gene/mRNA assignment, arbitrary selection and manual annotation, which determined 699 DE genes for reactome analysis. The DAVID, KEGG and REACTOME databases assigned 573 of the DE genes into six biological systems, 60 functional categories and 504 pathways. The six systems are: cellular processes, genetic information processing, environmental information processing, metabolism, organismal systems and human diseases as defined by KEGG with modification. Self-organizing map (SOM analysis further grouped these 699 DE genes into ten clusters, reflecting their expression trends along these five time points. Based on the number one functional category in each system, cell growth and death, transcription processes, signal transductions, energy metabolism, immune system and infectious diseases formed the major reactomes of PAMs responding to PRRSV infection. Our investigation also focused on dominant pathways that had at least 20 DE genes identified, multi-pathway genes that were involved in 10 or more pathways and exclusively-expressed genes that were included in one system. Overall, our present study reported a large set of DE genes, compiled a comprehensive coverage of pathways, and revealed system-based reactomes of PAMs infected with PRRSV. We believe that our reactome data provides new insight into molecular mechanisms involved in host genetic complexity of antiviral activities against PRRSV and

  7. Recognition of Highly Diverse Type-1 and -2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses (PRRSVs) by T-Lymphocytes Induced in Pigs after Experimental Infection with a Type-2 PRRSV Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Chungwon J.; Cha, Sang-Ho; Grimm, Amanda L.; Chung, Grace; Gibson, Kathleen A.; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Parish, Steven M.; Ho, Chak-Sum; Lee, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim Live attenuated vaccines confer partial protection in pigs before the appearance of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting the contribution of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). However, PRRSV-specific T-lymphocyte responses and protective mechanisms need to be further defined. To this end, the hypothesis was tested that PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes induced by exposure to type-2 PRRSV can recognize diverse isolates. Methods An IFN-gamma ELISpot assay was used to enumerate PRRSV-specifi...

  8. Genetic engineering alveolar macrophages for host resistance to PRRSV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Randall S; Whitworth, Kristin M; Schommer, Susan K; Wells, Kevin D

    2017-09-01

    Standard strategies for control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have not been effective, as vaccines have not reduced the prevalence of disease and many producers depopulate after an outbreak. Another method of control would be to prevent the virus from infecting the pig. The virus was thought to infect alveolar macrophages by interaction with a variety of cell surface molecules. One popular model had PRRSV first interacting with heparin sulfate followed by binding to sialoadhesin and then being internalized into an endosome. Within the endosome, PRRSV was thought to interact with CD163 to uncoat the virus so the viral genome could be released into the cytosol and infect the cell. Other candidate receptors have included vimentin, CD151 and CD209. By using genetic engineering, it is possible to test the importance of individual entry mediators by knocking them out. Pigs engineered by knockout of sialoadhesin were still susceptible to infection, while CD163 knockout resulted in pigs that were resistant to infection. Genetic engineering is not only a valuable tool to determine the role of specific proteins in infection by PRRSV (in this case), but also provides a means to create animals resistant to disease. Genetic engineering of alveolar macrophages can also illuminate the role of other proteins in response to infection. We suggest that strategies to prevent infection be pursued to reduce the reservoir of virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the Cross-Protective Efficacy of a Chimeric Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Constructed Based on Two Field Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabir, Nadeem; Khatun, Amina; Nazki, Salik; Kim, Bumseok; Choi, Eun-Jin; Sun, Dong; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Won-Il

    2016-08-22

    One of the major hurdles to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccinology is the limited or no cross-protection conferred by current vaccines. To overcome this challenge, a PRRS chimeric virus (CV) was constructed using an FL12-based cDNA infectious clone in which open reading frames (ORFs) 3-4 and ORFs 5-6 were replaced with the two Korean field isolates K08-1054 and K07-2273,respectively. This virus was evaluated as a vaccine candidate to provide simultaneous protection against two genetically distinct PRRS virus (PRRSV) strains. Thirty PRRS-negative three-week-old pigs were divided into five groups and vaccinated with CV, K08-1054, K07-2273, VR-2332, or a mock inoculum. At 25 days post-vaccination (dpv), the pigs in each group were divided further into two groups and challenged with either K08-1054 or K07-2273. All of the pigs were observed until 42 dpv and were euthanized for pathological evaluation. Overall, the CV-vaccinated group exhibited higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin-12 (IL-12) expression and of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies compared with the other groups after vaccination and also demonstrated better protection levels against both viruses compared with the challenge control group. Based on these results, it was concluded that CV might be an effective vaccine model that can confer a broader range of cross-protection to various PRRSV strains.

  10. In situ hybridization to detect porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novosel, Dinko; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2012-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has for nearly 3 decades been economically one of the most important swine diseases. Despite intensive research focus, many unanswered questions remain regarding the pathogenesis of PRRSV. In situ hybridization (ISH) is generally considered...

  11. Comparative analysis of signature genes in PRRSV-infected porcine monocyte-derived cells to different stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Miller

    Full Text Available Monocyte-derived DCs (mDCs are major target cells in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV pathogenesis; however, the plasticity of mDCs in response to activation stimuli and PRRSV infection remains unstudied. In this study, we polarized mDCs, and applied genome-wide transcriptomic analysis and predicted protein-protein interaction networks to compare signature genes involved in mDCs activation and response to PRRSV infection. Porcine mDCs were polarized with mediators for 30 hours, then mock-infected, infected with PRRSV strain VR2332, or a highly pathogenic PRRSV strain (rJXwn06, for 5 h. Total RNA was extracted and used to construct sequencing libraries for RNA-Seq. Comparisons were made between each polarized and unpolarized group (i.e. mediator vs. PBS, and between PRRSV-infected and uninfected cells stimulated with the same mediator. Differentially expressed genes (DEG from the comparisons were used for prediction of interaction networks affected by the viruses and mediators. The results showed that PRRSV infection inhibited M1-prone immune activity, downregulated genes, predicted network interactions related to cellular integrity, and inflammatory signaling in favor of M2 activity. Additionally, the number of DEG and predicted network interactions stimulated in HP-PRRSV infected mDCs was superior to the VR-2332 infected mDCs and conformed with HP-PRRSV pathogenicity.

  12. A highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus candidate vaccine based on Japanese encephalitis virus replicon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pingsheng; Chen, Xiaoming; Huang, Lihong; Liu, Shukai; Zang, Fuyu; Xing, Jinchao; Zhang, Youyue; Liang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Guihong; Liao, Ming; Qi, Wenbao

    2017-01-01

    In the swine industry, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a highly contagious disease which causes heavy economic losses worldwide. Effective prevention and disease control is an important issue. In this study, we described the construction of a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) DNA-based replicon with a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter based on the genome of Japanese encephalitis live vaccine virus SA14-14-2, which is capable of offering a potentially novel way to develop and produce vaccines against a major pathogen of global health. This JEV DNA-based replicon contains a large deletion in the structural genes (C-prM-E). A PRRSV GP5/M was inserted into the deletion position of JEV DNA-based replicons to develop a chimeric replicon vaccine candidate for PRRSV. The results showed that BALB/c mice models with the replicon vaccines pJEV-REP-G-2A-M-IRES and pJEV-REP-G-2A-M stimulated antibody responses and induced a cellular immune response. Analysis of ELSA data showed that vaccination with the replicon vaccine expressing GP5/M induced a better antibodies response than traditional DNA vaccines. Therefore, the results suggested that this ectopic expression system based on JEV DNA-based replicons may represent a useful molecular platform for various biological applications, and the JEV DNA-based replicons expressing GP5/M can be further developed into a novel, safe vaccine candidate for PRRS.

  13. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) with special reference to clinical aspects and diagnosis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nodelijk, G.

    2002-01-01

    After a short introduction on Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) regarding the history, the first occurrence in several countries, and the causal virus, designated Lelystad virus, a description is given of the clinical aspects and several diagnostic methods. After some general

  14. Chimeric porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus containing shuffled multiple envelope genes confers cross-protection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Debin; Ni, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Lei; Opriessnig, Tanja; Cao, Dianjun; Piñeyro, Pablo; Yugo, Danielle M; Overend, Christopher; Cao, Qian; Lynn Heffron, C; Halbur, Patrick G; Pearce, Douglas S; Calvert, Jay G; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2015-11-01

    The extensive genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains is a major obstacle for vaccine development. We previously demonstrated that chimeric PRRSVs in which a single envelope gene (ORF3, ORF4, ORF5 or ORF6) was shuffled via DNA shuffling had an improved heterologous cross-neutralizing ability. In this study, we incorporate all of the individually-shuffled envelope genes together in different combinations into an infectious clone backbone of PRRSV MLV Fostera(®) PRRS. Five viable progeny chimeric viruses were rescued, and their growth characteristics were characterized in vitro. In a pilot pig study, two chimeric viruses (FV-SPDS-VR2,FV-SPDS-VR5) were found to induce cross-neutralizing antibodies against heterologous strains. A subsequent vaccination/challenge study in 72 pigs revealed that chimeric virus FV-SPDS-VR2 and parental virus conferred partial cross-protection when challenged with heterologous strains NADC20 or MN184B. The results have important implications for future development of an effective PRRSV vaccine that confers heterologous protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Engineering a CTL-Tailored Replicon RNA Vaccine against PRRSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welner, Simon; Werder, Simea; Nielsen, Morten

    The development of vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been hampered by the high mutation rate and the multiple immunoevasive strategies of the virus. With the overall aim of designing a broad coverage vaccine that induces an effective CTL response...... detection in the presence of a proteasome inhibitor. Finally, a vaccination-challenge experiment using 18 SLA-matched pigs is currently being conducted until July 2016 in which a test group and a control group are being vaccinated twice with VRPs expressing PRRSV epitopes and non-sense control epitopes...... will be available for IVIS. This study exemplifies how bioinformatics epitope prediction, recombinant SLA molecules and RNA virus replicon design can be used to engineer a replicating non-propagating vaccine tailored to deliver conserved and immunogenic CTL epitopes....

  16. Real-time onestep RT-PCR for the detection and differentiation of European and North American types of PRRSV in boar semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik

    Porcine Reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRRSV) is a single-stranded RNA virus and a worldwide cause of significant respiratory disease and reproductive failure in swine. Two different types of PRRSV, the European (EU) and North American (US) type exist. Boar semen can harbor PRRSV (1...

  17. Epidemiological study of air filtration systems for preventing PRRSV infection in large sow herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmen; Murtaugh, Michael P; Dee, Scott A; Davies, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most economically significant pathogen in the US swine industry. Aerosol transmission among herds is a major concern in pig dense regions and filtration of incoming air, in combination with standard biosecurity procedures, has been demonstrated to prevent transmission of PRRSV into susceptible herds. To quantify the impact of air filtration on reducing risk of PRRSV outbreaks, we compared the incidence rate of new PRRSV introductions in 20 filtered and 17 non-filtered control sow herds in a swine dense region of North America during a 7 year study period. Events of novel virus introduction were ascertained by phylogenetic analysis of PRRSV ORF5 gene sequences. Putative new viruses were defined as exogenous (introduced) based on ORF5 nucleotide sequence differences compared to previous farm isolates. The influence of sequence difference cut-off values ranging from 2 to 10% on case definition and relative risk were evaluated. Non-filtered farms incurred about 0.5 outbreaks per year, with a seasonal increase in risk in cooler periods. Baseline risk, prior to filtration, in treatment farms was approximately 0.75 per year, approximately 50% higher than in control farms. Air filtration significantly reduced risk of PRRSV introduction events to 0.06-0.22 outbreaks per year, depending on the cut-off values used to classify a virus isolate as new to the herd. Overall, air filtration led to an approximately 80% reduction in risk of introduction of novel PRRSV, indicating that on large sow farms with good biosecurity in swine-dense regions, approximately four-fifths of PRRSV outbreaks may be attributable to aerosol transmission. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Honeybee (Apis mellifera Venom Reinforces Viral Clearance during the Early Stage of Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus through the Up-Regulation of Th1-Specific Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-A Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a chronic and immunosuppressive viral disease that is responsible for substantial economic losses for the swine industry. Honeybee venom (HBV is known to possess several beneficial biological properties, particularly, immunomodulatory effects. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of HBV on the immune response and viral clearance during the early stage of infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in pigs. HBV was administered via three routes of nasal, neck, and rectal and then the pigs were inoculated with PRRSV intranasally. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and levels of interferon (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-12 were significantly increased in the HBV-administered healthy pigs via nasal and rectal administration. In experimentally PRRSV-challenged pigs with virus, the viral genome load in the serum, lung, bronchial lymph nodes and tonsil was significantly decreased, as was the severity of interstitial pneumonia, in the nasal and rectal administration group. Furthermore, the levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12 were significantly increased, along with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β with HBV administration. Thus, HBV administration—especially via the nasal or rectal route—could be a suitable strategy for immune enhancement and prevention of PRRSV infection in pigs.

  19. Genetic analysis of ORF5 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolated in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Nguyen Thi Dieu; Thu, Nguyen Thi Dieu; Son, Nguyen Giang; Ha, Le Thi Thu; Hung, Vo Khanh; Nguyen, Nguyen Thao; Khoa, Do Vo Anh

    2013-07-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically important swine pathogens because it is highly infectious and causes economic losses due to decreased pig productivity. In this study, the 603 bp complete major envelope protein encoding gene (ORF5) of 32 field PRRSV isolates from Vietnam collected during 2008-2012 were sequenced and analyzed. Multiple nucleotide (nt) and deduced amino acid (aa) alignments of ORF5 were performed on the 32 isolates: the representative strains (European and North American genotypes), Chinese strains available in GenBank and vaccine strains licensed for use in Vietnam. The results showed 94.8-100.0% nt identity and 94.0-100% aa similarity among the 32 isolates. These isolates shared similarities with the prototype of the North American PRRSV strain (VR-2332; nt 87.8-89.3%, aa 87.5-90.0%), and Lelystat virus, the prototype of the European PRRSV strain (LV; nt 61.1-61.9%, aa 55.1-57.0%). There was greater similarity with QN07 (nt 96.5-98.5%, aa 96.0-99.0%) from the 2007 PRRS outbreak in QuangNam Province, CH-1a (nt 93.2-95.1%, 91.5-93.5%) isolated in China in 1995 and JXA1 (nt 96.5-98.6%, aa 95.0-98.0%), the highly pathogenic strain from China isolated in 2006. The Vietnamese isolates were more similar to JXA1-R (nt 96.5-98.6%, aa 95.0-98.0%), the strain used in Chinese vaccines, than to Ingelvac MLV/BSL-PS (nt 87.2-89.0%, aa 86.0-89.0%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 32 isolates were of the North American genotype and classified into sub-lineage 8.7. This sub-lineage contains highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strains. This study documents genetic variation in circulating PRRSV strains and could assist more effective use of PRRS vaccines in Vietnam. © 2013 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Construction and prokaryotic expression of the fusion gene PRRSV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl4

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... pathology mechanisms of autoimmune diseases (Koets et al., 1999; Wong, 1999; Atay et al., 2009; ... Amplification of target gene PRRSV GP5 and construction of. pMD18-GP5 plasmid. Virus RNA was ... Construction of fusion expressed plasmid pET32-GP5-Hsp70. pMD18-GP5 and pET-32(α+) plasmids ...

  1. Genome-wide gene expression profiles in lung tissues of pig breeds differing in resistance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyi Xing

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV is an infectious disease characterized by severe reproductive deficiency in pregnant sows, typical respiratory symptoms in piglets, and high mortality rate of piglets. In this study, we employed an Affymetrix microarray chip to compare the gene expression profiles of lung tissue samples from Dapulian (DPL pigs (a Chinese indigenous pig breed and Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire (DLY pigs after infection with PRRSV. During infection with PRRSV, the DLY pigs exhibited a range of clinical features that typify the disease, whereas the DPL pigs showed only mild signs of the disease. Overall, the DPL group had a lower percentage of CD4(+ cells and lower CD4(+/CD8(+ratios than the DLY group (p<0.05. For both IL-10 and TNF-α, the DLY pigs had significantly higher levels than the DPL pigs (p<0.01. The DLY pigs have lower serum IFN-γ levels than the DPL pigs (p<0.01. The serum IgG levels increased slightly from 0 dpi to 7 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi (p<0.0001. Microarray data analysis revealed 16 differentially expressed (DE genes in the lung tissue samples from the DLY and DPL pigs (q≤5%, of which LOC100516029 and LOC100523005 were up-regulated in the PRRSV-infected DPL pigs, while the other 14 genes were down-regulated in the PRRSV-infected DPL pigs compared with the PRRSV-infected DLY pigs. The mRNA expression levels of 10 out of the 16 DE genes were validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and their fold change was consistent with the result of microarray data analysis. We further analyzed the mRNA expression level of 8 differentially expressed genes between the DPL and DLY pigs for both uninfected and infected groups, and found that TF and USP18 genes were important in underlying porcine resistance or susceptibility to PRRSV.

  2. Transdermal delivery of plasmid encoding truncated nucleocapsid protein enhanced PRRSV-specific immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suradhat, Sanipa; Wongyanin, Piya; Sirisereewan, Chaitawat; Nedumpun, Teerawut; Lumyai, Mongkol; Triyarach, Sittikorn; Chaturavittawong, Damnoen; Paphavasit, Termsit; Panyatong, Raphee; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje

    2016-01-27

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) induces several immunomodulatory mechanisms that resulted in delayed and ineffective anti-viral immune responses. Recently, it has been shown that intradermal immunization of plasmid encoding truncated nucleocapsid protein (pORF7t) could reduce PRRSV-induced immunomodulatory activities and enhances anti-PRRSV immunity in vaccinated pigs. However, intradermal immunization may not be practical for farm setting. Currently, there are several transdermal delivery systems available in the market, although they were not originally designed for plasmid delivery. To investigate the potential use of a transdermal delivery system for delivering of pORF7t and its immunological outcomes. The immunomodulatory effects induced by transdermal delivery of pORF7t were compared with intradermal immunization in an experimental pig model. In addition, immunomodulatory effects of the DNA vaccine were determined in the fattening pigs kept in a PRRSV-positive farm environment, and in the experimental pigs receiving heterologous prime-boost, pORF7t-modified live vaccine (MLV) immunization. The patterns of PRRSV-specific cellular responses induced by transdermal and intradermal immunizations of pORF7t were similar. Interestingly, the pigs transdermally immunized with pORF7t exhibited higher number of PRRSV-specific CD8(+)IFN-γ(+) cells. Pigs immunized with pORF7t and kept at PRRSV-positive environment exhibited enhanced PRRSV-specific IFN-γ(+) production, reduced numbers of regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) and lower lung scores at the end of the finishing period. In the heterologous prime-boost experiment, priming with pORF7t prior to MLV vaccination resulted in significantly higher numbers of CD3(+)IFN-γ(+) subpopulations, lower numbers of PRRSV-specific CD3(+)IL-10(+) cells and Tregs, and rapid antibody responses in immunized pigs. Transdermal immunization with pORF7t reduced PRRRSV-induced immunomodulatory effects and enhanced

  3. Characterization of polyclonal antibodies against nonstructural protein 9 from the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng ZHAO,Juanjuan QIAN,Jiexiong XIE,Tiantian CUI,Songling FENG,Guoqiang WANG,Ruining WANG,Guihong ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is considered to be one of the most important infectious diseases impacting the swine industry and is characterized by reproductive failure in late term gestation in sows and respiratory disease in pigs of all ages. The nonstructural protein 9 gene, Nsp9, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is generally regarded as fairly conserved when compared to other viral proteins. Antibodies against Nsp9 will be of great importance for the diagnosis and treatment of the causal agent, PRRS virus. A study was undertaken to generate polyclonal antibodies against the immunodominant Nsp9. For this purpose, the Nsp9 was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently used as an antigen to immunize New Zealand rabbits. Antiserum was identified via an indirect ELISA, and then verified based on the ability to react with both naturally and artificially expressed Nsp9. Results of virus neutralization test showed that this antiserum could not neutralize the PRRSV. Nevertheless, this antiserum as a diagnostic core reagent should prove invaluable for further investigations into the mechanism of PRRS pathogenesis.

  4. Enhancement of innate immunity with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor did not mitigate disease in pigs infected with a highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is responsible for one of the most economically important diseases in swine worldwide. It causes reproductive failure in sows and pneumonia in pigs that predisposes them to secondary bacterial infections. Methods to control PRRSV and/or lim...

  5. Analysis of the Binding Sites of Porcine Sialoadhesin Receptor with PRRSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV can infect pigs and cause enormous economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Porcine sialoadhesin (pSN and CD163 have been identified as key viral receptors on porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM, a main target cell infected by PRRSV. In this study, the protein structures of amino acids 1–119 from the pSN and cSN (cattle sialoadhesin N-termini (excluding the 19-amino acid signal peptide were modeled via homology modeling based on mSN (mouse sialoadhesin template structures using bioinformatics tools. Subsequently, pSN and cSN homology structures were superposed onto the mSN protein structure to predict the binding sites of pSN. As a validation experiment, the SN N-terminus (including the wild-type and site-directed-mutant-types of pSN and cSN was cloned and expressed as a SN-GFP chimera protein. The binding activity between SN and PRRSV was confirmed by WB (Western blotting, FAR-WB (far Western blotting, ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence assay. We found that the S107 amino acid residue in the pSN N-terminal played a crucial role in forming a special cavity, as well as a hydrogen bond for enhancing PRRSV binding during PRRSV infection. S107 may be glycosylated during PRRSV infection and may also be involved in forming the cavity for binding PRRSV along with other sites, including W2, Y44, S45, R97, R105, W106 and V109. Additionally, S107 might also be important for pSN binding with PRRSV. However, the function of these binding sites must be confirmed by further studies.

  6. Attempts to enhance cross-protection against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses using chimeric viruses containing structural genes from two antigenically distinct strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dong; Khatun, Amina; Kim, Won-Il; Cooper, Vickie; Cho, Yong-Il; Wang, Chong; Choi, Eun-Jin; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-08-05

    Due to significant antigenic variations between field isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), suboptimal cross-protection between different viruses impedes the effective control of PRRS via vaccination. Our previous study showed that chimeric viruses containing mixed structural genes from two distinct strains (VR2332 and JA142) of PRRSV were highly susceptible to the viral neutralizing activity of antisera generated against both parental strains. In this study, three chimeric viruses (JAP5, JAP56 and JAP2-6) were constructed by replacing ORF5, ORFs 5 and 6, and ORFs 2-6 of VR2332 with the corresponding genes of JA142, respectively, and their ability to confer cross-protection against challenge with the VR2332 and JA142 strains was evaluated in vivo. A total of 114 pigs were divided into 6 groups, and each group was intramuscularly injected with one of the 3 chimeric viruses (n=16 pigs per group), VR2332 (n=24), JA142 (n=24), or sham inoculum (n=18). At 44days post-inoculation (dpi), these pigs were further divided into 15 groups (n=6 or 8 pigs per group) and intranasally challenged with VR2332, JA142, or sham inoculum. All pigs inoculated with one of the chimeric viruses prior to challenge had lower viremia levels than the challenge control pigs. Prior inoculation with JAP56 markedly decreased viremia to nearly undetectable levels in pigs challenged with either VR2332 or JA142. These results suggest that chimeric viruses harboring mixed structural genes from two distinct PRRSV strains can provide protection against both donor viruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes on swine viruses: multi-epitope design for universal T cell vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Lin, Chieh-Hua; Chung, Wen-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF), foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) are the primary diseases affecting the pig industry globally. Vaccine induced CD8(+) T cell-mediated immune response might be long-lived and cross-serotype and thus deserve further attention. Although large panels of synthetic overlapping peptides spanning the entire length of the polyproteins of a virus facilitate the detection of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes, it is an exceedingly costly and cumbersome approach. Alternatively, computational predictions have been proven to be of satisfactory accuracy and are easily performed. Such a method enables the systematic identification of genome-wide CTL epitopes by incorporating epitope prediction tools in analyzing large numbers of viral sequences. In this study, we have implemented an integrated bioinformatics pipeline for the identification of CTL epitopes of swine viruses including the CSF virus (CSFV), FMD virus (FMDV) and PRRS virus (PRRSV) and assembled these epitopes on a web resource to facilitate vaccine design. Identification of epitopes for cross protections to different subtypes of virus are also reported in this study and may be useful for the development of a universal vaccine against such viral infections among the swine population. The CTL epitopes identified in this study have been evaluated in silico and possibly provide more and wider protection in compared to traditional single-reference vaccine design. The web resource is free and open to all users through http://sb.nhri.org.tw/ICES.

  8. Safety and efficacy of a novel European vaccine for porcine reproductive and respiratory virus in bred gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontkowski, Michael D; Kroll, Jeremy; Orveillon, Francois-Xavier; Kraft, Christian; Coll, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be devastating to commercial breeding operations. The objective of this study was to evaluate a novel European PRRSV vaccinal strain for safety and efficacy in bred gilts. In 2 experiments, 110 gilts were vaccinated intramuscularly and the vaccine was evaluated for safety and efficacy. Gilts in Experiment 1 were evaluated for local and systemic reactions and gilts in both experiments were observed for clinical signs of disease through farrow. In both experiments, piglet clinical observations, piglet average daily weight gain (ADWG), gilt serology [determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)], gilt and piglet viremia [determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)], as well as piglet lung lesion scores and PRRS virus in lung tissue (qPCR) were determined. The vaccine was shown to be safe as there were no significant differences among groups in either experiment. Efficacy was established in Experiment 2 as both vaccinated groups were associated with desirable significant differences in percentage of gilts with abnormal clinical findings; gilt viral load post-challenge [day 125, day of farrowing (DOF), and DOF + 13]; percentages of alive, healthy live, weak live, and mummified piglets per litter at farrowing and weaning; percentage of piglets per gilt that were positive for viremia; percentage of piglets per gilt with clinical disease; and piglet viral load on DOF. It was concluded that a vaccine formulated from the PRRSV modified live virus (MLV) strain 94881 is a safe and effective method of protection against the detrimental effects of virulent PRRSV infection in breeding female pigs.

  9. Spatiotemporal analysis of the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) epidemic in Denmark using laboratory submission data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Toft, Nils; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus infects domestic swine populations causing production losses in many European countries. The virus has two different strains designated as European (EU) and American (US) strain. It has been assumed that 30% of Danish swine herds are sero...... spatiotemporal analysis of serological tests. Records of PRRS serology submissions made from January 2007 to December 2010 stored in the DIANOVA Information Management System at the National Veterinary Institute (DTU Vet) were used in the analysis. Each submission consists in individual blood samples collected....... The herd numbers registered in the laboratory submissions were merged with the Danish Herd Identification System database, in order to obtain the geo-coordinates of the herds. Spatiotemporal analysis was performed, in order to characterize PRRS-EU and PRRSUS distributions for both control levels...

  10. Fulminant sepsis is a cardinal sign of HP-PRRSV in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2006 a unique syndrome with high morbidity and mortality was recognized in growing pigs in China that became known as porcine high fever disease (PHFD). One consistent finding in affected pigs was the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) that had unique nsp2 ge...

  11. Different clinical, virological, serological and tissue tropism outcomes of two new and one old Belgian type 1 subtype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydas, Ilias S.; Trus, Ivan; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    2015-01-01

    in the highest respiratory disease scores and longest period of fever. Gross lung lesions were more pronounced for 13V091 (13%), than for 13V117 (7%) and 07V063 (11%). The nasal shedding and viremia was also most extensive with 13V091. The 13V091 group showed the highest virus replication in conchae, tonsils...... and retropharyngeal lymph nodes. 13V117 infection resulted in the lowest virus replication in lymphoid tissues. 13V091 showed higher numbers of sialoadhesin-infected cells/mm(2) in conchae, tonsils and spleen than 13V117 and 07V063. Neutralizing antibody response with 07V063 was stronger than with 13V091 and 13V117...

  12. Demonstration of microchimerism in pregnant sows and effects of congenital PRRSV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karniychuk Uladzimir U

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of foreign cells within the tissue/circulation of an individual is described as microchimerism. The main purpose of the present investigation was to study if microchimerism occurs in healthy sows/fetuses and if porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV infection influences this phenomenon. Six dams were inoculated intranasally with PRRSV and three non-inoculated dams served as controls. Male DNA was detected in female fetal sera of all dams via PCR. Male DNA was also detected in the maternal circulation. Sex-typing FISH showed the presence of male cells in the female fetal organs and vice versa. PRRSV infection did not influence microchimerism, but might misuse maternal and sibling microchimeric cells to enter fetuses.

  13. [The PRRSV-serumneutralization test detects gaps in herd immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Jens; Alex, Michaela; Janowetz, Britta; Müller, Silvia; Schuh, Christina; Niemeyer, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) appears in two genotypes (EU and US), for both genotypes attenuated live-vaccines are available. A cross-sectional study in 38 Bavarian sow herds was performed to assess the level of neutralizing antibodies. Per herd 38 blood samples were collected (10 weaned piglets, 10 gilts and 6 sows of 1./2., 3J4. and 5/6. parity, respectively). Sera were tested by ELISA, serumneutralization test (SNT) against EU- and US-vaccine virus, and pooled sera were tested by real-time RT-PCR. Herds were classified by the last vaccination of sows as "Vacc EU" "Vacc US"and "nv (non-vaccinated) and by detection of PRRSV-US and vaccination of piglets were not included as variables. Sows of group (2) Vacc EU/EU- showed the highest EU-SNT-titers irrespective of parity. Groups (5) Vacc US/EU+ and (1) Vacc EU/EU+ followed in descending order. Significantly lower SNT-titers in (1) Vacc EU/EU+ were especially observed in sows of 1/2. Parity (Kruskal-Wallis, p immunity at least against vaccine virus; it indicates gaps in herd immunity.

  14. Genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Thailand and Southeast Asia from 2008 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantafong, Tippawan; Sangtong, Pradit; Saenglub, Wimontiane; Mungkundar, Chatthapon; Romlamduan, Narin; Lekchareonsuk, Chalermpol; Lekcharoensuk, Porntippa

    2015-04-17

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) affects the swine industry worldwide. Annual surveillances taken from 2008 to 2013 revealed a 13.86% prevalence of PRRSVs in swine populations in Thailand. The selected positive samples were genetically characterized based on global systems and phylogenetic trees that were constructed using 967 ORF5 samples from this study, the collective sequences from Thailand and Southeast Asia and reference sequences. The results showed that both types I and II have been circulating in Thai swine and that genotype II was more prevalent than genotype I. Only type II was found in other countries in Southeast Asia. Type I PRRSVs from Thailand are clustered in subtype 1, clades A, D and H. Type II PRRSVs are topologically classified in lineage 1 and sublineages 5.1, 5.2 and 8.7, of which sublineage 8.7 was predominant, especially after 2010. PRRSVs in sublineage 8.7 are divided into two groups: classical NA and HP-PRRSV. An analysis of all HP-PRRSVs in Southeast Asia revealed four separate clades--A (SX2009-like), B (09HEN1-like), JXA1-like and GXFCH08-like--reflecting four different introductions of these viruses into Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam. HP-PRRSV first appeared in Thailand and Cambodia in 2008, 2 years before the first epidemic outbreaks. Recently, the genetics of PRRSVs in Southeast Asia have become more diverse. Thus, PRRSV genetics must be continually characterized and phylogenetically analyzed using global systematic classifications to provide annual genetic information for PRRS control and vaccine selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioinformatics prediction of swine MHC class I epitopes from Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welner, Simon; Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) causes one of the most important diseases in all swine producing countries. The infection has a high impact on animal welfare, food safety and production economics. PRRSV possesses multiple immunoevasive strategies, from suppression...

  16. Evaluation of the long-term effect of air filtration on the occurrence of new PRRSV infections in large breeding herds in swine-dense regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Scott; Cano, Jean Paul; Spronk, Gordon; Reicks, Darwin; Ruen, Paul; Pitkin, Andrea; Polson, Dale

    2012-05-01

    Airborne transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a risk factor for the infection of susceptible populations. Therefore, a long‑term sustainability study of air filtration as a means to reduce this risk was conducted. Participating herds (n = 38) were organized into 4 independent cohorts and the effect of air filtration on the occurrence of new PRRSV infections was analyzed at 3 different levels from September 2008 to January 2012 including the likelihood of infection in contemporary filtered and non-filtered herds, the likelihood of infection before and after implementation of filtration and the time to failure in filtered and non-filtered herds. Results indicated that new PRRSV infections in filtered breeding herds were significantly lower than in contemporary non-filtered control herds (P filtration was 7.97 times higher than the odds after filtration was initiated (P filtration on reducing the occurrence of new PRRSV infections in the study population was demonstrated.

  17. Construction and prokaryotic expression of the fusion gene PRRSV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically important swine disease that has devastated the swine industry worldwide. Vaccination with live attenuated vaccine or inactivated vaccine is the main treatment to control PRRS. However, the disadvantages such as virulence resumption of the ...

  18. Comparison of PRRSV Nucleic Acid and Antibody Detection in Pen-Based Oral Fluid and Individual Serum Samples in Three Different Age Categories of Post-Weaning Pigs from Endemically Infected Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Regge, Nick; Cay, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of an economically important disease in swine. Since it has been shown that PRRSV and PRRSV specific antibodies can be detected in oral fluid, many different aspects have been studied to show that oral fluid could be a worthy alternative diagnostic sample to serum for monitoring and surveillance of this disease. Thorough field evaluations are however missing to convincingly show its usefulness under representative field conditions. Methodology Pen-based oral fluid samples and serum samples from all individual pigs in the corresponding pens were collected from post-weaning pigs of three different age categories in eight endemically PRRSV infected farms and one PRRSV free farm in Belgium. All samples were tested by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and ELISA to detect PRRSV RNA and PRRSV specific antibodies, respectively. Results While the relative specificity of PRRSV detection by qRT-PCR in pen-based oral fluid compared to serum collected from individual pigs was high in all age categories (>90%), the relative sensitivity decreased with the age of the pigs (89, 93 and 10% in 8-12w, 16-20w and 24-28w old pigs, respectively). The latter correlated with a lower percentage of PRRSV positive pigs in serum/pen in the different age categories (55, 29 and 6%, respectively). Irrespective of the age category, pen-based oral fluid samples were always found PCR positive when at least 30% of the individual pigs were positive in serum. PRRSV specific antibody detection in oral fluid by ELISA showed a 100% relative sensitivity to detection in serum since oral fluid samples were always positive as soon as one pig in the pen was positive in serum. On the other hand, two false positive oral fluid samples in 11 pens without serum positive pigs were found, resulting in a relative specificity of 82%. Indications are however present that the oral fluid

  19. Effector mechanisms of humoral immunity to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahe, Michael C; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2017-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to afflict swine nearly 30 years after it was first discovered as the causative agent of "mystery swine disease". Immunological tools of vaccination and exposure to virulent viruses have not succeeded in achieving control and prevention of PRRSV. Humoral immunity, mediated by antibodies, is a hallmark of anti-viral immunity, but little is known about the effector mechanisms of humoral immunity against PRRSV. It is essential to understand the immunological significance of antibody functions, including recently described broadly neutralizing antibodies and potential non-neutralizing activities, in the immune response to PRRSV. Here, we review recent research from PRRSV and other host-pathogen interactions to inform novel routes of exploration into PRRSV humoral immunity which may be important for identifying the immunological correlates of protection against PRRSV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Immunity raised by recent European subtype 1 PRRSV strains allows better replication of East European subtype 3 PRRSV strain Lena than that raised by an older strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trus, Ivan; Frydas, Ilias S.; Reddy, Vishwanatha R. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Stable spatial distribution of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRSV)-1 subtypes in Europe is accompanied by a strong population immunity induced by local PRRSV strains. In the present study, it was examined if the immunity induced by three West European subtype 1 PRRSV strains (20...

  1. PAMPs, PRRs, effectors and R-genes associated with citrus-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalio, Ronaldo J D; Magalhães, Diogo M; Rodrigues, Carolina M; Arena, Gabriella D; Oliveira, Tiago S; Souza-Neto, Reinaldo R; Picchi, Simone C; Martins, Paula M M; Santos, Paulo J C; Maximo, Heros J; Pacheco, Inaiara S; De Souza, Alessandra A; Machado, Marcos A

    2017-03-01

    Recent application of molecular-based technologies has considerably advanced our understanding of complex processes in plant-pathogen interactions and their key components such as PAMPs, PRRs, effectors and R-genes. To develop novel control strategies for disease prevention in citrus, it is essential to expand and consolidate our knowledge of the molecular interaction of citrus plants with their pathogens. This review provides an overview of our understanding of citrus plant immunity, focusing on the molecular mechanisms involved in the interactions with viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes and vectors related to the following diseases: tristeza, psorosis, citrus variegated chlorosis, citrus canker, huanglongbing, brown spot, post-bloom, anthracnose, gummosis and citrus root rot.

  2. Examination of virus shedding in semen from vaccinated and from previously infected boars after experimental challenge with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas L.; Nielsen, Jens; Have, Per

    1997-01-01

    Danish artificial insemination (AI) centres house several boars antibody positive to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus as well as PRRSV-naive boars which may become acutely infected, The risk of transmission of PRRSV by semen may therefore constitute a serious problem...... vaccine compared to the non-vaccinated control animals. In contrast, no changes in onset, level and duration of viremia and shedding of virus in semen were observed using the inactivated vaccine, Neither viremia nor seminal shedding of virus was detected in previously PRRSV-infected, PRRSV...

