WorldWideScience

Sample records for proximity x-ray lithography

  1. Nanometer x-ray lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Frank T.; Khan Malek, Chantal G.

    1999-10-01

    New developments for x-ray nanomachining include pattern transfer onto non-planar surfaces coated with electrodeposited resists using synchrotron radiation x-rays through extremely high-resolution mask made by chemically assisted focused ion beam lithography. Standard UV photolithographic processes cannot maintain sub-micron definitions over large variation in feature topography. The ability of x-ray printing to pattern thin or thick layers of photoresist with high resolution on non-planar surfaces of large and complex topographies with limited diffraction and scattering effects and no substrate reflection is known and can be exploited for patterning microsystems with non-planar 3D geometries as well as multisided and multilayered substrates. Thin conformal coatings of electro-deposited positive and negative tone photoresist have been shown to be x-ray sensitive and accommodate sub-micro pattern transfer over surface of extreme topographical variations. Chemically assisted focused ion beam selective anisotropic erosion was used to fabricate x-ray masks directly. Masks with feature sizes less than 20 nm through 7 microns of gold were made on bulk silicon substrates and x-ray mask membranes. The technique is also applicable to other high density materials. Such masks enable the primary and secondary patterning and/or 3D machining of Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems over large depths or complex relief and the patterning of large surface areas with sub-optically dimensioned features.

  2. Optimization of X-ray sources from a high-average-power ND:Glass laser-produced plasma for proximity lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celliers, P.; Da Silva, L.B.; Dane, C.B. [and others

    1996-06-01

    The concept of a laser-based proximity lithography system for electronic microcircuit production has advanced to the point where a detailed design of a prototype system capable of exposing wafers at 40 wafer levels per hr is technically feasible with high-average-power laser technology. In proximity x-ray lithography, a photoresist composed of polymethyl- methacrylate (PMMA) or similar material is exposed to x rays transmitted through a mask placed near the photoresist, a procedure which is similar to making a photographic contact print. The mask contains a pattern of opaque metal features, with line widths as small as 0.12 {mu}m, placed on a thin (1-{mu}m thick) Si membrane. During the exposure, the shadow of the mask projected onto the resist produces in the physical and chemical properties of the resist a pattern of variation with the same size and shape as the features contained in the metal mask. This pattern can be further processed to produce microscopic structures in the Si substrate. The main application envisioned for this technology is the production of electronic microcircuits with spatial features significantly smaller than currently achievable with conventional optical lithographic techniques (0.12 {micro}m vs 0.25 {micro}m). This article describes work on optimizing a laser-produced plasma x-ray source intended for microcircuit production by proximity lithography.

  3. Vitreous carbon mask substrate for X-ray lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigeldinger, Georg [Livermore, CA; Skala, Dawn M [Fremont, CA; Griffiths, Stewart K [Livermore, CA; Talin, Albert Alec [Livermore, CA; Losey, Matthew W [Livermore, CA; Yang, Chu-Yeu Peter [Dublin, CA

    2009-10-27

    The present invention is directed to the use of vitreous carbon as a substrate material for providing masks for X-ray lithography. The new substrate also enables a small thickness of the mask absorber used to pattern the resist, and this enables improved mask accuracy. An alternative embodiment comprised the use of vitreous carbon as a LIGA substrate wherein the VC wafer blank is etched in a reactive ion plasma after which an X-ray resist is bonded. This surface treatment provides a surface enabling good adhesion of the X-ray photoresist and subsequent nucleation and adhesion of the electrodeposited metal for LIGA mold-making while the VC substrate practically eliminates secondary radiation effects that lead to delamination of the X-ray resist form the substrate, the loss of isolated resist features, and the formation of a resist layer adjacent to the substrate that is insoluble in the developer.

  4. Two new types of microneedle array fabricated by x-ray lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yigui; Sugiyama, Susumu

    2004-12-01

    The microneedle for blood extraction and painless injection is a rapidly growing area of interest in bio-applications. Two new types of microneedle array are designed and developed for biomedical application. The one is hollow PMMA microneedle array with very shape tip fabricated by two times X-ray lithography (one time is with X-ray mask and one time is without X-ray mask). The other is PMMA microneedle array with tips and fluid channels fabricated by an X-ray lithography technique. The resist stage of the X-ray system driven by actuators is to realize movement lithography.

  5. Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography Using a High-Repetition-Rate Laser-Induced X-Ray Source for Sub-100 Nanometer Lithography Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Louis,; F. Bijkerk,; Shmaenok, L.; Voorma, H. J.; van der Wiel, M. J.; Schlatmann, R.; Verhoeven, J.; van der Drift, E. W. J. M.; Romijn, J.; Rousseeuw, B. A. C.; Voss, F.; Desor, R.; Nikolaus, B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present the status of a joint development programme on soft x-ray projection lithography (SXPL) integrating work on high brightness laser plasma sources. fabrication of multilayer x-ray mirrors. and patterning of reflection masks. We are in the process of optimization of a

  6. Deep-etch x-ray lithography at the ALS: First results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, C.K.; Jackson, K.H. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Brennen, R.A. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The fabrication of high-aspect-ratio and three-dimensional (3D) microstructures is of increasing interest in a multitude of applications in fields such as micromechanics, optics, and interconnect technology. Techniques and processes that enable lithography in thick materials differ from the planar technologies used in standard integrated circuit processing. Deep x-ray lithography permits extremely precise and deep proximity printing of a given pattern from a mask into a very thick resist. It requires a source of hard, intense, and well collimated x-ray radiation, as is provided by a synchrotron radiation source. The thick resist microstructures, so produced can be used as templates from which ultrahigh precision parts with high aspect ratios can be mass-produced out of a large variety of materials (metals, plastics, ceramics). This whole series of techniques and processes has been historically referred to as {open_quotes}LIGA,{close_quotes} from the German acronym for lithography, electroforming (Galvanoformung), and plastic molding (Abformung), the first development of the basic LIGA process having been performed at the Nuclear Research Center at Karlsruhe in Germany.

  7. Atomic Lithography: Forcing Epitaxial Growth Using X-Ray Standing Waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Falco, Charles

    1999-01-01

    In a remarkably short time we have made tremendous progress in both the design and construction of a unique "atomic lithography" deposition facility, and in observing effects of an intense x-ray beam...

  8. Fabrication of a Polymer Micro Needle Array by Mask-Dragging X-Ray Lithography and Alignment X-Ray Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Gui; Yang, Chun-Sheng; Liu, Jing-Quan; Sugiyama, Susumu

    2011-03-01

    Polymer materials such as transparent thermoplastic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) have been of great interest in the research and development of integrated circuits and micro-electromechanical systems due to their relatively low cost and easy process. We fabricated PMMA-based polymer hollow microneedle arrays by mask-dragging and aligning x-ray lithography. Techniques for 3D micromachining by direct lithography using x-rays are developed. These techniques are based on using image projection in which the x-ray is used to illuminate an appropriate gold pattern on a polyimide film mask. The mask is imaged onto the PMMA sample. A pattern with an area of up to 100 × 100mm2 can be fabricated with sub-micron resolution and a highly accurate order of a few microns by using a dragging mask. The fabrication technology has several advantages, such as forming complex 3D micro structures, high throughput and low cost.

  9. Functionalized SU-8 patterned with X-ray Lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Romanato, F.

    2005-01-01

    spontaneous emission light source that couples out light normal to the chip plane. In addition we examine the influence of the x-ray irradiation on the fluorescence of thin films of dye doped SU-8. The dye embedded in the SU-8 is optically excited during, characterization by an external light source tuned...

  10. Report of the second workshop on synchrotron radiation sources for x-ray lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, M.Q.; Craft, B.; Williams, G.P. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    The reported workshop is part of an effort to implement a US-based x-ray lithography program. Presentations include designs for three storage rings (one superconducting and two conventional) and an overview of a complete lithography program. The background of the effort described, the need for synchrotron radiation, and the international competition in the area are discussed briefly. The technical feasibility of x-ray lithography is discussed, and synchrotron performance specifications and construction options are given, as well as a near-term plan. It is recommended that a prototype synchrotron source be built as soon as possible, and that a research and development plan on critical technologies which could improve cost effectiveness of the synchrotron source be established. It is further recommended that a small number of second generation prototype synchrotrons be distributed to IC manufacturing centers to expedite commercialization. (LEW)

  11. Performance of SU-8 Membrane Suitable for Deep X-Ray Grayscale Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harutaka Mekaru

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In combination with tapered-trench-etching of Si and SU-8 photoresist, a grayscale mask for deep X-ray lithography was fabricated and passed a 10-times-exposure test. The performance of the X-ray grayscale mask was evaluated using the TERAS synchrotron radiation facility at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST. Although the SU-8 before photo-curing has been evaluated as a negative-tone photoresist for ultraviolet (UV and X-ray lithographies, the characteristic of the SU-8 after photo-curing has not been investigated. A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA sheet was irradiated by a synchrotron radiation through an X-ray mask, and relationships between the dose energy and exposure depth, and between the dose energy and dimensional transition, were investigated. Using such a technique, the shape of a 26-μm-high Si absorber was transformed into the shape of a PMMA microneedle with a height of 76 μm, and done with a high contrast. Although during the fabrication process of the X-ray mask a 100-μm-pattern-pitch (by design was enlarged to 120 μm. However, with an increase in an integrated dose energy this number decreased to 99 μm. These results show that the X-ray grayscale mask has many practical applications. In this paper, the author reports on the evaluation results of SU-8 when used as a membrane material for an X-ray mask.

  12. Development of compact synchrotron light source LUNA for x-ray lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M.; Mandai, S.; Hoshi, Y.; Kohno, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A compact synchrotron light source LUNA has been developed by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI), especially for x-ray lithography. It consists of a 45-MeV linac as an electron injector and an 800-MeV synchrotron. The peak wavelength of synchrotron radiation is around 10 Å. The installation of LUNA was completed in April 1989 at the Tsuchiura Facility of IHI. The synchrotron radiation was first observed in December 1989. A stored beam current of 50 mA at 800 MeV and a lifetime over 1 h have been achieved. At present, experiments are still continuing to increase the stored current and the lifetime. X-ray lithography testing is scheduled to begin in a clean room in this facility. This paper describes the outline of LUNA and the present status.

  13. Optimizing a synchrotron based x-ray lithography system for IC manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Stephen; Speiser, Kenneth; Thaw, Winston; Heese, Richard N.

    1990-05-01

    The electron storage ring is a realistic solution as a radiation source for production grade, industrial X-ray lithography system. Today several large scale plans are in motion to design and implement synchrotron storage rings of different types for this purpose in the USA and abroad. Most of the scientific and technological problems related to the physics, design and manufacturing engineering, and commissioning of these systems for microlithography have been resolved or are under extensive study. However, investigation on issues connected to application of Synchrotron Orbit Radiation (SOR ) in chip production environment has been somewhat neglected. In this paper we have filled this gap pointing out direct effects of some basic synchrotron design parameters and associated subsystems (injector, X-ray beam line) on the operation and cost of lithography in production. The following factors were considered: synchrotron configuration, injection energy, beam intensity variability, number of beam lines and wafer exposure concept. A cost model has been worked out and applied to three different X-ray Lithography Source (XLS) systems. The results of these applications are compared and conclusions drawn.

  14. Effects of synchrotron radiation spectrum energy on polymethyl methacrylate photosensitivity to deep x-ray lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Mekaru, H; Hattori, T

    2003-01-01

    Since X-ray lithography requires a high photon flux to achieve deep resist exposure, a synchrotron radiation beam, which is not monochromatized, is generally used as a light source. If the synchrotron radiation beam is monochromatized, photon flux will decrease rapidly. Because of this reason, the wavelength dependence of the resist sensitivity has not been investigated for deep X-ray lithography. Measuring the spectrum of a white beam with a Si solid-state detector (SSD) is difficult because a white beam has a high intensity and an SSD has a high sensitivity. We were able to measure the spectrum and the photocurrent of a white beam from a beam line used for deep X-ray lithography by keeping the ring current below 0.05 mA. We evaluated the characteristics of the output beam based on the measured spectrum and photocurrent, and used them to investigate the relationship between the total exposure energy and the dose-processing depth with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). We found that it is possible to guess the p...

  15. Performance of the Hampshire Instruments Model 5000 proximity x-ray stepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frackoviak, John; Celler, George K.; Jurgensen, Charles W.; Kola, R. R.; Novembre, Anthony E.; Trimble, Lee E.; Tomes, David N.

