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Sample records for prrs virus prrsv

  1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    This PhD thesis presents the diversity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) circulating in the Danish pig population. PRRS is a disease in pigs caused by the PRRS virus resulting in reproductive failures in sows and gilts and respiratory diseases in pigs . Due to genetic...

  2. Clinical, Pathological and Immunological Aspects of Transplacental PRRS Virus Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes Danish research activities on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) with emphasis on experimental infections in pregnant swine. The first case of PRRS was diagnosed in Denmark in 1992 and subsequently the disease spread to most other parts of the country...... PRRSV in the previously unaffected Danish pig population. Acute PRRS like disease was observed in non-vaccinated as well as in vaccinated herds, and it was demonstrated that the vaccine strain had reverted to virulence. By experimental infection of late term pregnant sows, we demonstrated that a field....... The first animal experiments elucidated the pathogenicity of Danish PRRS virus (PRRSV) isolates in pregnant sows together with the effects of infection at various stages of gestation. In 1996, the introduction of a vaccination program using an attenuated live PRRS vaccine led to an epidemic of American type...

  3. Distinction between infections with European and American/vaccine type PRRS virus after vaccination with a modified-live PRRS virus vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Strandbygaard, Bertel; Sørensen, K. J.

    2000-01-01

    In July 1996 a modified live Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine, based on an American (US) strain of the PRRS virus (PRRSV), was licensed in Denmark. The vaccine was licensed for use in 3-18 week old pigs, exclusively. Starting during the middle of October 1996, several...... herds who had recently begun vaccination, experienced acute PRRS-like symptoms including an increasing number of abortions and stillborn piglets and an increasing mortality in the nursing period. During the period from October 1996 until May 1997, the PRRS virus (PRRSV), identified as the vaccine....../US type of PRRSV, was isolated from fetuses, dead piglets, pleural fluids and/or lung tissues from 114 of such herds. These findings indicated the spread of the vaccine virus to non-vaccinated sows followed by transplacental infection of fetuses. Also, a number of not previously PRRSV infected and non...

  4. Probing genetic control of swine responses to PRRSV infection: current progress of the PRRS host genetics consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunney Joan K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the role of host genetics in resistance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV infection, and the effects of PRRS on pig health and related growth, are goals of the PRRS Host Genetics Consortium (PHGC. Methods The project uses a nursery pig model to assess pig resistance/susceptibility to primary PRRSV infection. To date, 6 groups of 200 crossbred pigs from high health farms were donated by commercial sources. After acclimation, the pigs were infected with PRRSV in a biosecure facility and followed for 42 days post infection (dpi. Blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 dpi for serum and whole blood RNA gene expression analyses; weekly weights were recorded for growth traits. All data have been entered into the PHGC relational database. Genomic DNAs from all PHGC1-6 pigs were prepared and genotyped with the Porcine SNP60 SNPchip. Results Results have affirmed that all challenged pigs become PRRSV infected with peak viremia being observed between 4-21 dpi. Multivariate statistical analyses of viral load and weight data have identified PHGC pigs in different virus/weight categories. Sera are now being compared for factors involved in recovery from infection, including speed of response and levels of immune cytokines. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS are underway to identify genes and chromosomal locations that identify PRRS resistant/susceptible pigs and pigs able to maintain growth while infected with PRRSV. Conclusions Overall, the PHGC project will enable researchers to discover and verify important genotypes and phenotypes that predict resistance/susceptibility to PRRSV infection. The availability of PHGC samples provides a unique opportunity to continue to develop deeper phenotypes on every PRRSV infected pig.

  5. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): pathogenesis and interaction with the immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review addresses important issues of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, immunity, pathogenesis and control. Worldwide PRRS is the most economically important infectious disease of pigs. We highlight the latest information on viral genome structure, pathogenic...

  6. Alternative strategies for the control and elimination of PRRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the most costly disease of modern global pig production systems. The etiological agent, PRRS virus (PRRSV), an RNA virus, was identified in Europe (PRRSV-1 isolates) in 1991, and later in the US (PRRSV-2 isolates). Modified live virus (MLV) vac...

  7. Experimental airborne transmission of PRRS virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.S.; Bøtner, Anette; Takai, H.

    2004-01-01

    A series of three experiments, differing primarily in airflow volume, were performed to evaluate the likelihood of airborne transmission of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) from infected to non-infected pigs. Pigs were housed in two units (unit A and unit B) located 1 m...

  8. Emergence of a virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV 1 strain in Lower Austria

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    Leonie J Sinn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spring 2015, an outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS struck Lower Austria caused by a PRRS virus (PRRSV strain spreading rapidly among both previously PRRSV negative and vaccinated pig herds. This case report describes the first well-documented emergence of the PRRSV strain responsible for this outbreak. Case presentation A PRRSV seronegative piglet-producing farm in Lower Austria encountered losses in foetuses and suckling piglets of up to 90 %; clinical signs in sows and nursery piglets included fever and reduced feed intake. Additionally, high percentages of repeat breeders and losses of up to 40 % in nursery piglets occurred. An infection with PRRSV was suggested by the detection of antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed by quantitative real time PCR. The underlying PRRSV strain, termed AUT15-33, was isolated by passage on porcine alveolar macrophages, partially sequenced (ORF2-7 and grouped as PRRSV-1, subtype 1. In phylogenetic analysis of the genome region coding for the structural proteins, ORF2-7, AUT15-33 clustered with Belgian strains but identities were as low as 88 %. In contrast, analysis of ORF7 sequences revealed a close relationship to Croatian strains from 2012 with an identity of 94 – 95 %. Conclusions In the year following the outbreak, the same PRRSV strain was identified repeatedly in different regions of Austria. It can be speculated that the new strain has novel advantageous properties.

  9. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRRS VIRUS IN SEMEN OF BOARS IN PIG FARMS OF YUCATAN

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    Aremi Jordan-Craviotto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of and to determine the risk factors associated with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, American strain in semen of boars in pig herds of Yucatan, Mexico. Ninety two boars from 26 herds were ejaculated once. Semen samples were processed by the RT-nPCR test using the ORF7 primer to detect the PRRS virus. The true prevalence estimated was 10.1% (95% CI = 4.1-16.1%. Significance of risk factors was determined by Fisher-exact test. The odds of detecting genetic material of the PRRSV was greater (OR = 9.2 in semen of boars used under natural mating than those used in artificial insemination. In herds where boar’s acclimatization was not practiced the odds of a positive boar was 4.3. Another risk factor (P < 0.05 was the origin of the animals. In conclusion, the prevalence of the PRRSV in boar semen was smaller to the notified in the literature and determinate in blood serum. Management practices, such as the use of the artificial insemination and acclimatization of the boar, could be useful in reducing the prevalence of the PRRS virus in the pig farms.

  10. Risk factors for infection of sow herds with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sten; Stryhn, Henrik; Søgaard, Rikke

    2002-01-01

    In 1992, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) of European type (PRRSV-EU) was introduced in Denmark. By 1996, the virus had spread to approximately 25% of the Danish herds. In January 1996, a modified-live vaccine based on the American type of the virus (PRRSV-US) was u......In 1992, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) of European type (PRRSV-EU) was introduced in Denmark. By 1996, the virus had spread to approximately 25% of the Danish herds. In January 1996, a modified-live vaccine based on the American type of the virus (PRRSV......-US) was used in replacement boars for Danish artificial insemination (AI) centres and from July 1996, the vaccine was used in PRRSV-EU infected herds for prevention of disease. Soon after vaccine introduction, PRRSV non-infected herds experienced outbreaks of disease due to infection with PRRSV...... in the case herds). The data were analysed using a Cox-regression model. The hazard of infection increased significantly with exposure from PRRSV-US-infected neighbouring herds, purchase of animals from herds incubating PRRSV-US infection, increasing herd size and purchase of semen from boars at PRRSV...

  11. Genetic and biological characterization of a Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus 2 (PRRSV-2)causing significant clinical disease in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Larsen, Lars Erik; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2017-01-01

    pathogenic or vaccine evading PRRSV strain had emerged in Denmark. The overall aim of the present study was to perform a genetic and biological characterization of the virus isolated from the diseased herd. Complete genome sequencing of isolates from this herd revealed that although the case strain had some...... in the Northern part of Denmark experienced an infection with PRRSV-2 with clinical signs that were much more severe than normally reported from current Danish PRRSV-2 affected herds. Due to the clinical observations of reproductive failure in sows and high mortality in piglets, it was speculated that a new, more...... unique genetic features including a deduced 3 amino acid deletion, it was in overall very similar to the other PRRS-2 viruses circulating in Denmark. In an experimental trial in growing pigs, no overt clinical signs or pathology were observed following intranasal inoculation with the new virus isolate...

  12. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on alveolar lung macrophage survival and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Nielsen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) recently emerged as an important cause of reproductive disorders and pneumonia in domestic pigs throughout the world. Acute cytocidal replication of PRRSV in alveolar lung macrophages causes the acute pneumonia; however, it remains largely...... infection in this system. In short, in our minimal system containing only a single cell type, phagocytosis-suppressive effects of PRRSV infection were detected, that acted at the culture level by reducing the total number of alveolar lung macrophages....

  13. Hematological and immunological parameters of 4-1/2-month-old pigs infected with PRRS virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Bøtner, Anette

    1997-01-01

    4-1/2-month old SPF pigs were experimentally infected with PRRS virus. Blood samples were collected with regular intervals up to day 35 post inoculation (PI). Serum was used for PRRS virus isolation and antibody detection and stabilized blood for total leucocyte counts, differential counts and ch...

  14. Comparison of 2 commercial single-dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines on pigs dually infected with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV.

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    Park, Changhoon; Kang, Ikjae; Seo, Hwi Won; Jeong, Jiwoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of 2 different commercial Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines in regard to growth performance, microbiological and immunological analyses, and pathological observation from wean to finish (175 d of age). Pigs were administered M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV vaccines at 7 and 21 d of age, respectively, or both at 21 d old and then challenged with both M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV at 49 d old. Significant (P hyopneumoniae, M. hyopneumoniae-specific interferon-γ secreting cells, and macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions. Induction of interleukin-10 following PRRSV vaccination does not interfere with the immune responses induced by M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. The present study demonstrated that the single-dose vaccination regimen for M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV vaccine is efficacious for controlling coinfection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV based on clinical, microbiological, immunological, and pathological evaluation.

  15. DNA vaccination of pigs with open reading frame 1-7 of PRRS virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Annette Malene; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete; Jensen, Merethe Holm

    2004-01-01

    We cloned all open reading frames of a Danish isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus in DNA vaccination vectors. Pigs were vaccinated using a gene gun with each single construct (ORF1, ORF2, ORF3, ORF4, ORF5, ORF6, or ORF7) or combinations thereof. Vaccination...

  16. Opciones vacunales contra los virus patógenos de porcinos PRRS y PCV2, un binomio frecuente

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    Marcos Cajero-Juárez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En la última década, el síndrome reproductivo y respiratorio porcino (PRRS, por sus siglas en inglés y las enfermedades asociadas al circovirus porcino tipo 2 (PCV2, por sus siglas en inglés, representan una gran preocupación para la industria porcícola, debido a la afectación de los índices productivos. En consecuencia, su presencia va acompañada de cuantiosas pérdidas económicas. Actualmente, en la mayoría de los centros de producción, se utilizan vacunas clásicas, es decir, elaboradas a partir del virus completo viable ó atenuado. En relación al PCV2, se dispone de pocas vacunas de nueva generación, referidas como aquellas obtenidas a través de la tecnología del ADN recombinante, mientras que, únicamente vacunas clásicas están disponibles contra el virus PRRSV. En este manuscrito, revisamos la naturaleza de los virus PRRSV y PCV2, así también, resaltamos la importancia económica, de acuerdo a los datos de prevalencia nacional e internacional. Además, se incluyen datos de nuevas opciones vacunales, en relación con las vacunas comerciales que, en algunos casos, se ha documentado una baja protección contra cepas heterólogas y cepas de reciente aparición. Por un lado, la investigación en vacunas de nueva generación, ha tenido buena aceptación, debido a la posibilidad de seleccionar la información genética del virus para estimular la respuesta inmune protectora del hospedero y, por otro, porque se acelera el desarrollo de vacunas, e incluso, es posible evitar las infecciones de las cuales es responsable el virus vacunal.

  17. Protection against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Infection through Passive Transfer of PRRSV-Neutralizing Antibodies Is Dose Dependent▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, O. J.; Oliveira, M. F.; Garcia, E. Alvarez; Kwon, B. J.; Doster, A.; Osorio, F. A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that passive transfer of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-neutralizing antibodies (NA) protected pregnant sows against reproductive failure and conferred sterilizing immunity in sows and offspring. We report here on the dose requirement for protection by passive transfer with NA in young weaned pigs. The presence of a 1:8 titer of PRRSV-NA in serum consistently protected pigs against viremia. Nevertheless, their lungs, to...

  18. Live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines: Current status and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Calvert, Jay G; Roof, Michael; Lager, Kelly M

    2015-08-07

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) was reported in the late 1980s. PRRS still is a huge economic concern to the global pig industry with a current annual loss estimated at one billion US dollars in North America alone. It has been 20 years since the first modified live-attenuated PRRSV vaccine (PRRSV-MLV) became commercially available. PRRSV-MLVs provide homologous protection and help in reducing shedding of heterologous viruses, but they do not completely protect pigs against heterologous field strains. There have been many advances in understanding the biology and ecology of PRRSV; however, the complexities of virus-host interaction and PRRSV vaccinology are not yet completely understood leaving a significant gap for improving breadth of immunity against diverse PRRS isolates. This review provides insights on immunization efforts using infectious PRRSV-based vaccines since the 1990s, beginning with live PRRSV immunization, development and commercialization of PRRSV-MLV, and strategies to overcome the deficiencies of PRRSV-MLV through use of replicating viral vectors expressing multiple PRRSV membrane proteins. Finally, powerful reverse genetics systems (infectious cDNA clones) generated from more than 20 PRRSV isolates of both genotypes 1 and 2 viruses have provided a great resource for exploring many innovative strategies to improve the safety and cross-protective efficacy of live PRRSV vaccines. Examples include vaccines with diminished ability to down-regulate the immune system, positive and negative marker vaccines, multivalent vaccines incorporating antigens from other porcine pathogens, vaccines that carry their own cytokine adjuvants, and chimeric vaccine viruses with the potential for broad cross-protection against heterologous strains. To combat this devastating pig disease in the future, evaluation and commercialization of such improved live PRRSV vaccines is a shared goal among PRRSV researchers, pork

  19. Hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E) can enhance the immune responses of swine immunized with killed PRRSV vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Zhihong [State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); China Institute of Veterinary Drug Control, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, Quan [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Wang, Zaishi [China Institute of Veterinary Drug Control, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, Zhongqiu [State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Veterinary Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100125 (China); Guo, Pengju [Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong 510640 (China); Zhao, Deming, E-mail: zhaodm@cau.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the immunoadjuvant effects of HVJ-E on killed PRRSV vaccine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HVJ-E enhanced the humoral and cellular responses of the piglets to PRRSV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is suggested that HVJ-E could be developed as a new-type adjuvant for mammals. -- Abstract: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically detrimental pig pathogen that causes significant losses for the pig industry. The immunostimulatory effects of hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E) in cancer therapy and the adjuvant efficacy of HVJ-E have been previously evaluated. The objective of this study was to investigate the adjuvant effects of HVJ-E on immunization with killed PRRSV vaccine, and to evaluate the protective effects of this immunization strategy against virulent PRRSV infection in piglets. Next, the PRRSV-specific antibody response, lymphocyte proliferation, PRRSV-specific IL-2, IL-10 and IFN-{gamma} production, and the overall protection efficacy were evaluated to assess the immune responses of the piglets. The results showed that the piglets inoculated simultaneously with killed PRRSV vaccine and HVJ-E had a significantly stronger immune response than those inoculated with killed PRRSV vaccine alone. Our results suggest that HVJ-E could be employed as an effective adjuvant to enhance the humoral and cellular responses of piglets to PRRSV.

  20. Distinction between infections with European and American/vaccine type PRRS virus after vaccination with a modified-live PRRS virus vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Strandbygaard, Bertel; Sørensen, K. J.

    2000-01-01

    types of PRRSV was made on a serological basis. The immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA), carried out using a Danish strain (IPMA/DK) and the vaccine strain (IPMA/vac) in parallel, allows the distinction of infections with EU and US strains of PRRSV. In herds infected with the EU type, the titer...... in individual samples is higher in the IPMA/DK compared to the titer in the IPMA/vac, while in herds infected with the vaccine/US type, the titers are highest in the IPMA/vac. Furthermore, a double blocking ELISA has been developed, which enables large scale screening for and simultaneous distinction between...... ELISA-Vac), which enables us to serologically distinguish between EU and US strains of PRRSV infections. In herds infected with the Danish strain of PRRSV, most animals have a ratio below 1, while in herds infected with the vaccine/US strain most animals have a ratio above 2. The distinction between...

  1. A serological survey on classical swine fever (CSF), Aujeszky's disease (AD) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus infections in French wild boars from 1991 to 1998.

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    Albina, E; Mesplède, A; Chenut, G; Le Potier, M F; Bourbao, G; Le Gal, S; Leforban, Y

    2000-11-15

    In early 1992, a CSF epizootic was clinically recognised in a wild boar population of approximately 1300 animals within an area of 250km(2) located in the east of France. In order to check the CSF situation in wild boars outside this area, a serological survey was carried out in the rest of France, for 8 consecutive years (1991-1998). This paper reports on the results obtained during this survey which included wild boars shot during the hunting period but also boars reared within fences. Around 1000-2700 sera a year were tested for the presence of antibodies to classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and also to Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV). Out of 12025 sera tested over the whole period, 80 wild boars were found positive for CSF antibodies. Sixty of them were collected on wild boars shot during the years 1992-1994 in the epizootic area located in east of France and 10 were collected in Corsica during the years 1994-1996. The last four positive samples were single reactors coming from areas or farms, which were thereafter confirmed to be serologically negative. These results together with the fact that no disease has been reported so far illustrate that the French wild boar population is probably not concerned by CSF infection (excepted in the east of France where the disease has now become enzootic). Two hundred and forty nine sera were initially detected as CSF positive but confirmed secondarily as positive for border disease (BD) antibodies. This finding shows that wild boars are also susceptible to infection by ruminant pestiviruses. Four hundred and twenty three wild boars have been found positive for ADV antibodies. In addition, from 1993 to 1995, 909 samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Thirty three of them were positive. The results on AD and PRRS antibody detection show that wild boars may constitute a reservoir for various infectious diseases of pigs.

  2. Increased pathogenicity of European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is associated with enhanced adaptive responses and viral clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, S.B.; Graham, S.P.; Salguero, F.J.; Sánchez Cordón, P.J.; Mokhtar, H.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Weesendorp, E.; Bodman-Smith, K.B.; Steinbach, F.; Frossard, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically important diseases of swine worldwide. Since its first emergence in 1987 the PRRS virus (PRRSV) has become particularly divergent with highly pathogenic strains appearing in both Europe and Asia. However, the

  3. Evaluating perspectives for PRRS virus elimination from pig dense areas with a risk factor based herd index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrion, A S; Beilage, E grosse; Nathues, H; Dürr, S; Doherr, M G

    2014-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is wide-spread in pig populations globally. In many regions of Europe with intensive pig production and high herd densities, the virus is endemic and can cause disease and production losses. This fuels discussion about the feasibility and sustainability of virus elimination from larger geographic regions. The implementation of a program aiming at virus elimination for areas with high pig density is unprecedented and its potential success is unknown. The objective of this work was to approach pig population data with a simple method that could support assessing the feasibility of a sustainable regional PRRSV elimination. Based on known risk factors such as pig herd structure and neighborhood conditions, an index characterizing individual herds' potential for endemic virus circulation and reinfection was designed. This index was subsequently used to compare data of all pig herds in two regions with different pig- and herd-densities in Lower Saxony (North-West Germany) where PRRSV is endemic. Distribution of the indexed herds was displayed using GIS. Clusters of high herd index densities forming potential risk hot spots were identified which could represent key target areas for surveillance and biosecurity measures under a control program aimed at virus elimination. In an additional step, for the study region with the higher pig density (2463 pigs/km(2) farmland), the potential distribution of PRRSV-free and non-free herds during the implementation of a national control program aiming at national virus elimination was modeled. Complex herd and trade network structures suggest that PRRSV elimination in regions with intensive pig farming like that of middle Europe would have to involve legal regulation and be accompanied by important trade and animal movement restrictions. The proposed methodology of risk index mapping could be adapted to areas varying in size, herd structure and density. Interpreted in the

  4. Comparative analysis of signature genes in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells at differential activation statuses

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    Activation statuses of monocytic cells, e.g. monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are critically important for antiviral immunity. In particular, some devastating viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), are capable of directly infecting these cell...

  5. Síndrome reproductivo y respiratorio del cerdo (PRRS. Revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maricruz López-Heydeck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome reproductivo y respiratorio del cerdo (PRRS, es una enfermedad de origen viral que ocasiona fallas reproductivas severas en cerdas gestantes, con menos grado en la calidad del semen en verracos y problemas respiratorios en cerdos de todas las edades pero principalmente en lechones; también se asocia o incrementa la manifestación de otras enfermedades respiratorias. Es una de las enfermedades de mayor importancia económica mundial, en la mayoría de los países de producción de porcinos, donde en gran parte de ellos permanece endémico. El virus de PRRS (PRRSV presenta un alto grado de mutabilidad, por lo que hay una gran diversidad genética de cepas del linaje norteamericano (PRRSV NA y entre el PRRSV NA y el linaje europeo (PRRSV EU, lo que afecta la homogeneidad y poca o nula antigenicidad cruzada para vacunas; el virus vacunal modificado, único comercialmente accesible para generar algún grado confiable de inmunidad, ha mostrado la capacidad de revertirse a patógeno, con replicabilidad y recombinación con virus de campo; las vacunas sólo se utilizan para disminuir el grado de afección de la enfermedad; el virus muestra una capacidad de inmunosupresión e inmunoregulación que le permite, prolongar el tiempo de viremia en los animales enfermos, quienes eliminan el virus por saliva, secreciones tras placentarias, mamarias y muy posiblemente excremento, siendo la transmisión principal por contacto directo o por objetos contaminados; además presenta una posterior selectividad a pocos tejidos linfoides, que le permite permanecer inadvertido hasta que, en condiciones favorables, vuelve a manifestarse la enfermedad, ya sea como pequeños brotes, o como pandemia.

  6. Detection and typing of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by multiplex real-time rt-PCR.

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    Kerstin Wernike

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS causes economic losses in the pig industry worldwide, and PRRS viruses (PRRSV are classified into the two distinct genotypes "North American (NA, type 2" and "European (EU, type 1". In 2006, a highly pathogenic NA strain of PRRSV (HP-PRRSV, characterized by high fever as well as high morbidity and mortality, emerged in swine farms in China. Therefore, a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR assay specific for HP-PRRSV was developed and combined with type 1- and type 2-specific RT-qPCR systems. Furthermore, an internal control, based on a heterologous RNA, was successfully introduced. This final multiplex PRRSV RT-qPCR, detecting and typing PRRSV, had an analytical sensitivity of less than 200 copies per µl for the type 1-assay and 20 copies per µl for the type 2- and HP assays and a high diagnostic sensitivity. A panel of reference strains and field isolates was reliably detected and samples from an animal trial with a Chinese HP-PRRS strain were used for test validation. The new multiplex PRRSV RT-qPCR system allows for the first time the highly sensitive detection and rapid differentiation of PRRSV of both genotypes as well as the direct detection of HP-PRRSV.

  7. Novel approaches for Spatial and Molecular Surveillance of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSv) in the United States.

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    Alkhamis, Moh A; Arruda, Andreia G; Morrison, Robert B; Perez, Andres M

    2017-06-28

    The US swine industry has been impaired over the last 25 years by the far-reaching financial losses caused by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). Here, we explored the relations between the spatial risk of PRRS outbreaks and its phylodynamic history in the U.S during 1998-2016 using ORF5 sequences collected from swine farms in the Midwest region. We used maximum entropy and Bayesian phylodynamic models to generate risk maps for PRRS outbreaks and reconstructed the evolutionary history of three selected phylogenetic clades (A, B and C). High-risk areas for PRRS were best-predicted by pig density and climate seasonality and included Minnesota, Iowa and South Dakota. Phylodynamic models demonstrated that the geographical spread of the three clades followed a heterogeneous spatial diffusion process. Furthermore, PRRS viruses were characterized by typical seasonality in their population size. However, endemic strains were characterized by a substantially slower population growth and evolutionary rates, as well as smaller spatial dispersal rates when compared to emerging strains. We demonstrated the prospects of combining inferences derived from two unique analytical methods to inform decisions related to risk-based interventions of an important pathogen affecting one of the largest food animal industries in the world.

  8. PCR diagnosis of PRRS virus in oral fluids from weaned Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, P. R.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Pedersen, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    herds. Oral fluid was collected by providing 1 cotton rope in each selected pen for 30 minutes. Blood samples from 5 systematic randomly selected pigs in each pen were taken and the separated serum was pooled penwise. Different purification methods were tested in order to decrease the content of PCR...... inhibitors in the RNA extract of oral fluid. QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN) was selected for purification of RNA from oral fluid and serum. Purified RNA was tested for PRRSV by real-time RT-PCR by a modified previously published assay1. Overall agreement, diagnostic sensitivity and diagnostic specificity...

  9. Transcriptomic analysis reveals the potential of highly pathogenic PRRS virus to modulate immune system activation related to host-pathogen and damage associated signaling in infected porcine monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the largest risks to the continued stability of the swine industry is by pathogens like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) that can decimate production as it spreads among individuals. These infections can be low or highly pathogenic, and because it infects monocytic ...

  10. A model for the dynamic nuclear/nucleolar/cytoplasmic trafficking of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid protein based on live cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Jae-Hwan; Howell, Gareth; Pattnaik, Asit K.; Osorio, Fernando A.; Hiscox, Julian A.

    2008-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an arterivirus, in common with many other positive strand RNA viruses, encodes a nucleocapsid (N) protein which can localise not only to the cytoplasm but also to the nucleolus in virus-infected cells and cells over-expressing N protein. The dynamic trafficking of positive strand RNA virus nucleocapsid proteins and PRRSV N protein in particular between the cytoplasm and nucleolus is unknown. In this study live imaging of permissive and non-permissive cell lines, in conjunction with photo-bleaching (FRAP and FLIP), was used to investigate the trafficking of fluorescent labeled (EGFP) PRRSV-N protein. The data indicated that EGFP-PRRSV-N protein was not permanently sequestered to the nucleolus and had equivalent mobility to cellular nucleolar proteins. Further the nuclear import of N protein appeared to occur faster than nuclear export, which may account for the observed relative distribution of N protein between the cytoplasm and the nucleolus

  11. Precision engineering for PRRSV resistance in pigs: Macrophages from genome edited pigs lacking CD163 SRCR5 domain are fully resistant to both PRRSV genotypes while maintaining biological function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Burkard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS is a panzootic infectious disease of pigs, causing major economic losses to the world-wide pig industry. PRRS manifests differently in pigs of all ages but primarily causes late-term abortions and stillbirths in sows and respiratory disease in piglets. The causative agent of the disease is the positive-strand RNA PRRS virus (PRRSV. PRRSV has a narrow host cell tropism, limited to cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. CD163 has been described as a fusion receptor for PRRSV, whereby the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain 5 (SRCR5 region was shown to be an interaction site for the virus in vitro. CD163 is expressed at high levels on the surface of macrophages, particularly in the respiratory system. Here we describe the application of CRISPR/Cas9 to pig zygotes, resulting in the generation of pigs with a deletion of Exon 7 of the CD163 gene, encoding SRCR5. Deletion of SRCR5 showed no adverse effects in pigs maintained under standard husbandry conditions with normal growth rates and complete blood counts observed. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs and peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs were isolated from the animals and assessed in vitro. Both PAMs and macrophages obtained from PBMCs by CSF1 stimulation (PMMs show the characteristic differentiation and cell surface marker expression of macrophages of the respective origin. Expression and correct folding of the SRCR5 deletion CD163 on the surface of macrophages and biological activity of the protein as hemoglobin-haptoglobin scavenger was confirmed. Challenge of both PAMs and PMMs with PRRSV genotype 1, subtypes 1, 2, and 3 and PMMs with PRRSV genotype 2 showed complete resistance to viral infections assessed by replication. Confocal microscopy revealed the absence of replication structures in the SRCR5 CD163 deletion macrophages, indicating an inhibition of infection prior to gene expression, i.e. at entry/fusion or unpacking stages.

  12. Evaluation of a blocking ELISA for screening of antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.J.; Bøtner, Anette; Madsen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    A blocking Elisa was developed for the detection of antibodies against PRRS virus with a view to satisfying the need for examination of blood samples on a large scale. The test was evaluated in comparison with an indirect Elisa and the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. The blocking Elisa...... was sensitive and specific. It had a higher capacity and was cheaper to perform than the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay and the indirect Elisa. It was comparable to the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay and better than the indirect Elisa in detecting antibodies formed early after infection, and it was superior...... to both the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay and the indirect Elisa in detecting antibodies at a late stage of infection....

  13. Examination of the selective pressures on a live PRRS vaccine virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Torben; Oleksiewicz, M.; Bøtner, Anette

    1999-01-01

    of the selective pressure this attenuated virus had experienced during reversion. An analysis of nucleotide mutations showed a similar rate of mutations in the two genes (ORF5 and 7). However, non-synonymous mutations in ORF7 were eliminated by purifying selection. In contrast, non-synonymous mutations in ORF5...

  14. A fast and robust method for full genome sequencing of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Type 1 and Type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Fahnøe, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    . In the present study, fast and robust methods for long range RT-PCR amplification and subsequent next generation sequencing (NGS) were developed and validated on nine Type 1 and nine Type 2 PRRSV viruses. The methods generated robust and reliable sequences both on primary material and cell culture adapted...... viruses and the protocols performed well on all three NGS platforms tested (Roche 454 FLX, Illumina HiSeq2000, and Ion Torrent PGM™ Sequencer). These methods will greatly facilitate the generation of more full genome PRRSV sequences globally....

  15. Type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection increases apoptosis at the maternal-fetal interface in late gestation pregnant gilts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Novakovic

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of fetal death associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is hypothesized to be a consequence of PRRS virus-induced apoptosis at the maternal-fetal interface (MFI. The objectives of this study were to evaluate distribution and degree of apoptosis in the uterine and fetal placental tissues during the experimental type 2 PRRS virus (PRRSV infection and determine associations between apoptosis at the MFI, PRRSV RNA concentration and antigen staining intensity, PRRSV-induced microscopic lesions, and fetal preservation status. A total of 114 naïve, high-health pregnant gilts were inoculated with type 2 PRRSV on gestation day 85±1 with euthanasia 21 days later; 19 sham-inoculated gilts served as controls. Two hundred and fifty samples of uterine tissue with fetal placenta were selected based on negative, low PRRSV RNA, and high PRRSV RNA concentration (0, 2.7 log10 copies/mg, respectively. TUNEL assay was used to detect apoptosis in the endometrium and at the MFI. PRRSV RNA concentration and numbers of PRRSV immunopositive cells in uterine and placental tissue were positively associated with the severity of apoptosis in the endometrium and the MFI (P<0.001, P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively. The number of TUNEL positive cells at the MFI was also positively associated with the severity (P<0.001 of vasculitis, but not total numbers of inflammatory cells in the endometrium. Increased numbers of TUNEL positive cells at the MFI were associated with PRRSV load in the fetal thymus, and greater odds of meconium staining of the fetus at 21 days post infection (P<0.001 for both. These findings suggest an important role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of uterine epithelial and trophoblastic cell death at the MFI. Moreover, apoptosis at the MFI is significantly associated with fetal demise during in utero type 2 PRRSV infection.

  16. Novel insights into host responses and reproductive pathophysiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome caused by PRRSV-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, John C S; Ladinig, Andrea; Novakovic, Predrag; Detmer, Susan E; Wilkinson, Jamie M; Yang, Tianfu; Lunney, Joan K; Plastow, Graham S

    2017-09-01

    A large challenge experiment using North American porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV-2) provided new insights into the pathophysiology of reproductive PRRS. Deep phenotyping of dams and fetuses identified maternal and fetal predictors of PRRS severity and resilience. PRRSV infection resulted in dramatic decreases in all leukocyte subsets by 2days post inoculation. Apoptosis in the interface region was positively related to endometrial vasculitis, viral load in endometrium and fetal thymus, and odds of meconium staining. Viral load at the maternal-fetal interface was a strong predictor of viral load in fetal thymus and odds of fetal death. However, interferon-alpha suppression, a consequence of PRRSV infection, was protective against fetal death. Although the prevalence of fetal lesions was low, their presence in fetal organs and umbilical cord was strongly associated with fetal compromise. Fetal death and viral load clustered in litters suggesting inter-fetal transmission starting from a limited number of index fetuses. Factors associated with index fetal infection are unclear, but large fetuses appear at greater risk. Disease progression in fetuses was associated with an up-regulation of genes associated with inflammation, innate immunity, and cell death signaling, and down-regulation of genes associated with cell cycle and lymphocyte quality. A number of maternal transcriptomic responses were associated with PRRS resilience including higher basal gene expression correlated with platelet function, interferon and pro-inflammatory responses. Twenty-one genomic regions across 10 chromosomes were associated with important traits including fetal viral load, fetal death and viability suggesting that selection for reproductive PRRS resilience may be possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. PRRSV outbreak with high mortality in northern part of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Rathkjen, P. H.

    with high mortality rate in piglets occurred in Northern Jutland. PRRSV type 2 was detected by real-time RT-PCR in lung tissue from 10 days old piglets. The outbreak was treated by extensive vaccination with Ingelvac® PRRS MLV and strict management procedures. 6 weeks later, the mortality of liveborn...

  18. Fast and robust methods for full genome sequencing of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Type 1 and Type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Fahnøe, Ulrik

    . In the present study, fast and robust methods for long range RT-PCR amplification and subsequent next generation sequencing (NGS) of PRRSV Type 1 and Type 2 viruses were developed and validated on nine Type 1 and nine Type 2 PRRSV viruses. The methods were shown to generate robust and reliable sequences both...... on primary material and cell culture adapted viruses and the protocols were shown to perform well on all three NGS platforms tested (Roche 454 FLX, Illumina HiSeq 2000, and Ion Torrent PGM™ Sequencer). To complete the sequences at the 5’ end, 5’ Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (5’ RACE) was conducted...... followed by cycle sequencing of clones. The genome lengths were determined to be 14,876-15,098 and 15,342-15,408 nucleotides long for the Type 1 and Type 2 strains, respectively. These methods will greatly facilitate the generation of more complete genome PRRSV sequences globally which in turn may lead...

  19. Udvikling af antistoffer efter vaccination mod og podning med PRRSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne Kristensen, Charlotte; Qvist Pawlowski, Mia; Thoning, Henrik

    konkludere, at det er muligt at vaccinere med begge PRRS vacciner på samme tid og opnå antistofsvar for begge typer PRRSV. Husk dog altid at give forskellige vacciner i hver sin side af nakken. Blodprøver fra grisene viste, at de havde dannet antistoffer og blev positive i ELISA-testen for PRRSV Type 1 21......-US samt IPT testene. Disse tests kan dog ikke skelne ”eksotiske” PRRSV subtyper fra de almindelige cirkulerende PRRSV subtyper i Danmark. Forsøget blev gennemført på Lindholm. Der indgik 66 grise fra en Blå SPF+Ap6+Ap12 besætning. Grisene blev ved ankomst fordelt i 4 grupper (VAC-T1, VAC-T2, VAC-T1T2 og...... NON-VAC): VAC-T1 blev vaccineret med Porcilis ® PRRS VET VAC-T2 blev vaccineret med Ingelvac ® PRRS VET VAC-T1T2 fik begge vacciner samtidig i hver sin side af nakken NON-VAC blev ikke vaccineret. Grisene blev gennem hele forsøget observeret dagligt. De fik taget temperatur den første uge efter...

  20. Highly efficient expression of interleukin-2 under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene enhances protective immune responses of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS DNA vaccine in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Du

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV had caused catastrophic losses in swine industry in China. The current inactivated vaccine provided only limited protection, and the attenuated live vaccine could protect piglets against the HP-PRRSV but there was a possibility that the attenuated virus returned to high virulence. In this study, the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1© was modified under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene and the modified vector pMVAX1© was constructed. Porcine interleukin-2 (IL-2 and GP3-GP5 fusion protein of HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN were highly expressed by pMVAX1©. Mice inoculated with pMVAX1©-GP35 developed significantly higher PRRSV-specific antibody responses and T cell proliferation than those vaccinated with pVAX1©-GP35. pMVAX1©-GP35 was selected as PRRS DNA vaccine candidate and co-administrated with pVAX1©-IL-2 or pMVAX1©-IL-2 in pigs. pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 could provide enhanced PRRSV-specific antibody responses, T cell proliferation, Th1-type and Th2-type cytokine responses and CTL responses than pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35. Following homologous challenge with HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN, similar with attenuated PRRS vaccine group, pigs inoculated with pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 showed no clinical signs, almost no lung lesions and no viremia, as compared to those in pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 groups. It indicated that pMVAX1©-IL-2 effectively increases humoral and cell mediated immune responses of pMVAX1©-GP35. Co-administration of pMVAX1©-IL-2 and pMVAX1©-GP35 might be attractive candidate vaccines for preventing HP-PRRSV infections.

  1. Evaluation of the effectiveness of an antimicrobial air filter to avoid porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) aerosol transmission, after 16 months of exposure to a commercial swine environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, L. [Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO (United States); Pouliot, F.; Urizar, L. [Centre de developpement du porc du Quebec Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The effectiveness of Noveko's antimicrobial filter was evaluated after 16 months of exposure to commercial swine production. The experiment involved the use of a scaled model of a commercial swine facility consisting of 2 small chambers connected by a duct containing the filters. A 5 kg naive pig was placed in the reception chamber for a period of 6 hours after aerosolization with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Blood samples from pigs were collected before and after aerosolization to test for the presence of PRRSV RNA. Only blood samples were tested for PRRSV antibodies by IDEXX 2XR ELISA. None of the 9 pigs tested were found to be infected. The study showed that the technology used to integrate the antimicrobial agent into the filter fibers allows the filter combination to withstand extreme weather and endure commercial swine production for at least 16 months, and can maintain its effectiveness to avoid airborne transmission of PRRSV.

  2. The Non-structural Protein 5 and Matrix Protein Are Antigenic Targets of T Cell Immunity to Genotype 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mokhtar, Helen; Pedrera, Miriam; Frossard, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the cause of one of the most economically important diseases affecting swine worldwide. Efforts to develop a next-generation vaccine have largely focused on envelope glycoproteins to target virus-neutralizing antibody responses...... proposed that T cell-mediated immunity plays a key role. Therefore, we hypothesized that conserved T cell antigens represent prime candidates for the development a novel PRRS vaccine. Antigens were identified by screening a proteome-wide synthetic peptide library with T cells from cohorts of pigs rendered...... attractive vaccine candidate T cell antigens, which should be evaluated further in the context of PRRSV vaccine development....

  3. Antibiotic-Mediated Inhibition of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV Infection: A Novel Quinolone Function Which Potentiates the Antiviral Cytokine Response in MARC-145 Cells and Pig Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Cafruny

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is an economically significant agent for which there currently are no effective treatments. Development of antiviral agents for PRRSV as well as many other viruses has been limited by toxicity of known antiviral compounds. In contrast, antibiotics for non-virus microbial infections have been widely useful, in part because of their acceptable toxicity in animals. We report here the discovery that the quinolonecontaining compound Plasmocin™, as well as the quinolones nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, have potent anti-PRRSV activity in vitro. PRRSV replication was inhibited by these antibiotics in both cultured MARC-145 cells and cultured primary alveolar porcine macrophages (PAMs. Furthermore, sub-optimal concentrations of nalidixic acid synergized with antiviral cytokines (AK-2 or IFN-γ to quantitatively and qualitatively inhibit PRRSV replication in MARC-145 cells or PAMs. The antiviral activity of Plasmocin and nalidixic acid correlated with reduced actin expression in MARC-145 cells. Replication of the related lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV was also inhibited in primary mouse macrophages by Plasmocin. These results are significant to the development of antiviral strategies with potentially reduced toxicity, and provide a model system to better understand regulation of arterivirus replication.

  4. In utero infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus modulates leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar fluid of suviving piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.; Bøtner, Anette; Tingstedt, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that piglets congenitally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be viremic at birth, and that preweaning mortality due to secondary infections often increases during acute outbreaks of PRRS. Therefore, an immunosuppressive effect of in utero...... infection has been suggested. The aim of the present study was to characterise the changes of leukocyte populations in piglets surviving in utero infection with PRRSV. A total of 27 liveborn uninfected control piglets and 22 piglets infected transplacentally with a Danish strain of PRRSV were included. At 2...... and 4 weeks of age, 21 of 22 (96%) and 7 of 14 (50%) examined infected piglets were still viremic, whereas PRRSV could not be detected in the six infected piglets examined at 6 weeks of age. Flow cytometry analysis was used to determine the phenotypic composition of leukocytes in peripheral blood...

  5. Efficacy of type 2 PRRSV vaccine against Chinese and Vietnamese HP-PRRSV challenge in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes significant reproductive losses in the sow herd and respiratory disease in growing pigs. It is a virus that belongs to the family Arteriviridae virus for which there are two major genotypes, Type 1 represented by Lelystad virus, the ...

  6. Economic Analysis of Immunization Strategies for PRRS Control [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C L Linhares

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv is a swine-specific pathogen that causes significant increases in production costs. When a breeding herd becomes infected, in an attempt to hasten control and elimination of PRRSv, some veterinarians have adopted a strategy called load-close-expose which consists of interrupting replacement pig introductions into the herd for several weeks (herd closure and exposing the whole herd to a replicating PRRSv to boost herd immunity. Either modified-live virus (MLV vaccine or live field-virus inoculation (FVI is used. This study consisted of partial budget analyses to compare MLV to FVI as the exposure method of load-close-expose program to control and eliminate PRRSv from infected breeding herds, and secondly to estimate benefit / cost of vaccinating sow herds preventatively. Under the assumptions used in this study, MLV held economic advantage over FVI. However, sensitivity analysis revealed that decreasing margin over variable costs below $ 47.32, or increasing PRRSv-attributed cost above $18.89 or achieving time-to-stability before 25 weeks resulted in advantage of FVI over MLV. Preventive vaccination of sow herds was beneficial when the frequency of PRRSv infection was at least every 1 year and 9 months [corrected]. The economics of preventative vaccination was minimally affected by cost attributed to field-type PRRSv infection on growing pigs or by the breeding herd productivity level. The models developed and described in this paper provide valuable tools to assist veterinarians in their efforts to control PRRSv.

  7. DINÁMICA DE LA RESPUESTA HUMORAL ESPECÍFICA Y FRECUENCIA DE VARIANTES DEL VIRUS DE PRRS EN TRES GRANJAS PORCINAS CON DIFERENTES ESTRATEGIAS DE CONTROL, EN YUCATÁN, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Gómez-Ruiz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la dinámica de la respuesta humoral específica y la frecuencia de variantes del virus del PRRS en tres granjas con diferentes estrategias de control. Treinta cerdos en cada granja fueron estudiados. Los animales se muestrearon y los sueros se procesaron mediante ELISA y RT-PCR in tiempo real usando tecnología Sybr Green para detectar las variantes del virus del PRRS. La media de los valores de S/P, RT-PCR y temperatura de desnaturalización se compararon a los 21, 49, 77,105 y 160 días de edad. Los cerdos de las granja A fueron positivos a la prueba de ELISA en todas las edades; en la granja B los cerdos fueron positivos a los 77, 105 y 160 días de edad, y los cerdos de la granja C fueron positivos a los 105 y 160 días de edad. Las temperaturas de desnaturalización, mostraron cuatro diferentes tiempos de desnaturalización en cada granja, correspondiendo a cuatro tipos de virus: virus vacunal, inóculo y dos tipos silvestres de virus. En conclusión, las diferentes estrategias utilizadas en las granjas indujeron una respuesta inmune en la mayoría de los animales. En la granja A se obtuvieron las medias más altas de S/P. Las estrategias de control no evitaron la presencia de variantes del virus del PRRS por lo que pudieran representar un riesgo para la población animal.

  8. Transcriptome profile of lung dendritic cells after in vitro porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pröll, Maren Julia; Neuhoff, Christiane; Schellander, Karl

    2017-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious disease that leads to high financial and production losses in the global swine industry. The pathogenesis of this disease is dependent on a multitude of factors, and its control remains problematic. The immune system genera...

  9. Development of a swine specific 9-plex Luminex cytokine assay and assessment of immunity after porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination: Elevated serum IL-12 levels are not predictive of protect

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Luminex multiplex swine cytokine assay was developed to measure 9 cytokines simultaneously in pig serum and tested in a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine/challenge study. This assay detects innate (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IFNa, TNFa); regulatory (IL-10), Th1 (IL-12, I...