  3. Monkey Viperin Restricts Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyu Fang

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is an important pathogen which causes huge economic damage globally in the swine industry. Current vaccination strategies provide only limited protection against PRRSV infection. Viperin is an interferon (IFN stimulated protein that inhibits some virus infections via IFN-dependent or IFN-independent pathways. However, the role of viperin in PRRSV infection is not well understood. In this study, we cloned the full-length monkey viperin (mViperin complementary DNA (cDNA from IFN-α-treated African green monkey Marc-145 cells. It was found that the mViperin is up-regulated following PRRSV infection in Marc-145 cells along with elevated IRF-1 gene levels. IFN-α induced mViperin expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner and strongly inhibits PRRSV replication in Marc-145 cells. Overexpression of mViperin suppresses PRRSV replication by blocking the early steps of PRRSV entry and genome replication and translation but not inhibiting assembly and release. And mViperin co-localized with PRRSV GP5 and N protein, but only interacted with N protein in distinct cytoplasmic loci. Furthermore, it was found that the 13-16 amino acids of mViperin were essential for inhibiting PRRSV replication, by disrupting the distribution of mViperin protein from the granular distribution to a homogeneous distribution in the cytoplasm. These results could be helpful in the future development of novel antiviral therapies against PRRSV infection.

  4. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection triggers HMGB1 release to promote inflammatory cytokine production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Erzhen; Wang, Dang; Luo, Rui; Luo, Jingyi; Gao, Li; Chen, Huanchun; Fang, Liurong, E-mail: fanglr@mail.hzau.edu.cn; Xiao, Shaobo, E-mail: vet@mail.hzau.edu.cn

    2014-11-15

    The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule involved in the pathogenesis of various infectious agents. Based on meta-analysis of all publicly available microarray datasets, HMGB1 has recently been proposed as the most significant immune modulator during the porcine response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. However, the function of HMGB1 in PRRSV pathogenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that PRRSV infection triggers the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the extracellular milieu in MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages. Although HMGB1 has no effect on PRRSV replication, HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and subsequent expression of inflammatory cytokines through receptors RAGE, TLR2 and TLR4. Our findings show that HMGB1 release, triggered by PRRSV infection, enhances the efficiency of virus-induced inflammatory responses, thereby providing new insights into the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection. - Highlights: • PRRSV infection triggers HMGB1 release from MARC-145 cells and PAMs. • HMGB1 does not significantly affect PRRSV proliferation. • HMGB1 is involved in PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and inflammatory responses. • HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced inflammatory responses through TLR2/4 and RAGE.

  5. Evaluation of Control Strategies for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) in Swine Breeding Herds Using a Discrete Event Agent-Based Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Andréia Gonçalves; Friendship, Robert; Carpenter, Jane; Greer, Amy; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a discrete event agent-based stochastic model to explore the likelihood of the occurrence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) outbreaks in swine herds with different PRRS control measures in place. The control measures evaluated included vaccination with a modified-live attenuated vaccine and live-virus inoculation of gilts, and both were compared to a baseline scenario where no control measures were in place. A typical North American 1,000-sow farrow-to-wean swine herd was used as a model, with production and disease parameters estimated from the literature and expert opinion. The model constructed herein was not only able to capture individual animal heterogeneity in immunity to and shedding of the PRRS virus, but also the dynamic animal flow and contact structure typical in such herds under field conditions. The model outcomes included maximum number of females infected per simulation, and time at which that happened and the incidence of infected weaned piglets during the first year of challenge-virus introduction. Results showed that the baseline scenario produced a larger percentage of simulations resulting in outbreaks compared to the control scenarios, and interestingly some of the outbreaks occurred over long periods after virus introduction. The live-virus inoculation scenario showed promising results, with fewer simulations resulting in outbreaks than the other scenarios, but the negative impacts of maintaining a PRRS-positive population should be considered. Finally, under the assumptions of the current model, neither of the control strategies prevented the infection from spreading to the piglet population, which highlights the importance of maintaining internal biosecurity practices at the farrowing room level.

  6. Evaluation of Control Strategies for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) in Swine Breeding Herds Using a Discrete Event Agent-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Andréia Gonçalves; Friendship, Robert; Carpenter, Jane; Greer, Amy; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a discrete event agent-based stochastic model to explore the likelihood of the occurrence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) outbreaks in swine herds with different PRRS control measures in place. The control measures evaluated included vaccination with a modified-live attenuated vaccine and live-virus inoculation of gilts, and both were compared to a baseline scenario where no control measures were in place. A typical North American 1,000-sow farrow-to-wean swine herd was used as a model, with production and disease parameters estimated from the literature and expert opinion. The model constructed herein was not only able to capture individual animal heterogeneity in immunity to and shedding of the PRRS virus, but also the dynamic animal flow and contact structure typical in such herds under field conditions. The model outcomes included maximum number of females infected per simulation, and time at which that happened and the incidence of infected weaned piglets during the first year of challenge-virus introduction. Results showed that the baseline scenario produced a larger percentage of simulations resulting in outbreaks compared to the control scenarios, and interestingly some of the outbreaks occurred over long periods after virus introduction. The live-virus inoculation scenario showed promising results, with fewer simulations resulting in outbreaks than the other scenarios, but the negative impacts of maintaining a PRRS-positive population should be considered. Finally, under the assumptions of the current model, neither of the control strategies prevented the infection from spreading to the piglet population, which highlights the importance of maintaining internal biosecurity practices at the farrowing room level. PMID:27875546

  7. In utero infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus modulates leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar fluid of surviving piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J; Bøtner, A; Tingstedt, J-E; Aasted, B; Johnsen, C K; Riber, U; Lind, P

    2003-06-20

    It is well known that piglets congenitally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be viremic at birth, and that preweaning mortality due to secondary infections often increases during acute outbreaks of PRRS. Therefore, an immunosuppressive effect of in utero infection has been suggested. The aim of the present study was to characterise the changes of leukocyte populations in piglets surviving in utero infection with PRRSV. A total of 27 liveborn uninfected control piglets and 22 piglets infected transplacentally with a Danish strain of PRRSV were included. At 2 and 4 weeks of age, 21 of 22 (96%) and 7 of 14 (50%) examined infected piglets were still viremic, whereas PRRSV could not be detected in the six infected piglets examined at 6 weeks of age. Flow cytometry analysis was used to determine the phenotypic composition of leukocytes in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 2-, 4- and 6-week-old infected piglets and age-matched uninfected controls. The key observation in the present study is that high levels of CD8(+) cells constitute a dominant feature in peripheral blood and BALF of piglets surviving in utero infection with PRRSV. In BALF, the average high level of CD8(+) cells in 2-week-old infected piglets (33.4 +/- 12.6%) was followed by a decline to 7.3 +/- 3.0 and 11.1 +/- 3.0% at 4 and 6 weeks of age. BALF of control piglets contained 1.6 +/- 0.9, 2.3 +/- 1.8 and 1.9 +/- 0.5% CD8(+) cells, only. In peripheral blood, however, the average number of CD8(+) cells remained at high levels in the infected piglets throughout the post-natal experimental period (2.8 +/- 1.9, 2.9 +/- 1.8 and 3.2 +/- 1.7 x 10(6) CD8(+) cells/ml at 2, 4 and 6 weeks, respectively). In the controls, the average levels of CD8(+) cells were 0.9+/-0.2, 1.9 +/- 1.7 and 1.6 +/- 0.5 x 10(6)/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the numbers of CD2(+) , CD4(+)CD8(+) and SLA-classII(+) cells, respectively, in peripheral blood, together with

  8. Virological and immunological responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in a large population of gilts

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Laura; Pijoan, Carlos; Dee, Scott; Olin, Michael; Molitor, Thomas; Joo, Han Soo; Xiao, Zhenguo; Murtaugh, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a prolonged active infection followed by a persistent infection in lymphoid tissues lasting for several months. Pigs develop both an antibody and cell-mediated immune response following PRRSV infection, but the specific role of each type in the development of protective immunity and clearance of the virus is not yet known. The aims of this study were to characterize the dynamics of PRRSV persistence from 0 to 135 d post infect...

  9. Passive transfer of virus-specific antibodies confers protection against reproductive failure induced by a virulent strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and establishes sterilizing immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, F A; Galeota, J A; Nelson, E; Brodersen, B; Doster, A; Wills, R; Zuckermann, F; Laegreid, W W

    2002-10-10

    Immune mechanisms mediating protective immunity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are not well understood. The PRRSV-specific humoral immune response has been dismissed as being ineffective and perhaps deleterious for the host. The function of PRRSV antibodies in protective immunity against infection with a highly abortifacient strain of this virus was examined by passive transfer experiments in pregnant swine. All of a group of pregnant gilts (n = 6) that received PRRSV immunoglobulin (Ig) from PRRSV-convalescent, hyperimmune animals were fully protected from reproductive failure as judged by 95% viability of offspring at weaning (15 days of age). On the other hand, the totality of animals in a matched control group (n = 6) receiving anti-pseudorabies virus (PRV) Ig exhibited marked reproductive failure with 4% survival at weaning. Besides protecting the pregnant females from clinical reproductive disease, the passive transfer of PRRSV Ig prevented the challenge virus from infecting the dams and precluded its vertical transmission, as evidenced by the complete absence of infectious PRRSV from the tissues of the dams and lack of infection in their offspring. In summary, these results indicate that PRRSV-Igs are capable of conferring protective immunity against PRRSV and furthermore that these Igs can provide sterilizing immunity in vivo.

  10. Immune Response of Multiparous Hyper-Immunized Sows against Peptides from Non-Structural and Structural Proteins of PRRSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Rascón-Castelo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the humoral and cellular responses of commercial multiparous and hyper-immunized sows against peptides from non-structural (nsp and structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. We selected sows with different numbers of parities from a commercial farm. Management practices on this farm include the use of the MLV commercial vaccine four times per year, plus two vaccinations during the acclimation period. The humoral response was evaluated via the antibody recognition of peptides from nsp and structural proteins, and the cellular response was assessed by measuring the frequency of peptide and PRRSV-specific IFN-gamma-secreting cells (IFNγ-SC. Our results show that sows with six parities have more antibodies against peptides from structural proteins than against peptides from nsp. The analysis of the cellular response revealed that the number of immunizations did not affect the frequency of IFNγ-SC and that the response was stronger against peptides from structural proteins (M protein than against nsp (nsp2. In summary, these results demonstrate that multiparous, hyper-immunized sows have a stronger immune humoral response to PRRSV structural peptides than nsp, but no differences in IFNγ-SC against the same peptides were observed.

  11. Splenic CD163(+) macrophages as targets of porcine reproductive and respiratory virus: Role of Siglecs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuste, María; Fernández-Caballero, Teresa; Prieto, Cinta; Álvarez, Belén; Martínez-Lobo, Javier; Simarro, Isabel; Castro, José María; Alonso, Fernando; Ezquerra, Ángel; Domínguez, Javier; Revilla, Concepción

    2017-01-01

    CD169 and CD163 have been involved in the process of PRRS virus attachment and infection in macrophages, although recent studies have challenged the requirement for CD169. In addition to CD169, macrophages express other siglecs, whose role in PRRS virus infection is so far unknown. Splenic CD163(+) macrophages express Siglec-3 and Siglec-5 but almost undetectable levels of CD169. Hence, we considered this cell population appropriate for analysing the role of these siglecs in the attachment and internalization of PRRS virus into macrophages. PRRS virus replicated efficiently in these macrophages, yielding even higher titres than in alveolar macrophages. Besides, a recombinant protein consisting in the ectodomain of porcine Siglec-3 fused to the Fc fragment of human IgG1 (Siglec3-Fc) was able to bind PRRS virus, while binding to Siglec-5-Fc was inconsistent. Antibodies to CD169 but not to Siglec-3 or Siglec-5 blocked the binding and infection of PRRS virus on alveolar macrophages. Unexpectedly, our antibody to CD169 also blocked the binding of PRRS virus to splenic CD163(+) macrophages, whereas antibodies to Siglec-3 or Siglec-5 had no effect. These results show that very low levels of CD169 expression are enough to support the attachment and internalization of PRRS virus into macrophages, whereas Siglec-3 and Siglec-5 do not seem to contribute to the virus entry in these cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of CD151, A tetraspanin, in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Sanjay

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is a RNA virus causing respiratory and reproductive diseases in swine. The susceptibility for PRRSV varies between the different breeds of swine. In cell culture, PRRSV virus can be propagated in primary porcine alveolar macrophages and some African green monkey kidney cell lines, such as MARC-145 cells. Previous studies have shown that 3' untranslated region (UTR RNAs of the arteriviruses play an important role in the replication of the virus through interactions with cellular proteins. To better understand the differences in the replication capability of PRRSV in different cell lines, we sought to identify the host cellular proteins interacting with PRRSV 3' UTR RNA. We constructed a cDNA library of MARC-145 cell line in lambda ZAP Express vector and screened the library with the positive sense 3' UTR RNA of PRRSV. Results We found that CD151, a host cellular protein, interacting with PRRSV 3' UTR RNA. The specificity of the interaction between CD151 and PRRSV 3' UTR RNA was examined by gel shift assay as well as North-Western hybridization. The transfection of CD151 expression clone into BHK-21 rendered these cells susceptible to PRRSV infection, and the transfection of siRNA against CD151 into MARC-145 significantly reduced the level of PRRSV infection. Also, anti-CD151 antibody treatment to MARC-145 completely blocked PRRSV infection. Conclusion Based on our results, we suggest that CD151 should cooperate in PRRSV infection in vitro in MARC-145 and BHK-21 cells.

  13. Innate immunity modulation in virus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Mathias; Rabourdin-Combe, Chantal

    2011-07-01

    Entry into a cell submits viruses to detection by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) leading to an early innate anti-viral response. Several viruses evolved strategies to avoid or subvert PRR recognition at the step of virus entry to promote infection. Whereas viruses mostly escape from soluble PRR detection, endocytic/phagocytic PRRs, such as the mannose receptor or DC-SIGN, are commonly used for virus entry. Moreover, virion-incorporated proteins may also offer viruses a way to dampen anti-viral innate immunity upon virus entry, and entering viruses might usurp autophagy to improve their own infectivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. GP4-specific neutralizing antibodies might be a driving force in PRRSV evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costers, Sarah; Vanhee, Merijn; Van Breedam, Wander; Van Doorsselaere, Jan; Geldhof, Marc; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2010-12-01

    The structural envelope glycoprotein GP4 of European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains contains a highly variable neutralizing epitope that is susceptible to neutralizing antibody-mediated selective pressure in vitro. In this study, it was analyzed what happens with this neutralizing epitope during infection in vivo in the presence of neutralizing antibodies. A neutralizing antibody-mediated selective pressure was created in 30 pigs by vaccination prior to inoculation with infectious Lelystad virus (LV). Nine viable neutralizing antibody-escape variants were isolated from 9 of these pigs and their neutralizing antibody-escape mutant-identity was confirmed by the acquired resistance to neutralization by autologous neutralizing sera. Six out of 9 neutralizing antibody-escape variants contained aa substitutions in the GP4 neutralizing epitope and had become resistant to neutralization by a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against this epitope. In addition, in all 6 corresponding pigs, antibodies against this epitope were detected early in infection. In contrast to these 6 virus variants, the 3 other antibody-escape variants did not contain aa substitutions in the GP4 neutralizing epitope and were still sensitive to neutralization by the GP4-specific mAb. These antibody-escape variants were isolated from pigs that did not contain antibodies against this epitope early in infection. All these findings together strongly indicate that aa substitutions in the GP4 neutralizing epitope can abrogate antibody recognition, and that neutralizing antibodies might be responsible for the selection of neutralizing antibody-resistant variants with aa substitutions in the neutralizing epitope on GP4. In conclusion, this study indicates that neutralizing antibodies in pigs might be a driving force in the rapid evolution of the neutralizing epitope on GP4 of European PRRSV strains. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. PREVALENCIA SEROLÓGICA DEL SÍNDROME REPRODUCTIVO Y RESPIRATORIO PORCINO (PRRS EN CERDOS DE EXPLOTACIONES EXTENSIVAS DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC Cruz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo actualizar en el país la situación de la infección por el virus del Síndrome reproductivo y respiratorio porcino (PRRS. Los departamentos incluidos en el estudio fueron aquellos donde se manejan producciones extensivas o de traspatio. Las muestras fueron tomadas de forma aleatoria en los mataderos de cada departamento, analizándose un total de 1.658 sueros, los cuales fueron clasiicados, hasta donde fue posible, de acuerdo a las categorías productivas (cerdos de descarte y cerdos de ceba. Las muestras obtenidas se analizaron a través de una prueba de ELISA, usando el kit comercial HerdChek PRRS 2XR (Laboratorios IDEXX. Al inal se obtuvo un total de 71 sueros reactores, lo que se traduce en una prevalencia del 4,3 ± 1,0% (p≤0,05. Los departamentos con mayor prevalencia fueron Norte de Santander y Arauca, mientras que los departamentos de La Guajira, Magdalena y Sucre mantuvieron su condición de no reactividad serológica en estos sistemas de producción.

  16. PREVALENCIA SEROLÓGICA DEL SÍNDROME REPRODUCTIVO Y RESPIRATORIO PORCINO (PRRS EN CERDOS DE EXPLOTACIONES EXTENSIVAS DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón M. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo actualizar en el país la situación de la infección por el virus del Síndrome reproductivo y respiratorio porcino (PRRS. Los departamentos incluidos en el estudio fueron aquellos donde se manejan producciones extensivas o de traspatio. Las muestras fueron tomadas de forma aleatoria en los mataderos de cada departamento, analizándose un total de 1.658 sueros, los cuales fueron clasiicados, hasta donde fue posible, de acuerdo a las categorías productivas (cerdos de descarte y cerdos de ceba. Las muestras obtenidas se analizaron a través de una prueba de ELISA, usando el kit comercial HerdChek PRRS 2XR (Laboratorios IDEXX. Al inal se obtuvo un total de 71 sueros reactores, lo que se traduce en una prevalencia del 4,3 ± 1,0% (p≤0,05. Los departamentos con mayor prevalencia fueron Norte de Santander y Arauca, mientras que los departamentos de La Guajira, Magdalena y Sucre mantuvieron su condición de no reactividad serológica en estos sistemas de producción.

  17. A Synthetic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Strain Confers Unprecedented Levels of Heterologous Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hiep L X; Ma, Fangrui; Laegreid, William W; Pattnaik, Asit K; Steffen, David; Doster, Alan R; Osorio, Fernando A

    2015-12-01

    Current vaccines do not provide sufficient levels of protection against divergent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains circulating in the field, mainly due to the substantial variation of the viral genome. We describe here a novel approach to generate a PRRSV vaccine candidate that could confer unprecedented levels of heterologous protection against divergent PRRSV isolates. By using a set of 59 nonredundant, full-genome sequences of type 2 PRRSVs, a consensus genome (designated PRRSV-CON) was generated by aligning these 59 PRRSV full-genome sequences, followed by selecting the most common nucleotide found at each position of the alignment. Next, the synthetic PRRSV-CON strain was generated through the use of reverse genetics. PRRSV-CON replicates as efficiently as our prototype PRRSV strain FL12, both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, when inoculated into pigs, PRRSV-CON confers significantly broader levels of heterologous protection than does wild-type PRRSV. Collectively, our data demonstrate that PRRSV-CON can serve as an excellent candidate for the development of a broadly protective PRRSV vaccine. The extraordinary genetic variation of RNA viruses poses a monumental challenge for the development of broadly protective vaccines against these viruses. To minimize the genetic dissimilarity between vaccine immunogens and contemporary circulating viruses, computational strategies have been developed for the generation of artificial immunogen sequences (so-called "centralized" sequences) that have equal genetic distances to the circulating viruses. Thus far, the generation of centralized vaccine immunogens has been carried out at the level of individual viral proteins. We expand this concept to PRRSV, a highly variable RNA virus, by creating a synthetic PRRSV strain based on a centralized PRRSV genome sequence. This study provides the first example of centralizing the whole genome of an RNA virus to improve vaccine coverage. This

  18. Tumour viruses and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcraft, Sharon E; Damania, Blossom

    2017-10-19

    Host cells sense viral infection through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and stimulate an innate immune response. PRRs are localized to several different cellular compartments and are stimulated by viral proteins and nucleic acids. PRR activation initiates signal transduction events that ultimately result in an inflammatory response. Human tumour viruses, which include Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and Merkel cell polyomavirus, are detected by several different PRRs. These viruses engage in a variety of mechanisms to evade the innate immune response, including downregulating PRRs, inhibiting PRR signalling, and disrupting the activation of transcription factors critical for mediating the inflammatory response, among others. This review will describe tumour virus PAMPs and the PRRs responsible for detecting viral infection, PRR signalling pathways, and the mechanisms by which tumour viruses evade the host innate immune system.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human oncogenic viruses'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Identification of radically different variants of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Eastern Europe: towards a common ancestor for European and American viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadejek, T.; Stankevicius, A.; Storgaard, Torben

    2002-01-01

    We determined 22 partial porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ORF5 sequences, representing pathogenic field strains mainly from Poland and Lithuania, and two currently available European-type live PRRSV vaccines. Also, the complete ORF7 of two Lithuanian and two Polish...

  20. Significance of the oligosaccharides of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus glycoproteins GP2a and GP5 for infectious virus production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, E.H.J.; Kroese, M.V.; Maneschijn-Bonsing, J.G.; Meulenberg, J.J.; Rijn, van P.A.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Rottier, P.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The arterivirus porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) contains four glycoproteins, GP2a, GP3, GP4 and GP5, the functions of which are still largely unresolved. In this study, the significance of the N-glycosylation of the GP2a and GP5 proteins of PRRSV strain LV was

  1. Carbon Monoxide Inhibits Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replication by the Cyclic GMP/Protein Kinase G and NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Angke; Zhao, Lijuan; Li, Na; Duan, Hong; Liu, Hongliang; Pu, Fengxing; Zhang, Gaiping; Zhou, En-Min; Xiao, Shuqi

    2017-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes significant economic losses to the pork industry worldwide each year. Our previous research demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) can suppress PRRSV replication via an unknown molecular mechanism. In this study, inhibition of PRRSV replication was demonstrated to be mediated by carbon monoxide (CO), a downstream metabolite of HO-1. Using several approaches, we demonstrate that CO significantly inhibited PRRSV replication in both a PRRSV permissive cell line, MARC-145, and the predominant cell type targeted during in vivo PRRSV infection, porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). Our results showed that CO inhibited intercellular spread of PRRSV; however, it did not affect PRRSV entry into host cells. Furthermore, CO was found to suppress PRRSV replication via the activation of the cyclic GMP/protein kinase G (cGMP/PKG) signaling pathway. CO significantly inhibits PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation, a required step for PRRSV replication. Moreover, CO significantly reduced PRRSV-induced proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that CO exerts its anti-PRRSV effect by activating the cellular cGMP/PKG signaling pathway and by negatively regulating cellular NF-κB signaling. These findings not only provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of HO-1 inhibition of PRRSV replication but also suggest potential new control measures for future PRRSV outbreaks. PRRSV causes great economic losses each year to the swine industry worldwide. Carbon monoxide (CO), a metabolite of HO-1, has been shown to have antimicrobial and antiviral activities in infected cells. Our previous research demonstrated that HO-1 can suppress PRRSV replication. Here we show that endogenous CO produced through HO-1 catalysis mediates the antiviral effect of HO-1. CO inhibits PRRSV replication by activating the cellular cGMP/PKG signaling pathway and by negatively regulating cellular NF

  2. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus induces apoptosis through a mitochondria-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Myeong; Kleiboeker, Steven B

    2007-09-01

    As with a number of other viruses, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been shown to induce apoptosis, although the mechanism(s) involved remain unknown. In this study we have characterized the apoptotic pathways activated by PRRSV infection. PRRSV-infected cells showed evidence of apoptosis including phosphatidylserine exposure, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, caspase activation (including caspase-8, 9, 3), and PARP cleavage. DNA fragmentation was dependent on caspase activation but blocking apoptosis by a caspase inhibitor did not affect PRRSV replication. Upregulation of Bax expression by PRRSV infection was followed by disruption of the mitochondria transmembrane potential, resulting in cytochrome c redistridution to the cytoplasm and subsequent caspase-9 activation. A crosstalk between the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways was demonstrated by dependency of caspase-9 activation on active caspase-8 and by Bid cleavage. Furthermore, in this study we provide evidence of the possible involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress in apoptosis induced by PRRSV. Our data indicated that cell death caused by PRRSV infection involves necrosis as well as apoptosis. In summary, these findings demonstrate mechanisms by which PRRSV induces apoptosis and will contribute to an enhanced understanding of PRRSV pathogenesis.

  3. Envelope protein requirements for the assembly of infectious virions of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, E.H.J.; Kroese, M.V.; Wijk, van H.A.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Meulenberg, J.J.; Rottier, P.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Virions of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) contain six membrane proteins: the major proteins GP5 and M and the minor proteins GP2a, E, GP3, and GP4. Here, we studied the envelope protein requirements for PRRSV particle formation and infectivity using full-length cDNA

  4. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection Induces Stress Granule Formation Depending on Protein Kinase R-like Endoplasmic Reticulum Kinase (PERK) in MARC-145 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yanrong; Fang, Liurong; Wang, Dang; Cai, Kaimei; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2017-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are sites of mRNA storage that are formed in response to various conditions of stress, including viral infections. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an Arterivirus that has been devastating the swine industry worldwide since the late 1980s. In this study, we found that infection of PRRSV strain WUH3 (genotype 2 PRRSV) induced stable formation of robust SGs in MARC-145 cells, as demonstrated by the recruitment of marker proteins of SGs, includ...

  5. Avaluació de l'eficiència de l'ús dels fluids orals en el diagnòstic del PRRSV /

    OpenAIRE

    Gibert Rebull, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Departament responsable de la tesi: Departament de Sanitat i d'Anatomia Animals En els darrers anys, l'ús dels fluids orals (FO) com a mostra diagnòstica en el control i monitoratge del Virus de la síndrome reproductiva i respiratòria porcina (PRRSV) s'ha estès en gran mesura per l'Amèrica del Nord i de manera més discreta per Europa. Tanmateix, no existeixen gaires estudis sobre els límits de detecció de la tècnica en el monitoratge de la malaltia en granges infectades amb el PRRSV1. Per ...

  6. INVESTIGATION OF IMMUNE PATHWAYS INVOLVED IN REGULATING RESPONSES TO PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME USING SWINE PROTEIN-ANNOTATED OLIGONUCLEOTIDE MICROARRAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) costs U.S. swine producers around $560 million annually. PRRS virus (PRRSV)-infected pigs are susceptible to pneumonia and reproductive losses; infected sows have increased rates of abortions, stillbirths, mummifications, and give birth to weak pi...

  7. Pathogenicity of three type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus strains in experimentally inoculated pregnant gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanisms of reproductive failure resulting from infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) are still poorly understood. The present study, a side-by-side evaluation of the pathogenicity of three type 2 PRRSv strains in a reproductive model, was used as a pilot study...

  8. Evaluation of contact exposure as a method for acclimatizing growing pigs to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisht, Kapil; Erlandson, Keith R; Firkins, Lawrence D; Zuckermann, Federico A; Goldberg, Tony L

    2008-05-15

    To determine whether 6.5-week-old gilts that have not previously been exposed to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus can be acclimatized to an endemic strain of the virus by commingling with age-matched gilts inoculated with the endemic PRRS virus strain and whether 10.5-week-old gilts can be acclimatized by commingling with age-matched inoculated or contact-exposed animals. Randomized controlled longitudinal study. 80 gilts seronegative for PRRS on a farm in the Midwestern United States with a history of PRRS. 20 gilts were inoculated with the endemic PRRS virus strain at 6.5 weeks of age (group 1) and were commingled with 20 gilts that were not inoculated (group 2). Four weeks later, the remaining 40 gilts (group 3) were commingled with gilts in groups 1 and 2. Presence of viral RNA in the tonsils, seroconversion rate, serum neutralizing antibody titers, interferon-gamma-mediated cellular immunity, and reproductive outcomes were analyzed. Acclimatization of PRRS virus-naïve pigs was achieved by means of contact exposure at both 6.5 and 10.5 weeks of age. No differences were observed among the 3 groups with respect to development of anti-PRRS virus-specific immune responses or reproductive outcomes. Results suggested that contact exposure of 6.5- to 10.5-week-old pigs that had not previously been exposed to PRRS virus to pigs inoculated with endemic PRRS virus may be an efficient acclimatization strategy for controlling outbreaks on commercial farms on which PRRS is endemic.

  9. Comparison of protection provided by type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome field viruses against homologous and heterologous challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyuhyung; Park, Changhoon; Jeong, Jiwoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-08-15

    The objective of this study was to compare protection provided by type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) against homologous and heterologous challenge based on clinical, virological, immunological, and pathological analysis. At 3 and 8 weeks of age, pigs were inoculated intranasally with either 3mL of tissue culture fluid containing 10(5) TCID50/mL of type 1 PRRSV or 3mL of tissue culture fluid containing 10(5) TCID50/mL of type 2 PRRSV. The homologous challenges resulted in a significant boost of the neutralizing antibodies (NA) and interferon-γ secreting cells (IFN-γ-SC) compared to heterologous challenges. The reduction of secondary challenging PRRSV viremia coincided with the appearance of homologous PRRSV-specific NA and IFN-γ-SC. Homologous challenge reduced the severity of lung lesions and levels of PRRSV viremia significantly in pigs in comparison with heterologous challenge. The differences in homologous and heterologous NA and IFN-γ-SC response may explain the differences in protection against homologous and heterologous challenge between type 1 and type 2 PRRSV. Primary challenge (immunization) with type 1 PRRSV provided protection against the secondary homologous challenge with type 1 PRRSV but failed to provide protection against the secondary heterologous challenge of type 2 PRRSV. Primary challenge with type 2 PRRSV provided protection against both the secondary homologous challenge with type 2 PRRSV and the secondary heterologous challenge with type 1 PRRSV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Virological and immunological responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in a large population of gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Laura; Pijoan, Carlos; Dee, Scott; Olin, Michael; Molitor, Thomas; Joo, Han Soo; Xiao, Zhenguo; Murtaugh, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a prolonged active infection followed by a persistent infection in lymphoid tissues lasting for several months. Pigs develop both an antibody and cell-mediated immune response following PRRSV infection, but the specific role of each type in the development of protective immunity and clearance of the virus is not yet known. The aims of this study were to characterize the dynamics of PRRSV persistence from 0 to 135 d post infection (pi), characterize the kinetics of the antibody mediated immune response following PRRSV infection, and characterize the cell mediated immune responses to PRRSV infection. Eighty, 4-month-old PRRSV-free gilts were obtained from a source known to be negative for PRRSV. On day 0, gilts were infected intranasally with 10(2.4) TCID/50 MN 30-100 PRRSV. Following infection, animals were bled between days 0 to 135 pi. Viremia was detected up to day 30. Serum antibody response (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and virus neutralization antibody) was detected from day 14 to 120 pi. Cell-mediated immune response represented by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) was detected from day 14 to 120 pi. Persistence of PRRSV in tissues was confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) between days 30 to 135. These results indicate that serum neutralizing antibodies and IFN-gamma play an important role in the clearance of PRRSV. Nevertheless none of the parameters measured (virus neutralizing antibodies), either alone or in combination, are solely responsible for the clearance of the virus from the host and the development of sterilizing immunity.

  11. Virological and immunological responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in a large population of gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a prolonged active infection followed by a persistent infection in lymphoid tissues lasting for several months. Pigs develop both an antibody and cell-mediated immune response following PRRSV infection, but the specific role of each type in the development of protective immunity and clearance of the virus is not yet known. The aims of this study were to characterize the dynamics of PRRSV persistence from 0 to 135 d post infection (pi), characterize the kinetics of the antibody mediated immune response following PRRSV infection, and characterize the cell mediated immune responses to PRRSV infection. Eighty, 4-month-old PRRSV-free gilts were obtained from a source known to be negative for PRRSV. On day 0, gilts were infected intranasally with 102.4 TCID/ 50 MN 30–100 PRRSV. Following infection, animals were bled between days 0 to 135 pi. Viremia was detected up to day 30. Serum antibody response (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and virus neutralization antibody) was detected from day 14 to 120 pi. Cell-mediated immune response represented by interferon gamma (IFN-γ) was detected from day 14 to 120 pi. Persistence of PRRSV in tissues was confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) between days 30 to 135. These results indicate that serum neutralizing antibodies and IFN-γ play an important role in the clearance of PRRSV. Nevertheless none of the parameters measured (virus neutralizing antibodies), either alone or in combination, are solely responsible for the clearance of the virus from the host and the development of sterilizing immunity. PMID:15581221

  12. The nsp1 alpha and nsp1 beta papain-like autoproteinases are essential for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus RNA synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, M.V.; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, J.C.; Ruijter, J.N.A.B.D.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Meulenberg, J.J.M.; Cornelissen, A.H.M.; Snijder, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    The two N-terminal cleavage products, nsp1 alpha and nsp1 beta, of the replicase polyproteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) each contain a papain-like autoproteinase domain, which have been named PCP alpha and PCP beta, respectively. To assess their role in the PRRSV

  13. Changes in leukocyte subsets of pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    In spite of more than two decades of extensive research, the understanding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) immunity is still incomplete. A PRRSv infection of the late term pregnant female can result in abortions, early farrowings, fetal death, and the birth of weak, co...

  14. A case-control questionnaire survey of risk factors for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) seropositi¬vity in Danish swine herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, J.; Permin, A.; Mortensen, S.

    1997-01-01

    Sixty-eight case herds seropositive to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) were compared to 128 seronegative controls in a double-blinded questionnaire survey. The study indicated no increased risk of PRRS seropositivity for herds using artificial insemination with semen from PRRS...

  15. Virus replicon particles expressing porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus proteins elicit immune priming but do not confer protection from viremia in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Melanie; Durán, Margarita García; Ricklin, Meret E; Locher, Samira; Sarraseca, Javier; Rodríguez, María José; McCullough, Kenneth C; Summerfield, Artur; Zimmer, Gert; Ruggli, Nicolas

    2016-02-19

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of one of the most devastating and economically significant viral disease of pigs worldwide. The vaccines currently available on the market elicit only limited protection. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replicon particles (VRP) have been used successfully to induce protection against influenza A virus (IAV) in chickens and bluetongue virus in sheep. In this study, VSV VRP expressing the PRRSV envelope proteins GP5, M, GP4, GP3, GP2 and the nucleocapsid protein N, individually or in combination, were generated and evaluated as a potential vector vaccine against PRRSV infection. High level expression of the recombinant PRRSV proteins was demonstrated in cell culture. However, none of the PRRSV antigens expressed from VRP, with the exception of the N protein, did induce any detectable antibody response in pigs before challenge infection with PRRSV. After challenge however, the antibody responses against GP5, GP4 and GP3 appeared in average 2 weeks earlier than in pigs vaccinated with the empty control VRP. No reduction of viremia was observed in the vaccinated group compared with the control group. When pigs were co-vaccinated with VRP expressing IAV antigens and VRP expressing PRRSV glycoproteins, only antibody responses to the IAV antigens were detectable. These data show that the VSV replicon vector can induce immune responses to heterologous proteins in pigs, but that the PRRSV envelope proteins expressed from VSV VRP are poorly immunogenic. Nevertheless, they prime the immune system for significantly earlier B-cell responses following PRRSV challenge infection.

  16. Gammadelta lymphocyte response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, Michael R; Batista, Laura; Xiao, Zhengguo; Dee, Scott A; Murtaugh, Michael P; Pijoan, Carlos C; Molitor, Thomas W

    2005-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be one of the most important diseases facing swine industry today. Following PRRSV infection pigs develop both humoral and cell-mediated responses following PRRSV exposure; however, the relative importance in protection and clearance of the virus is not yet completely understood. Swine contain a large percentage of gammadelta T-lymphocytes in peripheral circulation capable of responding to various pathogens in both an innate and specific immune response. The objectives of this study were to determine whether gammadelta lymphocytes functionally respond to PRRSV upon initial exposure and re-exposure. Four month old PRRSV free gilts were intranasally inoculated with a field isolate MN-30100 then assessed at various time points post infection. On day 120, pigs were re-exposed with MN-30100 PRRSV strain and subsequently were bled on days 0, 7, and 14 post re-exposure. Lymphocyte subpopulations, antigen specific proliferation, and IFN-gamma production were evaluated throughout the study. Circulating gammadelta lymphocytes in PRRSV exposed animals expanded between days 14 to 70 (d14-d70, p = 0.016); following antigen stimulation, gammadelta lymphocyte proliferated by day 14 (d0-d14, p = 0.001) continuing through day 60. gammadelta lymphocytes produced IFN-gamma by day 14 pi continuing through day 50 (d0-d50, p = 0.004). Following re-exposure both gammadelta+ and CD4+ lymphocytes increased in IFN-gamma production. These results are not fully conclusive on the role of gammadelta lymphocytes against PRRSV; the data indicate that gammadelta lymphocytes specifically respond to PRRSV.

  17. Real-time onestep RT-PCR for the detection and differentiation of European and North American types of PRRSV in boar semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik

    ) and the virus can be transmitted by this route, creating a need for diagnostic tests to ensure a PRRSV-free semen supply. PCR is an obvious method for such testing, and especially nested and TwoStep RT-PCR methods have been extensively used for this purpose. However, OneStep RT-PCR offers a more convenient...... and safe diagnostic procedure, since cDNA synthesis and PCR is performed sequentially without inbetween opening of the PCR-tubes, thus eliminating a substantial contamination risk. The aim of the present study was to validate a real-time OneStep RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection...