    1993-06-01

    The Hampshire Instruments Model 5000 Stepper is a commercially available laser based 1:1 proximity x-ray stepper. The source of this system is a 25 watt Nd:glass slab laser which is focused to approximately 200 micrometers diameter spot on an iron alloy tape target. Nanosecond pulses fired at a 2 Hz burst (1 Hz average) repetition rate produce slightly more than 1 mJ/cm2 of x-ray flux per pulse at the wafer plane. This flux of soft x-ray has a spectrum of 8 - 20 angstroms centered on the 14 angstroms band. This is the first system shipped by Hampshire Instruments. It is a research and development tool which is not meant for the production line, but rather as a means to investigate issues associated with x-ray lithography and inserting a system of this type into a manufacturing environment. This paper will present final acceptance test results for system resolution, critical dimension control and registration, as well as data showing system performance for the first five months of operation. Results showing 0.2 micrometers line and space resolution across a 14.7 mm field in 1.0 micrometers thick resist printed using a tungsten absorber mask will be presented. Registration test results show a variation of 0.13 micrometers (3 (sigma) ) across a five wafer lot. When the alignment system was slowed down, however, a result of 0.09 micrometers was achieved. Metrology issues dealing with critical dimension control as they pertain to this stepper will be addressed.

  16. Method for accurate shape prediction of 3D structure fabricated by x-ray lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horade, Mitsuhiro; Khumpuang, Sommawan; Sugiyama, Susumu

    2005-02-01

    The paper describes about a useful study on the deformed shapes of microstructures fabricated by PCT (Plane-pattern to Cross-section Transfer) Technique. Previously, we have introduced the PCT technique as an additional process to conventional X-ray lithography for an extension of 2.5-dimensional structure to 3-dimensional structure. The PMMA (poly-methylmethacrylate) has been used as the X-ray resist. So far, microneedle and microlens arrays have been successfully fabricated in various shapes and dimensions. The production cost of X-ray mask has been known as the most expensive process for LIGA step, therefore, to predict the resulting shapes of structure precisely before fabricating the mask is relatively important. Although, the 2-D pattern on the X-ray mask can form a similar shape resulting in 3-D structure, the distorted shapes of microstructures have been observed. A linear-edged pattern on the X-ray mask resulted as an exponential-edged structure and an exponential-edged pattern resulted as an exceeding curvature, for example. This problem causes a change in the functional property of the array. In the case of our microneedle array, the linear-edge is highly required since it increases the strength of microneedle. We have investigated and suggested a calculation method fir a shape-prediction of microstructure fabricated by PCT technique in this work. The compensation calculation by our theories for an X-ray mask design can solve the undesired shape resulting after X-ray exposure. Moreover, the dosage control and suitable developing time are given in order to see through the current condition of the currently used synchrotron radiation light-source.

  17. Development of compact synchrotron light source for x-ray lithography (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandai, S.; Hoshi, Y.; Kohno, Y.

    1989-07-01

    Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., (IHI) has developed a prototype compact synchrotron light source for x-ray lithography of semiconductors. It consists of 45-MeV linear accelerator as an electron injector and an 800-MeV synchrotron. Peak wavelength of synchrotron radiation is around 10 Å. The basic parameter of the synchrotron is as follows: (1) Beam current: more than 50 mA; (2) Beam life: more than 1 hr; (3) Circumference: 23.5 m; (4) Bending magnet: 1.33 T, 90° sector laminated core; (5) rf system: 178.5 MHz tetrode power supply. Our synchrotron is a so-called low-energy injection accelerator and various difficult problems such as ion trapping, vacuum, Touscheck effect will occur. So, we provide ion cleaning electrodes inside the vacuum chamber to avoid ion trapping. Also, we have adopted a trapezoidal magnet excitation method as an injection scheme to stimulate gas desorption of the vacuum chamber. The beamline extracted from the bending magnet will be used for various research subjects which include x-ray lithography, photoelectron spectroscopy, EXAFS, fluorescence analysis, and so on. This machine will be completed by the end of 1988 and is scheduled to use synchrotron radiation in the spring of 1989.

  18. Fabrication of blazed gratings for X-ray spectroscopy using substrate conformal imprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Jake; Verschuuren, Marc; Lopez, Gerald; Zhang, Ningxiao; McEntaffer, Randall

    2017-08-01

    The majority of spectral lines relevant in high energy astrophysics exist at soft X-ray energies, where gratings dominate over microcalorimeters. Next-generation reflection gratings have been identified as a key technology to improve the spectroscopic capabilities of future X-ray observatories. Currently, the grating fabrication process centers on the production of a large-area (72 cm2) master template through techniques in electron-beam lithography, plasma etching and anisotropic wet etching in single-crystal Si. Then, many replicas are produced to populate a grating array, which intercepts and disperses the radiation coming to a focus in a Wolter-I telescope. Of importance is implenting a replication procedure that preserves the fidelity of the master grating template at a low cost. Traditionally, the Si master template has been used to stamp directly into a UV-curable resist coated on a fused silica substrate through the process of nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL). Though the high stiffness of Si allows the desired inverse of the original pattern to be imprinted with high resolution, difficulties arise especially when imprinting over a large area. Substrate conformal imprint lithography (SCIL) is a relatively new commercial process intended to evade these problems. In contrast to UV-NIL, the SCIL process uses a flexible stamp formed from the master template for imprinting. The flexible stamp carries the inverse of the original pattern in a modified silicone rubber, which has increased stiffness compared to standard silicone used in soft lithography processes. This enables the positive of original pattern to be imprinted sequentially with high resolution while confroming to the bow of the substrate and reducing damage due to particulate contaminants. The desired inverse of the original pattern can be imprinted with SCIL by forming a second flexible stamp from the initial flexible stamp. Further, SCIL is compatible with an inorganic imprint resist that has been

  19. Deformations and stress in PMMA during hard x-ray exposure for deep lithography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldovan, N.

    1999-08-17

    The availability of high-energy, high-flux, collimated synchrotrons radiation has extended the application of deep X-ray lithography (DXRL) to thickness values of the PMMA resist of several millimeters. Some of the most severe limitations come from plastic deformation, stress, and cracks induced in PMMA during exposure and development. We have observed and characterized these phenomena quantitatively. Profilometry measurements revealed that the PMMA is subjected either to local shrinkage or to expansion, while compression and expansion evolve over time. Due to material loss and crosslinking, the material undergoes a shrinkage, while the radiation-induced decomposition generates gases expanding the polymer matrix. The overall dynamics of the material microrelief and stress during and after the exposure depend on the balance between compaction and outgassing. These depend in turn on the exposure conditions (spectrum; dose, dose rate, seaming, temperature), post-exposure storage conditions, PMMA material properties and thickness, and also on the size and geometry of the exposed patterns.

  20. ALF: a facility for x-ray lithography II--a progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesoine, L. G.; Kukkonen, Kenneth W.; Leavey, Jeffrey A.

    1992-07-01

    In our previous paper which we presented here two years ago, we described the ALF (Advanced Lithography Facility), IBM's new facility for X-ray lithography which was built as an addition to the Advanced Semiconductor Technology Center at IBM's semiconductor plant in Hopewell Jct., NY. At that time, we described the structure, its utilities, facilities and special features such as the radiation shielding, control room, clean room and vibration resistant design. The building has been completed and occupied. By the time this paper is presented the storage ring will be commissioned, the clean room occupied, and two beamlines with one stepper operational. In this paper we will review the successful completion of the facility with its associated hardware. The installation of the synchrotron will be described elsewhere. We will also discuss the first measurements of vibration, clean room cleanliness and the effectiveness of the radiation shielding. The ALF was completed on schedule and cost objectives were met. This is attributed to careful planning, close cooperation among all the parties involved from the technical team in IBM Research, the system vendor (Oxford Instruments of Oxford England) to the many contractors and subcontractors and to strong support from IBM senior management. All the planned building specifications were met and the facility has come on-line with a minimum of problems. Most important, the initial measurements show that the radiation shielding plan is sound and that with a few modifications the dose limit of 10% of background will be met. Any concerns about an electron accelerator and synchrotron in an industrial setting have been eliminated.

  1. Plain-pattern to cross-section transfer (PCT) technique for deep x-ray lithography and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Susumu; Khumpuang, Sommawan; Kawaguchi, Gaku

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents a novel fabrication method for three-dimensional microstructures using deep x-ray lithography. The microstructures were fabricated including sloped sidewalls and curved surfaces by exposing a synchrotron radiation beam to a moving x-ray resist. The technique, the so-called plain-pattern to cross-section transfer (PCT) technique, has been developed as an extension to conventional 2.5-dimension lithography. The fabrication of PMMA microstructures has been demonstrated with surfaces as smooth as 10 nm of RMS roughness. Various applications, e.g., micro-optic, bio-medical and some components of MEMS devices have been realized. Two microstructures have been given as examples: microlens arrays and microneedle arrays. The resulting arrays can be employed to fabricate moulds by electro-deposition for further batch-processing using the LIGA process.

  2. X-ray/EUV optics for astronomy, microscopy, polarimetry, and projection lithography; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 9-13, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B. (Editor); Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Topics discussed in this issue include the fabrication of multilayer X-ray/EUV coatings; the design, characterization, and test of multilayer X-ray/EUV coatings; multilayer X-ray/EUV monochromators and imaging microscopes; X-ray/EUV telescopes; the test and calibration performance of X-ray/EUV instruments; XUV/soft X-ray projection lithography; X-ray/EUV space observatories and missions; X-ray/EUV telescopes for solar research; X-ray/EUV polarimetry; X-ray/EUV spectrographs; and X-ray/EUV filters and gratings. Papers are presented on the deposition-controlled uniformity of multilayer mirrors, interfaces in Mo/Si multilayers, the design and analysis of an aspherical multilayer imaging X-ray microscope, recent developments in the production of thin X-ray reflecting foils, and the ultraprecise scanning technology. Consideration is also given to an active sun telescope array, the fabrication and performance at 1.33 nm of a 0.24-micron-period multilayer grating, a cylindrical proportional counter for X-ray polarimetry, and the design and analysis of the reflection grating arrays for the X-Ray Multi-Mirror Mission.

  3. Sub-micrometer resolution proximity X-ray microscope with digital image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkhalo, N I; Pestov, A E; Salashchenko, N N; Sherbakov, A V; Skorokhodov, E V; Svechnikov, M V

    2015-06-01

    A compact laboratory proximity soft X-ray microscope providing submicrometer spatial resolution and digital image registration is described. The microscope consists of a laser-plasma soft X-ray radiation source, a Schwarzschild objective to illuminate the test sample, and a two-coordinate detector for image registration. Radiation, which passes through the sample under study, generates an absorption image on the front surface of the detector. Optical ceramic YAG:Ce was used to convert the X-rays into visible light. An image was transferred from the scintillator to a charge-coupled device camera with a Mitutoyo Plan Apo series lens. The detector's design allows the use of lenses with numerical apertures of NA = 0.14, 0.28, and 0.55 without changing the dimensions and arrangement of the elements of the device. This design allows one to change the magnification, spatial resolution, and field of view of the X-ray microscope. A spatial resolution better than 0.7 μm and an energy conversion efficiency of the X-ray radiation with a wavelength of 13.5 nm into visible light collected by the detector of 7.2% were achieved with the largest aperture lens.

  4. Supercritical CO2 drying of poly(methyl methacrylate) photoresist for deep x-ray lithography: a brief note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Rahul; Abhinandan, Lala; Sharma, Shivdutt

    2017-07-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is an extensively used positive photoresist for deep x-ray lithography. The post-development release of the microstructures of PMMA becomes very critical for high aspect ratio fragile and freestanding microstructures. Release of high aspect ratio comb-drive microstructure of PMMA made by one-step x-ray lithography (OXL) is studied. The effect of low-surface tension Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) over water is investigated for release of the high aspect ratio microstructures using conventional and supercritical (SC) CO2 drying. The results of conventional drying are also compared for the samples released or dried in both in-house developed and commercial SC CO2 dryer. It is found that in all cases the microstructures of PMMA are permanently deformed and damaged while using SC CO2 for drying. For free-standing high aspect ratio microstructures of PMMA made by OXL, it is advised to use low-surface tension IPA over DI water. However, this brings a limitation on the design of the microstructure.