  10. Temporary CD8(+) T-cell depletion in pigs does not exacerbate infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Eriksen, Lis

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a consistent increase in the CD8(+) T-cell subset of pigs following infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV). Consequently, it has been suggested that CD8(+) T-cells may play an important role in protection against this infection. In order...... increased disease nor influenced the ability to clear virus in the treated pigs......., confirmed the depletion effect of specific mAb therapy. Almost complete depletion of cell subsets expressing the CD8(+) antigen was obtained on day 2 and 5 post infection (PI) with nadir less than 1 % of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). One week PI, an increase in T-cell subsets was observed...

  11. Different clinical, virological, serological and tissue tropism outcomes of two new and one old Belgian type 1 subtype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydas, Ilias S.; Trus, Ivan; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    2015-01-01

    in the highest respiratory disease scores and longest period of fever. Gross lung lesions were more pronounced for 13V091 (13%), than for 13V117 (7%) and 07V063 (11%). The nasal shedding and viremia was also most extensive with 13V091. The 13V091 group showed the highest virus replication in conchae, tonsils......In this study, the pathogenic behavior of PRRSV 13V091 and 13V117, isolated in 2013 from two different Belgian farms with enzootic respiratory problems shortly after weaning in the nursery, were compared with the Belgian strain 07V063 isolated in 2007. Full-length genome sequencing was performed....... It can be concluded that (i) 13V091 is a highly pathogenic type 1 subtype 1 PRRSV strain that replicates better than 07V063 and 13V117 and has a strong tropism for sialoadhesin-cells and (ii) despite the close genetic relationship between 13V117 and 07V063, 13V117 has an increased nasal replication...

  12. IMMUNOGLOBULINS IN COLOSTRUM OF SOWS WITH PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME - PRRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal ROLINEC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of PRRS occurrence on sow colostrum immunological quality. We realised the experiment on 20 sows (breed: Large white. From farm without presences of PRRS were 10 sows and other 10 sows were from farm with presence of PRRS. We took the samples of sows colostrums during sucking. We detected concentration of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM in sows colostrum in time of 0 hours to 12 hours after beginning of farrowing with pig Ig ELISA quantitation kits. We determined statistically significant (P<0.01 higher concentration of IgG at the beginning of farrowing, 3 hours, 6 hours and 12 hours from beginning of farrowing in favour of farm without presence of PRRS. We determined statistically significant (P<0.01 higher concentration of IgA at 6 and 12 hours from beginning of farrowing in favour of farm without presence of PRRS. We determined statistically significant (P<0.01 higher concentration of IgM at 6 and 12 hours from beginning of farrowing in favour of farm without presence of PRRS. Lower concentrations of colostral immunoglobulins in group with PRRS can be caused of presence of PRRS. Virus PRRS can evocate synthesis of cytokine IL-10, which inhibited the function of macrophages and lymphocytes and so PRRS decrease the production of immunoglobulins and their concentration in blood of sows and consequently also concentration of immunoglobulins in sows colostrum.

  13. A live-attenuated chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine is transmitted to contact pigs but is not upregulated by concurrent infection with porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and is efficacious in a PCV2b-PRRSV-PPV challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opriessnig, T; Shen, H G; Pal, N; Ramamoorthy, S; Huang, Y W; Lager, K M; Beach, N M; Halbur, P G; Meng, X J

    2011-08-01

    The live chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine with the capsid gene of the emerging subtype 2b cloned in the genomic backbone of the nonpathogenic PCV1 is attenuated in vivo and induces protective immunity against PCV2. To further determine the safety and efficacy of this experimental vaccine, we tested for evidence of pig-to-pig transmission by commingling nonvaccinated and vaccinated pigs, determined potential upregulation by simultaneous vaccination and infection with porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and determined vaccine efficacy by challenging pigs 4 weeks after vaccination with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV. Forty-six 21-day-old, PCV2-naïve pigs were randomly assigned to one of six groups. Twenty-nine of 46 pigs were challenged with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV at day 28, 8/46 remained nonvaccinated and nonchallenged and served as negative controls, and 9/46 remained nonchallenged and served as vaccination controls. All animals were necropsied at day 49. PCV1-PCV2 viremia was detected in nonvaccinated contact pigs commingled with vaccinated pigs, indicating pig-to-pig transmission; however, PCV1-PCV2 DNA levels remained low in all vaccinated and contact pigs regardless of concurrent infection. Finally, vaccination 28 days before challenge resulted in significantly (P attenuated chimeric PCV2 vaccine, although transmissible to contact pigs, remains attenuated in pigs concurrently infected with PRRSV and PPV and induces protective immunity against PCV2b when it is administered 28 days before PCV2 exposure.

  14. A Live-Attenuated Chimeric Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Vaccine Is Transmitted to Contact Pigs but Is Not Upregulated by Concurrent Infection with Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) and Is Efficacious in a PCV2b-PRRSV-PPV Challenge Model▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opriessnig, T.; Shen, H. G.; Pal, N.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Huang, Y. W.; Lager, K. M.; Beach, N. M.; Halbur, P. G.; Meng, X. J.

    2011-01-01

    The live chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine with the capsid gene of the emerging subtype 2b cloned in the genomic backbone of the nonpathogenic PCV1 is attenuated in vivo and induces protective immunity against PCV2. To further determine the safety and efficacy of this experimental vaccine, we tested for evidence of pig-to-pig transmission by commingling nonvaccinated and vaccinated pigs, determined potential upregulation by simultaneous vaccination and infection with porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and determined vaccine efficacy by challenging pigs 4 weeks after vaccination with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV. Forty-six 21-day-old, PCV2-naïve pigs were randomly assigned to one of six groups. Twenty-nine of 46 pigs were challenged with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV at day 28, 8/46 remained nonvaccinated and nonchallenged and served as negative controls, and 9/46 remained nonchallenged and served as vaccination controls. All animals were necropsied at day 49. PCV1-PCV2 viremia was detected in nonvaccinated contact pigs commingled with vaccinated pigs, indicating pig-to-pig transmission; however, PCV1-PCV2 DNA levels remained low in all vaccinated and contact pigs regardless of concurrent infection. Finally, vaccination 28 days before challenge resulted in significantly (P attenuated chimeric PCV2 vaccine, although transmissible to contact pigs, remains attenuated in pigs concurrently infected with PRRSV and PPV and induces protective immunity against PCV2b when it is administered 28 days before PCV2 exposure. PMID:21653745

  15. Recognition of Highly Diverse Type-1 and -2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses (PRRSVs by T-Lymphocytes Induced in Pigs after Experimental Infection with a Type-2 PRRSV Strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungwon J Chung

    Full Text Available Live attenuated vaccines confer partial protection in pigs before the appearance of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting the contribution of cell-mediated immunity (CMI. However, PRRSV-specific T-lymphocyte responses and protective mechanisms need to be further defined. To this end, the hypothesis was tested that PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes induced by exposure to type-2 PRRSV can recognize diverse isolates.An IFN-gamma ELISpot assay was used to enumerate PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes from PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts and piglets born after in utero infection against 12 serologically and genetically distinct type-1 and -2 PRRSV isolates. The IFN-gamma ELISpot assay using synthetic peptides spanning all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 was utilized to localize epitopes recognized by T-lymphocytes. Virus neutralization tests were carried out using the challenge strain (type-2 PRRSVSD23983 and another strain (type-2 PRRSVVR2332 with high genetic similarity to evaluate cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies in gilts after PRRSVSD23983 infection.At 72 days post infection, T-lymphocytes from one of three PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts recognized all 12 diverse PRRSV isolates, while T-lymphocytes from the other two gilts recognized all but one isolate. Furthermore, five of nine 14-day-old piglets infected in utero with PRRSVSD23983 had broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, including one piglet that recognized all 12 isolates. Overlapping peptides encompassing all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 were used to identify ≥28 peptides with T-lymphocyte epitopes from 10 viral proteins. This included one peptide from the M protein that was recognized by T-lymphocytes from all three gilts representing two completely mismatched MHC haplotypes. In contrast to the broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, neutralizing antibody responses were specific to the infecting PRRSVSD23983 isolate.These results demonstrated that T-lymphocytes recognizing antigenically and

  16. Preparation for emergence of an Eastern European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain in Western Europe: Immunization with modified live virus vaccines or a field strain confers partial protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renson, P; Fablet, C; Le Dimna, M; Mahé, S; Touzain, F; Blanchard, Y; Paboeuf, F; Rose, N; Bourry, O

    2017-05-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes huge economic losses for the swine industry worldwide. In the past several years, highly pathogenic strains that lead to even greater losses have emerged. For the Western European swine industry, one threat is the possible introduction of Eastern European PRRSV strains (example Lena genotype 1.3) which were shown to be more virulent than common Western resident strains under experimental conditions. To prepare for the possible emergence of this strain in Western Europe, we immunized piglets with a Western European PRRSV field strain (Finistere: Fini, genotype 1.1), a new genotype 1 commercial modified live virus (MLV) vaccine (MLV1) or a genotype 2 commercial MLV vaccine (MLV2) to evaluate and compare the level of protection that these strains conferred upon challenge with the Lena strain 4 weeks later. Results show that immunization with Fini, MLV1 or MLV2 strains shortened the Lena-induced hyperthermia. In the Fini group, a positive effect was also demonstrated in growth performance. The level of Lena viremia was reduced for all immunized groups (significantly so for Fini and MLV2). This reduction in Lena viremia was correlated with the level of Lena-specific IFNγ-secreting cells. In conclusion, we showed that a commercial MLV vaccine of genotype 1 or 2, as well as a field strain of genotype 1.1 may provide partial clinical and virological protection upon challenge with the Lena strain. The cross-protection induced by these immunizing strains was not related with the level of genetic similarity to the Lena strain. The slightly higher level of protection established with the field strain is attributed to a better cell-mediated immune response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Emergence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (HP-PRRS) in medium-scale swine farms in southeastern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornimbene, B; Frossard, J-P; Chhim, V; Sorn, S; Guitian, J; Drew, T W

    2015-01-01

    Since 2006, reports from China and Viet Nam have alerted of an emergent highly pathogenic variant of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) in that region. The frequent occurrence of outbreaks in these countries puts Cambodian pig farms at high risk of infection, but no study had been conducted to investigate the presence of HP-PRRS in Cambodian farms. We investigated the presence of HP-PRRS in medium-scale (semi-commercial) swine farms in the Cambodian southeastern region. Specifically, one province bordering Viet Nam (Takeo) was selected due to the concentration of most semi-commercial farms in that province. A cross-sectional study was carried out, between July and September 2010 to assess whether the prevalence of infection in these farms was indicative of recent spread of PPRSV and to identify risk factors for infection. The number of farms to be sampled was established using methods for Lot Quality Assurance Surveys (LQAS), in order to achieve a pre-established ability to discriminate between two different prevalence settings. The target population comprised all semi-commercial farms in Takeo province from which a random sample of 35 farms was selected. Selected farms were visited and questionnaires administered to gather information on farm characteristics and husbandry practices. Blood samples from individual pigs were collected in each of the study farms and tested for PRRSV, along with a number of other swine respiratory pathogens in order to investigate potential interactions. Our results showed that the virus was already present in Takeo semi-commercial pig population (LQAS herd prevalence ≥85%) at the time of sampling. The presence of sows in the farm and farm density were significantly associated (P<0.05) with the introduction and the presence of PRRS - but this was an unadjusted association as small sample size precluded multivariate analysis. Spatiotemporal description of the supposed pattern of infection revealed that the

  18. Genomic variation in macrophage-cultured European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Olot/91 revealed using ultra-deep next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zen H; Brown, Alexander; Wilson, Alison D; Calvert, Jay G; Balasch, Monica; Fuentes-Utrilla, Pablo; Loecherbach, Julia; Turner, Frances; Talbot, Richard; Archibald, Alan L; Ait-Ali, Tahar

    2014-03-04

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a disease of major economic impact worldwide. The etiologic agent of this disease is the PRRS virus (PRRSV). Increasing evidence suggest that microevolution within a coexisting quasispecies population can give rise to high sequence heterogeneity in PRRSV. We developed a pipeline based on the ultra-deep next generation sequencing approach to first construct the complete genome of a European PRRSV, strain Olot/9, cultured on macrophages and then capture the rare variants representative of the mixed quasispecies population. Olot/91 differs from the reference Lelystad strain by about 5% and a total of 88 variants, with frequencies as low as 1%, were detected in the mixed population. These variants included 16 non-synonymous variants concentrated in the genes encoding structural and nonstructural proteins; including Glycoprotein 2a and 5. Using an ultra-deep sequencing methodology, the complete genome of Olot/91 was constructed without any prior knowledge of the sequence. Rare variants that constitute minor fractions of the heterogeneous PRRSV population could successfully be detected to allow further exploration of microevolutionary events.

  19. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: antigenic and molecular diversity of British isolates and implications for diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Fearnley, Catherine; Naidu, Brindha; Errington, Jane; Westcott, David G; Drew, Trevor W

    2012-08-17

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an endemic disease of pigs, caused by PRRS virus, a member of the Arteriviridae family. First seen in Britain in 1991, the disease continues to be a significant economic and welfare problem for pig producers. To date, only PRRSV genotype 1 has been found in Britain. At the genetic level, a considerable increase has been reported in the diversity of PRRS viruses isolated in Britain between 2003 and 2007, versus the early 1990 s. In this study, the diversity has been shown to extend to the antigenic level too, with potential consequences for diagnostic methods. Antigenic diversity was assessed using a panel of twelve monoclonal antibodies, only one of which reacted with all isolates tested. Nine diverse viruses were compared as potential antigens in immunoperoxidase monolayer assays, where each one produced quite different results for a common panel of sera. As a single virus is used in each diagnostic assay, results must therefore be interpreted cautiously. For a real-time RT-PCR assay, published oligonucleotide primer and probe sequences were evaluated against available genetic sequences of British and European viruses, and were re-designed where considerable mismatches were found. The multiplex assay incorporating these modified primers to detect genotype 1 and 2 PRRS viruses was then validated for use with diagnostic sera and tissues. As the increasing degree of diversity exhibited by British strains is mirrored in other countries, PRRSV will continue to provide an ongoing challenge to diagnosis at a global, as well as national level. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prediction and in vitro verification of potential CTL epitopes conserved among PRRSV-2 strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welner, Simon; Nielsen, Morten; Rasmussen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of one of the most important porcine diseases with a high impact on animal health, welfare, and production economy. PRRSV exhibits a multitude of immunoevasive strategies that, in combination with a very high...

  1. Simple and rapid detection of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from pig whole blood using filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Ryo; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Sunaba, Chinatsu; Itoh, Mitsugi; Ushida, Kazunari

    2007-04-01

    The combination of Flinders Technology Associates filter papers (FTA cards) and real-time PCR was examined to establish a simple and rapid technique for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from whole pig blood. A modified live PRRS vaccine was diluted with either sterilised saline or pig whole blood, and the suspensions were applied onto the FTA cards. The real-time RT-PCR detection of PRRSV was performed directly with the samples applied to the FTA card without the RNA extraction step. Six whole blood samples from at random selected piglets in the PRRSV infected farm were also assayed in this study. The expected PCR product was successfully amplified from either saline diluted or pig whole blood diluted vaccine. The same PCR ampliocon was detected from all blood samples assayed in this study. This study suggested that the combination of an FTA card and real-time PCR is a rapid and easy technique for the detection of PRRSV. This technique can remarkably shorten the time required for PRRSV detection from whole blood and makes the procedure much easier.

  2. Reactomes of porcine alveolar macrophages infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Jiang

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS has devastated pig industries worldwide for many years. It is caused by a small RNA virus (PRRSV, which targets almost exclusively pig monocytes or macrophages. In the present study, five SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression libraries derived from 0 hour mock-infected and 6, 12, 16 and 24 hours PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs produced a total 643,255 sequenced tags with 91,807 unique tags. Differentially expressed (DE tags were then detected using the Bayesian framework followed by gene/mRNA assignment, arbitrary selection and manual annotation, which determined 699 DE genes for reactome analysis. The DAVID, KEGG and REACTOME databases assigned 573 of the DE genes into six biological systems, 60 functional categories and 504 pathways. The six systems are: cellular processes, genetic information processing, environmental information processing, metabolism, organismal systems and human diseases as defined by KEGG with modification. Self-organizing map (SOM analysis further grouped these 699 DE genes into ten clusters, reflecting their expression trends along these five time points. Based on the number one functional category in each system, cell growth and death, transcription processes, signal transductions, energy metabolism, immune system and infectious diseases formed the major reactomes of PAMs responding to PRRSV infection. Our investigation also focused on dominant pathways that had at least 20 DE genes identified, multi-pathway genes that were involved in 10 or more pathways and exclusively-expressed genes that were included in one system. Overall, our present study reported a large set of DE genes, compiled a comprehensive coverage of pathways, and revealed system-based reactomes of PAMs infected with PRRSV. We believe that our reactome data provides new insight into molecular mechanisms involved in host genetic complexity of antiviral activities against PRRSV and

  3. Genotypic and geographical distribution of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses in mainland China in 1996-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jia-Cong; Xiong, Jun-Yao; Ye, Chao; Chang, Xiao-Bo; Guo, Jin-Chao; Jiang, Cheng-Gang; Zhang, Gui-Hong; Tian, Zhi-Jun; Cai, Xue-Hui; Tong, Guang-Zhi; An, Tong-Qing

    2017-09-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has caused huge economic losses to Chinese swine industry and remains a major threat since it was first reported in 1996. However, investigations of molecular epidemiological and genetic diversity of PRRS viruses (PRRSVs) in China were limited to a small number of representative strains collected in several areas. Moreover, lineage classifications reported by individual researchers were quite different. In the present study, we sequenced ORF5 sequences of 217 PRRSVs from clinical samples, retrieved all the available ORF5 sequences of PRRSVs isolated in China in 1996-2016 (n=2213) from GenBank, and systematically analyzed corresponding epidemiological data. NA-type PRRSVs in China were classified into five lineages: lineage 1, lineage 3, lineage 5, lineage 8, and lineage 9. Most strains in China belonged to lineage 8 (85.6%), with dominant strains being classified as sublineage 8.3 (78.3%). Importantly, the emerging lineage 1 and lineage 3 strains spread rapidly, and their proportions among circulating PRRSVs have significantly increased in recent years. The geographical distribution of different PRRSV lineages in each province was analyzed and possible inter-province transmission routes were outlined for main lineages and sublineages. To our knowledge, this study is the most comprehensive and extensive phylogeographical analysis of PRRSVs in China since PRRS outbreak in 1996. Our dataset can serve as a canonical standard for PRRSV classification and will help to study genetic evolution of PRRSV. The results of the present study may also improve prevention of PRRS in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Autophagy postpones apoptotic cell death in PRRSV infection through Bad-Beclin1 interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ao; Li, Shuaifeng; Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Zhang, Shujun

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy and apoptosis play significant roles in PRRSV infection and replication. However, the interaction between these 2 processes in PRRSV replication is still far from been completely understood. In our studies, the exposure of MARC-145 cells to PRRSV confirmed the activation of autophagy and subsequent induction of apoptosis. The inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) caused a significant increase in PRRSV-induced apoptosis, showing a potential connection between both mechanisms. Moreover, we observed an increase in Bad expression (a pro-apoptotic protein) and Beclin1 (an autophagy regulator) in virus-infected cells up to 36h. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed the formation of Bad and Beclin1 complex in PRRSV infected cells. Accordingly, Bad co-localized with Beclin1 in MARC-145 infected cells. Knockdown of Beclin1 significantly decreased PRRSV replication and PRRSV-induced autophagy, while Bad silencing resulted in increased autophagy and enhanced viral replication. Furthermore, PRRSV infection phosphorylated Bad (Ser112) to promote cellular survival. These results demonstrate that autophagy can favor PRRSV replication by postponing apoptosis through the formation of a Bad-Beclin1 complex.

  5. Experimental inoculation of swine at various stages of gestation with a Danish isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranker, Søren; Nielsen, Jens; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1998-01-01

    phase varied considerably, from one day to four weeks, for both darns and their offspring. Most frequently, PRRSV was isolated from lung and/or tonsil tissues from dead and euthanized piglets younger than 14 days of age. Histopathological investigations of piglets typically revealed focal nonsuppurative...

  6. Experimental inoculation of late term pregnant sows with a field isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome vaccine-derived virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Bøtner, Anette; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2002-01-01

    The use of a live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine in piglets has been associated with reproductive disorders in non-vaccinated sows. Vaccine-derived virus (VDV) has been isolated from foctuses, stillborn pigs, and dead: piglets, indicating that the l......The use of a live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine in piglets has been associated with reproductive disorders in non-vaccinated sows. Vaccine-derived virus (VDV) has been isolated from foctuses, stillborn pigs, and dead: piglets, indicating...... than 99.6% identity to the attenuated vaccine virus, originated from the lungs of a stillborn pig from a swine herd with a sudden high level of stillborn pigs and increased piglet mortality in the nursing period. Intranasal inoculation of sows with the virus isolate resulted in congenital infection......, foetal death, and preweaning pig mortality. As such, the present study showed that vaccine-derived PRRSV can cause disease in swine consistent with PRRS....

  7. Chinese and Vietnamese strains of HP-PRRSV cause different pathogenic outcomes in United States high health swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infectious clone of a highly pathogenic PRRSV strain from Vietnam (rSRV07) was prepared, analyzed and compared to Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV rJXwn06 and US Type 2 prototype VR-2332 in order to examine the effects of virus phenotype and genotype on growth in MARC-145 cells, as well as the imp...

  8. Comparison of commercial and experimental porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines using a triple challenge with PCV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine parvovirus (PPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H G; Beach, N M; Huang, Y W; Halbur, P G; Meng, X J; Opriessnig, T

    2010-08-23

    The efficacies of commercial porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines and a live PCV1-2a chimeric vaccine were compared in conventional, PCV2-positive piglets using a PCV2-porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-porcine parvovirus (PPV) coinfection challenge model. Seventy-three, 2-week-old pigs were randomized into seven groups including five vaccinated and two control groups. Pigs in the vaccinated groups were vaccinated at 3 weeks (one dose) or at 3 and 6 weeks (two dose) of age. All vaccine regimens tested were effective in reducing naturally occurring PCV2 viremia at 16 weeks of age and after PCV2 challenge, demonstrating the capability of the products to induce a lasting protective immunity despite the presence of PCV2 viremia at the time of vaccination. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy and safety of simultaneous vaccination with two modified live virus vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus types 1 and 2 in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Charlotte S.; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Pawlowski, Maciej

    2018-01-01

    from groups 1–4 were mingled in new groups and challenged (DPC 0) with PRRSV-1, subtype 1, PRRSV-1, subtype 2 or PRRSV-2. On DPC 13/14 all pigs were necropsied. Samples were collected after vaccination and challenge. PRRSV was detected in all vaccinated pigs and the majority of the pigs were positive...... there was limited effect on the viral load in serum following challenge with the PRRSV-1 strains. Vaccination against PRRSV-1 had less impact on viremia following challenge. The protective effects of simultaneous vaccination with PRRSV Type 1 and 2 MLV vaccines and single PRRS MLV vaccination were comparable. None....... Thus, simultaneous administration of the two vaccines is an option in herds with both PRRSV types....

  10. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) in Young Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D E; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (ppigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease susceptibility to co-infection of PRRSV and A

  11. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae in Young Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid D E van Dixhoorn

    Full Text Available Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH and two pens of the enriched housed (EH pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014 and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014. More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048 and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (p<0.001 than those in enriched housed pigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease

  12. Honeybee (Apis mellifera Venom Reinforces Viral Clearance during the Early Stage of Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus through the Up-Regulation of Th1-Specific Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-A Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a chronic and immunosuppressive viral disease that is responsible for substantial economic losses for the swine industry. Honeybee venom (HBV is known to possess several beneficial biological properties, particularly, immunomodulatory effects. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of HBV on the immune response and viral clearance during the early stage of infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in pigs. HBV was administered via three routes of nasal, neck, and rectal and then the pigs were inoculated with PRRSV intranasally. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and levels of interferon (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-12 were significantly increased in the HBV-administered healthy pigs via nasal and rectal administration. In experimentally PRRSV-challenged pigs with virus, the viral genome load in the serum, lung, bronchial lymph nodes and tonsil was significantly decreased, as was the severity of interstitial pneumonia, in the nasal and rectal administration group. Furthermore, the levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12 were significantly increased, along with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β with HBV administration. Thus, HBV administration—especially via the nasal or rectal route—could be a suitable strategy for immune enhancement and prevention of PRRSV infection in pigs.

  13. Epidemiological study of air filtration systems for preventing PRRSV infection in large sow herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmen; Murtaugh, Michael P; Dee, Scott A; Davies, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most economically significant pathogen in the US swine industry. Aerosol transmission among herds is a major concern in pig dense regions and filtration of incoming air, in combination with standard biosecurity procedures, has been demonstrated to prevent transmission of PRRSV into susceptible herds. To quantify the impact of air filtration on reducing risk of PRRSV outbreaks, we compared the incidence rate of new PRRSV introductions in 20 filtered and 17 non-filtered control sow herds in a swine dense region of North America during a 7 year study period. Events of novel virus introduction were ascertained by phylogenetic analysis of PRRSV ORF5 gene sequences. Putative new viruses were defined as exogenous (introduced) based on ORF5 nucleotide sequence differences compared to previous farm isolates. The influence of sequence difference cut-off values ranging from 2 to 10% on case definition and relative risk were evaluated. Non-filtered farms incurred about 0.5 outbreaks per year, with a seasonal increase in risk in cooler periods. Baseline risk, prior to filtration, in treatment farms was approximately 0.75 per year, approximately 50% higher than in control farms. Air filtration significantly reduced risk of PRRSV introduction events to 0.06-0.22 outbreaks per year, depending on the cut-off values used to classify a virus isolate as new to the herd. Overall, air filtration led to an approximately 80% reduction in risk of introduction of novel PRRSV, indicating that on large sow farms with good biosecurity in swine-dense regions, approximately four-fifths of PRRSV outbreaks may be attributable to aerosol transmission. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Engineering a CTL-Tailored Replicon RNA Vaccine against PRRSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welner, Simon; Werder, Simea; Nielsen, Morten

    The development of vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been hampered by the high mutation rate and the multiple immunoevasive strategies of the virus. With the overall aim of designing a broad coverage vaccine that induces an effective CTL response aga...... will be available for IVIS. This study exemplifies how bioinformatics epitope prediction, recombinant SLA molecules and RNA virus replicon design can be used to engineer a replicating non-propagating vaccine tailored to deliver conserved and immunogenic CTL epitopes....... against PRRSV, we have used a bioinformatics approach to identify common PRRSV type 2 epitopes predicted to react broadly with predominant swine MHC (SLA) alleles. All possible 9- and 10-mer peptides derived from 104 wild-type strains were analyzed in silico for their predicted binding affinity to 3...... cloned into a classical swine fever virus (CSFV)-derived replicon vector. Virus replicon particles (VRP) were rescued by transfection of a complementing cell line with replicon RNA. Polyepitope expression and subsequent proteasomal degradation was confirmed indirectly by increased FLAG-tagged protein...

  15. The non-structural protein 5 and matrix protein are antigenic targets of T cell immunity to genotype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen eMokhtar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is the cause of one of the most economically important diseases affecting swine worldwide. Efforts to develop a next-generation vaccine have largely focussed on envelope glycoproteins to target virus-neutralising antibody responses. However, these approaches have failed to demonstrate the necessary efficacy to progress towards market. T cells are crucial to the control of many viruses through cytolysis and cytokine secretion. Since control of PRRSV infection is not dependent on the development of neutralising antibodies, it has been proposed that T cell mediated immunity plays a key role. We therefore hypothesised that conserved T cell antigens represent prime candidates for the development a novel PRRS vaccine. Antigens were identified by screening a proteome-wide synthetic peptide library with T cells from cohorts of pigs rendered immune by experimental infections with a closely-related (subtype 1 or divergent (subtype 3 PRRSV-1 strain. Dominant T cell IFN-γ responses were directed against the non-structural protein 5 (NSP5, and to a lesser extent, the matrix (M protein. The majority of NSP5-specific CD8 T cells and M-specific CD4 T cells expressed a putative effector memory phenotype and were polyfunctional as assessed by co-expression of TNF-α and mobilisation of the cytotoxic degranulation marker CD107a. Both antigens were generally well conserved amongst strains of both PRRSV genotypes. Thus M and NSP5 represent attractive vaccine candidate T cell antigens which should be evaluated further in the context of PRRSV vaccine development.

  16. Characterization of polyclonal antibodies against nonstructural protein 9 from the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng ZHAO,Juanjuan QIAN,Jiexiong XIE,Tiantian CUI,Songling FENG,Guoqiang WANG,Ruining WANG,Guihong ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is considered to be one of the most important infectious diseases impacting the swine industry and is characterized by reproductive failure in late term gestation in sows and respiratory disease in pigs of all ages. The nonstructural protein 9 gene, Nsp9, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is generally regarded as fairly conserved when compared to other viral proteins. Antibodies against Nsp9 will be of great importance for the diagnosis and treatment of the causal agent, PRRS virus. A study was undertaken to generate polyclonal antibodies against the immunodominant Nsp9. For this purpose, the Nsp9 was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently used as an antigen to immunize New Zealand rabbits. Antiserum was identified via an indirect ELISA, and then verified based on the ability to react with both naturally and artificially expressed Nsp9. Results of virus neutralization test showed that this antiserum could not neutralize the PRRSV. Nevertheless, this antiserum as a diagnostic core reagent should prove invaluable for further investigations into the mechanism of PRRS pathogenesis.

  17. Nuclear imprisonment of host cellular mRNA by nsp1β protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Mingyuan; Ke, Hanzhong; Zhang, Qingzhan; Yoo, Dongwan

    2017-01-01

    Positive-strand RNA genomes function as mRNA for viral protein synthesis which is fully reliant on host cell translation machinery. Competing with cellular protein translation apparatus needs to ensure the production of viral proteins, but this also stifles host innate defense. In the present study, we showed that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), whose replication takes place in the cytoplasm, imprisoned host cell mRNA in the nucleus, which suggests a novel mechanism to enhance translation of PRRSV genome. PRRSV nonstructural protein (nsp) 1β was identified as the nuclear protein playing the role for host mRNA nuclear retention and subversion of host protein synthesis. A SAP (SAF-A/B, Acinus, and PIAS) motif was identified in nsp1β with the consensus sequence of 126 -LQxxLxxxGL- 135 . In situ hybridization unveiled that SAP mutants were unable to cause nuclear retention of host cell mRNAs and did not suppress host protein synthesis. In addition, these SAP mutants reverted PRRSV-nsp1β-mediated suppression of interferon (IFN) production, IFN signaling, and TNF-α production pathway. Using reverse genetics, a series of SAP mutant PRRS viruses, vK124A, vL126A, vG134A, and vL135A were generated. No mRNA nuclear retention was observed during vL126A and vL135A infections. Importantly, vL126A and vL135A did not suppress IFN production. For other arteriviruses, mRNA nuclear accumulation was also observed for LDV-nsp1β and SHFV-nsp1β. EAV-nsp1 was exceptional and did not block the host mRNA nuclear export. - Highlights: •PRRS virus blocks host mRNA nuclear export to the cytoplasm. •PRRSV nsp1β is the viral protein responsible for host mRNA nuclear retention. •SAP domain in nsp1β is essential for host mRNA nuclear retention and type I interferon suppression. •Mutation in the SAP domain of nsp1β causes the loss of function. •Host mRNA nuclear retention by nsp1β is common in the family Arteriviridae, except equine arteritis virus.

  18. Nuclear imprisonment of host cellular mRNA by nsp1β protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Mingyuan, E-mail: hanming@umich.edu; Ke, Hanzhong; Zhang, Qingzhan; Yoo, Dongwan, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.edu

    2017-05-15

    Positive-strand RNA genomes function as mRNA for viral protein synthesis which is fully reliant on host cell translation machinery. Competing with cellular protein translation apparatus needs to ensure the production of viral proteins, but this also stifles host innate defense. In the present study, we showed that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), whose replication takes place in the cytoplasm, imprisoned host cell mRNA in the nucleus, which suggests a novel mechanism to enhance translation of PRRSV genome. PRRSV nonstructural protein (nsp) 1β was identified as the nuclear protein playing the role for host mRNA nuclear retention and subversion of host protein synthesis. A SAP (SAF-A/B, Acinus, and PIAS) motif was identified in nsp1β with the consensus sequence of {sub 126}-LQxxLxxxGL-{sub 135}. In situ hybridization unveiled that SAP mutants were unable to cause nuclear retention of host cell mRNAs and did not suppress host protein synthesis. In addition, these SAP mutants reverted PRRSV-nsp1β-mediated suppression of interferon (IFN) production, IFN signaling, and TNF-α production pathway. Using reverse genetics, a series of SAP mutant PRRS viruses, vK124A, vL126A, vG134A, and vL135A were generated. No mRNA nuclear retention was observed during vL126A and vL135A infections. Importantly, vL126A and vL135A did not suppress IFN production. For other arteriviruses, mRNA nuclear accumulation was also observed for LDV-nsp1β and SHFV-nsp1β. EAV-nsp1 was exceptional and did not block the host mRNA nuclear export. - Highlights: •PRRS virus blocks host mRNA nuclear export to the cytoplasm. •PRRSV nsp1β is the viral protein responsible for host mRNA nuclear retention. •SAP domain in nsp1β is essential for host mRNA nuclear retention and type I interferon suppression. •Mutation in the SAP domain of nsp1β causes the loss of function. •Host mRNA nuclear retention by nsp1β is common in the family Arteriviridae, except equine

  19. Cellular immune responses in the lungs of pigs infected in utero with PRRSV: An immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingstedt, Jens Erik; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The cellular response in the lungs of pigs transplacentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was examined by immunohistochemistry. Double staining for the T-cell marker antigen CD3 and PRRSV demonstrated that the appearance and distribution of T-cells homing...... to the lungs of infected pigs correlated well with the presence and location of virus-infected cells. Single stainings showed that cells positive for the CD2 and CD8 antigen were almost as numerous in pneumonic lesions as CD3 positive cells whereas cells expressing the CD4 antigen were rare. The morphology...

  20. Spatiotemporal analysis of the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) epidemic in Denmark using laboratory submission data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Toft, Nils; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus infects domestic swine populations causing production losses in many European countries. The virus has two different strains designated as European (EU) and American (US) strain. It has been assumed that 30% of Danish swine herds are sero...... spatiotemporal analysis of serological tests. Records of PRRS serology submissions made from January 2007 to December 2010 stored in the DIANOVA Information Management System at the National Veterinary Institute (DTU Vet) were used in the analysis. Each submission consists in individual blood samples collected....... The herd numbers registered in the laboratory submissions were merged with the Danish Herd Identification System database, in order to obtain the geo-coordinates of the herds. Spatiotemporal analysis was performed, in order to characterize PRRS-EU and PRRSUS distributions for both control levels...

  1. Evaluation of alternative strategies to MERV 16-based air filtration systems for reduction of the risk of airborne spread of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Scott; Pitkin, Andrea; Deen, John

    2009-07-02

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a re-emerging disease of pigs and a growing threat to the global swine industry. For sustainable disease control it is critical to prevent the airborne spread of the etiologic agent, PRRS virus, between pig populations. The application of MERV 16-based air filtration systems to swine facilities in an effort to reduce this risk has been proposed; however, due to the cost and air flow restrictions of such systems the need for alternative strategies has arisen. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate 3 groups of alternative biosecurity strategies for reducing the risk of the airborne spread of PRRSV. Strategies evaluated included mechanical filters, antimicrobial filters and a disinfectant-EVAP (evaporative cooling) system. Results from this study indicate that while alternatives to MERV 16-based biosecurity protocols for protecting farms from the airborne spread of PRRSV are available, further information on their efficacy in the field is needed before conclusions can be drawn.

  2. Detection of PRRSV in 218 field samples using six molecular methods: What we are looking for?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toplak, Ivan; Štukelj, Marina; Gracieux, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    on the genetic make-up of the target viruses and confirm findings of a previous study where we showed some commercial PCR kits failed to detect specific genetic linkages of PRRSV. Thus, these finding emphatise that it is cricial that the manifactors ofl diagnostic PCR kits (conventional and real...

  3. Temporal evolution and potential recombination events in PRRSV strains of Sonora Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgara-Estrella, Alexel; Reséndiz-Sandoval, Mónica; Cortey, Martí; Mateu, Enric; Hernández, Jesús

    2014-12-05

    The aim of this work was to examine the evolution and potential existence of intragenic recombinations of PRRSV strains in Sonora, Mexico. In this study, 142 serum samples from farms located in Hermosillo (HMO), Cd. Obregón (OBR) and Navojoa (NAV) were sequenced from 2002 to 2012. Ninety non-redundant sequences of ORF5 gene were analyzed for temporal and spatial relationships among strains and the probability of a recombination event. The phylogenetic analysis showed 30 strains grouped into eight groups; 16 strains were closely related among the farms, while 14 were un-related. The first strain in this study was observed in 2002. A number of farms were infected with one or more strains, and in the majority of the strains, the virus was replaced by a new strain. The recombination analysis suggested the presence of four viruses as products of a recombination event; in one case, a virus close related with MLV vaccine was involved as the parent virus. This work shows the evolution of PRRSV in the field, the viral dissemination between farms and the potential recombination events. Our data suggest that PRRSV in Sonora has a specific genetic nature compared with other PRRSV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fulminant sepsis is a cardinal sign of HP-PRRSV in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2006 a unique syndrome with high morbidity and mortality was recognized in growing pigs in China that became known as porcine high fever disease (PHFD). One consistent finding in affected pigs was the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) that had unique nsp2 ge...

  5. The comparative profile of lymphoid cells and the T and B cell spectratype of germ-free piglets infected with viruses SIV, PRRSV or PCV2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šinkora, Marek; Butler, J. E.; Lager, K.; Potočková, Hana; Šinkorová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, SEP 2014 (2014) ISSN 0928-4249 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS * PORCINE CIRCOVIRUS TYPE-2 * ANTIBODY REPERTOIRE DEVELOPMENT Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.815, year: 2014

  6. Autophagy sustains the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory virus in host cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qinghao; Qin, Yixian; Zhou, Lei; Kou, Qiuwen; Guo, Xin; Ge, Xinna; Yang, Hanchun; Hu, Hongbo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we confirmed the autophagy induced by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in permissive cells and investigated the role of autophagy in the replication of PRRSV. We first demonstrated that PRRSV infection significantly results in the increased double-membrane vesicles, the accumulation of LC3 fluorescence puncta, and the raised ratio of LC3-II/β-actin, in MARC-145 cells. Then we discovered that induction of autophagy by rapamycin significantly enhances the viral titers of PRRSV, while inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA and silencing of LC3 gene by siRNA reduces the yield of PRRSV. The results showed functional autolysosomes can be formed after PRRSV infection and the autophagosome–lysosome-fusion inhibitor decreases the virus titers. We also examined the induction of autophagy by PRRSV infection in pulmonary alveolar macrophages. These findings indicate that autophagy induced by PRRSV infection plays a role in sustaining the replication of PRRSV in host cells.

  7. Autophagy sustains the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory virus in host cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qinghao; Qin, Yixian; Zhou, Lei; Kou, Qiuwen; Guo, Xin; Ge, Xinna [Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology and Zoonosis of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine and State Key Laboratory of Agribiotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China); Yang, Hanchun, E-mail: yanghanchun1@cau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology and Zoonosis of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine and State Key Laboratory of Agribiotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China); Hu, Hongbo, E-mail: hongbo@cau.edu.cn [College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China)

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we confirmed the autophagy induced by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in permissive cells and investigated the role of autophagy in the replication of PRRSV. We first demonstrated that PRRSV infection significantly results in the increased double-membrane vesicles, the accumulation of LC3 fluorescence puncta, and the raised ratio of LC3-II/{beta}-actin, in MARC-145 cells. Then we discovered that induction of autophagy by rapamycin significantly enhances the viral titers of PRRSV, while inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA and silencing of LC3 gene by siRNA reduces the yield of PRRSV. The results showed functional autolysosomes can be formed after PRRSV infection and the autophagosome-lysosome-fusion inhibitor decreases the virus titers. We also examined the induction of autophagy by PRRSV infection in pulmonary alveolar macrophages. These findings indicate that autophagy induced by PRRSV infection plays a role in sustaining the replication of PRRSV in host cells.

  8. Production Losses From an Endemic Animal Disease: Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS in Selected Midwest US Sow Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Valdes-Donoso

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is an endemic disease causing important economic losses to the US swine industry. The complex epidemiology of the disease, along with the diverse clinical outputs observed in different types of infected farms, have hampered efforts to quantify PRRS’ impact on production over time. We measured the impact of PRRS on the production of weaned pigs using a log-linear fixed effects model to evaluate longitudinal data collected from 16 sow farms belonging to a specific firm. We measured seven additional indicators of farm performance to gain insight into disease dynamics. We used pre-outbreak longitudinal data to establish a baseline that was then used to estimate the decrease in production. A significant rise of abortions in the week before the outbreak was reported was the strongest signal of PRRSV activity. In addition, production declined slightly one week before the outbreak and then fell markedly until weeks 5 and 6 post-outbreak. Recovery was not monotonic, cycling gently around a rising trend. At the end of the study period (35 weeks post-outbreak, neither the production of weaned pigs nor any of the performance indicators had fully recovered to baseline levels. This result suggests PRSS outbreaks may last longer than has been found in most other studies. We assessed PRRS’ effect on farm efficiency as measured by changes in sow production of weaned pigs per year. We translated production losses into revenue losses assuming an average market price of $45.2/weaned pig. We estimate that the average PRSS outbreak reduced production by approximately 7.4%, relative to annual output in the absence of an outbreak. PRRS reduced production by 1.92 weaned pigs per sow when adjusted to an annual basis. This decrease is substantially larger than the 1.44 decrease of weaned pigs per sow/year reported elsewhere.

  9. Comparative analysis of signature genes in PRRSV-infected porcine monocyte-derived cells at differential activation statuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activation statuses of monocytic cells are critically important for antiviral immunity. Devastating viruses like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are capable of directly infecting these cells, subverting host immunity. Monocyte-derived DCs (mDCs) are major target cells in ...

  10. Progress toward an enhanced vaccine: Eight marked attenuated viruses to porcine reproductive and respiratory disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Allyn; Wang, Feng-Xue; Kappes, Matthew A; Das, Phani B; Faaberg, Kay S

    2018-03-01

    Recombinant viruses of strain Ingelvac® PRRS porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) modified live virus vaccine were produced with two individual small in-frame deletions in nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2; Δ23 and Δ87) and also the same deletions supplanted with foreign tags (Δ23-V5, Δ23-FLAG, Δ23-S, Δ87-V5, Δ87-FLAG, Δ87-S). The viruses, but one (Δ87-FLAG), were stable for 10 passages and showed minimal effects on in vitro growth. Northern hybridization showed that the Δ23-tagged probe detected intracellular viral genome RNA as well as shorter RNAs that may represent heteroclite species, while the Δ87-tagged probe detected predominantly only genome length RNAs. When the tagged viruses were used to probe nsp2 protein in infected cells, perinuclear localization similar to native nsp2 was seen. Dual infection of Δ23-S and Δ87-S viruses allowed some discrimination of individual tagged nsp2 protein, facilitating future research. The mutants could potentially also be used to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Experimental infection of pigs with two East European variants of Type 1 PRRSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSV) have been divided into Type 1 (European) and Type 2 (North American) viruses. PRRSV are very diverse and Type 1 viruses have even been further divided into subtypes. While Type 1 viruses from Western Europe belong to subtype 1, viruses...... the subtype 1 strains. The aim of this project was to study the infection dynamics and clinical and pathological impact of two east European Type 1 strains. In an experimental trial, infection of pigs with the Russian subtype 2 strain “Ili6” and the Belarusian atypical isolate “Bor59” were compared...... to an early “Lelystad-like” Danish subtype 1 isolate “18794”. Groups of seven pigs of unique high sanitary status were infected with one of the three PRRSV isolates, and a fourth group served as sham-inoculated controls. The pigs were monitored for 24 days, and nasal swabs and blood samples were taken at 0, 3...

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis of PRRSV from Danish Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Larsen, Lars Erik

    , named from their geographic origin of identification. Great diversity within the two genotypes exists, and further division of PRRSV EU type into at least 3 subtypes has been suggested (Stadejek et al. 2006, 2008). In Denmark PRRSV EU type was first identified in 1992 and a few years later the US type......-PCR, essentially as described by Egli et al. 2001, on RNA extracted with RNeasy Mini Kit (QIAGEN). Complete open reading frames (ORF) ORF5 and ORF7 were PCR amplified as described (Oleksiewicz et al. 1998) and sequenced. Sequences were aligned and Neighbour-Joining trees were constructed with ClustalX. Trees were...