  18. A quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of PRRSV vaccination in pigs under experimental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nodelijk, G.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Leengoed, van L.A.M.G.; Wensvoort, G.; Pol, J.M.A.; Steverink, P.J.G.M.; Verheijden, J.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative approach to evaluate effectiveness of vaccination under experimental conditions. We used two consecutive experimental designs to investigate whether PRRSV transmission among vaccinated pigs was reduced compared to control pigs and to estimate the reproduction

  19. Inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine adjuvanted with Montanide™ Gel 01 ST elicits virus-specific cross-protective inter-genotypic response in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabynov, Kairat; Sansyzbay, Abylay; Tulemissova, Zhanara; Tabynov, Kaissar; Dhakal, Santosh; Samoltyrova, Aigul; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Mambetaliyev, Muratbay

    2016-08-30

    The efficacy of a novel BEI-inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) candidate vaccine in pigs, developed at RIBSP Republic of Kazakhstan and delivered with an adjuvant Montanide™ Gel 01 ST (D/KV/ADJ) was compared with a commercial killed PRRSV vaccine (NVDC-JXA1, C/KV/ADJ) used widely in swine herds of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Clinical parameters (body temperature and respiratory disease scores), virological and immunological profiles [ELISA and virus neutralizing (VN) antibody titers], macroscopic lung lesions and viral load in the lungs (quantitative real-time PCR and cell culture assay) were assessed in vaccinated and both genotype 1 and 2 PRRSV challenged pigs. Our results showed that the commercial vaccine failed to protect pigs adequately against the clinical disease, viremia and lung lesions caused by the challenged field isolates, Kazakh strains of PRRSV type 1 and type 2 genotypes. In contrast, clinical protection, absence of viremia and lung lesions in D/KV/ADJ vaccinated pigs was associated with generation of VN antibodies in both homologous vaccine strain LKZ/2010 (PRRSV type 2) and a heterogeneous type 1 PRRSV strain (CM/08) challenged pigs. Thus, our data indicated the induction of cross-protective VN antibodies by D/KV/ADJ vaccine, and importantly demonstrated that an inactivated PRRSV vaccine could also induce cross-protective response across the viral genotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of transcription regulatory sequence in regulation of gene expression and replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengbao; Meng, Han; Gao, Yujin; Gao, Hui; Guo, Kangkang; Almazan, Fernando; Sola, Isabel; Enjuanes, Luis; Zhang, Yanming; Abrahamyan, Levon

    2017-08-10

    In order to gain insight into the role of the transcription regulatory sequences (TRSs) in the regulation of gene expression and replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene, under the control of the different structural gene TRSs, was inserted between the N gene and 3'-UTR of the PRRSV genome and EGFP expression was analyzed for each TRS. TRSs of all the studied structural genes of PRRSV positively modulated EGFP expression at different levels. Among the TRSs analyzed, those of GP2, GP5, M, and N genes highly enhanced EGFP expression without altering replication of PRRSV. These data indicated that structural gene TRSs could be an extremely useful tool for foreign gene expression using PRRSV as a vector.

  1. Land altitude, slope, and coverage as risk factors for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS outbreaks in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Gonçalves Arruda

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is, arguably, the most impactful disease on the North American swine industry. The Swine Health Monitoring Project (SHMP is a national volunteer initiative aimed at monitoring incidence and, ultimately, supporting swine disease control, including PRRS. Data collected through the SHMP currently represents approximately 42% of the sow population of the United States. The objective of the study here was to investigate the association between geographical factors (including land elevation, and land coverage and PRRS incidence as recorded in the SHMP. Weekly PRRS status data from sites participating in the SHMP from 2009 to 2016 (n = 706 was assessed. Number of PRRS outbreaks, years of participation in the SHMP, and site location were collected from the SHMP database. Environmental features hypothesized to influence PRRS risk included land coverage (cultivated areas, shrubs and trees, land altitude (in meters above sea level and land slope (in degrees compared to surrounding areas. Other risk factors considered included region, production system to which the site belonged, herd size, and swine density in the area in which the site was located. Land-related variables and pig density were captured in raster format from a number of sources and extracted to points (farm locations. A mixed-effects Poisson regression model was built; and dependence among sites that belonged to a given production system was accounted for using a random effect at the system level. The annual mean and median number of outbreaks per farm was 1.38 (SD: 1.6, and 1 (IQR: 2.0, respectively. The maximum annual number of outbreaks per farm was 9, and approximately 40% of the farms did not report any outbreak. Results from the final multivariable model suggested that increments of swine density and herd size increased the risk for PRRS outbreaks (P < 0.01. Even though altitude (meters above sea level was not significant in the final

  2. Development and preliminary validation of the Injury-Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport (I-PRRS) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Douglas D

    2009-01-01

    Only a few scales measure confidence within sport; however, these scales are insufficient to measure confidence after athletic injuries. Therefore, better measures are needed to determine the psychological readiness of injured athletes to return to sport participation. To develop a scale that measures the psychological readiness of injured athletes to return to sport participation and to provide preliminary evidence of reliability and validity for the scale. The Delphi method was used to develop the Injury-Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport scale (I-PRRS). Two 1-way analyses of variance with repeated measures and 6 Pearson product moment correlations were computed to help validate the scale. Athletic training clinics at 3 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) schools. Four certified athletic trainers (ATs) and professors of Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education-accredited athletic training programs and 3 NCAA Division III coaches made up a panel of experts that participated in the Delphi portion of the study to develop the I-PRRS. In the second part of the study, 22 injured athletes, who missed a minimum of 1 week of practice, from 3 NCAA schools in Divisions II and III were surveyed along with their respective ATs. The injured athletes and ATs participated in the validation of the I-PRRS. The injured athlete completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS) short form and the I-PRRS shortly after injury, before returning to the first practice, before returning to competition, and immediately after competition. The respective AT completed the I-PRRS before and after competition. The I-PRRS is a 6-item scale that measures the psychological readiness of injured athletes to return to sport, and the POMS short form is a 30-item scale that measures mood states. I added the negative moods of the POMS and subtracted the positive moods of the POMS to calculate a Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) score. The I-PRRS scores were negatively

  3. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection triggers HMGB1 release to promote inflammatory cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Erzhen; Wang, Dang; Luo, Rui; Luo, Jingyi; Gao, Li; Chen, Huanchun; Fang, Liurong; Xiao, Shaobo

    2014-11-01

    The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule involved in the pathogenesis of various infectious agents. Based on meta-analysis of all publicly available microarray datasets, HMGB1 has recently been proposed as the most significant immune modulator during the porcine response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. However, the function of HMGB1 in PRRSV pathogenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that PRRSV infection triggers the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the extracellular milieu in MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages. Although HMGB1 has no effect on PRRSV replication, HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and subsequent expression of inflammatory cytokines through receptors RAGE, TLR2 and TLR4. Our findings show that HMGB1 release, triggered by PRRSV infection, enhances the efficiency of virus-induced inflammatory responses, thereby providing new insights into the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytokine profiles in pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    In spite of extensive research, immunologic control mechanisms against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) remain poorly understood. Cytokine responses have been exhaustively studied in nursery pigs and show contradictory results. Since no detailed reports on cytokine respons...

  5. Enhancing heterologous protection in pigs vaccinated with chimeric porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus containing the full-length sequences of shuffled structural genes of multiple heterologous strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Debin; Cao, Dianjun; Lynn Heffron, C; Yugo, Danielle M; Rogers, Adam J; Overend, Christopher; Matzinger, Shannon R; Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Opriessnig, Tanja; LeRoith, Tanya; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2017-04-25

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of arguably the most economically important global swine disease. The extensive genetic variation of PRRSV strains is a major obstacle for heterologous protection of current vaccines. Previously, we constructed a panel of chimeric viruses containing only the ectodomain sequences of DNA-shuffled structural genes of different PRRSV strains in the backbone of a commercial vaccine, and found that one chimeric virus had an improved cross-protection efficacy. In this present study, to further enhance the cross-protective efficacy against heterologous strains, we constructed a novel chimeric virus VR2385-S3456 containing the full-length sequences of shuffled structural genes (ORFs 3-6) from 6 heterologous PRRSV strains in the backbone of PRRSV strain VR2385. We showed that the chimeric virus VR2385-S3456 induced a high level of neutralizing antibodies in pigs against two heterologous strains. A subsequent vaccination and challenge study in 48 pigs revealed that the chimeric virus VR2385-S3456 conferred an enhanced cross-protection when challenged with heterologous virus strain NADC20 or a contemporary heterologous strain RFLP 1-7-4. The results suggest that the chimera VR2385-S3456 may be a good PRRSV vaccine candidate for further development to confer heterologous protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Porcine B-cells recognize epitopes that are conserved between the structural proteins of American- and European-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Bøtner, Anette; Normann, Preben

    2002-01-01

    By selecting phage display libraries with immune sera from experimentally infected pigs, porcine B-cell epitopes in the open reading frame (ORF) 2, 3, 5 and 6 proteins of European-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were identified. The sequences of all the epitopes...... were well conserved in European-type PRRSV and even between European- and American-type PRRSV. Accordingly, sera from pigs infected with American-type PRRSV cross-reacted with the European-type epitopes. Thus, this study showed, for the first time, the presence of highly conserved epitopes...... epitopes was subjected to closer scrutiny. A heptad motif, VSRRIYQ, which is present in a single copy in ORF2 and 3 proteins, was identified; this arrangement is completely conserved in all European-type PRRSV sequences available. The VSRRIYQ repeat motif colocalized closely with one of the ORF2 epitopes...

  7. Commercial and in-house RT-PCR methods for detection of PRRSV. Design, performance and pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2012-01-01

    RT-PCR is a widely used method for detection of PRRSV, because it is a rapid, sensitive and highly specific detection tool. However, the profound diversity and rapid evolution of PRRSV genomes complicates the development of highly sensitive and robust assays. Several factors need to be taken...

  8. Porcine respiratory disease complex: Interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Chanhee

    2016-06-01

    Porcine respiratory disease is a multifactorial and complex disease caused by a combination of infectious pathogens, environmental stressors, differences in production systems, and various management practices; hence the name porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is used. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. Although interactions among the three major respiratory pathogens are well documented, it is also necessary to understand the interaction between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae are well known to potentiate PCV2-associated lesions; however, PRRSV and mycoplasmal vaccines can both enhance PCV2 viraemia regardless of the effects of the actual PRRSV or M. hyopneumoniae infection. On the other hand, M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of pneumonia induced by PRRSV, and vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone is also able to decrease PRRSV viraemia and PRRSV-induced lung lesions in dually infected pigs. This review focuses on (1) interactions between PCV2, PRRSV, and M. hyopneumoniae; and (2) interactions between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection Induces Stress Granule Formation Depending on Protein Kinase R-like Endoplasmic Reticulum Kinase (PERK) in MARC-145 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanrong; Fang, Liurong; Wang, Dang; Cai, Kaimei; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2017-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are sites of mRNA storage that are formed in response to various conditions of stress, including viral infections. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an Arterivirus that has been devastating the swine industry worldwide since the late 1980s. In this study, we found that infection of PRRSV strain WUH3 (genotype 2 PRRSV) induced stable formation of robust SGs in MARC-145 cells, as demonstrated by the recruitment of marker proteins of SGs, including TIA1, G3BP1, and eIF3η. Treatment with specific inhibitors or siRNAs against the stress kinases that are involved in SG formation revealed that PRRSV induced SG formation through a PERK (protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase)-dependent mechanism. Impairment of SG assembly by concomitant knockdown of the SG marker proteins (TIA1, G3BP1, and TIAR) did not affect PRRSV growth, while significantly enhanced PRRSV-induced NF-κB subunit p65 phosphorylation and inflammatory cytokine production. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PRRSV induces SG formation via a PERK-dependent pathway and that SGs are involved in the signaling pathway of the PRRSV-induced inflammatory response in MARC-145 cells.

  10. Duration of homologous porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus immunity in pregnant swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, K M; Mengeling, W L; Brockmeier, S L

    1997-11-01

    The duration of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) homologous immunity was tested in this study and found to last for at least 604 days post experimental exposure to field PRRSV. Eleven gilts (group A) received a primary exposure to field PRRSV by either an oronasal (n = 6) or an intrauterine (n = 5) route. The gilts were naturally bred at selected times (143 to 514 days) after primary virus exposure. They were oronasally exposed a second time to the same strain of virus on or about gestation day 90. Ten age-matched control sows free of PRRSV-specific antibody from the same source farm (group B) were naturally bred and were oronasally exposed to aliquots of the homologous challenge virus on or about gestation day 90. Nine of the 11 gilts in group A and all animals in group B became pregnant following one breeding cycle. The two nonpregnant gilts in group A were each naturally bred during four additional estrus cycles and neither became pregnant. They were exposed to homologous challenge virus 562 and 604 days post primary exposure, respectively. All animals were necropsied 21 days post homologous challenge. Sera and alveolar macrophages from each dam, and sera from each fetus were tested for virus. Transplacental infection was detected in 0/9 and 8/10 litters in groups A and B, respectively. Virus was detected in 0/11 and 10/10 of the alveolar macrophage samples collected in groups A and B, respectively. Serum was harvested at selected times throughout the experiment and tested for PRRSV-specific antibody by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. All gilts in group A were seropositive for the duration of the experiment, and all animals in group B seroconverted following exposure to field PRRSV. This study shows that adult swine can produce a homologous protective immunity after PRRSV exposure that may persist for the production life of the animal.

  11. Comparative virulence of reproductive diseases caused by type 1 (European-like) and type 2 (North American-like) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in experimentally infected pregnant gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, K; Seo, H W; Park, C; Kang, I; Youn, S-K; Lee, S Y; Kim, S-H; Chae, C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the virulence of type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) as assessed by the level of viral replication, viral distribution and apoptosis in stillborn fetuses and live-born piglets from infected pregnant gilts. Type 1 or type 2 PRRSV was given intranasally to pregnant gilts at 3 weeks before the expected date of parturition. Regardless of virus genotype, PRRSV-infected gilts farrowed between 102 and 109 days of gestation, while control uninfected gilts carried the pregnancy to term and farrowed at 114-115 days of gestation. There were no significant differences in the mean number of virus-infected cells per unit area of tissue when type 1 and type 2 virus infections were compared between stillborn fetuses and live-born piglets. Stillborn fetuses from the type 1 PRRSV-infected pregnant gilts had a significantly higher mean number of apoptotic cells per unit area of thymus (P = 0.013) than those from type 2 PRRSV-infected pregnant gilts. Significant differences in virulence were not observed between types 1 and 2 PRRSV in terms of female reproductive failure, although thymic apoptosis differed in stillborn fetuses from type 1 and type 2 PRRSV-infected pregnant gilts. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Intranasal immunization of pigs with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-like particles plus 2', 3'-cGAMP VacciGrade™ adjuvant exacerbates viremia after virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noort, Alexandria; Nelsen, April; Pillatzki, Angela E; Diel, Diego G; Li, Feng; Nelson, Eric; Wang, Xiuqing

    2017-04-12

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive failure in pregnant sows and acute respiratory disease in young pigs. It is a leading infectious agent of swine respiratory complex, which has significant negative economic impact on the swine industry. Commercial markets currently offer both live attenuated and killed vaccines; however, increasing controversy exists about their efficacy providing complete protection. Virus-like particles (VLPs) possess many desirable features of a potent vaccine candidate and have been proven to be highly immunogenic and protective against virus infections. Here we explored the efficacy of PRRSV VLPs together with the use of a novel 2', 3'-cGAMP VacciGrade™ adjuvant. Animals were immunized twice intranasally with phosphate buffered saline (PBS), PRRSV VLPs, or PRRSV VLPs plus 2', 3'-cGAMP VacciGrade™ at 2 weeks apart. Animals were challenged with PRRSV-23983 at 2 weeks post the second immunization. PRRSV specific antibody response and cytokines were measured. Viremia, clinical signs, and histological lesions were evaluated. PRRSV N protein specific antibody was detected in all animals at day 10 after challenge, but no significant difference was observed among the vaccinated and control groups. Surprisingly, a significantly higher viremia was observed in the VLPs and VLPs plus the adjuvant groups compared to the control group. The increased viremia is correlated with a higher interferon-α induction in the serum of the VLPs and the VLPs plus the adjuvant groups. Intranasal immunizations of pigs with PRRSV VLPs and VLPs plus the 2', 3'-cGAMP VacciGrade™ adjuvant exacerbates viremia. A higher level of interferon-α production, but not interferon-γ and IL-10, is correlated with enhanced virus replication. Overall, PRRSV VLPs and PRRSV VLPs plus the adjuvant fail to provide protection against PRRSV challenge. Different dose of VLPs and alternative route of vaccination such as intramuscular

  13. Activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase is required for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-induced apoptosis but not for virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shutao; Huo, Yazhen; Dong, Yinhui; Fan, Lihong; Yang, Hanchun; Wang, Leyuan; Ning, Yibao; Hu, Hongbo

    2012-06-01

    Apoptosis of host cells plays a critical role in pathogenesis of virus infection. MAPK kinases especially stress-activated protein kinases c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) and p38 are often involved in virus-mediated apoptosis. It has been shown that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection resulted in apoptosis of the host cells both in vitro and in vivo. The current investigation was initiated to determine whether stress-activated protein kinases JNK and p38 play a role in apoptosis induction by PRRSV infection. We examined phosphorylation of JNK and p38, and found that JNK but not p38 was activated in response to PRRSV infection. We then examined effects of this kinase on apoptosis induction and virus replication by using specific inhibitor. We found that JNK inhibition by its inhibitor SP600125 led to the abolishment of PRRSV-mediated apoptosis, but did not suppress virus replication. Further studies demonstrated that ROS generation was involved in JNK activation, and Bcl-2 family anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-xl were downstream targets of JNK to mediate apoptosis. We conclude that activation of JNK signaling pathway is essential for PRRSV-mediated apoptosis but not for virus replication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. PCR diagnosis of PRRS virus in oral fluids from weaned Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, P. R.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Pedersen, K. S.

    Introduction Oral fluid testing has been suggested as an alternative diagnostic approach for surveillance of pathogens in swine herds3. In Denmark oral fluid has been used for detection of PCV22 and swine veterinarians are eager to use it for diagnosis of other pathogens. The aim of the present...... herds. Oral fluid was collected by providing 1 cotton rope in each selected pen for 30 minutes. Blood samples from 5 systematic randomly selected pigs in each pen were taken and the separated serum was pooled penwise. Different purification methods were tested in order to decrease the content of PCR...

  15. Stress-activated protein kinases are involved in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection and modulate virus-induced cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Lee, Changhee

    2012-06-05

    The present study examined the role of the p38 MAPK and JNK pathways during PRRSV infection in immortalized porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cells. Infection with PRRSV was found to progressively activate p38 and JNK1/2 up to 36 h postinfection and then their phosphorylation levels dramatically decreased to baseline at 48 h postinfection. In contrast, UV-inactivated PRRSV failed to trigger phosphorylation of these SAPKs, indicating that the post-entry process is responsible for their activation. Independent treatment of cells with a selective p38 or JNK inhibitor markedly impaired PRRSV infection, resulting in significant reduction in synthesis of viral genomic and subgenomic RNAs, viral protein expression, and progeny virus production. Notably, cytokine production in PAM cells infected with PRRSV was shown to be altered by inhibiting these SAPKs. Altogether, our data suggest that the p38 and JNK signaling pathways play pivotal roles in PRRSV replication and may regulate immune responses during virus infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The amino acid residues at 102 and 104 in GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus regulate viral neutralization susceptibility to the porcine serum neutralizing antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Baochao; Liu, Xing; Bai, Juan; Zhang, Tingjie; Zhang, Qiaoya; Jiang, Ping

    2015-06-02

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is mainly responsible for the heavy economic losses in pig industry in the world. A number of neutralizing epitopes have been identified in the viral structural proteins GP3, GP4, GP5 and M. In this study, the important amino acid (aa) residues of HP-PRRSV strain BB affecting neutralization susceptibility of antibody were examined using resistant strains generated under neutralizing antibody (NAb) pressure in MARC-145 cells, reverse genetic technique and virus neutralization assay. HP-PRRSV strain BB was passaged under the pressure of porcine NAb serum in vitro. A resistant strain BB34s with 102 and 104 aa substitutions in GP5, which have been predicted to be the positive sites for pressure selection (Delisle et al., 2012), was cloned and identified. To determine the effect of the two aa residues on neutralization, eight recombinant PRRSV strains were generated, and neutralization assay results confirmed that the aa residues 102 and 104 in GP5 played an important role in NAbs against HP-PRRSV in MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages. Alignment of GP5 sequences revealed that the variant aa residues at 102 and 104 were frequent among type 2 PRRSV strains. It may be helpful for understanding the mechanism regulating the neutralization susceptibility of PRRSV to the NAbs and monitoring the antigen variant strains in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Strain predominance following exposure of vaccinated and naive pregnant gilts to multiple strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    OpenAIRE

    Lager, Kelly M.; Mengeling, William L.; Wesley, Ronald D.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies were performed in order to test the relative ability of different strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to replicate and cross the placental barrier in pregnant gilts. Study 1 comprised 6 nonvaccinated gilts. Study 2 comprised 8 nonvaccinated gilts and 12 gilts that were vaccinated twice before conception. On, or about, gestation day 90 all gilts were simultaneously exposed to 20 field strains of PRRSV (all strains were distinguishable by restricti...

  18. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Induces IL-1β Production Depending on TLR4/MyD88 Pathway and NLRP3 Inflammasome in Primary Porcine Alveolar Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Bi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is an Arterivirus that has been devastating the swine industry worldwide since the late 1980s. Previous studies have reported that PRRSV infection induced the production of IL-1β. However, the cellular sensors and signaling pathways involved in this process have not been elucidated yet. Here, we studied the mechanisms responsible for the production of IL-1β in response to highly pathogenic PRRSV. Upon PRRSV infection of primary porcine alveolar macrophages, both mRNA expression and secretion of IL-1β were significantly increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We also investigated the role of several pattern-recognition receptors and adaptor molecules in this response and showed that the TLR4/MyD88 pathway and its downstream signaling molecules, NF-κB, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPKs, were involved in IL-1β production during PRRSV infection. Treatment with specific inhibitors or siRNA knockdown assays demonstrated that components of the NLRP3 inflammasome were crucial for IL-1β secretion but not for IL-1β mRNA expression. Furthermore, TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway was involved in PRRSV-induced expression of NLRP3 inflammasome components. Together, our results deciphered the pathways leading from recognition of PRRSV to the production and release of IL-1β, providing a deeper knowledge of the mechanisms of PRRSV-induced inflammation responses.

  19. DExD/H-Box Helicase 36 Signaling via Myeloid Differentiation Primary Response Gene 88 Contributes to NF-κB Activation to Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyuan Jing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available DExD/H-box helicase 36 (DHX36 is known to be an ATP-dependent RNA helicase that unwinds the guanine-quadruplexes DNA or RNA, but emerging data suggest that it also functions as pattern recognition receptor in innate immunity. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is an Arterivirus that has been devastating the swine industry worldwide. Interstitial pneumonia is considered to be one of the most obvious clinical signs of PRRSV infection, suggesting that the inflammatory response plays an important role in PRRSV pathogenesis. However, whether DHX36 is involved in PRRSV-induced inflammatory cytokine expression remains unclear. In this study, we found that PRRSV infection increased the expression of DHX36. Knockdown of DHX36 and its adaptor myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88 by small-interfering RNA in MARC-145 cells significantly reduced NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression after PRRSV infection. Further investigation revealed that PRRSV nucleocapsid protein interacted with the N-terminal quadruplex binding domain of DHX36, which in turn augmented nucleocapsid protein-induced NF-κB activation. Taken together, our results suggest that DHX36–MyD88 has a relevant role in the recognition of PRRSV nucleocapsid protein and in the subsequent activation of pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway.

  20. Computer-aided codon-pairs deoptimization of the major envelope GP5 gene attenuates porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yan-Yan; Zhao, Zhao; Opriessnig, Tanja; Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Zhou, Lei; Cao, Dianjun; Cao, Qian; Yang, Hanchun; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic attenuated virus engineering (SAVE) is an emerging technology that enables rapid attenuation of viruses. In this study, by using SAVE we demonstrated rapid attenuation of an arterivirus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The major envelope GP5 gene of PRRSV was codon-pair deoptimized aided by a computer algorithm. The codon-pair deoptimized virus, designated as SAVE5 with a deoptimized GP5 gene, was successfully rescued in vitro. The SAVE5 virus replicated at a lower level in vitro with a significant decrease of GP5 protein expression compared to the wild-type PRRSV VR2385 virus. Pigs experimentally infected with the SAVE5 virus had significantly lower viremia level up to 14 days post-infection as well as significantly reduced gross and histological lung lesions when compared to wild-type PRRSV VR2385 virus-infected pigs, indicating the attenuation of the SAVE5 virus. This study proved the feasibility of rapidly attenuating PRRSV by SAVE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429): porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of PRRS to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of PRRS according...... to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to PRRS. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached......) of Article 9(1). The animal species to be listed for PRRS according to Article 8(3) criteria are domestic pigs and wild boar....

  2. Determination of 5 '-leader sequences from radically disparate strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus reveals the presence of highly conserved sequence motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Bøtner, Anette; Nielsen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    We determined the untranslated 5'-leader sequence for three different isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): pathogenic European- and American-types, as well as an American-type vaccine strain. 5'-leader from European- and American-type PRRSV differed in length...... (220 and 190 nt, respectively), and exhibited only approximately 50% nucleotide homology. Nevertheless, highly conserved areas were identified in the leader of all 3 PRRSV isolates, which constitute candidate motifs for binding of protein(s) involved in viral replication. These comparative data provide...

  3. Sequence analysis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus of the American type collected from Danish swine herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K.G.; Hansen, C.M.; Madsen, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    Vaccine-like viruses of American type of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were detected in serum samples by RT-PCR. The viruses were analysed by nucleotide sequencing of the genomic region encoding open reading frames 2 to 7. During the ongoing study of Danish isolates...

  4. Modulation of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells by Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Through Interaction with the Porcine Intercellular-Adhesion-Molecule-3-Grabbing Nonintegrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeyro, Pablo E; Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Kenney, Scott P; Heffron, C Lynn; Giménez-Lirola, Luis G; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-12-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically important global swine pathogen. PRRSV infects porcine dendritic cells (DCs), but the effects of the interactions with DCs are largely unknown. Current research focuses on the production and regulation of interferons and selected inflammatory cytokines in DCs, which may play key roles in immune modulation. In addition, PRRSV also downregulates swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA-I), SLA-II, and CD80/86 costimulatory molecules in DCs. In this study, we aim to evaluate the PRRSV immunomodulatory effects on monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) through interactions with porcine DC-SIGN (pDC-SIGN) receptor. We demonstrated that blocking the PRRSV and pDC-SIGN interactions in MoDCs with recombinant hICAM-3 did not affect the regulatory effects of PRRSV on SLA-I, SLA-II, or CD80/86 molecules. The hICAM-3 did not affect the morphological changes on MoDCs associated with their activation and maturation after PRRSV infection, and did not impair the virus infectivity in these cells either. The mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-12p35, IL-1β, and IL-6 were upregulated after hICAM-3 treatment or PRRSV infection, but in the presence of the blockage of pDC-SIGN in MoDCs with hICAM-3, PRRSV did not modulate the expression of these genes. However, in the presence of an anti-pDC-SIGN monoclonal antibody (mAb), we showed that PRRSV infection significantly reduced the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and IL-1α, but enhanced the expression of IL-12p35 in MoDCs. Both hICAM-3-Fc and pDC-SIGN mAb treatments did not modulate proinflammatory cytokine protein levels in the culture supernatants of PRRSV-infected MoDCs. The results indicate that blocking the PRRSV-pDC-SIGN interactions by recombinant hICAM-3-Fc did not significantly affect virus infectivity, DC maturation, and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in infected MoDCs. However, blocking the PRRSV-pDC-SIGN interactions on MoDCs with

  5. Measuring Progress on the Control of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS at a Regional Level: The Minnesota N212 Regional Control Project (Rcp as a Working Example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Valdes-Donoso

    Full Text Available Due to the highly transmissible nature of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS, implementation of regional programs to control the disease may be critical. Because PRRS is not reported in the US, numerous voluntary regional control projects (RCPs have been established. However, the effect of RCPs on PRRS control has not been assessed yet. This study aims to quantify the extent to which RCPs contribute to PRRS control by proposing a methodological framework to evaluate the progress of RCPs. Information collected between July 2012 and June 2015 from the Minnesota Voluntary Regional PRRS Elimination Project (RCP-N212 was used. Demography of premises (e.g. composition of farms with sows = SS and without sows = NSS was assessed by a repeated analysis of variance. By using general linear mixed-effects models, active participation of farms enrolled in the RCP-N212, defined as the decision to share (or not to share PRRS status, was evaluated and used as a predictor, along with other variables, to assess the PRRS trend over time. Additionally, spatial and temporal patterns of farmers' participation and the disease dynamics were investigated. The number of farms enrolled in RCP-N212 and its geographical coverage increased, but the proportion of SS and NSS did not vary significantly over time. A significant increasing (p<0.001 trend in farmers' decision to share PRRS status was observed, but with NSS producers less willing to report and a large variability between counties. The incidence of PRRS significantly (p<0.001 decreased, showing a negative correlation between degree of participation and occurrence of PRRS (p<0.001 and a positive correlation with farm density at the county level (p = 0.02. Despite a noted decrease in PRRS, significant spatio-temporal patterns of incidence of the disease over 3-weeks and 3-kms during the entire study period were identified. This study established a systematic approach to quantify the effect of RCPs on

  6. Detection of genotype 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus in swine, using one-step Real-Time PCR for the ORF7 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Zaulet

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS is the most devastating and economically challenging disease to the swine industry worldwide due to reproductive failure. The main objective of the current study was to evaluate the sensitivity and accuracy of Real-Time RT-PCR method in the detection of PRRS virus and also estimation of the pathogen load in samples with clinical signs. The primers used for the detection of PRRS virus were represented by primers with a specific sequence for the ORF7 gene of the PRRS virus. More important, the primers attachment process was influenced by punctual mutations of the viral strand belonging to the ORF7 gene. 114 samples were tested to identify the presence of PRRS virus, genotype I and 14 of them were found to be positive, using OneStep PCR. Those samples were used to test the specificity of the TaqMan probe and robustness of Real-Time RT-PCR reaction. According to the results, only the samples which presented some specific punctual mutations (4 in total, all from one particular region of Romania at the genome level of ORF7, were positive, due to primer sequence specificity and complementarity. The Real-Time RT-PCR method has been increasingly adopted by swine producers and veterinarian laboratories as one of the most trustful techniques, combining rapidity, specificity and efficiency for detecting and monitoring the spread of PRRS virus.

  7. Virus kan påvises i spyt fra grise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Pia R.; Christensen, Sanne; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2012-01-01

    Svinedyrlæger har muligheden for at udskifte blodprøveglas og kanyler med reb til indsamling af spyt. DTU Veterinærinstituttet har valideret metoderne til at teste spyt for PCV2, PRRS- og Influenza virus, og laboratoriet modtager nu spytprøver rutinemæssigt.......Svinedyrlæger har muligheden for at udskifte blodprøveglas og kanyler med reb til indsamling af spyt. DTU Veterinærinstituttet har valideret metoderne til at teste spyt for PCV2, PRRS- og Influenza virus, og laboratoriet modtager nu spytprøver rutinemæssigt....

  8. Changes in leukocyte subsets of pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Ladinig, Andrea; Gerner, Wilhelm; Saalmüller, Armin; Lunney, Joan K; Ashley, Carolyn; Harding, John CS

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In spite of more than two decades of extensive research, the understanding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) immunity is still incomplete. A PRRSv infection of the late term pregnant female can result in abortions, early farrowings, fetal death, and the birth of weak, congenitally infected piglets. The objectives of the present study were to investigate changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations in third trimester pregnant fem...

  9. Homologous challenge of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus immunity in pregnant swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, K M; Mengeling, W L; Brockmeier, S L

    1997-11-01

    The clinical consequences of single or multiple exposure of pregnant gilts to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) at various stages of gestation were determined. Thirty-three pregnant gilts were allotted to 6 experimental groups (5 to 7 gilts/group). Gilts of groups 1 to 5 were exposed to strain NADC-8 of PRRSV at the following times: group 1, gestation day (GD) 1; group 2, GDs 1 and 90; group 3, GD 30; group 4, GDs 30 and 90; group 5, GD 90. Virus exposure was by either intrauterine (GD 1) or oronasal (GDs 30 and 90) inoculation. Gilts of group 6 were kept as nonexposed controls. Gilts were either necropsied on or about GD 111 (groups 1 to 5) or were allowed to farrow (group 6). The detection of PRRSV in serum of fetuses and piglets (within 12 hof birth) was considered evidence of transplacental infection. Transplacental infection and virus-induced death were and were not confirmed for groups 3, 4, and 5 and for groups 1, 2, and 6, respectively. Collectively, the results indicated that intrauterine exposure to PRRSV at GD 1 was without clinical effect (groups 1 and 2) and provided protection against subsequent exposure to the same strain of virus at GD 90 (group 2). The highest incidence of transplacental infection and fetal death followed a single exposure to PRRSV at GD 90 (group 5).

  10. Changes in the cellular proteins of pulmonary alveolar macrophage infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by proteomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiming; Guo, Xin; Ge, Xinna; Chen, Yanhong; Sun, Qixin; Yang, Hanchun

    2009-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is known to infect and replicate preferentially in pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs). We applied proteomic approaches to investigate the change in cellular proteins of PAMs infected with PRRSV in vitro. A total of 23 cellular proteins with significant alteration in different courses postinfection were identified. These proteins could be classified into the functions associated with morphogenesis, protein synthesis, metabolism, and stress response and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Of the altered proteins, two proteins, heat shock 27 kDa protein (HSP27) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), involved in stress response or ubiquitin-proteasome pathway were observed to be up-regulated. Our study is the first attempt to analyze the cellular protein profile of PRRSV-infected PAMs by proteomics and provide valuable information for better understanding the function alterations of PAMs induced by PRRSV infection.

  11. Effect of saliva stabilisers on detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in oral fluid by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decorte, Inge; Van der Stede, Yves; Nauwynck, Hans; De Regge, Nick; Cay, Ann Brigitte

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of extraction-amplification methods, storage temperature and saliva stabilisers on detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) RNA by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in porcine oral fluid. The diagnostic performance of different extraction-amplification methods was examined using a dilution series of oral fluid spiked with PRRSV. To determine RNA stability, porcine oral fluid, with or without commercially available saliva stabilisers, was spiked with PRRSV, stored at 4°C or room temperature and tested for the presence of PRRSV RNA by qRT-PCR. PRRSV RNA could be detected in oral fluid using all extraction-amplification combinations, but the limit of detection varied amongst different combinations. Storage temperature and saliva stabilisers had an effect on the stability of PRRSV RNA, which could only be detected for 7 days when PRRSV spiked oral fluid was kept at 4°C or stabilised at room temperature with a commercial mRNA stabiliser. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pathologic Evaluation of Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection at the Maternal-Fetal Interface of Late Gestation Pregnant Gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Predrag; Harding, John C. S.; Al-Dissi, Ahmad N.; Ladinig, Andrea; Detmer, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of fetal death caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis by assessing potential relationships between specific histopathological lesions and PRRSV RNA concentration in the fetuses and the maternal-fetal interface. Pregnant gilts were inoculated with PRRSV (n = 114) or sham inoculated (n = 19) at 85±1 days of gestation. Dams and their litters were humanely euthanized and necropsied 21 days later. PRRSV RNA concentration was measured by qRT-PCR in the maternal-fetal interface and fetal thymus (n = 1391). Presence of fetal lesions was positively related to PRRSV RNA concentration in the maternal-fetal interface and fetal thymus (Pgilts induces significant histopathological lesions at maternal-fetal interface, but they are not associated with presence of PRRSV in the maternal-fetal interface at 21 days post infection. Conversely, fetal pathological lesions are associated with presence of PRRSV in the maternal-fetal interface and fetal thymus, and meconium staining is significantly associated with the presence of both fetal and umbilical lesions observed 21 days post infection. PMID:26963101

  13. Changes in leukocyte subsets of pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladinig, Andrea; Gerner, Wilhelm; Saalmüller, Armin; Lunney, Joan K; Ashley, Carolyn; Harding, John C S

    2014-12-14

    In spite of more than two decades of extensive research, the understanding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) immunity is still incomplete. A PRRSv infection of the late term pregnant female can result in abortions, early farrowings, fetal death, and the birth of weak, congenitally infected piglets. The objectives of the present study were to investigate changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations in third trimester pregnant females infected with type 2 PRRSv (NVSL 97-7895) and to analyze potential relationships with viral load and fetal mortality rate. PRRSv infection caused a massive, acute drop in total leukocyte counts affecting all PBMC populations by two days post infection. Except for B cells, cell counts started to rebound by day six post infection. Our data also show a greater decrease of naïve B cells, T-helper cells and cytolytic T cells than their respective effector or memory counterparts. Absolute numbers of T cells and γδ T cells were negatively associated with PRRSv RNA concentration in gilt serum over time. Additionally, absolute numbers of T helper cells may be predictive of fetal mortality rate. The preceding three leukocyte populations may therefore be predictive of PRRSv-related pathological outcomes in pregnant gilts. Although many questions regarding the immune responses remain unanswered, these findings provide insight and clues that may help reduce the impact of PRRSv in pregnant gilts.

  14. Mapping codon usage of the translation initiation region in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dou Yong-xi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respitatory syndrome virus (PRRSV is a recently emerged pathogen and severely affects swine populations worldwide. The replication of PRRSV is tightly controlled by viral gene expression and the codon usage of translation initiation region within each gene could potentially regulate the translation rate. Therefore, a better understanding of the codon usage pattern of the initiation translation region would shed light on the regulation of PRRSV gene expression. Results In this study, the codon usage in the translation initiation region and in the whole coding sequence was compared in PRRSV ORF1a and ORFs2-7. To investigate the potential role of codon usage in affecting the translation initiation rate, we established a codon usage model for PRRSV translation initiation region. We observed that some non-preferential codons are preferentially used in the translation initiation region in particular ORFs. Although some positions vary with codons, they intend to use codons with negative CUB. Furthermore, our model of codon usage showed that the conserved pattern of CUB is not directly consensus with the conserved sequence, but shaped under the translation selection. Conclusions The non-variation pattern with negative CUB in the PRRSV translation initiation region scanned by ribosomes is considered the rate-limiting step in the translation process.