  5. Initial development of efficient, low-debris laser targets for the Sandia soft x-ray projection lithography effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockett, P.D.; Hunter, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kubiak, G.D. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    During the fiscal years 92-94 a joint group from Sandia/New Mexico and Sandia/California studied the development of new laser-plasma targets for projection x-ray or EUV (extreme ultraviolet) lithography. Our experimental and theoretical analyses incorporated target design as an integral part of the lithographic optical system. Targets studied included thick solid targets, thin-foil metal-coated targets, and cryogenic targets. Our complete measurement suite consisted of x-ray conversion efficiency measurements, source size imaging, source x-ray angular distribution measurements, debris collection, and source EUV spectrum. Target evaluation also included the variation of laser characteristics, such as, laser intensity, spot size, wavelength, pulselength, and pulseshape. Over the course of these experiments we examined targets using KrF (248nm), XeCl (308nm), and CO{sub 2} (10.6 {mu}m) lasers. While debris issues now dominate research in this area, final details were concluded on our understanding of material spectra and radiation transport of 13 run light in laser-plasmas. Additionally, conclusive results were obtained with 308 rim light, showing the pulselength threshold below which plumes no longer limited the transmission of (and thus the conversion efficiency to) 13 nm radiation.

  6. Low-cost and high-resolution x-ray lithography utilizing a lift-off sputtered lead film mask on a Mylar substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisitsoraat, A.; Mongpraneet, S.; Phatthanakun, R.; Chomnawang, N.; Phokharatkul, D.; Patthanasettakul, V.; Tuantranont, A.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, a low-cost and high-resolution x-ray micromask is developed by sputtered lead film on a Mylar sheet substrate with the lift-off process and the x-ray mask is experimented for patterning SU-8 negative photoresist on a glass substrate. Sputtering is selected for Pb thick film deposition due to its high sputtering yield. The Pb mask is used for x-ray lithography of SU-8 photoresist with 5 µm closely spaced square array patterns, designed for electrowetting electrodes on a microfluidic chip. For 140 µm thick SU-8 photoresist, a Pb film thickness of around 10 µm was used to block x-rays with 95% x-ray image contrast at a critical dose of 4200 mJ cm-3. A high aspect ratio of 26.5 of SU8 microstructure with 5 µm lateral resolution has been demonstrated by the developed low-cost Pb-based x-ray mask. In addition, a steep sidewall angle of nearly 90° for SU-8 structure is confirmed. The results demonstrate that the Pb-based x-ray mask offers high-resolution x-ray lithography at a very low cost. Therefore, it is highly promising for commercial applications.

  7. Lithography for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1987-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 16: Lithography for VLSI treats special topics from each branch of lithography, and also contains general discussion of some lithographic methods.This volume contains 8 chapters that discuss the various aspects of lithography. Chapters 1 and 2 are devoted to optical lithography. Chapter 3 covers electron lithography in general, and Chapter 4 discusses electron resist exposure modeling. Chapter 5 presents the fundamentals of ion-beam lithography. Mask/wafer alignment for x-ray proximity printing and for optical lithography is tackled in Chapter 6.

  8. Targets emitting transition radiation for performing X-ray lithography by the tabletop synchrotron MIRRORCLE-20SX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkov, D. [21st Century COE SLLS, East Wing Building, Room 3113-0, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu-shi, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: minkov@se.ritsumei.ac.jp; Morita, M. [PPL Company, BKC Incubator, Room 209, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu-shi, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Nihira, H. [Ritsumeikan University, West Wing Building, Room 2337-0, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu-shi, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Yamada, H. [21st Century COE SLLS, East Wing Building, Room 3113-0, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu-shi, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); PPL Company, BKC Incubator, Room 209, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu-shi, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Ritsumeikan University, West Wing Building, Room 2337-0, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu-shi, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2008-06-01

    The tabletop storage ring synchrotron (SRS) MIRRORCLE-20SX is a powerful source of soft X-rays emitted from transition radiation (TR) targets. SRS can be used as a source for performing X-ray lithography (XRL) when it emits TR power P{sub XRL}{>=}50-100 mW of photons having energy in the range 490-1860 eV. One-foil targets in SRS can emit a high TR power, and the electron beam geometry of MIRRORCLE-20SX requires using TR strip targets with a width {approx_equal}3 mm. P{sub XRL} emitted by one-foil strip TR targets is estimated for several foil materials, and varying foil thickness d. These results show that a target containing one C foil with d{approx_equal}260 nm can be used for performing XRL. Target made of one collodion foil with d{approx_equal}290 nm, and target of one Al foil with d{approx_equal}200 nm emit less, but could also be used for XRL. We manufactured such targets by depositing layers of these materials on slide glass, using Teepol as a releasing agent, and subsequently floating them on a water surface. The C layer is prepared by a horizontal resistance thermal evaporation, and supported by a 270-300 nm thick collodion layer, formed onto the Teepol film. The Al layer is thermally evaporated.

  9. Transparent masks for aligned deep x-ray lithography/LIGA: low-cost high-performance alternative using glass membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupka, Roland K.; Megtert, Stephan; Roulliay, Marc; Bouamrane, Faycal

    1998-09-01

    Deep x-ray lithography/LIGA has proven to be a well established framework of x-ray based technologies for the fabrication of microstructures and pseudo three-dimensional objects. Inherently, x-ray lithography/LIGA is not fully three-dimensional because of the principle of simple shadow printing onto resists of constant thickness. Thus, it would be impossible to obtain 3D spheres, but series of stacked monolithic 2D cylinders. Hence, until recently, LIGA was mainly concerned with simple uni-level (1D) monolithic structures, using optically opaque mask-membranes like Be, Si or Ti with grown-on Au absorbers. In the course for mastering pseudo three-dimensional microstructures like micro-coils or electromagnetic applications, an alignment in between the lithographic steps becomes necessary which requires optically transparent membrane materials, if optical alignment is chosen. Diamond or SiC membranes are the actual suitable materials for such purposes, but their pricing and/or process robustness inhibit their frequent use in simple projects. We would like to report on a new promising material: a glued-on thin glass membrane. The advantages are incomparably lower costs compared to Diamond or SiC technologies, a considerable ease of fabrication, handling, quite favorable mechanical/optical properties, sufficient for lithographic purposes and multi-level deep x-ray lithography/LIGA activities.

  10. Proximity effect of electron beam lithography on single-electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    monly used technique in this field, and many researchers have been investigating its application to make nanopatterns. In electron beam lithography, the well-known proximity effect refers to .... electrodes are grounded. The charging effect, which blocks the injection/ejection of a single charge into/from a quantum dot, ...

  11. Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography. Organization of the Photonics Science Topical Meetings Held in Monterey, California on May 10-12, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-10

    Zernike SVG Lithography Systems, Inc MONDAY, MAY 10, 1993 MONDAY, MAY 10, 1993-Continued BONSAI II & III 11:20 am MA6 Solutions to critical problems in...15 am (Invited) BONSAI II & III MA2 Simulation of soft-x-ray images from a 1:1 ringfield optic, 0 R Wood. II, R. M D’Souza. M Himel. J. E Bjorkholm...First, the figure and radii of curvature of the uncoated optics were 10:25 am-10:50 am COFFEE BREAK ( Bonsai Foyer) measured using conventional visible

  12. High precision x ray lithographic masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, R. F.; Browning, R.

    1992-09-01

    This contract period was first concerned with winding up the projects on the embedded X-ray Mask structure and on the 'quantum lithography' idea. As a result of developments elsewhere it became clear that among the most critical issues in achieving high precision X-ray masks were those associated with achieving high precision in both feature size and feature placement in electron beam lithography. Most of the effort in this reporting period was aimed at achieving precision in feature size; notably an attack on the problem of proximity effects. There were two approaches: (1) A short term approach aimed at correcting effects in existing electron beam pattern generators (notably the ETEC MEBES 3 and 4) for feature sizes down 500 nm; and (2) A long term approach aimed at avoiding proximity effects by employing low energy electron exposure for feature size below 500 nm.

  13. Enhancement of Reflectivity of Multilayer Mirrors for Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography by Temperature Optimization and Ion-Bombardment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Louis,; Voorma, H. J.; Koster, N. B.; Shmaenok, L.; F. Bijkerk,; Schlatmann, R.; Verhoeven, J.; Platonov, Y. Y.; van Dorssen, G. E.; Padmore, H. A.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we discuss two techniques to optimize the quality of multilayer x-ray mirrors, namely optimization of the temperature of the substrates during deposition and ion-bombardment of the layers. We produced Mo/Si multilayers applying both methods and present the effect on the near normal

  14. A comparison of bone mineral density in osteoporotic fracture of the proximal femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Seok; Yoo, Beong Gyu [Wonkwang Health Science College, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keung Sik [Yonsei University Yong Dong Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-15

    There were some controversies about direct cause of hip fracture. We attempted to look at 40 osteoporotic proximal femur fractures in women over 50 years between March in 1999 and February in 2000. The bone density of the fracture group and the healthy 85 control group was measured by Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The result was compared using age matched paired T test. The results were as follows: The femoral neck fractures were 14 cases and the trochanteric fractures were 26 cases. Mean age at a fracture was 67.1 years in neck fracture group and 76.5 years in trochanteric fracture. In the control group, the bone density of both side of the proximal femur was measured and it showed statistically no difference between both sides in same person. The bone density of neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter (P<0.05) and lumbar spine (P<0.001) was significantly reduced in the proximal femoral fracture group comparing with the control group. The bone density of neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter (P<0.05) was significantly reduced in the proximal femoral neck fracture group comparing with the control group, but there was no statistical difference in lumbar spine comparing with the control group. The bone density of neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter and lumbar spine (P<0.001) was significantly reduced in the proximal femoral neck fracture group comparing with the control group. We concluded that the bone mineral densities (BMD) of proximal femur and lumbar spine had decreased in hip fractures but that the bone mineral density and T-score % of the proximal femur were statistically lower than that of the lumbar spine. We suggest that measuring the bone mineral density of the proximal femur may reflect the weakness of the proximal femur more precisely than measuring the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine.

  15. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors.

  16. Development of procedures for programmable proximity aperture lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, H. J.; Gorelick, S.; Puttaraksa, N.; Napari, M.; Hokkanen, M. J.; Norarat, R.

    2013-07-01

    Programmable proximity aperture lithography (PPAL) with MeV ions has been used in Jyväskylä and Chiang Mai universities for a number of years. Here we describe a number of innovations and procedures that have been incorporated into the LabView-based software. The basic operation involves the coordination of the beam blanker and five motor-actuated translators with high accuracy, close to the minimum step size with proper anti-collision algorithms. By using special approaches, such writing calibration patterns, linearisation of position and careful backlash correction the absolute accuracy of the aperture size and position, can be improved beyond the standard afforded by the repeatability of the translator end-point switches. Another area of consideration has been the fluence control procedures. These involve control of the uniformity of the beam where different approaches for fluence measurement such as simultaneous aperture current and the ion current passing through the aperture using a Faraday cup are used. Microfluidic patterns may contain many elements that make-up mixing sections, reaction chambers, separation columns and fluid reservoirs. To facilitate conception and planning we have implemented a .svg file interpreter, that allows the use of scalable vector graphics files produced by standard drawing software for generation of patterns made up of rectangular elements.

  17. A reliable method for measuring proximal tibia and distal femur bone mineral density using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, Arjan J. T.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.; Rolf, Marijn P.; Roos, Jan C.; Burcksen, Jos; Knol, Dirk L.; de Groot, Sonja

    Purpose: To assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability of a standardized protocol for measuring proximal tibia and distal femur bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods: Ten able-bodied individuals (7 males) participated in this study. During one

  18. Lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Landis, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Lithography is now a complex tool at the heart of a technological process for manufacturing micro and nanocomponents. A multidisciplinary technology, lithography continues to push the limits of optics, chemistry, mechanics, micro and nano-fluids, etc. This book deals with essential technologies and processes, primarily used in industrial manufacturing of microprocessors and other electronic components.

  19. Masses of the visual components and black holes in X-ray novae: Effects of proximity of the components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, V. S.; Antokhina, E. A.; Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    2017-05-01

    It is shown that the approximation of the complex, tidally distorted shape of a star as a circular disc with local line profiles and a linear limb-darkening law, which is usually applied when deriving equatorial stellar rotation velocities from line profiles, leads to overestimation of the equatorial velocity V rot sin i and underestimation of the component mass ratio q = M x / M v . A formula enabling correction of the effect of these simplifying assumptions on the shape of a star is used to re-determine the mass ratios q and the masses of the black holes M x and visual components M v in low-mass X-ray binary systems containing black holes. Taking into account the tidal-rotational distortion of the stellar shape can significantly increase the mass ratios q = M x / M v , reducing M v , while M x changes only slightly. The resulting distribution of M v attains its maximum near M v ≃ 0.35 M ⊙, in disagreement with the results of population synthesis computations realizing standard models for Galactic X-ray novae with black holes. Possible ways to overcome this inconsistency are discussed. The derived distribution of M x also differs strongly from the mass distribution for massive stars in the Galaxy.