  13. Enhancement of innate immunity with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor did not mitigate disease in pigs infected with a highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlink, Sarah N; Lager, Kelly M; Brockmeier, Susan L; Loving, Crystal L; Miller, Laura C; Vorwald, Ann C; Yang, Han-Chun; Kehrli, Marcus E; Faaberg, Kay S

    2016-10-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is responsible for one of the most economically important diseases in swine worldwide. It causes reproductive failure in sows and pneumonia in pigs that predisposes them to secondary bacterial infections. Methods to control PRRSV and/or limit secondary bacterial infections are desired to reduce the impact of this virus on animal health. Neutrophils play a major role in combatting infection; they can act as phagocytes as well as produce and release lytic enzymes that have potent antimicrobial effects leading to the destruction and clearance of bacterial pathogens. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a cytokine that controls the production, differentiation and function of granulocytes (including neutrophils) from the bone marrow. Recent work from our laboratory has shown that encoding porcine G-CSF in a replication-defective adenovirus (Ad5-G-CSF) and delivering a single dose to pigs induced a neutrophilia lasting more than two weeks. As secondary bacterial infection is a common occurrence following PRRSV infection, particularly following challenge with highly pathogenic (HP)-PRRSV, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a single prophylactic dose of adenovirus-encoded G-CSF to mitigate secondary bacterial disease associated with HP-PRRSV infection. Administration of Ad5-G-CSF induced a significant neutrophilia as expected. However, between 1 and 2days following HP-PRRSV challenge the number of circulating neutrophils decreased dramatically in the HP-PRRSV infected group, but not the non-infected Ad5-G-CSF group. Ad5-G-CSF administration induced monocytosis as well, which was also reduced by HP-PRRSV challenge. There was no difference in the progression of disease between the Ad5-G-CSF and Ad5-empty groups following HP-PRRSV challenge, with pneumonia and systemic bacterial infection occurring in both treatment groups. Given the impact of HP-PRRSV infection on the

  14. Identification of small non-coding RNA classes expressed in swine whole blood during HP-PRRSV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been established that reduced susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a genetic component. This genetic component may take the form of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNA), which are molecules that function as regulators of gene expression. Various sncRNAs ...

  15. Identification of small non-coding RNA classes expressed in swine whole blood during HP-PRRSV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Damarius S; Miller, Laura C

    2018-04-01

    It has been established that reduced susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a genetic component. This genetic component may take the form of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNA), which are molecules that function as regulators of gene expression. Various sncRNAs have emerged as having an important role in the immune system in humans. The study uses transcriptomic read counts to profile the type and quantity of both well and lesser characterized sncRNAs, such as microRNAs and small nucleolar RNAs to identify and quantify the classes of sncRNA expressed in whole blood between healthy and highly pathogenic PRRSV-infected pigs. Our results returned evidence on nine classes of sncRNA, four of which were consistently statistically significantly different based on Fisher's Exact Test, that can be detected and possibly interrogated for their effect on host dysregulation during PRRSV infections. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Comparative evaluation of serum, FTA filter-dried blood and oral fluid as sample material for PRRSV diagnostics by RT-qPCR in a small-scale experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinrigl, Adolf; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Wodak, Eveline; Schmoll, Friedrich; Sattler, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Recently, research into alternative sample materials, such as oral fluid or filter-dried blood has been intensified, in order to facilitate cost-effective and animal-friendly sampling of individuals or groups of pigs for diagnostic purposes. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-RNA detection by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) in serum, FTA filter-dried blood and oral fluid sampled from individual pigs. Ten PRRSV negative pigs were injected with an EU-type PRRSV live vaccine. Blood and oral fluid samples were taken from each pig before, and 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after vaccination. All samples were then analyzed by PRRSV RT-qPCR. In serum, eight often pigs tested RT-qPCR positive at different time points post infection. Absolute quantification showed low serum PRRSV-RNA loads in most samples. In comparison to serum, sensitivity of PRRSV-RNA detection was strongly reduced in matched FTA filter-dried blood and in oral fluid from the same pigs. These results indicate that with low PRRSV-RNA loads the diagnostic sensitivity of PRRSV-RNA detection by RT-qPCR achieved with serum is currently unmatched by either FTA filter-dried blood or oral fluid.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of a Recombinant NADC30-Like Strain, SCnj16, of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Runmin; Xie, Bo; Tian, Yiming; Yang, Xin; Yu, Jifeng

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The NADC30-like strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are characterized by a 131-amino-acid deletion in nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2). Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a recombinant NADC30-like PRRSV strain, SCnj16, that exhibits the molecular marker of the Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) in NSP2. PMID:29439029

  18. Comparison of PRRSV Nucleic Acid and Antibody Detection in Pen-Based Oral Fluid and Individual Serum Samples in Three Different Age Categories of Post-Weaning Pigs from Endemically Infected Farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick De Regge

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is the causative agent of an economically important disease in swine. Since it has been shown that PRRSV and PRRSV specific antibodies can be detected in oral fluid, many different aspects have been studied to show that oral fluid could be a worthy alternative diagnostic sample to serum for monitoring and surveillance of this disease. Thorough field evaluations are however missing to convincingly show its usefulness under representative field conditions.Pen-based oral fluid samples and serum samples from all individual pigs in the corresponding pens were collected from post-weaning pigs of three different age categories in eight endemically PRRSV infected farms and one PRRSV free farm in Belgium. All samples were tested by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and ELISA to detect PRRSV RNA and PRRSV specific antibodies, respectively.While the relative specificity of PRRSV detection by qRT-PCR in pen-based oral fluid compared to serum collected from individual pigs was high in all age categories (>90%, the relative sensitivity decreased with the age of the pigs (89, 93 and 10% in 8-12w, 16-20w and 24-28w old pigs, respectively. The latter correlated with a lower percentage of PRRSV positive pigs in serum/pen in the different age categories (55, 29 and 6%, respectively. Irrespective of the age category, pen-based oral fluid samples were always found PCR positive when at least 30% of the individual pigs were positive in serum. PRRSV specific antibody detection in oral fluid by ELISA showed a 100% relative sensitivity to detection in serum since oral fluid samples were always positive as soon as one pig in the pen was positive in serum. On the other hand, two false positive oral fluid samples in 11 pens without serum positive pigs were found, resulting in a relative specificity of 82%. Indications are however present that the oral fluid result indicated the

  19. Monkey Viperin Restricts Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jianyu; Wang, Haiyan; Bai, Juan; Zhang, Qiaoya; Li, Yufeng; Liu, Fei; Jiang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important pathogen which causes huge economic damage globally in the swine industry. Current vaccination strategies provide only limited protection against PRRSV infection. Viperin is an interferon (IFN) stimulated protein that inhibits some virus infections via IFN-dependent or IFN-independent pathways. However, the role of viperin in PRRSV infection is not well understood. In this study, we cloned the full-length monkey viperin (mViperin) complementary DNA (cDNA) from IFN-α-treated African green monkey Marc-145 cells. It was found that the mViperin is up-regulated following PRRSV infection in Marc-145 cells along with elevated IRF-1 gene levels. IFN-α induced mViperin expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner and strongly inhibits PRRSV replication in Marc-145 cells. Overexpression of mViperin suppresses PRRSV replication by blocking the early steps of PRRSV entry and genome replication and translation but not inhibiting assembly and release. And mViperin co-localized with PRRSV GP5 and N protein, but only interacted with N protein in distinct cytoplasmic loci. Furthermore, it was found that the 13-16 amino acids of mViperin were essential for inhibiting PRRSV replication, by disrupting the distribution of mViperin protein from the granular distribution to a homogeneous distribution in the cytoplasm. These results could be helpful in the future development of novel antiviral therapies against PRRSV infection.

  20. Impact of PRRSV infection and dietary soybean meal on ileal amino acid digestibility and endogenous amino acid losses in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a significant disease in the swine industry and increasing soybean meal (SBM) during this disease challenge may improve performance. Our objectives were to determine the impact of SBM level on apparent total tract (ATTD) and ileal (AID) ...

  1. Establishing porcine monocyte-derived macrophage and dendritic cell systems for studying the interaction with PRRSV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen eSingleton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMØ and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC are two model systems well established in human and rodent systems that can be used to study the interaction of pathogens with host cells. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is known to infect myeloid cells, such as macrophages (MØ and dendritic cells (DC. Therefore, this study aimed to establish systems for the differentiation and characterization of MoMØ and MoDC for subsequent infection with PRRSV-1. M-CSF differentiated monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMØ were stimulated with activators for classical (M1 or alternative (M2 activation. GM-CSF and IL-4 generated monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC were activated with the well established maturation cocktail containing PAMPs and cytokines. In addition, MoMØ and MoDC were treated with dexamethasone and IL-10, which are known immuno-suppressive reagents. Cells were characterized by morphology, phenotype and function and porcine MØ subsets highlighted some divergence from described human counterparts, while MoDC, appeared more similar to mouse and human DCs. The infection with PRRSV-1 strain Lena demonstrated different replication kinetics between MoMØ and MoDC and within subsets of each cell type. While MoMØ susceptibility was significantly increased by dexamethasone and IL-10 with an accompanying increase in CD163/CD169 expression, MoDC supported only a minimal replication of PRRSV These findings underline the high variability in the susceptibility of porcine myeloid cells towards PRRSV-1 infection.

  2. Curcumin is a promising inhibitor of genotype 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Taofeng; Shi, Yunpeng; Xiao, Shuqi; Li, Na; Zhao, Qin; Zhang, Angke; Nan, Yuchen; Mu, Yang; Sun, Yani; Wu, Chunyan; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhou, En-Min

    2017-10-10

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) could lead to pandemic diseases and huge financial losses to the swine industry worldwide. Curcumin, a natural compound, has been reported to serve as an entry inhibitor of hepatitis C virus, chikungunya virus and vesicular stomatitis virus. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of curcumin on early stages of PRRSV infection. Curcumin inhibited infection of Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) by four different genotype 2 PRRSV strains, but had no effect on the levels of major PRRSV receptor proteins on Marc-145 cells and PAMs or on PRRSV binding to Marc-145 cells. However, curcumin did block two steps of the PRRSV infection process: virus internalization and virus-mediated cell fusion. Our results suggested that an inhibition of genotype 2 PRRSV infection by curcumin is virus strain-independent, and mainly inhibited by virus internalization and cell fusion mediated by virus. Collectively, these results demonstrate that curcumin holds promise as a new anti-PRRSV drug.

  3. Safety and protective efficacy of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome recombinant virus vaccines in young pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheije, M.H.; Kroese, M.V.; Linden, van der I.F.A.; Boer-Luijtze, de E.A.; Rijn, van P.A.; Pol, J.M.A.; Meulenberg, J.J.M.; Steverink, P.J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Three porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) recombinants, generated by mutagenesis of an infectious cDNA clone of the Lelystad virus (LV) isolate, were tested for their safety and protective efficacy as potential PRRSV vaccines in pigs. Recombinant vABV688 contains two amino

  4. Efficacy of combined vaccination against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in dually infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourry, Olivier; Fablet, Christelle; Simon, Gaëlle; Marois-Créhan, Corinne

    2015-11-18

    Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is one of the main causes of economic losses for swine producers. This complex is due to a combination of different pathogens and their interactions. Two major pathogens involved in PRDC are Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The objectives of this study were (i) to develop an experimental model of dual Mhp/PRRSV infection in SPF pigs with European strains of Mhp and PRRSV and (ii) to assess and compare the effects of single Mhp, single PRRSV or combined Mhp/PRRSV vaccination against this dual infection. Pigs dually infected with Mhp and PRRSV showed a combination of symptoms characteristic of each pathogen but no significant exacerbation of pathogenicity. Thus, the co-infected pigs displayed coughing and pneumonia typical of Mhp infection in addition to PRRSV-related hyperthermia and decrease in average daily gain (ADG). Hyperthermia was reduced in PRRSV vaccinated animals (single or combined vaccination), whereas ADG was restored in Mhp/PRRSV vaccinated pigs only. Regarding respiratory symptoms and lung lesions, no vaccine decreased coughing. However, all vaccines reduced the pneumonia score but more so in animals receiving the Mhp vaccine, whether single or combined. This vaccine also decreased the Mhp load in the respiratory tract. In conclusion, combined vaccination against both Mhp and PRRSV efficiently pooled the efficacy of each single PRRSV and Mhp vaccination and could be an interesting tool to control PRDC in European swine production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. PREVALENCIA SEROLÓGICA DEL SÍNDROME REPRODUCTIVO Y RESPIRATORIO PORCINO (PRRS EN CERDOS DE EXPLOTACIONES EXTENSIVAS DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón M. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo actualizar en el país la situación de la infección por el virus del Síndrome reproductivo y respiratorio porcino (PRRS. Los departamentos incluidos en el estudio fueron aquellos donde se manejan producciones extensivas o de traspatio. Las muestras fueron tomadas de forma aleatoria en los mataderos de cada departamento, analizándose un total de 1.658 sueros, los cuales fueron clasiicados, hasta donde fue posible, de acuerdo a las categorías productivas (cerdos de descarte y cerdos de ceba. Las muestras obtenidas se analizaron a través de una prueba de ELISA, usando el kit comercial HerdChek PRRS 2XR (Laboratorios IDEXX. Al inal se obtuvo un total de 71 sueros reactores, lo que se traduce en una prevalencia del 4,3 ± 1,0% (p≤0,05. Los departamentos con mayor prevalencia fueron Norte de Santander y Arauca, mientras que los departamentos de La Guajira, Magdalena y Sucre mantuvieron su condición de no reactividad serológica en estos sistemas de producción.

  6. PREVALENCIA SEROLÓGICA DEL SÍNDROME REPRODUCTIVO Y RESPIRATORIO PORCINO (PRRS EN CERDOS DE EXPLOTACIONES EXTENSIVAS DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC Cruz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo actualizar en el país la situación de la infección por el virus del Síndrome reproductivo y respiratorio porcino (PRRS. Los departamentos incluidos en el estudio fueron aquellos donde se manejan producciones extensivas o de traspatio. Las muestras fueron tomadas de forma aleatoria en los mataderos de cada departamento, analizándose un total de 1.658 sueros, los cuales fueron clasiicados, hasta donde fue posible, de acuerdo a las categorías productivas (cerdos de descarte y cerdos de ceba. Las muestras obtenidas se analizaron a través de una prueba de ELISA, usando el kit comercial HerdChek PRRS 2XR (Laboratorios IDEXX. Al inal se obtuvo un total de 71 sueros reactores, lo que se traduce en una prevalencia del 4,3 ± 1,0% (p≤0,05. Los departamentos con mayor prevalencia fueron Norte de Santander y Arauca, mientras que los departamentos de La Guajira, Magdalena y Sucre mantuvieron su condición de no reactividad serológica en estos sistemas de producción.

  7. Sensitive detection and typing of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by RT-PCR amplification of whole viral genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Bøtner, Anette; Madsen, K.G.

    1998-01-01

    Following the recent use of a live vaccine against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in Denmark, both American (vaccine) and European-type PRRSV now coexist in Danish herds. This situation highlighted a requirement for supplementary tests for precise virus-typing. As a r...

  8. Immune Response of Multiparous Hyper-Immunized Sows against Peptides from Non-Structural and Structural Proteins of PRRSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Rascón-Castelo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the humoral and cellular responses of commercial multiparous and hyper-immunized sows against peptides from non-structural (nsp and structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. We selected sows with different numbers of parities from a commercial farm. Management practices on this farm include the use of the MLV commercial vaccine four times per year, plus two vaccinations during the acclimation period. The humoral response was evaluated via the antibody recognition of peptides from nsp and structural proteins, and the cellular response was assessed by measuring the frequency of peptide and PRRSV-specific IFN-gamma-secreting cells (IFNγ-SC. Our results show that sows with six parities have more antibodies against peptides from structural proteins than against peptides from nsp. The analysis of the cellular response revealed that the number of immunizations did not affect the frequency of IFNγ-SC and that the response was stronger against peptides from structural proteins (M protein than against nsp (nsp2. In summary, these results demonstrate that multiparous, hyper-immunized sows have a stronger immune humoral response to PRRSV structural peptides than nsp, but no differences in IFNγ-SC against the same peptides were observed.

  9. Nuclear export signal of PRRSV NSP1α is necessary for type I IFN inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhi; Liu, Shaoning; Sun, Wenbo; Chen, Lei; Yoo, Dongwan; Li, Feng; Ren, Sufang; Guo, Lihui; Cong, Xiaoyan; Li, Jun; Zhou, Shun; Wu, Jiaqiang

    2016-01-01

    The nonstructural protein 1α (NSP1α) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a nucleo-cytoplasmic protein that suppresses the production of type I interferon (IFN). In this study, we investigated the relationship between the subcellular distribution of NSP1α and its inhibition of type I IFN. NSP1α was found to contain the classical nuclear export signal (NES) and NSP1α nuclear export was CRM-1-mediated. NSP1α was shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm. We also showed that the nuclear export of NSP1α was necessary for its ability for type I IFN inhibition. NSP1α was also found to interact with CBP, which implies a possible mechanism of CBP degradation by NSP1α. Taken together, our results describe a novel mechanism of PRRSV NSP1α for type I IFN inhibition and suppression of the host innate antiviral response. - Highlights: •NSP1α contains the NES and NSP1α nuclear export was CRM-1-mediated. •NSP1α was shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm continuously. •The nuclear export of NSP1α was necessary for its ability for type I IFN inhibition. •NSP1α interacts with CBP, which implies the mechanism of CBP degradation by NSP1α.

  10. Nuclear export signal of PRRSV NSP1α is necessary for type I IFN inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhi [Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding, Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Sangyuan Road No. 8, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, Shaoning [Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding, Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Sangyuan Road No. 8, Jinan 250100 (China); Shandong Institute of Veterinary Drug Quality Inspection, Shandong Key Laboratory for Quality Safety Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Animal Products, Huaicun Street No. 68, Jinan 250722, Shandong Province (China); Sun, Wenbo; Chen, Lei [Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding, Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Sangyuan Road No. 8, Jinan 250100 (China); Yoo, Dongwan [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Li, Feng [Department of Biology and Microbiology, Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Ren, Sufang; Guo, Lihui; Cong, Xiaoyan; Li, Jun [Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding, Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Sangyuan Road No. 8, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhou, Shun [College of marine science and engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Changcheng Road No. 700, Qingdao 266109 (China); Wu, Jiaqiang, E-mail: wujiaqiang2000@sina.com [Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding, Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Sangyuan Road No. 8, Jinan 250100 (China); and others

    2016-12-15

    The nonstructural protein 1α (NSP1α) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a nucleo-cytoplasmic protein that suppresses the production of type I interferon (IFN). In this study, we investigated the relationship between the subcellular distribution of NSP1α and its inhibition of type I IFN. NSP1α was found to contain the classical nuclear export signal (NES) and NSP1α nuclear export was CRM-1-mediated. NSP1α was shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm. We also showed that the nuclear export of NSP1α was necessary for its ability for type I IFN inhibition. NSP1α was also found to interact with CBP, which implies a possible mechanism of CBP degradation by NSP1α. Taken together, our results describe a novel mechanism of PRRSV NSP1α for type I IFN inhibition and suppression of the host innate antiviral response. - Highlights: •NSP1α contains the NES and NSP1α nuclear export was CRM-1-mediated. •NSP1α was shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm continuously. •The nuclear export of NSP1α was necessary for its ability for type I IFN inhibition. •NSP1α interacts with CBP, which implies the mechanism of CBP degradation by NSP1α.

  11. An evaluation of interventions for reducing the risk of PRRSV introduction to filtered farms via retrograde air movement through idle fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmen; Otake, Satoshi; Davies, Peter; Dee, Scott

    2012-06-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically significant pathogen of pigs that can be transported via the airborne route out to 9.1 km. To reduce this risk, large swine facilities have started to implement systems to filter contaminated incoming air. A proposed means of air filtration failure is the retrograde movement of air (back-drafting) from the external environment into the animal air space through non-filtered points such as idle wall fans; however, this risk has not been validated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to prove that PRRSV introduction via retrograde air movement through idle fans is a true risk; (2) to determine the minimum retrograde air velocity necessary to introduce PRRSV to an animal airspace from an external source; and (3) to evaluate the efficacy of different interventions designed to reduce this risk. A retrograde air movement model was used to test a range of velocities and interventions, including a standard plastic shutter, a plastic shutter plus a canvas cover, a nylon air chute, an aluminum shutter plus an air chute and a double shutter system. Results indicated that retrograde air movement is a real risk for PRRSV introduction to a filtered air space; however, it required a velocity of 0.76 m/s. In addition, while all the interventions designed to reduce this risk were superior when compared to a standard plastic shutter, significant differences were detected between treatments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Secondary infection with Streptococcus suis serotype 7 increases the virulence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Wang, Shujie; Li, Linxi; Lei, Liancheng; Liu, Yonggang; Shi, Wenda; Wu, Jiabin; Li, Liqin; Rong, Fulong; Xu, Mingming; Sun, Guangli; Xiang, Hua; Cai, Xuehui

    2010-08-09

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Streptococcus suis are common pathogens in pigs. In samples collected during the porcine high fever syndrome (PHFS) outbreak in many parts of China, PRRSV and S. suis serotype 7 (SS7) have always been isolated together. To determine whether PRRSV-SS7 coinfection was the cause of the PHFS outbreak, we evaluated the pathogenicity of PRRSV and/or SS7 in a pig model of single and mixed infection. Respiratory disease, diarrhea, and anorexia were observed in all infected pigs. Signs of central nervous system (CNS) disease were observed in the highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV)-infected pigs (4/12) and the coinfected pigs (8/10); however, the symptoms of the coinfected pigs were clearly more severe than those of the HP-PRRSV-infected pigs. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the coinfected pigs (8/10) than in the HP-PRRSV- (2/12) and SS7-infected pigs (0/10). The deceased pigs of the coinfected group had symptoms typical of PHFS, such as high fever, anorexia, and red coloration of the ears and the body. The isolation rates of HP-PRRSV and SS7 were higher and the lesion severity was greater in the coinfected pigs than in monoinfected pigs. HP-PRRSV infection increased susceptibility to SS7 infection, and coinfection of HP-PRRSV with SS7 significantly increased the pathogenicity of SS7 to pigs.

  13. Secondary infection with Streptococcus suis serotype 7 increases the virulence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Min

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and Streptococcus suis are common pathogens in pigs. In samples collected during the porcine high fever syndrome (PHFS outbreak in many parts of China, PRRSV and S. suis serotype 7 (SS7 have always been isolated together. To determine whether PRRSV-SS7 coinfection was the cause of the PHFS outbreak, we evaluated the pathogenicity of PRRSV and/or SS7 in a pig model of single and mixed infection. Results Respiratory disease, diarrhea, and anorexia were observed in all infected pigs. Signs of central nervous system (CNS disease were observed in the highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV-infected pigs (4/12 and the coinfected pigs (8/10; however, the symptoms of the coinfected pigs were clearly more severe than those of the HP-PRRSV-infected pigs. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the coinfected pigs (8/10 than in the HP-PRRSV- (2/12 and SS7-infected pigs (0/10. The deceased pigs of the coinfected group had symptoms typical of PHFS, such as high fever, anorexia, and red coloration of the ears and the body. The isolation rates of HP-PRRSV and SS7 were higher and the lesion severity was greater in the coinfected pigs than in monoinfected pigs. Conclusion HP-PRRSV infection increased susceptibility to SS7 infection, and coinfection of HP-PRRSV with SS7 significantly increased the pathogenicity of SS7 to pigs.

  14. Mortality Due to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Immunocompromised G?ttingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica)

    OpenAIRE

    Pils, Marina C; Dreckmann, Karla; Jansson, Katharina; Glage, Silke; Held, Nadine; Sommer, Wiebke; L?nger, Florian; Avsar, Murat; Warnecke, Gregor; Bleich, Andr?

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection was diagnosed in 6 G?ttingen minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica) with severe interstitial pneumonia. The virus was defined as a North American (NA) subtype virus, which is common in the commercial pig population and might be derived from a widely used attenuated live-virus vaccine in Europe. The ORF5 sequence of the isolated PRRSV was 98% identical to the vaccine virus. The affected pigs were part of a lung transplantation mode...

  15. Bioinformatics prediction of swine MHC class I epitopes from Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welner, Simon; Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole

    an effective CTL response against PRRSV, we have taken a bioinformatics approach to identify common PRRSV epitopes predicted to react broadly with predominant swine MHC (SLA) alleles. First, the genomic integrity and sequencing method was examined for 334 available complete PRRSV type 2 genomes leaving 104...... by the PopCover algorithm, providing a final list of 54 epitopes prioritized according to maximum coverage of PRRSV strains and SLA alleles. This bioinformatics approach provides a rational strategy for selecting peptides for a CTL-activating vaccine with broad coverage of both virus and swine diversity...

  16. Entry of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus into porcine alveolar macrophages via receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauwynck, H J; Duan, X; Favoreel, H W; Van Oostveldt, P; Pensaert, M B

    1999-02-01

    Porcine alveolar macrophages (AMphi) are the dominant cell type that supports the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in vivo and in vitro. In order to determine the characteristics of the virus-receptor interaction, the attachment of PRRSV to cells was examined by using biotinylated virus in a series of flow cytometric assays. PRRSV bound specifically to AMphi in a dose-dependent manner. Binding of PRRSV to AMphi increased gradually and reached a maximum within 60 min at 4 degrees C. By confocal microscopy, it was shown that different degrees of PRRSV binding exist and that entry is by endocytosis. Virus uptake in vesicles is a clathrin-dependent process, as it was blocked by the addition of cytochalasin D and co-localization of PRRSV and clathrin was found. Furthermore, by the use of two weak bases, NH4Cl and chloroquine, it was demonstrated that PRRSV uses a low pH-dependent entry pathway. In the presence of these reagents, input virions accumulated in large vacuoles, indicating that uncoating was prevented. These results indicate that PRRSV entry into AMphi involves attachment to a specific virus receptor(s) followed by a process of endocytosis, by which virions are taken into the cell within vesicles by a clathrin-dependent pathway. A subsequent drop in pH is required for proper virus replication.

  17. Correlation among genetic, Euclidean, temporal, and herd ownership distances of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert Marie-Ève

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a viral disease that has a major economic impact for the swine industry. Its control is mostly directed towards preventing its spread which requires a better understanding of the mechanisms of transmission of the virus between herds. The objectives of this study were to describe the genetic diversity and to assess the correlation among genetic, Euclidean and temporal distances and ownership to better understand pathways of transmission. Results A cross-sectional study was conducted on sites located in a high density area of swine production in Quebec. Geographical coordinates (longitude/latitude, date of submission and ownership were obtained for each site. ORF5 sequencing was attempted on PRRSV positive sites. Proportion of pairwise combinations of strains having ≥98% genetic homology were analysed according to Euclidean distances and ownership. Correlations between genetic, Euclidean and temporal distances and ownership were assessed using Mantel tests on continuous and binary matrices. Sensitivity of the correlations between genetic and Euclidean as well as temporal distances was evaluated for different Euclidean and temporal distance thresholds. An ORF5 sequence was identified for 132 of the 176 (75% PRRSV positive sites; 122 were wild-type strains. The mean (min-max genetic, Euclidean and temporal pairwise distances were 11.6% (0–18.7, 15.0 km (0.04-45.7 and 218 days (0–852, respectively. Significant positive correlations were observed between genetic and ownership, genetic and Euclidean and between genetic and temporal binary distances. The relationship between genetic and ownership suggests either common sources of animals or semen, employees, technical services or vehicles, whereas that between genetic and Euclidean binary distances is compatible with area spread of the virus. The latter correlation was observed only up to 5 km. Conclusions This study

  18. In Vitro Virucidal and Virustatic Properties of the Crude Extract of Cynodon dactylon against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonghiran, Oapkun; Kunanoppadol, Suchaya; Potha, Teerapong; Chuammitri, Phongsakorn

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro virustatic and virucidal tests of the crude extract of Cynodon dactylon against infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a cause of major devastating pig disease, were described. Crude extract of C. dactylon was prepared for cytotoxicity on tissue-culture cells that were used to measure virustatic and virucidal activities against PRRSV. Crude extract of C. dactylon at 0.78 mg/mL showed no cytotoxicity on the cell line, and at that concentration significantly inhibited replication of PRRSV as early as 24 hours post infection (hpi). C. dactylon also inactivated PRRSV as determined by immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) compared to the control experiments. In summary, the present study may be among the earliest studies to describe virustatic and virucidal activities of C. dactylon crude extract against PRRSV in vitro. Extracts of C. dactylon may be useful for PRRSV control and prevention on pig farms. PMID:24744959

  19. Introduktion af polte i PRRSV-besætninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoelstad, Bonnie Edahl; Sonne Kristensen, Charlotte; Qvist Pawlowski, Mia

    karantæne. En optimal karantæne blev defineret som en stald, der ikke delte luftrum med øvrige staldafsnit, havde separat indgang og kørte alt ind/alt ud. På trods af at poltene ikke var viræmiske ved løbning, fører studiet ikke til ændringer i anbefalingerne vedrørende introduktion af polte i PRRS...

  20. Design, development and experimental trialof a tailored cytotoxic T-cell vaccine againstPorcine Reproductive and RespiratorySyndrome Virus-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welner, Simon

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important threats against the global swine production industry. The virus infects alveolar macrophages that leads to respiratory distress, fever, pneumonia and gives way to secondary respiratory pathogens. Infection...

  1. Identification of a new cell line permissive to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection and replication which is phenotypically distinct from MARC-145 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provost Chantale

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airborne transmitted pathogens, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, need to interact with host cells of the respiratory tract in order to be able to enter and disseminate in the host organism. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM and MA104 derived monkey kidney MARC-145 cells are known to be permissive to PRRSV infection and replication and are the most studied cells in the literature. More recently, new cell lines developed to study PRRSV have been genetically modified to make them permissive to the virus. The SJPL cell line origin was initially reported to be epithelial cells of the respiratory tract of swine. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine if SJPL cells could support PRRSV infection and replication in vitro. Results The SJPL cell growth was significantly slower than MARC-145 cell growth. The SJPL cells were found to express the CD151 protein but not the CD163 and neither the sialoadhesin PRRSV receptors. During the course of the present study, the SJPL cells have been reported to be of monkey origin. Nevertheless, SJPL cells were found to be permissive to PRRSV infection and replication even if the development of the cytopathic effect was delayed compared to PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells. Following PRRSV replication, the amount of infectious viral particles produced in SJPL and MARC-145 infected cells was similar. The SJPL cells allowed the replication of several PRRSV North American strains and were almost efficient as MARC-145 cells for virus isolation. Interestingly, PRRSV is 8 to 16 times more sensitive to IFNα antiviral effect in SJPL cell in comparison to that in MARC-145 cells. PRRSV induced an increase in IFNβ mRNA and no up regulation of IFNα mRNA in both infected cell types. In addition, PRRSV induced an up regulation of IFNγ and TNF-α mRNAs only in infected MARC-145 cells. Conclusions In conclusion, the SJPL cells are permissive to PRRSV. In addition, they are

  2. Comparison of a commercial ELISA and an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay to detect antibodies directed against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nodelijk, G.; Wensvoort, G.; Kroese, B.; Leengoed, van L.A.M.G.; Colijn, E.; Verheijden, J.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    A commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) was compared to an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA). Serum samples used were collected from pigs experimentally infected with

  3. Identification of viral genes associated with the interferon-inducing phenotype of a synthetic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiyan; Pattnaik, Asit K; Osorio, Fernando A; Vu, Hiep L X

    2016-12-01

    We recently generated a fully synthetic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain (designated as PRRSV-CON), which confers unprecedented levels of heterologous protection. We report herein that the synthetic PRRSV-CON possesses a unique phenotype in that it induces type-I interferons (IFNs) instead of suppressing these cytokines as most of the naturally occurring PRRSV isolates do. Through gain- and loss- of-function studies, the IFN-inducing phenotype of PRRSV-CON was mapped to the 3.3kb genomic fragment encoding three viral nonstructural proteins: nsp1α, nsp1β and the N-terminal part of nsp2. Further studies indicated that a cooperation among these 3 proteins was required for effective induction of IFNs. Collectively, this study constitutes the first step toward understanding the mechanisms by which the synthetic PRRSV-CON confers heterologous protection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Porcine respiratory disease complex: Interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Chanhee

    2016-06-01

    Porcine respiratory disease is a multifactorial and complex disease caused by a combination of infectious pathogens, environmental stressors, differences in production systems, and various management practices; hence the name porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is used. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. Although interactions among the three major respiratory pathogens are well documented, it is also necessary to understand the interaction between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae are well known to potentiate PCV2-associated lesions; however, PRRSV and mycoplasmal vaccines can both enhance PCV2 viraemia regardless of the effects of the actual PRRSV or M. hyopneumoniae infection. On the other hand, M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of pneumonia induced by PRRSV, and vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone is also able to decrease PRRSV viraemia and PRRSV-induced lung lesions in dually infected pigs. This review focuses on (1) interactions between PCV2, PRRSV, and M. hyopneumoniae; and (2) interactions between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Whole genome characterization of a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 1 isolate: Genetic evidence for recombination between Amervac vaccine and circulating strains in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nanhua; Liu, Qiaorong; Qiao, Mingming; Deng, Xiaoyu; Chen, Xizhao; Sun, Ming

    2017-10-01

    Genotype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV 1) have been continuously isolated in China in recent years. Complete genome sequences of these isolates are important to investigate the prevalence and evolution of Chinese PRRSV 1. Herein, we describe the isolation of a novel PRRSV 1 isolate, denominated HLJB1, in the Heilongjiang province of China. Complete genome sequencing of HLJB1 showed that it shares 90.66% and 58.21% nucleotide identities with PRRSV 1 and 2 prototypic strains Lelystad virus and ATCC VR-2332, respectively. HLJB1 has a unique 5-amino-acid insertion in nsp2, which has never been described in other PRRSV 1 isolates. Whole genome-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that all Chinese PRRSV 1 isolates are clustered in pan-European subtype 1 and can be divided into four subgroups. HLJB1 resides in the subgroup of BJEU06-1-like isolates but is also closely related to the Amervac-like isolates. Additionally, recombination analyses suggested that HLJB1 is a recombinant from the Amervac vaccine and the BJEU06-1 isolate. To our best knowledge, our results provide the first genetic evidence for recombination between Amervac vaccine and circulating strains. These findings are also beneficial for studying the origin and evolution of PRRSV 1 in China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The small envelope protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus possesses ion channel protein-like properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Changhee; Yoo, Dongwan

    2006-01-01

    The small envelope (E) protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a hydrophobic 73 amino acid protein encoded in the internal open reading frame (ORF) of the bicistronic mRNA2. As a first step towards understanding the biological role of E protein during PRRSV replication, E gene expression was blocked in a full-length infectious clone by mutating the ATG translational initiation to GTG, such that the full-length mutant genomic clone was unable to synthesize the E protein. DNA transfection of PRRSV-susceptible cells with the E gene knocked-out genomic clone showed the absence of virus infectivity. P129-ΔE-transfected cells however produced virion particles in the culture supernatant, and these particles contained viral genomic RNA, demonstrating that the E protein is essential for PRRSV infection but dispensable for virion assembly. Electron microscopy suggests that the P129-ΔE virions assembled in the absence of E had a similar appearance to the wild-type particles. Strand-specific RT-PCR demonstrated that the E protein-negative, non-infectious P129-ΔE virus particles were able to enter cells but further steps of replication were interrupted. The entry of PRRSV has been suggested to be via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and lysomotropic basic compounds and known ion-channel blocking agents both inhibited PRRSV replication effectively during the uncoating process. The expression of E protein in Escherichia coli-mediated cell growth arrests and increased the membrane permeability. Cross-linking experiments in cells infected with PRRSV or transfected with E gene showed that the E protein was able to form homo-oligomers. Taken together, our data suggest that the PRRSV E protein is likely an ion-channel protein embedded in the viral envelope and facilitates uncoating of virus and release of the genome in the cytoplasm

  7. Interaction between single-dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines on dually infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Jin; Seo, Hwi Won; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and/or porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination on dually infected pigs. In total, 72 pigs were randomly divided into nine groups (eight pigs per group), as follows: five vaccinated and challenged groups, three non-vaccinated and challenged groups, and a negative control group. Single-dose vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone decreased the levels of PRRSV viremia and PRRSV-induced pulmonary lesions, whereas single-dose vaccination against PRRSV alone did not decrease nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae and mycoplasma-induced pulmonary lesions in the dually infected pigs. The M. hyopneumoniae challenge impaired the protective cell-mediated immunity induced by the PRRSV vaccine, whereas the PRRSV challenge did not impair the protective cell-mediated immunity induced by the M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. The present study provides swine practitioners and producers with efficient vaccination regimes; vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae is the first step in protecting pigs against co-infection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of 5 '-leader sequences from radically disparate strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus reveals the presence of highly conserved sequence motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Bøtner, Anette; Nielsen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    We determined the untranslated 5'-leader sequence for three different isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): pathogenic European- and American-types, as well as an American-type vaccine strain. 5'-leader from European- and American-type PRRSV differed in length...... (220 and 190 nt, respectively), and exhibited only approximately 50% nucleotide homology. Nevertheless, highly conserved areas were identified in the leader of all 3 PRRSV isolates, which constitute candidate motifs for binding of protein(s) involved in viral replication. These comparative data provide...

  9. Measuring Progress on the Control of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS at a Regional Level: The Minnesota N212 Regional Control Project (Rcp as a Working Example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Valdes-Donoso

    Full Text Available Due to the highly transmissible nature of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS, implementation of regional programs to control the disease may be critical. Because PRRS is not reported in the US, numerous voluntary regional control projects (RCPs have been established. However, the effect of RCPs on PRRS control has not been assessed yet. This study aims to quantify the extent to which RCPs contribute to PRRS control by proposing a methodological framework to evaluate the progress of RCPs. Information collected between July 2012 and June 2015 from the Minnesota Voluntary Regional PRRS Elimination Project (RCP-N212 was used. Demography of premises (e.g. composition of farms with sows = SS and without sows = NSS was assessed by a repeated analysis of variance. By using general linear mixed-effects models, active participation of farms enrolled in the RCP-N212, defined as the decision to share (or not to share PRRS status, was evaluated and used as a predictor, along with other variables, to assess the PRRS trend over time. Additionally, spatial and temporal patterns of farmers' participation and the disease dynamics were investigated. The number of farms enrolled in RCP-N212 and its geographical coverage increased, but the proportion of SS and NSS did not vary significantly over time. A significant increasing (p<0.001 trend in farmers' decision to share PRRS status was observed, but with NSS producers less willing to report and a large variability between counties. The incidence of PRRS significantly (p<0.001 decreased, showing a negative correlation between degree of participation and occurrence of PRRS (p<0.001 and a positive correlation with farm density at the county level (p = 0.02. Despite a noted decrease in PRRS, significant spatio-temporal patterns of incidence of the disease over 3-weeks and 3-kms during the entire study period were identified. This study established a systematic approach to quantify the effect of RCPs on

  10. Chimeric viruses containing the N-terminal ectodomains of GP5 and M proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome do not change the cellular tropism of equine arteritis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are members of family Arteriviridae; they share many biological properties but differ significantly in cellular tropism. Using an infectious cDNA clone of EAV, we engineered a panel of six chimeric viruses b...

  11. A molecular clock dates the common ancestor of European-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus at more than 10 years before the emergence of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Roald; Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Krabbe Petersen, Anne Mette

    2001-01-01

    an accurate molecular clock for the European PRRSV ORF 3 gene, place the root in the genealogy, estimate the rate of nucleotide substitution, and date the most recent common viral ancestor of the data set to 1979; more than 10 years before the onset of the European epidemic. Based on these findings, we...... conclude that PRRSV virus most likely entered the pig population some time before the epidemic emergence of the virus, and hence, that emergence of European-type PRRSV is not the result of a recent species transmission event. Together, our results show that ORF3 sequencing is a valuable epidemiologic tool...... for examining the emergence and spread of PRRSV in Europe. As such, the panel of well-characterized and highly divergent ORF3 sequences described in this study provides a reference point for future molecular epidemiologic studies....

  12. Induction of T helper 3 regulatory cells by dendritic cells infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva-Campa, Erika; Flores-Mendoza, Lilian; Resendiz, Monica; Pinelli-Saavedra, Araceli; Mata-Haro, Veronica; Mwangi, Waithaka; Hernandez, Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Delayed development of virus-specific immune response has been observed in pigs infected with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Several studies support the hypothesis that the PRRSV is capable of modulating porcine immune system, but the mechanisms involved are yet to be defined. In this study, we evaluated the induction of T regulatory cells by PRRSV-infected dendritic cells (DCs). Our results showed that PRRSV-infected DCs significantly increased Foxp3 + CD25 + T cells, an effect that was reversible by IFN-α treatment, and this outcome was reproducible using two distinct PRRSV strains. Analysis of the expressed cytokines suggested that the induction of Foxp3 + CD25 + T cells is dependent on TGF-β but not IL-10. In addition, a significant up-regulation of Foxp3 mRNA, but not TBX21 or GATA3, was detected. Importantly, our results showed that the induced Foxp3 + CD25 + T cells were able to suppress the proliferation of PHA-stimulated PBMCs. The T cells induced by the PRRSV-infected DCs fit the Foxp3 + CD25 + T helper 3 (Th3) regulatory cell phenotype described in the literature. The induction of this cell phenotype depended, at least in part, on PRRSV viability because IFN-α treatment or virus inactivation reversed these effects. In conclusion, this data supports the hypothesis that the PRRSV succeeds to establish and replicate in porcine cells early post-infection, in part, by inducing Th3 regulatory cells as a mechanism of modulating the porcine immune system.

  13. Virus kan påvises i spyt fra grise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Pia R.; Christensen, Sanne; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2012-01-01

    Svinedyrlæger har muligheden for at udskifte blodprøveglas og kanyler med reb til indsamling af spyt. DTU Veterinærinstituttet har valideret metoderne til at teste spyt for PCV2, PRRS- og Influenza virus, og laboratoriet modtager nu spytprøver rutinemæssigt.......Svinedyrlæger har muligheden for at udskifte blodprøveglas og kanyler med reb til indsamling af spyt. DTU Veterinærinstituttet har valideret metoderne til at teste spyt for PCV2, PRRS- og Influenza virus, og laboratoriet modtager nu spytprøver rutinemæssigt....

  14. Infection of growing swine with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae — Effects on growth, serum metabolites, and insulin-like growth factor-I.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, N. Elizabeth; Almond, Glen W.

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of concomitant infections with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on growth performance, serum metabolite concentrations, and serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in growing pigs. Twenty-two barrows (10 weeks of age) were treated with either an intranasal administration of PRRSV and an intratracheal infusion of M. hyopneumoniae (treatment; n = 8) or a sham inoculation with medium (sham; n = 8), or w...

  15. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429): porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of PRRS to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of PRRS according...... before, also at collective level. The output is composed of the categorical answer, and for the questions where no consensus was reached, the different supporting views are reported. Details on the methodology used for this assessment are explained in a separate opinion. According to the assessment...

  16. Pathologic Evaluation of Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection at the Maternal-Fetal Interface of Late Gestation Pregnant Gilts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Novakovic

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of fetal death caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV remains unclear. The objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis by assessing potential relationships between specific histopathological lesions and PRRSV RNA concentration in the fetuses and the maternal-fetal interface. Pregnant gilts were inoculated with PRRSV (n = 114 or sham inoculated (n = 19 at 85±1 days of gestation. Dams and their litters were humanely euthanized and necropsied 21 days later. PRRSV RNA concentration was measured by qRT-PCR in the maternal-fetal interface and fetal thymus (n = 1391. Presence of fetal lesions was positively related to PRRSV RNA concentration in the maternal-fetal interface and fetal thymus (P<0.05 for both, but not to the distribution or severity of vasculitis, or the severity of endometrial inflammation. The presence of fetal and umbilical lesions was associated with greater odds of meconium staining (P<0.05 for both. The distribution and severity of vasculitis in endometrium were not significantly related to PRRSV RNA concentration in maternal-fetal interface or fetal thymus. Endometrial inflammation severity was positively related to distribution and severity of vasculitis in endometrium (P<0.001 for both. Conclusions from this study suggest that type 2 PRRSV infection in pregnant gilts induces significant histopathological lesions at maternal-fetal interface, but they are not associated with presence of PRRSV in the maternal-fetal interface at 21 days post infection. Conversely, fetal pathological lesions are associated with presence of PRRSV in the maternal-fetal interface and fetal thymus, and meconium staining is significantly associated with the presence of both fetal and umbilical lesions observed 21 days post infection.