  15. Pathogenicity and molecular characterization of emerging porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Vietnam in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, S; Mohamed, F; Faaberg, K; Burrage, T; Prarat, M; Moran, K; Bracht, A; Mayr, G; Berninger, M; Koster, L; To, T L; Nguyen, V L; Reising, M; Landgraf, J; Cox, L; Lubroth, J; Carrillo, C

    2010-10-01

    In 2007, Vietnam experienced swine disease outbreaks causing clinical signs similar to the 'porcine high fever disease' that occurred in China during 2006. Analysis of diagnostic samples from the disease outbreaks in Vietnam identified porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2). Additionally, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus were cultured from lung and spleen, and Streptococcus suis from one spleen sample. Genetic characterization of the Vietnamese PRRSV isolates revealed that this virus belongs to the North American genotype (type 2) with a high nucleotide identity to the recently reported Chinese strains. Amino acid sequence in the nsp2 region revealed 95.7-99.4% identity to Chinese strain HUN4, 68-69% identity to strain VR-2332 and 58-59% identity to strain MN184. A partial deletion in the nsp2 gene was detected; however, this deletion did not appear to enhance the virus pathogenicity in the inoculated pigs. Animal inoculation studies were conducted to determine the pathogenicity of PRRSV and to identify other possible agents present in the original specimens. Pigs inoculated with PRRSV alone and their contacts showed persistent fever, and two of five pigs developed cough, neurological signs and swollen joints. Necropsy examination showed mild to moderate bronchopneumonia, enlarged lymph nodes, fibrinous pericarditis and polyarthritis. PRRSV was re-isolated from blood and tissues of the inoculated and contact pigs. Pigs inoculated with lung and spleen tissue homogenates from sick pigs from Vietnam developed high fever, septicaemia, and died acutely within 72 h, while their contact pigs showed no clinical signs throughout the experiment. Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus was cultured, and PRRSV was re-isolated only from the inoculated pigs. Results suggest that the cause of the swine deaths in Vietnam is a multifactorial syndrome with PRRSV as a major factor. © 2010

  16. Induction of Apoptosis by the Nonstructural Protein 4 and 10 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaizhen Yuan

    Full Text Available Infection by most viruses triggers apoptosis in host cells, and viruses manipulate this cell response to promote viral replication, virus spread, and cell killing. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV has been shown to induce apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, while the regulatory roles of PRRSV-encoded products in apoptosis are not fully understood. In the present study, we first showed a biphasic apoptosis regulation by a highly pathogenic PRRSV strain JXwn06. It was indicated that PRRSV infection delays apoptosis at early infection but activates apoptosis at late infection in MARC-145 cells. In PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells, procaspase-8, -9 and -12 were activated at late infection, demonstrating the involvements of death receptor pathway, mitochondrial pathway and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress pathway in inducing apoptosis. PRRSV was also shown to induce a similar apoptosis process in pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs with an early initiation. Next, the PRRSV-encoded apoptosis inducers were screened, indicating that the nonstructural protein (Nsp 4 and Nsp10 of PRRSV are pro-apoptotic. In the presence of Nsp4, it was confirmed that procaspase-8, -9 and -12 were cleaved, and Nsp4 facilitates the cleavage of procaspase-9 by activating B-cell lymphoma 2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim, a pro-apoptotic protein. In addition, Nsp4 was shown to induce the degradation of an anti-apoptotic protein, B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL. Nsp10 was shown to activate procaspase-8 and -9 but procaspase-12 and to upregulate the expression of BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (Bid and its active form, truncated Bid (tBid. Clearly, the participation of both activated caspase-8 and Bid is required for Nsp10-induced apoptosis, indicating a crosstalk between extrinsic- and mitochondria-dependent pathways. Together, our findings suggest that PRRSV infection regulates apoptosis in a two

  17. Induction of Apoptosis by the Nonstructural Protein 4 and 10 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuaizhen; Zhang, Ning; Xu, Lei; Zhou, Lei; Ge, Xinna; Guo, Xin; Yang, Hanchun

    2016-01-01

    Infection by most viruses triggers apoptosis in host cells, and viruses manipulate this cell response to promote viral replication, virus spread, and cell killing. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been shown to induce apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, while the regulatory roles of PRRSV-encoded products in apoptosis are not fully understood. In the present study, we first showed a biphasic apoptosis regulation by a highly pathogenic PRRSV strain JXwn06. It was indicated that PRRSV infection delays apoptosis at early infection but activates apoptosis at late infection in MARC-145 cells. In PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells, procaspase-8, -9 and -12 were activated at late infection, demonstrating the involvements of death receptor pathway, mitochondrial pathway and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in inducing apoptosis. PRRSV was also shown to induce a similar apoptosis process in pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) with an early initiation. Next, the PRRSV-encoded apoptosis inducers were screened, indicating that the nonstructural protein (Nsp) 4 and Nsp10 of PRRSV are pro-apoptotic. In the presence of Nsp4, it was confirmed that procaspase-8, -9 and -12 were cleaved, and Nsp4 facilitates the cleavage of procaspase-9 by activating B-cell lymphoma 2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim), a pro-apoptotic protein. In addition, Nsp4 was shown to induce the degradation of an anti-apoptotic protein, B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL). Nsp10 was shown to activate procaspase-8 and -9 but procaspase-12 and to upregulate the expression of BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (Bid) and its active form, truncated Bid (tBid). Clearly, the participation of both activated caspase-8 and Bid is required for Nsp10-induced apoptosis, indicating a crosstalk between extrinsic- and mitochondria-dependent pathways. Together, our findings suggest that PRRSV infection regulates apoptosis in a two-phase manner and

  18. Sensing disease and danger: A survey of vertebrate PRRs and their origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John D.; Vojtech, Lucia N.; Laing, Kerry J.

    2011-01-01

    A key facet of the innate immune response lays in its ability to recognize and respond to invading microorganisms and cellular disturbances. Through the use of germ-line encoded PRRs, the innate immune system is capable of detecting invariant pathogen motifs termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) that are distinct from host encoded proteins or products released from dying cells, which are known as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). PAMPs and DAMPs include both protein and nucleic acids for the detection and response to pathogens and metabolic "danger" signals. This is by far one of the most active areas of research as recent studies have shown retinoic acid inducible gene 1 (RIG1)-like receptors (RLRs), the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat containing proteins (NLRs) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the recently described AIM-like receptors (ALRs) are responsible for initiating interferon production or the assembly and activation of the inflammasome, ultimately resulting in the release of bioactive IL-1 family members. Overall, the vertebrate PRR recognition machinery consists of seven domains (e.g., Death, NACHT, CARD, TIR, LRR, PYD, helicase), most of which can be traced to the very origins of the deuterostomes. This review is intended to provide an overview of the basic components that are used by vertebrates to detect and respond to pathogens, with an emphasis on these receptors in fish as well as a brief note on their likely origins.

  19. TLR2 and TLR9 Synergistically Control Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in the Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Nørgaard; Reinert, Line; Malmgaard, Lene

    2008-01-01

    Viruses are recognized by the innate immune system through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). For instance, HSV virions and genomic DNA are recognized by TLR2 and TLR9, respectively. Although several viruses and viral components have been shown to stimulate cells through TLRs, only very few st...

  20. TLR2 and TLR9 synergistically control herpes simplex virus infection in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise N; Reinert, Line S; Malmgaard, Lene

    2008-01-01

    Viruses are recognized by the innate immune system through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). For instance, HSV virions and genomic DNA are recognized by TLR2 and TLR9, respectively. Although several viruses and viral components have been shown to stimulate cells through TLRs, only very few st...

  1. Influence of the amino acid residues at 70 in M protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on viral neutralization susceptibility to the serum antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Baochao; Liu, Xing; Bai, Juan; Zhang, Tingjie; Zhang, Qiaoya; Jiang, Ping

    2016-03-22

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is mainly responsible for the significant economic losses in pig industry in the world. The adaptive immune responses of the host act as an important source of selective pressure in the evolutionary process of the virus. In the previous study, we confirmed that the amino acid (aa) residues at 102 and 104 sites in GP5 played an important role in escaping from the neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV). In this study, we further analyzed the aa mutants affecting neutralization susceptibility of NAbs in other structure proteins in NAbs resistant variants. Based on the different aa residues of the structural proteins between the resistant virus BB20s and the parent virus BB, 12 recombinant PRRSV strains containing these aa residue substitutions were constructed using reverse genetic techniques. The neutralizing antibody (NA) titers of the recombinant strains were tested on MARC-145 and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). And the NAbs binding abilities of parent and rescued viruses were tested by using ELISA method. By using the neutralization assay, it was revealed that the NA titer of N4 serum with rBB/Ms was significantly lower than that with rBB. Meanwhile, NA titer of the serum with rBB20s/M was significantly higher than that with rBB20s. The ELISA binding results showed that rBB/Ms had higher binding inability to N4 than did rBB. And alignment of M protein revealed that the variant aa residue lysine (K) at 70 was also existed in field type 2 and vaccine PRRSV strains. The aa residue at 70 in M protein of PRRSV played an important role in regulating neutralization susceptibility to the porcine serum NAbs. It may be helpful for monitoring the antigen variant strains in the field and developing new vaccine against PRRSV in the future.

  2. Chinese highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus exhibits more extensive tissue tropism for pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Limin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV emerging in China exhibits high fatality to pigs. However, the mechanism related to the increased pathogenicity of the virus remains unclear. In the present study, the differences in tissue tropism between the highly pathogenic PRRSV strain (JXwn06 and the low pathogenic PRRSV strain (HB-1/3.9 were investigated using PRRSV-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC staining to provide evidence for elucidating possible mechanism of the pathogenicity of Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV. Findings IHC examination showed that PRRSV antigen in the tissues including spleen, tonsil, thymus, kidney, cerebellum, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, turbinal bone and laryngeal cartilage was positive in more pigs inoculated with JXwn06 than HB-1/3.9, and the tissues including trachea, esophagus, liver, mandibular gland and thyroid gland were positive for viral antigen in the pigs inoculated with JXwn06, but not in the pigs inoculated with HB-1/3.9. Meanwhile, we observed that epithelium in tissues including interlobular bile duct in liver, distal renal tubule of kidney, esophageal gland and tracheal gland were positive for viral antigen only in JXwn06-inoculated pigs, and epithelium of gastric mucosa and fundic gland, and intestinal gland were positive for viral antigen in both JXwn06- and HB-1/3.9-inoculated pigs, using monoclonal antibodies to N and Nsp2 proteins. Conclusions Taken together, these findings indicate that the highly pathogenic PRRSV JXwn06 displays an expanded tissue tropism in vivo, suggesting this may contribute to its high pathogenicity to pigs.

  3. An evaluation of disinfectants for the sanitation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-contaminated transport vehicles at cold temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Scott; Deen, John; Burns, Danny; Douthit, George; Pijoan, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of commercially available disinfectants to sanitize porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) contaminated trailer models in cold climates (-20 degrees C and 4 degrees C). Disinfectants evaluated included Synergize, Aseptol 2000, Biophene, Sentramax, Virkon, Tek Trol, and DC&R. All products were applied to trailers via fumigation at 4 degrees C. Following experimental contamination of model trailers with PRRSV MN 30-100 (5 x 10(5) TCID50), models were tested for the presence or absence of PRRSV-RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on swabs collected 0, 30, and 60 min after treatment. Treatments included washing only, washing plus disinfectant fumigation, washing plus fumigation, and washing plus overnight drying. The PRRSV-RNA detected across trailers ranged from 0/12 replicates in trailers treated with Synergize or allowed to dry for 8 h. These trailers were also negative for the presence of infectious PRRSV, based on the lack of sentinel pig infection (0/4 replicates). In contrast, the detection of PRRSV-positive swabs by PCR ranged from 3/12 (Aseptol) to 10/12 (Biophene). Based on these results, the efficacy of Synergize was evaluated at -20 degrees C. In an attempt to reduce the impact of freezing on disinfectant activity, 30 mL of disinfectant was added to a 3840 mL of a 40% methanol solution, a 10% propylene glycol (PG) solution, or water alone. The PRRSV-contaminated trailers were treated with 1 of 3 disinfectant mixtures via fumigation, stored for 8 h at -20 degrees C, allowed to thaw, and sampled as described. Trailers treated with 40% methanol or 10% PG did not freeze and were negative for PRRSV-RNA and infectious virus following thawing. In contrast, trailers treated with disinfectant and water were frozen within 60 min at -20 degrees C, and decontamination was not successful.

  4. Identification of host cellular proteins that interact with the M protein of a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Li, Yanwei; Dong, Hong; Wang, Li; Peng, Jinmei; An, Tongqing; Yang, Xufu; Tian, Zhijun; Cai, Xuehui

    2017-02-22

    The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) continues to pose one of the greatest threats to the swine industry. M protein is the most conserved and important structural protein of PRRSV. However, information about the host cellular proteins that interact with M protein remains limited. Host cellular proteins that interact with the M protein of HP-PRRSV were immunoprecipitated from MARC-145 cells infected with PRRSV HuN4-F112 using the M monoclonal antibody (mAb). The differentially expressed proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. The screened proteins were used for bioinformatics analysis including Gene Ontology, the interaction network, and the enriched KEGG pathways. Some interested cellular proteins were validated to interact with M protein by CO-IP. The PRRSV HuN4-F112 infection group had 10 bands compared with the control group. The bands included 219 non-redundant cellular proteins that interact with M protein, which were identified by LC-MS/MS with high confidence. The gene ontology and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway bioinformatic analyses indicated that the identified proteins could be assigned to several different subcellular locations and functional classes. Functional analysis of the interactome profile highlighted cellular pathways associated with protein translation, infectious disease, and signal transduction. Two interested cellular proteins-nuclear factor of activated T cells 45 kDa (NF45) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-that could interact with M protein were validated by Co-IP and confocal analyses. The interactome data between PRRSV M protein and cellular proteins were identified and contribute to the understanding of the roles of M protein in the replication and pathogenesis of PRRSV. The interactome of M protein will aid studies of virus/host interactions and provide means to decrease the threat of PRRSV to the swine industry in the future.

  5. Enhancement of innate immunity with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor did not prevent disease in pigs infected with a highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strain JXwn06 has been shown to produce high fevers, loss of body condition, respiratory distress and death in pigs. Necropsy reveals extensive interstitial pneumonia, multi-systemic pathology and a high occurrence of secondary bacterial infections. The ful...

  6. Interactome profile of the host cellular proteins and the nonstructural protein 2 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Han; Li, Yan; Ge, Xinna; Guo, Xin; Yu, Kangzhen; Yang, Hanchun

    2014-01-01

    The nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) is considered to be one of crucial viral proteins in the replication and pathogenesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In the present study, the host cellular proteins that interact with the NSP2 of PRRSV were immunoprecipitated with anti-Myc antibody from the MARC-145 cells infected by a recombinant PRRSV with 3xMyc tag insertion in its NSP2-coding region, and then 285 cellular proteins interacting with NSP2 were identified by LC-MS/MS. The Gene Ontology and enriched KEGG Pathway bioinformatics analyses indicated that the identified proteins could be assigned to different subcellular locations and functional classes. Functional analysis of the interactome profile highlighted cellular pathways associated with infectious disease, translation, immune system, nervous system and signal transduction. Two interested cellular proteins-BCL2-associated athanogene 6 (BAG6) and apoptosis-inducing factor 1 (AIF1) which may involve in transporting of NSP2 to Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or PRRSV-driven apoptosis were validated by Western blot. The interactome data between PRRSV NSP2 and cellular proteins contribute to the understanding of the roles of NSP2 in the replication and pathogenesis of PRRSV, and also provide novel cellular target proteins for elucidating the associated molecular mechanisms of the interaction of host cellular proteins with viral proteins in regulating the viral replication.

  7. Interactome profile of the host cellular proteins and the nonstructural protein 2 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    Full Text Available The nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2 is considered to be one of crucial viral proteins in the replication and pathogenesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. In the present study, the host cellular proteins that interact with the NSP2 of PRRSV were immunoprecipitated with anti-Myc antibody from the MARC-145 cells infected by a recombinant PRRSV with 3xMyc tag insertion in its NSP2-coding region, and then 285 cellular proteins interacting with NSP2 were identified by LC-MS/MS. The Gene Ontology and enriched KEGG Pathway bioinformatics analyses indicated that the identified proteins could be assigned to different subcellular locations and functional classes. Functional analysis of the interactome profile highlighted cellular pathways associated with infectious disease, translation, immune system, nervous system and signal transduction. Two interested cellular proteins-BCL2-associated athanogene 6 (BAG6 and apoptosis-inducing factor 1 (AIF1 which may involve in transporting of NSP2 to Endoplasmic reticulum (ER or PRRSV-driven apoptosis were validated by Western blot. The interactome data between PRRSV NSP2 and cellular proteins contribute to the understanding of the roles of NSP2 in the replication and pathogenesis of PRRSV, and also provide novel cellular target proteins for elucidating the associated molecular mechanisms of the interaction of host cellular proteins with viral proteins in regulating the viral replication.

  8. Inactivated and subunit vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: Current status and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Calvert, Jay G; Roof, Michael; Lager, Kelly M

    2015-06-17

    Within a few years of its emergence in the late 1980s, the PRRS virus had spread globally to become the foremost infectious disease concern for the pork industry. Since 1994, modified live-attenuated vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV-MLV) have been widely used, but have failed to provide complete protection against emerging and heterologous field strains of the virus. Moreover, like many other MLVs, PRRSV-MLVs have safety concerns including vertical and horizontal transmission of the vaccine virus and several documented incidences of reversion to virulence. Thus, the development of efficacious inactivated vaccines is warranted for the control and eradication of PRRS. Since the early 1990s, researchers have been attempting to develop inactivated PRRSV vaccines, but most of the candidates have failed to elicit protective immunity even against homologous virus challenge. Recent research findings relating to both inactivated and subunit candidate PRRSV vaccines have shown promise, but they need to be pursued further to improve their heterologous efficacy and cost-effectiveness before considering commercialization. In this comprehensive review, we provide information on attempts to develop PRRSV inactivated and subunit vaccines. These includes various virus inactivation strategies, adjuvants, nanoparticle-based vaccine delivery systems, DNA vaccines, and recombinant subunit vaccines produced using baculovirus, plant, and replication-deficient viruses as vector vaccines. Finally, future directions for the development of innovative non-infectious PRRSV vaccines are suggested. Undoubtedly there remains a need for novel PRRSV vaccine strategies targeted to deliver cross-protective, non-infectious vaccines for the control and eradication of PRRS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial analysis and temporal trends of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Denmark from 2007 to 2010 based on laboratory submission data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl

    2015-01-01

    , is highly variable between herds and regions. Two different genotypes of PRRS virus (PRRSV) are found in Denmark: type 1 and type 2. Approximately 40 % of Danish swine herds are seropositive for one or both PRRSV types. The objective of this study was to describe the temporal trend and spatial distribution...... of 13 %) within production herds. The seroconversion rate followed a similar and consistent pattern, being higher for type 1 than for type 2 for both PRRSV types. Regarding the spatiotemporal results, the relative risk distribution maps changed over time as a consequence of the changes in PRRSV...... seroprevalence, suggesting a general decline in the extent of areas with higher relative risk for both type 1 and 2. Local spatial analysis results demonstrated the existence of statistically significant clusters in areas where the relative risk was higher for both herds. PRRSV type 1 seroprevalence...

  10. Phenotypic modulation and cytokine profiles of antigen presenting cells by European subtype 1 and 3 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weesendorp, E.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Popma-de Graaf, D.J.; Fijten, H.P.D.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes continuous problems in the pig industry, due to high costs of outbreaks and reduced welfare of diseased pigs. The severity of infection is, partly, dependent on the virus strain. Recently isolated Eastern-European subtype 3 strains

  11. The Non-structural Protein 5 and Matrix Protein Are Antigenic Targets of T Cell Immunity to Genotype 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mokhtar, Helen; Pedrera, Miriam; Frossard, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the cause of one of the most economically important diseases affecting swine worldwide. Efforts to develop a next-generation vaccine have largely focused on envelope glycoproteins to target virus-neutralizing antibody responses. H...

  12. The major envelope protein, GP(5), of a European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus contains a neutralization epitope in its N-terminal ectodomain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, E.H.J.; Wijk, van H.A.R.; Kroese, M.V.; Weiland, E.; Meulenberg, J.J.M.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    2003-01-01

    A set of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the GP5 protein of European type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been produced previously (Weiland et al., 1999). This set reacted with a plaque-purified virus (PPV) subpopulation of Dutch isolate

  13. Sero-Prevalence of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) in Pigs of Different Developmental Regions of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh K.C.; Bhoj Raj Joshi; Swoyam Prakash Shrestha; Meera Prajapati; Dipak Kathayat; Santosh Dhakal

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a highly infectious viral disease of swine. This disease is becoming threat to pig industry of every corner of the world. As the status of this disease in Nepal is not properly understood so far, a cross-sectional sero-prevalence study was carried out in four development regions. A total of 200 blood samples were collected from major pig producing areas of eight districts of four development regions of Nepal and the serum samples were te...

  14. Fresh Pork and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Factors Related to the Risk of Disease Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W; Neumann, E

    2015-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRS) is a highly infectious virus. Experimentally, the disease can be induced in naïve pigs by the oral, intranasal and intramuscular routes. Depending on the virulence of the strain of the virus and the age of the pig, peak viremia can occur within 7 days of infection, and live virus can be isolated from blood or lymph nodes for several months post-infection. Young pigs tend to develop higher titres of viremia than older pigs infected by the same route and dose with the same strain of virus. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus survives in pork harvested from infected pigs for extended periods at temperatures of -20 or -70°C. In experimentally infected pigs, survival of PRRS virus in muscle held at 4°C has been demonstrated for at least 7 days, and infectivity of the virus in these samples was confirmed by bioassay. The optimal pH range for the survival of PRRS virus is thought to be 6.0 to 7.5. The elevated pH of non-meat tissues (generally one pH unit higher) is likely to favour extended survival of PRRS virus in pig carcasses from which all superficial and deep lymph nodes have not been removed. It is likely that exsanguinated carcasses held at 4°C retain sufficient blood or lymph tissue to contain infective doses of PRRS virus. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is rapidly inactivated by heat, providing a predictable method to ensure that pork tissues are free of viable virus and feeding of cooked swill or garbage should not constitute a risk to pigs. While the probability of viable PRRS virus being present in a pig carcass may be low, the risk is not zero. The importation of raw pork into countries where PRRS is not endemic represents a hazard with potentially severe economic consequences. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Poly(I:C) inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in MARC-145 cells via activation of IFIT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Liu, Jie; Bai, Juan; Du, Yijun; Wang, Xiaoye; Liu, Xing; Jiang, Ping

    2013-09-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major cause of heavy economic losses in many swine-producing regions. Current vaccination strategies and antiviral drugs provide only limited protection. Interferon (IFN)-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3 (IFIT3) has been characterized as the product of a novel antiviral gene and as an important modulator in innate immunity. However, the role of IFIT3 in PRRSV infection is scarcely understood. In this study, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) inhibited PRRSV replication in MARC-145 cells, following the appearance of increased IFIT3. Overexpression of porcine IFIT3 resulted in a decrease of PRRSV. Knockdown of IFIT3 in MARC-145 cells increased PRRSV replication and impaired the antiviral activity mediated by poly(I:C). Moreover, in the presence or absence of IFIT3, poly(I:C)-induced IFN-β promoter activity was significantly boosted or crippled, respectively. IFIT3, TBK1 and phosphorylation of IRF3 were activated in poly(I:C)-transfected MARC-145 cells. It demonstrated that IFIT3 plays an important role in IFN-β induction in MARC-145 cells, and, when activated, it can inhibit PRRSV replication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A molecular clock dates the common ancestor of European-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus at more than 10 years before the emergence of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Roald; Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Krabbe Petersen, Anne Mette

    2001-01-01

    The disease caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) emerged independently and almost simultaneously in Europe (1990) and North America (1987). The original reservoir of the virus and the date it entered the pig populations is not known. In this study, we demonstrate...... an accurate molecular clock for the European PRRSV ORF 3 gene, place the root in the genealogy, estimate the rate of nucleotide substitution, and date the most recent common viral ancestor of the data set to 1979; more than 10 years before the onset of the European epidemic. Based on these findings, we...

  17. Economic analysis of outbreaks of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in nine sow herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, N; Duinhof, T F; van Nes, A

    2012-03-03

    The economic losses due to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) outbreaks are reported in the literature to be substantially high, but recent figures are not available. The aim of this study was to quantify the economic effects of epidemic PRRSv outbreaks in Dutch sow herds. Nine sow herds were selected based on a confirmed PRRSv outbreak within those populations. The economic impact during the first 18 weeks after the outbreak was estimated by comparing the overall costs between pre- and postoutbreak periods, using different factors (production data, medication, diagnostics, labour, etc.). An outbreak of PRRSv resulted in a reduced number of sold pigs per sow of 1.7. The economic loss varied between €59 and €379 for one sow per 18-week period outbreak. The mean loss per sow per outbreak was €126. The costs after the outbreak varied significantly from €3 to 160 per sow, due to the different methods used by farmers to tackle PRRSv outbreaks. The calculated costs in this study correlate with the costs of the initial outbreak in The Netherlands of 98 per sow.

  18. Oral immunogenicity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antigen expressed in transgenic banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hui-Ting; Chia, Min-Yuan; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2013-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a persistent threat of economically significant influence to the swine industry worldwide. Recombinant DNA technology coupled with tissue culture technology is a viable alternative for the inexpensive production of heterologous proteins in planta. Embryogenic cells of banana cv. 'Pei chiao' (AAA) have been transformed with the ORF5 gene of PRRSV envelope glycoprotein (GP5) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and have been confirmed. Recombinant GP5 protein levels in the transgenic banana leaves were detected and ranged from 0.021%-0.037% of total soluble protein. Pigs were immunized with recombinant GP5 protein by orally feeding transgenic banana leaves for three consecutive doses at a 2-week interval and challenged with PRRSV at 7 weeks postinitial immunization. A vaccination-dependent gradational increase in the elicitation of serum and saliva anti-PRRSV IgG and IgA was observed. Furthermore, significantly lower viraemia and tissue viral load were recorded when compared with the pigs fed with untransformed banana leaves. The results suggest that transgenic banana leaves expressing recombinant GP5 protein can be an effective strategy for oral delivery of recombinant subunit vaccines in pigs and can open new avenues for the production of vaccines against PRRSV. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Evaluation of monoclonal antibody-based immunohistochemistry for the detection of European and North American Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and a comparison with in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kiwon; Seo, Hwi Won; Oh, Yeonsu; Kang, Ikjae; Park, Changhoon; Kang, Sang Hoon; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Kwon, Byungjoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2012-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the ability of 2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; SDOW17 and SR30) to detect types 1 and 2 Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) lung tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and to compare the immunohistochemical results with in situ hybridization (ISH) and reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) detection techniques. Lungs from 30 experimentally infected pigs (15 pigs with each genotype of PRRSV) and 20 naturally infected pigs (10 pigs with each genotype of PRRSV) with types 1 and 2 PRRSV, respectively, were used for the IHC, ISH, and RT-nPCR analyses. The SR30 mAb-based IHC detected significantly more type 1 PRRSV-positive cells in the accessory and caudal lobes from the experimentally infected pigs at 7 (P = 0.025) and 14 (P = 0.018) days postinoculation, respectively, compared to the SDOW17 mAb-based IHC. The results demonstrated that SR30 mAb-based IHC is useful for detecting both types 1 and 2 PRRSV antigen in FFPE lung tissues.

  20. Glycoprotein 5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain SD16 inhibits viral replication and causes G2/M cell cycle arrest, but does not induce cellular apoptosis in Marc-145 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Yang, E-mail: muyang@nwsuaf.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Experimental Station of Veterinary Pharmacology and Veterinary Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture of the People' s Republic of China, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Li, Liangliang, E-mail: lifeiyang2007@126.com [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Experimental Station of Veterinary Pharmacology and Veterinary Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture of the People' s Republic of China, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Zhang, Beibei, E-mail: diana851218@163.com [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Experimental Station of Veterinary Pharmacology and Veterinary Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture of the People' s Republic of China, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Huang, Baicheng, E-mail: hbch228@163.com [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Experimental Station of Veterinary Pharmacology and Veterinary Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture of the People' s Republic of China, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Gao, Jiming, E-mail: jimingao2006@163.com [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Experimental Station of Veterinary Pharmacology and Veterinary Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture of the People' s Republic of China, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); and others

    2015-10-15

    Cell apoptosis is common after infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). PRRSV GP5 has been reported to induce cell apoptosis. To further understand the role of GP5 in PRRSV induced cell apoptosis, we established Marc-145 cell lines stably expressing full-length GP5, GP5{sup Δ84-96} (aa 84-96 deletion), and GP5{sup Δ97-119} (aa 97-119 deletion). Cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, cell apoptosis and virus replication in these cell lines were evaluated. Neither truncated nor full-length GP5 induced cell apoptosis in Marc-145 cells. However, GP5{sup Δ97-119}, but not full-length or GP5{sup Δ84-96}, induced a cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase resulting in a reduction in the growth of Marc-145 cells. Additionally, GP5{sup Δ84-96} inhibited the replication of PRRSV in Marc-145 cells through induction of IFN-β. These findings suggest that PRRSV GP5 is not responsible for inducing cell apoptosis in Marc-145 cells under these experimental conditions; however it has other important roles in virus/host cell biology. - Highlights: • Marc-145 cell lines stable expression PRRSV GP5 or truncated GP5 were constructed. • GP5{sup Δ97-119} expression in Marc-145 cell induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. • Expression of GP5 and truncated GP5 could not induce Marc-145 cells apoptosis. • PRRSV replication in Marc-145-GP5{sup Δ84-96} was significantly inhibited.

  1. Full-length genome sequence analysis of a Hungarian porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolated from a pig with severe respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, Ádám; Balka, Gyula; Horváth, Péter; Kecskeméti, Sándor; Dán, Ádám; Farsang, Attila; Szeredi, Levente; Bányai, Krisztián; Bartha, Dániel; Olasz, Ferenc; Belák, Sándor; Zádori, Zoltán

    2015-02-01

    Here, we report the isolation of a type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain from a clinical outbreak of severe respiratory problems and high fever. Next-generation sequencing was used to determine the complete genome sequence of the isolate (9625/2012). The virus belongs to a new branch within subtype 1, clade D, and shows the highest similarity to PRRSV Olot/1991 and to the Amervac vaccine strain. Mutation analysis of 9625/2012 revealed no evidence of recombination but did show a high proportion of amino acid substitutions in the putative neutralizing epitopes, suggesting an important role of selective immune pressure in the evolution of PRRSV 9625/2012.

  2. Potentiation of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide on the immune response and protection elicited by a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus glycoprotein 5 subunit in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Yuan, Yanmei; Du, Yijun; Wu, Jiaqiang; Li, Baoquan; Li, Jun; Yu, Jiang; Hu, Liping; Shen, Si; Wang, Jinbao; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2016-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) heavily affects the global pork industry. Current available vaccine strategies have inherent drawbacks. In this work, the immune enhancement from Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS) and Freund's adjuvant on the efficacy of a PRRSV subunit vaccine were examined. Titers of specific anti-highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) ELISA antibody and neutralizing antibody were significantly higher in pigs from the groups inoculated with medium- and high-dose TPPPS (mTPPPS, hTPPPS) adjuvant co-administered with a recombinant HP-PRRSV glycoprotein 5 subunit (GP5) than those from other groups (P 0.05). The ratio between CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) T lymphocyte subpopulations indicated the inoculums of GP5 + mTPPPS and GP5 + hTPPPS induced consistently higher CD3(+)CD4(+) T lymphocyte subpopulations than other inoculums (P 0.05). The low-dose TPPPS (lTPPPS) adjuvant also exhibited enhancement effects on humoral immune and T lymphocyte proliferation responses but these were significantly lower than the mTPPPS and hTPPPS doses (P < 0.05). Pigs challenged with HP-PRRSV from the GP5 + mTPPPS, GP5 + hTPPPS, and GP5 + Freund's adjuvant groups showed lower viremia, fewer clinical signs, and fewer pathological lung lesions compared with the groups of GP5-alone and GP5 + lTPPPS (P < 0.05). There were significant differences between the GP5-alone and GP5 + lTPPPS groups in detection indexes after viral challenge (P < 0.05). In conclusion, moderate doses of TPPPS as an adjuvant with GP5 show promise as a candidate for a HP-PRRSV subunit vaccine to efficiently prevent and control HP-PRRSV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Immune responses in piglets infected with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Song, Tengfei; Yu, Ying; Liu, Yonggang; Shi, Wenda; Wang, Shujie; Rong, Fulong; Dong, Jianguo; Liu, He; Cai, Xuehui; Zhou, En-Min

    2011-08-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection compromises the host's innate and adaptive immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune responses of piglets infected with highly pathogenic (HP) PRRSV (HuN4 strain) with or without the immunization with CH-1R attenuated PRRSV vaccine. The response was evaluated for the clinical signs, pathological changes and virus load in immune organs, antibody responses and levels of serum IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10. The result showed that in comparison with the piglets received the immunization, the piglets infected with HP-PRRSV alone had the thymus atrophy, decreased serum levels of IL-4 and increased serum levels of IL-10 and INF-γ. These results suggest that elevated IL-10 levels at the early stage of the infection may enhance virus survival and delay the induction of protective immunity, while increased levels of IL-4 induce the effective immune responses and increase the animals' health status. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. RNA recombination in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus is restricted to parental sequences with high similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vugt, J.J.F.A. van; Storgaard, T.; Oleksiewicz, M. B.

    2001-01-01

    Two types of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) exist, a North American type and a European type. The co-existence of both types in some countries, such as Denmark, Slovakia and Canada, creates a risk of inter-type recombination. To evaluate this risk, cell cultures were co......, but no recombination was detected between the European and North American types. Calculation of the maximum theoretical risk of European–American recombination, based on the sensitivity of the RT–PCR system, revealed that RNA recombination between the European and North American types of PRRSV is at least 10000 times...

  5. High frequency RNA recombination in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus occurs preferentially between parental sequences with high similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vugt, Joke .J.F.A.; Storgaard, Torben; Oleksiewicz, Martin B.

    2001-01-01

    Two types of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) exist, a North American type and a European type. The co-existence of both types in some countries, such as Denmark, Slovakia and Canada, creates a risk of inter-type recombination. To evaluate this risk, cell cultures were co......, but no recombination was detected between the European and North American types. Calculation of the maximum theoretical risk of European-American recombination, based on the sensitivity of the RT-PCR system, revealed that RNA recombination between the European and North American types of PRRSV is at least 10000 times...

  6. The assessment of efficacy of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine based on the viral quantity and inactivation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Byeongchun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many efforts to develop efficient vaccines for the control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. Although inactivated PRRSV vaccines are preferred for their safety, they are weak at inducing humoral immune responses and controlling field PRRSV infection, especially when heterologous viruses are involved. Results In all groups, the sample to positive (S/P ratio of IDEXX ELISA and the virus neutralization (VN titer remained negative until challenge. While viremia did not reduce in the vaccinated groups, the IDEXX-ELISA-specific immunoglobulin G increased more rapidly and to significantly greater levels 7 days after the challenge in all the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups (p 6 PFU/mL PRRSV vaccine-inoculated and binary ethylenimine (BEI-inactivated groups 22 days after challenge (p Conclusions The inactivated vaccine failed to show the humoral immunity, but it showed different immune response after the challenge compared to mock group. Although the 106 PFU/mL-vaccinated and BEI-inactivated groups showed significantly greater VN titers 22 days after challenge, all the groups were already negative for viremia.

  7. VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and-mouth disease in livestock was an infectious particle smaller than any bacteria. This was the first clue to the nature of viruses, genetic entities that lie somewhere in the gray area between living and non-living states.

  8. Analysis of ORF 1 in European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by long RT-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H. S.; Storgaard, Torben; Oleksiewicz, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    A rapid method was developed for partial characterization of the replicase-encoding open reading frame 1 (ORF 1) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). It comprised long RT-PCR amplification of 11.1 kb (94%) of ORF 1, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism...... analysis. The method was used to compare ORF 1 sequences of two divergent European-type PRRSV strains. Our results indicated that the structural and replicase parts of these two strains had evolved at overall similar rates....

  9. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: Interlaboratory ring trial to evaluate real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction detection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dauber, Malte

    2012-01-01

    To compare the real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays used for the diagnosis of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a Europe-wide interlaboratory ring trial was conducted. A variety of PRRSV strains including North American...... (NA) and European (EU) genotype isolates were analyzed by the participants. Great differences regarding qualitative diagnostics as well as analytical sensitivity were observed between the individual RT-qPCR systems, especially when investigating strains from the EU genotype. None of the assays...