  20. Static Magnetic Proximity Effect in Pt/NiFe2O4 and Pt/Fe Bilayers Investigated by X-Ray Resonant Magnetic Reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschel, T; Klewe, C; Schmalhorst, J-M; Bertram, F; Kuschel, O; Schemme, T; Wollschläger, J; Francoual, S; Strempfer, J; Gupta, A; Meinert, M; Götz, G; Meier, D; Reiss, G

    2015-08-28

    The spin polarization of Pt in Pt/NiFe2O4 and Pt/Fe bilayers is studied by interface-sensitive x-ray resonant magnetic reflectivity to investigate static magnetic proximity effects. The asymmetry ratio of the reflectivity is measured at the Pt L3 absorption edge using circular polarized x-rays for opposite directions of the magnetization at room temperature. The results of the 2% asymmetry ratio for Pt/Fe bilayers are independent of the Pt thickness between 1.8 and 20 nm. By comparison with ab initio calculations, the maximum magnetic moment per spin polarized Pt atom at the interface is determined to be (0.6±0.1)  μB for Pt/Fe. For Pt/NiFe2O4 the asymmetry ratio drops below the sensitivity limit of 0.02  μB per Pt atom. Therefore, we conclude, that the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect recently observed in Pt/NiFe2O4 is not influenced by a proximity induced anomalous Nernst effect.

  1. Optical proximity correction for anamorphic extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Chris; Lam, Michael; Raghunathan, Ananthan; Jiang, Fan; Fenger, Germain; Adam, Kostas

    2017-10-01

    The change from isomorphic to anamorphic optics in high numerical aperture (NA) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) scanners necessitates changes to the mask data preparation flow. The required changes for each step in the mask tape out process are discussed, with a focus on optical proximity correction (OPC). When necessary, solutions to new problems are demonstrated, and verified by rigorous simulation. Additions to the OPC model include accounting for anamorphic effects in the optics, mask electromagnetics, and mask manufacturing. The correction algorithm is updated to include awareness of anamorphic mask geometry for mask rule checking (MRC). OPC verification through process window conditions is enhanced to test different wafer scale mask error ranges in the horizontal and vertical directions. This work will show that existing models and methods can be updated to support anamorphic optics without major changes. Also, the larger mask size in the Y direction can result in better model accuracy, easier OPC convergence, and designs which are more tolerant to mask errors.

  2. OSA Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography Held in Monterey, California on 10-12 April 1991. Volume 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-22

    diameter) field of view. *Visiting Scientist from Department of Physics, Brigham Young Univesity , Salt Lake City, Utah. OSA Proceedings on soft-X-Ray...01651002 from the Ministry of Education , 10. E. Ziegler, Y. Lepetre, S. Joksch, V. Saile, S. Science and Culture, Japan and by the U.S.Department

  3. Applications and measurements of polycapillary x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, C A

    1996-01-01

    The recent invention of Kumakhov polycapillary x-ray and neutron optics has expanded the ways x-ray beams can be controlled. X rays incident on the interior of glass tubes at small angles can be guided down the tubes by total external reflection. Now, arrays of curved tapered capillaries can be used to focus, collimate, and filter x-ray radiation. Extensive research is being conducted on the performance and potential applications of these optics. Potential medical applications include mammography, digital energy subtraction angiography, and focused beam therapy. Other applications are x-ray lithography, x-ray astronomy, crystal diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, and neutron prompt gamma analysis.

  4. In vitro comparison of four different dental X-ray films and direct digital radiography for proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkurt, Meryem Torman; Peker, Ilkay; Bala, Oya; Altunkaynak, Bulent

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the efficiency of different speeds of conventional intraoral films and a direct digital system for proximal caries detection. In this study, 48 extracted human posterior permanent teeth were used. Conventional bitewing radiographs and direct digital radiographs were obtained from the teeth. Three observers independently assessed 96 proximal surfaces, each observer had 10 years of experience. The presence or absence of caries was scored according to a five-point scale. True caries depth was determined by histological examination. The diagnostic accuracy of each radiographic system was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The mean of areas under the ROC curve (Az) was analyzed by pairwise comparison of ROC curve. The interobserver agreement was evaluated by using ANOVA analysis. The statistical analysis of Az scores exhibited no significant difference for the five imaging modalities (p > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between interobserver agreements (p > 0.05). The results of this study showed that the diagnostic performance of E- and F-speed films and direct digital radiography are similar for proximal caries detection.

  5. Fabrication of large area X-ray diffraction grating for X-ray phase imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Daiji; Tokuoka, Atsushi; Katori, Megumi; Minamiyama, Yasuto; Yamashita, Kenji; Nishida, Satoshi; Hattori, Tadashi

    2012-07-01

    X-ray lithography, which uses highly directional synchrotron radiation, is one of the technologies that can be used for fabricating micrometer-sized structures. In X-ray lithography, the accuracy of the fabricated structure depends largely on the accuracy of the X-ray mask. Since X-ray radiation is highly directional, a micro-fabrication technology that produces un-tapered and high aspect ratio highly absorbent structures on a low absorbent membrane is required. Conventionally, a resin material is used as the support membrane for large area X-ray masks. However, resin membranes have the disadvantage that they can sag after several cycles of X-ray exposure due to the heat generated by the X-rays. Therefore, we proposed and used thin carbon wafers for the membrane material because carbon has an extremely small thermal expansion coefficient. We fabricated new carbon membrane X-ray masks, and these results of X-ray lithography demonstrate the superior performance.

  6. Measurements of bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and proximal femur using lunar prodigy and the new pencil-beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Dongil [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Clinical Trial Center, Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Deog-Yoon [Kyung Hee University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Chung Soo [Kyung Hee University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seonwoo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Clinical Trial Center, Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Medical Center, Biostatistics Unit, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bok, Hae Sook [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Clinical Trial Center, Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Wooseong [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Clinical Trial Center, Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jae-Wook [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Clinical Trial Center, Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Hwa [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Clinical Trial Center, Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We evaluated the correlation of the absolute bone mineral density (BMD) values of the lumbar spine and standard sites of the proximal femur obtained from a Lunar Prodigy and the newly developed pencil-beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Dexxum). Between June 2008 and December 2008, 79 Korean volunteers were enrolled. Measurements were obtained on the same day using both densitometers. The absolute BMD values (g/cm{sup 2}) from the two densitometers were evaluated using Pearson's correlation analysis with Bonferroni's correction for the three clinically important sites. In order to evaluate precision, we performed duplicate Dexxum measurements, and calculated the within-subject coefficient of variation (WSCV). The Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) of BMD values for the total proximal femur, femoral neck, and lumbar spine by the two densitometers were 0.926, 0.948, and 0.955 respectively, and the null hypotheses of r = 0.8 were all rejected (p < 0.001 by one-sided Z-test with Fisher's z-transformation for each site). The T-scores (r {>=} 0.842) and Z-scores (r {>=} 0.709) also showed strong positive correlations. The duplicate BMD values of Dexxum showed a high level of precision (WSCV {<=} 4.27%). Dexxum measurements of BMD, T-scores, and Z-scores showed a strong linear correlation with those measured on Lunar Prodigy. (orig.)

  7. Observation of momentum-resolved charge fluctuations proximate to the charge-order phase using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, M; Ishii, K; Naka, M; Ishihara, S; Jarrige, I; Ikeuchi, K; Murakami, Y; Kudo, K; Koike, Y; Nagata, T; Fukada, Y; Ikeda, N; Mizuki, J

    2016-03-29

    In strongly correlated electron systems, enhanced fluctuations in the proximity of the ordered states of electronic degrees of freedom often induce anomalous electronic properties such as unconventional superconductivity. While spin fluctuations in the energy-momentum space have been studied widely using inelastic neutron scattering, other degrees of freedom, i.e., charge and orbital, have hardly been explored thus far. Here, we use resonant inelastic x-ray scattering to observe charge fluctuations proximate to the charge-order phase in transition metal oxides. In the two-leg ladder of Sr(14-x)Ca(x)Cu24O41, charge fluctuations are enhanced at the propagation vector of the charge order (qCO) when the order is melted by raising temperature or by doping holes. In contrast, charge fluctuations are observed not only at qCO but also at other momenta in a geometrically frustrated triangular bilayer lattice of LuFe2O4. The observed charge fluctuations have a high energy (~1 eV), suggesting that the Coulomb repulsion between electrons plays an important role in the formation of the charge order.

  8. Joint x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  9. Bone mineral density measurements of the proximal femur from routine contrast-enhanced MDCT data sets correlate with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M; Bauer, J S; Dobritz, M; Beer, A J; Wolf, P; Woertler, K; Rummeny, E J; Baum, T

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the utility of femoral bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in routine contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (ceMDCT) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference standard. Forty-one patients (33 women, 8 men) underwent DXA measurement of the proximal femur. Subsequently, transverse sections of routine ceMDCT of these patients were used to measure BMD of the femoral head and femoral neck. The MDCT-to-DXA conversion equations for BMD and T-score were calculated using linear regression analysis. The conversion equations were applied to the MDCT data sets of 382 patients (120 women, 262 men) of whom 74 had osteoporotic fractures. A correlation coefficient of r = 0.84 (P < 0.05) was calculated for BMD(MDCT) values of the femoral head and DXA T-scores of the total proximal femur using the conversion equation T-score = 0.021 × BMD(MDCT) - 5.90. The correlation coefficient for the femoral neck was r = 0.79 (P < 0.05) with the conversion equation T-score = 0.016 × BMD(MDCT) - 4.28. Accordingly, converted T-scores for the femoral neck in patients with versus those without osteoporotic fractures were significantly different (female, -1.83 versus -1.47; male, -1.86 versus -1.47; P < 0.05). BMD measurements of the proximal femur were computed in routine contrast-enhanced MDCT and converted to DXA T-scores, which adequately differentiated patients with and without osteoporotic fractures.

  10. Bone mineral density measurements of the proximal femur from routine contrast-enhanced MDCT data sets correlate with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Bauer, J.S.; Dobritz, M.; Woertler, K.; Rummeny, E.J.; Baum, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Beer, A.J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Wolf, P. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the utility of femoral bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in routine contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (ceMDCT) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference standard. Forty-one patients (33 women, 8 men) underwent DXA measurement of the proximal femur. Subsequently, transverse sections of routine ceMDCT of these patients were used to measure BMD of the femoral head and femoral neck. The MDCT-to-DXA conversion equations for BMD and T-score were calculated using linear regression analysis. The conversion equations were applied to the MDCT data sets of 382 patients (120 women, 262 men) of whom 74 had osteoporotic fractures. A correlation coefficient of r = 0.84 (P < 0.05) was calculated for BMD{sub MDCT} values of the femoral head and DXA T-scores of the total proximal femur using the conversion equation T-score = 0.021 x BMD{sub MDCT} - 5.90. The correlation coefficient for the femoral neck was r = 0.79 (P < 0.05) with the conversion equation T-score = 0.016 x BMD{sub MDCT} - 4.28. Accordingly, converted T-scores for the femoral neck in patients with versus those without osteoporotic fractures were significantly different (female, -1.83 versus -1.47; male, -1.86 versus -1.47; P < 0.05). BMD measurements of the proximal femur were computed in routine contrast-enhanced MDCT and converted to DXA T-scores, which adequately differentiated patients with and without osteoporotic fractures. (orig.)

  11. Computational method for the correction of proximity effect in electron-beam lithography (Poster Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Yuan; Owen, Gerry; Pease, Roger Fabian W.; Kailath, Thomas

    1992-07-01

    Dose correction is commonly used to compensate for the proximity effect in electron lithography. The computation of the required dose modulation is usually carried out using 'self-consistent' algorithms that work by solving a large number of simultaneous linear equations. However, there are two major drawbacks: the resulting correction is not exact, and the computation time is excessively long. A computational scheme, as shown in Figure 1, has been devised to eliminate this problem by the deconvolution of the point spread function in the pattern domain. The method is iterative, based on a steepest descent algorithm. The scheme has been successfully tested on a simple pattern with a minimum feature size 0.5 micrometers , exposed on a MEBES tool at 10 KeV in 0.2 micrometers of PMMA resist on a silicon substrate.