  17. Pathologic Evaluation of Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection at the Maternal-Fetal Interface of Late Gestation Pregnant Gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Predrag; Harding, John C. S.; Al-Dissi, Ahmad N.; Ladinig, Andrea; Detmer, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of fetal death caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis by assessing potential relationships between specific histopathological lesions and PRRSV RNA concentration in the fetuses and the maternal-fetal interface. Pregnant gilts were inoculated with PRRSV (n = 114) or sham inoculated (n = 19) at 85±1 days of gestation. Dams and their litters were humanely euthanized and necropsied 21 days later. PRRSV RNA concentration was measured by qRT-PCR in the maternal-fetal interface and fetal thymus (n = 1391). Presence of fetal lesions was positively related to PRRSV RNA concentration in the maternal-fetal interface and fetal thymus (P<0.05 for both), but not to the distribution or severity of vasculitis, or the severity of endometrial inflammation. The presence of fetal and umbilical lesions was associated with greater odds of meconium staining (P<0.05 for both). The distribution and severity of vasculitis in endometrium were not significantly related to PRRSV RNA concentration in maternal-fetal interface or fetal thymus. Endometrial inflammation severity was positively related to distribution and severity of vasculitis in endometrium (P<0.001 for both). Conclusions from this study suggest that type 2 PRRSV infection in pregnant gilts induces significant histopathological lesions at maternal-fetal interface, but they are not associated with presence of PRRSV in the maternal-fetal interface at 21 days post infection. Conversely, fetal pathological lesions are associated with presence of PRRSV in the maternal-fetal interface and fetal thymus, and meconium staining is significantly associated with the presence of both fetal and umbilical lesions observed 21 days post infection. PMID:26963101

  18. TLR2 and TLR9 Synergistically Control Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in the Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Nørgaard; Reinert, Line; Malmgaard, Lene

    2008-01-01

    Viruses are recognized by the innate immune system through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). For instance, HSV virions and genomic DNA are recognized by TLR2 and TLR9, respectively. Although several viruses and viral components have been shown to stimulate cells through TLRs, only very few st...

  19. Porcine, murine and human sialoadhesin (Sn/Siglec-1/CD169): portals for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus entry into target cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Breedam, Wander; Verbeeck, Mieke; Christiaens, Isaura; Van Gorp, Hanne; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-09-01

    Porcine sialoadhesin (pSn; a sialic acid-binding lectin) and porcine CD163 (pCD163) are molecules that facilitate infectious entry of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) into alveolar macrophages. In this study, it was shown that murine Sn (mSn) and human Sn (hSn), like pSn, can promote PRRSV infection of pCD163-expressing cells. Intact sialic acid-binding domains are crucial, since non-sialic acid-binding mutants of pSn, mSn and hSn did not promote infection. Endodomain-deletion mutants of pSn, mSn and hSn promoted PRRSV infection less efficiently, but also showed markedly reduced expression levels, making further research into the potential role of the Sn endodomain in PRRSV receptor activity necessary. These data further complement our knowledge on Sn as an important PRRSV receptor, and suggest - in combination with other published data - that species differences in the main PRRSV entry mediators Sn and CD163 do not account for the strict host species specificity displayed by the virus.

  20. Interferon alpha inhibits replication of a live-attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine preventing development of an adaptive immune response in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeier, Susan L; Loving, Crystal L; Eberle, Kirsten C; Hau, Samantha J; Buckley, Alexandra; Van Geelen, Albert; Montiel, Nestor A; Nicholson, Tracy; Lager, Kelly M

    2017-12-01

    Type I interferons, such as interferon alpha (IFN-α), contribute to innate antiviral immunity by promoting production of antiviral mediators and are also involved in promoting an adaptive immune response. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most devastating and costly viruses to the swine industry world-wide and has been shown to induce a meager IFN-α response. Previously we administered porcine IFN-α using a replication-defective adenovirus vector (Ad5-IFN-α) at the time of challenge with virulent PRRSV and demonstrated an increase in the number of virus-specific IFNγ secreting cells, indicating that the presence of IFN-α at the time of infection can alter the adaptive immune responses to PRRSV. In the current experiment, we explored the use of IFN-α as an adjuvant administered with live-attenuated PRRSV vaccine as a method to enhance immune response to the vaccine. Unlike the previous studies with fully virulent virus, one injection of the Ad5-IFN-α abolished replication of the vaccine virus and as a result there was no detectible adaptive immune response. Although IFN-α did not have the desired adjuvant effect, the results further highlight the use of IFN-α as a treatment for PRRSV infection. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Spatial analysis and temporal trends of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Denmark from 2007 to 2010 based on laboratory submission data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl

    2015-01-01

    of PRRSV in Danish swine herds from 2007 to 2010, based on type-specific serological tests from the PRRS surveillance and control program in Denmark using the results stored in the information management system at the National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU Vet). The average......Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has been a cause for great concern to the Danish pig industry since it was first diagnosed in 1992. The causative agent of PRRS is an RNA virus which is divided into different genotypes. The clinical signs, as well as its morbidity and mortality...

  2. Porcine reproductive and respiratory disease virus: evolution and recombination yields distinct ORF5 RFLP 1-7-4 viruses with individual pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent cases of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in United States swineherds have been associated with high mortality in piglets and severe morbidity in sows. Analysis of the ORF5 gene from such clinical cases revealed a unique restriction fragment polymorphism (...

  3. Gradual development of the interferon-γ response of swine to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection or vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, William A.; Galeota, Judy; Osorio, Fernando A.; Husmann, Robert J.; Schnitzlein, William M.; Zuckermann, Federico A.

    2003-01-01

    Infection of swine with virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus induced a rapid, robust antibody response that comprised predominantly nonneutralizing antibodies and waned after approximately 3 months. In contrast, the initial onset of virus-specific interferon (IFN)-γ-secreting cells (SC) in the pig lymphocyte population remained at a fairly low level during this period and then increased gradually in frequency, plateauing at 6 months postinfection. A similar polarization of the host humoral and cellular immune responses was also observed in pigs immunized with a PRRS-modified live virus (MLV) vaccine. Even coadministration of an adjuvant that enhanced the immune response to a pseudorabies (PR) MLV vaccine failed to alter the induction of PRRS virus-specific IFN-γ SC (comprising predominately CD4/CD8α double positive memory T cells with a minority being typical CD4 - /CD8αβ + T cells) and the generation of neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, unlike inactivated PR virus, nonviable PRRS virus did not elicit virus-neutralizing antibody production. Presumably, an intrinsic property of this pathogen delays the development of the host IFN-γ response and preferentially stimulates the synthesis of antibodies incapable of neutralization

  4. Emerging of two new subgenotypes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoya; Xu, Xiaojie; You, Shumei; Li, Yufeng; Wang, Haiyan; Bai, Juan; Jiang, Ping

    2016-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the leading swine pathogens and causes major economic loss to the global swine industry. In this study, a total of 49 PRRSV isolates were collected from different swine herds in seven provinces in Southeast China from 2014 to 2015. All the ORF5 genes and some Nsp2 genes were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the isolates belonged to the North America genotype. Among them, five isolates formed a new subgenotype IV derived from highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV). Six isolates formed subgenotype III, which were closely related to the NADC30 strain in the US. These isolates formed 13 putative N-linked glycosylation site (NGS) patterns based on N30, 33, 34, 35, 44 and 51. There were fewer NGSs of isolates in subgenotype IV than in subgenotype III. This indicates that the two new subgenotypes of PRRSV strains with different NGS patterns were spreading in those regions of China. The genetic diversity should be considered for the control and prevention of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quasispecies variation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus during natural infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Tony L.; Lowe, James F.; Milburn, Suzanne M.; Firkins, Lawrence D.

    2003-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) displays notorious genetic, antigenic, and clinical variability. Little is known, however, about the nature and extent of viral variation present within naturally infected animals. By amplifying and cloning the open reading frame 5 gene from tonsils of naturally infected swine, and by sequencing individual clones, we characterized viral diversity in nine animals from two farms. All animals harbored multiple PRRSV variants at both the nucleic and the amino acid levels. Structural variation and rates of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution were no different within known epitopes than elsewhere. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that differences between farms, among animals within farms, and within individual animals accounted for 92.94, 3.84, and 3.22% of the total viral genetic variability observed, respectively. PRRSV exists during natural infection as a quasispecies distribution of related genotypes. Positive natural selection for immune evasiveness does not appear to maintain this diversity

  6. Isolation and identification of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valícek, L; Psikal, I; Smíd, B; Rodák, L; Kubalíková, R; Kosinová, E

    1997-10-01

    Three strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were isolated in porcine lung macrophage (PLM) cultures from three swine herds. This has been the first successful isolation of PRRSV in the Czech Republic and the strains received the designations CAPM V-501, CAPM V-502 and CAPM V-503, respectively. All the three isolates in PLM were identified by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests and the strain CAPM V-502 also by electron microscopy using the ultrathin section technique. The strain CAPM V-502 has been adapted to the cell line MARC-145. Viral RNA in PLM cultures infected with any of the isolated PRRSV strains was demonstrated by RT-PCR targeted to the more conserved ORF 7 genomic region encoding the nucleocapsid protein. The assessment of PCR products in agarose gel revealed a uniform size of 394 bp in all the three isolates and the European prototype strain Lelystad used as positive control.

  7. Glycoprotein 5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain SD16 inhibits viral replication and causes G2/M cell cycle arrest, but does not induce cellular apoptosis in Marc-145 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Yang; Li, Liangliang; Zhang, Beibei; Huang, Baicheng; Gao, Jiming

    2015-01-01

    Cell apoptosis is common after infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). PRRSV GP5 has been reported to induce cell apoptosis. To further understand the role of GP5 in PRRSV induced cell apoptosis, we established Marc-145 cell lines stably expressing full-length GP5, GP5 Δ84-96 (aa 84-96 deletion), and GP5 Δ97-119 (aa 97-119 deletion). Cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, cell apoptosis and virus replication in these cell lines were evaluated. Neither truncated nor full-length GP5 induced cell apoptosis in Marc-145 cells. However, GP5 Δ97-119 , but not full-length or GP5 Δ84-96 , induced a cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase resulting in a reduction in the growth of Marc-145 cells. Additionally, GP5 Δ84-96 inhibited the replication of PRRSV in Marc-145 cells through induction of IFN-β. These findings suggest that PRRSV GP5 is not responsible for inducing cell apoptosis in Marc-145 cells under these experimental conditions; however it has other important roles in virus/host cell biology. - Highlights: • Marc-145 cell lines stable expression PRRSV GP5 or truncated GP5 were constructed. • GP5 Δ97-119 expression in Marc-145 cell induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. • Expression of GP5 and truncated GP5 could not induce Marc-145 cells apoptosis. • PRRSV replication in Marc-145-GP5 Δ84-96 was significantly inhibited

  8. Reversion of a live porcine reproductive and respiratory virus vaccine investigated by parallel mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette S.; Oleksiewicz, Martin B; Forsberg, R

    2001-01-01

    A live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus has been shown to revert to virulence under field conditions. In order to identify genetic virulence determinants, ORF1 from the attenuated vaccine virus and three Danish vaccine-derived field isolates was sequen......A live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus has been shown to revert to virulence under field conditions. In order to identify genetic virulence determinants, ORF1 from the attenuated vaccine virus and three Danish vaccine-derived field isolates...... in the vaccine virus sequence during cell-culture adaptation. Evaluation of the remaining mutations in the ORF1 sequence revealed stronger selective pressure for amino acid conservation during spread in pigs than during vaccine production. Furthermore, it was found that the selective pressure did not change...

  9. Reversion of a live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine investigated by parallel mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette S.; Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Forsberg, R.

    2001-01-01

    A live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus has been shown to revert to virulence under field conditions. In order to identify genetic virulence determinants, ORF1 from the attenuated vaccine virus and three Danish vaccine-derived field isolates was sequen......A live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus has been shown to revert to virulence under field conditions. In order to identify genetic virulence determinants, ORF1 from the attenuated vaccine virus and three Danish vaccine-derived field isolates...... in the vaccine virus sequence during cell-culture adaptation. Evaluation of the remaining mutations in the ORF1 sequence revealed stronger selective pressure for amino acid conservation during spread in pigs than during vaccine production. Furthermore, it was found that the selective pressure did not change...

  10. High frequency RNA recombination in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus occurs preferentially between parental sequences with high similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vugt, Joke .J.F.A.; Storgaard, Torben; Oleksiewicz, Martin B.

    2001-01-01

    Two types of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) exist, a North American type and a European type. The co-existence of both types in some countries, such as Denmark, Slovakia and Canada, creates a risk of inter-type recombination. To evaluate this risk, cell cultures were co......, but no recombination was detected between the European and North American types. Calculation of the maximum theoretical risk of European-American recombination, based on the sensitivity of the RT-PCR system, revealed that RNA recombination between the European and North American types of PRRSV is at least 10000 times...

  11. Efficacy of Antimicrobial Treatments and Vaccination Regimens for Control of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Streptococcus suis Coinfection of Nursery Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbur, P.; Thanawongnuwech, R.; Brown, G.; Kinyon, J.; Roth, J.; Thacker, E.; Thacker, B.

    2000-01-01

    Seventy-six, crossbred, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-free pigs were weaned at 12 days of age and randomly assigned to seven groups of 10 to 11 pigs each. Pigs in group 1 served as unchallenged controls. Pigs in groups 2 to 7 were challenged intranasally with 2 ml of high-virulence PRRSV isolate VR-2385 (104.47 50% tissue culture infective doses per 2 ml) on day 0 of the study (30 days of age). Seven days after PRRSV challenge, pigs in groups 2 to 7 were challenged intranasally with 2 ml of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (108.30 CFU/2 ml). Group 2 pigs served as untreated positive controls. Antimicrobial treatments included daily intramuscular injection with 66,000 IU of procaine penicillin G per kg of body weight on days 8 to 10 (group 3), drinking water medication with 23.1 mg of tiamulin per kg during days 8 to 10 (group 4), and daily intramuscular injection of 5.0 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride per kg on days 8 to 10 (group 5). Vaccination regimens included two intramuscular doses of an autogenous killed S. suis vaccine (group 6) prior to S. suis challenge or a single 2-ml intramuscular dose of an attenuated live PRRSV vaccine (group 7) 2 weeks prior to PRRSV challenge. Mortality was 0, 63, 45, 54, 9, 40, and 81% in groups 1 to 7, respectively. Ceftiofur treatment was the only regimen that significantly (P < 0.05) reduced mortality associated with PRRSV and S. suis coinfection. The other treatments and vaccinations were less effective. We conclude that ceftiofur administered by injection for three consecutive days following S. suis challenge was the most effective regimen for minimizing disease associated with PRRSV and S. suis coinfection. PMID:10699012

  12. The assessment of efficacy of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine based on the viral quantity and inactivation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Byeongchun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many efforts to develop efficient vaccines for the control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. Although inactivated PRRSV vaccines are preferred for their safety, they are weak at inducing humoral immune responses and controlling field PRRSV infection, especially when heterologous viruses are involved. Results In all groups, the sample to positive (S/P ratio of IDEXX ELISA and the virus neutralization (VN titer remained negative until challenge. While viremia did not reduce in the vaccinated groups, the IDEXX-ELISA-specific immunoglobulin G increased more rapidly and to significantly greater levels 7 days after the challenge in all the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups (p 6 PFU/mL PRRSV vaccine-inoculated and binary ethylenimine (BEI-inactivated groups 22 days after challenge (p Conclusions The inactivated vaccine failed to show the humoral immunity, but it showed different immune response after the challenge compared to mock group. Although the 106 PFU/mL-vaccinated and BEI-inactivated groups showed significantly greater VN titers 22 days after challenge, all the groups were already negative for viremia.

  13. Interferon alpha inhibits viral replication of a live-attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine preventing development of an adaptive immune response in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Type I interferons, such as interferon alpha (IFNa), contribute to innate antiviral immunity by promoting production of antiviral mediators and are also involved in promoting an adaptive immune response. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most devastating and c...

  14. Analysis of ORF 1 in European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by long RT-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H. S.; Storgaard, Torben; Oleksiewicz, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    A rapid method was developed for partial characterization of the replicase-encoding open reading frame 1 (ORF 1) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). It comprised long RT-PCR amplification of 11.1 kb (94%) of ORF 1, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism a...

  15. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: Interlaboratory ring trial to evaluate real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction detection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dauber, Malte

    2012-01-01

    To compare the real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays used for the diagnosis of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a Europe-wide interlaboratory ring trial was conducted. A variety of PRRSV strains including North American...... (NA) and European (EU) genotype isolates were analyzed by the participants. Great differences regarding qualitative diagnostics as well as analytical sensitivity were observed between the individual RT-qPCR systems, especially when investigating strains from the EU genotype. None of the assays...

  16. In-Depth Global Analysis of Transcript Abundance Levels in Porcine Alveolar Macrophages Following Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is a major pathogen of swine worldwide and causes considerable economic loss. Identifying specific cell signaling or activation pathways that associate with variation in PRRSV replication and macrophage function may lead to identification of novel gene targets for the control of PRRSV infection. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE was used to create and survey the transcriptome of in vitro mock-infected and PRRSV strain VR-2332-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM at 0, 6, 12, 16, and 24 hours after infection. The transcriptome data indicated changes in transcript abundance occurring in PRRSV-infected PAMs over time after infection with more than 590 unique tags with significantly altered transcript abundance levels identified (P<.01. Strikingly, innate immune genes (whose transcript abundances are typically altered in response to other pathogens or insults including IL-8, CCL4, and IL-1β showed no or very little change at any time point following infection.

  17. Whole Genome Analysis of Two Novel Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses with Complex Genome Recombination between Lineage 8, 3, and 1 Strains Identified in Southwestern China

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    Long Zhou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recombination among porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs is thought to contribute to the emergence of new PRRSV variants. In this study, two newly emerged PRRSV strains, designated SCcd16 and SCya17, are isolated from lung tissues of piglets in Southwestern China. Genome comparative analysis reveals that SCcd16/SCya17 exhibit 93.1%/93.2%, 86.9%/87.0%, 85.3%/85.7%, and 83.6%/82.0% nucleotide similarity to PRRSVs JXA1, VR-2332, QYYZ and NADC30, respectively. They only exhibit 44.8%/45.1% sequence identity with LV (PRRSV-1, indicating that both emergent strains belong to the PRRSV-2 genotype. Genomic sequence alignment shows that SCcd16 and SCya17 have the same discontinuous 30-amino acid (aa deletion in Nsp2 of the highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strain JXA1, when compared to strain VR-2332. Notably, SCya17 shows a unique 5-nt deletion in its 3’-UTR. Phylogenetic analysis shows that both of the isolates are classified in the QYYZ-like lineage based on ORF5 genotyping, whereas they appear to constitute an inter-lineage between JXA1-like and QYYZ-like lineages based on their genomic sequences. Furthermore, recombination analyses reveal that the two newly emerged PRRSV isolates share the same novel recombination pattern. They have both likely originated from multiple recombination events between lineage 8 (JXA1-like, lineage 1 (NADC30-like, and lineage 3 (QYYZ-like strains that have circulated in China recently. The genomic data from SCcd16 and SCya17 indicate that there is on going evolution of PRRSV field strains through genetic recombination, leading to outbreaks in the pig populations in Southwestern China.

  18. Pathogenesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: evaluation of the expression of cytokines and apoptosis phenomena in lymphoid organs and their role in the immune response

    OpenAIRE

    Barranco Cabezudo, Inmaculada

    2011-01-01

    El Síndrome Reproductivo y Respiratorio Porcino (PRRS, del inglés Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome) es una enfermedad vírica caracterizada por inducir una respuesta inmune errática en el hospedador y es considerada como una de las enfermedades más importantes en la industria del porcino debido a las importantes pérdidas económicas que provoca. A pesar de que varios estudios se han realizado con el objetivo de elucidar la respuesta inmune provocada frente al virus del PRRS (PRRSV,...

  19. Generation of an infectious clone of VR-2332, a highly virulent North American type isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H.S.; Liu, G.; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone of the prototypical North American porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolate VR-2332 was assembled in the plasmid vector pOK(12). To rescue infectious virus, capped RNA was transcribed in vitro from the pOK(12) clone and transfected into BHK-21C...... cells. The supernatant from transfected monolayers were serially passaged on Marc-145 cells and porcine pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Infectious PRRSV was recovered on Marc-145 cells as well as porcine pulmonary macrophages; thus, the cloned virus exhibited the same cell tropism as the parental VR......-2332 strain. However, the cloned virus was clearly distinguishable from the parental VR-2332 strain by an engineered marker, a BstZ171 restriction site. The full-length cDNA clone had 11 nucleotide changes, 2 of which affected coding, compared to the parental VR-2332 strain. Additionally...

  20. Mutations within the nuclear localization signal of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein attenuate virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Changhee; Hodgins, Douglas; Calvert, Jay G.; Welch, Siao-Kun W.; Jolie, Rika; Yoo, Dongwan

    2006-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an RNA virus replicating in the cytoplasm, but the nucleocapsid (N) protein is specifically localized to the nucleus and nucleolus in virus-infected cells. A 'pat7' motif of 41-PGKK(N/S)KK has previously been identified in the N protein as the functional nuclear localization signal (NLS); however, the biological consequences of N protein nuclear localization are unknown. In the present study, the role of N protein nuclear localization during infection was investigated in pigs using an NLS-null mutant virus. When two lysines at 43 and 44 at the NLS locus were substituted to glycines, the modified NLS with 41-PGGGNKK restricted the N protein to the cytoplasm. This NLS-null mutation was introduced into a full-length infectious cDNA clone of PRRSV. Upon transfection of cells, the NLS-null full-length clone induced cytopathic effects and produced infectious progeny. The NLS-null virus grew to a titer 100-fold lower than that of wild-type virus. To examine the response to NLS-null PRRSV in the natural host, three groups of pigs, consisting of seven animals per group, were intranasally inoculated with wild-type, placebo, or NLS-null virus, and the animals were maintained for 4 weeks. The NLS-null-infected pigs had a significantly shorter mean duration of viremia than wild-type-infected pigs but developed significantly higher titers of neutralizing antibodies. Mutations occurred at the NLS locus in one pig during viremia, and four types of mutations were identified: 41-PGRGNKK, 41-PGGRNKK, and 41-PGRRNKK, and 41-PGKKSKK. Both wild-type and NLS-null viruses persisted in the tonsils for at least 4 weeks, and the NLS-null virus persisting in the tonsils was found to be mutated to either 41-PGRGNKK or 41-PGGRNKK in all pigs. No other mutation was found in the N gene. All types of reversions which occurred during viremia and persistence were able to translocate the mutated N proteins to the nucleus, indicating a

  1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Interacts with Nsp9 and Cellular DHX9 To Regulate Viral RNA Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Tian, Jiao; Nan, Hao; Tian, Mengmeng; Li, Yuan; Xu, Xiaodong; Huang, Baicheng; Zhou, Enmin; Hiscox, Julian A; Chen, Hongying

    2016-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein is the main component of the viral capsid to encapsulate viral RNA, and it is also a multifunctional protein involved in the regulation of host cell processes. Nonstructural protein 9 (Nsp9) is the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that plays a critical role in viral RNA transcription and replication. In this study, we demonstrate that PRRSV N protein is bound to Nsp9 by protein-protein interaction and that the contacting surface on Nsp9 is located in the two predicted α-helixes formed by 48 residues at the C-terminal end of the protein. Mutagenesis analyses identified E646, E608, and E611 on Nsp9 and Q85 on the N protein as the pivotal residues participating in the N-Nsp9 interaction. By overexpressing the N protein binding fragment of Nsp9 in infected Marc-145 cells, the synthesis of viral RNAs, as well as the production of infectious progeny viruses, was dramatically inhibited, suggesting that Nsp9-N protein association is involved in the process of viral RNA production. In addition, we show that PRRSV N interacts with cellular RNA helicase DHX9 and redistributes the protein into the cytoplasm. Knockdown of DHX9 increased the ratio of short subgenomic mRNAs (sgmRNAs); in contrast, DHX9 overexpression benefited the synthesis of longer sgmRNAs and the viral genomic RNA (gRNA). These results imply that DHX9 is recruited by the N protein in PRRSV infection to regulate viral RNA synthesis. We postulate that N and DHX9 may act as antiattenuation factors for the continuous elongation of nascent transcript during negative-strand RNA synthesis. It is unclear whether the N protein of PRRSV is involved in regulation of the viral RNA production process. In this report, we demonstrate that the N protein of the arterivirus PRRSV participates in viral RNA replication and transcription through interacting with Nsp9 and its RdRp and recruiting cellular RNA helicase to promote the production of

  2. Quasispecies evolution of the prototypical genotype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus early during in vivo infection is rapid and tissue specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zen H; Wang, Xinglong; Wilson, Alison D; Dorey-Robinson, Daniel L W; Archibald, Alan L; Ait-Ali, Tahar; Frossard, Jean-Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major infectious threat to the pig industry worldwide. Increasing evidence suggests that microevolution within a quasispecies population can give rise to high sequence heterogeneity in PRRSV; potentially impacting the pathogenicity of the virus. Here, we report on micro-evolutionary events taking place within the viral quasispecies population in lung and lymph node 3 days post infection (dpi) following experimental in vivo infection with the prototypical Lelystad PRRSV (LV). Sequence analysis revealed 16 high frequency single nucleotide variants (SNV) or differences from the reference LV genome which are assumed to be representative of the consensus inoculum genome. Additionally, 49 other low frequency SNVs were also found in the inoculum population. At 3 dpi, a total of 9 and 10 SNVs of varying frequencies could already be detected in the LV population infecting the lung and lymph nodes, respectively. Interestingly, of these, three and four novel SNVs emerged independently in the two respective tissues when compared to the inoculum. The remaining variants, though already present at lower frequencies in the inoculum, were positively selected and their frequency increased within the quasispecies population. Hence, we were able to determine directly from tissues infected with PRRSV the repertoire of genetic variants within the viral quasispecies population. Our data also suggest that microevolution of these variants is rapid and some may be tissue-specific.

  3. Evasion of Cytosolic DNA-Stimulated Innate Immune Responses by Herpes Simplex Virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunfu

    2018-03-15

    Recognition of virus-derived nucleic acids by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is crucial for early defense against viral infections. Recent studies revealed that PRRs also include several newly identified DNA sensors, most of which could activate the downstream adaptor stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and lead to the production of host antiviral factors. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is extremely successful in establishing effective infections, due to its capacity to counteract host innate antiviral responses. In this Gem, I summarize the most recent findings on the molecular mechanisms utilized by HSV-1 to target different steps of the cellular DNA-sensor-mediated antiviral signal pathway. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Comparison of 3 vaccination strategies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and porcine circovirus type 2 on a 3 pathogen challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jiwoon; Kang, Ikjae; Kim, Seeun; Park, Kee Hwan; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare clinical, microbiologic, immunologic, and pathologic parameters in pigs each concurrently administered porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine from 1 of 2 commercial sources at 21 days of age and challenged with field strains of each of the 3 pathogens. Pigs were challenged with PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae at 42 days of age (-14 days post-challenge, dpc) followed by a challenge with PCV2 at 56 days of age (0 dpc). Significant differences were observed between vaccinated challenged and unvaccinated challenged groups in clinical (average daily gain and clinical signs), microbiologic (viremia and nasal shedding), immunologic (antibodies and interferon-γ secreting cells), and pathologic (lesions) outcomes. Significant differences were observed among the 3 vaccinated challenged groups in microbiologic (nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae and viremia of PCV2) and immunologic ( M. hyopneumoniae - and PCV2-specific interferon-γ secreting cells) outcomes. The vaccination regimen for PRRSV vaccine, M. hyopneumoniae vaccine, and PCV2 vaccine is efficacious for controlling triple challenge with PRRSV, M. hyopneumoniae, and PCV2 from weaning to finishing period.

  5. Applications of Bayesian Phylodynamic Methods in a Recent U.S. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Alkhamis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Classical phylogenetic methods such as neighbor-joining or maximum likelihood trees, provide limited inferences about the evolution of important pathogens and ignore important evolutionary parameters and uncertainties, which in turn limits decision making related to surveillance, control and prevention resources. Bayesian phylodynamic models have recently been used to test research hypothesis related to evolution of infectious agents. However, few studies have attempted to model the evolutionary dynamics of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and, to the authors’ knowledge, no attempt has been made to use large volumes of routinely collected data, sometimes referred to as big data, in the context of animal disease surveillance. The objective of this study was to explore and discuss the applications of Bayesian phylodynamic methods for modeling the evolution and spread of a notable 1-7-4 RFLP-type PRRSV between 2014 and 2015. A convenience sample of 288 ORF5 sequences was collected from 5 swine production systems in the United States between September 2003 and March 2015. Using coalescence and discrete trait phylodynamic models, we were able to infer population growth and demographic history of the virus, identified the most likely ancestral system (root state posterior probability = 0.95 and revealed significant dispersal routes (Bayes factor > 6 of viral exchange among systems. Results indicate that currently circulating viruses are evolving rapidly, and show a higher level of relative genetic diversity over time, when compared to earlier relatives. Biological soundness of model results is supported by the finding that sow farms were responsible for PRRSV spread within the systems. Such results can’t be obtained by traditional phylogenetic methods, and therefore, our results provide a methodological framework for molecular epidemiological modeling of new PRRSV outbreaks and demonstrate the prospects of phylodynamic

  6. Estimating Parameters Related to the Lifespan of Passively Transferred and Vaccine-Induced Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Type I Antibodies by Modeling Field Data

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    Mathieu Andraud

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The outputs of epidemiological models are strongly related to the structure of the model and input parameters. The latter are defined by fitting theoretical concepts to actual data derived from field or experimental studies. However, some parameters may remain difficult to estimate and are subject to uncertainty or sensitivity analyses to determine their variation range and their global impact on model outcomes. As such, the evaluation of immunity duration is often a puzzling issue requiring long-term follow-up data that are, most of time, not available. The present analysis aims at characterizing the kinetics of antibodies against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv from longitudinal data sets. The first data set consisted in the serological follow-up of 22 vaccinated gilts during 21 weeks post-vaccination (PV. The second one gathered the maternally derived antibodies (MDAs kinetics in piglets from three different farms up to 14 weeks of age. The peak of the PV serological response against PRRSv was reached 6.9 weeks PV on average with an average duration of antibodies persistence of 26.5 weeks. In the monitored cohort of piglets, the duration of passive immunity was found relatively short, with an average duration of 4.8 weeks. The level of PRRSv-MDAs was found correlated with the dams’ antibody titer at birth, and the antibody persistence was strongly related to the initial MDAs titers in piglets. These results evidenced the importance of PRRSv vaccination schedule in sows, to optimize the delivery of antibodies to suckling piglets. These estimates of the duration of active and passive immunity could be further used as input parameters of epidemiological models to analyze their impact on the persistence of PRRSv within farms.

  7. Histologic Changes Associated With Placental Separation in Gilts Infected with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Predrag; Detmer, Susan E; Suleman, Muhammad; Malgarin, Carol M; MacPhee, Daniel J; Harding, John C S

    2018-07-01

    The placenta is a vital organ providing the developing fetus with nutrient and gas exchange, thermoregulation, and waste elimination necessary for fetal development, as well as producing hormones to maintain pregnancy. It is hypothesized that fetal pig death in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome may be attributed to pathology of the maternal-fetal interface leading to premature placental separation. This study was designed to evaluate the chronologic progression of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-induced lesions at the maternal-fetal interface, with particular focus on placental separation in experimentally challenged third-trimester gilts. Fifteen gilts were inoculated with a virulent strain of PRRSV-2 on gestation day 86 ± 0.4. On multiple days postinoculation, 3 gilts along with 1 sham-inoculated control per time point were euthanized, and uterine and fetal placental tissues corresponding to each fetus were collected for histopathologic evaluation. The presence of any fetal lesion was 23 times more likely in compromised (meconium-stained and decomposed) compared with viable fetuses ( P < .001). In PRRSV-infected gilts, endometritis was more severe than placentitis, and the severity of endometrial inflammation and vasculitis increased progressively from 2 to 14 days postinoculation. Neither placental vasculitis nor a chronologic progression in the severity of placental detachment was observed. Severe placental detachment was more frequently present in PRRSV-infected compared with noninfected samples and was most significantly associated with placental inflammation, compared with other uterine lesions, viral load, or termination day. The results of this study suggest that placental separation by itself is not sufficient to significantly compromise fetal viability in reproductive porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome.

  8. Xenoepitope substitution avoids deceptive imprinting and broadens the immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanek, Steven M; Barrette, Roger W; Rood, Debra; Alejo, Diana; Silbart, Lawrence K

    2012-04-01

    Many RNA viruses encode error-prone polymerases which introduce mutations into B and T cell epitopes, providing a mechanism for immunological escape. When regions of hypervariability are found within immunodominant epitopes with no known function, they are referred to as "decoy epitopes," which often deceptively imprint the host's immune response. In this work, a decoy epitope was identified in the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O VP1 G-H loop after multiple sequence alignment of 118 isolates. A series of chimeric cyclic peptides resembling the type O G-H loop were prepared, each bearing a defined "B cell xenoepitope" from another virus in place of the native decoy epitope. These sequences were derived from porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV), from HIV, or from a presumptively tolerogenic sequence from murine albumin and were subsequently used as immunogens in BALB/c mice. Cross-reactive antibody responses against all peptides were compared to a wild-type peptide and ovalbumin (OVA). A broadened antibody response was generated in animals inoculated with the PRRSV chimeric peptide, in which virus binding of serum antibodies was also observed. A B cell epitope mapping experiment did not reveal recognition of any contiguous linear epitopes, raising the possibility that the refocused response was directed to a conformational epitope. Taken together, these results indicate that xenoepitope substitution is a novel method for immune refocusing against decoy epitopes of RNA viruses such as FMDV as part of the rational design of next-generation vaccines.

  9. Estimation of Time-Dependent Reproduction Numbers for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome across Different Regions and Production Systems of the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Andréia G; Alkhamis, Moh A; VanderWaal, Kimberly; Morrison, Robert B; Perez, Andres M

    2017-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is, arguably, the most impactful disease for the North American swine industry, due to its known considerable economic losses. The Swine Health Monitoring Project (SHMP) monitors and reports weekly new PRRS cases in 766 sow herds across the US. The time-dependent reproduction number (TD-R) is a measure of a pathogen's transmissibility. It may serve to capture and report PRRS virus (PRRSV) spread at the regional and system levels. The primary objective of the study here was to estimate the TD-R values for PRRSV using regional and system-level PRRS data, and to contrast it with commonly used metrics of disease, such as incidence estimates and space-time clusters. The second objective was to test whether the estimated TD-Rs were homogenous across four US regions. Retrospective monthly incidence data (2009-2016) were available from the SHMP. The dataset was divided into four regions based on location of participants, and demographic and environmental features, namely, South East (North Carolina), Upper Midwest East (UME, Minnesota/Iowa), Upper Midwest West (Nebraska/South Dakota), and South (Oklahoma panhandle). Generation time distributions were fit to incidence data for each region, and used to calculate the TD-Rs. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine whether the median TD-Rs differed across the four areas. Furthermore, we used a space-time permutation model to assess spatial-temporal patterns for the four regions. Results showed TD-Rs were right skewed with median values close to "1" across all regions, confirming that PRRS has an overall endemic nature. Variation in the TD-R patterns was noted across regions and production systems. Statistically significant periods of PRRSV spread (TD-R > 1) were identified for all regions except UME. A minimum of three space-time clusters were detected for all regions considering the time period examined herein; and their overlap with "spreader events" identified by

  10. Multi-resistance strategy for viral diseases and short hairpin RNA verification method in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-nam Oh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Foot and mouth disease (FMD and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS are major diseases that interrupt porcine production. Because they are viral diseases, vaccinations are of only limited effectiveness in preventing outbreaks. To establish an alternative multi-resistant strategy against FMD virus (FMDV and PRRS virus (PRRSV, the present study introduced two genetic modification techniques to porcine cells. Methods First, cluster of differentiation 163 (CD163, the PRRSV viral receptor, was edited with the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated protein 9 technique. The CD163 gene sequences of edited cells and control cells differed. Second, short hairpin RNA (shRNAs were integrated into the cells. The shRNAs, targeting the 3D gene of FMDV and the open reading frame 7 (ORF7 gene of PRRSV, were transferred into fibroblasts. We also developed an in vitro shRNA verification method with a target gene expression vector. Results shRNA activity was confirmed in vitro with vectors that expressed the 3D and ORF7 genes in the cells. Cells containing shRNAs showed lower transcript levels than cells with only the expression vectors. The shRNAs were integrated into CD163-edited cells to combine the two techniques, and the viral genes were suppressed in these cells. Conclusion We established a multi-resistant strategy against viral diseases and an in vitro shRNA verification method.

  11. Síndrome reprodutiva e respiratória dos suínos: uma breve revisão Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Kreutz

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome reprodutiva e respiratória dos suínos (Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome - PRRS é uma doença relativamente nova dos suínos que foi detectada primeiramente em 1985 nos Estados Unidos, e em 1990 no continente Europeu. A síndrome é causada pelo PRRS vírus (PRRSV, o qual foi incluído em uma nova família de vírus, a Arteriviridae. A infecção pelo PRRSV causa problemas reprodutivos em fêmeas gestantes, o quais são caracterizados por abortos no final da gestação e/ou parto precoce, onde pode-se observar um elevado numero de fetos mumificados e natimortos; leitões que nascem infectados são fracos e economicamente inviáveis. Os problemas respiratórios causados pela infecção pelo PRRSV podem se manifestar em suínos de todas as faixas etárias, e são semelhantes a influenza. Embora PRRS tem sido detectada na maioria dos países em que a suinocultura tem importância econômica significativa, não há informações publicadas a respeito da doença ou do vírus no Brasil. No entanto, devido as perdas econômicas significativas que essa síndrome causou nos países já afetados, e da possibilidade do vírus ser eventualmente introduzido nos rebanhos brasileiros, é necessário reconhecer a doença imediatamente, e tomar as devidas medidas para o diagnóstico e controle em casos de surtos de problemas reprodutivos e respiratórios.Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a relatively new disease of swine that emerged in the United States in the late 1980s and in Europe in 1990. The syndrome is caused by a virus, the PRRS virus (PRRSV which has been included into a newly proposed family of viruses, the Arteriviridae. Infection by PRRSV causes reproductive failure in pregnant females, characterized by late term abortion and early farowing, and an increased number of mummified and stillborn fetuses; newborn infected piglets are usually weak and unthrifty. Respiratory distress caused by PRRSV infection

  12. Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane association of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP4 glycoprotein and its co-localization with CD163 in lipid rafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Yijun [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding, Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan (China); Pattnaik, Asit K. [School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and the Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0900 (United States); Song, Cheng [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Yoo, Dongwan, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.edu [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Li, Gang, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.edu [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-03-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) glycoprotein 4 (GP4) resembles a typical type I membrane protein in its structure but lacks a hydrophilic tail at the C-terminus, suggesting that GP4 may be a lipid-anchored membrane protein. Using the human decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55), a known glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid-anchored protein, chimeric constructs were made to substitute the GPI-anchor domain of DAF with the putative lipid-anchor domain of GP4, and their membrane association and lipase cleavage were determined in cells. The DAF-GP4 fusion protein was transported to the plasma membrane and was cleaved by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), indicating that the C-terminal domain of GP4 functions as a GPI anchor. Mutational studies for residues adjacent to the GPI modification site and characterization of respective mutant viruses generated from infectious cDNA clones show that the ability of GP4 for membrane association corresponded to virus viability and growth characteristics. The residues T158 ({omega} - 2, where {omega} is the GPI moiety at E160), P159 ({omega} - 1), and M162 ({omega} + 2) of GP4 were determined to be important for virus replication, with M162 being of particular importance for virus infectivity. The complete removal of the peptide-anchor domain in GP4 resulted in a complete loss of virus infectivity. The depletion of cholesterol from the plasma membrane of cells reduced the virus production, suggesting a role of lipid rafts in PRRSV infection. Remarkably, GP4 was found to co-localize with CD163 in the lipid rafts on the plasma membrane. Since CD163 has been reported as a cellular receptor for PRRSV and GP4 has been shown to interact with this receptor, our data implicates an important role of lipid rafts during entry of the virus.

  13. Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane association of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP4 glycoprotein and its co-localization with CD163 in lipid rafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yijun; Pattnaik, Asit K.; Song, Cheng; Yoo, Dongwan; Li, Gang

    2012-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) glycoprotein 4 (GP4) resembles a typical type I membrane protein in its structure but lacks a hydrophilic tail at the C-terminus, suggesting that GP4 may be a lipid-anchored membrane protein. Using the human decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55), a known glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid-anchored protein, chimeric constructs were made to substitute the GPI-anchor domain of DAF with the putative lipid-anchor domain of GP4, and their membrane association and lipase cleavage were determined in cells. The DAF-GP4 fusion protein was transported to the plasma membrane and was cleaved by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), indicating that the C-terminal domain of GP4 functions as a GPI anchor. Mutational studies for residues adjacent to the GPI modification site and characterization of respective mutant viruses generated from infectious cDNA clones show that the ability of GP4 for membrane association corresponded to virus viability and growth characteristics. The residues T158 (ω − 2, where ω is the GPI moiety at E160), P159 (ω − 1), and M162 (ω + 2) of GP4 were determined to be important for virus replication, with M162 being of particular importance for virus infectivity. The complete removal of the peptide–anchor domain in GP4 resulted in a complete loss of virus infectivity. The depletion of cholesterol from the plasma membrane of cells reduced the virus production, suggesting a role of lipid rafts in PRRSV infection. Remarkably, GP4 was found to co-localize with CD163 in the lipid rafts on the plasma membrane. Since CD163 has been reported as a cellular receptor for PRRSV and GP4 has been shown to interact with this receptor, our data implicates an important role of lipid rafts during entry of the virus.

  14. Simulation of between-farm transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Ontario, Canada using the North American Animal Disease Spread Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Krishna K; Revie, Crawford W; Hurnik, Daniel; Poljak, Zvonimir; Sanchez, Javier

    2015-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), a viral disease of swine, has major economic impacts on the swine industry. The North American Animal Disease Spread Model (NAADSM) is a spatial, stochastic, farm level state-transition modeling framework originally developed to simulate highly contagious and foreign livestock diseases. The objectives of this study were to develop a model to simulate between-farm spread of a homologous strain of PRRS virus in Ontario swine farms via direct (animal movement) and indirect (sharing of trucks between farms) contacts using the NAADSM and to compare the patterns and extent of outbreak under different simulated conditions. A total of 2552 swine farms in Ontario province were allocated to each census division of Ontario and geo-locations of the farms were randomly generated within the agriculture land of each Census Division. Contact rates among different production types were obtained using pig movement information from four regions in Canada. A total of 24 scenarios were developed involving various direct (movement of infected animals) and indirect (pig transportation trucks) contact parameters in combination with alternating the production type of the farm in which the infection was seeded. Outbreaks were simulated for one year with 1000 replications. The median number of farms infected, proportion of farms with multiple outbreaks and time to reach the peak epidemic were used to compare the size, progression and extent of outbreaks. Scenarios involving spread only by direct contact between farms resulted in outbreaks where the median percentage of infected farms ranged from 31.5 to 37% of all farms. In scenarios with both direct and indirect contact, the median percentage of infected farms increased to a range from 41.6 to 48.6%. Furthermore, scenarios with both direct and indirect contact resulted in a 44% increase in median epidemic size when compared to the direct contact scenarios. Incorporation of both animal

  15. Identification of a Novel Recombinant Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of NADC30-like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in China in 2013, PRRSVs have undergone rapid evolution. In this study, a novel variant of PRRSV strain (designated SCcd17 was successfully isolated from piglets with clinical signs in Sichuan Province in China in 2017, and the complete genomic sequence was determined. The genome of this new isolate was 15,015 nucleotides (nt long, and comparative analysis revealed that SCcd17 exhibited 90.2%, 85.2%, 84.9%, and 84.0% nucleotide similarity to PRRSVs NADC30, JXA1, CH-1a, and VR-2332, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the SCcd17 strain was classified into the NADC30-like sub-genotype, in which all the strains contained the unique discontinuous 131-amino acid deletion in nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2 when compared to VR-2332-like viruses. Notably, extensive amino acid substitutions were observed in nsp2 and a unique single amino acid deletion at position 33 of the GP5 is being described for the first time. Strikingly, recombination analysis revealed that SCcd17 was the result of recombination between the NADC30-like, JXA1-like, and VR-2332-like strains at five recombination breakpoints: nsp1α (nt 641, nsp3 (nt 5141, nsp10 (nt 9521, open reading frame 3 (ORF3 (nt 12,581, and ORF4 (nt 13,021. The genomic data of SCcd17 will be helpful for understanding the role of genomic recombination in the evolution of PRRSV.