  10. Comparison of protocols for the analysis of type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by RT-PCR using oral fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Elisa; Martín-Valls, Gerard; Mateu, Enric

    2017-05-01

    The detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in oral fluids (OF) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is gaining increasing popularity. However, the different steps leading to a result have not been extensively evaluated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect on the performance of qRT-PCR with different sampling materials, conditions of storage of the OF, the need for centrifuging OF, as well as to compare RNA extraction methods and PCR mixes. For the assays, pen-based oral fluids were used, which were pooled and spiked in a serial dilution (up to genotype 100 TCID50/mL) of type 1 PRRSV isolate 3267. Centrifugation at 15,000g for 15min resulted in an increase in sensitivity (1-2 PCR cycles) that was significant (PPCR Kit PCR mix reagents were more sensitive for the detection of PRRSV using a purified plasmid as standard, but LSI VetMAX PRRSV EU/NA PRRSV reagents resulted in a slightly better sensitivity with OF (pPCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mycoplasma hyorhinis is a potential pathogen of porcine respiratory disease complex that aggravates pneumonia caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ah; Oh, Yu-Ri; Hwang, Min-A; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Sang-Won

    2016-09-01

    The porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) caused by numerous bacterial and viral agents has a great impact on pig industry worldwide. Although Mycoplasma hyorhinis (Mhr) has been frequently isolated from lung lesions from pigs with PRDC, the pathological importance of Mhr may have been underestimated. In this study, 383 serum samples obtained from seven herds with a history of PRDC were tested for specific antibodies to Mhr, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp), and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Seropositive rates of PRRSV were significantly correlated with those of Mhr (correlation coefficient, 0.862; P-value, 0.013), but not with those of Mhp (correlation coefficient, -0.555; P-value, 0.196). In vivo experiments demonstrated that pigs co-infected with Mhr and PRRSV induced more severe lung lesions than pigs infected with Mhr or PRRSV alone. These findings suggest that Mhr is closely associated with pneumonia caused by PRRSV and provide important information on Mhr pathogenesis within PRDC. Therefore, effective PRDC control strategies should also consider the potential impact of Mhr in the pathogenesis of PRDC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Interleukin-10 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide suppresses IL-10 expression and effects on proinflammatory cytokine responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charerntantanakul, Wasin; Kasinrerk, Watchara

    2010-08-01

    Upregulation of interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression has been suggested to be the mechanism by which the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) suppresses the innate and adaptive immune response in infected pigs. In this study we evaluated the potential of phosphorothioate-modified IL-10 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide specific to the translation initiation region of porcine IL-10 mRNA (IL-10AS) in enhancing proinflammatory cytokine responses to PRRSV. Naïve peripheral blood mononuclear cells from eight PRRSV-seronegative pigs were transfected with IL-10AS in vitro prior to PRRSV inoculation and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus ionomycin or concanavalin A stimulation. The effects of IL-10AS on mRNA expression of IL-10, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), IFN-alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-2, and IL-4 were tested by real-time PCR. The percentages of IFN-gamma-producing T-cell subsets were determined by flow cytometry. Compared to the controls, the levels of IL-10 and IL-2 mRNA were significantly reduced, while those of IFN-gamma mRNA were increased, and TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha, and IL-4 mRNA were unchanged. An increase in the percentage of the IFN-gamma+ population was also observed in lymphocytes and CD8beta+ T cells. Our results suggest that IL-10AS has the potential to enhance proinflammatory cytokine responses to PRRSV infection.

  13. A Dimerization-Dependent Mechanism Drives the Endoribonuclease Function of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus nsp11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuejun; Li, Youwen; Lei, Yingying; Ye, Gang; Shen, Zhou; Sun, Limeng; Luo, Rui; Wang, Dang; Fu, Zhen F; Xiao, Shaobo; Peng, Guiqing

    2016-05-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) RNA endoribonuclease nsp11 belongs to the XendoU superfamily and plays a crucial role in arterivirus replication. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the arterivirus nsp11 protein from PRRSV, which exhibits a unique structure and assembles into an asymmetric dimer whose structure is completely different from the hexameric structure of coronavirus nsp15. However, the structures of the PRRSV nsp11 and coronavirus nsp15 catalytic domains were perfectly superimposed, especially in the "active site loop" (His129 to His144) and "supporting loop" (Val162 to Thr179) regions. Importantly, our biochemical data demonstrated that PRRSV nsp11 exists mainly as a dimer in solution. Mutations of the major dimerization site determinants (Ser74 and Phe76) in the dimerization interface destabilized the dimer in solution and severely diminished endoribonuclease activity, indicating that the dimer is the biologically functional unit. In the dimeric structure, the active site loop and supporting loop are packed against one another and stabilized by monomer-monomer interactions. These findings may help elucidate the mechanism underlying arterivirus replication and may represent great potential for the development of antiviral drugs. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a member of the family Arteriviridae, order Nidovirales PRRSV is a major agent of respiratory diseases in pigs, causing tremendous economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. The PRRSV nsp11 endoribonuclease plays a vital role in arterivirus replication, but its precise roles and mechanisms of action are poorly understood. Here, we report the first dimeric structure of the arterivirus nsp11 from PRRSV at 2.75-Å resolution. Structural and biochemical experiments demonstrated that nsp11 exists mainly as a dimer in solution and that nsp11 may be fully active as a dimer. Mutagenesis and structural analysis revealed Nendo

  14. Differential cellular protein expression in continuous porcine alveolar macrophages regulated by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagong, Mingeun; Lee, Changhee

    2010-07-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a leading cause of significant economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. PRRSV infects preferentially porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and subsequently utilizes the host cell biosynthetic machinery for its own replication. To date, a number of studies have been conducted to investigate compensatory changes of cellular gene expression of PAMs upon PRRSV infection. However, very little information exists about differential cellular protein expression of the natural target cells regulated by each viral protein. This study was therefore designed to examine the dynamics of host protein expression of continuous PAM cells by the PRRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein that is the most abundant and multifunctional viral component. We first established sublines of PAM cells to stably express the PRRSV N protein and assessed alterations in cellular protein productions of N-expressing PAM (PAM-pCD163-N) cells at different time courses by the use of proteomic analysis. A total of 23 protein spots were initially found to be differentially expressed in PAM-pCD163-N cells compared with normal PAM cells by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Of these spots, 15 protein spots with statistically significant alteration, including 4 up-regulated and 11 down-regulated protein spots, were picked out for subsequent protein identification by peptide mass fingerprinting after matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). The altered cellular proteins identified in this study were classified into the functions involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell division, metabolism, inflammation response, stress response, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, protein folding and synthesis, and transportation. Notably, heat shock 27kDa protein (HSP27) was found to be up-regulated in PAM-pCD163-N cells. The proteomics data will provide insights into the specific

  15. Pathogenesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: evaluation of the expression of cytokines and apoptosis phenomena in lymphoid organs and their role in the immune response

    OpenAIRE

    Barranco Cabezudo, Inmaculada

    2011-01-01

    El Síndrome Reproductivo y Respiratorio Porcino (PRRS, del inglés Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome) es una enfermedad vírica caracterizada por inducir una respuesta inmune errática en el hospedador y es considerada como una de las enfermedades más importantes en la industria del porcino debido a las importantes pérdidas económicas que provoca. A pesar de que varios estudios se han realizado con el objetivo de elucidar la respuesta inmune provocada frente al virus del PRRS (PRRSV,...

  16. Analysis of ORF5 and full-length genome sequences of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates of genotypes 1 and 2 retrieved worldwide provides evidence that recombination is a common phenomenon and may produce mosaic isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Valls, G E; Kvisgaard, L K; Tello, M; Darwich, L; Cortey, M; Burgara-Estrella, A J; Hernández, J; Larsen, L E; Mateu, E

    2014-03-01

    Recombination is currently recognized as a factor for high genetic diversity, but the frequency of such recombination events and the genome segments involved are not well known. In the present study, we initially focused on the detection of recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates by examining previously published data sets of ORF5 sequences (genotypes 1 and 2) obtained worldwide. We then examined full-length genome sequences in order to determine potential recombination breakpoints along the viral genome. For ORF5, 11 sets of genotype 1 sequences from different geographical areas, including 2 Asian, 1 American, and 7 European regions, and three sets of genotype 2, including sets from China, Mexico, and the United States, were analyzed separately. Potential recombination breakpoints were detected in 10/11 genotype 1 sets, including 9 cases in which the clustering of at least one isolate was different before and after the breakpoints. In genotype 2, potential breakpoints and different tree clustering of at least one strain before and after the breakpoint were observed in 2 out of 3 sets. The results indicated that most of the ORF5 data sets contained at least one recombinant sequence. When the full-length genome sequences were examined, both genotype 1 and 2 sets presented breakpoints (10 and 9, respectively), resulting in significantly different topologies before and after the breakpoints. Mosaic genomes were detected in genotype 1 sequences. These results may have significant implications for the understanding of the molecular epidemiology of PRRSV. PRRSV is one of the most important viruses affecting swine production worldwide, causing big economic losses and sanitary problems. One of the key questions on PRRSV arises from its genetic diversity, which is thought to have a direct impact on immunobiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and vaccine efficacy. One of the causes of this genetic diversity is recombination among strains

  17. Characterization of the Interactome of the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Nonstructural Protein 2 Reveals the Hyper Variable Region as a Binding Platform for Association with 14-3-3 Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yihong; Wu, Weining; Gao, Jiming; Smith, Nikki; Burkard, Christine; Xia, Dong; Zhang, Minxia; Wang, Chengbao; Archibald, Alan; Digard, Paul; Zhou, En-Min; Hiscox, Julian A

    2016-05-06

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major threat to the swine industry worldwide and hence global food security, exacerbated by a newly emerged highly pathogenic (HP-PRRSV) strain from China. PRRSV nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) is a multifunctional polypeptide with strain-dependent influences on pathogenicity. A number of discrete functional regions have been identified on the protein. Quantitative label free proteomics was used to identify cellular binding partners of nsp2 expressed by HP-PRRSV. This allowed the identification of potential cellular interacting partners and the discrimination of nonspecific interactions. The interactome data were further investigated and validated using biological replicates and also compared with nsp2 from a low pathogenic (LP) strain of PRRSV. Validation included both forward and reverse pulldowns and confocal microscopy. The data indicated that nsp2 interacted with a number of cellular proteins including 14-3-3, CD2AP, and other components of cellular aggresomes. The hyper-variable region of nsp2 protein was identified as a binding platform for association with 14-3-3 proteins.

  18. The genetic diversity of European type PRRSV is similar to that of the North American type but is geographically skewed within Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, R.; Storgaard, Torben; Nielsen, Henriette S.

    2002-01-01

    nucleotide diversity in the European genotype. Here, we analyzed the ORF5 and ORF7 genes for a large number of new European type PRRSV isolates in conjunction with existing database sequences. This new analysis showed that contrary to previous assumptions, genetic diversity is at least as high...

  19. Evaluation of systems for reducing the transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Scott A.; Batista, Laura; Deen, John; Pijoan, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 3 methods for the reduction of aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration, low-cost filtration, and ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation. The HEPA-filtration system involved a pre-filter screen, a bag filter (EU8 rating), and a HEPA filter (EU13 rating). The low-cost-filtration system contained mosquito netting (pre-filter), a fiberglass furnace filter, and an ele...

  20. Generation of an infectious clone of VR-2332, a highly virulent North American type isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H.S.; Liu, G.; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    -2332 strain. However, the cloned virus was clearly distinguishable from the parental VR-2332 strain by an engineered marker, a BstZ171 restriction site. The full-length cDNA clone had 11 nucleotide changes, 2 of which affected coding, compared to the parental VR-2332 strain. Additionally...... virus were consistently slightly lower. In experimentally infected 5.5-week-old pigs, the cloned virus produced blue discoloration of the ears, a classical clinical symptom of PRRSV. Also, the seroconversion kinetics of pigs infected with the cloned virus and VR-2332 were very similar. Hence, virus...

  1. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Ralf; Ritzmann, Mathias; Palzer, Andreas; Lang, Christiane; Hammer, Birgit; Pesch, Stefan; Ladinig, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Samples were collected from 203 wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in Baden-Wurtemburg, Germany from November-January 2008 and 2009. Samples from the lung and tonsil were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) type 1 (European type) and type 2 (American type). A qPCR to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-specific genome was performed on tissue homogenates including lung, tonsils, and inguinal lymph nodes. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against PRRSV and PCV2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No PRRSV was detected in any of the 203 samples and one sample had detectable antibodies against PRRSV. We detected PCV2 in organ materials from 103 wild boars with a prevalence of 50.7%. The number of wild boars positive for PCV2 by PCR varied according to the population density of wild boars among woodlands. More positive samples were detected in woodlands with a high density of wild boars. We found no correlation between the number of PCV2-positive wild boars and the density of domestic pigs in the surrounding area. The number of wild boars positive for antibodies against PCV2 by the INGEZIM Circovirus IgG/IgM test kit was low (53 sera positive for IgG- and three sera positive for IgM-antibodies) in comparison to the higher positive results from the INGEZIM CIRCO IgG test kit (102 positive and 12 inconclusive results).

  2. Five Years Seroprevalence Study of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Lithuanian Pig and Wild Boar Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankevičius Arunas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Serological study of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV infection in pigs and wild boars was conducted in Lithuania between 2009 and 2013. Antibody level was measured using a commercial ELISA. The 4.32% (95% CI 3.92-4.72 out of 9856 examined porcine sera were positive for the PRRSV antibodies. The antibodies were detected in 11.82% (95% CI 10.28-13.36 of all investigated serum samples of sows and gilts. As much as 8.2% of serologically positive samples (95% CI 6.83-9.57 were determined in the piglets under three months of age. Considerably smaller (P < 0.05 seroprevalence was detected in boars (0.62% and fattening pigs (1.84%. From 1357 examined sera of wild boar, collected between 2009 and 2013 hunting seasons, 5.38% (95% CI 4.52-8.2 of samples were positive for PRRSV antibodies in 23 locations out of 50 investigated. The analysis of seroprevalence in different age groups of wild boars showed that PRRSV antibodies were detected in all age groups; however, it was significantly higher in adults than in juveniles or subadults and reached up to 10.02% (95% CI 7.39-12.65.

  3. Strain predominance following exposure of vaccinated and naive pregnant gilts to multiple strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Kelly M; Mengeling, William L; Wesley, Ronald D

    2003-05-01

    Two studies were performed in order to test the relative ability of different strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to replicate and cross the placental barrier in pregnant gilts. Study 1 comprised 6 nonvaccinated gilts. Study 2 comprised 8 nonvaccinated gilts and 12 gilts that were vaccinated twice before conception. On, or about, gestation day 90 all gilts were simultaneously exposed to 20 field strains of PRRSV (all strains were distinguishable by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns). Gilts of study 1 were euthanized on day 7 postpartum. Gilts of study 2 were euthanized on, or about, gestation day 111. All gilts, pigs, and fetuses were tested for the presence and type of strain of PRRSV. Of 128 samples shown to contain PRRSV, 118 contained a single strain, 4 contained 2 strains, and 2 contained a strain or strains for which the RFLP pattern was undecipherable. Only 8 of the 20 strains were isolated from nonvaccinated gilts and their litters. And only 2 of the 20 strains (notably 2 of the same strains isolated from nonvaccinated gilts and their litters), were isolated from vaccinated gilts and their litters. Moreover, 1 of the 2 strains accounted for most (31 of 37; 84%) of the isolates from the vaccinated group. Collectively these results indicate that strains differ in their ability to replicate in pregnant gilts and cross the placental barrier. And they suggest that maternal immunity, although sometimes insufficient to prevent transplacental infection, can exert additional selective pressure.

  4. Experimental infection of pigs with two East European variants of Type 1 PRRSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    , 7, 10, 14, 17, 21 and 24 days post infection (dpi). The pigs infected with the “Bor59” virus developed higher body temperature and more severe clinical symptoms compared to the other three groups, although the clinical signs in general were mild. The acute phase response was measured in serum...... samples as an objective indicator of infection. Acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) showed an increase in levels in pigs infected with the Eastern European viruses with an earlier rise for Bor59 than for Ili6, both peaking at 10 dpi. In contrast, the CRP level did not increase significantly...... in neither the subtype 1 virus inoculated pigs nor the sham-inoculated controls. Acute phase protein haptoglobin showed a very early increase in Bor59 infected pigs, peaking at 3 dpi, while no increase was observed in Ili6 infected pigs. All of the virus inoculated pigs seroconverted, as measured by IPMA...

  5. Cellular immune responses in the lungs of pigs infected in utero with PRRSV: An immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingstedt, Jens Erik; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    and the distribution pattern of the CD2 and CD8 positive cells were similar to that of the CD3 positive cells suggesting coexpression of all three antigens within the majority of the recruited T-lymphocytes. The presence of cells consistent with the phenotype of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) close to virus infected...

  6. Systemic and mucosal immunity induced by attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing ORF7 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young Woo; Kim, Seong Bum; Rahman, Masudur; Uyangaa, Erdenebileg; Lee, Byung Min; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Park, Ki In; Hong, Jin Tae; Han, Sang-Bae; Eo, Seong Kug

    2011-07-01

    Oral administration of attenuated Salmonella vaccine may provide valuable advantages such as low cost, easy preparation, and safety. Attenuated Salmonella vaccines also serve as carriers of foreign antigens and immunomodulatory cytokines. Presently, an attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain was used as a carrier for open reading frame 7 (ORF7) protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a swine pathogen of significant global economic importance. Initially, an attenuated S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing ORF7 gene derived from PRRSV Korean isolate was constructed. Following oral administration of a single dose of the attenuated Salmonella vaccine expressing PRRSV ORF7, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses specific for ORF7 were induced at both systemic and mucosal sites including spleen, mesenteric lymph node, Peyer's patch, and laminar propria, as evaluated by determining serum ORF7-specific IgG and mucosal IgA responses, as well as Th1- and Th2-type cytokine production from antigen-stimulated T cells. The induced humoral responses were sustained for at least 12weeks post-immunization. In particular, the immunized mice displayed immune responses to both the foreign ORF7 antigen and Salmonella itself. The results indicate the value of attenuated S. enterica serovar Typhimurium as an oral carrier of PRRSV antigenic proteins to induce effective systemic and mucosal immunity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of epitopes on nonstructural protein 7 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus recognized by monoclonal antibodies using phage-display technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; Liu, Rongchang; Zhang, Weidong; Sun, Lingshuang; Ning, Zhangyong; Ji, Fangxiao; Cui, Jin; Zhang, Guihong

    2017-08-01

    Nonstructural protein 7 (nsp7) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is considered to be a suitable reagent for the development of serological diagnostic assays. It can be expressed as a soluble recombinant protein in Escherichia coli, and its antibody response may continue up to 202 days post-infection. Furthermore, the region encoded by nsp7 is highly homologous among various strains within the genotype, and the results of nsp7-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed high agreement with previous Idexx ELISA results. All these evidences suggest the existence of important epitopes on nsp7, though the characteristics of these epitopes remain unclear. In the present study, we prepared three monoclonal antibodies against nsp7 protein and used them to screen the epitope-distribution characteristics of PRRSV nsp7 protein by phage-display technology. We identified a linear epitope NAWGDEDRLN at amino acids 153-162 type II PRRSV nsp7β subunit. This newly defined epitope showed excellent reactivity with PRSSV-positive serum samples. These results further our understanding of the antigenic structure of nsp7 protein, and provide efficient reagents for PRRSV serological tests.

  8. Predicted Peptides from Non-Structural Proteins of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Are Able to Induce IFN-γ and IL-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Mateu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes peptides from non-structural proteins (nsp of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV predicted as potential T cell epitopes by bioinfornatics and tested for their ability to induce IFN-γ and IL-10 responses. Pigs immunized with either genotype 1 or genotype 2 PRRSV attenuated vaccines (n=5/group and unvaccinated pigs (n = 4 were used to test the peptides. Swine leukocyte antigen haplotype of each pig was also determined. Pigs were initially screened for IFN-γ responses (ELISPOT and three peptides were identified; two of them in non-conserved segments of nsp2 and nsp5 and the other in a conserved region of nsp5 peptide. Then, peptides were screened for IL-10 inducing properties. Six peptides were found to induce IL-10 release in PBMC and some of them were also able to inhibit IFN-γ responses on PHA-stimulated cells. Interestingly, the IFN-γ low responder pigs against PRRSV were mostly homozygous for their SLA haplotypes. In conclusion, these results indicate that nsp of PRRSV contain T-cell epitopes inducing IFN-γ responses as well as IL-10 inducing segments with inhibitory capabilities.

  9. Applications of Bayesian Phylodynamic Methods in a Recent U.S. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Alkhamis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Classical phylogenetic methods such as neighbor-joining or maximum likelihood trees, provide limited inferences about the evolution of important pathogens and ignore important evolutionary parameters and uncertainties, which in turn limits decision making related to surveillance, control and prevention resources. Bayesian phylodynamic models have recently been used to test research hypothesis related to evolution of infectious agents. However, few studies have attempted to model the evolutionary dynamics of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and, to the authors’ knowledge, no attempt has been made to use large volumes of routinely collected data, sometimes referred to as big data, in the context of animal disease surveillance. The objective of this study was to explore and discuss the applications of Bayesian phylodynamic methods for modeling the evolution and spread of a notable 1-7-4 RFLP-type PRRSV between 2014 and 2015. A convenience sample of 288 ORF5 sequences was collected from 5 swine production systems in the United States between September 2003 and March 2015. Using coalescence and discrete trait phylodynamic models, we were able to infer population growth and demographic history of the virus, identified the most likely ancestral system (root state posterior probability = 0.95 and revealed significant dispersal routes (Bayes factor > 6 of viral exchange among systems. Results indicate that currently circulating viruses are evolving rapidly, and show a higher level of relative genetic diversity over time, when compared to earlier relatives. Biological soundness of model results is supported by the finding that sow farms were responsible for PRRSV spread within the systems. Such results can’t be obtained by traditional phylogenetic methods, and therefore, our results provide a methodological framework for molecular epidemiological modeling of new PRRSV outbreaks and demonstrate the prospects of phylodynamic

  10. Further evaluation of alternative air-filtration systems for reducing the transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Scott A.; Deen, John; Cano, Jean Paul; Batista, Laura; Pijoan, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 4 methods for the reduction of aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration, 2×-low-cost filtration, bag filtration, and use of a filter tested against particles derived from dioctylphthalate (DOP). The HEPA-filtration system used a prefilter screen, a bag filter (Eurovent [EU] 8 rating), and a HEPA filter (EU13 rating). The low-cost-filtration system contained mo...

  11. Estimating Parameters Related to the Lifespan of Passively Transferred and Vaccine-Induced Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Type I Antibodies by Modeling Field Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Andraud

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The outputs of epidemiological models are strongly related to the structure of the model and input parameters. The latter are defined by fitting theoretical concepts to actual data derived from field or experimental studies. However, some parameters may remain difficult to estimate and are subject to uncertainty or sensitivity analyses to determine their variation range and their global impact on model outcomes. As such, the evaluation of immunity duration is often a puzzling issue requiring long-term follow-up data that are, most of time, not available. The present analysis aims at characterizing the kinetics of antibodies against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv from longitudinal data sets. The first data set consisted in the serological follow-up of 22 vaccinated gilts during 21 weeks post-vaccination (PV. The second one gathered the maternally derived antibodies (MDAs kinetics in piglets from three different farms up to 14 weeks of age. The peak of the PV serological response against PRRSv was reached 6.9 weeks PV on average with an average duration of antibodies persistence of 26.5 weeks. In the monitored cohort of piglets, the duration of passive immunity was found relatively short, with an average duration of 4.8 weeks. The level of PRRSv-MDAs was found correlated with the dams’ antibody titer at birth, and the antibody persistence was strongly related to the initial MDAs titers in piglets. These results evidenced the importance of PRRSv vaccination schedule in sows, to optimize the delivery of antibodies to suckling piglets. These estimates of the duration of active and passive immunity could be further used as input parameters of epidemiological models to analyze their impact on the persistence of PRRSv within farms.

  12. Estimating Parameters Related to the Lifespan of Passively Transferred and Vaccine-Induced Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Type I Antibodies by Modeling Field Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraud, Mathieu; Fablet, Christelle; Renson, Patricia; Eono, Florent; Mahé, Sophie; Bourry, Olivier; Rose, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    The outputs of epidemiological models are strongly related to the structure of the model and input parameters. The latter are defined by fitting theoretical concepts to actual data derived from field or experimental studies. However, some parameters may remain difficult to estimate and are subject to uncertainty or sensitivity analyses to determine their variation range and their global impact on model outcomes. As such, the evaluation of immunity duration is often a puzzling issue requiring long-term follow-up data that are, most of time, not available. The present analysis aims at characterizing the kinetics of antibodies against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) from longitudinal data sets. The first data set consisted in the serological follow-up of 22 vaccinated gilts during 21 weeks post-vaccination (PV). The second one gathered the maternally derived antibodies (MDAs) kinetics in piglets from three different farms up to 14 weeks of age. The peak of the PV serological response against PRRSv was reached 6.9 weeks PV on average with an average duration of antibodies persistence of 26.5 weeks. In the monitored cohort of piglets, the duration of passive immunity was found relatively short, with an average duration of 4.8 weeks. The level of PRRSv-MDAs was found correlated with the dams' antibody titer at birth, and the antibody persistence was strongly related to the initial MDAs titers in piglets. These results evidenced the importance of PRRSv vaccination schedule in sows, to optimize the delivery of antibodies to suckling piglets. These estimates of the duration of active and passive immunity could be further used as input parameters of epidemiological models to analyze their impact on the persistence of PRRSv within farms.

  13. Estimating Parameters Related to the Lifespan of Passively Transferred and Vaccine-Induced Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Type I Antibodies by Modeling Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraud, Mathieu; Fablet, Christelle; Renson, Patricia; Eono, Florent; Mahé, Sophie; Bourry, Olivier; Rose, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    The outputs of epidemiological models are strongly related to the structure of the model and input parameters. The latter are defined by fitting theoretical concepts to actual data derived from field or experimental studies. However, some parameters may remain difficult to estimate and are subject to uncertainty or sensitivity analyses to determine their variation range and their global impact on model outcomes. As such, the evaluation of immunity duration is often a puzzling issue requiring long-term follow-up data that are, most of time, not available. The present analysis aims at characterizing the kinetics of antibodies against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) from longitudinal data sets. The first data set consisted in the serological follow-up of 22 vaccinated gilts during 21 weeks post-vaccination (PV). The second one gathered the maternally derived antibodies (MDAs) kinetics in piglets from three different farms up to 14 weeks of age. The peak of the PV serological response against PRRSv was reached 6.9 weeks PV on average with an average duration of antibodies persistence of 26.5 weeks. In the monitored cohort of piglets, the duration of passive immunity was found relatively short, with an average duration of 4.8 weeks. The level of PRRSv-MDAs was found correlated with the dams’ antibody titer at birth, and the antibody persistence was strongly related to the initial MDAs titers in piglets. These results evidenced the importance of PRRSv vaccination schedule in sows, to optimize the delivery of antibodies to suckling piglets. These estimates of the duration of active and passive immunity could be further used as input parameters of epidemiological models to analyze their impact on the persistence of PRRSv within farms. PMID:29435455

  14. Virus interactions with endocytic pathways in macrophages and dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Jason; Greber, Urs F

    2013-08-01

    Macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are at the front line of defence against fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Together with physical barriers, such as mucus and a range of antimicrobial compounds, they constitute a major part of the intrinsic and innate immune systems. They have elaborate features, including pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and specialized endocytic mechanisms, cytokines and chemokines, and the ability to call on reserves. As masters of manipulation and counter-attack, viruses shunt intrinsic and innate recognition, enter immune cells, and spread from these cells throughout an organism. Here, we review mechanisms by which viruses subvert endocytic and pathogen-sensing functions of macrophages and DCs, while highlighting possible strategic advantages of infecting cells normally tuned into pathogen destruction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Plasmids expressing interleukin-10 short hairpin RNA mediate IL-10 knockdown and enhance tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma expressions in response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charerntantanakul, Wasin; Kasinrerk, Watchara

    2012-04-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been suggested to exploit interleukin-10 (IL-10) to suppress immune defense of infected pigs. The present study constructed plasmids encoding selected short hairpin RNA specific to porcine IL-10 mRNA (pIL-10sh) to knockdown IL-10 transcription and investigated the suppressive effect of PRRSV-induced IL-10 on various immune marker expressions. Naïve blood monocytes from eight PRRSV-seronegative pigs were transfected with pIL-10sh and pNeg (plasmid vector) prior to PRRSV inoculation and subsequent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. The mRNA expressions of IL-10, IL-1β, IL-12p40, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interferon gamma (IFNγ), transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), CD80, and CD86 were evaluated by real-time PCR. The IL-10, TNFα, and IFNγ protein productions were determined by ELISA. Compared with non-transfected monocyte control, transfection with selected pIL-10sh (pIL-10sh1), but not other pIL-10sh nor pNeg, significantly reduced IL-10 expression and significantly enhanced TNFα and IFNγ expressions. Slight increases in IL-1β, IL-12p40, CD80, and CD86 expressions were also observed. Neither pIL-10sh1 nor pNeg transfection affected TGFβ expression. Our results indicate that PRRSV does exploit IL-10 to suppress the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines, mainly TNFα and IFNγ, and co-stimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Genotype 2 strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus dysregulate alveolar macrophage cytokine production via the unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Schniztlein, William M; Calzada-Nova, Gabriela; Zuckermann, Federico A

    2017-10-25

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infects alveolar macrophages (AMΦ) causing dysregulated interferon (IFN)-α and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production through a mechanism(s) yet to be resolved. Here, we show that AMΦ infected with PRRSV secreted a reduced quantity of IFN-α following the cell exposure to synthetic dsRNA. This reduction did not correlate with reduced IFNA1 gene transcription. Rather, it coincided with two events that occurred late during infection and were indicative of translational attenuation, specifically, the activation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), and the appearance of stress granules. Notably, the typical rapid production of TNF-α by AMΦ exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was suppressed or enhanced by PRRSV depending on when the LPS exposure occurred after virus infection. If exposure was delayed until 6 h post-infection (hpi) so that the development of the cytokine response coincided with the time in which phosphorylation of eIF2α by the stress sensor PERK (protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase) occurred, inhibition of TNF-α production was observed. However, if LPS exposure occurred at 2 hpi, prior to a detectable onset of eIF2α phosphorylation, a synergistic response was observed due to the earlier NF-κB activation via the stress sensor IRE1α (inositol-requiring kinase 1α). These results suggest that the asynchronous actions of two branches of the unfolded protein response (UPR), namely IRE1α, and PERK, activated by ER stress resulting from the virus infection, are associated with enhancement or suppression of TNF-α production, respectively.IMPORTANCE The activation of AMΦ is controlled by its microenvironment to deter excessive pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to microbes that could impair lung function. However, viral pneumonias frequently become complicated by secondary bacterial infections triggering severe inflammation, lung dysfunction, and death. Although

  17. Multi-resistance strategy for viral diseases and in vitro shRNA verification method in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jong-Nam; Choi, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, C K

    2017-12-19

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) are major diseases that interrupt porcine production. Because they are viral diseases, vaccinations are of only limited effectiveness in preventing outbreaks. To establish an alternative multi-resistant strategy against FMD virus (FMDV) and PRRS virus (PRRSV), the present study introduced two genetic modification techniques to porcine cells. First, CD163, the PRRSV viral receptor, was edited with the CRISPR-Cas9 technique. The CD163 gene sequences of edited cells and control cells differed. Second, shRNAs were integrated into the cells. The shRNAs, targeting the 3D gene of FMDV and the ORF7 gene of PRRSV, were transferred into fibroblasts. We also developed an in vitro shRNA verification method with a target gene expression vector. shRNA activity was confirmed in vitro with vectors that expressed the 3D and ORF7 genes in the cells. Cells containing shRNAs showed lower transcript levels than cells with only the expression vectors. The shRNAs were integrated into CD163-edited cells to combine the two techniques, and the viral genes were suppressed in these cells. We established a multi-resistant strategy against viral diseases and an in vitro shRNA verification method.

  18. Síndrome reprodutiva e respiratória dos suínos: uma breve revisão Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Kreutz

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome reprodutiva e respiratória dos suínos (Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome - PRRS é uma doença relativamente nova dos suínos que foi detectada primeiramente em 1985 nos Estados Unidos, e em 1990 no continente Europeu. A síndrome é causada pelo PRRS vírus (PRRSV, o qual foi incluído em uma nova família de vírus, a Arteriviridae. A infecção pelo PRRSV causa problemas reprodutivos em fêmeas gestantes, o quais são caracterizados por abortos no final da gestação e/ou parto precoce, onde pode-se observar um elevado numero de fetos mumificados e natimortos; leitões que nascem infectados são fracos e economicamente inviáveis. Os problemas respiratórios causados pela infecção pelo PRRSV podem se manifestar em suínos de todas as faixas etárias, e são semelhantes a influenza. Embora PRRS tem sido detectada na maioria dos países em que a suinocultura tem importância econômica significativa, não há informações publicadas a respeito da doença ou do vírus no Brasil. No entanto, devido as perdas econômicas significativas que essa síndrome causou nos países já afetados, e da possibilidade do vírus ser eventualmente introduzido nos rebanhos brasileiros, é necessário reconhecer a doença imediatamente, e tomar as devidas medidas para o diagnóstico e controle em casos de surtos de problemas reprodutivos e respiratórios.Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a relatively new disease of swine that emerged in the United States in the late 1980s and in Europe in 1990. The syndrome is caused by a virus, the PRRS virus (PRRSV which has been included into a newly proposed family of viruses, the Arteriviridae. Infection by PRRSV causes reproductive failure in pregnant females, characterized by late term abortion and early farowing, and an increased number of mummified and stillborn fetuses; newborn infected piglets are usually weak and unthrifty. Respiratory distress caused by PRRSV infection

  19. Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane association of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP4 glycoprotein and its co-localization with CD163 in lipid rafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Yijun [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding, Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan (China); Pattnaik, Asit K. [School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and the Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0900 (United States); Song, Cheng [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Yoo, Dongwan, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.edu [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Li, Gang, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.edu [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-03-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) glycoprotein 4 (GP4) resembles a typical type I membrane protein in its structure but lacks a hydrophilic tail at the C-terminus, suggesting that GP4 may be a lipid-anchored membrane protein. Using the human decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55), a known glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid-anchored protein, chimeric constructs were made to substitute the GPI-anchor domain of DAF with the putative lipid-anchor domain of GP4, and their membrane association and lipase cleavage were determined in cells. The DAF-GP4 fusion protein was transported to the plasma membrane and was cleaved by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), indicating that the C-terminal domain of GP4 functions as a GPI anchor. Mutational studies for residues adjacent to the GPI modification site and characterization of respective mutant viruses generated from infectious cDNA clones show that the ability of GP4 for membrane association corresponded to virus viability and growth characteristics. The residues T158 ({omega} - 2, where {omega} is the GPI moiety at E160), P159 ({omega} - 1), and M162 ({omega} + 2) of GP4 were determined to be important for virus replication, with M162 being of particular importance for virus infectivity. The complete removal of the peptide-anchor domain in GP4 resulted in a complete loss of virus infectivity. The depletion of cholesterol from the plasma membrane of cells reduced the virus production, suggesting a role of lipid rafts in PRRSV infection. Remarkably, GP4 was found to co-localize with CD163 in the lipid rafts on the plasma membrane. Since CD163 has been reported as a cellular receptor for PRRSV and GP4 has been shown to interact with this receptor, our data implicates an important role of lipid rafts during entry of the virus.

  20. Emergence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus deletion mutants: Correlation with the porcine antibody response to a hypervariable site in the ORF 3 structural glycoprotein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Bøtner, Anette; Toft, P.

    2000-01-01

    reading frames, the same PRRSV genetic locus codes for the ORF 3 "RKASLSTS" sequence, and a previously described ORF 4 epitope (Meulenherg, J. J. M., Van Nieuwstadt, A. P,, Van Essen-Zandbergen, A., and Langeveld, J. P. M., 1997, J. Virol. 71, 6061-6067). Sequence analysis identified naturally occurring...... deletion mutants at this ORF 3/4 site. Phylogenetic analysis showed the presence of a highly accurate ORF 3 molecular clock, according to which deletion mutants and nondeleted viruses evolved at differing speeds. Furthermore, deletion mutants and nondeleted viruses evolved as separate lineages...