  12. High speed microfluidic prototyping by programmable proximity aperture MeV ion beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaraksa, Nitipon [Department of Biological and Environmental Science and NanoScience Center, University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Napari, Mari [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Meriläinen, Leena [Department of Biological and Environmental Science and NanoScience Center, University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Whitlow, Harry J.; Sajavaara, Timo [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Gilbert, Leona, E-mail: leona.k.gilbert@jyu.fi [Department of Biological and Environmental Science and NanoScience Center, University of Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2013-07-01

    Microfluidics refers to the science and technology for controlling and manipulating fluids that flow along microchannels. For the development of complex prototypes, many microfluidic test structures are required first. Normally, these devices are fabricated via photolithography. This technique requires a photomask for transferring a pattern to photoresists by exposing with UV light. However, this method can be slow when a new structure is required to change. This is because a series of photomasks are needed, which is time consuming and costly. Here, we present a programmable proximity aperture lithography (PPAL) technique for the development of microfluidic prototype in poly(methyl methacrylate) or PMMA. This method is based on using a mask made up of two movable L-shaped apertures in close proximity to the target. The PPAL allows microfluidic chips that are designed with complex components having large and small (∼1 μm – ∼500 μm) pattern elements to be fabricated rapidly. In this paper, the fabrication process with test examples of microfluidic circuit designs is presented. Experimental results show that new patterns can be changed and produced in a few hours demonstrating that the PPAL technique is a rapid method for development of microfluidic prototypes in PMMA.

  13. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the most commonly performed x-ray exams and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to ... to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit ...

  14. Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bionta, Richard M.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Skulina, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    A process for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments m the soft x-ray region.

  15. Hand x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - hand ... A hand x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department or your health care provider's office by an ... technician. You will be asked to place your hand on the x-ray table, and keep it ...

  16. X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... show up on chest X-rays. Breast cancer. Mammography is a special type of X-ray test used to examine breast tissue. Enlarged heart. This sign of congestive heart failure shows up clearly on X-rays. Blocked blood vessels. Injecting a contrast material that contains iodine can help highlight sections ...

  17. Observation and theory of X-ray mirages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnitskiy, Sergey; Nagorskiy, Nikolay; Faenov, Anatoly; Pikuz, Tatiana; Tanaka, Mamoko; Ishino, Masahiko; Nishikino, Masaharu; Fukuda, Yuji; Kando, Masaki; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    The advent of X-ray lasers allowed the realization of compact coherent soft X-ray sources, thus opening the way to a wide range of applications. Here we report the observation of unexpected concentric rings in the far-field beam profile at the output of a two-stage plasma-based X-ray laser, which can be considered as the first manifestation of a mirage phenomenon in X-rays. We have developed a method of solving the Maxwell-Bloch equations for this problem, and find that the experimentally observed phenomenon is due to the emergence of X-ray mirages in the plasma amplifier, appearing as phase-matched coherent virtual point sources. The obtained results bring a new insight into the physical nature of amplification of X-ray radiation in laser-induced plasma amplifiers and open additional opportunities for X-ray plasma diagnostics and extreme ultraviolet lithography.

  18. X-Ray Polarimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kaaret, Philip

    2014-01-01

    We review the basic principles of X-ray polarimetry and current detector technologies based on the photoelectric effect, Bragg reflection, and Compton scattering. Recent technological advances in high-spatial-resolution gas-filled X-ray detectors have enabled efficient polarimeters exploiting the photoelectric effect that hold great scientific promise for X-ray polarimetry in the 2-10 keV band. Advances in the fabrication of multilayer optics have made feasible the construction of broad-band ...

  19. Proximity effect correction on MEBES for 1x mask fabrication: lithography issues and tradeoffs at 0.25 micron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muray, Andrew J.; Dean, Robert L.

    1991-03-01

    Proximity effect correction is necessary to fabricate masks with 0.25 micron design rules using electron beam lithography. The GHOST technique of proximity correction has the advantage of no pattern preprocessing and is easily implemented on a raster scan system such as MEBES. Recent results show proximity corrected features at 0.3 micron. To minimize constraints on the resist characteristics, such as the Srg ratio, global sizing of patterns has been investigated and found to provide an additional degree of freedom to control sensitivities and process latitude. Simulation and experimental results will be presented to demonstrate the use of GHOST and sizing for 1X mask making, including discussion of some of the relevant issues and tradeoffs.

  20. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x- ...

  1. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot ...

  2. X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenster, A. [Univ. of Western Ontario, J.P. Robarts Institute, London, Ontario (Canada); Yaffe, M.J. [Univ. of Toronto, Depts. of Medical Biophysics and Medical Imaging, North York, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-09-01

    In this article, we briefly review the principles of x-ray imaging, consider some of its applications in medicine and describe some of the developments in this area which have taken place in Canada. X rays were first used for diagnosis and therapy in medicine almost immediately after the report of their discovery by Roentgen in 1895. X-ray imaging has remained the primary tool for the investigation of structures within the body up to the present time (Johns and Cunningham 1983). Medical x rays are produced in a vacuum tube by the electron bombardment of a metallic target. Electrons emitted from a heated cathode are accelerated through an electric field to energies of 20-150 keV (wavelength 6.2-0.83 nm) and strike a target anode. X rays appear in a spectrum of bremsstrahlung radiation with energies ranging from 0 to a value that is numerically equal to the peak voltage applied between the cathode and anode of the x-ray tube (Figure 1). In addition, where the energy of the impinging electrons exceeds the binding energy of inner atomic orbitals of the target material, electrons may be ejected from those shells. Filling of these shells by more loosely-bound electrons gives rise to x rays whose energies are equal to the difference of the binding energies of the donor and acceptor shells. The energies of these characteristic x rays are unique to the target material. Less than 1% of the energy of the incident electrons is converted to that of x rays, while the remainder is dissipated as heat in the target. For this reason, a tremendous amount of engineering has gone into the design of x-ray tubes that can yield a large fluence rate of quanta from a small effective source size, while withstanding the enormous applied heat loading (e.g. 10 kJ per exposure). Tungsten is by far the most common material used for targets in tubes for diagnostic radiology, because of its high melting point and its high atomic number; the efficiency of x-ray production is proportional to Z of the

  3. X-ray lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    The first in its field, this book is both an introduction to x-ray lasers and a how-to guide for specialists. It provides new entrants and others interested in the field with a comprehensive overview and describes useful examples of analysis and experiments as background and guidance for researchers undertaking new laser designs. In one succinct volume, X-Ray Lasers collects the knowledge and experience gained in two decades of x-ray laser development and conveys the exciting challenges and possibilities still to come._Add on for longer version of blurb_M>The reader is first introduced

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  6. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very small ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  7. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  8. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  9. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight February is American Heart Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test ... x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used to ...

  10. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used ... diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A ...

  11. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breath, persistent cough, fever, chest pain or injury. It may also be useful to help diagnose and ... have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to ...

  12. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot ... Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking ...

  13. Sinus x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an infection and inflammation of the sinuses called sinusitis . A sinus x-ray is ordered when you have any of the following: Symptoms of sinusitis Other sinus disorders, such as a deviated septum ( ...

  14. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight November is National Lung Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  15. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exams and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  16. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You ...

  17. X-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X-ray References Geleijns J, Tack D. Medical physics: radiation risks. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard ... Updated by: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic ...

  18. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  19. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. ... University in Durham, North Carolina. I’d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known ...

  20. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight October is National Breast Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken during x-ray examinations to ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... Media Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken ... of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  8. X-Ray Absorption with Transmission X-Ray Microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08747610X

    2016-01-01

    In this section we focus on the use of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) to measure the XAS spectra. In the last decade a range of soft X-ray and hard X-ray TXM microscopes have been developed, allowing the measurement of XAS spectra with 10–100 nm resolution. In the hard X-ray range the TXM

  9. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is used ...

  11. Lumbosacral spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine ... be placed over the lower part of your spine. You will be asked to hold your breath ... x-ray. The most common reason for lumbosacral spine x-ray is to look for the cause ...

  12. Nano lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Landis, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Lithography is an extremely complex tool - based on the concept of "imprinting" an original template version onto mass output - originally using relatively simple optical exposure, masking, and etching techniques, and now extended to include exposure to X-rays, high energy UV light, and electron beams - in processes developed to manufacture everyday products including those in the realms of consumer electronics, telecommunications, entertainment, and transportation, to name but a few. In the last few years, researchers and engineers have pushed the envelope of fields including optics, physics,

  13. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! Spotlight November is National Lung Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness ...

  14. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions ... Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey Rubin, ...

  15. Pelvis x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    The x-ray is used to look for: Fractures Tumors Degenerative conditions of bones in the hips, pelvis, and upper legs ... Abnormal results may suggest: Pelvic fractures Arthritis of the hip joint ... spondylitis (abnormal stiffness of the spine and joint) ...

  16. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiology (IDoR) Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound November 8 is ...

  17. High Resolution X-ray Views of Solar System Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella

    2011-05-01

    Over the last decade Chandra, and XMM-Newton, have revealed the beauty and multiplicity of X-ray emissions in our solar system: high resolution data, in both spectral and spatial domains, have been crucial in disentangling the physical processes at work. The talk will review the main findings in this area at the boundary between astrophysics and planetary science, and will show how the solar system offers `next door’ examples of widespread astrophysical phenomena. Jupiter shows bright X-ray aurorae, arising from the interactions of local and/or solar wind ions, and electrons, with its powerful magnetic environment: the ions undergo charge exchange with atmospheric neutrals and generate soft X-ray line emission, and the electrons give rise to bremsstrahlung X-rays. Chandra's unparalleled spatial resolution has shown how the X-ray footprints of the electrons in the aurorae coincide with the bright FUV auroral oval, indicating that the same electron population is likely to be at the origin of both emissions. Moreover, Jupiter's disk scatters solar X-rays, displaying a spectrum that closely resembles that of solar flares. Saturn has not revealed X-ray aurorae (yet), but its disk X-ray brightness, like Jupiter's, is strictly correlated with the Sun's X-ray output. A bright X-ray spot has also been resolved by Chandra on the eastern ansa of Saturn's rings, and its spectrum suggests an origin in the fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays on the rings icy particles. Both Mars and Venus have X-ray emitting disks and exospheres, which can be clearly resolved at high spectral and spatial resolution. And the Earth has bright X-ray aurorae that have been targets of Chandra observations. Finally, comets, with their extended neutral comae and extremely line-rich X-ray spectra, are spectacular X-ray sources, and ideal probes of the conditions of the solar wind in the Sun's proximity.

  18. X-ray filter for x-ray powder diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinsheimer, John Jay; Conley, Raymond P.; Bouet, Nathalie C. D.; Dooryhee, Eric; Ghose, Sanjit

    2018-01-23

    Technologies are described for apparatus, methods and systems effective for filtering. The filters may comprise a first plate. The first plate may include an x-ray absorbing material and walls defining first slits. The first slits may include arc shaped openings through the first plate. The walls of the first plate may be configured to absorb at least some of first x-rays when the first x-rays are incident on the x-ray absorbing material, and to output second x-rays. The filters may comprise a second plate spaced from the first plate. The second plate may include the x-ray absorbing material and walls defining second slits. The second slits may include arc shaped openings through the second plate. The walls of the second plate may be configured to absorb at least some of second x-rays and to output third x-rays.

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken during x-ray examinations ... patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is ... care is taken during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on large film ... assist you in finding the most comfortable position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ... body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray ...

  3. Coherent x-ray optics

    CERN Document Server

    Paganin, David M

    2006-01-01

    'Coherent X-Ray Optics' gives a thorough treatment of the rapidly expanding field of coherent x-ray optics, which has recently experienced something of a renaissance with the availability of third-generation synchrotron sources.

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissues around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require ... is placed beneath the patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, ... and Media Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to X-ray ( ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ... and procedures may vary by geographic region. Discuss the fees associated with your prescribed ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used ... placed beneath the patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the body. X-rays are the oldest ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page ... the patient standing upright, as in cases of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is used to: ... and x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be taken to minimize radiation exposure to the baby. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of an x-ray tube suspended over a table on which the patient ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of ... and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency ...

  19. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recorded on a computer or special X-ray film. This image shows the soft tissues and bones of the forearm. The X-ray image is black and white. Dense structures that block the passage of the X-ray beam through the body, such as the bones, appear white on the ...

  20. Nanofabrication and characterization of high-line-density x-ray transmission gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaoli; Li, Hailiang; Cao, Leifeng

    2017-01-01

    We report the nanofabrication and characterization of x-ray transmission gratings with a high aspect ratio and a feature size of down to 65 nm. Two nanofabrication methods, the combination of electron beam and optical lithography and the combination of electron beam, x-ray, and optical lithograph...... the development of x-ray diffractive optical elements. (C) 2017 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)...

  1. Jovian X-ray emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, J. H.; Lewis, W. S.; Gladstone, G. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Brandt, W. N.

    1996-01-01

    The Einstein and Rosat observations of X-ray emissions from Jupiter are summarized. Jupiter's soft X-ray emission is observed to originate from the planet's auroral zones, and specifically, from its equatorial region. The processes responsible for these emissions are not established. The brightness distribution of the Jovian X-rays is characterized by the dependence on central meridian longitude and by north-south and morning-afternoon asymmetries. The X-rays observed during the impact of the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 are believed to be impact-induced brightenings of the X-ray aurora.