  16. Interaction between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Swine Influenza Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Eileen L.; Thacker, Brad J.; Janke, Bruce H.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental respiratory model was used to investigate the interaction between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and swine influenza virus (SIV) in the induction of pneumonia in susceptible swine. Previous studies demonstrated that M. hyopneumoniae, which produces a chronic bronchopneumonia in swine, potentiates a viral pneumonia induced by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In this study, pigs were inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae 21 days prior to inoculation with SIV. Clinical disease as characterized by the severity of cough and fever was evaluated daily. Percentages of lung tissue with visual lesions and microscopic lesions were assessed upon necropsy at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days following SIV inoculation. Clinical observations revealed that pigs infected with both SIV and M. hyopneumoniae coughed significantly more than pigs inoculated with a single agent. Macroscopic pneumonia on necropsy at days 3 and 7 was greatest in both SIV-infected groups, with minimal levels of pneumonia in the M. hyopneumoniae-only-infected pigs. At 14 days post-SIV inoculation, pneumonia was significantly more severe in pigs infected with both pathogens. However, by 21 days postinoculation, the level of pneumonia in the dual-infected pigs was similar to that of the M. hyopneumoniae-only-infected group, and the pneumonia in the pigs inoculated with only SIV was nearly resolved. Microscopically, there was no apparent increase in the severity of pneumonia in pigs infected with both agents compared to that of single-agent-challenged pigs. The results of this study found that while pigs infected with both agents exhibited more severe clinical disease, the relationship between the two pathogens lacked the profound potentiation found with dual infection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV. These findings demonstrate that the relationship between mycoplasmas and viruses varies with the individual agent. PMID:11427564

  17. The diversity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Type 1 and 2 in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Kristensen, Charlotte Sonne

    strains were sequenced. Denmark exports more than 50.000 living pigs each month. A portion of these pigs inevitably harbor PRRSV. Thus, the diversity of PRRSV in Denmark is of interest to other countries besides Denmark. The main objective of the present study was to close the gap in knowledge...... for both PRRSV genotypes has been widely used in Denmark and it is therefore highly relevant to monitor the diversity of currently circulating PRRSV strains. Only subtype 1 of the Type 1 PRRSV strains and vaccine-like Type 2 PRRSV strains were previously detected in Denmark, however, only few Danish PRRSV...... on the genetic diversity of currently circulating PRRSV stains in Danish pigs by sequencing ORF5 and ORF7 of approximately 41 Type 1 and 50 Type 2 strains isolated between 2003 and 2013. Furthermore, full genome analysis was performed on nine Type 1 and nine Type 2 selected strains. The preliminary assessment...

  18. A PCV2 vaccine based on genotype 2b is more effective than a 2a-based vaccine to protect against PCV2b or combined PCV2a/2b viremia in pigs with concurrent PCV2, PRRSV and PPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opriessnig, Tanja; O'Neill, Kevin; Gerber, Priscilla F; de Castro, Alessandra M M G; Gimenéz-Lirola, Luis G; Beach, Nathan M; Zhou, Lei; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Wang, Chong; Halbur, Patrick G

    2013-01-07

    The predominant genotype of porcine circovirus (PCV) in the pig population today is PCV2b yet PCV2a-based commercial vaccines are considered effective in protecting against porcine circovirus associated disease. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of PCV2a- and PCV2b-based vaccines to control PCV2b viremia in a challenge model that mimics the U.S. field situation. Sixty-three pigs were randomly assigned to one of eight groups. Sixteen pigs were vaccinated with an experimental live-attenuated chimeric PCV1-2a vaccine based on genotype 2a and another 16 pigs with a chimeric PCV1-2b vaccine based on genotype 2b. Challenge was done 28 days post vaccination (dpv) using PCV2b (or a combination of PCV2a and PCV2b), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine parvovirus (PPV) to mimic what commonly occurs in the field. The experiment was terminated 21 days post challenge (dpc) or 49dpv. Pigs vaccinated with the chimeric PCV1-2b vaccine had significantly higher levels of PCV1-2b viremia and shedding of the PCV1-2b vaccine virus in feces and nasal secretions but also a more robust humoral immune response as evidenced by significantly higher ELISA S/P ratios compared to the PCV1-2a vaccination. Regardless of challenge, the PCV1-2b vaccination significantly reduced the prevalence and amount of PCV2 viremia compared to the PCV1-2a vaccination. Interestingly, in the non-vaccinated pigs concurrent PCV2a infection resulted in clinical disease and increased macroscopic lung lesions compared to pigs challenged with PCV2b alone, further supporting the idea that concurrent PCV2a/PCV2b infection is necessary for optimal PCV2 replication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modulation of type I interferon induction by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and degradation of CREB-binding protein by non-structural protein 1 in MARC-145 and HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Oekyung; Sun Yan; Lai, Frances W.; Song Cheng; Yoo, Dongwan

    2010-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an emerged disease of swine characterized by negligible response of type I IFNs and viral persistence. We show that the PRRSV non-structural protein 1 (Nsp1) is the viral component responsible for modulation of IFN response. Nsp1 blocked dsRNA-induced IRF3 and IFN promoter activities. Nsp1 did not block phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3 but inhibited IRF3 association with CREB-binding protein (CBP) in the nucleus. While IRF3 was stable, CBP was degraded, and CBP degradation was proteasome-dependent, suggesting that CBP degradation is not due to the protease activity of Nsp1 but an intermediary is involved. Our data suggest that the Nsp1-mediated CBP degradation inhibits the recruitment of CBP for enhanceosome assembly, leading to the block of IFN response. CBP degradation is a novel strategy for viral evasion from the host response, and Nsp1 may form a new class of viral antagonists for IFN modulation.

  20. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  1. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) in Young Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixhoorn, van I.D.E.; Reimert, I.; Middelkoop, J.A.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Wisselink, H.J.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Kemp, B.; Stockhofe, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome

  2. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, Jutta [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9/3, A-1030 Vienna (Austria); Kontaxis, Georg [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, Department of Structural and Computational Biology, Campus Vienna Biocenter 5, A-1030 Vienna (Austria); Rancan, Chiara [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Department of Gene Vectors, Haematologikum, Marchioninistrasse 25, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Skern, Tim, E-mail: timothy.skern@meduniwien.ac.at [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9/3, A-1030 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-09-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lb{sup pro}) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lb{sup pro} L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. {sup 15}N-HSQC measurements of Lb{sup pro} L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLb{sup pro}, lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1α, with a papain-like fold like Lb{sup pro}, stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the β-sheet domains but none of the α-helical domains of Lb{sup pro} and nsp1α superimpose; consequently, the α-helical domain of nsp1α is oriented differently relative to its β-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1α but not Lb{sup pro}. - Highlights: • We examine self-processing of the leader protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus. • NMR analysis strongly supports intramolecular self-processing. • Self-processing is a dynamic process with no stable complex. • Structural comparison with nsp1α of PRRSV which forms stable intramolecular complex. • Subdomain orientation explains differences in stability of intramolecular complexes.

  3. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberger, Jutta; Kontaxis, Georg; Rancan, Chiara; Skern, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lb pro ) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lb pro L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. 15 N-HSQC measurements of Lb pro L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLb pro , lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1α, with a papain-like fold like Lb pro , stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the β-sheet domains but none of the α-helical domains of Lb pro and nsp1α superimpose; consequently, the α-helical domain of nsp1α is oriented differently relative to its β-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1α but not Lb pro . - Highlights: • We examine self-processing of the leader protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus. • NMR analysis strongly supports intramolecular self-processing. • Self-processing is a dynamic process with no stable complex. • Structural comparison with nsp1α of PRRSV which forms stable intramolecular complex. • Subdomain orientation explains differences in stability of intramolecular complexes

  4. A multiplex reverse transcription PCR and automated electronic microarray assay for detection and differentiation of seven viruses affecting swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, A; Fisher, M; Furukawa-Stoffer, T; Ambagala, A; Hodko, D; Pasick, J; King, D P; Nfon, C; Ortega Polo, R; Lung, O

    2018-04-01

    Microarray technology can be useful for pathogen detection as it allows simultaneous interrogation of the presence or absence of a large number of genetic signatures. However, most microarray assays are labour-intensive and time-consuming to perform. This study describes the development and initial evaluation of a multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and novel accompanying automated electronic microarray assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of seven important viruses that affect swine (foot-and-mouth disease virus [FMDV], swine vesicular disease virus [SVDV], vesicular exanthema of swine virus [VESV], African swine fever virus [ASFV], classical swine fever virus [CSFV], porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus [PRRSV] and porcine circovirus type 2 [PCV2]). The novel electronic microarray assay utilizes a single, user-friendly instrument that integrates and automates capture probe printing, hybridization, washing and reporting on a disposable electronic microarray cartridge with 400 features. This assay accurately detected and identified a total of 68 isolates of the seven targeted virus species including 23 samples of FMDV, representing all seven serotypes, and 10 CSFV strains, representing all three genotypes. The assay successfully detected viruses in clinical samples from the field, experimentally infected animals (as early as 1 day post-infection (dpi) for FMDV and SVDV, 4 dpi for ASFV, 5 dpi for CSFV), as well as in biological material that were spiked with target viruses. The limit of detection was 10 copies/μl for ASFV, PCV2 and PRRSV, 100 copies/μl for SVDV, CSFV, VESV and 1,000 copies/μl for FMDV. The electronic microarray component had reduced analytical sensitivity for several of the target viruses when compared with the multiplex RT-PCR. The integration of capture probe printing allows custom onsite array printing as needed, while electrophoretically driven hybridization generates results faster than conventional

  5. Targeted Delivery of GP5 Antigen of PRRSV to M Cells Enhances the Antigen-Specific Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luping Du

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient delivery of antigens through oral immunization is a first and critical step for successful induction of mucosal immunity, which can provide protection against pathogens invading the mucosa. Membranous/microfold cells (M cells within the mucosa can transcytose internalized antigen without degradation and thus play an important role in initiating antigen-specific mucosal immune responses through inducing secretory IgA production. In this research, we modified poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA nanoparticles (NPs with Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA-1 and successfully prepared an oral vaccine delivery system, UEA-1/PLGA NPs. PLGA NPs were prepared using a standard double emulsion solvent evaporation technique, which can protect the entrapped PRRSV DNA vaccine [pcDNA3.1-SynORF5 (synthetic ORF5] or subunit vaccine ORF5-encoded glycoprotein (GP5 from exposure to the gastrointestinal (GI tract and release the plasmids in a controlled manner. With UEA-1 modification, the UEA-1/PLGA NPs can be effectively transported by M-cells. We investigated immune response induced by UEA-1/PLGA-SynORF5 or UEA-1/PLGA-GP5 following inoculation in mice and piglets. Compared with PLGA-SynORF5 or PLGA-GP5 NPs, UEA-1/PLGA-SynORF5, or UEA-1/PLGA-GP5 NPs stimulated significantly increased serum IgG levels and augmented intestinal IgA levels in mice and piglets (P < 0.05. Our findings indicate UEA-1/PLGA NPs can be applied as a promising and universally robust oral vaccine delivery system.

  6. Targeted Delivery of GP5 Antigen of PRRSV to M Cells Enhances the Antigen-Specific Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Luping; Yu, Zhengyu; Pang, Fengjiao; Xu, Xiangwei; Mao, Aihua; Yuan, Wanzhe; He, Kongwang; Li, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Efficient delivery of antigens through oral immunization is a first and critical step for successful induction of mucosal immunity, which can provide protection against pathogens invading the mucosa. Membranous/microfold cells (M cells) within the mucosa can transcytose internalized antigen without degradation and thus play an important role in initiating antigen-specific mucosal immune responses through inducing secretory IgA production. In this research, we modified poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA-1) and successfully prepared an oral vaccine delivery system, UEA-1/PLGA NPs. PLGA NPs were prepared using a standard double emulsion solvent evaporation technique, which can protect the entrapped PRRSV DNA vaccine [pcDNA3.1-SynORF5 (synthetic ORF5)] or subunit vaccine ORF5-encoded glycoprotein (GP5) from exposure to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and release the plasmids in a controlled manner. With UEA-1 modification, the UEA-1/PLGA NPs can be effectively transported by M-cells. We investigated immune response induced by UEA-1/PLGA-SynORF5 or UEA-1/PLGA-GP5 following inoculation in mice and piglets. Compared with PLGA-SynORF5 or PLGA-GP5 NPs, UEA-1/PLGA-SynORF5, or UEA-1/PLGA-GP5 NPs stimulated significantly increased serum IgG levels and augmented intestinal IgA levels in mice and piglets (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate UEA-1/PLGA NPs can be applied as a promising and universally robust oral vaccine delivery system. PMID:29423381

  7. Chemical constituents from Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao with inhibitory activity against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yao; Wang, Yue-Hu; Tan, Ying; Yang, Jun; Liu, Hong-Xin; Gu, Wei; Long, Chun-Lin, E-mail: long@mail.kib.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Bi, Jun-Long; Yin, Ge-Fen, E-mail: yingefen383@sohu.com [College of Animal Science and Technology, Yunnan Agricultural University (China)

    2012-10-15

    Two new quinonoids chiritalone A and B, and a new neolignan 7'E-4,9-dihydroxy- 3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8,4'-oxyneolign-7'-en-9'-al, along with known (-)-8-hydroxy-{alpha}-dunnione, digiferruginol, 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone and hederagenin, were isolated from the stems of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed analysis from NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and MS (mass spectrometry) data, and the absolute configuration of chiritalone A was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using the Flack parameter. The inhibitory activity of compounds against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) was measured by the cytopathic effect (CPE) method. Digiferruginol and hederagenin showed weak effect on PRRSV with an IC{sub 50} value of 80.5 {+-} 16.9 {mu}mol L{sup -1} (SI = 19.9) and 43.2 {+-} 7.4 {mu}mol L{sup -1} (SI = 13.1), respectively. (author)

  8. Chemical constituents from Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao with inhibitory activity against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yao; Wang, Yue-Hu; Tan, Ying; Yang, Jun; Liu, Hong-Xin; Gu, Wei; Long, Chun-Lin; Bi, Jun-Long; Yin, Ge-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Two new quinonoids chiritalone A and B, and a new neolignan 7'E-4,9-dihydroxy- 3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8,4'-oxyneolign-7'-en-9'-al, along with known (-)-8-hydroxy-α-dunnione, digiferruginol, 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone and hederagenin, were isolated from the stems of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed analysis from NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and MS (mass spectrometry) data, and the absolute configuration of chiritalone A was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using the Flack parameter. The inhibitory activity of compounds against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) was measured by the cytopathic effect (CPE) method. Digiferruginol and hederagenin showed weak effect on PRRSV with an IC 50 value of 80.5 ± 16.9 μmol L -1 (SI = 19.9) and 43.2 ± 7.4 μmol L -1 (SI = 13.1), respectively. (author)

  9. Body temperature and motion: Evaluation of an online monitoring system in pigs challenged with Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süli, Tamás; Halas, Máté; Benyeda, Zsófia; Boda, Réka; Belák, Sándor; Martínez-Avilés, Marta; Fernández-Carrión, Eduardo; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2017-10-01

    Highly contagious and emerging diseases cause significant losses in the pig producing industry worldwide. Rapid and exact acquisition of real-time data, like body temperature and animal movement from the production facilities would enable early disease detection and facilitate adequate response. In this study, carried out within the European Union research project RAPIDIA FIELD, we tested an online monitoring system on pigs experimentally infected with the East European subtype 3 Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) strain Lena. We linked data from different body temperature measurement methods and the real-time movement of the pigs. The results showed a negative correlation between body temperature and movement of the animals. The correlation was similar with both body temperature obtaining methods, rectal and thermal sensing microchip, suggesting some advantages of body temperature measurement with transponders compared with invasive and laborious rectal measuring. We also found a significant difference between motion values before and after the challenge with a virulent PRRSV strain. The decrease in motion values was noticeable before any clinical sign was recorded. Based on our results the online monitoring system could represent a practical tool in registering early warning signs of health status alterations, both in experimental and commercial production settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Improved Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses to Vaccination with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in 4-1BB Transgenic Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangping Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the most reliable measure to prevent infectious diseases in domestic animals. Development of novel vaccines demands extensive studies with new technologies, such as using novel adjuvants and immunomodulatory molecules. The co-stimulatory molecule 4-1BB provides a key signal that directs the fate of T cells during activation, and thus is important to their function in immune protection. To determine whether host immune responses to viral infection could be promoted by enhancing 4-1BB co-stimulation, in this study, we produced transgenic pig clones expressing an extra copy of the 4-1BB gene by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated gene 9-mediated homologous recombination at the Rosa26 locus. The immune responses of transgenic pigs to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV vaccine were determined on day 14. We show that peripheral blood lymphocytes of transgenic pigs expressed around twice the level of 4-1BB mRNA than those of control pigs. We also found IL-2, TNF-α, and granzyme B mRNA levels as well as PRRSV-specific IFN-γ response were significantly upregulated in 4-1BB transgenic pigs, leading to more efficient cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL killing, whereas the expressions of IL-4, IL-17, and Foxp3 were not affected. These results indicate that higher levels of 4-1BB expression involve in promoting Th1 differentiation and enhancing specific CTL responses to PRRSV, and provide a novel approach to increase the efficacy of current vaccines to control the infectious diseases.

  11. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead ...

  12. Cytokine mRNA profiles in bronchoalveolar cells of piglets experimentally infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: Association of sustained expression of IFN-gamma and IL-10 after viral clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, C. K.; Bøtner, Anette; Kamstrup, Søren

    2002-01-01

    An experimental model was used to investigate mRNA cytokine profiles in bronchoalvolar cells (BALC) from piglets, infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The BALC's were analyzed for the cytokines TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12(p40) by real......-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction in 2-, 4-, and 6-week-old piglets, respectively. High levels of IFN-gamma mRNA was detected in all piglets, while IL-10 was upregulated in 2-week-old piglets, was at normal levels in 4-week-old piglets, and elevated again in 6-week-old piglets. IL-12 was weakly...... elevated in all three age groups. Virus was reduced by 50% in 4-week-old piglets and cleared by 6 weeks of age. The sustained expression of IFNgamma and reduction of IL-10 production indicate an important role for these cytokines in immunity to PRRSV....

  13. Genomic analysis and pathogenic characteristics of Type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp2 deletion strains isolated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hwan-Won; Nam, Eeuri; Lee, Yoo Jin; Noh, Yun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Chul; Yoon, In-Joong; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kang, Shien-Young; Choi, Young-Ki; Lee, Changhee

    2014-06-04

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a globally ubiquitous swine virus that exhibits genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity among isolates. The present study was conducted to determine the complete genome sequence and pathogenicity of two Korean type 2 PRRSV nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) deletion mutants, CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4. The full-length genomes of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 were determined to be 15,018 and 15,019 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail, respectively, which were 393- or 392-nucleotide shorter than that of the type 2 NA prototype strain VR-2332 due to the presence of notable large deletions within the nsp2 gene. The genomes of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 consisted of a 189- or 190-nucleotide 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 14,677-nucleotide protein-coding region, and a 151-nucleotide 3' UTR. Whole genome evaluation revealed that the nucleotide sequences of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 are most similar to each other (10.7% sequence divergence), and then to the Korean strain CA-1 (11.3% sequence divergence) and the US strain MN184C (13.1% sequence divergence), respectively. To evaluate the in vitro immunity of nsp2 deletion variants, we sought to explore alteration of inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in PAM-pCD163 cells infected with each virus strain using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Cytokine genes including IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α, and chemokines such as MCP-1 and RANTES were found to be significantly elevated in nsp2 deletion virus-infected PAM cells. In contrast, expression of interferons (IFN-β, γ, and λ) and antiviral genes including ISG-15, -54, and -56 were unchanged or down-regulated in PAM cells infected with the nsp2 deletion mutants. Animal studies to assess the pathogenicity of nsp2 deletion PRRSVs demonstrated that both CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 strains notably produce weight loss in infected pigs. Furthermore, the nsp2 deletion mutants replicated well in pigs with significantly increased and prolonged

  14. Characterization of three porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates from a single swine farm bearing strong homology to a vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi-feng; Xia, Tian-qi; Zhou, Yan-jun; Yu, Ling-xue; Yang, Shen; Huang, Qin-feng; Li, Li-wei; Gao, Fei; Qu, Ze-hui; Tong, Wu; Tong, Guang-zhi

    2015-09-30

    Three porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSV), NT1, NT2, and NT3, were isolated from three dying piglets from a single pig farm in Jiangsu Province, China. Whole genome sequencing revealed that the three isolates share the highest homology with JXA1-P80, an attenuated vaccine strain developed by serial passage of highly pathogenic PRRSV JXA1 in MARC-145 cells. More than ten amino acids residues in ORF1a, ORF1b, GP4, and GP5 that were thought to be unique to JXA1 attenuated on MARC-145 cells were each found in the corresponding locations of NT1, NT2, and NT3. In virulence assays, piglets infected with NT1, NT2, or NT3 exhibited clinical signs of disease, including high fever, anorexia, and respiratory distress, leading to the death of the majority of the piglets within two weeks. Collectively, these data indicate that NT1, NT2, and NT3 are highly pathogenic PRRSVs and they are likely to be revertants of the vaccine strain JXA1-P80. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression of microRNAs and innate immune factor genes in lung tissue of pigs infected with influenza virus (H1N2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Cirera, S.; Vasby, D.

    A infection. The present work aimed of providing a better understanding of the involvement of innate immune factors including miRNA in the host response to establishment and progression of influenza virus infection. Twenty pigs were challenged by aerosol containing H1N2 (A/swine/Denmark/12687/03) influenza......Swine influenza is a highly infectious respiratory disease in pigs caused by influenza A virus. Activation of a frontline of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed by epithelial cells as well as immune cells of the upper respiratory tract, leads to a potent type 1 interferon (IFN) release......, this response must be tightly regulated. Recently, microRNA (miRNA) has been proposed to play an important role in modulating and fine tuning the innate immune response in order to avoid such harmful overreactions. Little is known about the significance of miRNA regulation in the lung during acute influenza...

  16. Epizootiological and diagnostic significance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a new viral disease in swine, designated exclusively under the acronym PRRS by the European Commission in 1991. The cause of this disease was isolated and determined in 1991 at the Lelystad Institute in The Netherlands as Lelystad aretrivirus. The PRRSV is an RNA virus of the order Nidovirales, the family Arteriviridae, the genus Arterivirus (Cavanaugh, 1997. Different genomic and pheriotypic varieties of the virus are significant. It is replicated in macrophages, it induces permanent viraemia, causes the creation of antibodies, and leads to persistent and latent infections. It is isolated from tonsil tissue, alveolar macrophages, the uterus, and fetal homogenate composed of different tissues (Wills et al., 1997. All production categories of swine can contract PRRS, but pregnant sows, suckling piglets and fattening swine are considered endangered categories. Morbidity and mortapty is between 8-80%, which also depends on the animal category. Economic damages are substantial when one considers the high percentage of still-born piglets, mummified fetuses and suckling piglets. Irregular successive cycles in sows are also expressed. In fattening swine, in addition to a respiratory form of the clinical picture, the time period until animals reach abattoir weight is extended even up to 30 days, which is also a considerable economic loss. Costs of treating possible secondary bacterial infections, diagnostics and immunoprophylaxis are not negligible. The OIE placed PRRS on the B list in 1992 as a contagious disease of swine which incurs economic losses in almost all countries of the world. Diagnosis is made by isolating and determining the virus and/or by serodiagnostics (ELISA and PCR. Certain countries have already made up protocols for the implementation of constant diagnostics and suggested eradication measures (Dee S.A. et al., 2000. In our country, the first clinical cases of PRRS were

  17. A new paradigm: innate immune sensing of viruses via the Unfolded Protein Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Smith

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The immune system depends upon combinations of signals to mount appropriate responses: pathogen specific signals in the context of co-stimulatory danger signals drive immune strength and accuracy. Viral infections trigger anti-viral type I interferon (IFN responses by stimulating endosomal and cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs. However, viruses have also evolved many strategies to counteract IFN responses. Are there intracellular danger signals that enhance immune responses to viruses? During infection, viruses place a heavy demand on the protein folding machinery of the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER. To survive ER stress, host cells mount an Unfolded Protein Response (UPR to decrease ER protein load and enhance protein-folding capacity. Viruses also directly elicit the UPR to enhance their replication. Increasing evidence supports an intersection between the host UPR and inflammation, in particular the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I IFN. The UPR directly activates pro-inflammatory cytokine transcription factors and dramatically enhances cytokine production in response to viral PRR engagement. Additionally, viral PRR engagement may stimulate specific pathways within the UPR to enhance cytokine production. Through these mechanisms, viral detection via the UPR and inflammatory cytokine production are intertwined. Consequently, the UPR response is perfectly poised to act as an infection-triggered danger signal. The UPR may serve as an internal co-stimulatory signal that 1 provides specificity and 2 critically augments responses to overcome viral subterfuge. Further work is needed to test this hypothesis during viral infections.

  18. Transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 1 to and from vaccinated pigs in a one-to-one model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileri, E; Gibert, E; Martín-Valls, G E; Nofrarias, M; López-Soria, S; Martín, M; Díaz, I; Darwich, L; Mateu, E

    2017-03-01

    The present study examined transmission by contact of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) 1 in a one-to-one model to vaccinated and unvaccinated pigs and from vaccinated infected pigs to other vaccinated pigs. The experiment started by randomly assigning weaned pigs to groups V (n=24) and U (n=26). V pigs were vaccinated with a commercial live attenuated PRRSV vaccine and the U animals were kept as unvaccinated controls. Twenty-eight days later, 6U pigs were separated and allocated in individual boxes. The remaining 20U pigs were intranasally inoculated with PRRSV isolate 3267 (from now on designated as seeder (S) pigs) and 48h later were distributed in boxes where they were commingled with either V or U pigs in 1:1 groups (first contact phase), resulting in 6S:U and 14S:V pairs. As soon as a V pig was detected to be viremic because of contact with a S, the infected V (from now on designated as V inf ) was transferred (days at maximum and for the second contact phase the maximum exposure period was 14days. Two V pigs tested positive for the vaccine virus (>99.5% similarity) when they were relocated with the corresponding V 2 pigs and they were removed; thus, only 12V inf were finally considered. All V pigs (12/12) exposed to S animals became infected although the first detection of viremia occurred at 13.6±3.6days, one week later than in U (pdays versus 12.5±2.7days). The V inf group showed remarkable individual variability: eight animals had a viremic period of 5 or less days (3.0±1.4) while the remaining four had a longer viremic period of more than one week (10.8±2.9). This situation was not observed in U. In the second contact phase, transmission from V inf to V 2 pigs occurred in 7/8 cases (87.5%). The mean duration of viremia for V 2 was 4.8±3.4 and two different patterns were again observed: two animals had viremias of 9-10days and the rest averaged 3.0±1.4days (range: 2-5days). Vaccinated groups V inf and V 2 had a

  19. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is Found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  20. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, the ... not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. If you do decide to travel, first ...

  1. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding CDC Activities For Healthcare Providers Clinical Evaluation & Disease Sexual Transmission HIV Infection & Zika Virus Testing for Zika Test Specimens – At Time of Birth Diagnostic Tests Understanding Zika Virus Test Results ...

  2. Vaccinia virus protein C6 is a virulence factor that binds TBK-1 adaptor proteins and inhibits activation of IRF3 and IRF7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Unterholzner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of viruses by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs causes interferon-β (IFN-β induction, a key event in the anti-viral innate immune response, and also a target of viral immune evasion. Here the vaccinia virus (VACV protein C6 is identified as an inhibitor of PRR-induced IFN-β expression by a functional screen of select VACV open reading frames expressed individually in mammalian cells. C6 is a member of a family of Bcl-2-like poxvirus proteins, many of which have been shown to inhibit innate immune signalling pathways. PRRs activate both NF-κB and IFN regulatory factors (IRFs to activate the IFN-β promoter induction. Data presented here show that C6 inhibits IRF3 activation and translocation into the nucleus, but does not inhibit NF-κB activation. C6 inhibits IRF3 and IRF7 activation downstream of the kinases TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1 and IκB kinase-ε (IKKε, which phosphorylate and activate these IRFs. However, C6 does not inhibit TBK1- and IKKε-independent IRF7 activation or the induction of promoters by constitutively active forms of IRF3 or IRF7, indicating that C6 acts at the level of the TBK1/IKKε complex. Consistent with this notion, C6 immunoprecipitated with the TBK1 complex scaffold proteins TANK, SINTBAD and NAP1. C6 is expressed early during infection and is present in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Mutant viruses in which the C6L gene is deleted, or mutated so that the C6 protein is not expressed, replicated normally in cell culture but were attenuated in two in vivo models of infection compared to wild type and revertant controls. Thus C6 contributes to VACV virulence and might do so via the inhibition of PRR-induced activation of IRF3 and IRF7.

  3. First identification of porcine parvovirus 6 in North America by viral metagenomic sequencing of serum from pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirtzinger, Erin E; Suddith, Andrew W; Hause, Benjamin M; Hesse, Richard A

    2015-10-16

    Currently, eight species in four genera of parvovirus have been described that infect swine. These include ungulate protoparvovirus 1 (classical porcine parvovirus, PPV), ungulate tetraparvovirus 2 (PPV3), ungulate tetraparvovirus 3 (which includes PPV2, porcine hokovirus, porcine partetravirus and porcine PARV4), ungulate copiparvovirus 2 (which includes PPV4 and PPV5), ungulate bocaparvovirus 2 (which includes porcine bocavirus 1, 2 and 6), ungulate bocaparvovirus 3 (porcine bocavirus 5), ungulate bocaparvovirus 4 (porcine bocavirus 7) and ungulate bocaparvovirus 5 (porcine bocavirus 3, 4-1 and 4-2). PPV6, the most recently described porcine parvovirus, was first identified in China in late 2014 in aborted pig fetuses. Prevalence of PPV6 in China was found to be similar in finishing age pigs from farms with and without evidence of swine reproductive failure. Porcine parvovirus 6 (PPV6) was detected by sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA) and confirmed by overlapping and real-time PCR in the serum of porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSv) positive samples. Seven nearly complete genomes of PPV6 were identified in PRRSv genotype 2 positive serum samples submitted to state veterinary diagnostic laboratories in 2014. Further testing using overlapping and real-time PCR determined PPV6 to be present in 13.2 % of the serums tested. Additionally, PPV6 was present in samples from all of the geographic locations sampled encompassing nine states in the United States and one state in Mexico. The presence of PPV6 in serum indicates that the PPV6 infection is disseminated and not localized to a specific tissue type. Alignments of the near full length genomes, NS1, and capsid genes identified one of the five PPV6 isolates from China (98.6-99.5 % identity with the North American strains) to be the North American strains nearest relative. These results are the first to report the presence of PPV6 in North America and demonstrate that the virus is

  4. Establishment of a nanoparticle-assisted RT-PCR assay to distinguish field strains and attenuated strains of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Wang, Gui-Hua; Cui, Yu-Dong; Cui, Shang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) can cause serious disease and even death in neonatal piglets, resulting in serious damage to the swine industry worldwide. Open reading frame 3 (ORF3) is the only accessory gene in the PEDV genome. Previous studies have indicated that PEDV vaccine strains have a partial deletion in ORF3. In this study, a nanoparticle-assisted polymerase chain reaction (nanoparticle-assisted RT-PCR) assay targeting the ORF3 of PEDV was developed to distinguish PEDV field strains from attenuated strains by using a specific pair of primers. The PCR products of field strains and attenuated strains were 264 bp and 215 bp in length, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of this assay were also assessed. The nanoparticle-assisted RT-PCR assay was 10-100 times more sensitive than the conventional RT-PCR assay, with no cross-reactions when amplifying porcine pseudorabies virus (PRV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine rotavirus (RV), and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). The nanoparticle-assisted RT-PCR assay we describe here can be used to distinguish field strains from vaccine strains of PEDV, and it shows promise for reducing economic loss due to PEDV infection.

  5. A Live-Attenuated Chimeric Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Vaccine Is Transmitted to Contact Pigs but Is Not Upregulated by Concurrent Infection with Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) and Is Efficacious in a PCV2b-PRRSV-PPV Challenge Model▿

    OpenAIRE

    Opriessnig, T.; Shen, H. G.; Pal, N.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Huang, Y. W.; Lager, K. M.; Beach, N. M.; Halbur, P. G.; Meng, X. J.

    2011-01-01

    The live chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine with the capsid gene of the emerging subtype 2b cloned in the genomic backbone of the nonpathogenic PCV1 is attenuated in vivo and induces protective immunity against PCV2. To further determine the safety and efficacy of this experimental vaccine, we tested for evidence of pig-to-pig transmission by commingling nonvaccinated and vaccinated pigs, determined potential upregulation by simultaneous vaccination and infection with porcine p...

  6. Learning from the Messengers: Innate Sensing of Viruses and Cytokine Regulation of Immunity — Clues for Treatments and Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Melchjorsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Virus infections are a major global public health concern, and only via substantial knowledge of virus pathogenesis and antiviral immune responses can we develop and improve medical treatments, and preventive and therapeutic vaccines. Innate immunity and the shaping of efficient early immune responses are essential for control of viral infections. In order to trigger an efficient antiviral defense, the host senses the invading microbe via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, recognizing distinct conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. The innate sensing of the invading virus results in intracellular signal transduction and subsequent production of interferons (IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines. Cytokines, including IFNs and chemokines, are vital molecules of antiviral defense regulating cell activation, differentiation of cells, and, not least, exerting direct antiviral effects. Cytokines shape and modulate the immune response and IFNs are principle antiviral mediators initiating antiviral response through induction of antiviral proteins. In the present review, I describe and discuss the current knowledge on early virus–host interactions, focusing on early recognition of virus infection and the resulting expression of type I and type III IFNs, proinflammatory cytokines, and intracellular antiviral mediators. In addition, the review elucidates how targeted stimulation of innate sensors, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs and intracellular RNA and DNA sensors, may be used therapeutically. Moreover, I present and discuss data showing how current antimicrobial therapies, including antibiotics and antiviral medication, may interfere with, or improve, immune response.

  7. Phytophthora viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Schmallenberg Virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    explore the potential of this infection crossing the species barrier and thereby .... The virus targets mainly the brain of the unborn animal resulting in neurological ... The virus is located in the blood of the adult infected animal or in the central ...

  9. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Zika Virus Credit: NIAID A female Aedes mosquito. This type of mosquito can transmit Zika, ... transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Zika virus can be transmitted from an infected pregnant woman ...

  10. CHANDIPURA VIRUS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CHANDIPURA VIRUS. First isolated from a village called Chandipura near Nagpur in 1965 in India. Belongs to rhabdoviridae family. Used as a Model System to study RNA virus multiplication in the infected cell at molecular level. Notes:

  11. Immunoregulation by airway epithelial cells (AECs against respiratory virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan YAN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory tract is primary contact site of the body and environment, and it is ventilated by 10-20 thousand liters of air per day. Inevitably, the respiratory system comes into contact with airborne microbes, which contain the disease-causing pathogens. Airway epithelial cells (AECs are known to have innate sensor functions, which are similar to the "professional" immune cells, such as alveolar macrophage and sub- or intra-epithelial dendritic cells (DCs. Thus AECs are able to detect invading microbial danger including different types of respiratory viruses, and mount a potent host response, for example, activating type Ⅰ interferon signaling pathway genes. To avoid chronic inflammation and maintain the immunological homeostasis, the pulmonary system has developed intrinsic mechanisms to control local immune responses. Most recently, the role of AECs in control of local immunity has gained much attention, as 1 AECs express the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, such as Toll-like receptors, retinoic acid inducible gene Ⅰ (RIG-I-like receptor, and so on, thus AECs are equipped to participate in innate detection of microbial encounter; 2 To keep immunological homeostasis in the respiratory tract, AECs behave not only as innate immune sensors but also as immune modulators in parallel, through modulating the sensitivity of innate immune sensing of both AECs per se and sub- or intra-epithelial immune cells; 3 Loss of modularity capacity of AECs might be involved in the development of chronic airway diseases. In present review, how the AECs act will be intensively discussed in response to respiratory viruses and modulate the local immunity through cis- and trans-factors (direct and indirect factors, as well as the consequence of impairment of this control of local immunity, in the development and exacerbation of airway diseases, such as acute and chronic rhinosinusitis. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.10.02

  12. Computational Breakthrough of Natural Lead Hits from the Genus of Arisaema against Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Kamal; Lal, Uma Ranjan; Ghosh, Manik

    2018-01-01

    To date, efforts for the prevention and treatment of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection have been still vain, and there is no safe and effective clinical accepted vaccine. Arisaema genus has claimed for various traditional bioactivities, but scientific assessments are quite limited. This encouraged us to carry out our present study on around 60 phytoconstituents of different Arisaema species as a natural inhibitor against the human RSV. Selected 60 phytochemical entities were evaluated on the docking behavior of human RSV receptor (PDB: 4UCC) using Maestro 9.3 (Schrödinger, LLC, Cambridge, USA). Furthermore, kinetic properties and toxicity nature of top graded ligands were analyzed through QikProp and ProTox tools. Notably, rutin (glide score: -8.49), schaftoside (glide score: -8.18) and apigenin-6,8-di-C-β-D-galactoside (glide score - 7.29) have resulted in hopeful natural lead hits with an ideal range of kinetic descriptors values. ProTox tool (oral rodent toxicity) has resulted in likely toxicity targets of apex-graded tested ligands. Finally, the whole efforts can be explored further as a model to confirm its anti-human RSV potential with wet laboratory experiments. Rutin, schaftoside, and apigenin-6,8-di-C-β-D-galactoside showed promising top hits docking profile against human respiratory syncytial virusMoreover, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion properties (QikProp) of top hits resulted within an ideal range of kinetic descriptorsProTox tool highlighted toxicity class ranges, LD 50 values, and possible toxicity targets of apex-graded tested ligands. Abbreviations used: RSV: Respiratory syncytial virus, PRRSV: Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus, ADME-T: Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity.

  13. Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeep, A B; Jadi, R S; Mishra, A C

    2009-11-01

    Ganjam virus (GANV), a member of genus Nairovirus of family Bunyavirdae is of considerable veterinary importance in India. Though, predominantly tick borne, GANV was also isolated from mosquitoes, man and sheep. Neutralizing and complement fixing antibodies to GANV have been detected in animal and human sera collected from different parts of the country. Thirty three strains of GANV have been isolated from India, mainly from Haemaphysalis ticks. The virus replicated in certain vertebrate and mosquito cell lines and found pathogenic to laboratory animals. One natural infection and five laboratory-acquired infections in men were also reported. GANV is antigenically related to Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) of Africa, which is highly pathogenic for sheep and goats causing 70-90 per cent mortality among the susceptible population. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated that GANV is an Asian variant of NSDV and both these viruses are related to the dreaded Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) group viruses. The versatility of the virus to replicate in different arthropod species, its ability to infect sheep, goat and man makes it an important zoonotic agent.

  14. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan Virus Disease Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for ... Virus Disease Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan virus is a tickborne flavivirus that is ...

  15. Synthetic RNAs Mimicking Structural Domains in the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Genome Elicit a Broad Innate Immune Response in Porcine Cells Triggered by RIG-I and TLR Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Belén; Rodríguez-Pulido, Miguel; Revilla, Concepción; Álvarez, Belén; Sobrino, Francisco; Domínguez, Javier; Sáiz, Margarita

    2015-07-17

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Exploiting innate responses for antiviral, therapeutic and vaccine adjuvation strategies is being extensively explored. We have previously described, the ability of small in vitro RNA transcripts, mimicking the sequence and structure of different domains in the non-coding regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome (ncRNAs), to trigger a potent and rapid innate immune response. These synthetic non-infectious molecules have proved to have a broad-range antiviral activity and to enhance the immunogenicity of an FMD inactivated vaccine in mice. Here, we have studied the involvement of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) in the ncRNA-induced innate response and analyzed the antiviral and cytokine profiles elicited in swine cultured cells, as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).

  16. Ebola Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Rangare Lakshman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The disease Ebola takes its name from the Ebola River situated near a village in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the disease first appeared in 1976. It is caused by a virus from the Filoviridae family (filovirus. The present outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD concerns four countries in West Africa, namely Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria till date. Further to widespread transmission of the disease, it has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organisation on 8 August 2014. As of 4 August 2014, countries have reported 1,711 cases (1,070 confirmed, 436 probable, 205 suspect, including 932 deaths. This review paper enlightens about the awareness of Ebola virus and its preventive measures. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 296-305

  17. SARS virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... consequence.Protein spike similar. HE gene absent. 2787 nucleotides. Largest genome. Jumps species by genetic deletion. < 300 compounds screened. Glycyrrhizin (liquorics/mullatha) seems attractive. Antivirals not effective. Vaccines – animal model only in monkeys. Killed corona or knockout weakened virus as targets.

  18. Influenza (Flu) Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Influenza (Flu) Viruses Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... influenza circulate and cause illness. More Information about Flu Viruses Types of Influenza Viruses Influenza A and ...

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  20. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  1. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  2. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  3. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page ... Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus if you ...

  4. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  5. Dengue virus receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Hidari, Kazuya I.P.J.; Suzuki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue virus causes fever and hemorrhagic disorders in humans and non-human primates. Direct interaction of the virus introduced by a mosquito bite with host receptor molecule(s) is crucial for virus propagation and the pathological progression of dengue diseases. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between dengue virus and its receptor(s) in both humans and mosquitoes is essent...

  6. Computer Virus and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Tutut Handayani; Soenarto Usna,Drs.MMSI

    2004-01-01

    Since its appearance the first time in the mid-1980s, computer virus has invited various controversies that still lasts to this day. Along with the development of computer systems technology, viruses komputerpun find new ways to spread itself through a variety of existing communications media. This paper discusses about some things related to computer viruses, namely: the definition and history of computer viruses; the basics of computer viruses; state of computer viruses at this time; and ...

  7. Identification of two auto-cleavage products of nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infected cells: nsp1 function as interferon antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Lawson, S.; Sun, Z.; Zhou, X.; Guan, X.; Christopher-Hennings, J.; Nelson, E.A.; Fang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp1 is predicted to be auto-cleaved from the replicase polyprotein into nsp1α and nsp1β subunits. In infected cells, we detected the actual existence of nsp1α and nsp1β. Cleavage sites between nsp1α/nsp1β and nsp1β/nsp2 were identified by protein microsequencing analysis. Time course study showed that nsp1α and nsp1β mainly localize into the cell nucleus after 10 h post infection. Further analysis revealed that both proteins dramatically inhibited IFN-β expression. The nsp1β was observed to significantly inhibit expression from an interferon-stimulated response element promoter after Sendai virus infection or interferon treatment. It was further determined to inhibit nuclear translocation of STAT1 in the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. These results demonstrated that nsp1β has ability to inhibit both interferon synthesis and signaling, while nsp1α alone strongly inhibits interferon synthesis. These findings provide important insights into mechanisms of nsp1 in PRRSV pathogenesis and its impact in vaccine development.

  8. Epstein - Barr Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Štorkánová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus Bachelor thesis summarizes the findings of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), its general characteristics, transmission and spread of the virus, symptoms of disease and subsequent therapy and recovery. More specifically, it focuses on infectious mononucleosis, as well as more generally to other diseases, which the Epstein-Barr virus causes. It includes details of the vaccine against EB virus. There are the statistics on the incidence of infectious mononucleosis.

  9. [Molecular-genetic analysis of the genomes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 circulating in the area of Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgakov, A D; Grebennikova, T V; Iuzhakov, A G; Aliper, T I; Nepoklonov, E A

    2014-01-01

    The molecular genetic analysis of the genomes of the virus of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome (VPRRS) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) circulating in the area of the Russian Federation was discussed. The results of this work showed the circulation of the strains of the European genotype VPRRS similar to those found in France and Denmark from 1998 to 2001. The homology of the fragment of one of the genes between the Russian isolates and the vaccine strain Porcilis PRRS (Intervet) was found. It requires further study. The strains representing the North American genotype VPRRS were not found. The PCV-2 genomes fall into three separate goups. One (genotype 2b) is formed by isolates in Malaysia, Brazil, Switzerland, China, Slovakia, UK, USA, isolated during the period from 2004 to the present time. The second group consists of sequences of the viruses isolated in 2000-2012 in Canada, the U.S., China, and South Korea (genotype 2a). The third group is formed by highly pathogenic isolates in 2013 from China (highly pathogenic genotype 2c). The circulation of all three known genotypes of PCV-2: 2a, 2b, and 2c in Russian Federation was demonstrated.

  10. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  11. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  12. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  13. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS): an immune dysregulatory pandemic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Butler, J. E.; Lager, K.; Golde, W.; Faaberg, K. S.; Šinkora, Marek; Loving, C.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, 1-3 (2014), s. 81-108 ISSN 0257-277X Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Immune dysregulation * Pandemic * Economic loss Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.098, year: 2014

  14. Zika virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel I Al-Afaleq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the virus family Flaviviridae. The virus was isolated in 1947 from a rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest of Uganda. The virus causes sporadic mild human infections in Africa and later in Asia. However, by 2007 a major shift in its infection pattern was noticed and thousands of human infections were reported in the State of Yap and Federated States of Micronesia. In the last 3 years, major outbreaks have continued to occur and the virus has spread to several Pacific and American countries. These outbreaks were mostly asymptomatic; however, there were more severe clinical signs associated with the infections. Those signs included microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome. It is believed that various species of mosquitoes can biologically transmit the virus. However, Aedes aegypti is most widely associated with the Zika virus. Recently, new modes of virus transmission have been reported, including mother-to-fetus, sexual, blood transfusion, animal bites, laboratory exposure and breast milk. Differential diagnosis is very important as some other arboviruses such as yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, and chikungunya virus have similar clinical manifestations to the Zika virus infection as well as relating serologically to some of these viruses. Established laboratory diagnostic tests to detect the Zika virus are limited, with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction being the most widely used test. Taking into consideration the quickness of the spread of infection, size of the infected population and change of the infection severity pattern, the Zika virus infection merits collective efforts on all levels to prevent and control the disease. Limited research work and data, concurrent infection with other arboviruses, involvement of biological vectors, mass crowd events, human and trade movements and lack of vaccines are some of the challenges that we face in our efforts to prevent and

  15. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare and deadly disease ...