  1. Pig immune response to general stimulus and to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection: a meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaoui, Bouabid; Tuggle, Christopher K; Hu, Zhiliang; Reecy, James M; Ait-Ali, Tahar; Anselmo, Anna; Botti, Sara

    2013-04-03

    The availability of gene expression data that corresponds to pig immune response challenges provides compelling material for the understanding of the host immune system. Meta-analysis offers the opportunity to confirm and expand our knowledge by combining and studying at one time a vast set of independent studies creating large datasets with increased statistical power. In this study, we performed two meta-analyses of porcine transcriptomic data: i) scrutinized the global immune response to different challenges, and ii) determined the specific response to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) infection. To gain an in-depth knowledge of the pig response to PRRSV infection, we used an original approach comparing and eliminating the common genes from both meta-analyses in order to identify genes and pathways specifically involved in the PRRSV immune response. The software Pointillist was used to cope with the highly disparate data, circumventing the biases generated by the specific responses linked to single studies. Next, we used the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software to survey the canonical pathways, biological functions and transcription factors found to be significantly involved in the pig immune response. We used 779 chips corresponding to 29 datasets for the pig global immune response and 279 chips obtained from 6 datasets for the pig response to PRRSV infection, respectively. The pig global immune response analysis showed interconnected canonical pathways involved in the regulation of translation and mitochondrial energy metabolism. Biological functions revealed in this meta-analysis were centred around translation regulation, which included protein synthesis, RNA-post transcriptional gene expression and cellular growth and proliferation. Furthermore, the oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondria dysfunctions, associated with stress signalling, were highly regulated. Transcription factors such as MYCN, MYC and NFE2L2 were found in

  2. An interferon inducing porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine candidate elicits protection against challenge with the heterologous virulent type 2 strain VR-2385 in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, Eve; Ma, Zexu; Zhang, Yanjin; de Castro, Alessandra M M G; Shen, Huigang; Halbur, Patrick G; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2017-01-03

    Achieving consistent protection by vaccinating pigs against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) remains difficult. Recently, an interferon-inducing PRRSV vaccine candidate strain A2MC2 was demonstrated to be attenuated and induced neutralizing antibodies. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of passage 90 of A2MC2 (A2P90) to protect pigs against challenge with moderately virulent PRRSV strain VR-2385 (92.3% nucleic acid identity with A2MC2) and highly virulent atypical PRRSV MN184 (84.5% nucleic acid identity with A2MC2). Forty 3-week old pigs were randomly assigned to five groups including a NEG-CONTROL group (non-vaccinated, non-challenged), VAC-VR2385 (vaccinated, challenged with strain VR-2385), VR2385 (challenged with strain VR-2385), VAC-MN184 (vaccinated, challenged with strain MN184) and a MN184 group (challenged with MN184 virus). Vaccination was done at 3weeks of age followed by challenge at 8weeks of age. No viremia was detectable in any of the vaccinated pigs; however, by the time of challenge, 15/16 vaccinated pigs had seroconverted based on ELISA and had neutralizing antibodies against a homologous strain with titers ranging from 8 to 128. Infection with VR-2385 resulted in mild-to-moderate clinical disease and lesions. For VR-2385 infected pigs, vaccination significantly lowered PRRSV viremia and nasal shedding by 9days post challenge (dpc), significantly reduced macroscopic lung lesions, and significantly increased the average daily weight gain compared to the non-vaccinated pigs. Infection with MN184 resulted in moderate-to-severe clinical disease and lesions regardless of vaccination status; however, vaccinated pigs had significantly less nasal shedding by dpc 5 compared to non-vaccinated pigs. Under the study conditions, the A2P90 vaccine strain was attenuated without detectable shedding, improved weight gain, and offered protection to the pigs challenged with VR-2385 by reduction of virus load and

  3. The effects of the context-dependent codon usage bias on the structure of the nsp1α of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yao-zhong; You, Ya-nan; Sun, Dong-jie; Chen, Hao-tai; Wang, Yong-lu; Chang, Hui-yun; Pan, Li; Fang, Yu-zhen; Zhang, Zhong-wang; Zhou, Peng; Lv, Jian-liang; Liu, Xin-sheng; Shao, Jun-jun; Zhao, Fu-rong; Lin, Tong; Stipkovits, Laszlo; Pejsak, Zygmunt; Zhang, Yong-guang; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    The information about the crystal structure of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader protease nsp1α is available to analyze the roles of tRNA abundance of pigs and codon usage of the nsp1 α gene in the formation of this protease. The effects of tRNA abundance of the pigs and the synonymous codon usage and the context-dependent codon bias (CDCB) of the nsp1 α on shaping the specific folding units (α-helix, β-strand, and the coil) in the nsp1α were analyzed based on the structural information about this protease from protein data bank (PDB: 3IFU) and the nsp1 α of the 191 PRRSV strains. By mapping the overall tRNA abundance along the nsp1 α, we found that there is no link between the fluctuation of the overall tRNA abundance and the specific folding units in the nsp1α, and the low translation speed of ribosome caused by the tRNA abundance exists in the nsp1 α. The strong correlation between some synonymous codon usage and the specific folding units in the nsp1α was found, and the phenomenon of CDCB exists in the specific folding units of the nsp1α. These findings provide an insight into the roles of the synonymous codon usage and CDCB in the formation of PRRSV nsp1α structure.

  4. The Effects of the Context-Dependent Codon Usage Bias on the Structure of the nsp1α of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-zhong Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The information about the crystal structure of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV leader protease nsp1α is available to analyze the roles of tRNA abundance of pigs and codon usage of the nsp1α gene in the formation of this protease. The effects of tRNA abundance of the pigs and the synonymous codon usage and the context-dependent codon bias (CDCB of the nsp1α on shaping the specific folding units (α-helix, β-strand, and the coil in the nsp1α were analyzed based on the structural information about this protease from protein data bank (PDB: 3IFU and the nsp1α of the 191 PRRSV strains. By mapping the overall tRNA abundance along the nsp1α, we found that there is no link between the fluctuation of the overall tRNA abundance and the specific folding units in the nsp1α, and the low translation speed of ribosome caused by the tRNA abundance exists in the nsp1α. The strong correlation between some synonymous codon usage and the specific folding units in the nsp1α was found, and the phenomenon of CDCB exists in the specific folding units of the nsp1α. These findings provide an insight into the roles of the synonymous codon usage and CDCB in the formation of PRRSV nsp1α structure.

  5. Experimental inoculation of late term pregnant sows with a field isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome vaccine-derived virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Bøtner, Anette; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2002-01-01

    The use of a live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine in piglets has been associated with reproductive disorders in non-vaccinated sows. Vaccine-derived virus (VDV) has been isolated from foctuses, stillborn pigs, and dead: piglets, indicating...... that the live vaccine spread from vaccinated piglets to non-vaccinated sows, and that the virus might be implicated in the severe reproductive problems observed. In the present study, one such VDV isolate was used to experimentally infect pregnant sows in the last trimester. The chosen isolate, which had more...... than 99.6% identity to the attenuated vaccine virus, originated from the lungs of a stillborn pig from a swine herd with a sudden high level of stillborn pigs and increased piglet mortality in the nursing period. Intranasal inoculation of sows with the virus isolate resulted in congenital infection...

  6. Genome-wide analysis of the transcriptional response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection at the maternal/fetal interface and in the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jamie M; Bao, Hua; Ladinig, Andrea; Hong, Linjun; Stothard, Paul; Lunney, Joan K; Plastow, Graham S; Harding, John C S

    2016-05-20

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) infection of pregnant pigs can result in congenital infection and ultimately fetal death. Little is known about immune responses to infection at the maternal-fetal interface and in the fetus itself, or the molecular events behind virus transmission and disease progression in the fetus. To investigate these processes, RNA-sequencing of two sites, uterine endothelium with adherent placental tissue and fetal thymus, was performed 21 days post-challenge on four groups of fetuses selected from a large PRRSV challenge experiment of pregnant gilts: control (CON), uninfected (UNINF), infected (INF), and meconium-stained (MEC) (n = 12/group). Transcriptional analyses consisted of multiple contrasts between groups using two approaches: differential gene expression analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). Biological functions, pathways, and regulators enriched for differentially expressed genes or module members were identified through functional annotation analyses. Expression data were validated by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTqPCR) carried out for 16 genes of interest. The immune response to infection in endometrium was mainly adaptive in nature, with the most upregulated genes functioning in either humoral or cell-mediated immunity. In contrast, the expression profile of infected fetal thymus revealed a predominantly innate immune response to infection, featuring the upregulation of genes regulated by type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Fetal infection was associated with an increase in viral load coupled with a reduction in T cell signaling in the endometrium that could be due to PRRSV-controlled apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells. There was also evidence for a reduction in TWIST1 activity, a transcription factor involved in placental implantation and maturation, which could facilitate virus transmission or fetal pathology

  7. Semen from boars infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) contains antibodies against structural as well as nonstructural viral proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M. B.; Bøtner, Anette; Normann, Preben

    2001-01-01

    antigen, we were able to separately and specifically assay antibody responses against structural and nonstructural viral proteins. Antibodies against structural as well as nonstructural viral proteins were consistently found in the semen of all boars, beginning from 1-4 weeks postinfection...

  8. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  9. The potential adjuvanticity of quaternized chitosan hydrogel based microparticles for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue-Qi; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yu-Xia; Wu, Ya-Jun; Jia, Pei-Yuan; Shan, Jun-Jie; Wu, Jie; Ma, Guang-Hui; Su, Zhi-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Infectious diseases possess a big threat to the livestock industry worldwide. Currently, inactivated veterinary vaccines have attracted much attention to prevent infection due to their safer profile compared to live attenuated vaccine. However, its intrinsic poor immunogenicity demands the incorporation of an adjuvant. Mineral oil based adjuvant (Montanide™ ISA206) was usually used to potentiate the efficacy of veterinary vaccines. However, ISA206 could not induce robust cellular immune responses, which was very important in controlling virus replication and clearing the infected cells. Moreover, mineral oil would result in severe side effects. To improve both the humoral and cellular immune responses of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) inactivated vaccine, we developed pH-sensitive and size-controllable quaternized chitosan hydrogel microparticles (Gel MPs) without using chemical cross linking agent. Gel MPs, ionic cross-linked with glycerophosphate (GP), were biocompatible and could efficiently adsorb the inactivated PRRSV vaccine with a loading capacity of 579.05μg/mg. After intramuscular immunization in mice, results suggested that Gel MPs elicited significantly higher cell-mediated immune responses and comparable humoral immune responses compared to ISA 206. Regarding the biocompatibility, safety and effectiveness, Gel MPs would be a promising candidate to enhance the efficacy of veterinary vaccine. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. A multiplex real-time PCR panel assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of 12 common swine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiju; Liu, Xuming; Wang, Qin; Das, Amaresh; Ma, Guiping; Xu, Lu; Sun, Qing; Peddireddi, Lalitha; Jia, Wei; Liu, Yanhua; Anderson, Gary; Bai, Jianfa; Shi, Jishu

    2016-10-01

    Mixed infection with different pathogens is common in swine production systems especially under intensive production conditions. Quick and accurate detection and differentiation of different pathogens are necessary for epidemiological surveillance, disease management and import and export controls. In this study, we developed and validated a panel of multiplex real-time PCR/RT-PCR assays composed of four subpanels, each detects three common swine pathogens. The panel detects 12 viruses or viral serotypes, namely, VSV-IN, VSV-NJ, SVDV, CSFV, ASFV, FMDV, PCV2, PPV, PRV, PRRSV-NA, PRRSV-EU and SIV. Correlation coefficients (R(2)) and PCR amplification efficiencies of all singular and triplex real-time PCR reactions are within the acceptable range. Comparison between singular and triplex real-time PCR assays of each subpanel indicates that there is no significant interference on assay sensitivities caused by multiplexing. Specificity tests on 226 target clinical samples or 4 viral strains and 91 non-target clinical samples revealed that the real-time PCR panel is 100% specific, and there is no cross amplification observed. The limit of detection of each triplex real-time PCR is less than 10 copies per reaction for DNA, and less than 16 copies per reaction for RNA viruses. The newly developed multiplex real-time PCR panel also detected different combinations of co-infections as confirmed by other means of detections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, Jutta [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9/3, A-1030 Vienna (Austria); Kontaxis, Georg [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, Department of Structural and Computational Biology, Campus Vienna Biocenter 5, A-1030 Vienna (Austria); Rancan, Chiara [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Department of Gene Vectors, Haematologikum, Marchioninistrasse 25, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Skern, Tim, E-mail: timothy.skern@meduniwien.ac.at [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9/3, A-1030 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-09-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lb{sup pro}) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lb{sup pro} L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. {sup 15}N-HSQC measurements of Lb{sup pro} L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLb{sup pro}, lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1α, with a papain-like fold like Lb{sup pro}, stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the β-sheet domains but none of the α-helical domains of Lb{sup pro} and nsp1α superimpose; consequently, the α-helical domain of nsp1α is oriented differently relative to its β-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1α but not Lb{sup pro}. - Highlights: • We examine self-processing of the leader protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus. • NMR analysis strongly supports intramolecular self-processing. • Self-processing is a dynamic process with no stable complex. • Structural comparison with nsp1α of PRRSV which forms stable intramolecular complex. • Subdomain orientation explains differences in stability of intramolecular complexes.

  12. Antigenic structure of the nucleocapsid protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, S K; Nelson, E A; Yoo, D

    1998-11-01

    A collection of 12 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus was used to study the antigenic structure of the virus nucleocapsid protein (N). The full-length N gene, encoded by open reading frame 7, was cloned from the Canadian PRRS virus, PA-8. Deletions were introduced into the N gene to produce a series of nine overlapping protein fragments ranging in length from 25 to 112 amino acids. The individual truncated genes were cloned as glutathione S-transferase fusions into a eukaryotic expression vector downstream of the T7 RNA polymerase promoter. HeLa cells infected with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing T7 RNA polymerase were transfected with plasmid DNA encoding the N protein fragments, and the antigenicity of the synthesized proteins was analyzed by immunoprecipitation. Based on the immunoreactivities of the N protein deletion mutants with the panel of N-specific MAbs, five domains of antigenic importance were identified. MAbs SDOW17, SR30, and 5H2.3B12.1C9 each identified independent domains defined by amino acids 30 to 52, 69 to 123, and 37 to 52, respectively. Seven of the MAbs tested specifically recognized the local protein conformation formed in part by the amino acid residues 52 to 69. Furthermore, deletion of 11 amino acids from the carboxy terminus of the nucleocapsid protein disrupted the epitope configuration recognized by all of the conformation-dependent MAbs, suggesting that the carboxy-terminal region plays an important role in maintaining local protein conformation.

  13. Innate immune mechanisms in Japanese encephalitis virus infection: effect on transcription of pattern recognition receptors in mouse neuronal cells and brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadnis, Prachi Rahul; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Desai, Anita; Turtle, Lance; Solomon, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Very little information is available on the role of innate immune mechanisms in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection. This study was designed to investigate the role of all Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) in JEV infection in a mouse neuronal cell line in comparison to events that occur in vivo, using JEV infected suckling and adult mice. Analysis of mRNA expression was carried out using RT-PCR for detection of PRR genes and their downstream pathway genes, while a PCR array technique was used to examine the complete transcription analysis. Amongst the various innate immune receptors, TLR3 gene exhibited differential expression in JEV-infected Neuro2a, in suckling mice and adult mouse brain cells but not in uninfected control cells. The downstream events of TLR3 were confirmed by increased mRNA expression of IRF3 and interferon-β in JEV-infected Neuro2a cells and suckling mice brain tissue. To confirm the functional significance of this observation, TLR3 gene silencing experiments were carried using specific siRNA in Neuro2a cells. The results revealed a significant enhancement of JEV replication in TLR3 gene silenced JEV-infected Neuro2a cells, thereby suggesting that TLR3 serves a protective role against JEV. The expression levels of other PRRs varied. JEV-infected adult mice showed significant upregulation of TLR2 and MDA5 as compared to JEV-infected suckling mice and Neuro2a cells. In addition, upregulation of Myd88 and IRF7 was also noted in adult mice. These observations, coupled with the fact that adult mice infected with JEV exhibited longer survival rates, suggests that the host antiviral TLR2 response seen in adult mice was eventually countered by the virus by using MDA5 receptor. Our findings suggest that different PRRs appear to be involved in JEV infection in Neuro2a cells and brains of suckling and adult mice.

  14. Generation and immunogenicity of porcine circovirus type 2 chimeric virus-like particles displaying porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP5 epitope B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gaowei; Wang, Naidong; Yu, Wanting; Wang, Zhanfeng; Zou, Yawen; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Aibing; Deng, Zhibang; Yang, Yi

    2016-04-07

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) can be used as transfer vehicles carrying foreign proteins or antigen epitopes to produce chimeric VLPs for bivalent or multivalent vaccines. Based on the crystal structure of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) capsid protein (Cap), in addition to alignment of the Cap sequences collected from various isolates of PCV2 and PCV1, we predicted that Loop CD of the PCV2 Cap should tolerate insertion of foreign epitopes, and furthermore that such an insertion could be presented on the surface of PCV2 VLPs. To validate this, the GP5 epitope B of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was inserted into Loop CD of the PCV2 Cap. The 3D structure of the recombinant PCV2 Cap (rCap) was simulated by homology modeling; it appeared that the GP5 epitope B was folded as a relatively independent unit, separated from the PCV2 Cap backbone. Furthermore, based on transmission electron microscopy, the purified PCV2 rCap self-assembled into chimeric VLPs which entered PK-15 cells. In addition, PCV2 chimeric VLPs induced strong humoral (neutralizing antibodies against PCV2 and PRRSV) and cellular immune responses in mice. We concluded that the identified insertion site in the PCV2 Cap had great potential to develop PCV2 VLPs-based bivalent or multivalent vaccines; furthermore, it would also facilitate development of a nano-device to present a functional peptide on the surface of the VLPs that could be used for therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical constituents from Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao with inhibitory activity against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yao; Wang, Yue-Hu; Tan, Ying; Yang, Jun; Liu, Hong-Xin; Gu, Wei; Long, Chun-Lin, E-mail: long@mail.kib.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Bi, Jun-Long; Yin, Ge-Fen, E-mail: yingefen383@sohu.com [College of Animal Science and Technology, Yunnan Agricultural University (China)

    2012-10-15

    Two new quinonoids chiritalone A and B, and a new neolignan 7'E-4,9-dihydroxy- 3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8,4'-oxyneolign-7'-en-9'-al, along with known (-)-8-hydroxy-{alpha}-dunnione, digiferruginol, 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone and hederagenin, were isolated from the stems of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed analysis from NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and MS (mass spectrometry) data, and the absolute configuration of chiritalone A was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using the Flack parameter. The inhibitory activity of compounds against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) was measured by the cytopathic effect (CPE) method. Digiferruginol and hederagenin showed weak effect on PRRSV with an IC{sub 50} value of 80.5 {+-} 16.9 {mu}mol L{sup -1} (SI = 19.9) and 43.2 {+-} 7.4 {mu}mol L{sup -1} (SI = 13.1), respectively. (author)

  16. Improved Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses to Vaccination with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in 4-1BB Transgenic Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangping Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the most reliable measure to prevent infectious diseases in domestic animals. Development of novel vaccines demands extensive studies with new technologies, such as using novel adjuvants and immunomodulatory molecules. The co-stimulatory molecule 4-1BB provides a key signal that directs the fate of T cells during activation, and thus is important to their function in immune protection. To determine whether host immune responses to viral infection could be promoted by enhancing 4-1BB co-stimulation, in this study, we produced transgenic pig clones expressing an extra copy of the 4-1BB gene by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated gene 9-mediated homologous recombination at the Rosa26 locus. The immune responses of transgenic pigs to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV vaccine were determined on day 14. We show that peripheral blood lymphocytes of transgenic pigs expressed around twice the level of 4-1BB mRNA than those of control pigs. We also found IL-2, TNF-α, and granzyme B mRNA levels as well as PRRSV-specific IFN-γ response were significantly upregulated in 4-1BB transgenic pigs, leading to more efficient cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL killing, whereas the expressions of IL-4, IL-17, and Foxp3 were not affected. These results indicate that higher levels of 4-1BB expression involve in promoting Th1 differentiation and enhancing specific CTL responses to PRRSV, and provide a novel approach to increase the efficacy of current vaccines to control the infectious diseases.

  17. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead ...

  18. Cytokine mRNA profiles in bronchoalveolar cells of piglets experimentally infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: Association of sustained expression of IFN-gamma and IL-10 after viral clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, C. K.; Bøtner, Anette; Kamstrup, Søren

    2002-01-01

    An experimental model was used to investigate mRNA cytokine profiles in bronchoalvolar cells (BALC) from piglets, infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The BALC's were analyzed for the cytokines TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12(p40) by real......-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction in 2-, 4-, and 6-week-old piglets, respectively. High levels of IFN-gamma mRNA was detected in all piglets, while IL-10 was upregulated in 2-week-old piglets, was at normal levels in 4-week-old piglets, and elevated again in 6-week-old piglets. IL-12 was weakly...... elevated in all three age groups. Virus was reduced by 50% in 4-week-old piglets and cleared by 6 weeks of age. The sustained expression of IFNgamma and reduction of IL-10 production indicate an important role for these cytokines in immunity to PRRSV....

  19. Expression of microRNAs and innate immune factor genes in lung tissue of pigs infected with influenza virus (H1N2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Cirera, S.; Vasby, D.

    Swine influenza is a highly infectious respiratory disease in pigs caused by influenza A virus. Activation of a frontline of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed by epithelial cells as well as immune cells of the upper respiratory tract, leads to a potent type 1 interferon (IFN) release...... A infection. The present work aimed of providing a better understanding of the involvement of innate immune factors including miRNA in the host response to establishment and progression of influenza virus infection. Twenty pigs were challenged by aerosol containing H1N2 (A/swine/Denmark/12687/03) influenza...... and simultaneous proinflammatory cytokine expression. A transient induction of cytokines is required for an efficient antiviral defence; however, an over-reactive and prolonged inflammatory response may lead to excessive infiltration of immune cells, contributing to immunopathology of the infected lung. Thus...

  20. Molecular characterization of porcine circovirus 2 isolated from diseased pigs co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chengqian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we isolated a porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2 strain from piglets co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. The complete genome of this strain was sequenced, phylogenetic and polymorphic analyses were carried out. BLAST searches revealed the highest sequence identity (99.5% nt and 99.3% aa to Guangxi strain EF675230. The phylogenetic tree showed that clustering of the isolates didn't strongly correlate to geographical distribution. Polymorphic analyses demonstrated that the amino acids at most of the polymorphic sites in Open Reading Frame 1(ORF1 and 2 (ORF2belong to the same amino acid group according to chemical or structural properties, and revealed that highly polymorphic regions overlapped with the known immunoreactive epitopes of ORF2.

  1. A new paradigm: innate immune sensing of viruses via the Unfolded Protein Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Smith

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The immune system depends upon combinations of signals to mount appropriate responses: pathogen specific signals in the context of co-stimulatory danger signals drive immune strength and accuracy. Viral infections trigger anti-viral type I interferon (IFN responses by stimulating endosomal and cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs. However, viruses have also evolved many strategies to counteract IFN responses. Are there intracellular danger signals that enhance immune responses to viruses? During infection, viruses place a heavy demand on the protein folding machinery of the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER. To survive ER stress, host cells mount an Unfolded Protein Response (UPR to decrease ER protein load and enhance protein-folding capacity. Viruses also directly elicit the UPR to enhance their replication. Increasing evidence supports an intersection between the host UPR and inflammation, in particular the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I IFN. The UPR directly activates pro-inflammatory cytokine transcription factors and dramatically enhances cytokine production in response to viral PRR engagement. Additionally, viral PRR engagement may stimulate specific pathways within the UPR to enhance cytokine production. Through these mechanisms, viral detection via the UPR and inflammatory cytokine production are intertwined. Consequently, the UPR response is perfectly poised to act as an infection-triggered danger signal. The UPR may serve as an internal co-stimulatory signal that 1 provides specificity and 2 critically augments responses to overcome viral subterfuge. Further work is needed to test this hypothesis during viral infections.

  2. Hepatitis C Virus Evasion from RIG-I-Dependent Hepatic Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Minyi Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to hepatitis C virus (HCV usually results in persistent infection that often develops into chronic liver disease. Interferon-alpha (IFN treatment comprises the foundation of current approved therapy for chronic HCV infection but is limited in overall efficacy. IFN is a major effector of innate antiviral immunity and is naturally produced in response to viral infection when viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs are recognized as nonself and are bound by cellular pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs and the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs. Within hepatocytes, RIG-I is a major PRR of HCV infection wherein PAMP interactions serve to trigger intracellular signaling cascades in the infected hepatocyte to drive IFN production and the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs. ISGs function to limit virus replication, modulate the immune system, and to suppress virus spread. However, studies of HCV-host interactions have revealed several mechanisms of innate immune regulation and evasion that feature virus control of PRR signaling and regulation of hepatic innate immune programs that may provide a molecular basis for viral persistence.

  3. Epizootiological and diagnostic significance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a new viral disease in swine, designated exclusively under the acronym PRRS by the European Commission in 1991. The cause of this disease was isolated and determined in 1991 at the Lelystad Institute in The Netherlands as Lelystad aretrivirus. The PRRSV is an RNA virus of the order Nidovirales, the family Arteriviridae, the genus Arterivirus (Cavanaugh, 1997. Different genomic and pheriotypic varieties of the virus are significant. It is replicated in macrophages, it induces permanent viraemia, causes the creation of antibodies, and leads to persistent and latent infections. It is isolated from tonsil tissue, alveolar macrophages, the uterus, and fetal homogenate composed of different tissues (Wills et al., 1997. All production categories of swine can contract PRRS, but pregnant sows, suckling piglets and fattening swine are considered endangered categories. Morbidity and mortapty is between 8-80%, which also depends on the animal category. Economic damages are substantial when one considers the high percentage of still-born piglets, mummified fetuses and suckling piglets. Irregular successive cycles in sows are also expressed. In fattening swine, in addition to a respiratory form of the clinical picture, the time period until animals reach abattoir weight is extended even up to 30 days, which is also a considerable economic loss. Costs of treating possible secondary bacterial infections, diagnostics and immunoprophylaxis are not negligible. The OIE placed PRRS on the B list in 1992 as a contagious disease of swine which incurs economic losses in almost all countries of the world. Diagnosis is made by isolating and determining the virus and/or by serodiagnostics (ELISA and PCR. Certain countries have already made up protocols for the implementation of constant diagnostics and suggested eradication measures (Dee S.A. et al., 2000. In our country, the first clinical cases of PRRS were

  4. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is Found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  5. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, the ... not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. If you do decide to travel, first ...

  6. Chikungunya Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gaines, PhD, MPH, MA, CHES Differentiating Chikungunya From Dengue: A Clinical Challenge For Travelers CDC Travelers' Health Chikungunya Virus Home Prevention Transmission Symptoms & Treatment Geographic Distribution Chikungunya virus in the United States ...

  7. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding CDC Activities For Healthcare Providers Clinical Evaluation & Disease Sexual Transmission HIV Infection & Zika Virus Testing for Zika Test Specimens – At Time of Birth Diagnostic Tests Understanding Zika Virus Test Results ...

  8. Coordinated Role of Toll-Like Receptor-3 and Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene-I in the Innate Response of Bovine Endometrial Cells to Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa C. Carneiro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus-4 (BoHV-4 and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infect the uterus of cattle, often resulting in reduced fertility, or abortion of the fetus, respectively. Here, exposure of primary bovine endometrial cells to BoHV-4 or BVDV modulated the production of inflammatory mediators. Viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs are detected via pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs. However, the relative contribution of specific PRRs to innate immunity, during viral infection of the uterus, is unclear. Endometrial epithelial and stromal cells constitutively express the PRR Toll-like receptor (TLR-3, but, the status of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I, a sensor of cytosolic nucleic acids, is unknown. Primary endometrial epithelial and stromal cells had low expression of RIG-I, which was increased in stromal cells after 12 h transfection with the TLR3 ligand Poly(I:C, a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA. Furthermore, short interfering RNA targeting TLR3, or interferon (IFN regulatory transcription factor 3, an inducer of type I IFN transcription, reduced Poly(I:C-induced RIG-I protein expression and reduced inflammatory mediator secretion from stromal cells. We conclude that antiviral defense of endometrial stromal cells requires coordinated recognition of PAMPs, initially via TLR3 and later via inducible RIG-I.

  9. Learning from the messengers: innate sensing of viruses and cytokine regulation of immunity - clues for treatments and vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchjorsen, Jesper

    2013-01-31

    Virus infections are a major global public health concern, and only via substantial knowledge of virus pathogenesis and antiviral immune responses can we develop and improve medical treatments, and preventive and therapeutic vaccines. Innate immunity and the shaping of efficient early immune responses are essential for control of viral infections. In order to trigger an efficient antiviral defense, the host senses the invading microbe via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), recognizing distinct conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The innate sensing of the invading virus results in intracellular signal transduction and subsequent production of interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. Cytokines, including IFNs and chemokines, are vital molecules of antiviral defense regulating cell activation, differentiation of cells, and, not least, exerting direct antiviral effects. Cytokines shape and modulate the immune response and IFNs are principle antiviral mediators initiating antiviral response through induction of antiviral proteins. In the present review, I describe and discuss the current knowledge on early virus-host interactions, focusing on early recognition of virus infection and the resulting expression of type I and type III IFNs, proinflammatory cytokines, and intracellular antiviral mediators. In addition, the review elucidates how targeted stimulation of innate sensors, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) and intracellular RNA and DNA sensors, may be used therapeutically. Moreover, I present and discuss data showing how current antimicrobial therapies, including antibiotics and antiviral medication, may interfere with, or improve, immune response.

  10. Immunological Features of the Non-Structural Proteins of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Rascón-Castelo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is currently one of the most important viruses affecting the swine industry worldwide. Despite the large number of papers published each year, the participation of non-structural proteins (nsps in the immune response is not completely clear. nsps have been involved in the host innate immune response, specifically, nsp1α/β, nsp2, nsp4 and nsp11 have been associated with the immunomodulation capability of the virus. To date, only participation by nsp1, nsp2, nsp4 and nsp7 in the humoral immune response has been reported, with the role of other nsps being overlooked. Furthermore, nsp1, nsp2, nsp5, nsp7 nsp9, nsp10, nsp11 have been implicated in the induction of IFN-γ and probably in the development of the cell-mediated immune response. This review discusses recent reports involving the participation of nsps in the modulation of the innate immune response and their role in the induction of both the humoral and cellular immune responses.

  11. Heme oxygenase-1 metabolite biliverdin, not iron, inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Angke; Duan, Hong; Li, Na; Zhao, Lijuan; Pu, Fengxing; Huang, Baicheng; Wu, Chunyan; Nan, Yuchen; Du, Taofeng; Mu, Yang; Zhao, Qin; Sun, Yani; Zhang, Gaiping; Hiscox, Julian A; Zhou, En-Min; Xiao, Shuqi

    2017-01-01

    Porcinereproductiveandrespiratorysyndromevirus (PRRSV) causes significant economic losses to the pork industry worldwide. Previously, we demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) interferes with PRRSV replication. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, here we assess whether the HO-1 downstream metabolites biliverdin (BV) and/or iron mediate the HO-1 antiviral effect. We demonstrate a BV concentration-dependent suppression of PRRSV replication and show that virions are not directly inactivated by BV. Additionally, BV or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) significantly reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells; however, because NAC did not reduce viral load, the BV antiviral effect is independent of decreased ROS levels. Moreover, a secondary metabolite of BV, bilirubin (BR), specifically mediates this anti-PRRSV activity via a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent cGMP/PKG signaling pathway. While increased iron via addition of FeCl3 did not interfere with PRRSV replication, iron depletion by deferoxamine (DFO) after cobalt-protoporphyrin IX induction of HO-1 did not restore PRRSV replication. Collectively, our findings identify a HO-1-BV/BR-NO-cGMP/PKG cascade as a novel pathway underlying the host cell antiviral effect. These results provide a unique insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the antiviral effects of the stress-responsive protein HO-1 during PRRSV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vaccinia virus protein C6 is a virulence factor that binds TBK-1 adaptor proteins and inhibits activation of IRF3 and IRF7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Unterholzner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of viruses by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs causes interferon-β (IFN-β induction, a key event in the anti-viral innate immune response, and also a target of viral immune evasion. Here the vaccinia virus (VACV protein C6 is identified as an inhibitor of PRR-induced IFN-β expression by a functional screen of select VACV open reading frames expressed individually in mammalian cells. C6 is a member of a family of Bcl-2-like poxvirus proteins, many of which have been shown to inhibit innate immune signalling pathways. PRRs activate both NF-κB and IFN regulatory factors (IRFs to activate the IFN-β promoter induction. Data presented here show that C6 inhibits IRF3 activation and translocation into the nucleus, but does not inhibit NF-κB activation. C6 inhibits IRF3 and IRF7 activation downstream of the kinases TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1 and IκB kinase-ε (IKKε, which phosphorylate and activate these IRFs. However, C6 does not inhibit TBK1- and IKKε-independent IRF7 activation or the induction of promoters by constitutively active forms of IRF3 or IRF7, indicating that C6 acts at the level of the TBK1/IKKε complex. Consistent with this notion, C6 immunoprecipitated with the TBK1 complex scaffold proteins TANK, SINTBAD and NAP1. C6 is expressed early during infection and is present in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Mutant viruses in which the C6L gene is deleted, or mutated so that the C6 protein is not expressed, replicated normally in cell culture but were attenuated in two in vivo models of infection compared to wild type and revertant controls. Thus C6 contributes to VACV virulence and might do so via the inhibition of PRR-induced activation of IRF3 and IRF7.

  13. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, Jutta; Kontaxis, Georg; Rancan, Chiara; Skern, Tim

    2013-09-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lb(pro)) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lb(pro) L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. (15)N-HSQC measurements of Lb(pro) L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLb(pro), lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1α, with a papain-like fold like Lb(pro), stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the β-sheet domains but none of the α-helical domains of Lb(pro) and nsp1α superimpose; consequently, the α-helical domain of nsp1α is oriented differently relative to its β-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1α but not Lb(pro). Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CHLORELLA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque‐forming, double‐stranded‐DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330‐kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV‐1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ∼366 protein‐encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ∼50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site‐specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus‐encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV‐1 has three types of introns; a self‐splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV‐1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

  15. Virus Crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Elizabeth; Logan, Derek; Stuart, David

    Crystallography provides a means of visualizing intact virus particles as well as their isolated constituent proteins and enzymes (1-3) at near-atomic resolution, and is thus an extraordinarily powerful tool in the pursuit of a fuller understanding of the functioning of these simple biological systems. We have already expanded our knowledge of virus evolution, assembly, antigenic variation, and host-cell interactions; further studies will no doubt reveal much more. Although the rewards are enormous, an intact virus structure determination is not a trivial undertaking and entails a significant scaling up in terms of time and resources through all stages of data collection and processing compared to a traditional protein crystallographic structure determination. It is the methodology required for such studies that will be the focus of this chapter. The computational requirements were satisfied in the late 1970s, and when combined with the introduction of phase improvement techniques utilizing the virus symmetry (4,5), the application of crystallography to these massive macromolecular assemblies became feasible. This led to the determination of the first virus structure (the small RNA plant virus, tomato bushy stunt virus), by Harrison and coworkers in 1978 (6). The structures of two other plant viruses followed rapidly (7,8). In the 1980s, a major focus of attention was a family of animal RNA viruses; the Picornaviridae.

  16. Learning from the Messengers: Innate Sensing of Viruses and Cytokine Regulation of Immunity — Clues for Treatments and Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Melchjorsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Virus infections are a major global public health concern, and only via substantial knowledge of virus pathogenesis and antiviral immune responses can we develop and improve medical treatments, and preventive and therapeutic vaccines. Innate immunity and the shaping of efficient early immune responses are essential for control of viral infections. In order to trigger an efficient antiviral defense, the host senses the invading microbe via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, recognizing distinct conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. The innate sensing of the invading virus results in intracellular signal transduction and subsequent production of interferons (IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines. Cytokines, including IFNs and chemokines, are vital molecules of antiviral defense regulating cell activation, differentiation of cells, and, not least, exerting direct antiviral effects. Cytokines shape and modulate the immune response and IFNs are principle antiviral mediators initiating antiviral response through induction of antiviral proteins. In the present review, I describe and discuss the current knowledge on early virus–host interactions, focusing on early recognition of virus infection and the resulting expression of type I and type III IFNs, proinflammatory cytokines, and intracellular antiviral mediators. In addition, the review elucidates how targeted stimulation of innate sensors, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs and intracellular RNA and DNA sensors, may be used therapeutically. Moreover, I present and discuss data showing how current antimicrobial therapies, including antibiotics and antiviral medication, may interfere with, or improve, immune response.

  17. Learning from the Messengers: Innate Sensing of Viruses and Cytokine Regulation of Immunity—Clues for Treatments and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchjorsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Virus infections are a major global public health concern, and only via substantial knowledge of virus pathogenesis and antiviral immune responses can we develop and improve medical treatments, and preventive and therapeutic vaccines. Innate immunity and the shaping of efficient early immune responses are essential for control of viral infections. In order to trigger an efficient antiviral defense, the host senses the invading microbe via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), recognizing distinct conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The innate sensing of the invading virus results in intracellular signal transduction and subsequent production of interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. Cytokines, including IFNs and chemokines, are vital molecules of antiviral defense regulating cell activation, differentiation of cells, and, not least, exerting direct antiviral effects. Cytokines shape and modulate the immune response and IFNs are principle antiviral mediators initiating antiviral response through induction of antiviral proteins. In the present review, I describe and discuss the current knowledge on early virus–host interactions, focusing on early recognition of virus infection and the resulting expression of type I and type III IFNs, proinflammatory cytokines, and intracellular antiviral mediators. In addition, the review elucidates how targeted stimulation of innate sensors, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) and intracellular RNA and DNA sensors, may be used therapeutically. Moreover, I present and discuss data showing how current antimicrobial therapies, including antibiotics and antiviral medication, may interfere with, or improve, immune response. PMID:23435233

  18. CHANDIPURA VIRUS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CHANDIPURA VIRUS. First isolated from a village called Chandipura near Nagpur in 1965 in India. Belongs to rhabdoviridae family. Used as a Model System to study RNA virus multiplication in the infected cell at molecular level. Notes:

  19. ICAM-1-dependent and ICAM-1-independent neutrophil lung infiltration by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Hou, Make; Yan, Meiping; Lü, Xinhui; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Songlin; Gao, Jianfeng; Liu, Bang; Wu, Xiaoxiong; Liu, Guoquan

    2015-08-01

    Neutrophils are innate immune cells that play a crucial role in the first line of host defense. It is also known that neutrophil lung recruitment and infiltration may cause lung injury. The roles of neutrophils in virus infection-induced lung injury are not clear. We explore the mechanisms of neutrophil lung infiltration and the potential biomarkers for lung injury in a swine model of lung injury caused by natural or experimental porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. Neutrophil lung infiltration was determined by measurement of myeloperoxidase expression and enzyme activity of lung tissues. Myeloperoxidase expression and enzyme activity were dramatically increased in the naturally and experimentally infected lung tissues. Chemokine analysis by quantitative PCR and ELISA showed that IL-8 expression was increased in both infections, while monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression was increased only in experimentally infected lung tissues. Expression of the cell adhesion molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 was measured by quantitative PCR and Western blotting. VCAM-1 expression was increased in experimentally and naturally infected lungs, whereas ICAM-1 expression was increased only in the naturally infected lung samples. Our results suggest that neutrophil lung infiltrations in the infected animals are both ICAM-1- and -independent and that combined expression of VCAM-1 and IL-8 may serve as the biomarker for lung injury induced by virus infection. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Computer viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  1. Immunoregulation by airway epithelial cells (AECs against respiratory virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan YAN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory tract is primary contact site of the body and environment, and it is ventilated by 10-20 thousand liters of air per day. Inevitably, the respiratory system comes into contact with airborne microbes, which contain the disease-causing pathogens. Airway epithelial cells (AECs are known to have innate sensor functions, which are similar to the "professional" immune cells, such as alveolar macrophage and sub- or intra-epithelial dendritic cells (DCs. Thus AECs are able to detect invading microbial danger including different types of respiratory viruses, and mount a potent host response, for example, activating type Ⅰ interferon signaling pathway genes. To avoid chronic inflammation and maintain the immunological homeostasis, the pulmonary system has developed intrinsic mechanisms to control local immune responses. Most recently, the role of AECs in control of local immunity has gained much attention, as 1 AECs express the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, such as Toll-like receptors, retinoic acid inducible gene Ⅰ (RIG-I-like receptor, and so on, thus AECs are equipped to participate in innate detection of microbial encounter; 2 To keep immunological homeostasis in the respiratory tract, AECs behave not only as innate immune sensors but also as immune modulators in parallel, through modulating the sensitivity of innate immune sensing of both AECs per se and sub- or intra-epithelial immune cells; 3 Loss of modularity capacity of AECs might be involved in the development of chronic airway diseases. In present review, how the AECs act will be intensively discussed in response to respiratory viruses and modulate the local immunity through cis- and trans-factors (direct and indirect factors, as well as the consequence of impairment of this control of local immunity, in the development and exacerbation of airway diseases, such as acute and chronic rhinosinusitis. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.10.02

  2. Extraterrestrial Viruses?

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado Hernández, Daniel José

    2017-01-01

    Fundamentals of Life - Origin and Fundamentals of Living Things. Evaluation rubric to evaluate the debate and presentation about the point of view regarding the possibility of viruses from the outer space.