  2. Optimization of lithography and CD control using GHOST proximity correction with a MEBES 4500 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Robert L.

    1996-12-01

    Experiments were initiated that examined parameters for optimum proximity effect correction using GHOST with 400 nm of PBS and the standard PBS process. Parameters examined included the size of the correction spot and the ratio of the correction dose to the primary dose. Critical dimension CD deviations from the mean in proximity tower patterns were used to determine optimum parameters. Results show that without data bias, the minimum feature size that can be achieved with GHOST within +/- 5% of the mean CD at 10 keV and 400 nm of resist is 300 nm. The correction scheme begins to degrade rapidly with smaller features. CD control at optimum GHOST parameters can be achieved by introducing data bias of 100 nm per side of a line to account for the wet etch undercut in the PBS process. This effectively increases the minimum feature size achievable from 300 nm to 500 nm. A resist that can be dry etched, thereby eliminating the wet etch undercut, will alleviate this problem.

  3. X-Ray Lasers 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei; Daido, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    These proceedings comprise a selection of invited and contributed papers presented at the 15th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2016), held at the Nara Kasugano International Forum, Japan, from May 22 to 27, 2016. This conference was part of an ongoing series dedicated to recent developments in the science and technology of x-ray lasers and other coherent x-ray sources with additional focus on supporting technologies, instrumentation and applications.   The book showcases recent advances in the generation of intense, coherent x-rays, the development of practical devices and their applications across a wide variety of fields. It also discusses emerging topics such as plasma-based x-ray lasers, 4th generation accelerator-based sources and higher harmonic generations, as well as other x-ray generation schemes.

  4. X-ray instrumentation for SR beamlines

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalchuk, M V; Zheludeva, S I; Aleshko-Ozhevsky, O P; Arutynyan, E H; Kheiker, D M; Kreines, A Y; Lider, V V; Pashaev, E M; Shilina, N Y; Shishkov, V A

    2000-01-01

    The main possibilities and parameters of experimental X-ray stations are presented: 'Protein crystallography', 'X-ray structure analysis', 'High-precision X-ray optics', 'X-ray crystallography and material science', 'X-ray topography', 'Photoelectron X-ray standing wave' that are being installed at Kurchatov SR source by A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography.

  5. Soft X-ray optics

    CERN Document Server

    Spiller, Eberhard A

    1993-01-01

    This text describes optics mainly in the 10 to 500 angstrom wavelength region. These wavelengths are 50 to 100 times shorter than those for visible light and 50 to 100 times longer than the wavelengths of medical x rays or x-ray diffraction from natural crystals. There have been substantial advances during the last 20 years, which one can see as an extension of optical technology to shorter wavelengths or as an extension of x-ray diffraction to longer wavelengths. Artificial diffracting structures like zone plates and multilayer mirrors are replacing the natural crystals of x-ray diffraction.

  6. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays to pass through them. As a result, bones appear white on the x-ray, soft tissue shows up in shades of gray and air ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnosis and treatment. No radiation remains in a patient's body after an x-ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... widely available in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes and other locations, making it convenient for both patients and physicians. Because x-ray imaging is fast and easy, it is ... Radiation Exposure Special care is taken during x-ray examinations to use ...

  11. Chandra's X-ray Vision

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1999-07-23

    Jul 23, 1999 ... GENERAL I ARTICLE. Chandra's X-ray Vision. K P Singh. Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) is a scientific satellite (moon/ chandra), named after the Indian-born Nobel laureate. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar - one of the foremost astro- physicists of the twentieth century and popularly known as. Chandra.

  12. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation through the ankle, and black and white images of the bones and soft tissues are recorded on a computer or special X-ray film. Dense structures that block the passage of the X-ray beam through the body, such as bones, appear white. Softer body tissues, ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ...

  14. X-Ray Tomographic Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnie Schmittberger

    2010-08-25

    Tomographic scans have revolutionized imaging techniques used in medical and biological research by resolving individual sample slices instead of several superimposed images that are obtained from regular x-ray scans. X-Ray fluorescence computed tomography, a more specific tomography technique, bombards the sample with synchrotron x-rays and detects the fluorescent photons emitted from the sample. However, since x-rays are attenuated as they pass through the sample, tomographic scans often produce images with erroneous low densities in areas where the x-rays have already passed through most of the sample. To correct for this and correctly reconstruct the data in order to obtain the most accurate images, a program employing iterative methods based on the inverse Radon transform was written. Applying this reconstruction method to a tomographic image recovered some of the lost densities, providing a more accurate image from which element concentrations and internal structure can be determined.

  15. Demonstration of Laser Plasma X-Ray Source with X-Ray Collimator Final Report CRADA No. TC-1564-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, S. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Forber, R. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-28

    This collaborative effort between the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and JMAR Research, Inc. (JRI), was to demonstrate that LLNL x-ray collimators can effectively increase the wafer throughput of JRI's laser based x-ray lithography systems. The technical objectives were expected to be achieved by completion of the following tasks, which are separated into two task lists by funding source. The organization (LLNL or JMAR) having primary responsibility is given parenthetically for each task.

  16. X-ray laser `` oscillator-amplifier`` experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimkaveg, G.M.; Carter, M.R.; Young, B.K.F.; Walling, R.S.; Osterheld, A.L.; Trebes, J.E.; London, R.A.; Ratowsky, R.P.; Stewart, R.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Craxton, R.S. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics

    1993-03-19

    We present results from experiments directed toward increasing the degree of transverse coherence in x-ray laser beams. We have concentrated on the neon-like yttrium (Z=39) collisionally-pumped x-ray laser as the test system for these studies because of its unique combination of brightness, monochromaticity, and high-reflectivity optics availability. Attempts at improving laser performance using proximate feedback optics failed. Modest success has been found to date in ``double foil`` experiments, involving two x-ray lasers spatially separated by 29 cm and shot sequentially in an ``oscillator-amplifier`` configuration.

  17. Nanofabrication of Diffractive Soft X-ray Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblom, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    This thesis summarizes the present status of the nanofabrication of diffractive optics, i.e. zone plates, and test objects for soft x-ray microscopy at KTH. The emphasis is on new and improved fabrication processes for nickel and germanium zone plates. A new concept in which nickel and germanium are combined in a zone plate is also presented. The main techniques used in the fabrication are electron beam lithography for the patterning, followed by plasma etching and electroplating for the stru...

  18. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  19. Multilayer on-chip stacked Fresnel zone plates: Hard x-ray fabrication and soft x-ray simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kenan; Wojcik, Michael J.; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Jacobsen, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Fresnel zone plates are widely used as x-ray nanofocusing optics. To achieve high spatial resolution combined with good focusing efficiency, high aspect ratio nanolithography is required, and one way to achieve that is through multiple e-beam lithography writing steps to achieve on-chip stacking. A two-step writing process producing 50 nm finest zone width at a zone thickness of 1.14 µm for possible hard x-ray applications is shown here. The authors also consider in simulations the case of soft x-ray focusing where the zone thickness might exceed the depth of focus. In this case, the authors compare on-chip stacking with, and without, adjustment of zone positions and show that the offset zones lead to improved focusing efficiency. The simulations were carried out using a multislice propagation method employing Hankel transforms.

  20. X-Ray Optics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-20

    OF FUNDING NUMBERS Building 410 PORM POET TS OKUI Bolig FBDC2032648ELEMENT NO. NO. NO ACCESiON NO 11. TITLE (include Security Classification) X - Ray Optics Research...by block number) This report describes work conducted during the period I October 1987 through 30 April 1990, under Contract AFOSR-88-00l0, " X - Ray Optics Research...growth and structure of multilayer interfaces. This capability is central to the development of future materials for multilayer x - ray optics , because

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is ... code: Phone no: Thank you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  2. X-Ray Assembler Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of any bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, ... to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation ... x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or joint dislocation. Bone ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken to the patient in a hospital ... so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones ... x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special ... to 10 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ... emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes and other locations, making it convenient for both ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray tube is connected to ... equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician , who ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, ... CT Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... here Images × Image Gallery Radiological technologist preparing to take an arm x-ray on a patient. View ... and/or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in evaluating the hips of children with congenital problems. top of page This page was reviewed on ... Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... white on the x-ray, soft tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. ... who will discuss the results with you. Follow-up examinations may be necessary. Your doctor will explain ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the baby. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a large photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images ... and places the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were ... imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning devices will be used to help you maintain the ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is ... a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the body. X-rays ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses ... to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or joint dislocation. Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... is used to: diagnose fractured bones or joint dislocation. demonstrate proper alignment and stabilization of bony fragments ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. ... appliances, eye glasses and any metal objects or clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft ... frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... radiation dose for this procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the ... individual patient's condition. Ultrasound imaging, which uses sound waves instead of ionizing radiation to create diagnostic images, ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is ... taking our brief survey: Survey Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ... radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or joint dislocation. Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... information you were looking for? Yes No Please type your comment or suggestion into the following text ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg ( ... x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is extended over the patient while an ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pass through them. As a result, bones appear white on the x-ray, soft tissue shows up ... for a physician to view and assess bone injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may also be asked to remove jewelry, removable dental appliances, eye glasses and any metal objects or clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and ...

  2. X-ray fluorescence holography

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a new structural analysis method of determining a 3D atomic arrangement around fluorescing atoms. We developed an XFH apparatus using advanced X-ray techniques and succeeded in obtaining high-quality hologram data. Furthermore, we introduced applications to the structural analysis of a thin film and the environment around dopants and, discussed the quantitative analysis of local lattice distortion. (author)

  3. Accelerator x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This first book to cover in-depth the generation of x-rays in particle accelerators focuses on electron beams produced by means of the novel Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) technology. The resulting highly brilliant x-rays are at the centre of this monograph, which continues where other books on the market stop. Written primarily for general, high energy and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers.

  4. Why Do I Need X-Rays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child at Risk for Early Childhood Tooth Decay? Pacifiers Have Negative and Positive Effects The History of ... Sets the Record Straight on Dental X-Rays Types of X-Rays X-Rays Help Predict Permanent ...

  5. Soft x-ray excitonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulet, A.; Bertrand, J. B.; Klostermann, T.; Guggenmos, A.; Karpowicz, N.; Goulielmakis, E.

    2017-09-01

    The dynamic response of excitons in solids is central to modern condensed-phase physics, material sciences, and photonic technologies. However, study and control have hitherto been limited to photon energies lower than the fundamental band gap. Here we report application of attosecond soft x-ray and attosecond optical pulses to study the dynamics of core-excitons at the L2,3 edge of Si in silicon dioxide (SiO2). This attosecond x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (AXANES) technique enables direct probing of the excitons’ quasiparticle character, tracking of their subfemtosecond relaxation, the measurement of excitonic polarizability, and observation of dark core-excitonic states. Direct measurement and control of core-excitons in solids lay the foundation of x-ray excitonics.

  6. X-ray tensor tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, A.; Potdevin, G.; Biernath, T.; Eggl, E.; Willer, K.; Lasser, T.; Maisenbacher, J.; Gibmeier, J.; Wanner, A.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-02-01

    Here we introduce a new concept for x-ray computed tomography that yields information about the local micro-morphology and its orientation in each voxel of the reconstructed 3D tomogram. Contrary to conventional x-ray CT, which only reconstructs a single scalar value for each point in the 3D image, our approach provides a full scattering tensor with multiple independent structural parameters in each volume element. In the application example shown in this study, we highlight that our method can visualize sub-pixel fiber orientations in a carbon composite sample, hence demonstrating its value for non-destructive testing applications. Moreover, as the method is based on the use of a conventional x-ray tube, we believe that it will also have a great impact in the wider range of material science investigations and in future medical diagnostics. The authors declare no competing financial interests.