  16. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  17. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  18. Zika virus disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 2015, the virus was discovered for the first time in Brazil. It has now spread to many territories, states, and countries in: Caribbean Islands Central America Mexico South America Pacific Islands Africa The virus ...

  19. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Credit: CDC This is the ... the United States. Why Is the Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) a Priority for NIAID? In ...

  20. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSV; Palivizumab; Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin; Bronchiolitis - RSV ... Crowe JE. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ...

  1. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix

  2. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  3. Zika Virus - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Zika Virus URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Zika Virus - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  4. VIRUS FAMILIES – contd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. VIRUS FAMILIES – contd. Minus strand RNA viruses. Rhabdovirus e.g. rabies. Paramyxovirus e.g. measles, mumps. Orthomyxovirus e.g. influenza. Retroviruses. RSV, HTLV, MMTV, HIV. Notes:

  5. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  6. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy ...

  7. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ...

  8. [Mumps vaccine virus transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrashevskaia, E V; Kulak, M V; Otrashevskaia, A V; Karpov, I A; Fisenko, E G; Ignat'ev, G M

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report the mumps vaccine virus shedding based on the laboratory confirmed cases of the mumps virus (MuV) infection. The likely epidemiological sources of the transmitted mumps virus were children who were recently vaccinated with the mumps vaccine containing Leningrad-Zagreb or Leningrad-3 MuV. The etiology of the described cases of the horizontal transmission of both mumps vaccine viruses was confirmed by PCR with the sequential restriction analysis.

  9. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen.

  10. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's West Nile Virus? Print en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  11. Characteristic of pandemic virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Characteristic of pandemic virus. The virus was highly transmissible. Risk of hospitalization was 2X and risk of death was about 11X more in comparison to seasonal influenza. Virus continues to be susceptible to Osaltamivir, the only drug available. Vaccines are available but ...

  12. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. People with Zika virus disease can have symptoms including mild fever, skin ... framework. Q&A: Zika virus and complication ... mosquito from the Aedes genus, mainly Aedes aegypti in tropical regions. Aedes ...

  13. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)-Virus Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    At least six viruses have been found in highbush blueberry plantings in the Pacific Northwest: Blueberry mosaic virus, Blueberry red ringspot virus, Blueberry scorch virus, Blueberry shock virus, Tobacco ringspot virus, and Tomato ringspot virus. Six other virus and virus-like diseases of highbush b...

  14. Viruses of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  16. Protoplasts and plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakishi, H.; Lesney, M.S.; Carlson, P.

    1984-01-01

    The use of protoplasts in the study of plant viruses has attracted considerable attention since its inception in the late 1960s. This article is an attempt to assess the current status of protoplasts (primarily) and all cell cultures (in some instances) in studies of virus infection, virus replication, cytopathology, cross-protection, virus resistance, and the use of in vitro methods and genetic engineering to recover virus-resistant plants. These areas of study proved difficult to do entirely with whole plants or plant parts. However, because protoplasts could be synchronously infected with virus, they provided a valuable alternative means of following biochemical and cytological events in relation to the virus growth cycle in a more precise manner than previously possible

  17. [The great virus comeback].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Viruses have been considered for a long time as by-products of biological evolution. This view is changing now as a result of several recent discoveries. Viral ecologists have shown that viral particles are the most abundant biological entities on our planet, whereas metagenomic analyses have revealed an unexpected abundance and diversity of viral genes in the biosphere. Comparative genomics have highlighted the uniqueness of viral sequences, in contradiction with the traditional view of viruses as pickpockets of cellular genes. On the contrary, cellular genomes, especially eukaryotic ones, turned out to be full of genes derived from viruses or related elements (plasmids, transposons, retroelements and so on). The discovery of unusual viruses infecting archaea has shown that the viral world is much more diverse than previously thought, ruining the traditional dichotomy between bacteriophages and viruses. Finally, the discovery of giant viruses has blurred the traditional image of viruses as small entities. Furthermore, essential clues on virus history have been obtained in the last ten years. In particular, structural analyses of capsid proteins have uncovered deeply rooted homologies between viruses infecting different cellular domains, suggesting that viruses originated before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). These studies have shown that several lineages of viruses originated independently, i.e., viruses are polyphyletic. From the time of LUCA, viruses have coevolved with their hosts, and viral lineages can be viewed as lianas wrapping around the trunk, branches and leaves of the tree of life. Although viruses are very diverse, with genomes encoding from one to more than one thousand proteins, they can all be simply defined as organisms producing virions. Virions themselves can be defined as infectious particles made of at least one protein associated with the viral nucleic acid, endowed with the capability to protect the viral genome and ensure its

  18. The nucleocapsid proteins of mouse hepatitis virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus share the same IFN-β antagonizing mechanism: attenuation of PACT-mediated RIG-I/ MDA5 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhen; Fang, Liurong; Yuan, Shuangling; Zhao, Ling; Wang, Xunlei; Long, Siwen; Wang, Mohan; Wang, Dang; Foda, Mohamed Frahat; Xiao, Shaobo

    2017-07-25

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a huge threat to both humans and animals and have evolved elaborate mechanisms to antagonize interferons (IFNs). Nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most abundant viral protein in CoV-infected cells, and has been identified as an innate immunity antagonist in several CoVs, including mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) remain unclear. In this study, we found that MHV N protein inhibited Sendai virus and poly(I:C)-induced IFN-β production by targeting a molecule upstream of retinoic acid-induced gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation gene 5 (MDA5). Further studies showed that both MHV and SARS-CoV N proteins directly interacted with protein activator of protein kinase R (PACT), a cellular dsRNA-binding protein that can bind to RIG-I and MDA5 to activate IFN production. The N-PACT interaction sequestered the association of PACT and RIG-I/MDA5, which in turn inhibited IFN-β production. However, the N proteins from porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), which are also classified in the order Nidovirales, did not interact and counteract with PACT. Taken together, our present study confirms that both MHV and SARS-CoV N proteins can perturb the function of cellular PACT to circumvent the innate antiviral response. However, this strategy does not appear to be used by all CoVs N proteins.

  19. Postmortem stability of Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Munster, Vincent J

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus-infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks.

  20. Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  1. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  2. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  3. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  4. Yeast for virus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Richard Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    Budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) are two popular model organisms for virus research. They are natural hosts for viruses as they carry their own indigenous viruses. Both yeasts have been used for studies of plant, animal and human viruses. Many positive sense (+) RNA viruses and some DNA viruses replicate with various levels in yeasts, thus allowing study of those viral activities during viral life cycle. Yeasts are single cell eukaryotic organisms. Hence, many of the fundamental cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation or programed cell death are highly conserved from yeasts to higher eukaryotes. Therefore, they are particularly suited to study the impact of those viral activities on related cellular activities during virus-host interactions. Yeasts present many unique advantages in virus research over high eukaryotes. Yeast cells are easy to maintain in the laboratory with relative short doubling time. They are non-biohazardous, genetically amendable with small genomes that permit genome-wide analysis of virologic and cellular functions. In this review, similarities and differences of these two yeasts are described. Studies of virologic activities such as viral translation, viral replication and genome-wide study of virus-cell interactions in yeasts are highlighted. Impacts of viral proteins on basic cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation and programed cell death are discussed. Potential applications of using yeasts as hosts to carry out functional analysis of small viral genome and to develop high throughput drug screening platform for the discovery of antiviral drugs are presented. PMID:29082230

  5. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pepino mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is a relatively new plant virus that has become a signifi cant agronomical problem in a relatively short period of time. It is a member of the genus Potexvirus within the family Flexiviridae and is readily mechanically transmissible. It is capable of infecting tomato

  7. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  8. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  9. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  10. Tobacco ringspot virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), and its vector, the dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum and related species) are widely distributed throughout the world. Cucumber, melon, and watermelon are particularly affected by TRSV. Symptoms can vary with plant age, the strain of the virus, and environment...

  11. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.

  12. Viruses in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Ellen

    2011-09-21

    The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself.

  13. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmonds, Peter; Becher, Paul; Bukh, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The Flaviviridae is a family of small enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 9000-13 000 bases. Most infect mammals and birds. Many flaviviruses are host-specific and pathogenic, such as hepatitis C virus in the genus Hepacivirus. The majority of known members in the genus Flavivirus are arthropod...

  14. ICTV virus taxonomy profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purdy, Michael A.; Harrison, Tim J.; Jameel, S.; Meng, X.J.; Okamoto, H.; Poel, Van Der W.H.M.; Smith, Donald B.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Davison, Andrew J.; Siddell, Stuart G.; Simmonds, Peter; Adams, Michael J.; Smith, Donald B.; Orton, Richard J.; Knowles, Nick J.

    2017-01-01

    The family Hepeviridae includes enterically transmitted small non-enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses. It includes the genera Piscihepevirus, whose members infect fish, and Orthohepevirus, whose members infect mammals and birds. Members of the genus Orthohepevirus include hepatitis E virus, which

  15. Viruses of the Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili,, David; Basta, Tamara; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2016-01-01

    Viruses infecting members of Archaea, the third domain of life, constitute an integral, yet unique part of the virosphere. Many of these viruses, specifically the species that infect hyperthermophilic hosts, display morphotypes – for example, bottle shaped, spindle shaped, droplet shaped, coil sh...

  16. Strategy as a Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    This article is based on virus theory (Røvik, 2007, 2011), and proposes to develop a framework that defines technology as a virus that penetrates the organism of an organization. The framework develops a new vocabulary, which can help in analyzing technologies and their negative effects on actors...... and organizations. In this paper, the virus theory is used to analyze a strategy process in an organization as an example of a technology. It shows how the strategy over time creates a memory loss, where the managers who are exposed to the virus forget their critique of the new strategy concept. The article also...... shows how resistant can be understood as being immune to a virus, since the strategy concepts bears resemblance to a former strategy concept. The article also argues that there should be more focus on the negative impacts of management tool and especially how organizations and managers are dealing...

  17. Peptide domains involved in the localization of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein to the nucleolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, Raymond R.R.; Schneider, Paula; Fang Ying; Wootton, Sarah; Yoo, Dongwan; Benfield, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The nucleocapsid (N) protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the principal component of the viral nucleocapsid and localizes to the nucleolus. Peptide sequence analysis of the N protein of several North American isolates identified two potential nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequences located at amino acids 10-13 and 41-42, which were labeled NLS-1 and NLS-2, respectively. Peptides containing NLS-1 or NLS-2 were sufficient to accumulate enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in the nucleus. The inactivation of NLS-1 by site-directed mutagenesis or the deletion of the first 14 amino acids did not affect N protein localization to the nucleolus. The substitution of key lysine residues with uncharged amino acids in NLS-2 blocked nuclear/nucleolar localization. Site-directed mutagenesis within NLS-2 identified the sequence, KKNKK, as forming the core localization domain within NLS-2. Using an in vitro pull-down assay, the N protein was able to bind importin-α, importin-β nuclear transport proteins. The localization pattern of N-EGFP fusion peptides represented by a series of deletions from the C- and N-terminal ends of the N protein identified a region covering amino acids 41-72, which contained a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) sequence. The 41-72 N peptide when fused to EGFP mimicked the nucleolar-cytoplasmic distribution of native N. These results identify a single NLS involved in the transport of N from the cytoplasm and into nucleus. An additional peptide sequence, overlapping NLS-2, is involved in the further targeting of N to the nucleolus

  18. Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

  19. Zika virus infection: a public health emergency!

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Salman Haider; Qureshi, Bakhtawar Wajeeha; Khan, Ramsha

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus belongs to the family of Flaviviridae. The Flaviviridae family also includes other human pathogens like West Nile virus (WNV), Yellow fever virus (YFV), mosquito transmitted Dengue virus (DENV), Tick borne encephalitic virus (TBEV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Zika virus is a mosquito-borne disease and is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito.

  20. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.; Kselikova, M.; Urbankova, J.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125 I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)

  1. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  2. VHS virus - present situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    of the worldwide distribution of the disease will be given. Virus evolution: Recent studies indicate that only a few amino acid changes in the structural proteins of VHSV can change the virulence patterns significantly, thereby coming closer to assessing the risk of none to low virulent viruses becoming high...... virulent. Virulence factors both depend on the ability of VHSV to enter a cell and on the speed and efficiencyof virus replication in the cells. Apparently the viral nucleocapsid protein plays a very important role for the later and seems to be the target for determination of a virulence marker....

  3. Zika virus in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veasna Duong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  4. Zika virus in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Veasna Duong; Philippe Dussart; Philippe Buchy

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of...

  5. Zika virus in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Veasna; Dussart, Philippe; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Viruses in reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Ellen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3

  7. BS-virus-finder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shengjie; Hu, Xuesong; Xu, Fengping

    2018-01-01

    Background: DNA methylation plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression and carcinogenesis. Bisulfite sequencing studies mainly focus on calling SNP, DMR, and ASM. Until now, only a few software tools focus on virus integration using bisulfite sequencing data. Findings: We have developed...... a new and easy-to-use software tool, named BS-virus-finder (BSVF, RRID:SCR_015727), to detect viral integration breakpoints in whole human genomes. The tool is hosted at https://github.com/BGI-SZ/BSVF. Conclusions: BS-virus-finder demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity. It is useful in epigenetic...

  8. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.

  9. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG ... Virus and Pregnancy Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates Practice ...

  10. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ...

  11. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ... pregnant. Related: Zika Virus and Pregnancy Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal ...

  12. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES. On basis of morphology. On basis of chemical composition. On basis of structure of genome. On basis of mode of replication. Notes:

  13. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and ... on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & Governance ...

  14. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ... and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September ...

  15. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ... Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice ... Coding Health Info Technology Professional Liability Managing Your ...

  16. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  17. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ... pregnant. Related: Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal ...

  18. Hepatitis E Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before the discovery of hepatitis E virus (HEV), many epidemics of hepatitis in ... HEV was discovered in 1983 in the ... HEV infection is increased by HIV infection in pregnancy. (Caron et al. .... immunosuppressive therapy on the natural history.

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Council on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  20. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Login My ACOG Join Pay Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ...

  1. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  2. The virus of management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Peter; Frankel, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The virus metaphor may be used in studies of management knowledge not only as a way ofdescribing diffusion processes but also as a way of thinking about viral elements of knowledgeproduction. In the present article, organizational viruses are viewed as ensembles of basicdistinctions...... that are constitutive of concrete bodies of knowledge and which form mutable enginesof organizational self-descriptions. Organizational viruses, we contend, are both characterized bystability in terms of their basic productive configuration, while at the same time allowing for a highdegree of variation in terms...... of concrete management knowledge and practice. The article isstructured as follows. After the introduction, we first develop the notion of organizational virus asinto an analytical approach. Second, we discern in the work of Frederick Taylor on scientificmanagement and Max Weber on bureaucracy, two quite...

  3. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and ... Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates ... Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG Meetings Calendar Congressional ...

  4. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  5. Genome packaging in viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy structures became available. Here we discu...

  6. Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jussi Oskari; Jacobson, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease that develops as an interplay between the immune system and environmental stimuli in genetically susceptible individuals. There is increasing evidence that viruses may play a role in MS pathogenesis acting as these environmental triggers. However, it is not known if any single virus is causal, or rather several viruses can act as triggers in disease development. Here, we review the association of different viruses to MS with an emphasis on two herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). These two agents have generated the most impact during recent years as possible co-factors in MS disease development. The strongest argument for association of EBV with MS comes from the link between symptomatic infectious mononucleosis and MS and from seroepidemiological studies. In contrast to EBV, HHV-6 has been found significantly more often in MS plaques than in MS normal appearing white matter or non-MS brains and HHV-6 re-activation has been reported during MS clinical relapses. In this review we also suggest new strategies, including the development of new infectious animal models of MS and antiviral MS clinical trials, to elucidate roles of different viruses in the pathogenesis of this disease. Furthermore, we introduce the idea of using unbiased sequence-independent pathogen discovery methodologies, such as next generation sequencing, to study MS brain tissue or body fluids for detection of known viral sequences or potential novel viral agents. PMID:22583435

  7. Transmission of Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  8. Evolutionary ecology of virus emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, John J

    2017-02-01

    The cross-species transmission of viruses into new host populations, termed virus emergence, is a significant issue in public health, agriculture, wildlife management, and related fields. Virus emergence requires overlap between host populations, alterations in virus genetics to permit infection of new hosts, and adaptation to novel hosts such that between-host transmission is sustainable, all of which are the purview of the fields of ecology and evolution. A firm understanding of the ecology of viruses and how they evolve is required for understanding how and why viruses emerge. In this paper, I address the evolutionary mechanisms of virus emergence and how they relate to virus ecology. I argue that, while virus acquisition of the ability to infect new hosts is not difficult, limited evolutionary trajectories to sustained virus between-host transmission and the combined effects of mutational meltdown, bottlenecking, demographic stochasticity, density dependence, and genetic erosion in ecological sinks limit most emergence events to dead-end spillover infections. Despite the relative rarity of pandemic emerging viruses, the potential of viruses to search evolutionary space and find means to spread epidemically and the consequences of pandemic viruses that do emerge necessitate sustained attention to virus research, surveillance, prophylaxis, and treatment. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Development and Characterization of a Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out Supplemental Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) has developed advanced rapid diagnostics that may be used within the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) and the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC). This effort has the potential to improve our nation's ability to discriminate between foreign animal diseases and those that are endemic using a single assay, thereby increasing our ability to protect animal populations of high economic importance in the United States. Under 2005 DHS funding we have developed multiplexed (MUX) nucleic-acid-based PCR assays that combine foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) detection with rule-out tests for two other foreign animal diseases Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VESV) and Swine Vesicular Disease (SVD) and four other domestic viral diseases Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1 or Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitus IBR), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Parapox virus complex (which includes Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus BPSV, Orf of sheep, and Pseudocowpox). Under 2006 funding we have developed a Multiplexed PCR [MUX] porcine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for VESV and SVD foreign animal diseases in addition to one other domestic vesicular animal disease vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and one domestic animal disease of swine porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). We have also developed a MUX bovine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for the two bovine foreign animal diseases malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), rinderpest virus (RPV) and the domestic diseases vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitus virus (BHV-1), bluetongue virus (BTV), and the Parapox

  10. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

    1985-09-01

    The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

  12. Viruses, definitions and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia Herrero-Uribe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are known to be abundant, ubiquitous, and to play a very important role in the health and evolution of life organisms. However, most biologists have considered them as entities separate from the realm of life and acting merely as mechanical artifacts that can exchange genes between different organisms. This article reviews some definitions of life organisms to determine if viruses adjust to them, and additionally, considers new discoveries to challenge the present definition of viruses. Definitions of life organisms have been revised in order to validate how viruses fit into them. Viral factories are discussed since these mini-organelles are a good example of the complexity of viral infection, not as a mechanical usurpation of cell structures, but as a driving force leading to the reorganization and modification of cell structures by viral and cell enzymes. New discoveries such as the Mimivirus, its virophage and viruses that produce filamentous tails when outside of their host cell, have stimulated the scientific community to analyze the current definition of viruses. One way to be free for innovation is to learn from life, without rigid mental structures or tied to the past, in order to understand in an integrated view the new discoveries that will be unfolded in future research. Life processes must be looked from the complexity and trans-disciplinarity perspective that includes and accepts the temporality of the active processes of life organisms, their interdependency and interrelation among them and their environment. New insights must be found to redefine life organisms, especially viruses, which still are defined using the same concepts and knowledge of the fifties. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 993-998. Epub 2011 September 01.Los virus son abundantes, ubicuos, y juegan un papel muy importante en la salud y en la evolución de los organismos vivos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los biólogos los siguen considerado como entidades separadas

  13. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis remain major infections around the world. In Angola, about 166 000 individuals are living with HIV, representing a prevalence of 1.98% in adults between 15 and 49 years of age. In a 2003 study in Luanda, 4.5% ...

  14. [Viruses and civilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastel, C

    1999-01-01

    A few million years ago, when primates moved from the east African forest to the savannah, they were already infected with endogenous viruses and occultly transmitted them to the prime Homo species. However it was much later with the building of the first large cities in Mesopotamia that interhuman viral transmission began in earnest. Spreading was further enhanced with the organization of the Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Arab empires around the Mediterranean. Discovery of the New World in 1492 led to an unprecedented clash of civilizations and the destruction of pre-Columbian Indian civilizations. It also led to a rapid spread of viruses across the Atlantic Ocean with the emergence of yellow fever and appearance of smallpox and measles throughout the world. However the greatest opportunities for worldwide viral development have been created by our present, modern civilization. This fact is illustrated by epidemic outbreaks of human immunodeficiency virus, Venezuela hemorrhagic fever, Rift valley fever virus, and monkey pox virus. Close analysis underscores the major role of human intervention in producing these events.

  15. Nipah Virus (NiV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Nipah Virus (NiV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae , ...

  16. Epstein-Barr virus test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003513.htm Epstein-Barr virus antibody test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Epstein-Barr virus antibody test is a blood test to detect ...

  17. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gisder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus, or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus, and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach applied in the field.

  18. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field. PMID:26702462

  19. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  20. Porcine arterivirus activates the NF-κB pathway through IκB degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Myeong; Kleiboeker, Steven B.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) is a critical regulator of innate and adaptive immune function as well as cell proliferation and survival. The present study demonstrated for the first time that a virus belonging to the Arteriviridae family activates NF-κB in MARC-145 cells and alveolar macrophages. In porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected cells, NF-κB activation was characterized by translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, increased DNA binding activity, and NF-κB-regulated gene expression. NF-κB activation was increased as PRRSV infection progressed and in a viral dose-dependent manner. UV-inactivation of PRRSV significantly reduced the level of NF-κB activation. Degradation of IκB protein was detected late in PRRSV infection, and overexpression of the dominant negative form of IκBα (IκBαDN) significantly suppressed NF-κB activation induced by PRRSV. However, IκBαDN did not affect viral replication and viral cytopathic effect. PRRSV infection induced oxidative stress in cells by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidants inhibited NF-κB DNA binding activity in PRRSV-infected cells, suggesting ROS as a mechanism by which NF-κB was activated by PRRSV infection. Moreover, NF-κB-dependent expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 was observed in PRRSV-infected cells, an observation which implies that NF-κB activation is a biologically significant aspect of PRRSV pathogenesis. The results presented here provide a basis for understanding molecular pathways of pathology and immune evasion associated with disease caused by PRRSV

  1. Zika virus: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Rawal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zika virus has been in the news for quite some time due to the ongoing recent outbreak in the Southern America, which started in December 2015. It has been declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization in February 2016 owing to its association with the congenital deformities, particularly microcephaly in infants borne to the infected mothers. The rapid spread of the virus throughout the United States of America and subsequently to Asia has raised serious international concerns. Its spread to countries neighboring India is a serious threat to the Indian population. This review article gives an overview about the virus, its diagnosis, clinical features, and the management.

  2. Archaeal virus-host interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quax, T.E.F.

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis provides novel insights in several aspects of the molecular

    biology of archaea, bacteria and their viruses.

    Three fundamentally different groups of viruses are associated with the three domains of life.

    Archaeal viruses are

  3. Rhabdomyolysis Associated with Parainfluenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltiadis Douvoyiannis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus is the most frequently reported viral cause of rhabdomyolysis. A 7-year-old child is presented with rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza type 2 virus. Nine cases of rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza virus have been reported. Complications may include electrolyte disturbances, acute renal failure, and compartment syndrome.

  4. Global emergence of Zika virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV belongs to the flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae, which includes dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Zika virus was isolated in 1947, in the Zika forest near Kampala, Uganda, from one of the rhesus monkeys used as sentinel animals in a yellow fever research program.

  5. Control of Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also know as avian paramyxovirus serotype 1, is an important poultry pathogen worldwide. In naive poultry, the virulent forms of the virus cause high mortality. Because of this the virus is reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health and can be an important ...

  6. An introduction to computer viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

  7. SARS – virus jumps species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SARS – virus jumps species. Coronavirus reshuffles genes; Rotteir et al, Rotterdam showed the virus to jump from cats to mouse cells after single gene mutation ? Human disease due to virus jumping from wild or domestic animals; Present favourite animal - the cat; - edible or domestic.

  8. Computer Bytes, Viruses and Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, Teddy B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a history of computer viruses, explains various types of viruses and how they affect software or computer operating systems, and describes examples of specific viruses. Available vaccines are explained, and precautions for protecting programs and disks are given. (nine references) (LRW)

  9. Monoclonal antibodies against plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, E.; Dietzgen, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Ever since antigenic properties of plant viruses were discovered antisera have been raised and used for plant virus diagnosis and for the analysis of virus structure as well. From the early qualitative diagnosis method of precipitating the virus in clarified sap of an infected plant and the first quantitative application of the precipitin test vast progress has been made with regard to the development of highly sensitive and highly quantitative methods for virus detection. Of equal importance was the improvement of methods for separating virus from host cell components since the specificity of antisera raised against a virus could be increased by using an antigen for immunization highly concentrated and largely freed from contaminating host substances. The introduction of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) into plant virology allows detection of virus in nanogram quantities. Still, the conventionally raised antisera, no matter how pure an antigen was used for immunization, are polyclonal. They contain products of thousands of different antibody-secreting plasma cell clones which can be directed against all antigenic determinants (epitopes) of the virus, but also against antigens of the host plant that may not have been entirely separated from the immunizing virus during the purification procedure. Even after cross adsorption of polyclonal antisera some residual heterogeneity can be expected to remain. Within these boundaries the information gained with polyclonal antisera on virus structure and on virus diagnosis has to be interpreted

  10. Virus Nilam: Identifikasi, Karakter Biologi dan Fisik, Serta Upaya Pengendaliannya

    OpenAIRE

    Miftakhurohmah, Miftakhurohmah; Noveriza, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Infeksi virus pada tanaman nilam dapat menyebabkan penurunan produksi dan kualitas minyak. Sembilan jenis virus diidentifikasi menginfeksi tanaman nilam, yaitu Patchouli mosaic virus (PatMoV), Patchouli mild mosaic virus (PatMMV), Telosma mosaic virus (TeMV), Peanut stripe virus (PStV), Patchouli yellow mosaic virus (PatYMV), Tobacco necrosis virus (TNV), Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), dan Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV). Kesembilan virus tersebut memiliki genom ...

  11. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  12. Virus en Endodoncia

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Vigueras, Scarlette; Salazar Navarrete, Luis; Pérez Tomás, Ricardo; Segura Egea, Juan José; Viñas, Miguel; López-López, José

    2014-01-01

    La infección endodóntica es la infección que afecta al sistema de conductos radiculares y, sin duda, es el principal agente etiológico de las periodontitis apicales. Además, de las bacterias patógenas endodónticas, se ha buscado en los últimos años asociar la presencia de virus en distintos tipos de patología endodóntica. Los virus que más se han buscado y asociado son los pertenecientes a la familia herpesvirus, los cuales se han encontrado presentes en patologías periapicales principalmente...

  13. Sensing of RNA viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2012-01-01

    pathogen-associated molecular patterns have emerged in great detail. This review presents an overview of our current knowledge regarding the receptors used to detect RNA virus invasion, the molecular structures these receptors sense, and the involved downstream signaling pathways.......Our knowledge regarding the contribution of the innate immune system in recognizing and subsequently initiating a host response to an invasion of RNA virus has been rapidly growing over the last decade. Descriptions of the receptors involved and the molecular mechanisms they employ to sense viral...

  14. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  15. Epidemiology of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, David S

    2016-11-01

    Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family known to cause mild clinical symptoms similar to those of dengue and chikungunya. Zika is transmitted by different species of Aedes mosquitoes. Nonhuman primates and possibly rodents play a role as reservoirs. Direct interhuman transmission has also been reported. Human cases have been reported in Africa and Asia, Easter Island, the insular Pacific region, and Brazil. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but recently associated Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly have appeared. There is neither a vaccine nor prophylactic medications available to prevent Zika virus infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Viruses in renovated waters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nupen, EM

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available , for permission to present this paper. ?8? References 1. REPORT. CONMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ANAGEMEZIT OF PME SANITARY ENGINEERING DIVISION (1970). Engineering evaluation of virus hazard in water. Jour. Eng. Div. Proc. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. SA 1, 7112... Water Systems, Austin, Texas, 1974 13. CARESON, G.F., WOODA.RD, F.E., WENTWORTII, D.P. and SPRODI, O.J. (1968) Virus inactivation on clay particles in natural waters. Journ. Wat. Pollut. Cont. Fed., 4Q R39, 7116. 14. MOSJ~EY, J.W. (1967...

  17. Tenosinovitis por virus Chikungunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Seijo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta a la consulta un hombre proveniente de la República Dominicana con una tenosinovitis del extensor del dedo medio derecho; en la convalecencia inmediata, segunda curva febril luego de 48 horas de permanecer asintomático de una enfermedad febril aguda, y marcada astenia, exantema pruriginoso, poliartralgias con impotencia funcional y rigidez articular generalizada. Los exámenes bioquímicos no aportaron datos de interés para el diagnóstico. La serología para virus dengue fue negativa. La detección de IgM y de anticuerpos neutralizantes para virus Chikungunya (CHIKV fueron positivos.

  18. Resistance to Two Heterologous Neurotropic Oncolytic Viruses, Semliki Forest Virus and Vaccinia Virus, in Experimental Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boeuf, Fabrice; Lemay, Chantal; De Silva, Naomi; Diallo, Jean-Simon; Cox, Julie; Becker, Michelle; Choi, Youngmin; Ananth, Abhirami; Sellers, Clara; Breton, Sophie; Roy, Dominic; Falls, Theresa; Brun, Jan; Hemminki, Akseli; Hinkkanen, Ari; Bell, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Attenuated Semliki Forest virus (SFV) may be suitable for targeting malignant glioma due to its natural neurotropism, but its replication in brain tumor cells may be restricted by innate antiviral defenses. We attempted to facilitate SFV replication in glioma cells by combining it with vaccinia virus, which is capable of antagonizing such defenses. Surprisingly, we found parenchymal mouse brain tumors to be refractory to both viruses. Also, vaccinia virus appears to be sensitive to SFV-induced antiviral interference. PMID:23221568

  19. RNA viruses in the sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andrew S; Rise, Matthew L; Culley, Alexander I; Steward, Grieg F

    2009-03-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and appear to outnumber all other forms of marine life by at least an order of magnitude. Through selective infection, viruses influence nutrient cycling, community structure, and evolution in the ocean. Over the past 20 years we have learned a great deal about the diversity and ecology of the viruses that constitute the marine virioplankton, but until recently the emphasis has been on DNA viruses. Along with expanding knowledge about RNA viruses that infect important marine animals, recent isolations of RNA viruses that infect single-celled eukaryotes and molecular analyses of the RNA virioplankton have revealed that marine RNA viruses are novel, widespread, and genetically diverse. Discoveries in marine RNA virology are broadening our understanding of the biology, ecology, and evolution of viruses, and the epidemiology of viral diseases, but there is still much that we need to learn about the ecology and diversity of RNA viruses before we can fully appreciate their contributions to the dynamics of marine ecosystems. As a step toward making sense of how RNA viruses contribute to the extraordinary viral diversity in the sea, we summarize in this review what is currently known about RNA viruses that infect marine organisms.

  20. Zika Virus: An Emerging Worldwide Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan A. Rather; Jameel B. Lone; Vivek K. Bajpai; Woon K. Paek; Jeongheui Lim

    2017-01-01

    ZIKA virus (ZIKV) poses a severe threat to the world. Recent outbreaks of ZIKV after 2007 along with its quick transmission have made this virus a matter of international concern. The virus shows symptoms that are similar to those caused in the wake of dengue virus (DENV) and other flaviviruses, which makes it difficult to discern the viral infection. Diagnosis is further complicated as the virus cross-reacts with antibodies of other viruses. Currently, molecular diagnosis of the virus is bei...

  1. Ebola virus acceptors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... genome sequencing centre; HSP, High scoring Segment pair;. NHGRI, National ... the genome of the rhesus monkey (rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta). The sequencing and comparative analysis was funded by the National ... Definition. Accession ..... Marburg virus genomics and association with a large.

  2. Zika virus and placenta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is the new arboviral infection problem. The serious outcome of infection and induction of abnormal infant become the big issue in reproductive medicine. The pathogenesis and pathology of the placenta in the affected case is an interesting issue. Here, the authors focus and discuss on this topic in this short article.

  3. Viruses of haloarchaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Alison W S; Williams, Timothy J; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2014-11-13

    In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems.

  4. Viruses of Haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison W. S. Luk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages. Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems.

  5. Apple mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  6. ICTV virus taxonomy profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, María Laura; Bó, Dal Elena; Graça, da John V.; Gago-Zachert, Selma; Hammond, John; Moreno, Pedro; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Pallás, Vicente; Navarro, Jose A.; Reyes, Carina A.; Luna, Gabriel Robles; Sasaya, Takahide; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E.; Vaira, Anna María; Verbeek, Martin; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Davison, Andrew J.; Siddell, Stuart G.; Simmonds, Peter; Adams, Michael J.; Smith, Donald B.; Orton, Richard J.; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    The Ophioviridae is a family of filamentous plant viruses, with single-stranded negative, and possibly ambisense, RNA genomes of 11.3-12.5 kb divided into 3-4 segments, each encapsidated separately. Virions are naked filamentous nucleocapsids, forming kinked circles of at least two different contour

  7. Viruses of the Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basta, T.; Garrett, Roger Antony; Prangishvili,, David

    2009-01-01

    Double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) viruses that infect members of the third domain of life, the Archaea, are diverse and exceptional in both their morphotypes and their genomic properties. The majority of characterized species infect hyperthermophilic hosts and carry morphological featur...

  8. Animal Models of Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael P; Nagamine, Claude M

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus has garnered great attention over the last several years, as outbreaks of the disease have emerged throughout the Western Hemisphere. Until quite recently Zika virus was considered a fairly benign virus, with limited clinical severity in both people and animals. The size and scope of the outbreak in the Western Hemisphere has allowed for the identification of severe clinical disease that is associated with Zika virus infection, most notably microcephaly among newborns, and an association with Guillian–Barré syndrome in adults. This recent association with severe clinical disease, of which further analysis strongly suggested causation by Zika virus, has resulted in a massive increase in the amount of both basic and applied research of this virus. Both small and large animal models are being used to uncover the pathogenesis of this emerging disease and to develop vaccine and therapeutic strategies. Here we review the animal-model–based Zika virus research that has been performed to date. PMID:28662753

  9. Archaeal viruses of the sulfolobales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Susanne; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2015-01-01

    in CRISPR loci of Sulfolobus species from a second coinfecting conjugative plasmid or virus (Erdmann and Garrett, Mol Microbiol 85:1044-1056, 2012; Erdmann et al. Mol Microbiol 91:900-917, 2014). Here we describe, firstly, the isolation of archaeal virus mixtures from terrestrial hot springs...... with an environmental virus mixture isolated from Yellowstone National Park (Erdmann and Garrett, Mol Microbiol 85:1044-1056, 2012). Experimental studies of isolated genetic elements from this mixture revealed that SMV1 (S ulfolobus Monocauda Virus 1), a tailed spindle-shaped virus, can induce spacer acquisition...... and the techniques used both to infect laboratory strains with these virus mixtures and to obtain purified virus particles. Secondly, we present the experimental conditions required for activating SMV1-induced spacer acquisition in two different Sulfolobus species....

  10. Evolutionary relationship of alfalfa mosaic virus with cucumber mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Savithri, HS; Murthy, MRN

    1983-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein (molecular weight 35,000; 3a protein) from three plant viruses - cucumber mosaic, brome mosaic and alfalfa mosaic have been systematically compared using the partial genomic sequences for these three viruses already available. The 3a protein of cucumber mosaic virus has an amino acid sequence homology of 33.7% with the corresponding protein of brome mosaic virus. A similar protein from alfalfa mosaic virus has a homology of 18.2% and 14.2...

  11. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 UL24 Abrogates the DNA Sensing Signal Pathway by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiyan; Su, Chenhe; Pearson, Angela; Mody, Christopher H; Zheng, Chunfu

    2017-04-01

    Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a newly identified DNA sensor that recognizes foreign DNA, including the genome of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Upon binding of viral DNA, cGAS produces cyclic GMP-AMP, which interacts with and activates stimulator of interferon genes (STING) to trigger the transcription of antiviral genes such as type I interferons (IFNs), and the production of inflammatory cytokines. HSV-1 UL24 is widely conserved among members of the herpesviruses family and is essential for efficient viral replication. In this study, we found that ectopically expressed UL24 could inhibit cGAS-STING-mediated promoter activation of IFN-β and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and UL24 also inhibited interferon-stimulatory DNA-mediated IFN-β and IL-6 production during HSV-1 infection. Furthermore, UL24 selectively blocked nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) but not IFN-regulatory factor 3 promoter activation. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that UL24 bound to the endogenous NF-κB subunits p65 and p50 in HSV-1-infected cells, and UL24 was also found to bind the Rel homology domains (RHDs) of these subunits. Furthermore, UL24 reduced the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-mediated nuclear translocation of p65 and p50. Finally, mutational analysis revealed that the region spanning amino acids (aa) 74 to 134 of UL24 [UL24(74-134)] is responsible for inhibiting cGAS-STING-mediated NF-κB promoter activity. For the first time, UL24 was shown to play an important role in immune evasion during HSV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE NF-κB is a critical component of the innate immune response and is strongly induced downstream of most pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to the production of IFN-β as well as a number of inflammatory chemokines and interleukins. To establish persistent infection, viruses have evolved various mechanisms to counteract the host NF-κB pathway. In the present study, for the first time, HSV-1 UL24 was demonstrated to inhibit the activation of NF

  12. Hepatitis E virus coinfection with hepatotropic viruses in Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Salama, Osama Saad; Mansour, Fathy Awaad; Hossein, Shaimaa

    2008-06-01

    Major hepatotropic viruses continue to be important causes of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. This work was carried out to detect the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) markers in children with acute viral hepatitis due to hepatotropic viruses (A, B and C) and non-A, non-B, non-C acute hepatitis, and to ascertain the influence of HEV superinfection in individuals infected with hepatitis viruses (A, B and C). We studied prospectively 162 children with sporadic acute hepatitis who reported to our hospital. Thirteen healthy controls were also included in the study. Laboratory investigations were performed, including complete liver function tests. Complete serological profiles for hepatitis viruses A, B, C and E were evaluated. HEV immunoglobulin G was detected with highest percentage among patients with hepatitis B (56.7%), followed by patients with hepatitis C virus (52.0%), hepatitis A virus (34.1%) and combined hepatitis B and C viruses (30.0%). The detection rate among patients with non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis was 7.1%. HEV immunoglobulin M was found in 4.5% of hepatitis A virus patients and in 3.3% of hepatitis B patients. The prevalence of HEV immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M correlated with the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in patients with dual markers of infection with hepatitis E and other viruses compared to patients with acute hepatitis due to A and C viruses. HEV serological markers are common among children with acute viral hepatitis, especially from hepatitis C and B viruses. There may be increased sensitivity to HEV coinfection in association with hepatitis B and C infections. Dual infection with HEV and other hepatotropic viruses was associated with greater elevation of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases.

  13. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-04-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to have a predilection to cause conjunctivitis and influenza-like illness (ILI), although HPAI H7N7 virus has also caused fatal respiratory disease. Low pathogenic H9N2 viruses have caused mild ILI and its occurrence may be under-recognised for this reason. In contrast, contemporary HPAI H5N1 viruses are exceptional in their virulence for humans and differ from human seasonal influenza viruses in their pathogenesis. Patients have a primary viral pneumonia progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Over 380 human cases have been confirmed to date, with an overall case fatality of 63%. The zoonotic transmission of avian influenza is a rare occurrence, butthe greater public health concern is the adaptation of such viruses to efficient human transmission, which could lead to a pandemic. A better understanding of the ecology of avian influenza viruses and the biological determinants of transmissibility and pathogenicity in humans is important for pandemic preparedness.

  14. Detection of selected plant viruses by microarrays

    OpenAIRE

    HRABÁKOVÁ, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this master thesis was the simultaneous detection of four selected plant viruses ? Apple mosaic virus, Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prune harf virus, by microarrays. The intermediate step in the process of the detection was optimizing of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

  15. Virus-host interaction in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Figueiredo, Andreza Soriano; Araujo, João Pessoa

    2013-12-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection has been the focus of several studies because this virus exhibits genetic and pathogenic characteristics that are similar to those of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). FIV causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in cats, nevertheless, a large fraction of infected cats remain asymptomatic throughout life despite of persistent chronic infection. This slow disease progression may be due to the presence of factors that are involved in the natural resistance to infection and the immune response that is mounted by the animals, as well as due to the adaptation of the virus to the host. Therefore, the study of virus-host interaction is essential to the understanding of the different patterns of disease course and the virus persistence in the host, and to help with the development of effective vaccines and perhaps the cure of FIV and HIV infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Single virus genomics: a new tool for virus discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Zeigler Allen

    Full Text Available Whole genome amplification and sequencing of single microbial cells has significantly influenced genomics and microbial ecology by facilitating direct recovery of reference genome data. However, viral genomics continues to suffer due to difficulties related to the isolation and characterization of uncultivated viruses. We report here on a new approach called 'Single Virus Genomics', which enabled the isolation and complete genome sequencing of the first single virus particle. A mixed assemblage comprised of two known viruses; E. coli bacteriophages lambda and T4, were sorted using flow cytometric methods and subsequently immobilized in an agarose matrix. Genome amplification was then achieved in situ via multiple displacement amplification (MDA. The complete lambda phage genome was recovered with an average depth of coverage of approximately 437X. The isolation and genome sequencing of uncultivated viruses using Single Virus Genomics approaches will enable researchers to address questions about viral diversity, evolution, adaptation and ecology that were previously unattainable.

  17. Understanding Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John S

    2017-01-01

    This article describes what pediatric healthcare professionals should know about Zika virus (ZIKV). ZIKV is classified as an arthropod-borne, single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family and genus Flavivirus. ZIKV is not new. The virus was first discovered almost 70 years ago in Uganda. The first isolate of the virus was found in rhesus monkeys in the Zika Forrest, hence the nomenclature. The primary route of ZIKV transmission to humans is through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito-primarily Aedes aegypti. When the mosquito bites individuals infected with the virus, mosquitos then become the vector of transmitting the infection to others. Women can also pass ZIKV to their fetus during pregnancy and at the time of delivery. ZIKV can also be transmitted through sexual activity from an individual who is infected with the virus to his or her partners. It is estimated that approximately 18% of individuals infected with ZIKV will go on to develop symptoms. When symptoms develop, it is usually within 3-12 days, although this may vary. Most often, symptoms are mild and self-limited. The most common symptoms are fever, arthralgia, maculopapular rash, and conjunctivitis lasting up to seven days. Less frequent symptoms include headache, vertigo, myalgia, vomiting, and diarrhea. At present, there is no vaccine available to prevent ZIKV and no specific antiviral treatment. Supportive care consisting of rest, hydration, analgesics, antihistamines, and antipyretics is recommended as needed. Given that there is no vaccine or treatment for ZIKV, considerable efforts must be focused on prevention. One of the most effective ways of preventing ZIKV infection is through avoiding mosquito bites, especially when traveling to or residing in areas where transmission is present. Precautions should include wearing appropriate attire with the objective of having as little skin exposed as possible, use of screens for windows and doors, and use of insect repellent. What is

  18. Dengue Virus and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas S. Heaton

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Several independent groups have published that autophagy is required for optimal RNA replication of dengue virus (DENV. Initially, it was postulated that autophagosomes might play a structural role in replication complex formation. However, cryo-EM tomography of DENV replication complexes showed that DENV replicates on endoplasmic reticulum (ER cisternae invaginations and not on classical autophagosomes. Recently, it was reported that autophagy plays an indirect role in DENV replication by modulating cellular lipid metabolism. DENV-induced autophagosomes deplete cellular triglycerides that are stored in lipid droplets, leading to increased β-oxidation and energy production. This is the first example of a virus triggering autophagy to modulate cellular physiology. In this review, we summarize these data and discuss new questions and implications for autophagy during DENV replication.

  19. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-05

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a variety of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.

  20. Uukuniemi virus, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Zelená, Hana; Papadopoulou, Elpida; Mrázek, Jakub

    2018-04-20

    Following the identification of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome and Heartland viruses, the interest on tick-borne phleboviruses has increased rapidly. Uukuniemi virus has been proposed as a model for tick-borne phleboviruses. However, the number of available sequences is limited. In the current study we performed whole-genome sequencing on two Uukuniemi viral strains isolated in 2000 and 2004 from Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic. Both strains cluster together with Potepli63 strain isolated in the country in 1963. Although the Czech strains were isolated many years apart, a high identity was seen at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, suggesting that UUKV has a relatively stable genome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Dudas, Robert A.; Karron, Ruth A.