  3. Zika Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Musso, Didier; Gubler, Duane J.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus Flavivirus and the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV was first isolated from a nonhuman primate in 1947 and from mosquitoes in 1948 in Africa, and ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic for half a century before emerging in the Pacific and the Americas. ZIKV is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The clinical presentation of Zika fever is nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, especi...

  4. Computational Breakthrough of Natural Lead Hits from the Genus ofArisaemaagainst Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Kamal; Lal, Uma Ranjan; Ghosh, Manik

    2018-01-01

    To date, efforts for the prevention and treatment of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection have been still vain, and there is no safe and effective clinical accepted vaccine. Arisaema genus has claimed for various traditional bioactivities, but scientific assessments are quite limited. This encouraged us to carry out our present study on around 60 phytoconstituents of different Arisaema species as a natural inhibitor against the human RSV. Selected 60 phytochemical entities were evaluated on the docking behavior of human RSV receptor (PDB: 4UCC) using Maestro 9.3 (Schrödinger, LLC, Cambridge, USA). Furthermore, kinetic properties and toxicity nature of top graded ligands were analyzed through QikProp and ProTox tools. Notably, rutin (glide score: -8.49), schaftoside (glide score: -8.18) and apigenin-6,8-di-C-β-D-galactoside (glide score - 7.29) have resulted in hopeful natural lead hits with an ideal range of kinetic descriptors values. ProTox tool (oral rodent toxicity) has resulted in likely toxicity targets of apex-graded tested ligands. Finally, the whole efforts can be explored further as a model to confirm its anti-human RSV potential with wet laboratory experiments. Rutin, schaftoside, and apigenin-6,8-di-C-β-D-galactoside showed promising top hits docking profile against human respiratory syncytial virusMoreover, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion properties (QikProp) of top hits resulted within an ideal range of kinetic descriptorsProTox tool highlighted toxicity class ranges, LD 50 values, and possible toxicity targets of apex-graded tested ligands. Abbreviations used: RSV: Respiratory syncytial virus, PRRSV: Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus, ADME-T: Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity.

  5. Newcastle Disease Virus (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Ask about Your Treatment Research Newcastle Disease Virus (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to Health Professional ... Question 8 ). Questions and Answers About Newcastle Disease Virus What is Newcastle disease virus? Newcastle disease virus ( ...

  6. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan (POW) Virus Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for print: ... POW) Virus Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan (POW) virus is a flavivirus that is ...

  7. Computer Viruses. Technology Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

    This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

  8. Viruses Avian influenza, bovine herpes, bovine viral diarrhea virus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... human cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus I, influenza, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, measles, papilloma, rabies, respiratory syncitial virus, simian immunodeficiency virus, simian virus 40. Bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease), Moraxella bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ...

  9. Computer viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, F.B.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis investigates a recently discovered vulnerability in computer systems which opens the possibility that a single individual with an average user's knowledge could cause widespread damage to information residing in computer networks. This vulnerability is due to a transitive integrity corrupting mechanism called a computer virus which causes corrupted information to spread from program to program. Experiments have shown that a virus can spread at an alarmingly rapid rate from user to user, from system to system, and from network to network, even when the best-availability security techniques are properly used. Formal definitions of self-replication, evolution, viruses, and protection mechanisms are used to prove that any system that allows sharing, general functionality, and transitivity of information flow cannot completely prevent viral attack. Computational aspects of viruses are examined, and several undecidable problems are shown. It is demonstrated that a virus may evolve so as to generate any computable sequence. Protection mechanisms are explored, and the design of computer networks that prevent both illicit modification and dissemination of information are given. Administration and protection of information networks based on partial orderings are examined, and probably correct automated administrative assistance is introduced.

  10. Hendra virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Deborah

    2014-12-01

    Hendra virus infection of horses occurred sporadically between 1994 and 2010 as a result of spill-over from the viral reservoir in Australian mainland flying-foxes, and occasional onward transmission to people also followed from exposure to affected horses. An unprecedented number of outbreaks were recorded in 2011 leading to heightened community concern. Release of an inactivated subunit vaccine for horses against Hendra virus represents the first commercially available product that is focused on mitigating the impact of a Biosafety Level 4 pathogen. Through preventing the development of acute Hendra virus disease in horses, vaccine use is also expected to reduce the risk of transmission of infection to people. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Marburg virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdle, W R

    1976-01-01

    Marburg virus disease, which produced 20 per cent mortality when it first occured during 1967 in Germany and Yugoslavia, recently appeared again in South Africa. The source of the first outbreak was monkeys shipped from Africa; the origin of the second episode is unclear. Because distribution of the virus in nature is unknown, its threat to man cannot be readily determined. Differential laboratory diagnoses of hemorrhagic fevers should be encouraged in order to learn more about the epidemiology of these diseases and to better assess the risks which their etiologic agents may pose for attending medical personnel.

  12. Synthetic RNAs Mimicking Structural Domains in the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Genome Elicit a Broad Innate Immune Response in Porcine Cells Triggered by RIG-I and TLR Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Belén; Rodríguez-Pulido, Miguel; Revilla, Concepción; Álvarez, Belén; Sobrino, Francisco; Domínguez, Javier; Sáiz, Margarita

    2015-07-17

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Exploiting innate responses for antiviral, therapeutic and vaccine adjuvation strategies is being extensively explored. We have previously described, the ability of small in vitro RNA transcripts, mimicking the sequence and structure of different domains in the non-coding regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome (ncRNAs), to trigger a potent and rapid innate immune response. These synthetic non-infectious molecules have proved to have a broad-range antiviral activity and to enhance the immunogenicity of an FMD inactivated vaccine in mice. Here, we have studied the involvement of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) in the ncRNA-induced innate response and analyzed the antiviral and cytokine profiles elicited in swine cultured cells, as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).

  13. HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS — ONCOGENIC VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Mayansky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The lecture is devoted to oncogenic viruses, particularly human papilloma virus. Papilloma viral infection is found in all parts of the globe and highly contagious. In addition to exhaustive current data on classification, specifics of papilloma viruses composition and epidemiology, the author describes in great detail the malignization mechanisms of papilloma viruses pockets. Also, issues of diagnostics and specific prevention and treatment of diseases caused by this virus are illustrated. Key words: oncogenic viruses, papilloma viruses, prevention, vaccination. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(4:48-55

  14. Oropuche virus: A virus present but ignored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunyaviruses are RNA viruses that affect animals and plants; they have five genera and four of them affect humans: Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus and Hantavirus. All of them are Arbovirus, except Hantavirus. The Orthobunyaviruses comprise Oropouche, Tahyna, La Crosse virus, California encephalitis virus and Heartland virus recently discovered (1. Except for Heartland virus which is transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyoma, these Phleboviruses have as vectors mosquitoes, which bite small mammals which are able to be as reservoirs amplifiers.

  15. Mengenal Hanta Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Wijayanti, Tri

    2009-01-01

    Virus Hanta kurang infeksius, kecuali di dalam lingkungan tertentu. Lamanya waktu virus ini dapat bertahan di lingkungan, setelah keluar dari tubuh tikus tidaklah diketahui secara pasti. Tetapi percobaan laboratorium menunjukkan bahwa, daya infektifitasnya tidak dijumpai setelah dua hari pengeringan. Genus hanta virus terdiri dari 22 spesies virus, dapat menyebabkan hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) dan hanta virus pulmonary syndrome (HPS).

  16. Viruses of hyperthermophilic Crenarchaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili, D.; Garrett, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    , when one examines the archaeal viruses, the picture appears complex. Most viruses that are known to infect members of the kingdom Euryarchaeota resemble bacterial viruses, whereas those associated with the kingdom Crenarchaeota show little resemblance to either bacterial or eukaryal viruses....... This review summarizes our current knowledge of this group of exceptional and highly diverse archaeal viruses....

  17. Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Didier; Gubler, Duane J

    2016-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus Flavivirus and the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV was first isolated from a nonhuman primate in 1947 and from mosquitoes in 1948 in Africa, and ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic for half a century before emerging in the Pacific and the Americas. ZIKV is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The clinical presentation of Zika fever is nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, especially those due to arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ZIKV infection was associated with only mild illness prior to the large French Polynesian outbreak in 2013 and 2014, when severe neurological complications were reported, and the emergence in Brazil of a dramatic increase in severe congenital malformations (microcephaly) suspected to be associated with ZIKV. Laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on virus isolation or detection of ZIKV-specific RNA. Serological diagnosis is complicated by cross-reactivity among members of the Flavivirus genus. The adaptation of ZIKV to an urban cycle involving humans and domestic mosquito vectors in tropical areas where dengue is endemic suggests that the incidence of ZIKV infections may be underestimated. There is a high potential for ZIKV emergence in urban centers in the tropics that are infested with competent mosquito vectors such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  20. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  1. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  2. Virus Ebola Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Wuryadi, Suharyono

    1996-01-01

    Virus Marburg dan Ebola diklasifikasikan sebagai virus yang sangat menular dan dimasukkan dalam klasifikasi sebagai virus/pathogen dengan derajat biosafety 4, sehingga untuk menanganinya diperlukan laboratorium khusus tingkat 4.

  3. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page ... Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus if you ...

  4. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  5. Computer Virus and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Tutut Handayani; Soenarto Usna,Drs.MMSI

    2004-01-01

    Since its appearance the first time in the mid-1980s, computer virus has invited various controversies that still lasts to this day. Along with the development of computer systems technology, viruses komputerpun find new ways to spread itself through a variety of existing communications media. This paper discusses about some things related to computer viruses, namely: the definition and history of computer viruses; the basics of computer viruses; state of computer viruses at this time; and ...

  6. Respiratory syncytial virus induced type I IFN production by pDC is regulated by RSV-infected airway epithelial cells, RSV-exposed monocytes and virus specific antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel A Schijf

    Full Text Available Innate immune responses elicited upon virus exposure are crucial for the effective eradication of viruses, the onset of adaptive immune responses and for establishing proper immune memory. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is responsible for a high disease burden in neonates and immune compromised individuals, causing severe lower respiratory tract infections. During primary infections exuberant innate immune responses may contribute to disease severity. Furthermore, immune memory is often insufficient to protect during RSV re-exposure, which results in frequent symptomatic reinfections. Therefore, identifying the cell types and pattern recognition receptors (PRRs involved in RSV-specific innate immune responses is necessary to understand incomplete immunity against RSV. We investigated the innate cellular response triggered upon infection of epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We show that CD14(+ myeloid cells and epithelial cells are the major source of IL-8 and inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, when exposed to live RSV Three routes of RSV-induced IFN-α production can be distinguished that depend on the cross-talk of different cell types and the presence or absence of virus specific antibodies, whereby pDC are the ultimate source of IFN-α. RSV-specific antibodies facilitate direct TLR7 access into endosomal compartments, while in the absence of antibodies, infection of monocytes or epithelial cells is necessary to provide an early source of type I interferons, required to engage the IFN-α,β receptor (IFNAR-mediated pathway of IFN-α production by pDC. However, at high pDC density infection with RSV causes IFN-α production without the need for a second party cell. Our study shows that cellular context and immune status are factors affecting innate immune responses to RSV. These issues should therefore be addressed during the process of vaccine development and other interventions for RSV disease.

  7. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OK for Kids? Your Teeth Heart Murmurs What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A en español ¿Qué es ... Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West Nile virus? And why is everyone talking about mosquitoes ? Even ...

  8. Viruses infecting maize

    OpenAIRE

    Krstić, Branka; Stanković, Ivana; Bulajić, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Over 40 plant viruses has been known to cause diseases of maize, but economically the most important yield looses, which in certain years can be total, are caused by viruses from Potyvirus genera, known to be aphid-transmitted in a non-persistant maner. The most important viruses, pathogens of maize, sugar cane and sorghum are considered to be Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), and Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV). In Serbia, the prese...

  9. Viruses in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, R

    2013-03-01

    Soon after the discovery that viruses cause human disease, started the idea of using viruses to treat cancer. After the initial indiscriminate use, crude preparations of each novel virus in the early twentieth century, a second wave of virotherapy blossomed in the 60s with purified and selected viruses. Responses were rare and short-lived. Immune rejection of the oncolytic viruses was identified as the major problem and virotherapy was abandoned. During the past two decades virotherapy has re-emerged with engineered viruses, with a trend towards using them as tumor-debulking immunostimulatory agents combined with radio or chemotherapy. Currently, oncolytic Reovirus, Herpes, and Vaccinia virus are in late phase clinical trials. Despite the renewed hope, efficacy will require improving systemic tumor targeting, overcoming stroma barriers for virus spread, and selectively stimulating immune responses against tumor antigens but not against the virus. Virotherapy history, viruses, considerations for clinical trials, and hurdles are briefly overviewed.

  10. MENGENAL HANTA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wijayanti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Virus Hanta kurang infeksius, kecuali di dalam lingkungan tertentu. Lamanya waktu virus ini dapat bertahan di lingkungan, setelah keluar dari tubuh tikus tidaklah diketahui secara pasti. Tetapi percobaan laboratorium menunjukkan bahwa, daya infektifitasnya tidak dijumpai setelah dua hari pengeringan. Genus hanta virus terdiri dari 22 spesies virus, dapat menyebabkan hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS dan hanta virus pulmonary syndrome (HPS.

  11. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

  12. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  13. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  14. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus AUGUST 2015 • Reasons for Getting Tested • Who Should ... For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that ...

  15. Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.

  16. VIRUS FAMILIES – contd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. VIRUS FAMILIES – contd. Minus strand RNA viruses. Rhabdovirus e.g. rabies. Paramyxovirus e.g. measles, mumps. Orthomyxovirus e.g. influenza. Retroviruses. RSV, HTLV, MMTV, HIV. Notes:

  17. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Zika virus Fact sheet Updated 6 September 2016 Key facts ... last for 2-7 days. Complications of Zika virus disease Based on a systematic review of the ...

  18. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  19. Virus Assembly and Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, John E.

    2004-03-01

    We use two techniques to look at three-dimensional virus structure: electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and X-ray crystallography. Figure 1 is a gallery of virus particles whose structures Timothy Baker, one of my former colleagues at Purdue University, used cryoEM to determine. It illustrates the variety of sizes of icosahedral virus particles. The largest virus particle on this slide is the Herpes simplex virus, around 1200Å in diameter; the smallest we examined was around 250Å in diameter. Viruses bear their genomic information either as positive-sense DNA and RNA, double-strand DNA, double-strand RNA, or negative-strand RNA. Viruses utilize the various structure and function "tactics" seen throughout cell biology to replicate at high levels. Many of the biological principles that we consider general were in fact discovered in the context of viruses ...

  20. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSV; Palivizumab; Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin; Bronchiolitis - RSV ... Crowe JE. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ...

  1. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Zika virus Fact sheet Updated 6 September 2016 Key facts ... and last for 2-7 days. Complications of Zika virus disease Based on a systematic review of the ...

  2. Zika Virus - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Zika Virus URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Zika Virus - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  3. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  4. West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an infectious disease that first appeared in the United States in 1999. Infected mosquitoes ... and usually go away on their own. If West Nile virus enters the brain, however, it can be life- ...

  5. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ...

  6. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy ...

  7. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Resources & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ...

  8. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  9. [Mumps vaccine virus transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrashevskaia, E V; Kulak, M V; Otrashevskaia, A V; Karpov, I A; Fisenko, E G; Ignat'ev, G M

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report the mumps vaccine virus shedding based on the laboratory confirmed cases of the mumps virus (MuV) infection. The likely epidemiological sources of the transmitted mumps virus were children who were recently vaccinated with the mumps vaccine containing Leningrad-Zagreb or Leningrad-3 MuV. The etiology of the described cases of the horizontal transmission of both mumps vaccine viruses was confirmed by PCR with the sequential restriction analysis.

  10. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen.

  11. Surveillance of respiratory viruses.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveillance of respiratory viruses. A 10-year laboratory-based study. J. M. McAnerney, S. Johnson, B. D. Schoub. Respiratory virus isolates made at the National Institute for. Virology from 1982 to 1991 were studied. An active virus surveillance programme, 'viral watch', which recruits throat swab specimens from a network ...

  12. Characteristic of pandemic virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Characteristic of pandemic virus. The virus was highly transmissible. Risk of hospitalization was 2X and risk of death was about 11X more in comparison to seasonal influenza. Virus continues to be susceptible to Osaltamivir, the only drug available. Vaccines are available but ...

  13. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmonds, Peter; Becher, Paul; Bukh, Jens

    2017-01-01

    borne, and many are important human and veterinary pathogens (e.g. yellow fever virus, dengue virus). This is a summary of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) report on the taxonomy of the Flaviviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/flaviviridae....

  14. Computer Virus Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Judith B.

    2004-01-01

    A computer virus is a program--a piece of executable code--that has the unique ability to replicate. Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file, and are spread by replicating and being sent from one individual to another. Simply having…

  15. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)-Virus Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    At least six viruses have been found in highbush blueberry plantings in the Pacific Northwest: Blueberry mosaic virus, Blueberry red ringspot virus, Blueberry scorch virus, Blueberry shock virus, Tobacco ringspot virus, and Tomato ringspot virus. Six other virus and virus-like diseases of highbush b...

  16. Virus, Oncolytic Virus and Human Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang Bin; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Lifang; Zhao, Kong-Nan

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa), a disease, is characterized by abnormal cell growth in the prostate - a gland in the male reproductive system. Although older age and a family history of the disease have been recognized as the risk factors of PCa, the cause of this cancer remains unclear. Currently, PCa is one of the leading causes of cancer death among men of all races. In this review study, we first discuss the controversy of the contribution of virus infection to PCa, and subsequently summarize the development of oncolytic virotherapy for PCa in the past several years. Mounting evidence suggests that infections with various viruses are causally linked to PCa pathogenesis. Published studies have provided strong evidence that at least two viruses (RXMV and HPV) contribute to prostate tumourigenicity and impact on the survival of patients with malignant PCa. Traditional therapies including chemotherapy and radiotherapy are unable to distinguish cancer cells from normal cells, which are a significant drawback and leads to toxicities for PCa patients undergoing treatment. So far, few other options are available for treating patients with advanced PCa. For PCa treatment, oncolytic virotherapy appears to be much more attractive, which uses live viruses to selectively kill cancer cells. Oncolytic viruses can be genetically engineered to induce cancer cell lysis through virus replication and expression of cytotoxic proteins. Virotherapy is being developed to be a novel therapy for cancers, which uses oncotropic and oncolytic viruses with their abilities to find and destroy malignant cells in the body. As oncolytic viruses are a relatively new class of anti-cancer immunotherapy agents, several important barriers still exist on the road to the use of oncolytic viruses for PCa therapy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Postmortem stability of Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Munster, Vincent J

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus-infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks.

  18. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformul...

  19. The nucleocapsid proteins of mouse hepatitis virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus share the same IFN-β antagonizing mechanism: attenuation of PACT-mediated RIG-I/ MDA5 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhen; Fang, Liurong; Yuan, Shuangling; Zhao, Ling; Wang, Xunlei; Long, Siwen; Wang, Mohan; Wang, Dang; Foda, Mohamed Frahat; Xiao, Shaobo

    2017-07-25

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a huge threat to both humans and animals and have evolved elaborate mechanisms to antagonize interferons (IFNs). Nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most abundant viral protein in CoV-infected cells, and has been identified as an innate immunity antagonist in several CoVs, including mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) remain unclear. In this study, we found that MHV N protein inhibited Sendai virus and poly(I:C)-induced IFN-β production by targeting a molecule upstream of retinoic acid-induced gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation gene 5 (MDA5). Further studies showed that both MHV and SARS-CoV N proteins directly interacted with protein activator of protein kinase R (PACT), a cellular dsRNA-binding protein that can bind to RIG-I and MDA5 to activate IFN production. The N-PACT interaction sequestered the association of PACT and RIG-I/MDA5, which in turn inhibited IFN-β production. However, the N proteins from porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), which are also classified in the order Nidovirales, did not interact and counteract with PACT. Taken together, our present study confirms that both MHV and SARS-CoV N proteins can perturb the function of cellular PACT to circumvent the innate antiviral response. However, this strategy does not appear to be used by all CoVs N proteins.

  20. DNA Virus Replication Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication. PMID:24257611

  1. Viruses of the Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basta, T.; Garrett, Roger Antony; Prangishvili,, David

    2009-01-01

    Double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) viruses that infect members of the third domain of life, the Archaea, are diverse and exceptional in both their morphotypes and their genomic properties. The majority of characterized species infect hyperthermophilic hosts and carry morphological features...... which have not been observed for viruses from the other domains of life, the Bacteria and the Eukarya. This exceptional status of the archaeal viruses is reinforced by the finding that a large majority of their predicted genes yield no sequence matches in public sequence databases, and their functions...... remain unknown. One of the viruses, the bicaudavirus ATV (Acidianus two-tailed virus), is quite unique in that it undergoes a major morphological change, growing long tail structures, extracellularly. A small minority of archaeal viruses, which exclusively infect mesophilic or moderately thermophilic...

  2. Constructing computer virus phylogenies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, L.A. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom) Dept. of Computer Science; Goldberg, P.W. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom) Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Phillips, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorkin, G.B. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center

    1996-03-01

    There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using code fragments from one or more other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny for a collection of computer viruses is a directed acyclic graph whose nodes are the viruses and whose edges map ancestors to descendants and satisfy the property that each code fragment is ``invented`` only once. To provide a simple explanation for the data, we consider the problem of constructing such a phylogeny with a minimal number of edges. In general, this optimization problem cannot be solved in quasi-polynomial time unless NQP=QP; we present positive and negative results for associated approximated problems. When tree solutions exist, they can be constructed and randomly sampled in polynomial time.

  3. Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  4. Personal computer viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremonesi, C.; Martella, G. (Milan Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienza dell' Informazione)

    1991-01-01

    This article reveals the origin and nature of what is known as the 'computer virus'. For illustrative purposes, the most common types of computer viruses are described and classified; the relative contagion and damage mechanisms are analyzed. Then techniques are presented to assist wary users in detecting and removing viruses, as well as, in protecting their computer systems from becoming contaminated.

  5. Electron microscopy of viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laue, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Electron microscopy is widely used in virology because viruses are generally too small for a direct inspection by light microscopy. Analysis of virus morphology is necessary in many circumstances, e.g., for the diagnosis of a virus in particular clinical situations or the analysis of virus entry and assembly. Moreover, quality control of virus particle integrity is required if a virus is propagated in cell culture, particularly if the virus genome has changed. In most cases already the basic methodology for transmission electron microscopy, i.e., negative staining and ultrathin sectioning, is sufficient to give relevant information on virus ultrastructure. This chapter gives detailed information on the principles of these basic methodologies and provides simple but reliable protocols for a quick start. Moreover, the description of standard protocols for negative staining and ultrathin sectioning are supplemented by protocols on immuno-negative staining and rapid ultrathin sectioning. Finally, principles of methods for an extended ultrastructural research using more elaborate techniques, such as cryotechniques or methods to reveal the three-dimensional virus architecture, are briefly reviewed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Yeast for virus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Richard Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    Budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) are two popular model organisms for virus research. They are natural hosts for viruses as they carry their own indigenous viruses. Both yeasts have been used for studies of plant, animal and human viruses. Many positive sense (+) RNA viruses and some DNA viruses replicate with various levels in yeasts, thus allowing study of those viral activities during viral life cycle. Yeasts are single cell eukaryotic organisms. Hence, many of the fundamental cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation or programed cell death are highly conserved from yeasts to higher eukaryotes. Therefore, they are particularly suited to study the impact of those viral activities on related cellular activities during virus-host interactions. Yeasts present many unique advantages in virus research over high eukaryotes. Yeast cells are easy to maintain in the laboratory with relative short doubling time. They are non-biohazardous, genetically amendable with small genomes that permit genome-wide analysis of virologic and cellular functions. In this review, similarities and differences of these two yeasts are described. Studies of virologic activities such as viral translation, viral replication and genome-wide study of virus-cell interactions in yeasts are highlighted. Impacts of viral proteins on basic cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation and programed cell death are discussed. Potential applications of using yeasts as hosts to carry out functional analysis of small viral genome and to develop high throughput drug screening platform for the discovery of antiviral drugs are presented. PMID:29082230

  8. Blue Tongue Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anupama

    bluetongue virus (BTV) infection cycle is initiated when the virus core is delivered into the cytoplasm of ... products available for the consumer market; therefore, .... BTV life cycle. BTV interacts with the target cell surface via VP2 timers which is then internalized in endosomes via a clathrin- dependent endocytosis pathway ...

  9. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  10. Schmallenberg virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wernike, K.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Beer, M.

    2015-01-01

    Since Schmallenberg virus, an orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, was identified near the German-Dutch border for the first time in late 2011 it has spread extremely quickly and caused a large epidemic in European livestock. The virus, which is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, infects

  11. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  12. Surveillance of respiratory viruses.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respiratory virus isolates made at the National Institute for. Virology from 1982 to 1991 were studied. An active virus surveillance programme, 'viral watch', which recruits throat swab specimens from a network of monitoring centres - mainly in the Witwatersrand and Vereeniging area with one centre in Middelburg - that ...

  13. Viruses in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Ellen

    2011-09-21

    The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself.

  14. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  15. Viruses and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul MRL; van Kranen HJ; van Kreijl CF; Steerenberg PA; van Loon AM

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this report is to review the relationship between viruses and the development of human cancer. It is currently known at least four viruses are directly implicated in the aetiology of human cancers and are involved in the induction of 15 to 20% of the worldwide tumor burden. Infection

  16. VIRUS IN COWPEA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cowpea breeding lines were infected with cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) by mechanical inoculation to investigate seed transmission rates for this virus. Transmission rates ranging from 0% to 6% were scored by symptom assessment. However, when cowpeas grown from seeds of infected mother plants were tested by.

  17. Virus separation using membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, Tanja A; Michalsky, Ronald; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Industrial manufacturing of cell culture-derived viruses or virus-like particles for gene therapy or vaccine production are complex multistep processes. In addition to the bioreactor, such processes require a multitude of downstream unit operations for product separation, concentration, or purification. Similarly, before a biopharmaceutical product can enter the market, removal or inactivation of potential viral contamination has to be demonstrated. Given the complexity of biological solutions and the high standards on composition and purity of biopharmaceuticals, downstream processing is the bottleneck in many biotechnological production trains. Membrane-based filtration can be an economically attractive and efficient technology for virus separation. Viral clearance, for instance, of up to seven orders of magnitude has been reported for state of the art polymeric membranes under best conditions.This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of virus ultrafiltration, diafiltration, or purification with adsorptive membranes. In lieu of an impractical universally applicable protocol for virus filtration, application of these principles is demonstrated with two examples. The chapter provides detailed methods for production, concentration, purification, and removal of a rod-shaped baculovirus (Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, about 40 × 300 nm in size, a potential vector for gene therapy, and an industrially important protein expression system) or a spherical parvovirus (minute virus of mice, 22-26 nm in size, a model virus for virus clearance validation studies).

  18. Blue Tongue Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anupama

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 7(3), pp. 68-80, March ..... However, the disadvantages of attenuated BTV vaccines (Schultz ..... Sciences vol. 13, Nature Publishing Group, pp. 533–547. Mertens PPC, Diprose J (2004). The bluetongue virus core: a nano- scale transcription machine. Virus Res.

  19. Hepatitis E Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in the developing world. It is a waterborne virus that can cause epidemics in the face of overcrowding and poor sanitation. Although the hepatitis illness is usually self-limiting, it has a high mortality in pregnant women and can become a ...

  20. GB virus C: the good boy virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Nirjal; Stapleton, Jack T.

    2012-01-01

    GB virus C (GBV-C) is a lymphotropic human virus discovered in 1995 that is related to hepatitis C virus (HCV). GBV-C infection has not been convincingly associated with any disease; however, several studies found an association between persistent GBV-C infection and improved survival in HIV-positive individuals. GBV-C infection modestly alters T cell homeostasis in vivo through various mechanisms, including modulation of chemokine and cytokine release and receptor expression, and by diminution of T cell activation, proliferation and apoptosis, all of which may contribute to improved HIV clinical outcomes. In vitro studies confirm these clinical observations and demonstrate an anti-HIV replication effect of GBV-C. This review summarizes existing data on potential mechanisms by which GBV-C interferes with HIV, and the research needed to capitalize on this epidemiological observation. PMID:22325031

  1. Viruses of the Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili,, David; Basta, Tamara; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2016-01-01

    Viruses infecting members of Archaea, the third domain of life, constitute an integral, yet unique part of the virosphere. Many of these viruses, specifically the species that infect hyperthermophilic hosts, display morphotypes – for example, bottle shaped, spindle shaped, droplet shaped, coil...... shaped, bacilliform – not known to be associated with the other two cellular domains, Bacteria and Eukarya. The distinctiveness of the hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses extends to their genome sequences: a large majority of the predicted genes yield no sequence matches in public databases and encode...... proteins with exceptional structures and unknown functions. Moreover, the ways in which these viruses interact with their hosts are also unique, as indicated by a unique virion egress mechanism, which involves formation of pyramidal portals on the cell surface. Some viruses that infect extremely halophilic...

  2. BS-virus-finder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shengjie; Hu, Xuesong; Xu, Fengping

    2018-01-01

    Background: DNA methylation plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression and carcinogenesis. Bisulfite sequencing studies mainly focus on calling SNP, DMR, and ASM. Until now, only a few software tools focus on virus integration using bisulfite sequencing data. Findings: We have developed...... a new and easy-to-use software tool, named BS-virus-finder (BSVF, RRID:SCR_015727), to detect viral integration breakpoints in whole human genomes. The tool is hosted at https://github.com/BGI-SZ/BSVF. Conclusions: BS-virus-finder demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity. It is useful in epigenetic...... studies and to reveal the relationship between viral integration and DNA methylation. BS-virus-finder is the first software tool to detect virus integration loci by using bisulfite sequencing data....

  3. Mayaro virus proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. S. Mezencio

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Mayaro virus was grown in BHK-21 cells and purified by centrifugation in a potassium-tartrate gradient (5-50%. The electron microscopy analyses of the purified virus showed an homogeneous population of enveloped particles with 69 ñ 2.3 nm in diameter. Three structural virus proteins were identified and designated pl, p2 and p3. Their average molecular weight were p1, 54 KDa; p2, 50 KDa and p3, 34 KDa. In Mayaro virus infected. Aedes albopictus cells and in BHK-21 infected cells we detected six viral proteins, in wich three of them are the structural virus proteins and the other three were products from processing of precursors of viral proteins, whose molecular weights are 62 KDa, 64 KDa and 110 KDa. The 34 KDa protein was the first viral protein sinthesized at 5 hours post-infection in both cell lines studied.

  4. the viruses and virus diseases of cassava in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crops that are propagated vegetatively are viruses or putative viruses have been isolated particularly prone to virus ... eight viruses known to infect are selected and used for repeated cycles of crop cassava in Africa and on the diseases they cause. ... vein mosaic pararetrovirus. Cassava Colombian symptomless potexvirus.

  5. Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

  6. Molecular characterization of Lelystad virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, J.J.M.; Petersen-den Besten, A.; Kluyver, de E.; Nieuwstadt, van A.; Wensvoort, G.; Moormann, R.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Lelystad virus (LV), the prototype of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus, is a small enveloped virus, containing a positive strand RNA genome of 15 kb. LV is tentatively classified in the family Arteriviridae, which consists of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), equine

  7. Influenza virus isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Scott; Walker, David; Webster, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    The isolation of influenza viruses is important for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases in lower animals and humans, for the detection of the infecting agent in surveillance programs, and is an essential element in the development and production of vaccine. Since influenza is caused by a zoonotic virus it is necessary to do surveillance in the reservoir species (aquatic waterfowls), intermediate hosts (quails, pigs), and in affected mammals including humans. Two of the hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of influenza A viruses (H5 and H7) can evolve into highly pathogenic (HP) strains for gallinaceous poultry; some HP H5 and H7 strains cause lethal infection of humans. In waterfowls, low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) isolates are obtained primarily from the cloaca (or feces); in domestic poultry, the virus is more often recovered from the respiratory tract than from cloacal samples; in mammals, the virus is most often isolated from the respiratory tract, and in cases of high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) from the blood and internal organs of infected birds. Virus isolation procedures are performed by inoculation of clinical specimens into embryonated eggs (primarily chicken eggs) or onto a variety of primary or continuous tissue culture systems. Successful isolation of influenza virus depends on the quality of the sample and matching the appropriate culture method to the sample type.

  8. Ocular tropism of respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belser, Jessica A; Rota, Paul A; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2013-03-01

    Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism.

  9. Oncolytic viruses in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vähä-Koskela, Markus J V; Heikkilä, Jari E; Hinkkanen, Ari E

    2007-09-08

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising form of gene therapy for cancer, employing nature's own agents to find and destroy malignant cells. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to this very topical field of research and to point out some of the current observations, insights and ideas circulating in the literature. We have strived to acknowledge as many different oncolytic viruses as possible to give a broader picture of targeting cancer using viruses. Some of the newest additions to the panel of oncolytic viruses include the avian adenovirus, foamy virus, myxoma virus, yaba-like disease virus, echovirus type 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, Saimiri virus, feline panleukopenia virus, Sendai virus and the non-human coronaviruses. Although promising, virotherapy still faces many obstacles that need to be addressed, including the emergence of virus-resistant tumor cells.

  10. Viruses in reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Ellen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3

  11. Zika virus in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veasna Duong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  12. [Ebola virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazimek, Katarzyna; Bociaga-Jasik, Monika; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Gałas, Aleksander; Garlicki, Aleksander; Gawda, Anna; Gawlik, Grzegorz; Gil, Krzysztof; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Olszanecki, Rafał; Piatek, Anna; Zawilińska, Barbara; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Ebola is one of the most virulent zoonotic RNA viruses causing in humans haemorrhagic fever with fatality ratio reaching 90%. During the outbreak of 2014 the number of deaths exceeded 8.000. The "imported" cases reported in Western Europe and USA highlighted the extreme risk of Ebola virus spreading outside the African countries. Thus, haemorrhagic fever outbreak is an international epidemiological problem, also due to the lack of approved prevention and therapeutic strategies. The editorial review article briefly summarizes current knowledge on Ebola virus disease epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis as well as possible prevention and treatment.

  13. Zika virus in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Veasna; Dussart, Philippe; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Viruses in reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3.9.2. Togaviridae 3.10. Caliciviridae

  15. Strategy as a Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    and organizations. In this paper, the virus theory is used to analyze a strategy process in an organization as an example of a technology. It shows how the strategy over time creates a memory loss, where the managers who are exposed to the virus forget their critique of the new strategy concept. The article also...... shows how resistant can be understood as being immune to a virus, since the strategy concepts bears resemblance to a former strategy concept. The article also argues that there should be more focus on the negative impacts of management tool and especially how organizations and managers are dealing...

  16. Plant virus replication and movement

    OpenAIRE

    Heinlein, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Replication and intercellular spread of viruses depend on host mechanisms supporting the formation transport and turnover of functional complexes between viral genomes virus encoded products and cellular factors. To enhance these processes viruses assemble and replicate in membrane associated complexes that may develop into "virus factories" or "viroplasms" in which viral components and host factors required for replication are concentrated. Many plant viruses replicate i...

  17. Virioplankton: Viruses in Aquatic Ecosystems†

    OpenAIRE

    Wommack, K. Eric; Colwell, Rita R.

    2000-01-01

    The discovery that viruses may be the most abundant organisms in natural waters, surpassing the number of bacteria by an order of magnitude, has inspired a resurgence of interest in viruses in the aquatic environment. Surprisingly little was known of the interaction of viruses and their hosts in nature. In the decade since the reports of extraordinarily large virus populations were published, enumeration of viruses in aquatic environments has demonstrated that the virioplankton are dynamic co...