  7. X-ray Optics for BES Light Source Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Dennis [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Padmore, Howard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lessner, Eliane [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science

    2013-03-27

    Each new generation of synchrotron radiation sources has delivered an increase in average brightness 2 to 3 orders of magnitude over the previous generation. The next evolution toward diffraction-limited storage rings will deliver another 3 orders of magnitude increase. For ultrafast experiments, free electron lasers (FELs) deliver 10 orders of magnitude higher peak brightness than storage rings. Our ability to utilize these ultrabright sources, however, is limited by our ability to focus, monochromate, and manipulate these beams with X-ray optics. X-ray optics technology unfortunately lags behind source technology and limits our ability to maximally utilize even today’s X-ray sources. With ever more powerful X-ray sources on the horizon, a new generation of X-ray optics must be developed that will allow us to fully utilize these beams of unprecedented brightness. The increasing brightness of X-ray sources will enable a new generation of measurements that could have revolutionary impact across a broad area of science, if optical systems necessary for transporting and analyzing X-rays can be perfected. The high coherent flux will facilitate new science utilizing techniques in imaging, dynamics, and ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy. For example, zone-plate-based hard X-ray microscopes are presently used to look deeply into materials, but today’s resolution and contrast are restricted by limitations of the current lithography used to manufacture nanodiffractive optics. The large penetration length, combined in principle with very high spatial resolution, is an ideal probe of hierarchically ordered mesoscale materials, if zone-plate focusing systems can be improved. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) probes a wide range of excitations in materials, from charge-transfer processes to the very soft excitations that cause the collective phenomena in correlated electronic systems. However, although RIXS can probe high-energy excitations, the most exciting and

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dislocations. In elderly or patients with osteoporosis, a hip fracture may be clearly seen on a CT scan, while it may be barely seen, if at all, on a hip x-ray. For suspected spine injury or other ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different ... This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation ... x-ray images are among the clearest, most detailed views of ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... may be placed over your pelvic area or breasts when feasible to protect from ... chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit ...

  13. Stellar X-Ray Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, J.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the stellar end-state black holes, pulsars, and white dwarfs that are X-ray sources should have polarized X-ray fluxes. The degree will depend on the relative contributions of the unresolved structures. Fluxes from accretion disks and accretion disk corona may be polarized by scattering. Beams and jets may have contributions of polarized emission in strong magnetic fields. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) will study the effects on polarization of strong gravity of black holes and strong magnetism of neutron stars. Some part of the flux from compact stars accreting from companion stars has been reflected from the companion, its wind, or accretion streams. Polarization of this component is a potential tool for studying the structure of the gas in these binary systems. Polarization due to scattering can also be present in X-ray emission from white dwarf binaries and binary normal stars such as RS CVn stars and colliding wind sources like Eta Car. Normal late type stars may have polarized flux from coronal flares. But X-ray polarization sensitivity is not at the level needed for single early type stars.

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or joint dislocation. Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest way for your doctor ... shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the ... bones or joint dislocation. demonstrate proper alignment and stabilization of bony ...

  15. X-rays and magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-09-01

    Magnetism is among the most active and attractive areas in modern solid state physics because of intriguing phenomena interesting to fundamental research and a manifold of technological applications. State-of-the-art synthesis of advanced magnetic materials, e.g. in hybrid structures paves the way to new functionalities. To characterize modern magnetic materials and the associated magnetic phenomena, polarized x-rays have emerged as unique probes due to their specific interaction with magnetic materials. A large variety of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed to quantify in an element, valence and site-sensitive way properties of ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic systems, such as spin and orbital moments, and to image nanoscale spin textures and their dynamics with sub-ns time and almost 10 nm spatial resolution. The enormous intensity of x-rays and their degree of coherence at next generation x-ray facilities will open the fsec time window to magnetic studies addressing fundamental time scales in magnetism with nanometer spatial resolution. This review will give an introduction into contemporary topics of nanoscale magnetic materials and provide an overview of analytical spectroscopy and microscopy tools based on x-ray dichroism effects. Selected examples of current research will demonstrate the potential and future directions of these techniques.

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media ... Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluated). MRI can also detect subtle or occult fractures or bone bruises (also called bone contusions or microfractures) not visible on x-ray images. CT is being used widely to assess trauma patients in ... fractures, subtle fractures or dislocations. In elderly or patients ...

  19. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pelvis and an image is recorded on special film or a computer. This image shows the bones of the pelvis, which include the two hip bones, plus the sacrum and the coccyx (tailbone). The X-ray image is black and white. Dense body parts that block the passage of the X- ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... any possibility that they are pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing ... imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... way for your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little ... way for a physician to view and assess bone injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a physician to view and assess bone injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes and other locations, making it ...

  3. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, F.M.F. de

    2000-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption

  4. A simple X-ray emitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hiroaki; Ono, Ryoichi; Hirai, Atsuhiko; Hosokawa, Yoshinori; Kawai, Jun

    2005-07-01

    A compact X-ray emission instrument is made, and the X-ray spectra are measured by changing the applied electric potential. Strong soft X-rays are observed when evacuating roughly and applying a high voltage to an insulator settled in this device. The X-ray intensity is higher as the applied voltage is increased. A light-emitting phenomenon is observed when this device emits X-rays. The present X-ray emitter is made of a small cylinder with a radius of 20 mm and a height of 50 mm. This X-ray generator has a potential to be used as an X-ray source in an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.

  5. Effective X-ray beam size measurements of an X-ray tube and polycapillary X-ray lens system using a scanning X-ray fluorescence method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gherase, Mihai R., E-mail: mgherase@csufresno.edu; Vargas, Andres Felipe

    2017-03-15

    Size measurements of an X-ray beam produced by an integrated polycapillary X-ray lens (PXL) and X-ray tube system were performed by means of a scanning X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) method using three different metallic wires. The beam size was obtained by fitting the SXRF data with the analytical convolution between a Gaussian and a constant functions. For each chemical element in the wire an effective energy was calculated based on the incident X-ray spectrum and its photoelectric cross section. The proposed method can be used to measure the effective X-ray beam size in XRF microscopy studies.

  6. Diffractive X-ray Telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, Gerald K

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution several orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted space- time in the immediate vicinity of the super...

  7. Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-10-26

    An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

  8. Center for X-ray Optics, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    This report briefly reviews the following topics: soft-x-ray imaging; reflective optics for hard x-rays; coherent XUV sources; spectroscopy with x-rays; detectors for coronary artery imaging; synchrotron-radiation optics; and support for the advanced light source.

  9. X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis What's in this article? What It Is Why ... You Have Questions Print What It Is A scoliosis X-ray is a relatively safe and painless ...

  10. Techniques in X-ray Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ray telescopes in space, leading to a veritable revolution. Stich telescopes require distortion free focusing of X-rays and the use of position sensitive X- ray detectors. In this article I shall describe the importance of X-ray imaging, the optical ...

  11. Method for spatially modulating X-ray pulses using MEMS-based X-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel; Shenoy, Gopal; Wang, Jin; Walko, Donald A.; Jung, Il-Woong; Mukhopadhyay, Deepkishore

    2015-03-10

    A method and apparatus are provided for spatially modulating X-rays or X-ray pulses using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based X-ray optics. A torsionally-oscillating MEMS micromirror and a method of leveraging the grazing-angle reflection property are provided to modulate X-ray pulses with a high-degree of controllability.

  12. NIKOLA TESLA AND THE X-RAY

    OpenAIRE

    Rade R. Babic

    2005-01-01

    After professor Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen published his study of an x-ray discovery (Academy Bulletin, Berlin, 08. 11. 1895.), Nikola Tesla published his first study of an x-ray on the 11th of March in 1896. (X-ray, Electrical Review). Until the 11th of August in 1897 he had published ten studies on this subject. All Tesla,s x-ray studies were experimental, which is specific to his work. Studying the nature of the x-ray, he established a new medical branch-radiology. He wrote:” There’s no doubt...

  13. X-ray Spectroscopy of Cooling Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.R.; /SLAC; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.

    2006-01-17

    We review the X-ray spectra of the cores of clusters of galaxies. Recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations have demonstrated a severe deficit of emission at the lowest X-ray temperatures as compared to that expected from simple radiative cooling models. The same observations have provided compelling evidence that the gas in the cores is cooling below half the maximum temperature. We review these results, discuss physical models of cooling clusters, and describe the X-ray instrumentation and analysis techniques used to make these observations. We discuss several viable mechanisms designed to cancel or distort the expected process of X-ray cluster cooling.

  14. Toward active x-ray telescopes II

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Lillie, Charles F.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Ulmer, Melville P.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2012-10-01

    In the half century since the initial discovery of an astronomical (non-solar) x-ray source, the observation time required to achieve a given sensitivity has decreased by eight orders of magnitude. Largely responsible for this dramatic progress has been the refinement of the (grazing-incidence) focusing x-ray telescope, culminating with the exquisite subarcsecond imaging performance of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The future of x-ray astronomy relies upon the development of x-ray telescopes with larger aperture areas (technologically challenging—requiring precision fabrication, alignment, and assembly of large areas (x-ray optics. This paper discusses relevant programmatic and technological issues and summarizes current progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  15. On stellar X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, R.; Golub, L.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    Stellar X-ray astronomy represents an entirely new astronomical discipline which has emerged during the past five years. It lies at the crossroads of solar physics, stellar physics, and general astrophysics. The present review is concerned with the main physical problems which arise in connection with a study of the stellar X-ray data. A central issue is the extent to which the extrapolation from solar physics is justified and the definition (if possible) of the limits to such extrapolation. The observational properties of X-ray emission from stars are considered along with the solar analogy and the modeling of X-ray emission from late-type stars, the modeling of X-ray emission from early-type stars, the physics of stellar X-ray emission, stellar X-ray emission in the more general astrophysical context, and future prospects.

  16. X-ray imaging microscope with a partial coherent illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akihisa; Takano, Hidekazu; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2001-12-01

    An x-ray imaging microscopy experiment was performed at the x-ray energy of 8 keV. A Fresnel zone plate (FZP) fabricated by electron-beam lithography technique was used as an objective. Material of the zone structure is tantalum. The experiment was done at the undulator beamline BL47XU of Spring-8. Undulator radiation was monochromatized by passing through a liquid nitrogen cooled Si 111 double crystal monochromator. In order to eliminate speckle-like background noise, a partial coherent illumination was introduced by using a beam diffuser consisted of graphite powder. Beam spread of the illumination with the diffuser was about 35 (mu) rad. A charge coupled device (CCD) camera coupled with a phosphor screen and a microscope objective (x 12 or x 24) was used as an image detector. Converted pixel size with the x 24 lens was 0.5micrometers . Magnification of the x-ray microscope system was set to be 7.61-13. Pitch of 0.6micrometers (0.3 micrometers line and 0.3micrometers space) pattern of the test chart was resolved, and the outermost zone structure of the same type of FZP was observed. Imaging properties are also discussed by using Hopkins optical imaging theory.

  17. Simulation and experimental study of aspect ratio limitation in Fresnel zone plates for hard-x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianpeng; Shao, Jinhai; Zhang, Sichao; Ma, Yaqi; Taksatorn, Nit; Mao, Chengwen; Chen, Yifang; Deng, Biao; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2015-11-10

    For acquiring high-contrast and high-brightness images in hard-x-ray optics, Fresnel zone plates with high aspect ratios (zone height/zone width) have been constantly pursued. However, knowledge of aspect ratio limits remains limited. This work explores the achievable aspect ratio limit in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) by electron-beam lithography (EBL) under 100 keV, and investigates the lithographic factors for this limitation. Both Monte Carlo simulation and EBL on thick PMMA are applied to investigate the profile evolution with exposure doses over 100 nm wide dense zones. A high-resolution scanning electron microscope at low acceleration mode for charging free is applied to characterize the resultant zone profiles. It was discovered for what we believe is the first time that the primary electron-beam spreading in PMMA and the proximity effect due to extra exposure from neighboring areas could be the major causes of limiting the aspect ratio. Using the optimized lithography condition, a 100 nm zone plate with aspect ratio of 15/1 was fabricated and its focusing property was characterized at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The aspect ratio limit found in this work should be extremely useful for guiding further technical development in nanofabrication of high-quality Fresnel zone plates.

  18. Full-field transmission x-ray imaging with confocal polycapillary x-ray optics

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Tianxi; MacDonald, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    A transmission x-ray imaging setup based on a confocal combination of a polycapillary focusing x-ray optic followed by a polycapillary collimating x-ray optic was designed and demonstrated to have good resolution, better than the unmagnified pixel size and unlimited by the x-ray tube spot size. This imaging setup has potential application in x-ray imaging for small samples, for example, for histology specimens.

  19. Full-field transmission x-ray imaging with confocal polycapillary x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianxi; Macdonald, C A

    2013-02-07

    A transmission x-ray imaging setup based on a confocal combination of a polycapillary focusing x-ray optic followed by a polycapillary collimating x-ray optic was designed and demonstrated to have good resolution, better than the unmagnified pixel size and unlimited by the x-ray tube spot size. This imaging setup has potential application in x-ray imaging for small samples, for example, for histology specimens.