    1998-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants and children worldwide and causes significant LRI in the elderly and in immunocompromised patients. The goal of RSV vaccination is to prevent serious RSV-associated LRI. There are several obstacles to the development of successful RSV vaccines, including the need to immunize very young infants, who may respond inadequately to vaccination; the existence of two antigenically d...

  2. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-08

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.  Created: 8/8/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/8/2014.

  3. Thermoactivation of viruses by microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahnel, H.; von Brodorotti, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    Eight different viruses, suspended in drinking water, were examined for their ability to be inactivated by microwaves from a microwave oven. Up to a virus content of 10/sup 5/ TCID/sub 50//ml inactivation was successful within a few minutes of microwave treatment and occurred in parallel to the heat stability of the viruses. Evidence for direct effects of microwaves on viruses could not be detected. 7 of the viruses studied were inactivated rapidly when temperatures of 50 to 65/sup 0/C under microwave treatment were reached in the flowing water, while a bovine parvovirus was only inactivated by temperatures above 90/sup 0/C. The advantages of a thermal virus-decontamination of fluids and material by microwaves are discussed.

  4. [Nosocomial virus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, H J

    1986-12-01

    Enveloped viruses, e.g. influenza- or varicella viruses may cause highly contagious airborne infections. Their spread is difficult to control, also in hospitals. In the case of influenza and varicella immune prophylaxis and chemotherapy/chemoprophylaxis are possible. This is of particular significance, since varicella and zoster are of increasing importance for immunocompromized patients. Diarrhea is caused to a large extent by viruses. Rotavirus infections play an important role in infancy, and are frequently acquired in the hospital. In a study on infectious gastroenteritis of infants in a hospital we were able to show that 30 percent of all rotavirus infections were of nosocomial origin. Admission of a rotavirus-excreting patient (or personnel) may start a long chain of rotavirus infections on pediatric wards. Even careful hygienic measures in the hospital can hardly prevent the spread of enterovirus infections. Such infections may be severe and lethal for newborns, as shown by us in a study on an outbreak of echovirus 11 disease on a maternity ward. We have recently obtained data on the "stickiness" of enteroviruses on human skin. This could explain essential features of the spread of enteroviruses in the population.

  5. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world.

  6. Virus Information Update CIAC-2301

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-21

    a tune through a sound card. Byway is reported to be in the wild internationally, especially in Venezuela, Mexico , Bulgaria, UK and USA. REMOVAL NOTE...1482, Varicella Type: Program. Disk Location: Features: Damage: Size: See Also: Notes: v6-146: This virus was written to hurt users of the TBCLEAN...antivirus package. If you have a file infected with the Varicella virus, and if you tried to clean this virus infected file with tbclean, what would

  7. Advances in virus research. Volume 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauffer, M.A.; Maramorosch, K.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains nine chapters. Some of the titles are: Molecular Biology of Wound Tumor Virus; The Application of Monoclonal Antibodies in the Study of Viruses; Prions: Novel Infectious Pathogens; and Monoclonal Antibodies Against Plant Viruses

  8. RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Sugoto; Fox, George E.; Zhu, Dianhui

    2013-01-01

    Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for "recognize viruses") software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-tree-based databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases. RECOVIR uses unique characterizing residues to identify automatically strains of partial or complete capsid sequences of picorna and caliciviruses, two of the most highly diverse ssRNA virus families. Partition-wise comparisons of the database residues with the corresponding residues of more than 300 complete and partial sequences of these viruses resulted in correct strain identification for all of these sequences. This study shows the feasibility of creating databases of hitherto unknown residues uniquely characterizing the capsid sequences of two of the most highly divergent ssRNA virus families. These databases enable automated strain identification from partial or complete capsid sequences of these human and animal pathogens.

  9. About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinical Overview Laboratory Diagnosis HPIV Seasons Resources & References About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Symptoms & Illnesses Lists symptoms and ...

  10. Virus Diseases Infecting Almond Germplasm in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Adeeb Saad; Yusuf Abou-Jawdah; Zahi Kanaan-Atallah

    2000-01-01

    Cultivated and wild almond species were surveyed for virus diseases. Four viruses infected cultivated almonds (Prunus dulcis): Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Only ACLSV and ApMV were detected on wild almonds, (Prunus orientalis and P. korschinskii). The occurence of PNRSV or PDV on seeds used for the production of rootstocks, on seedlings in nurseries, and on mother plants reve...

  11. Computer virus information update CIAC-2301

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orvis, W.J.

    1994-01-15

    While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

  12. Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in hemodialysis (HD) patients are associated with adverse outcomes, especially after kidney transplantation. Review: In the HD setting, cross-contamination to patients via environmental surfaces, supplies, equipment, multiple-dose medication vials ...

  13. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection in Cameroon: Investigation of the Genetic Diversity and Virulent ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... DNA sequencing, and bioinformatics tools for sequence management and analysis.

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitus B virus co-infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitus B virus co-infection amog patients in Kano Nigeria. EE Nwokedi, MA Emokpae, AI Dutse. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 15(3) July-September 2006: 227-229. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  15. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Eszter Cseh; András Takács; László Kocsis; Richard Gáborjányi

    2012-01-01

    The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Tomato black ring virus (TBRV), Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV), Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV), Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4), Grapevine virus A (GVA), Grape...

  16. Construction and prokaryotic expression of the fusion gene PRRSV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl4

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... The fusion expressing plasmid pET32-GP5-Hsp70 was constructed and expressed in ... 2004). Hsps, expressed by prokaryotes and eukaryotes and their action as molecular ..... Facts, thoughts, and dreams. Shock. 12(4): ...

  17. Blood transfusion and hepatitis viruses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    virus in blood donors: investigation of type-specific differences in serologic reactivity and rate of alanine aminotransferase abnormalities. Transfusion 1993;. 33: 7-13. 45. McFarlane IG, Smith HM, Johnson PJ, Bray GP, Vergani 0, Williams R. Hepatitis. C virus antibodies in chronic active hepatitis: pathogenetic factor or false-.

  18. Autophagy in Measles Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Rozières

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a biological process that helps cells to recycle obsolete cellular components and which greatly contributes to maintaining cellular integrity in response to environmental stress factors. Autophagy is also among the first lines of cellular defense against invading microorganisms, including viruses. The autophagic destruction of invading pathogens, a process referred to as xenophagy, involves cytosolic autophagy receptors, such as p62/SQSTM1 (Sequestosome 1 or NDP52/CALCOCO2 (Nuclear Dot 52 KDa Protein/Calcium Binding And Coiled-Coil Domain 2, which bind to microbial components and target them towards growing autophagosomes for degradation. However, most, if not all, infectious viruses have evolved molecular tricks to escape from xenophagy. Many viruses even use autophagy, part of the autophagy pathway or some autophagy-associated proteins, to improve their infectious potential. In this regard, the measles virus, responsible for epidemic measles, has a unique interface with autophagy as the virus can induce multiple rounds of autophagy in the course of infection. These successive waves of autophagy result from distinct molecular pathways and seem associated with anti- and/or pro-measles virus consequences. In this review, we describe what the autophagy–measles virus interplay has taught us about both the biology of the virus and the mechanistic orchestration of autophagy.

  19. antibodies against Herpes simplex virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    171. 5. Celum, C. L. The Interaction between Herpes Sim- plex Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Her- pes, 2004; 1: 36A-44A. 6. Brown, Z.A., Selke, S., Zeh, J., Kopelman, J., Maslow,. A., Ashley, R.L., Watts, D.H., Berry, S., Herd, M. and.

  20. Crenarchaeal Viruses: Morphotypes and Genomes,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili, P.; Basta, P.; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2008-01-01

    In this article we present our current knowledge about double-stranded (dsDNA) viruses infecting hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeaota, the organisms which predominate in hot terrestrial springs with temperatures over 80 °C. These viruses exhibit extraordinary diversity of morphotypes most of which have...

  1. Epidemic of cell phone virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; González, Marta; Barabási, Albert-László.

    2008-03-01

    Standard operating systems and Bluetooth technology will be a trend for future cell phone features. These will enable cell phone viruses to spread either through SMS or by sending Bluetooth requests when cell phones are physically close enough. The difference in spreading methods gives these two types of viruses' different epidemiological characteristics. SMS viruses' spread is mainly based on people's social connections, whereas the spreading of Bluetooth viruses is affected by people's mobility patterns and population distribution. Using cell phone data recording calls, SMS and locations of more than 6 million users, we study the spread of SMS and Bluetooth viruses and characterize how the social network and the mobility of mobile phone users affect such spreading processes.

  2. Release of Virus from Lymphoid Tissue Affects Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Hepatitis C Virus Kinetics in the Blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Viktor; Marée, Athanasius F.M.; Boer, R.J. de

    2000-01-01

    Kinetic parameters of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have been estimated from plasma virus levels following perturbation of the chronically infected (quasi-) steady state. We extend previous models by also considering the large pool of virus

  3. Functional analyses of the three simian hemorrhagic fever virus nonstructural protein 1 papain-like proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatter, Heather A; Di, Han; Donaldson, Eric F; Radu, Gertrud U; Maines, Taronna R; Brinton, Margo A

    2014-08-01

    The N-terminal region of simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) nonstructural polyprotein 1a is predicted to encode three papain-like proteases (PLP1α, PLP1β, and PLP1γ). Catalytic residues and cleavage sites for each of the SHFV PLP1s were predicted by alignment of the SHFV PLP1 region sequences with each other as well as with those of other arteriviruses, and the predicted catalytic residues were shown to be proximal by homology modeling of the SHFV nsp1s on porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) nsp1 crystal structures. The functionality of the predicted catalytic Cys residues and cleavage sites was tested by analysis of the autoproteolytic products generated in in vitro transcription/translation reactions done with wild-type or mutant SHFV nsp1 constructs. Cleavage sites were also analyzed by mass spectroscopy analysis of selected immunoprecipitated cleavage products. The data showed that each of the three SHFV PLP1s is an active protease. Cys63 was identified as the catalytic Cys of SHFV PLP1α and is adjacent to an Ala instead of the canonical Tyr observed in other arterivirus PLP1s. SHFV PLP1γ is able to cleave at both downstream and upstream nsp1 junction sites. Although intermediate precursor polyproteins as well as alternative products generated by each of the SHFV PLP1s cleaving at sites within the N-terminal region of nsp1β were produced in the in vitro reactions, Western blotting of SHFV-infected, MA104 cell lysates with SHFV nsp1 protein-specific antibodies detected only the three mature nsp1 proteins. SHFV is unique among arteriviruses in having three N-terminal papain-like protease 1 (PLP1) domains. Other arteriviruses encode one or two active PLP1s. This is the first functional study of the SHFV PLP1s. Analysis of the products of in vitro autoprocessing of an N-terminal SHFV nonstructural 1a polypeptide fragment showed that each of the three SHFV PLP1s is active, and the predicted catalytic Cys residues and cleavage sites

  4. [Ebola virus disease: Update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Calle-Prieto, Fernando; Arsuaga-Vicente, Marta; Mora-Rillo, Marta; Arnalich-Fernandez, Francisco; Arribas, Jose Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The first known Ebola outbreak occurred in 1976. Since then, 24 limited outbreaks had been reported in Central Africa, but never affecting more than 425 persons. The current outbreak in Western Africa is the largest in history with 28,220 reported cases and 11,291 deaths. The magnitude of the epidemic has caused worldwide alarm. For the first time, evacuated patients were treated outside Africa, and secondary cases have occurred in Spain and the United States. Since the start of the current epidemic, our knowledge about the epidemiology, clinical picture, laboratory findings, and virology of Ebola virus disease has considerably expanded. For the first time, experimental treatment has been tried, and there have been spectacular advances in vaccine development. A review is presented of these advances in the knowledge of Ebola virus disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome Sequence of Bivens Arm Virus, a Tibrovirus Belonging to the Species Tibrogargan virus (Mononegavirales: Rhabdoviridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauck, Michael; Yú, Shu Qìng; Caì, Yíngyún; Hensley, Lisa E; Chiu, Charles Y; O'Connor, David H; Kuhn, Jens H

    2015-03-19

    The new rhabdoviral genus Tibrovirus currently has two members, Coastal Plains virus and Tibrogargan virus. Here, we report the coding-complete genome sequence of a putative member of this genus, Bivens Arm virus. A genomic comparison reveals Bivens Arm virus to be closely related to, but distinct from, Tibrogargan virus. Copyright © 2015 Lauck et al.

  6. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Olivia D; Jungbluth, Sean P; Lin, Huei-Ting; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Miranda, Jaclyn A; Schvarcz, Christopher R; Rappé, Michael S; Steward, Grieg F

    2017-03-07

    Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement), but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C) were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B) drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 10 5 to 2 × 10 5  ml -1 ( n = 8), higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27). Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%). Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737), 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome. IMPORTANCE The hydrothermally active ocean basement is voluminous and likely provided conditions critical to the origins of life, but the microbiology of this vast habitat is not

  7. Sensitive radioimmunosorbent assay for the detection of plant viruses. [Cauliflower mosaic virus, lettuce mosaic virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabrial, S A; Shepherd, R J [Kentucky Univ., Lexington (USA); California Univ., Davis (USA))

    1980-06-01

    A simple and highly sensitive radioimmunosorbent assay (RISA) for the detection of plant viruses is described. The RISA procedure is a microplate method based on the principle of 'double-antibody sandwich' and follows essentially the protocol of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Clark and Adams, 1977), with the exception that /sup 125/I-labelled ..gamma..-globulin is substituted for the ..gamma..-globulin enzyme conjugate; the bound /sup 125/I-..gamma..-globulin is dissociated by acidification from the double-antibody sandwich. The radioactivity is proportional to virus concentration, and cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) could be detected at concentrations as low as 5 and 2 ng/ml, respectively. Direct evidence of the adverse effects of conjugation with enzyme on the binding abilities of antibodies is presented. The RISA procedure should prove valuable with viruses for which the ELISA values are too low to be dependable.

  8. Plant virus sensitivity to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoergyne Czeck, B.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary experiments for prevention were conducted with weakened plant viruses, namely with Arabis mosaic virus isolated from strawberries and tobacco mosaic virus. Treatment 24 hours prior to the infection with the radiation-weakened virus resulted in a 60-70% infection prevention. (author)

  9. Pandemic swine influenza virus: Preparedness planning | Ojogba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The novel H1N1 influenza virus that emerged in humans in Mexico in early 2009 and transmitted efficiently in the human population with global spread was declared a pandemic strain. The introduction of different avian and human influenza virus genes into swine influenza viruses often result in viruses of increased fitness ...

  10. Getah Virus Infection among Racehorses, Japan, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kobayashi, Minoru; Kikuchi, Takuya; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of Getah virus infection occurred among racehorses in Japan during September and October 2014. Of 49 febrile horses tested by reverse transcription PCR, 25 were positive for Getah virus. Viruses detected in 2014 were phylogenetically different from the virus isolated in Japan in 1978. PMID:25898181

  11. Ebola virus host cell entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuteru

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is an enveloped virus with filamentous structure and causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. Host cell entry is the first essential step in the viral life cycle, which has been extensively studied as one of the therapeutic targets. A virus factor of cell entry is a surface glycoprotein (GP), which is an only essential viral protein in the step, as well as the unique particle structure. The virus also interacts with a lot of host factors to successfully enter host cells. Ebola virus at first binds to cell surface proteins and internalizes into cells, followed by trafficking through endosomal vesicles to intracellular acidic compartments. There, host proteases process GPs, which can interact with an intracellular receptor. Then, under an appropriate circumstance, viral and endosomal membranes are fused, which is enhanced by major structural changes of GPs, to complete host cell entry. Recently the basic research of Ebola virus infection mechanism has markedly progressed, largely contributed by identification of host factors and detailed structural analyses of GPs. This article highlights the mechanism of Ebola virus host cell entry, including recent findings.

  12. DIAGNOSTICS OF VIRUS PHYTOPATHOGENS FRUIT TREE PLUM POX VIRUS, PRUNUS NECROTIC RINGSPOT VIRUS AND PRUNUS DWARF VIRUS BY BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Rozák

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of viral phytopathogen Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus in selected localities of Slovakia and diagnose them using a molecular and biological methods. Forty samples of fruit trees of the genus Prunus, twenty samples from intensive plantings and twenty samples from wild subject were analysed. Biological diagnostic by using biological indicators Prunus persica cv. GF 305, Prunus serrulata cv. Schirofugen and molecular diagnostic by mRT-PCR were applied. Five samples with Plum pox virus were infected. The two samples positive for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and one sample for Prunus dwarf virus were confirmed. The two samples were found to be infected with two viruses Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus. This work focuses on two techniques, their application to the diagnosis of stone fruit viruses and their routinely used for sanitary and certification programmes.

  13. Distinct dictation of Japanese encephalitis virus-induced neuroinflammation and lethality via triggering TLR3 and TLR4 signal pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Woo Han

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is major emerging neurologic disease caused by JE virus. To date, the impact of TLR molecules on JE progression has not been addressed. Here, we determined whether each TLR modulates JE, using several TLR-deficient mouse strains (TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, TLR9. Surprisingly, among the tested TLR-deficient mice there were contrasting results in TLR3(-/- and TLR4(-/- mice, i.e. TLR3(-/- mice were highly susceptible to JE, whereas TLR4(-/- mice showed enhanced resistance to JE. TLR3 ablation induced severe CNS inflammation characterized by early infiltration of inflammatory CD11b(+Ly-6Chigh monocytes along with profoundly increased viral burden, proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression as well as BBB permeability. In contrast, TLR4(-/- mice showed mild CNS inflammation manifested by reduced viral burden, leukocyte infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Interestingly, TLR4 ablation provided potent in vivo systemic type I IFN innate response, as well as ex vivo type I IFN production associated with strong induction of antiviral PRRs (RIG-I, MDA5, transcription factors (IRF-3, IRF-7, and IFN-dependent (PKR, Oas1, Mx and independent ISGs (ISG49, ISG54, ISG56 by alternative activation of IRF3 and NF-κB in myeloid-derived DCs and macrophages, as compared to TLR3(-/- myeloid-derived cells which were more permissive to viral replication through impaired type I IFN innate response. TLR4 ablation also appeared to mount an enhanced type I IFN innate and humoral, CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell responses, which were mediated by altered immune cell populations (increased number of plasmacytoid DCs and NK cells, reduced CD11b(+Ly-6C(high monocytes and CD4(+Foxp3(+ Treg number in lymphoid tissue. Thus, potent type I IFN innate and adaptive immune responses in the absence of TLR4 were closely coupled with reduced JE lethality. Collectively, these results suggest that a balanced triggering of TLR signal array by viral components

  14. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia D. Nigro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement, but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 105 to 2 × 105 ml−1 (n = 8, higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27. Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%. Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737, 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome.

  15. A new looming of Zika virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nirav R Soni

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, transmitted by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti. ZIKV will continue to spread and it will be difficult to determine how the virus will spread over time. Sign and symptoms of ZIKAVD (Zika virus disease) were conjunctivitis (red eyes), back pain, birth defect-abnormal brain development known as microcephaly and it is diagnosed through PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and virus isolation from blood samples.

  16. Ebola virus: bioterrorism for humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramodkumar Pyarelal Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease is a severe, often fatal, zoonotic infection caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family (genus Ebolavirus. Ebola virus (EBOV spreads by human to human transmission through contacts with body fluids from infected patients. Initial stages of EBOV are non-specific which makes the differential diagnosis broad. Here in this review article we focused on to show the details of EBOV, from its first case right up to the possible targets to cure this lethal disease. In this study we have shown the statistical survey, epidemiology, disease ontology, different genes coding for different proteins in EBOV and future aspects of it.

  17. Marburg Virus Reverse Genetics Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Maria Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The highly pathogenic Marburg virus (MARV is a member of the Filoviridae family and belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Reverse genetics systems established for MARV have been used to study various aspects of the viral replication cycle, analyze host responses, image viral infection, and screen for antivirals. This article provides an overview of the currently established MARV reverse genetic systems based on minigenomes, infectious virus-like particles and full-length clones, and the research that has been conducted using these systems.

  18. "The evil virus cell": Students‘ knowledge and beliefs about viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzinger, Sonja M.; Fink, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Education about virus biology at school is of pivotal interest to raise public awareness concerning means of disease transmission and, thus, methods to prevent infection, and to reduce unnecessary antibiotic treatment due to patient pressure on physicians in case of viral diseases such as influenza. This study aimed at making visible the knowledge of Austrian high school and university students with respect to virus biology, virus structure and health-education issues. The data presented here stem from comprehensive questionnaire analyses, including the task to draw a virus, from a cross-sectional study with 133 grade 7 and 199 grade 10 high school students, and 133 first-year biology and 181 first-year non-biology university students. Analyses were performed both quantitatively and qualitatively. ANOVA revealed a highly significant group effect for total knowledge relating to virus biology and health issues (F(3, 642) = 44.17, p students and grade 10 high school students. Students enrolled in university-level biology outperformed all other groups, even though they had not yet encountered this topic at their courses; part of this phenomenon might be due to their affinity for learning about biological topics. However, even many first-year biology students had a high number of severe misconceptions, e.g., defining a virus as a pro- or eukaryotic cell, or falsely naming malaria as a viral disease. Since there was no significant difference in virus-related knowledge between high schools, virus biology seems to have been taught similarly among the tested schools. However, the majority of participants stated that the virus-related knowledge they had acquired at school was not sufficient. Based on the results presented here we urgently suggest improving and intensifying teaching this topic at school, since virus-related knowledge was by far too fragmentary among many participants. Such lack of health-relevant knowledge may contribute to pressure on physicians by patients

  19. "The evil virus cell": Students' knowledge and beliefs about viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Uwe K; Enzinger, Sonja M; Fink, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Education about virus biology at school is of pivotal interest to raise public awareness concerning means of disease transmission and, thus, methods to prevent infection, and to reduce unnecessary antibiotic treatment due to patient pressure on physicians in case of viral diseases such as influenza. This study aimed at making visible the knowledge of Austrian high school and university students with respect to virus biology, virus structure and health-education issues. The data presented here stem from comprehensive questionnaire analyses, including the task to draw a virus, from a cross-sectional study with 133 grade 7 and 199 grade 10 high school students, and 133 first-year biology and 181 first-year non-biology university students. Analyses were performed both quantitatively and qualitatively. ANOVA revealed a highly significant group effect for total knowledge relating to virus biology and health issues (F(3, 642) = 44.17, p students and grade 10 high school students. Students enrolled in university-level biology outperformed all other groups, even though they had not yet encountered this topic at their courses; part of this phenomenon might be due to their affinity for learning about biological topics. However, even many first-year biology students had a high number of severe misconceptions, e.g., defining a virus as a pro- or eukaryotic cell, or falsely naming malaria as a viral disease. Since there was no significant difference in virus-related knowledge between high schools, virus biology seems to have been taught similarly among the tested schools. However, the majority of participants stated that the virus-related knowledge they had acquired at school was not sufficient. Based on the results presented here we urgently suggest improving and intensifying teaching this topic at school, since virus-related knowledge was by far too fragmentary among many participants. Such lack of health-relevant knowledge may contribute to pressure on physicians by patients

  20. Das Epstein-Barr-Virus ( = Epstein-Barr virus)

    OpenAIRE

    Niller, H. H.; Wolf, Hans J.

    1993-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus is an ubiquitous humanpathogenic herpesvirus. It has been identified as the etiologic agent of infectious mononucleosis. In addition it is associated with the cancers nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Burkitt's lymphoma. Like other herpesviruses it infects cells in a lytic way or it persists in a latent state. Classically, the serologic diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus infections is done by the agglutination of sheep erythrocytes according to Paul and Bunnell as a rapid testing m...

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients.

  2. A REVIEW ON ZIKA VIRUS (ZIKV) -A DREADFUL MEMBER OF THE VIRUS FAMILY FLAVIVIRIDAE

    OpenAIRE

    1Rafiya Begum, 2 Raafia Aseena, 3Nuha Rasheed and 4 Abdul Saleem Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Research on zika virus examine the virus that is spread to humans through a mosquito bite, with symptoms that include fever, rash, joint pain, and conjuctivities. For most people zika virus is not necessarily anything to worry, as it is not fatal and symptoms are generally mild for period up to a week. Hospitalization because of zika virus is almost always not necessary. However, the zika virus can be extremely dangerous to pregnant womes. Key Words: Zika, virus, transmission, fatal, flavivir...

  3. Electron microscopic identification of Zinga virus as a strain of Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaleye, O D; Baigent, C L; Mueller, G; Tomori, O; Schmitz, H

    1992-01-01

    Electron microscopic examination of a negatively stained suspension of Zinga virus showed particles 90-100 nm in diameter, enveloped with spikes 12-20 nm in length and 5 nm in diameter. Further identification of the virus by immune electron microscopy showed the reactivity of human Rift Valley fever virus-positive serum with Zinga virus. Results of this study are in agreement with earlier reports that Zinga virus is a strain of Rift Valley fever virus.

  4. Single Assay Detection of Acute Bee Paralysis Virus, Kashmir Bee Virus and Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Kryger, Per

    2012-01-01

    A new RT-PCR primer pair designed to identify Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV), Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV) or Israeli Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (IAPV) of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in a single assay is described. These primers are used to screen samples for ABPV, KBV, or IAPV in a single RT-PCR ......-PCR reaction saving time and money. The primers are located in the predicted overlapping gene (pog/ORFX) which is highly conserved across ABPV, KBV, IAPV and other dicistroviruses of social insects. This study has also identified the first case of IAPV in Denmark....

  5. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Pneumoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rima, Bert; Collins, Peter; Easton, Andrew; Fouchier, Ron; Kurath, Gael; Lamb, Robert A; Lee, Benhur; Maisner, Andrea; Rota, Paul; Wang, Linfa; Ictv Report Consortium

    2017-12-01

    The family Pneumoviridae comprises large enveloped negative-sense RNA viruses. This taxon was formerly a subfamily within the Paramyxoviridae, but was reclassified in 2016 as a family with two genera, Orthopneumovirus and Metapneumovirus. Pneumoviruses infect a range of mammalian species, while some members of the Metapneumovirus genus may also infect birds. Some viruses are specific and pathogenic for humans, such as human respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus. There are no known vectors for pneumoviruses and transmission is thought to be primarily by aerosol droplets and contact. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Pneumoviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/pneumoviridae.

  6. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Hepeviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Michael A; Harrison, Tim J; Jameel, S; Meng, X-J; Okamoto, H; Van der Poel, W H M; Smith, Donald B; Ictv Report Consortium

    2017-11-01

    The family Hepeviridae includes enterically transmitted small non-enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses. It includes the genera Piscihepevirus, whose members infect fish, and Orthohepevirus, whose members infect mammals and birds. Members of the genus Orthohepevirus include hepatitis E virus, which is responsible for self-limiting acute hepatitis in humans and several mammalian species; the infection may become chronic in immunocompromised individuals. Extrahepatic manifestations of Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy, glomerulonephritis and pancreatitis have been described in humans. Avian hepatitis E virus causes hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Hepeviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/hepeviridae.

  7. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share Cold Sores in Children: About the Herpes Simplex Virus Page Content ​A child's toddler and ... Cold sores (also called fever blisters or oral herpes) start as small blisters that form around the ...

  8. Mayaro virus: the jungle flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izurieta RO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ricardo O Izurieta,1 David A DeLacure,1 Andres Izurieta,2 Ismael A Hoare,1 Miguel Reina Ortiz,1,3 1Department of Global Health, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 2Department of Computer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Fundación Raíces, Esmeraldas, Ecuador Abstract: Mayaro fever is an emerging acute viral disease endemic in Central and South America. Mayaro virus (MAYV is classified in the Semliki Forest virus antigenic complex and shares similarities with the alphavirus Chikungunya virus and the flavivirus Dengue virus. MAYV is an arbovirus transmitted by Haemagogus janthinomys, with competence also demonstrated in Aedes aegypti, Aedes scapularis, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Outbreaks and small epidemics of Mayaro fever have occurred in several countries in northern South America and the Caribbean. In addition, travel-associated cases have been reported in European nationals returning from endemic areas. Clinical features of Mayaro fever include fever, chills, persistent arthralgia, retro-orbital pain, maculopapular rash, itching, dizziness, and, rarely, lymphadenopathy. Methods of control for MAYV are similar to those used for other sylvatic arboviruses. Although MAYV was discovered as long ago as the 1950s and continues to be prevalent in the tropical areas of the Americas, it remains neglected and under-studied. This paper provides a thorough and current review of the published MAYV literature ranging from its original description to modern outbreaks, and from the basic virus characteristics to the clinical and epidemiological aspects of this disease. Keywords: Mayaro virus, emerging arbovirus, dengue-like virus, arthrogenic virus

  9. Zika virus and assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Christina N; Bano, Rashda; Washington Cross, Chantel I; Segars, James H

    2017-06-01

    Due to the fact that the Zika virus can be sexually transmitted, there is a potential risk for disease transmission at several stages of assisted reproduction. Such a possibility poses a serious challenge to couples pursing fertility with reproductive technologies. Here, we discuss what is known regarding Zika virus infection with respect to sexual transmission and correlate this knowledge with recent recommendations in the realm of infertility treatment. Zika virus can be transmitted from infected men and women through vaginal, oral or anal intercourse. Zika virus RNA has been detected in blood, semen, cervical mucus and vaginal fluid. Currently, the Centers for Disease Control recommends that infected men wait 6 months, and infected women 8 weeks, prior to attempting pregnancy. Reproductive tissue donors should wait 6 months before giving a specimen. Further study of Zika virus transmission in different reproductive tissues and establishment of validated testing methods for viral disease transmissibility are urgently needed. Reproductive technologists need to establish screening, testing and laboratory protocols aimed to reduce the risk of Zika virus transmission during assisted reproduction.

  10. Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S M; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Vitalis, B; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) has developed candidate multiplexed assays that may potentially be used within the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) and the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC). This effort has the ability to improve our nation's capability to discriminate between foreign animal diseases and those that are endemic using a single assay, thereby increasing our ability to protect food and agricultural resources with a diagnostic test which could enhance the nation's capabilities for early detection of a foreign animal disease. In FY2005 with funding from the DHS, LLNL developed the first version (Version 1.0) of a multiplexed (MUX) nucleic-acid-based RT-PCR assay that included signatures for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) detection with rule-out tests for two other foreign animal diseases (FADs) of swine, Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VESV) and Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), and four other domestic viral diseases Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Parapox virus complex (which includes Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus [BPSV], Orf of sheep, and Pseudocowpox). In FY06, LLNL has developed Bovine and Porcine species-specific panel which included existing signatures from Version 1.0 panel as well as new signatures. The MUX RT-PCR porcine assay for detection of FMDV includes the FADs, VESV and SVD in addition to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). LLNL has also developed a MUX RT-PCR bovine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for the two bovine FADs malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), rinderpest virus (RPV) and the domestic diseases vesicular stomatitis

  11. Archaeal Viruses from High-Temperature Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson-McGee, Jacob H; Snyder, Jamie C; Young, Mark J

    2018-02-27

    Archaeal viruses are some of the most enigmatic viruses known, due to the small number that have been characterized to date. The number of known archaeal viruses lags behind known bacteriophages by over an order of magnitude. Despite this, the high levels of genetic and morphological diversity that archaeal viruses display has attracted researchers for over 45 years. Extreme natural environments, such as acidic hot springs, are almost exclusively populated by Archaea and their viruses, making these attractive environments for the discovery and characterization of new viruses. The archaeal viruses from these environments have provided insights into archaeal biology, gene function, and viral evolution. This review focuses on advances from over four decades of archaeal virology, with a particular focus on archaeal viruses from high temperature environments, the existing challenges in understanding archaeal virus gene function, and approaches being taken to overcome these limitations.

  12. Archaeal Viruses from High-Temperature Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob H. Munson-McGee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Archaeal viruses are some of the most enigmatic viruses known, due to the small number that have been characterized to date. The number of known archaeal viruses lags behind known bacteriophages by over an order of magnitude. Despite this, the high levels of genetic and morphological diversity that archaeal viruses display has attracted researchers for over 45 years. Extreme natural environments, such as acidic hot springs, are almost exclusively populated by Archaea and their viruses, making these attractive environments for the discovery and characterization of new viruses. The archaeal viruses from these environments have provided insights into archaeal biology, gene function, and viral evolution. This review focuses on advances from over four decades of archaeal virology, with a particular focus on archaeal viruses from high temperature environments, the existing challenges in understanding archaeal virus gene function, and approaches being taken to overcome these limitations.

  13. Hepatitis E Virus and Related Viruses in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, D; Mauroy, A; Pavio, N; Purdy, M A; Rose, N; Thiry, E; de Oliveira-Filho, E F

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis E is an acute human liver disease in healthy individuals which may eventually become chronic. It is caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV) and can have a zoonotic origin. Nearly 57,000 people die yearly from hepatitis E-related conditions. The disease is endemic in both developing and developed countries with distinct epidemiologic profiles. In developing countries, the disease is associated with inadequate water treatment, while in developed countries, transmission is associated with animal contact and the ingestion of raw or uncooked meat, especially liver. All human HEV are grouped into at least four genotypes, while HEV or HEV-related viruses have been identified in an increasing number of domestic and wild animal species. Despite a high genetic diversity, only one single HEV serotype has been described to date for HEV genotypes 1-4. The discovery of new HEV or HEV-related viruses leads to a continuing increase in the number of genotypes. In addition, the genome organization of all these viruses is variable with overlapping open reading frames (ORF) and differences in the location of ORF3. In spite of the role of some domestic and wild animals as reservoir, the origin of HEV and HEV-related viruses in humans and animals is still unclear. This review discusses aspects of the detection, molecular virology, zoonotic transmission and origin of HEV and HEV-related viruses in the context of 'One Health' and establishes a link between the previous and the new taxonomy of this growing virus family. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Circulating avian influenza viruses closely related to the 1918 virus have pandemic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Zhong, Gongxun; Russell, Colin A.; Nakajima, Noriko; Hatta, Masato; Hanson, Anthony; McBride, Ryan; Burke, David F.; Takahashi, Kenta; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tomita, Yuriko; Maher, Eileen A.; Watanabe, Shinji; Imai, Masaki; Neumann, Gabriele; Hasegawa, Hideki; Paulson, James C.; Smith, Derek J.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Summary Wild birds harbor a large gene pool of influenza A viruses that have the potential to cause influenza pandemics. Foreseeing and understanding this potential is important for effective surveillance. Our phylogenetic and geographic analyses revealed the global prevalence of avian influenza virus genes whose proteins differ only a few amino acids from the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, suggesting that 1918-like pandemic viruses may emerge in the future. To assess this risk, we generated and characterized a virus composed of avian influenza viral segments with high homology to the 1918 virus. This virus exhibited higher pathogenicity in mice and ferrets than an authentic avian influenza virus. Further, acquisition of seven amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerases and the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein conferred respiratory droplet transmission to the 1918-like avian virus in ferrets, demonstrating that contemporary avian influenza viruses with 1918 virus-like proteins may have pandemic potential. PMID:24922572

  15. Contact Mechanics of a Small Icosahedral Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Cheng; Hernando-Pérez, Mercedes; Dragnea, Bogdan; Ma, Xiang; van der Schoot, Paul; Zandi, Roya

    2017-07-01

    A virus binding to a surface causes stress of the virus cage near the contact area. Here, we investigate the potential role of substrate-induced structural perturbation in the mechanical response of virus particles to adsorption. This is particularly relevant to the broad category of viruses stabilized by weak noncovalent interactions. We utilize atomic force microscopy to measure height distributions of the brome mosaic virus upon adsorption from solution on atomically flat substrates and present a continuum model that captures our observations and provides estimates of elastic properties and of the interfacial energy of the virus, without recourse to indentation.

  16. Structure of viruses: a short history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, Michael G

    2013-05-01

    This review is a partially personal account of the discovery of virus structure and its implication for virus function. Although I have endeavored to cover all aspects of structural virology and to acknowledge relevant individuals, I know that I have favored taking examples from my own experience in telling this story. I am anxious to apologize to all those who I might have unintentionally offended by omitting their work. The first knowledge of virus structure was a result of Stanley's studies of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the subsequent X-ray fiber diffraction analysis by Bernal and Fankuchen in the 1930s. At about the same time it became apparent that crystals of small RNA plant and animal viruses could diffract X-rays, demonstrating that viruses must have distinct and unique structures. More advances were made in the 1950s with the realization by Watson and Crick that viruses might have icosahedral symmetry. With the improvement of experimental and computational techniques in the 1970s, it became possible to determine the three-dimensional, near-atomic resolution structures of some small icosahedral plant and animal RNA viruses. It was a great surprise that the protecting capsids of the first virus structures to be determined had the same architecture. The capsid proteins of these viruses all had a 'jelly-roll' fold and, furthermore, the organization of the capsid protein in the virus were similar, suggesting a common ancestral virus from which many of today's viruses have evolved. By this time a more detailed structure of TMV had also been established, but both the architecture and capsid protein fold were quite different to that of the icosahedral viruses. The small icosahedral RNA virus structures were also informative of how and where cellular receptors, anti-viral compounds, and neutralizing antibodies bound to these viruses. However, larger lipid membrane enveloped viruses did not form sufficiently ordered crystals to obtain good X-ray diffraction

  17. Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus: Emerging and Re-Emerging Enterically Transmitted Hepatitis Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Stanley M; Walker, Christopher M

    2018-05-07

    Over the past two decades, progress in understanding human infections with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been eclipsed by the priority of combating persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. During that time, the global burden of liver disease caused by enteric hepatitis viruses has not abated. Because of vaccines, hepatitis A has become increasingly a disease of adults instead of early childhood in many regions of the world, resulting in an age-related shift toward more severe disease. HEV has remained endemic in many developing countries, and in well-developed, economically advanced countries it is now recognized as a cause of chronic, progressive liver disease in individuals with compromised immunity. The goal of this collection of articles is to review recent progress and to shine a bright light on gaps in our understanding of how these viruses replicate, cause disease, interact with the liver and host immune system, and are transmitted, along with prospects for improved control in human populations. Renewed efforts to study and compare HAV and HEV biology in humans and animal models have high potential to enhance our understanding of host-pathogen balance in the liver, and may contribute ultimately to the control of other infectious diseases of the liver. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  18. Ebola virus: recommendations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has been closely following, in particular via the WHO, the development of the Ebola virus outbreak currently affecting some African countries. This infectious disease may be passed on through direct contact with the bodily fluids of a sick person.   Based on the recommendations of the WHO and the two Host States, Switzerland and France, as updated on their respective websites, so far there has been no ban on travel to the countries concerned. However, unless it is absolutely essential, you are advised not to visit any of the countries affected by Ebola (Guinea, Republic of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria). The two Host States have established an alert system, and a check is carried out on departure from the airports of those countries. It is strongly recommended that you contact the Medical Service if you are travelling to those countries. We remind you to observe the basic rules of hygiene such as frequent hand washing, whatever your destination. The Medical Service is...

  19. Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-R.; Lei, H.-Y.; Liu, M.-T.; Wang, J.-R.; Chen, S.-H.; Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F.; Lin, Y.-S.; Yeh, T.-M.; Liu, C.-C.; Liu, H.-S.

    2008-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication

  20. [Bats and Viruses: complex relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F

    2015-10-01

    With more than 1 200 species, bats and flying foxes (Order Chiroptera) constitute the most important and diverse order of Mammals after Rodents. Many species of bats are insectivorous while others are frugivorous and few of them are hematophagous. Some of these animals fly during the night, others are crepuscular or diurnal. Some fly long distances during seasonal migrations. Many species are colonial cave-dwelling, living in a rather small home range while others are relatively solitary. However, in spite of the importance of bats for terrestrial biotic communities and ecosystem ecology, the diversity in their biology and lifestyles remain poorly known and underappreciated. More than sixty viruses have been detected or isolated in bats; these animals are therefore involved in the natural cycles of many of them. This is the case, for instance, of rabies virus and other Lyssavirus (Family Rhabdoviridae), Nipah and Hendra viruses (Paramyxoviridae), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Coronaviridae). For these zoonotic viruses, a number of bat species are considered as important reservoir hosts, efficient disseminators or even directly responsible of the transmission. Some of these bat-borne viruses cause highly pathogenic diseases while others are of potential significance for humans and domestic or wild animals; so, bats are an important risk in human and animal public health. Moreover, some groups of viruses developed through different phylogenetic mechanisms of coevolution between viruses and bats. The fact that most of these viral infections are asymptomatic in bats has been observed since a long time but the mechanisms of the viral persistence are not clearly understood. The various bioecology of the different bat populations allows exchange of virus between migrating and non-migrating conspecific species. For a better understanding of the role of bats in the circulation of these viral zoonoses, epidemiologists must pay attention to

  1. Oncogenic Viruses and Breast Cancer: Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV), Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), and Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James S; Salmons, Brian; Glenn, Wendy K

    2018-01-01

    Although the risk factors for breast cancer are well established, namely female gender, early menarche and late menopause plus the protective influence of early pregnancy, the underlying causes of breast cancer remain unknown. The development of substantial recent evidence indicates that a handful of viruses may have a role in breast cancer. These viruses are mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), bovine leukemia virus (BLV), human papilloma viruses (HPVs), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-also known as human herpes virus type 4). Each of these viruses has documented oncogenic potential. The aim of this review is to inform the scientific and general community about this recent evidence. MMTV and human breast cancer-the evidence is detailed and comprehensive but cannot be regarded as conclusive. BLV and human breast cancer-the evidence is limited. However, in view of the emerging information about BLV in human breast cancer, it is prudent to encourage the elimination of BLV in cattle, particularly in the dairy industry. HPVs and breast cancer-the evidence is substantial but not conclusive. The availability of effective preventive vaccines is a major advantage and their use should be encouraged. EBV and breast cancer-the evidence is also substantial but not conclusive. Currently, there are no practical means of either prevention or treatment. Although there is evidence of genetic predisposition, and cancer in general is a culmination of events, there is no evidence that inherited genetic traits are causal. The influence of oncogenic viruses is currently the major plausible hypothesis for a direct cause of human breast cancer.

  2. Oncogenic Viruses and Breast Cancer: Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV, Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV, and Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Lawson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlthough the risk factors for breast cancer are well established, namely female gender, early menarche and late menopause plus the protective influence of early pregnancy, the underlying causes of breast cancer remain unknown. The development of substantial recent evidence indicates that a handful of viruses may have a role in breast cancer. These viruses are mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV, bovine leukemia virus (BLV, human papilloma viruses (HPVs, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV-also known as human herpes virus type 4. Each of these viruses has documented oncogenic potential. The aim of this review is to inform the scientific and general community about this recent evidence.The evidenceMMTV and human breast cancer—the evidence is detailed and comprehensive but cannot be regarded as conclusive. BLV and human breast cancer—the evidence is limited. However, in view of the emerging information about BLV in human breast cancer, it is prudent to encourage the elimination of BLV in cattle, particularly in the dairy industry. HPVs and breast cancer—the evidence is substantial but not conclusive. The availability of effective preventive vaccines is a major advantage and their use should be encouraged. EBV and breast cancer—the evidence is also substantial but not conclusive. Currently, there are no practical means of either prevention or treatment. Although there is evidence of genetic predisposition, and cancer in general is a culmination of events, there is no evidence that inherited genetic traits are causal.ConclusionThe influence of oncogenic viruses is currently the major plausible hypothesis for a direct cause of human breast cancer.

  3. Designing herpes viruses as oncolytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Peters

    Full Text Available Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV was one of the first genetically-engineered oncolytic viruses. Because HSV is a natural human pathogen that can cause serious disease, it is incumbent that it can be genetically-engineered or significantly attenuated for safety. Here, we present a detailed explanation of the functions of HSV-1 genes frequently mutated to endow oncolytic activity. These genes are nonessential for growth in tissue culture cells but are important for growth in postmitotic cells, interfering with intrinsic antiviral and innate immune responses or causing pathology, functions dispensable for replication in cancer cells. Understanding the function of these genes leads to informed creation of new oHSVs with better therapeutic efficacy. Virus infection and replication can also be directed to cancer cells through tumor-selective receptor binding and transcriptional- or post-transcriptional miRNA-targeting, respectively. In addition to the direct effects of oHSV on infected cancer cells and tumors, oHSV can be “armed” with transgenes that are: reporters, to track virus replication and spread; cytotoxic, to kill uninfected tumor cells; immune modulatory, to stimulate antitumor immunity; or tumor microenvironment altering, to enhance virus spread or to inhibit tumor growth. In addition to HSV-1, other alphaherpesviruses are also discussed for their oncolytic activity.

  4. Viruses and thyroiditis: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hober Didier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor involved in subacute thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid diseases This review examines the data related to the role of viruses in the development of thyroiditis. Our research has been focused on human data. We have reviewed virological data for each type of thyroiditis at different levels of evidence; epidemiological data, serological data or research on circulating viruses, direct evidence of thyroid tissue infection. Interpretation of epidemiological and serological data must be cautious as they don't prove that this pathogen is responsible for the disease. However, direct evidence of the presence of viruses or their components in the organ are available for retroviruses (HFV and mumps in subacute thyroiditis, for retroviruses (HTLV-1, HFV, HIV and SV40 in Graves's disease and for HTLV-1, enterovirus, rubella, mumps virus, HSV, EBV and parvovirus in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, it remains to determine whether they are responsible for thyroid diseases or whether they are just innocent bystanders. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between viruses and thyroid diseases, in order to develop new strategies for prevention and/or treatment.