  18. Engineering resistance to virus transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, John Peter; Groen, SC; Wamonje, Francis; Murphy, Alexandra Marie

    2017-01-01

    Engineering plants for resistance to virus transmission by invertebrate vectors has lagged behind other forms of plant protection. Vectors typically transmit more than one virus. Thus, vector resistance could provide a wider range of protection than defenses directed solely against one virus or virus group. We discuss current knowledge of vector-host-virus interactions, the roles of viral gene products in host and vector manipulation, and the effects of semiochemicals on host-vector interact...

  19. Rota virus infections: prevalence, diagnosis and prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vidya, Padmanabhan; Ponnambalam, Arun; Gunasekeran, Palani; Arunagiri, Kavitha; Sambasivam, Mohana; Krishnasami, Kaveri

    2015-01-01

    ...: Molecular typing methods for viruses should aim to provide clinically and biologically useful information about field viruses, particularly with regard to virulence, viral epidemiology, and virus...

  20. Development of high-yield influenza B virus vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J S; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-20

    The burden of human infections with influenza A and B viruses is substantial, and the impact of influenza B virus infections can exceed that of influenza A virus infections in some seasons. Over the past few decades, viruses of two influenza B virus lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) have circulated in humans, and both lineages are now represented in influenza vaccines, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Influenza B virus vaccines for humans have been available for more than half a century, yet no systematic efforts have been undertaken to develop high-yield candidates. Therefore, we screened virus libraries possessing random mutations in the six "internal" influenza B viral RNA segments [i.e., those not encoding the major viral antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase NA)] for mutants that confer efficient replication. Candidate viruses that supported high yield in cell culture were tested with the HA and NA genes of eight different viruses of the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. We identified combinations of mutations that increased the titers of candidate vaccine viruses in mammalian cells used for human influenza vaccine virus propagation and in embryonated chicken eggs, the most common propagation system for influenza viruses. These influenza B virus vaccine backbones can be used for improved vaccine virus production.

  1. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and ... Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG Meetings Calendar Congressional ...

  2. West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Whether Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Improve with Antibacterial Treatment , February 13, 2018 NIH Scientists Adapt New ... ecological patterns in the United States, and insecticide resistance. Read more about West Nile virus biology, genetics ...

  3. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  4. The virus of management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Peter; Frankel, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The virus metaphor may be used in studies of management knowledge not only as a way ofdescribing diffusion processes but also as a way of thinking about viral elements of knowledgeproduction. In the present article, organizational viruses are viewed as ensembles of basicdistinctions...... that are constitutive of concrete bodies of knowledge and which form mutable enginesof organizational self-descriptions. Organizational viruses, we contend, are both characterized bystability in terms of their basic productive configuration, while at the same time allowing for a highdegree of variation in terms...... of concrete management knowledge and practice. The article isstructured as follows. After the introduction, we first develop the notion of organizational virus asinto an analytical approach. Second, we discern in the work of Frederick Taylor on scientificmanagement and Max Weber on bureaucracy, two quite...

  5. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ... and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September ...

  6. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ... pregnant. Related: Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal ...

  7. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Council on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  8. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: ... Us Contact Us Copyright Information Privacy Statement RSS Advertising Opportunities Careers at ACOG Sitemap Website Feedback American ...

  9. Influenza (Flu) Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Virus Testing Clinical Signs & Symptoms of Influenza Symptoms & Laboratory Diagnosis Information for Clinicians on Rapid Diagnostic Testing for ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  10. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ... pregnant. Related: Zika Virus and Pregnancy Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal ...

  11. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My ACOG Join Pay Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ...

  12. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Shop Career Connection Home Resources & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ... and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September ...

  13. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Ed. ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Ed. 2 ...

  14. Ebola Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patients at home. Reducing the risk of possible sexual transmission, based on further analysis of ongoing research and consideration by the WHO Advisory Group on the Ebola Virus Disease Response, WHO recommends that male survivors of Ebola ...

  15. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When to Call the Doctor en español Virus respiratorio sincitial About RSV Respiratory syncytial (sin-SISH-ul) ... diseases that affect the lungs, heart, or immune system , RSV infections can lead to other more serious ...

  16. Ebola Virus Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    PV Bhargavan; PV Shiji; Jare Jagannath Udhavrao; Nagaraj Desai

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is named after the river in the former Zaire where a haemorrhagic fever initially identified in 1976 involved human to human transmission, as well as spread by contaminated injection equipments...

  17. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate Shop Career Connection Home Resources & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and ... Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates ... Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG Meetings Calendar Congressional ...

  18. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate Shop Career Connection Home Resources & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ... Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice ... Coding Health Info Technology Professional Liability Managing Your ...

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are pregnant. Related: Zika Virus and Pregnancy Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates Practice Management Coding Health Info Technology Professional Liability Managing Your ...

  20. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  1. Zika Virus Outside Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Edward B.

    2009-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic ...

  2. Hepatitis E Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Levick

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in the developing world. It is a waterborne virus that can cause epidemics in the face of overcrowding and poor sanitation. Although the hepatitis illness is usually self-limiting, it has a high mortality in pregnant women and can become a chronic infection in the immunosuppressed. Treatment is mostly supportive and prevention is by good water hygiene.

  3. Inactivation of rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guanghui; Selden, David; Fooks, Anthony R; Banyard, Ashley

    2017-05-01

    Rabies virus is a notifiable pathogen that must be handled in high containment facilities where national and international guidelines apply. For the effective inactivation of rabies virus, a number of reagents were tested. Virkon S (1%) solution caused more than 4log reduction of rabies virus in culture medium supplemented with 10% foetal calf serum within 1min. Isopropyl alcohol (70%) treatment resulted in >3log reduction of rabies virus within 20s when applied at a ratio of 19:1, making it a suitable agent for surface decontamination whereas 70% ethanol was ineffective. Rabies virus (from 102.33 to 103ffu/ml) was also inactivated when cell cultures were fixed with 3% or 4% paraformaldehyde for 30min. Regardless of inactivation procedure, when taking inactivated virus preparations out of a biological containment envelope, proof of inocuity must be demonstrated to cover any possible error/deviation from procedure. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lujo virus: current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sewlall NH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nivesh H Sewlall,1,2 Janusz T Paweska2,3 1Department of Medicine, Morningside MediClinic, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Department of Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 3Department of Medicine, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa Abstract: Lujo virus (LUJV, a novel Old World arenavirus, was found to cause a fulminant viral hemorrhagic fever syndrome in an outbreak in 2008. The primary patient was from Lusaka, Zambia, and subsequent nosocomial transmission occurred to four other patients in Johannesburg, South Africa, hence the name Lujo virus. Like all arenaviruses, LUJV is a segmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus. Genomic sequencing confirmed that LUJV G1 glycoprotein was novel, diverse and genetically equidistant from other arenaviruses. A clinical syndrome resembling severe, fulminant Lassa virus infection was responsible for a high case fatality rate of 80% (4/5 cases. This review describes briefly the clinical course of the disease, laboratory findings and diagnosis. Recent studies address the current aspects of epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatments, specifically comparing with Lassa virus. Keywords: Lujo virus, viral hemorrhagic fever, outbreak, epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment

  5. Hepatitis C virus pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP triggers production of lambda-interferons by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E L Stone

    Full Text Available Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells (pDCs represent a key immune cell in the defense against viruses. Through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, these cells detect viral pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and initiate an Interferon (IFN response. pDCs produce the antiviral IFNs including the well-studied Type I and the more recently described Type III. Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS have implicated Type III IFNs in HCV clearance. We examined the IFN response induced in a pDC cell line and ex vivo human pDCs by a region of the HCV genome referred to as the HCV PAMP. This RNA has been shown previously to be immunogenic in hepatocytes, whereas the conserved X-region RNA is not. We show that in response to the HCV PAMP, pDC-GEN2.2 cells upregulate and secrete Type III (in addition to Type I IFNs and upregulate PRR genes and proteins. We also demonstrate that the recognition of this RNA is dependent on RIG-I-like Receptors (RLRs and Toll-like Receptors (TLRs, challenging the dogma that RLRs are dispensable in pDCs. The IFNs produced by these cells in response to the HCV PAMP also control HCV replication in vitro. These data are recapitulated in ex vivo pDCs isolated from healthy donors. Together, our data shows that pDCs respond robustly to HCV RNA to make Type III Interferons that control viral replication. This may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HCV.

  6. Transmission of Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  7. Smaller Fleas: Viruses of Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Paul; Abedon, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world's most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain Bacteria (bacteriophages), the viruses of domain Archaea (archaeal viruses), the viruses of protists, the viruses of microscopic fungi such as yeasts (mycoviruses), and even the viruses of other viruses (satellite viruses). In this paper we provide an introduction to the concept of viruses of microorganisms, a.k.a., viruses of microbes. We provide broad discussion particularly of VoM diversity. VoM diversity currently spans, in total, at least three-dozen virus families. This is roughly ten families per category—bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protist—with some virus families infecting more than one of these microorganism major taxa. Such estimations, however, will vary with further discovery and taxon assignment and also are dependent upon what forms of life one includes among microorganisms. PMID:24278736

  8. Evolutionary ecology of virus emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, John J

    2017-02-01

    The cross-species transmission of viruses into new host populations, termed virus emergence, is a significant issue in public health, agriculture, wildlife management, and related fields. Virus emergence requires overlap between host populations, alterations in virus genetics to permit infection of new hosts, and adaptation to novel hosts such that between-host transmission is sustainable, all of which are the purview of the fields of ecology and evolution. A firm understanding of the ecology of viruses and how they evolve is required for understanding how and why viruses emerge. In this paper, I address the evolutionary mechanisms of virus emergence and how they relate to virus ecology. I argue that, while virus acquisition of the ability to infect new hosts is not difficult, limited evolutionary trajectories to sustained virus between-host transmission and the combined effects of mutational meltdown, bottlenecking, demographic stochasticity, density dependence, and genetic erosion in ecological sinks limit most emergence events to dead-end spillover infections. Despite the relative rarity of pandemic emerging viruses, the potential of viruses to search evolutionary space and find means to spread epidemically and the consequences of pandemic viruses that do emerge necessitate sustained attention to virus research, surveillance, prophylaxis, and treatment. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Smaller Fleas: Viruses of Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hyman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world’s most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain Bacteria (bacteriophages, the viruses of domain Archaea (archaeal viruses, the viruses of protists, the viruses of microscopic fungi such as yeasts (mycoviruses, and even the viruses of other viruses (satellite viruses. In this paper we provide an introduction to the concept of viruses of microorganisms, a.k.a., viruses of microbes. We provide broad discussion particularly of VoM diversity. VoM diversity currently spans, in total, at least three-dozen virus families. This is roughly ten families per category—bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protist—with some virus families infecting more than one of these microorganism major taxa. Such estimations, however, will vary with further discovery and taxon assignment and also are dependent upon what forms of life one includes among microorganisms.

  10. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pandemic Other Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses usually do not ...

  11. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Viruses, definitions and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia Herrero-Uribe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are known to be abundant, ubiquitous, and to play a very important role in the health and evolution of life organisms. However, most biologists have considered them as entities separate from the realm of life and acting merely as mechanical artifacts that can exchange genes between different organisms. This article reviews some definitions of life organisms to determine if viruses adjust to them, and additionally, considers new discoveries to challenge the present definition of viruses. Definitions of life organisms have been revised in order to validate how viruses fit into them. Viral factories are discussed since these mini-organelles are a good example of the complexity of viral infection, not as a mechanical usurpation of cell structures, but as a driving force leading to the reorganization and modification of cell structures by viral and cell enzymes. New discoveries such as the Mimivirus, its virophage and viruses that produce filamentous tails when outside of their host cell, have stimulated the scientific community to analyze the current definition of viruses. One way to be free for innovation is to learn from life, without rigid mental structures or tied to the past, in order to understand in an integrated view the new discoveries that will be unfolded in future research. Life processes must be looked from the complexity and trans-disciplinarity perspective that includes and accepts the temporality of the active processes of life organisms, their interdependency and interrelation among them and their environment. New insights must be found to redefine life organisms, especially viruses, which still are defined using the same concepts and knowledge of the fifties. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 993-998. Epub 2011 September 01.

  13. Viruses, definitions and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Uribe, Libia

    2011-09-01

    Viruses are known to be abundant, ubiquitous, and to play a very important role in the health and evolution of life organisms. However, most biologists have considered them as entities separate from the realm of life and acting merely as mechanical artifacts that can exchange genes between different organisms. This article reviews some definitions of life organisms to determine if viruses adjust to them, and additionally, considers new discoveries to challenge the present definition of viruses. Definitions of life organisms have been revised in order to validate how viruses fit into them. Viral factories are discussed since these mini-organelles are a good example of the complexity of viral infection, not as a mechanical usurpation of cell structures, but as a driving force leading to the reorganization and modification of cell structures by viral and cell enzymes. New discoveries such as the Mimivirus, its virophage and viruses that produce filamentous tails when outside of their host cell, have stimulated the scientific community to analyze the current definition of viruses. One way to be free for innovation is to learn from life, without rigid mental structures or tied to the past, in order to understand in an integrated view the new discoveries that will be unfolded in future research. Life processes must be looked from the complexity and trans-disciplinarity perspective that includes and accepts the temporality of the active processes of life organisms, their interdependency and interrelation among them and their environment. New insights must be found to redefine life organisms, especially viruses, which still are defined using the same concepts and knowledge of the fifties.

  14. Development and Characterization of a Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out Supplemental Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) has developed advanced rapid diagnostics that may be used within the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) and the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC). This effort has the potential to improve our nation's ability to discriminate between foreign animal diseases and those that are endemic using a single assay, thereby increasing our ability to protect animal populations of high economic importance in the United States. Under 2005 DHS funding we have developed multiplexed (MUX) nucleic-acid-based PCR assays that combine foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) detection with rule-out tests for two other foreign animal diseases Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VESV) and Swine Vesicular Disease (SVD) and four other domestic viral diseases Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1 or Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitus IBR), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Parapox virus complex (which includes Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus BPSV, Orf of sheep, and Pseudocowpox). Under 2006 funding we have developed a Multiplexed PCR [MUX] porcine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for VESV and SVD foreign animal diseases in addition to one other domestic vesicular animal disease vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and one domestic animal disease of swine porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). We have also developed a MUX bovine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for the two bovine foreign animal diseases malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), rinderpest virus (RPV) and the domestic diseases vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitus virus (BHV-1), bluetongue virus (BTV), and the Parapox

  15. Viruses, definitions and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia Herrero-Uribe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are known to be abundant, ubiquitous, and to play a very important role in the health and evolution of life organisms. However, most biologists have considered them as entities separate from the realm of life and acting merely as mechanical artifacts that can exchange genes between different organisms. This article reviews some definitions of life organisms to determine if viruses adjust to them, and additionally, considers new discoveries to challenge the present definition of viruses. Definitions of life organisms have been revised in order to validate how viruses fit into them. Viral factories are discussed since these mini-organelles are a good example of the complexity of viral infection, not as a mechanical usurpation of cell structures, but as a driving force leading to the reorganization and modification of cell structures by viral and cell enzymes. New discoveries such as the Mimivirus, its virophage and viruses that produce filamentous tails when outside of their host cell, have stimulated the scientific community to analyze the current definition of viruses. One way to be free for innovation is to learn from life, without rigid mental structures or tied to the past, in order to understand in an integrated view the new discoveries that will be unfolded in future research. Life processes must be looked from the complexity and trans-disciplinarity perspective that includes and accepts the temporality of the active processes of life organisms, their interdependency and interrelation among them and their environment. New insights must be found to redefine life organisms, especially viruses, which still are defined using the same concepts and knowledge of the fifties. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 993-998. Epub 2011 September 01.Los virus son abundantes, ubicuos, y juegan un papel muy importante en la salud y en la evolución de los organismos vivos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los biólogos los siguen considerado como entidades separadas

  16. Hepatitis C Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tetsuro

    2017-01-01

    Viruses use synthetic mechanism and organelles of the host cells to facilitate their replication and make new viruses. Host's ATP provides necessary energy. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease. Like other positive-strand RNA viruses, the HCV genome is thought to be synthesized by the replication complex, which consists of viral- and host cell-derived factors, in tight association with structurally rearranged vesicle-like cytoplasmic membranes. The virus-induced remodeling of subcellular membranes, which protect the viral RNA from nucleases in the cytoplasm, promotes efficient replication of HCV genome. The assembly of HCV particle involves interactions between viral structural and nonstructural proteins and pathways related to lipid metabolisms in a concerted fashion. Association of viral core protein, which forms the capsid, with lipid droplets appears to be a prerequisite for early steps of the assembly, which are closely linked with the viral genome replication. This review presents the recent progress in understanding the mechanisms for replication and assembly of HCV through its interactions with organelles or distinct organelle-like structures.

  17. Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are major health problems worldwide. HCV/HIV co-infection has been shown to increase the frequency of liver disease and also maternal-fetal transmission of HCV. Little data exist on the prevalence of co-infection of these viruses in ...

  18. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis remain major infections around the world. In Angola, about 166 000 individuals are living with HIV, representing a prevalence of 1.98% in adults between 15 and 49 years of age. In a 2003 study in Luanda, 4.5% ...

  19. Plant virus replication and movement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heinlein, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Replication and intercellular spread of viruses depend on host mechanisms supporting the formation, transport and turnover of functional complexes between viral genomes, virus-encoded products and cellular factors...

  20. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) During the government shutdown, only web ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  1. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) During the government shutdown, only web ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  2. Quantifying Tradeoffs for Marine Viruses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Record, Nicholas R; Talmy, David; Våge, Selina

    2016-01-01

    The effects of viruses on marine microbial communities are myriad. The high biodiversity of viruses and their complex interactions with diverse hosts makes it a challenge to link modeling work with experimental work...

  3. Epstein-Barr virus test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003513.htm Epstein-Barr virus antibody test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Epstein-Barr virus antibody test is a blood test to ...

  4. ILOVEYOU Virus Lessons Learned Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    .... The "lLOVEYOU" Virus spread about 15 times faster than last year's Melissa computer virus. The program's rapid proliferation brought E-mail Systems worldwide to a grinding halt forcing technicians to take hundreds of systems off-line...

  5. Sialic Acid Receptors of Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrosovich, Mikhail; Herrler, Georg; Klenk, Hans Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Sialic acid linked to glycoproteins and gangliosides is used by many viruses as a receptor for cell entry. These viruses include important human and animal pathogens, such as influenza, parainfluenza, mumps, corona, noro, rota, and DNA tumor viruses. Attachment to sialic acid is mediated by receptor binding proteins that are constituents of viral envelopes or exposed at the surface of non-enveloped viruses. Some of these viruses are also equipped with a neuraminidase or a sialyl-O-acetyl-esterase. These receptor-destroying enzymes promote virus release from infected cells and neutralize sialic acid-containing soluble proteins interfering with cell surface binding of the virus. Variations in the receptor specificity are important determinants for host range, tissue tropism, pathogenicity, and transmissibility of these viruses.

  6. A novel isolate with deletion in GP3 gene of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from mid-eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Baochao; Wang, Hai; Bai, Juan; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    PRRSV strain SH1211 was isolated from the lung tissue of a piglet on a large-scale pig farm with approximately 30% morbidity and 50% mortality in mid-eastern China in 2012. The full-length genome of SH1211 was 15 313 nt in size, excluding the polyadenylated sequences, and shared 94.9% nucleotide sequence identity with the HP-PRRSV strain, JXA1. The GP2 and GP5 proteins of SH1211 shared only 91.5% and 85.1% amino acid sequence identities with those of the JXA1, respectively. A deletion at amino acid positions 68 and 69 was identified in the GP3 protein of SH1211, compared with the GP3 of Type-2 PRRSV isolates. A phylogenetic tree based on the nucleotide sequence of the complete genome showed that SH1211 is the most closely related to other HP-PRRSV strains isolated in China. However, phylogenetic analysis based on the GP2 and GP5 proteins showed that SH1211 is the most closely related to the QYYZ strain. A recombination analysis indicated that SH1211 might have been generated through recombination events between the JXA1 and QYYZ in which the GP2 and GP5 coding sequences were exchanged. Thus, SH1211 is a novel PRRSV strain with significant variation. Our analysis of SH1211 provides insight into the role of genetic variation in the antigenicity of PRRSVs in China.

  7. A Novel Isolate with Deletion in GP3 Gene of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus from Mid-Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baochao Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PRRSV strain SH1211 was isolated from the lung tissue of a piglet on a large-scale pig farm with approximately 30% morbidity and 50% mortality in mid-eastern China in 2012. The full-length genome of SH1211 was 15 313 nt in size, excluding the polyadenylated sequences, and shared 94.9% nucleotide sequence identity with the HP-PRRSV strain, JXA1. The GP2 and GP5 proteins of SH1211 shared only 91.5% and 85.1% amino acid sequence identities with those of the JXA1, respectively. A deletion at amino acid positions 68 and 69 was identified in the GP3 protein of SH1211, compared with the GP3 of Type-2 PRRSV isolates. A phylogenetic tree based on the nucleotide sequence of the complete genome showed that SH1211 is the most closely related to other HP-PRRSV strains isolated in China. However, phylogenetic analysis based on the GP2 and GP5 proteins showed that SH1211 is the most closely related to the QYYZ strain. A recombination analysis indicated that SH1211 might have been generated through recombination events between the JXA1 and QYYZ in which the GP2 and GP5 coding sequences were exchanged. Thus, SH1211 is a novel PRRSV strain with significant variation. Our analysis of SH1211 provides insight into the role of genetic variation in the antigenicity of PRRSVs in China.

  8. Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John A

    2010-11-01

    Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (bPI(3)V) is a long-recognized, currently underappreciated, endemic infection in cattle populations. Clinical disease is most common in calves with poor passive transfer or decayed maternal antibodies. It is usually mild, consisting of fever, nasal discharge, and dry cough. Caused at least partly by local immunosuppressive effects, bPI(3)V infection is often complicated by coinfection with other respiratory viruses and bacteria, and is therefore an important component of enzootic pneumonia in calves and bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot cattle. Active infection can be diagnosed by virus isolation from nasal swabs, or IF testing on smears made from nasal swabs. Timing of sampling is critical in obtaining definitive diagnostic test results. Parenteral and intranasal modified live vaccine combination vaccines are available. Priming early in calfhood with intranasal vaccine, followed by boosting with parenteral vaccine, may be the best immunoprophylactic approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Zika virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Scholler, Amalie Skak; Buus, Soren

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has drawn worldwide attention due to its association to neurologic complications, particularly severe congenital malformations. While ZIKV can replicate efficiently and cause disease in human hosts, it fails to replicate to substantial titers...... mice by introducing the virus directly in the brain via intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation. In this way, the antigen is precisely placed at the site of interest, evading the first line of defense, and thus rendering the mice susceptible to infection. We found that, while intravenous (i.v.) inoculation...... of two different strains of WT mice with low doses of ZIKV does not result in viremia, it is nevertheless able to induce both cell-mediated and humoral immunity as well as clinical protection against subsequent i.c challenge with lethal doses of the virus. In order to determine the contribution of key...

  10. Hendra virus and Nipah virus animal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Christopher C; Weir, Dawn L; Reid, Peter A

    2016-06-24

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are zoonotic viruses that emerged in the mid to late 1990s causing disease outbreaks in livestock and people. HeV appeared in Queensland, Australia in 1994 causing a severe respiratory disease in horses along with a human case fatality. NiV emerged a few years later in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998-1999 causing a large outbreak of encephalitis with high mortality in people and also respiratory disease in pigs which served as amplifying hosts. The key pathological elements of HeV and NiV infection in several species of mammals, and also in people, are a severe systemic and often fatal neurologic and/or respiratory disease. In people, both HeV and NiV are also capable of causing relapsed encephalitis following recovery from an acute infection. The known reservoir hosts of HeV and NiV are several species of pteropid fruit bats. Spillovers of HeV into horses continue to occur in Australia and NiV has caused outbreaks in people in Bangladesh and India nearly annually since 2001, making HeV and NiV important transboundary biological threats. NiV in particular possesses several features that underscore its potential as a pandemic threat, including its ability to infect humans directly from natural reservoirs or indirectly from other susceptible animals, along with a capacity of limited human-to-human transmission. Several HeV and NiV animal challenge models have been developed which have facilitated an understanding of pathogenesis and allowed for the successful development of both active and passive immunization countermeasures. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Ecology of prokaryotic viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbauer, Markus G

    2004-05-01

    The finding that total viral abundance is higher than total prokaryotic abundance and that a significant fraction of the prokaryotic community is infected with phages in aquatic systems has stimulated research on the ecology of prokaryotic viruses and their role in ecosystems. This review treats the ecology of prokaryotic viruses ('phages') in marine, freshwater and soil systems from a 'virus point of view'. The abundance of viruses varies strongly in different environments and is related to bacterial abundance or activity suggesting that the majority of the viruses found in the environment are typically phages. Data on phage diversity are sparse but indicate that phages are extremely diverse in natural systems. Lytic phages are predators of prokaryotes, whereas lysogenic and chronic infections represent a parasitic interaction. Some forms of lysogeny might be described best as mutualism. The little existing ecological data on phage populations indicate a large variety of environmental niches and survival strategies. The host cell is the main resource for phages and the resource quality, i.e., the metabolic state of the host cell, is a critical factor in all steps of the phage life cycle. Virus-induced mortality of prokaryotes varies strongly on a temporal and spatial scale and shows that phages can be important predators of bacterioplankton. This mortality and the release of cell lysis products into the environment can strongly influence microbial food web processes and biogeochemical cycles. Phages can also affect host diversity, e.g., by 'killing the winner' and keeping in check competitively dominant species or populations. Moreover, they mediate gene transfer between prokaryotes, but this remains largely unknown in the environment. Genomics or proteomics are providing us now with powerful tools in phage ecology, but final testing will have to be performed in the environment.

  12. Viruses as living processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, John; Guttinger, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    The view that life is composed of distinct entities with well-defined boundaries has been undermined in recent years by the realisation of the near omnipresence of symbiosis. What had seemed to be intrinsically stable entities have turned out to be systems stabilised only by the interactions between a complex set of underlying processes (Dupré, 2012). This has not only presented severe problems for our traditional understanding of biological individuality but has also led some to claim that we need to switch to a process ontology to be able adequately to understand biological systems. A large group of biological entities, however, has been excluded from these discussions, namely viruses. Viruses are usually portrayed as stable and distinct individuals that do not fit the more integrated and collaborative picture of nature implied by symbiosis. In this paper we will contest this view. We will first discuss recent findings in virology that show that viruses can be 'nice' and collaborate with their hosts, meaning that they form part of integrated biological systems and processes. We further offer various reasons why viruses should be seen as processes rather than things, or substances. Based on these two claims we will argue that, far from serving as a counterexample to it, viruses actually enable a deeper understanding of the fundamentally interconnected and collaborative nature of nature. We conclude with some reflections on the debate as to whether viruses should be seen as living, and argue that there are good reasons for an affirmative answer to this question. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protecting Your Computer from Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descy, Don E.

    2006-01-01

    A computer virus is defined as a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer. The existence of computer viruses--or the necessity of avoiding viruses--is part of using a computer. With the advent of the Internet, the door was opened wide for these…

  14. antibodies against Herpes simplex virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types -1 and -2 in pregnant women in. Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... Cite as: Okonko IO, Cookey TI. Seropositivity and determinants of immunoglobulin-G (IgG) antibodies against Herpes simplex virus (HSV) ..... zadeh, Z. and Akbari, S. Seroepidemiology of Herpes. Simplex Virus Type 1 and 2 in ...

  15. Global emergence of Zika virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV belongs to the flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae, which includes dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Zika virus was isolated in 1947, in the Zika forest near Kampala, Uganda, from one of the rhesus monkeys used as sentinel animals in a yellow fever research program.

  16. An introduction to computer viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

  17. SARS – virus jumps species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SARS – virus jumps species. Coronavirus reshuffles genes; Rotteir et al, Rotterdam showed the virus to jump from cats to mouse cells after single gene mutation ? Human disease due to virus jumping from wild or domestic animals; Present favourite animal - the cat; - edible or domestic.

  18. Zika virus outside Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Edward B

    2009-09-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic confusion between ZIKV illness and dengue.The emergence of ZIKV outside of its previously known geographic range should prompt awareness of the potential for ZIKV to spread to other Pacific islands and the Americas.

  19. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  20. Tenosinovitis por virus Chikungunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Seijo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta a la consulta un hombre proveniente de la República Dominicana con una tenosinovitis del extensor del dedo medio derecho; en la convalecencia inmediata, segunda curva febril luego de 48 horas de permanecer asintomático de una enfermedad febril aguda, y marcada astenia, exantema pruriginoso, poliartralgias con impotencia funcional y rigidez articular generalizada. Los exámenes bioquímicos no aportaron datos de interés para el diagnóstico. La serología para virus dengue fue negativa. La detección de IgM y de anticuerpos neutralizantes para virus Chikungunya (CHIKV fueron positivos.

  1. Update on Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toresdahl, Brett G.; Asif, Irfan M.

    2016-01-01

    As public health experts work to contain the outbreak of Zika virus in South America and minimize the devastating prenatal complications, the international sports community prepares for the 2016 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Athletes have publicly expressed concern regarding the health risks of competition in Zika-endemic areas.33 Ensuring the safety of the athletes during training and competition is the primary role of the team physician. Special consideration is needed for sports teams preparing for travel to areas affected by Zika virus. PMID:27436751

  2. Epidemiology of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, David S

    2016-11-01

    Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family known to cause mild clinical symptoms similar to those of dengue and chikungunya. Zika is transmitted by different species of Aedes mosquitoes. Nonhuman primates and possibly rodents play a role as reservoirs. Direct interhuman transmission has also been reported. Human cases have been reported in Africa and Asia, Easter Island, the insular Pacific region, and Brazil. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but recently associated Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly have appeared. There is neither a vaccine nor prophylactic medications available to prevent Zika virus infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Research on computer virus database management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guoquan

    2011-12-01

    The growing proliferation of computer viruses becomes the lethal threat and research focus of the security of network information. While new virus is emerging, the number of viruses is growing, virus classification increasing complex. Virus naming because of agencies' capture time differences can not be unified. Although each agency has its own virus database, the communication between each other lacks, or virus information is incomplete, or a small number of sample information. This paper introduces the current construction status of the virus database at home and abroad, analyzes how to standardize and complete description of virus characteristics, and then gives the information integrity, storage security and manageable computer virus database design scheme.

  4. Virus Nilam: Identifikasi, Karakter Biologi dan Fisik, Serta Upaya Pengendaliannya

    OpenAIRE

    Miftakhurohmah, Miftakhurohmah; Noveriza, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Infeksi virus pada tanaman nilam dapat menyebabkan penurunan produksi dan kualitas minyak. Sembilan jenis virus diidentifikasi menginfeksi tanaman nilam, yaitu Patchouli mosaic virus (PatMoV), Patchouli mild mosaic virus (PatMMV), Telosma mosaic virus (TeMV), Peanut stripe virus (PStV), Patchouli yellow mosaic virus (PatYMV), Tobacco necrosis virus (TNV), Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), dan Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV). Kesembilan virus tersebut memiliki genom ...

  5. Porcine arterivirus activates the NF-kappaB pathway through IkappaB degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Myeong; Kleiboeker, Steven B

    2005-11-10

    Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a critical regulator of innate and adaptive immune function as well as cell proliferation and survival. The present study demonstrated for the first time that a virus belonging to the Arteriviridae family activates NF-kappaB in MARC-145 cells and alveolar macrophages. In porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected cells, NF-kappaB activation was characterized by translocation of NF-kappaB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, increased DNA binding activity, and NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression. NF-kappaB activation was increased as PRRSV infection progressed and in a viral dose-dependent manner. UV-inactivation of PRRSV significantly reduced the level of NF-kappaB activation. Degradation of IkappaB protein was detected late in PRRSV infection, and overexpression of the dominant negative form of IkappaBalpha (IkappaBalphaDN) significantly suppressed NF-kappaB activation induced by PRRSV. However, IkappaBalphaDN did not affect viral replication and viral cytopathic effect. PRRSV infection induced oxidative stress in cells by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidants inhibited NF-kappaB DNA binding activity in PRRSV-infected cells, suggesting ROS as a mechanism by which NF-kappaB was activated by PRRSV infection. Moreover, NF-kappaB-dependent expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 was observed in PRRSV-infected cells, an observation which implies that NF-kappaB activation is a biologically significant aspect of PRRSV pathogenesis. The results presented here provide a basis for understanding molecular pathways of pathology and immune evasion associated with disease caused by PRRSV.

  6. Single Assay Detection of Acute Bee Paralysis Virus, Kashmir Bee Virus and Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Kryger, Per

    2012-01-01

    A new RT-PCR primer pair designed to identify Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV), Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV) or Israeli Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (IAPV) of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in a single assay is described. These primers are used to screen samples for ABPV, KBV, or IAPV in a single RT...

  7. ICTV virus taxonomy profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, María Laura; Bó, Dal Elena; Graça, da John V.; Gago-Zachert, Selma; Hammond, John; Moreno, Pedro; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Pallás, Vicente; Navarro, Jose A.; Reyes, Carina A.; Luna, Gabriel Robles; Sasaya, Takahide; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E.; Vaira, Anna María; Verbeek, Martin; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Davison, Andrew J.; Siddell, Stuart G.; Simmonds, Peter; Adams, Michael J.; Smith, Donald B.; Orton, Richard J.; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    The Ophioviridae is a family of filamentous plant viruses, with single-stranded negative, and possibly ambisense, RNA genomes of 11.3-12.5 kb divided into 3-4 segments, each encapsidated separately. Virions are naked filamentous nucleocapsids, forming kinked circles of at least two different contour

  8. Viruses of Haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison W. S. Luk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages. Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems.

  9. Sensing of RNA viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2012-01-01

    Our knowledge regarding the contribution of the innate immune system in recognizing and subsequently initiating a host response to an invasion of RNA virus has been rapidly growing over the last decade. Descriptions of the receptors involved and the molecular mechanisms they employ to sense viral...

  10. Virus spread in networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mieghem, P. van; Omic, J.; Kooij, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of the network characteristics on the virus spread is analyzed in a new-the N-intertwined Markov chain-model, whose only approximation lies in the application of mean field theory. The mean field approximation is quantified in detail. The N-intertwined model has been compared with the

  11. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in the United States More 2014 West Africa Outbreak Since March 2014, West Africa has experienced ... wanting to assist in the Ebola outbreak response State Ebola Protocols ... & Answers 2014-2016 West Africa Outbreak What’s New Timeline Case Counts Previous Case ...

  12. Human viruses and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M

    2014-10-23

    The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt's lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers.

  13. Human Viruses and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Morales-Sánchez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers.

  14. Cucumber vein yellowing virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbits are an important crop of temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) is a major viral pathogen of cucurbits. This chapter provides an overview of the biology of CVYV and the disease it causes....

  15. Squash vein yellowing virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbits are an important crop of temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is a major viral pathogen of cucurbits. This chapter provides an overview of the biology of SqVYV and the disease it causes....

  16. Animal Models of Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael P; Nagamine, Claude M

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus has garnered great attention over the last several years, as outbreaks of the disease have emerged throughout the Western Hemisphere. Until quite recently Zika virus was considered a fairly benign virus, with limited clinical severity in both people and animals. The size and scope of the outbreak in the Western Hemisphere has allowed for the identification of severe clinical disease that is associated with Zika virus infection, most notably microcephaly among newborns, and an association with Guillian–Barré syndrome in adults. This recent association with severe clinical disease, of which further analysis strongly suggested causation by Zika virus, has resulted in a massive increase in the amount of both basic and applied research of this virus. Both small and large animal models are being used to uncover the pathogenesis of this emerging disease and to develop vaccine and therapeutic strategies. Here we review the animal-model–based Zika virus research that has been performed to date. PMID:28662753

  17. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  18. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  19. Viruses and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Miranda-Saksena, Monica; Saksena, Nitin K

    2013-05-31

    Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are chronic degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), which affect 37 million people worldwide. As the lifespan increases, the NDs are the fourth leading cause of death in the developed countries and becoming increasingly prevalent in developing countries. Despite considerable research, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Although the large majority of studies do not show support for the involvement of pathogenic aetiology in classical NDs, a number of emerging studies show support for possible association of viruses with classical neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Space does not permit for extensive details to be discussed here on non-viral-induced neurodegenerative diseases in humans, as they are well described in literature.Viruses induce alterations and degenerations of neurons both directly and indirectly. Their ability to attack the host immune system, regions of nervous tissue implies that they can interfere with the same pathways involved in classical NDs in humans. Supporting this, many similarities between classical NDs and virus-mediated neurodegeneration (non-classical) have been shown at the anatomic, sub-cellular, genomic and proteomic levels suggesting that viruses can explain neurodegenerative disorders mechanistically. The main objective of this review is to provide readers a detailed snapshot of similarities viral and non-viral neurodegenerative diseases share, so that mechanistic pathways of neurodegeneration in human NDs can be clearly understood. Viruses can guide us to unveil these pathways in human NDs. This will further stimulate the birth of new concepts in the biological research, which is needed for gaining deeper insights into the treatment of human NDs and delineate mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration.

  20. Evolutionary relationship of alfalfa mosaic virus with cucumber mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Savithri, HS; Murthy, MRN

    1983-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein (molecular weight 35,000; 3a protein) from three plant viruses - cucumber mosaic, brome mosaic and alfalfa mosaic have been systematically compared using the partial genomic sequences for these three viruses already available. The 3a protein of cucumber mosaic virus has an amino acid sequence homology of 33.7% with the corresponding protein of brome mosaic virus. A similar protein from alfalfa mosaic virus has a homology of 18.2% and 14.2...