  5. Viruses and thyroiditis: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desailloud, Rachel; Hober, Didier

    2009-01-01

    Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor involved in subacute thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid diseases This review examines the data related to the role of viruses in the development of thyroiditis. Our research has been focused on human data. We have reviewed virological data for each type of thyroiditis at different levels of evidence; epidemiological data, serological data or research on circulating viruses, direct evidence of thyroid tissue infection. Interpretation of epidemiological and serological data must be cautious as they don't prove that this pathogen is responsible for the disease. However, direct evidence of the presence of viruses or their components in the organ are available for retroviruses (HFV) and mumps in subacute thyroiditis, for retroviruses (HTLV-1, HFV, HIV and SV40) in Graves's disease and for HTLV-1, enterovirus, rubella, mumps virus, HSV, EBV and parvovirus in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, it remains to determine whether they are responsible for thyroid diseases or whether they are just innocent bystanders. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between viruses and thyroid diseases, in order to develop new strategies for prevention and/or treatment. PMID:19138419

  6. Quantitative nanoscale electrostatics of viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando-Pérez, M; Cartagena-Rivera, A X; Lošdorfer Božič, A; Carrillo, P J P; San Martín, C; Mateu, M G; Raman, A; Podgornik, R; de Pablo, P J

    2015-11-07

    Electrostatics is one of the fundamental driving forces of the interaction between biomolecules in solution. In particular, the recognition events between viruses and host cells are dominated by both specific and non-specific interactions and the electric charge of viral particles determines the electrostatic force component of the latter. Here we probe the charge of individual viruses in liquid milieu by measuring the electrostatic force between a viral particle and the Atomic Force Microscope tip. The force spectroscopy data of co-adsorbed ϕ29 bacteriophage proheads and mature virions, adenovirus and minute virus of mice capsids is utilized for obtaining the corresponding density of charge for each virus. The systematic differences of the density of charge between the viral particles are consistent with the theoretical predictions obtained from X-ray structural data. Our results show that the density of charge is a distinguishing characteristic of each virus, depending crucially on the nature of the viral capsid and the presence/absence of the genetic material.

  7. Fungal transmission of plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R N

    1996-01-01

    Thirty soilborne viruses or virus-like agents are transmitted by five species of fungal vectors. Ten polyhedral viruses, of which nine are in the family Tombusviridae, are acquired in the in vitro manner and do not occur within the resting spores of their vectors, Olpidium brassicae and O. bornovanus. Fungal vectors for other viruses in the family should be sought even though tombusviruses are reputed to be soil transmitted without a vector. Eighteen rod-shaped viruses belonging to the furo- and bymovirus groups and to an unclassified group are acquired in the in vivo manner and survive within the resting spores of their vector, O. brassicae, Polymyxa graminis, P. betae, and Spongospora subterranea. The viral coat protein has an essential role in in vitro transmission. With in vivo transmission a site in the coat protein-read through protein (CP-RT) of beet necrotic yellow vein furovirus determines vector transmissibility as does a site in a similar 98-kDa polyprotein of barley mild mosaic bymovirus. The mechanisms by which virions move (or are moved) into and out of the protoplasm of zoospores or of thalli needs study.

  8. Designing herpes viruses as oncolytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Cole; Rabkin, Samuel D

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) was one of the first genetically-engineered oncolytic viruses. Because HSV is a natural human pathogen that can cause serious disease, it is incumbent that it can be genetically-engineered or significantly attenuated for safety. Here, we present a detailed explanation of the functions of HSV-1 genes frequently mutated to endow oncolytic activity. These genes are nonessential for growth in tissue culture cells but are important for growth in postmitotic cells, interfering with intrinsic antiviral and innate immune responses or causing pathology, functions dispensable for replication in cancer cells. Understanding the function of these genes leads to informed creation of new oHSVs with better therapeutic efficacy. Virus infection and replication can also be directed to cancer cells through tumor-selective receptor binding and transcriptional- or post-transcriptional miRNA-targeting, respectively. In addition to the direct effects of oHSV on infected cancer cells and tumors, oHSV can be “armed” with transgenes that are: reporters, to track virus replication and spread; cytotoxic, to kill uninfected tumor cells; immune modulatory, to stimulate antitumor immunity; or tumor microenvironment altering, to enhance virus spread or to inhibit tumor growth. In addition to HSV-1, other alphaherpesviruses are also discussed for their oncolytic activity. PMID:26462293

  9. Viruses: agents of coral disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, S K; Burchett, S G; Dale, A L; Davies, P; Davy, J E; Muncke, C; Hoegh-Guldberg, O; Wilson, W H

    2006-03-23

    The potential role of viruses in coral disease has only recently begun to receive attention. Here we describe our attempts to determine whether viruses are present in thermally stressed corals Pavona danai, Acropora formosa and Stylophora pistillata and zoanthids Zoanthus sp., and their zooxanthellae. Heat-shocked P. danai, A. formosa and Zoanthus sp. all produced numerous virus-like particles (VLPs) that were evident in the animal tissue, zooxanthellae and the surrounding seawater; VLPs were also seen around heat-shocked freshly isolated zooxanthellae (FIZ) from P. danai and S. pistillata. The most commonly seen VLPs were tail-less, hexagonal and about 40 to 50 nm in diameter, though a diverse range of other VLP morphotypes (e.g. rounded, rod-shaped, droplet-shaped, filamentous) were also present around corals. When VLPs around heat-shocked FIZ from S. pistillata were added to non-stressed FIZ from this coral, they resulted in cell lysis, suggesting that an infectious agent was present; however, analysis with transmission electron microscopy provided no clear evidence of viral infection. The release of diverse VLPs was again apparent when flow cytometry was used to enumerate release by heat-stressed A. formosa nubbins. Our data support the infection of reef corals by viruses, though we cannot yet determine the precise origin (i.e. coral, zooxanthellae and/or surface microbes) of the VLPs seen. Furthermore, genome sequence data are required to establish the presence of viruses unequivocally.

  10. Coping with Computer Viruses: General Discussion and Review of Symantec Anti-Virus for the Macintosh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primich, Tracy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses that attack the Macintosh and describes Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM), a commercial program designed to detect and eliminate viruses; sample screen displays are included. SAM is recommended for use in library settings as well as two public domain virus protection programs. (four references) (MES)

  11. How Hepatitis D Virus Can Hinder the Control of Hepatitis B Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiridiou, M.; Borkent-Raven, B.; Hulshof, J.; Wallinga, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis D (or hepatitis delta) virus is a defective virus that relies on hepatitis B virus (HBV) for transmission; infection with hepatitis D can occur only as coinfection with HBV or superinfection of an existing HBV infection. Because of the bond between the two viruses, control

  12. Zika Virus and Complications: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do if they have been exposed to unprotected sex but do not wish to become pregnant because ... A's Zika virus and complications » Zika digital timeline Video Zika virus - Questions and answers (Q&A) Related ...

  13. Archaeal Viruses: Diversity, Replication, and Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellas, Nikki; Snyder, Jamie C; Bolduc, Benjamin; Young, Mark J

    2014-11-01

    The Archaea-and their viruses-remain the most enigmatic of life's three domains. Once thought to inhabit only extreme environments, archaea are now known to inhabit diverse environments. Even though the first archaeal virus was described over 40 years ago, only 117 archaeal viruses have been discovered to date. Despite this small number, these viruses have painted a portrait of enormous morphological and genetic diversity. For example, research centered around the various steps of the archaeal virus life cycle has led to the discovery of unique mechanisms employed by archaeal viruses during replication, maturation, and virion release. In many instances, archaeal virus proteins display very low levels of sequence homology to other proteins listed in the public database, and therefore, structural characterization of these proteins has played an integral role in functional assignment. These structural studies have not only provided insights into structure-function relationships but have also identified links between viruses across all three domains of life.

  14. New Lineage of Lassa Virus, Togo, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Shannon L.M.; Strecker, Thomas; Cadar, Daniel; Dienes, Hans-Peter; Faber, Kelly; Patel, Ketan; Brown, Shelley M.; Davis, William G.; Klena, John D.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Noack, Bernd; Emmerich, Petra; Rieger, Toni; Wolff, Svenja; Fehling, Sarah Katharina; Eickmann, Markus; Mengel, Jan Philipp; Schultze, Tilman; Hain, Torsten; Ampofo, William; Bonney, Kofi; Aryeequaye, Juliana Naa Dedei; Ribner, Bruce; Varkey, Jay B.; Mehta, Aneesh K.; Lyon, G. Marshall; Kann, Gerrit; De Leuw, Philipp; Schuettfort, Gundolf; Stephan, Christoph; Wieland, Ulrike; Fries, Jochen W.U.; Kochanek, Matthias; Kraft, Colleen S.; Wolf, Timo; Nichol, Stuart T.; Becker, Stephan; Ströher, Ute

    2018-01-01

    We describe a strain of Lassa virus representing a putative new lineage that was isolated from a cluster of human infections with an epidemiologic link to Togo. This finding extends the known range of Lassa virus to Togo. PMID:29460758

  15. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English (US) ... Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Zika virus infection (Zika) during pregnancy can cause damage to ...

  16. A Literature Review of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, Anna R; Bloch, Evan M

    2016-07-01

    Zika virus is a mosquitoborne flavivirus that is the focus of an ongoing pandemic and public health emergency. Previously limited to sporadic cases in Africa and Asia, the emergence of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015 heralded rapid spread throughout the Americas. Although most Zika virus infections are characterized by subclinical or mild influenza-like illness, severe manifestations have been described, including Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers. Neither an effective treatment nor a vaccine is available for Zika virus; therefore, the public health response primarily focuses on preventing infection, particularly in pregnant women. Despite growing knowledge about this virus, questions remain regarding the virus's vectors and reservoirs, pathogenesis, genetic diversity, and potential synergistic effects of co-infection with other circulating viruses. These questions highlight the need for research to optimize surveillance, patient management, and public health intervention in the current Zika virus epidemic.

  17. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  18. Structural and Functional Studies on the Fusion and Attachment Envelope Glycoproteins of Nipah Virus and Hendra Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    including measles virus (MeV), mumps virus, Sendai virus (SeV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), rinderpest virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), human...Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD. Hut 102, MT2, MT4, and CEM human T cell lines were provided by Chou-Zen Giam, USUHS, Bethesda, MD. The human osteosarcoma

  19. Bluetongue virus in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hage, J; Lorusso, A; Carmine, I; Di Gennaro, A; Portanti, O; Olivieri, S; Casaccia, C; Pisciella, M; Teodori, L; Sghaier, S; Savini, G

    2013-10-01

    Since 2000, several incursions of bluetongue virus (BTV) occurred in the Mediterranean Basin involving European and surrounding Countries. The Middle East represents one of the most important gateways for the access of BTV in Europe. Limited data on the BTV situation in this area are available. In this perspective, an epidemiological survey on the presence of BTV in Lebanon was conducted. Of the 181 serum samples tested, 97 (mean = 53.6%; 95% CI: 46.3-60.7) resulted positive when tested for the presence of BTV antibodies by c-ELISA, of these 42 (mean = 42%; 95% CI: 32.8-51.8) serum samples were from sheep and 55 (mean = 67.9%; 95% CI: 57.1-77.1) serum samples were from goats. Fourteen blood samples (14/110; mean = 12.7%; 95% CI: 7.8-20.3), 6 (6/66; mean = 9.1%; 95% CI: 4.4-18.5) from sheep and 8 (8/44; mean = 18.2%; 95% CI: 9.6-32.0) from goats, were positive by qRT-PCR. The results with serum-neutralization assay and typing performed by RT-PCR confirmed that six BTV serotypes are currently circulating in Lebanon, and these serotypes are as follows: 1, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 24. This study is the first report that confirms the presence and circulation of BTV in Lebanon. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Persistent hepatitis virus infection and immune homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU Yun

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis between the host and viruses is naturally maintained. On the one hand, the immune system activates the immune response to kill or eliminate viruses; on the other hand, the immune system controls the immune response to maintain immune homeostasis. The cause of persistent infections with hepatitis viruses such as HBV and HCV is that viral molecules damage the immune system of the host and their variants escape immune clearance. Long-term coexistence of the host and viruses is the pr...

  1. Characteristics of Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Brigitte; Kurth, Reinhard; Bukreyev, Alexander

    Filoviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The two species, Marburg and Ebola virus, are serologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct. Marburg virus was first isolated during an outbreak in Europe in 1967, and Ebola virus emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of two simultaneous outbreaks in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Although the main route of infection is known to be person-to-person transmission by intimate contact, the natural reservoir for filoviruses still remains a mystery.

  2. Viruses, Vaccines and the Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Judy; McQuillan, Julia; Spiegel, Amy N; Hill, Patricia Wonch; Smith, Rebecca; West, John; Wood, Charles

    Current research in virology is changing public conceptions about vaccines and infectious disease. The University of Nebraska State Museum collaborated with research virologists, science writers, artists and learning researchers to create public outreach materials about viruses and infectious disease. The project, funded by the National Institute of Health's SEPA program, developed comics, a book with Carl Zimmer, and other materials and programs. The project launched three kinds of learning research: 1) a survey of Nebraska adults on their opinions about vaccines and infectious disease; 2) a study comparing the mental models of viruses, vaccines and infection from virologists, teachers, and students; and 3) a controlled study 873 high school students randomly assigned to read either a comic or a text-based essay with the same virus information.

  3. Viruses & kidney disease: beyond HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Meryl; Marshall, Vickie; Whitby, Denise; Kopp, Jeffrey B.

    2008-01-01

    HIV-infected patients may acquire new viral co-infections; they may also experience the reactivation or worsening of existing viral infections, including active, smoldering, or latent infections. HIV-infected patients may be predisposed to these viral infections due to immunodeficiency or to risk factors common to HIV and other viruses. A number of these affect the kidney, either by direct infection or by deposition of immune complexes. In this review we discuss the renal manifestations and treatment of hepatitis C virus, BK virus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, and parvovirus B19 in patients with HIV disease. We also discuss an approach to the identification of new viral renal pathogens, using a viral gene chip to identify viral DNA or RNA. PMID:19013331

  4. Infectious risk factors for individual postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) development in pigs from affected farms in Spain and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau-Roma, Llorenç; Stockmarr, Anders; Kristensen, Charlotte S.

    2012-01-01

    collected serum samples to detect antibodies against, PCV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), swine influenza virus (SIV) and Lawsonia intracellularis (law), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV) and Salmonella spp. A Cox proportional...

  5. Nipah virus transmission in a hamster model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmie de Wit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on epidemiological data, it is believed that human-to-human transmission plays an important role in Nipah virus outbreaks. No experimental data are currently available on the potential routes of human-to-human transmission of Nipah virus. In a first dose-finding experiment in Syrian hamsters, it was shown that Nipah virus was predominantly shed via the respiratory tract within nasal and oropharyngeal secretions. Although Nipah viral RNA was detected in urogenital and rectal swabs, no infectious virus was recovered from these samples, suggesting no viable virus was shed via these routes. In addition, hamsters inoculated with high doses shed significantly higher amounts of viable Nipah virus particles in comparison with hamsters infected with lower inoculum doses. Using the highest inoculum dose, three potential routes of Nipah virus transmission were investigated in the hamster model: transmission via fomites, transmission via direct contact and transmission via aerosols. It was demonstrated that Nipah virus is transmitted efficiently via direct contact and inefficiently via fomites, but not via aerosols. These findings are in line with epidemiological data which suggest that direct contact with nasal and oropharyngeal secretions of Nipah virus infected individuals resulted in greater risk of Nipah virus infection. The data provide new and much-needed insights into the modes and efficiency of Nipah virus transmission and have important public health implications with regards to the risk assessment and management of future Nipah virus outbreaks.

  6. RNAi suppressors encoded by pathogenic human viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Walter; Berkhout, Ben

    2008-01-01

    RNA silencing or RNAi interference (RNAi) serves as an innate antiviral mechanism in plants, fungi and animals. Human viruses, like plant viruses, encode suppressor proteins or RNAs that block or modulate the RNAi pathway. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which pathogenic human viruses

  7. Characterization of pseudorabies viruses produced in mammalian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... for influenza A and B viruses (Govorkova et al., 1996). In addition, the propagation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a porcine coronavirus had been unsuccessful until serial passage of the virus in Vero cells. (Hofmann and Wyler, 1988; Song et al., 2003). There- fore, this cell line is being widely ...

  8. Contact Mechanics of a Small Icosahedral Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Cheng; Hernando-Pérez, Mercedes; Ma, Xiang; Schoot, Paul van der; Zandi, Roya; Dragnea, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Virus binding to a surface results at least locally, at the contact area, in stress and potential structural perturbation of the virus cage. Here we address the question of the role of substrate-induced deformation in the overall virus mechanical response to the adsorption event. This question may

  9. Emerging viruses in the genus Comovirus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrzik, Karel; Koloniuk, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2010), s. 290-292 ISSN 0920-8569 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0053 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Capsid proteins * plant virus * Radish mosaic virus * Turnip ringspot virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.693, year: 2010

  10. Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert J; Judson, Seth; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Bushmaker, Trent; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-02-01

    On March 20, 2015, a case of Ebola virus disease was identified in Liberia that most likely was transmitted through sexual contact. We assessed the efficiency of detecting Ebola virus in semen samples by molecular diagnostics and the stability of Ebola virus in ex vivo semen under simulated tropical conditions.

  11. Virus detection and quantification using electrical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

    2014-10-01

    Here we identify and quantitate two similar viruses, human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV), suspended in a liquid medium without labeling, using a semiconductor technique. The virus count was estimated by calculating the impurities inside a defined volume by observing the change in electrical parameters. Empirically, the virus count was similar to the absolute value of the ratio of the change of the virus suspension dopant concentration relative to the mock dopant over the change in virus suspension Debye volume relative to mock Debye volume. The virus type was identified by constructing a concentration-mobility relationship which is unique for each kind of virus, allowing for a fast (within minutes) and label-free virus quantification and identification. For validation, the HIV and FIV virus preparations were further quantified by a biochemical technique and the results obtained by both approaches corroborated well. We further demonstrate that the electrical technique could be applied to accurately measure and characterize silica nanoparticles that resemble the virus particles in size. Based on these results, we anticipate our present approach to be a starting point towards establishing the foundation for label-free electrical-based identification and quantification of an unlimited number of viruses and other nano-sized particles.

  12. Influenza Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Engel, Gregory A.; Feeroz, M.M.; San, Sorn; Rompis, Aida; Lee, Benjamin P. Y.-H.; Shaw, Eric; Oh, Gunwha; Schillaci, Michael A.; Grant, Richard; Heidrich, John; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether nonhuman primates are infected with influenza viruses in nature, we conducted serologic and swab studies among macaques from several parts of the world. Our detection of influenza virus and antibodies to influenza virus raises questions about the role of nonhuman primates in the ecology of influenza. PMID:23017256

  13. Influenza B viruses : not to be discounted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sandt, Carolien E; Bodewes, Rogier; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; de Vries, Rory D

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to influenza A viruses, which have been investigated extensively, influenza B viruses have attracted relatively little attention. However, influenza B viruses are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population and full understanding of their biological and

  14. Chikungunya Virus: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya Virus: What you need to know Chikungunya (pronunciation: \\chik-en-gun-ye) is: ŠŠ A virus spread through Aedes species mosquito bites. Aedes mosquitoes also spread dengue and Zika viruses. ŠŠ A risk to anyone traveling to a region ...

  15. Engineering resistance against potato virus Y

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Potato virus Y is the type species of the potyvirus genus, the largest genus of the plant virus family Potyviridae. The virus causes serious problems in the cultivation of several Solanaceous crops and although certain poly- and monogenic resistances are available,

  16. Inhibition of Interferon Induction and Action by the Nairovirus Nairobi Sheep Disease Virus/Ganjam Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Holzer, Barbara; Bakshi, Siddharth; Bridgen, Anne; Baron, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The Nairoviruses are an important group of tick-borne viruses that includes pathogens of man (Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus) and livestock animals (Dugbe virus, Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV)). NSDV is found in large parts of East Africa and the Indian subcontinent (where it is known as Ganjam virus). We have investigated the ability of NSDV to antagonise the induction and actions of interferon. Both pathogenic and apathogenic isolates could actively inhibit the induction of type ...

  17. Characterization of Ebola Virus Entry by Using Pseudotyped Viruses: Identification of Receptor-Deficient Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Wool-Lewis, Rouven J.; Bates, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Studies analyzing Ebola virus replication have been severely hampered by the extreme pathogenicity of this virus. To permit analysis of the host range and function of the Ebola virus glycoprotein (Ebo-GP), we have developed a system for pseudotyping these glycoproteins into murine leukemia virus (MLV). This pseudotyped virus, MLV(Ebola), can be readily concentrated to titers which exceed 5 × 106 infectious units/ml and is effectively neutralized by antibodies specific for Ebo-GP. Analysis of ...

  18. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Rhabdoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter J; Blasdell, Kim R; Calisher, Charles H; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Kondo, Hideki; Kurath, Gael; Longdon, Ben; Stone, David M; Tesh, Robert B; Tordo, Noël; Vasilakis, Nikos; Whitfield, Anna E; Nbsp Ictv Report Consortium

    2018-04-01

    The family Rhabdoviridae comprises viruses with negative-sense (-) single-stranded RNA genomes of 10.8-16.1 kb. Virions are typically enveloped with bullet-shaped or bacilliform morphology but can also be non-enveloped filaments. Rhabdoviruses infect plants and animals including mammals, birds, reptiles and fish, as well as arthropods which serve as single hosts or act as biological vectors for transmission to animals or plants. Rhabdoviruses include important pathogens of humans, livestock, fish and agricultural crops. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of Rhabdoviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/rhabdoviridae.

  19. Systematic analysis of protein identity between Zika virus and other arthropod-borne viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Han; Huber, Roland G; Bond, Peter J; Grad, Yonatan H; Camerini, David; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Lipsitch, Marc

    2017-07-01

    To analyse the proportions of protein identity between Zika virus and dengue, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, West Nile and chikungunya viruses as well as polymorphism between different Zika virus strains. We used published protein sequences for the Zika virus and obtained protein sequences for the other viruses from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) protein database or the NCBI virus variation resource. We used BLASTP to find regions of identity between viruses. We quantified the identity between the Zika virus and each of the other viruses, as well as within-Zika virus polymorphism for all amino acid k -mers across the proteome, with k ranging from 6 to 100. We assessed accessibility of protein fragments by calculating the solvent accessible surface area for the envelope and nonstructural-1 (NS1) proteins. In total, we identified 294 Zika virus protein fragments with both low proportion of identity with other viruses and low levels of polymorphisms among Zika virus strains. The list includes protein fragments from all Zika virus proteins, except NS3. NS4A has the highest number (190 k -mers) of protein fragments on the list. We provide a candidate list of protein fragments that could be used when developing a sensitive and specific serological test to detect previous Zika virus infections.

  20. Virus isolation for diagnosing dengue virus infections in returning travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teichmann, D.; Göbels, K.; Niedrig, M.; Sim-Brandenburg, J.-W.; Làge-Stehr, J.; Grobusch, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    Dengue fever is recognized as one of the most frequent imported acute febrile illnesses affecting European tourists returning from the tropics. In order to assess the value of virus isolation for the diagnosis of dengue fever, 70 cases of dengue fever confirmed in German travelers during the period

  1. [Epidemiologic aspects of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis virus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, M; Konate, A; Minta, D; Sounko, A; Dembele, M; Toure, C S; Kalle, A; Traore, H H; Maiga, M Y

    2006-01-01

    In order to determinate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus among patients infected by the HIV, We realized a transverse survey case--control in hepato-gastro-enterological ward and serology unity of National Institute of Research in Public health (INRSP). Our sample was constituted with 100 patients HIV positive compared to 100 controls HIV negative. The viral markers research has been made by methods immuno-enzymatiqueses of ELISA 3rd generation. Tests permitted to get the following results: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag) was positive among 21% with patients HIV positive versus 23% among control (p = 0,732); Antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV ab) was present among 23% with patients HIV positive versus 0% among control (p <0,05). Female was predominant among co-infections patient, but without statistic link (p = 0,9 and p = 0,45); The co-infection HBV- HCV was significatively linked to age beyond 40 years (p = 0,0005). Co-infections with HIV infection and hepatitis virus are not rare and deserve to be investigated.

  2. Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The epidemiology of viral hepatitis and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during pregnancy is of great importance for health planners and program managers. However, few published data on viral hepatitis and HIV are available in Sudan especially during pregnancy. Objectives: The current study was ...

  3. Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 and Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To estimate the seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Type 2 (HSV-2) and its association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections in rural Kilimanjaro Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Oria village from March to June 2005 involving all individuals aged 15-44 years ...

  4. Citrus Tristeza Virus: An Increasing Trend in the Virus Occurrence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus tristeza clostervirus (CTV) is one of the most damaging fruit viruses playing havoc in citrus orchards around the world. Here, we report, an ELISA-based indexing of citrus trees over a period of eight years (2002 to 2010) in Northwest Pakistan, revealing that the incidence of CTV is increasing mainly with the distribution ...

  5. Phomopsis longicolla RNA virus 1 - Novel virus at the edge of myco- and plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabáková, Lenka; Koloniuk, Igor; Petrzik, Karel

    2017-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a new RNA mycovirus in the KY isolate of Phomopsis longicolla Hobbs 1985 and its protoplasts subcultures p5, p9, and ME711 was discovered. The virus, provisionally named Phomopsis longicolla RNA virus 1 (PlRV1), was localized in mitochondria and was determined to have a genome 2822 nucleotides long. A single open reading frame could be translated in silico by both standard and mitochondrial genetic codes into a product featuring conservative domains for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The RdRp of PlRV1 has no counterpart among mycoviruses, but it is about 30% identical with the RdRp of plant ourmiaviruses. Recently, new mycoviruses related to plant ourmiaviruses and forming one clade with PlRV1 have been discovered. This separate clade could represent the crucial link between plant and fungal viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Herpes simplex virus following stab phlebectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Caitlin W; Lum, Ying Wei; Heller, Jennifer A

    2017-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection following surgery is an unusual postoperative phenomenon. Many mechanisms have been suggested, with the most likely explanation related to latent virus reactivation due to a proinflammatory response in the setting of local trauma. Here, we present a case of herpes simplex virus reactivation in an immunocompetent female following a conventional right lower extremity stab phlebectomy. Salient clinical and physical examination findings are described, and management strategies for herpes simplex virus reactivation are outlined. This is the first known case report of herpes simplex virus reactivation following lower extremity phlebectomy.

  7. Hyperthermophilic Archaeal Viruses as Novel Nanoplatforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldahl, Kristine Buch

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on earth, and with an estimated 1031 virus-like particles in the biosphere, viruses are virtually everywhere. Traditionally, the study of viruses has focused on their roles as infectious agents. However, over the last decades with the development...... presents an in depth investigation of the hyperthermophilic archaeal virus SMV. Decisive steps in the viral life-cycle are studied with focus on the early stages of infection. TEM observations suggest that SMV1 virions enter into host cells via a fusion entry mechanism, involving three distinct stages...

  8. A new looming of Zika virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav R. Soni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, transmitted by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti. ZIKV will continue to spread and it will be difficult to determine how the virus will spread over time. Sign and symptoms of ZIKAVD (Zika virus disease were conjunctivitis (red eyes, back pain, birth defect-abnormal brain development known as microcephaly and it is diagnosed through PCR (polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation from blood samples.

  9. Comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three RNA viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato virus X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Jo, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Hyosub; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-06-01

    The chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. So far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. In this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus X (PVX). A chrysanthemum 135K microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression profiles of the chrysanthemum at early stage of virus infection. Finally, we identified a total of 125, 70 and 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for CMV, TSWV and PVX, respectively. Many DEGs were virus specific; however, 33 DEGs were commonly regulated by three viruses. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified a total of 132 GO terms, and of them, six GO terms related stress response and MCM complex were commonly identified for three viruses. Several genes functioning in stress response such as chitin response and ethylene mediated signaling pathway were up-regulated indicating their involvement in establishment of host immune system. In particular, TSWV infection significantly down-regulated genes related to DNA metabolic process including DNA replication, chromatin organization, histone modification and cytokinesis, and they are mostly targeted to nucleosome and MCM complex. Taken together, our comparative transcriptome analysis revealed several genes related to hormone mediated viral stress response and DNA modification. The identified chrysanthemums genes could be good candidates for further functional study associated with resistant to various plant viruses.

  10. Zika virus en seksuele transmissie.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, J W; Brandwagt, D A H; Timen, A; van der Eijk, A A; Vennema, H; Te Wierik, M J M

    2017-01-01

    - More evidence has become available concerning the sexual transmission of Zika virus and viral shedding in semen, which has led to the expansion of international guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission; Dutch guidelines have not been altered.- Internationally, the use of condoms during sex

  11. Nucleoside Inhibitors of Zika Virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eyer, L.; Nencka, Radim; Huvarová, I.; Palus, Martin; Alves, M. J.; Gould, E. A.; De Clercq, E.; Růžek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 214, č. 5 (2016), s. 707-711 ISSN 0022-1899 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Zika virus * flavivirus * nucleoside analogue * antiviral * therapy Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry; EE - Microbiology, Virology (BC-A) Impact factor: 6.273, year: 2016

  12. ICTV virus taxonomy profile: Baculoviridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Baculoviridae is a family of large viruses with circular dsDNA genomes ranging from 80 to 180 kbp. Virions consist of enveloped rod-shaped nucleocapsids and are embedded in distinctive occlusion bodies measuring 0.15 to 15 µm. The occlusion bodies consist of a matrix composed of a single viral...

  13. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Pleolipoviridae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bamford, D.H.; Pietila, M.K.; Roine, E.; Atanasova, N.S.; Dienstbier, Ana; Oksanen, H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 12 (2017), s. 2916-2917 ISSN 0022-1317 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Pleolipoviridae * taxonomy * Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2016

  14. A Case of Ebola Virus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-01

    Dr. Adam MacNeil, an epidemiologist at CDC, discusses Ebola virus.  Created: 10/1/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/1/2012.

  15. Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-09

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the commentary by CDC author Ronald Rosenberg, Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses.  Created: 6/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/9/2016.

  16. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-30

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the EID perspective Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses.  Created: 5/30/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/2/2014.

  17. Hepatitis A Virus in Transplants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-17

    Dr. Monique Foster, a CDC epidemiologist, discusses an unusual case of hepatitis A virus in a transplant patient.  Created: 5/17/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/17/2017.

  18. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  19. Recombination in hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Candelas, Fernando; López-Labrador, F Xavier; Bracho, María Alma

    2011-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a Flavivirus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of about 9,600 nucleotides. It is a major cause of liver disease, infecting almost 200 million people all over the world. Similarly to most RNA viruses, HCV displays very high levels of genetic diversity which have been used to differentiate six major genotypes and about 80 subtypes. Although the different genotypes and subtypes share basic biological and pathogenic features they differ in clinical outcomes, response to treatment and epidemiology. The first HCV recombinant strain, in which different genome segments derived from parentals of different genotypes, was described in St. Petersburg (Russia) in 2002. Since then, there have been only a few more than a dozen reports including descriptions of HCV recombinants at all levels: between genotypes, between subtypes of the same genotype and even between strains of the same subtype. Here, we review the literature considering the reasons underlying the difficulties for unequivocally establishing recombination in this virus along with the analytical methods necessary to do it. Finally, we analyze the potential consequences, especially in clinical practice, of HCV recombination in light of the coming new therapeutic approaches against this virus.

  20. Control of feline leukaemia virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Weijer (Kees); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractFeline leukaemia virus (FeLV) usually occurs in its natural species, the domestic cat. FeLV is also important to human individuals as a comparative model, as it may cause a variety of diseases, some malignant and some benign, such as immunosuppression, which bears a resemblance to AIDS

  1. Molecular phylogeny of Duvenhage virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis H. Nel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Duvenhage virus (DUVV constitutes one of the 11 species in the Lyssavirus genus and causes fatal rabies encephalitis. The virus is associated with insectivorous bat species and three human cases have been reported, all of which were linked to contact with bats. Few of these isolates have been studied and thus little is known about the phylogeny and epidemiology of this lyssavirus. Until 2007, when an isolate was made from the East African country of Kenya, all isolations of this virus had been from southern Africa. This discovery led to many questions regarding the spread and diversity of this lyssavirus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the DUVV isolates constitute two different lineages, in which the southern African isolates group together to form one lineage and the more recent isolate from Kenya constitutes a new, second lineage. We found that the new isolate has a genetic variation that has not yet been seen for DUVV. Not only is our lack of knowledge regarding the geographical distribution of this uniquely African virus emphasised, but we have also demonstrated the potential diversity within this genotype.

  2. Oncolytic viruses as anticancer vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman eWoller

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic virotherapy has shown impressive results in preclinical studies and first promising therapeutic outcomes in clinical trials as well. Since viruses are known for a long time as excellent vaccination agents, oncolytic viruses are now designed as novel anticancer agents combining the aspect of lysis-dependent cytoreductive activity with concomitant induction of antitumoral immune responses. Antitumoral immune activation by oncolytic virus infection of tumor tissue comprises both, immediate effects of innate immunity and also adaptive responses for long lasting antitumoral activity which is regarded as the most prominent challenge in clinical oncology. To date, the complex effects of a viral tumor infection on the tumor microenvironment and the consequences for the tumor-infiltrating immune cell compartment are poorly understood. However, there is more and more evidence that a tumor infection by an oncolytic virus opens up a number of options for further immunomodulating interventions such as systemic chemotherapy, generic immunostimulating strategies, dendritic cell-based vaccines, and antigenic libraries to further support clinical efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy.

  3. Tetraspanin Assemblies in Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Florin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetraspanins (Tspans are a family of four-span transmembrane proteins, known as plasma membrane “master organizers.” They form Tspan-enriched microdomains (TEMs or TERMs through lateral association with one another and other membrane proteins. If multiple microdomains associate with each other, larger platforms can form. For infection, viruses interact with multiple cell surface components, including receptors, activating proteases, and signaling molecules. It appears that Tspans, such as CD151, CD82, CD81, CD63, CD9, Tspan9, and Tspan7, coordinate these associations by concentrating the interacting partners into Tspan platforms. In addition to mediating viral attachment and entry, these platforms may also be involved in intracellular trafficking of internalized viruses and assist in defining virus assembly and exit sites. In conclusion, Tspans play a role in viral infection at different stages of the virus replication cycle. The present review highlights recently published data on this topic, with a focus on events at the plasma membrane. In light of these findings, we propose a model for how Tspan interactions may organize cofactors for viral infection into distinct molecular platforms.

  4. Genital herpes simplex virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M S

    1979-09-01

    In recent years, a great increase in interest in genital herpes has been stimulated partly by the rising prevalence of this disease and partly by observations suggesting that genital herpes is a cause of cervical cancer. The clinical pictures produced by genital herpes simplex virus infections are similar in men and women. In contrast to recurrent attacks, initial episodes of infection are generally more extensive, last longer, and are more often associated with regional lymphadenopathy and systemic symptoms. Genital herpes in pregnancy may pose a serious threat to the newborn infant. Although the data suggesting genital herpes simplex virus infection is a cause of cervical cancer are quite extensive, the evidence is largely circumstantial. In spite of these more serious aspects of genital herpes simplex virus infection, episodes of genital herpes are almost always self-limited and benign. Frequent recurrences pose the major therapeutic and management problem. At present, there is no satisfactory treatment for recurrent genital herpes simplex virus in fection. Many of the suggested therapies, although some sound very promising, are potentially dangerous and should be used only under carefully controlled conditions.

  5. Mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roosien, J.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis the isolation and characterization of a number of mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus with a coat protein dependent genome, is described. Thermo-sensitive (ts) mutants were selected since, at least theoretically, ts mutations can be present in all virus coded functions. It was found that a high percentage of spontaneous mutants, isolated because of their aberrant symptoms, were ts. The majority of these isolates could grow at the non-permissive temperature in the presence of a single wild type (wt) component. To increase the mutation rate virus preparations were treated with several mutagens. After nitrous acid treatment or irradiation with ultraviolet light, an increase in the level of mutations was observed. UV irradiation was preferred since it did not require large amounts of purified viral components. During the preliminary characterization of potential ts mutants the author also obtained one structural and several symptom mutants which were analysed further (chapter 7, 8 and 9). The properties of the ts mutants are described in chapter 3-7. (Auth.)

  6. ICTV virus taxonomy profile: Pneumoviridae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.K. Rima (Bert); Collins, P. (Peter); Easton, A. (Andrew); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); Kurath, G. (Gael); Lamb, R.A. (Robert A.); Lee, B. (Benhur); A. Maisner (Andrea); P.A. Rota (Paul); Wang, L. (Linfa); Lefkowitz, E.J. (Elliot J.); Davison, A.J. (Andrew J.); Simmonds, P. (Peter); Sabanadzovic, S. (Sead); Smith, D.B. (Donald B.); Orton, R.J. (Richard J.); Siddell, S.G. (Stuart G.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe family Pneumoviridae comprises large enveloped negative-sense RNA viruses. This taxon was formerly a subfamily within the Paramyxoviridae, but was reclassified in 2016 as a family with two genera, Orthopneumovirus and Metapneumovirus. Pneumoviruses infect a range of mammalian

  7. Chikungunya VIrUS infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of 107 cases of serologically proven chikungunya (CHIK) virus infection was undertaken. All respondents 'had contracted the. 'disease at least 3 years previously; 87,9% had fully .recovered, 3,7% experienced only occasional stiff- ness or mild discomfort, 2,8% had persistent resi- dual joint stiffness but ...

  8. How infectious is SARS virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. How infectious is SARS virus. Influenza: 1 patient infects ten people. SARS: 1 patient infects 2-4 people. Incubation period 10 days. Are there `silent´ cases ? Is quarantine enough ? How will it behave if and when it returns ?

  9. Viruses involved in chickpea stunt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    Chickpea stunt is the most important virus disease of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L). This disease is characterized by leaf chlorosis or leaf reddening (depending on the chickpea cultivar), plant stunting, internode shortening, reduction in size of

  10. Diversity of large DNA viruses of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Bergoin, Max; van Oers, Monique M

    2017-07-01

    In this review we provide an overview of the diversity of large DNA viruses known to be pathogenic for invertebrates. We present their taxonomical classification and describe the evolutionary relationships among various groups of invertebrate-infecting viruses. We also indicate the relationships of the invertebrate viruses to viruses infecting mammals or other vertebrates. The shared characteristics of the viruses within the various families are described, including the structure of the virus particle, genome properties, and gene expression strategies. Finally, we explain the transmission and mode of infection of the most important viruses in these families and indicate, which orders of invertebrates are susceptible to these pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Literature Review of Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Evan M.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is a mosquitoborne flavivirus that is the focus of an ongoing pandemic and public health emergency. Previously limited to sporadic cases in Africa and Asia, the emergence of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015 heralded rapid spread throughout the Americas. Although most Zika virus infections are characterized by subclinical or mild influenza-like illness, severe manifestations have been described, including Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers. Neither an effective treatment nor a vaccine is available for Zika virus; therefore, the public health response primarily focuses on preventing infection, particularly in pregnant women. Despite growing knowledge about this virus, questions remain regarding the virus’s vectors and reservoirs, pathogenesis, genetic diversity, and potential synergistic effects of co-infection with other circulating viruses. These questions highlight the need for research to optimize surveillance, patient management, and public health intervention in the current Zika virus epidemic. PMID:27070380

  12. COMPOSITION OF FOWLPOX VIRUS AND INCLUSION MATRIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RANDALL, C C; GAFFORD, L G; DARLINGTON, R W; HYDE, J

    1964-04-01

    Randall, Charles C. (University of Mississippi School of Medicine, Jackson), Lanelle G. Gafford, Robert W. Darlington, and James M. Hyde. Composition of fowlpox virus and inclusion matrix. J. Bacteriol. 87:939-944. 1964.-Inclusion bodies of fowlpox virus infection are especially favorable starting material for the isolation of virus and inclusion matrix. Electron micrographs of viral particles and matrix indicated a high degree of purification. Density-gradient centrifugation of virus in cesium chloride and potassium tartrate was unsatisfactory because of inactivation, and clumping or disintegration. Chemical analyses of virus and matrix revealed significant amounts of lipid, protein, and deoxyribonucleic acid, but no ribonucleic acid or carbohydrate. Approximately 47% of the weight of the virus and 83% of the matrix were extractable in chloroform-methanol. The lipid partitions of the petroleum ether extracts were similar, except that the phospholipid content of the matrix was 2.2 times that of the virus. Viral particles were sensitive to diethyl ether and chloroform.

  13. Top 10 plant viruses in molecular plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholthof, Karen-Beth G; Adkins, Scott; Czosnek, Henryk; Palukaitis, Peter; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Hohn, Thomas; Hohn, Barbara; Saunders, Keith; Candresse, Thierry; Ahlquist, Paul; Hemenway, Cynthia; Foster, Gary D

    2011-12-01

    Many scientists, if not all, feel that their particular plant virus should appear in any list of the most important plant viruses. However, to our knowledge, no such list exists. The aim of this review was to survey all plant virologists with an association with Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which plant viruses they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated more than 250 votes from the international community, and allowed the generation of a Top 10 plant virus list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Tobacco mosaic virus, (2) Tomato spotted wilt virus, (3) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, (4) Cucumber mosaic virus, (5) Potato virus Y, (6) Cauliflower mosaic virus, (7) African cassava mosaic virus, (8) Plum pox virus, (9) Brome mosaic virus and (10) Potato virus X, with honourable mentions for viruses just missing out on the Top 10, including Citrus tristeza virus, Barley yellow dwarf virus, Potato leafroll virus and Tomato bushy stunt virus. This review article presents a short review on each virus of the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant virology community, as well as laying down a benchmark, as it will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and which viruses enter and leave the Top 10. © 2011 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Competitive virus assay method for titration of noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea viruses (END⁺ and END⁻ viruses).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Mahmod; Ohi, Kota; Aoki, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Fukusho, Akio

    2013-03-01

    A new, reliable and secure virus assay method, named the competitive virus assay (CVA) method, has been established for the titration of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) that either show the exaltation of Newcastle disease virus (END) phenomenon or heterologous interference phenomenon (but not the END phenomenon). This method is based on the principle of (1) homologous interference between BVDVs, by using BVDV RK13/E(-) or BVDV RK13/E(+) strains as competitor virus, and (2) END phenomenon and heterologous interference, by using attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) TCND strain as challenge virus. In titration of BVDV END(+) and BVDV END(-) viruses, no significant difference in estimated virus titer was observed between CVA and conventional methods. CVA method demonstrated comparable levels of sensitivity and accuracy as conventional END and interference methods, which require the use of a velogenic Miyadera strain of NDV and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), both of which are agents of high-risk diseases. As such, the CVA method is a safer alternative, with increased bio-safety and bio-containment, through avoidance of virulent strains that are commonly employed with conventional methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep

    OpenAIRE

    bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated ...

  16. Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straus, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons

  17. What contemporary viruses tell us about evolution: a personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moelling, Karin

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in information about viruses have revealed novel and surprising properties such as viral sequences in the genomes of various organisms, unexpected amounts of viruses and phages in the biosphere, and the existence of giant viruses mimicking bacteria. Viruses helped in building genomes and are driving evolution. Viruses and bacteria belong to the human body and our environment as a well-balanced ecosystem. Only in unbalanced situations do viruses cause infectious diseases or cancer. In this article, I speculate about the role of viruses during evolution based on knowledge of contemporary viruses. Are viruses our oldest ancestors?

  18. Pharmacological inhibition of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2012-05-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1) inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and co-receptors; (2) inhibition of fusion of the virus membrane with the cell membrane; (3) blockade of reverse transcription of viral genomic RNA; (4) interruption of nuclear translocation and viral DNA integration into host genomes; (5) prevention of viral transcript processing and nuclear export; and (6) inhibition of virion assembly and maturation. Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats.

  19. Avian influenza virus transmission to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfst, S; Imai, M; Kawaoka, Y; Fouchier, R A M

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause yearly epidemics and occasional pandemics. In addition, zoonotic influenza A viruses sporadically infect humans and may cause severe respiratory disease and fatalities. Fortunately, most of these viruses do not have the ability to be efficiently spread among humans via aerosols or respiratory droplets (airborne transmission) and to subsequently cause a pandemic. However, adaptation of these zoonotic viruses to humans by mutation or reassortment with human influenza A viruses may result in airborne transmissible viruses with pandemic potential. Although our knowledge of factors that affect mammalian adaptation and transmissibility of influenza viruses is still limited, we are beginning to understand some of the biological traits that drive airborne transmission of influenza viruses among mammals. Increased understanding of the determinants and mechanisms of airborne transmission may aid in assessing the risks posed by avian influenza viruses to human health, and preparedness for such risks. This chapter summarizes recent discoveries on the genetic and phenotypic traits required for avian influenza viruses to become airborne transmissible between mammals.

  20. West Nile virus: North American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.