  20. Workshop on compact storage ring technology: applications to lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-30

    Project planning in the area of x-ray lithography is discussed. Three technologies that are emphasized are the light source, the lithographic technology, and masking technology. The needs of the semiconductor industry in the lithography area during the next decade are discussed, particularly as regards large scale production of high density dynamic random access memory devices. Storage ring parameters and an overall exposure tool for x-ray lithography are addressed. Competition in this area of technology from Germany and Japan is discussed briefly. The design of a storage ring is considered, including lattice design, magnets, and beam injection systems. (LEW)

  1. CD error caused by aberration and its possible compensation by optical proximity correction in extreme-ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeong-Gu; Kim, In-Seon; Kim, Guk-Jin; No, Hee-Ra; Kim, Byung-Hun; Oh, Hye-Keun

    2017-03-01

    There has been reports of EUV scanner aberration effects to the patterns down to 18 nm half-pitch (hp). Maximum aberration of the latest EUV scanner is reported as 25 mλ. We believe that the first EUV mass production will be applied to the devices of 16 nm hp, so that we checked the aberration effects on 16 nm periodic line and space patterns and nonperiodic double and five-bar patterns. Coma aberrations of Z7, Z8, Z14 and Z15 Zernike polynomials (ZP) seems to be the dominant ones that make pattern distortion. Non-negligible critical dimension (CD) variation and position shift are obtained with the reported maximum 25 mλ of coma aberration. Optical proximity correction (OPC) is tried to see if this aberration effects can be minimized, so that we can make the desired patterns even though there is a non-correctable scanner aberration.

  2. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Gerald K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes, using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution many orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the super-massive black holes in the center of active galaxies. What then is precluding their immediate adoption? Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history, and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed.

  3. The X-ray corona of Procyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Rosner, R.; Peres, G.; Serio, S.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray emission from the nearby system Procyon A/B (F5 IV + DF) was detected, using the IPC (Imaging Proportional Counter) on board the Einstein Observatory. Analysis of the X-ray pulse height spectrum suggests that the observed X-ray emission originates in Procyon A rather than in the white dwarf companion Procyon B, since the derived X-ray temperature, log T = 6.2, agrees well with temperatures found for quiescent solar X-ray emission. Modeling Procyon's corona with loops characterized by some apex temperature Tmax and emission length scale L, it is found that Tmax is well constrained, but L, and consequently the filling factor of the X-ray emitting gas, are essentially unconstrained even when EUV emission from the transition region is included in the analysis.

  4. Handbook of X-Ray Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zschornack, Günter

    2007-01-01

    This sourcebook is intended as an X-ray data reference for scientists and engineers working in the field of energy or wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry and related fields of basic and applied research, technology, or process and quality controlling. In a concise and informative manner, the most important data connected with the emission of characteristic X-ray lines are tabulated for all elements up to Z = 95 (Americium). This includes X-ray energies, emission rates and widths as well as level characteristics such as binding energies, fluorescence yields, level widths and absorption edges. The tabulated data are characterized and, in most cases, evaluated. Furthermore, all important processes and phenomena connected with the production, emission and detection of characteristic X-rays are discussed. This reference book addresses all researchers and practitioners working with X-ray radiation and fills a gap in the available literature.

  5. X-ray microdiffraction of biominerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Nobumichi; Gilbert, Pupa U P A

    2013-01-01

    Biominerals have complex and heterogeneous architectures, hence diffraction experiments with spatial resolutions between 500 nm and 10 μm are extremely useful to characterize them. X-ray beams in this size range are now routinely produced at many synchrotrons. This chapter provides a review of the different hard X-ray diffraction and scattering techniques, used in conjunction with efficient, state-of-the-art X-ray focusing optics. These include monochromatic X-ray microdiffraction, polychromatic (Laue) X-ray microdiffraction, and microbeam small-angle X-ray scattering. We present some of the most relevant discoveries made in the field of biomineralization using these approaches. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation safety in X-ray facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The guide specifies the radiation safety requirements for structural shielding and other safety arrangements used in X-ray facilities in medical and veterinary X-ray activities and in industry, research and education. The guide is also applicable to premises in which X-ray equipment intended for radiation therapy and operating at a voltage of less than 25 kV is used. The guide applies to new X-ray facilities in which X-ray equipment that has been used elsewhere is transferred. The radiation safety requirements for radiation therapy X-ray devices operating at a voltage exceeding 25 kV, and for the premices in which such devices are used, are set out in Guide ST 2.2.

  7. Handbook of X-ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Keith; Smith, Randall; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Ellis, Richard; Huchra, John; Kahn, Steve; Rieke, George; Stetson, Peter B.

    2011-11-01

    Practical guide to X-ray astronomy for graduate students, professional astronomers and researchers. Presenting X-ray optics, basic detector physics and data analysis. It introduces the reduction and calibration of X-ray data, scientific analysis, archives, statistical issues and the particular problems of highly extended sources. The appendices provide reference material often required during data analysis. The handbook web page contains figures and tables: http://xrayastronomyhandbook.com/

  8. Sandia Mark II X-Ray System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, L.W.

    1979-11-01

    The Sandia Mark II X-Ray System was designed and developed to provide an intense source of mononergetic, ultra-soft x rays with energies between 0.282 and 1.486 keV. The x-ray tube design is similar to one developed by B.L. Henke and incorporates modifications made by Tom Ellsberry. An operations manual section is incorporated to help the experimenter/operator.

  9. X-ray data booklet. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, D. (ed.)

    1986-04-01

    A compilation of data is presented. Included are properties of the elements, electron binding energies, characteristic x-ray energies, fluorescence yields for K and L shells, Auger energies, energy levels for hydrogen-, helium-, and neonlike ions, scattering factors and mass absorption coefficients, and transmission bands of selected filters. Also included are selected reprints on scattering processes, x-ray sources, optics, x-ray detectors, and synchrotron radiation facilities. (WRF)

  10. Superconductive tunnel junctions for X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Korte, P. A. J.; van den Berg, M. L.; Bruijn, M. P.; Frericks, M.; Le Grand, J. B.; Gijsbertsen, J. G.; Houwman, E. P.; Flokstra, J.

    1992-10-01

    Superconductive tunnel junctions are under development as detectors for X-ray astronomy in the 0.5 - 10 keV energy range, because of their potentially high energy resolution in combination with high detection efficiency. Absorber-junction combinations offer the prospect of high energy resolution detectors with a high detection efficiency and a reasonable (about 1/sq cm) size. The proximity effect between the Nb absorber and the Al trapping layer plays a dominant role. A study of the proximity effect in Nb/Al/Al2O3/Al/Nb junctions with different Al-layer, the trapping layer, thicknesses is presented.

  11. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, G. J. M.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Mukai, K.; Nelson, T.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, symbiotic binary systems in which a white dwarf accretes from a red giant were thought to be mainly a soft X-ray population. Here we describe the detection with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Swift satellite of 9 white dwarf symbiotics that were not previously known to be X-ray sources and one that was previously detected as a supersoft X-ray source. The 9 new X-ray detections were the result of a survey of 41 symbiotic stars, and they increase the number of symbiotic stars known to be X-ray sources by approximately 30%. Swift/XRT detected all of the new X-ray sources at energies greater than 2 keV. Their X-ray spectra are consistent with thermal emission and fall naturally into three distinct groups. The first group contains those sources with a single, highly absorbed hard component, which we identify as probably coming from an accretion-disk boundary layer. The second group is composed of those sources with a single, soft X-ray spectral component, which likely arises in a region where low-velocity shocks produce X-ray emission, i.e. a colliding-wind region. The third group consists of those sources with both hard and soft X-ray spectral components. We also find that unlike in the optical, where rapid, stochastic brightness variations from the accretion disk typically are not seen, detectable UV flickering is a common property of symbiotic stars. Supporting our physical interpretation of the two X-ray spectral components, simultaneous Swift UV photometry shows that symbiotic stars with harder X-ray emission tend to have stronger UV flickering, which is usually associated with accretion through a disk. To place these new observations in the context of previous work on X-ray emission from symbiotic stars, we modified and extended the alpha/beta/gamma classification scheme for symbiotic-star X-ray spectra that was introduced by Muerset et al. based upon observations with the ROSAT satellite, to include a new sigma classification for sources with

  12. Ultrashort X-ray pulse science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Alan Hap [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US). Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    A variety of phenomena involves atomic motion on the femtosecond time-scale. These phenomena have been studied using ultrashort optical pulses, which indirectly probe atomic positions through changes in optical properties. Because x-rays can more directly probe atomic positions, ultrashort x-ray pulses are better suited for the study of ultrafast structural dynamics. One approach towards generating ultrashort x-ray pulses is by 90° Thomson scattering between terawatt laser pulses and relativistic electrons. Using this technique, the author generated ~ 300 fs, 30 keV (0.4 Å) x-ray pulses. These x-ray pulses are absolutely synchronized with ultrashort laser pulses, allowing femtosecond optical pump/x-ray probe experiments to be performed. Using the right-angle Thomson scattering x-ray source, the author performed time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies of laser-perturbated InSb. These experiments revealed a delayed onset of lattice expansion. This delay is due to the energy relaxation from a dense electron-hole plasma to the lattice. The dense electron-hole plasma first undergoes Auger recombination, which reduces the carrier concentration while maintaining energy content. Longitudinal-optic (LO) phonon emission then couples energy to the lattice. LO phonon decay into acoustic phonons, and acoustic phonon propagation then causes the growth of a thermally expanded layer. Source characterization is instrumental in utilizing ultrashort x-ray pulses in time-resolved x-ray spectroscopies. By measurement of the electron beam diameter at the generation point, the pulse duration of the Thomson scattered x-rays is determined. Analysis of the Thomson scattered x-ray beam properties also provides a novel means of electron bunch characterization. Although the pulse duration is inferred for the Thomson scattering x-ray source, direct measurement is required for other x-ray pulse sources. A method based on the laser-assisted photoelectric effect (LAPE) has been demonstrated as a

  13. X-ray Observations at Gaisberg Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasan Hettiarachchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the occurrence of X-rays at ground level due to cloud-to-ground flashes of upward-initiated lightning from Gaisberg Tower, in Austria, which is located at an altitude of 1300 m. This is the first observation of X-ray emissions from upward lightning from a tower top located at high altitude. Measurements were carried out using scintillation detectors installed close to the tower top in two phases from 2011 to 2015. X-rays were recorded in three subsequent strokes of three flashes out of the total of 108 flashes recorded in the system during both phases. In contrast to the observations from downward natural or triggered lightning, X-rays were observed only within 10 µs before the subsequent return stroke. This shows that X-rays were emitted when the dart leader was in the vicinity of the tower top, hence during the most intense phase of the dart leader. Both the detected energy and the fluence of X-rays are far lower compared to X-rays from downward natural or rocket-triggered lightning. In addition to the above 108 flashes, an interesting observation of X-rays produced by a nearby downward flash is also presented. The shorter length of dart-leader channels in Gaisberg is suggested as a possible cause of this apparently weaker X-ray production.

  14. X-ray laser microscope apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckewer, Szymon; DiCicco, Darrell S.; Hirschberg, Joseph G.; Meixler, Lewis D.; Sathre, Robert; Skinner, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    A microscope consisting of an x-ray contact microscope and an optical microscope. The optical, phase contrast, microscope is used to align a target with respect to a source of soft x-rays. The source of soft x-rays preferably comprises an x-ray laser but could comprise a synchrotron or other pulse source of x-rays. Transparent resist material is used to support the target. The optical microscope is located on the opposite side of the transparent resist material from the target and is employed to align the target with respect to the anticipated soft x-ray laser beam. After alignment with the use of the optical microscope, the target is exposed to the soft x-ray laser beam. The x-ray sensitive transparent resist material whose chemical bonds are altered by the x-ray beam passing through the target mater GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS This invention was made with government support under Contract No. De-FG02-86ER13609 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  15. Detector development for x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, M. A.; Herr, D. A.; Brewer, K. J.; Ojason, N.; Tarpine, H. A.

    2010-02-01

    X-ray imaging requires unique optical detector system configuration for optimization of image quality, resolution, and contrast ratio. A system is described whereby x-ray photons from multiple anode sources create a series of repetitive images on fast-decay scintillator screens, from which an intensified image is transferred to a fast phosphor on a GEN II image intensifier and collected as a cineradiographic video with high speed digital imagery. The work addresses scintillator material formulation, flash x-ray implementation, image intensification, and high speed video processing and display. Novel determination of optimal scintillator absorption, x-ray energy and dose relationships, contrast ratio determination, and test results are presented.

  16. X-ray Observations of "Recycled" Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Slavko

    2014-11-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory has been instrumental in establishing the X-ray properties of the Galactic population of rotation-powered ("recycled") millisecond pulsars. In this talk I will provide a summary of deep X-ray studies of globular cluster millisecond pulsars, as well as several nearby field millisecond pulsars. These include thermally-emitting recycled pulsars that may provide stringent constraints on the elusive neutron star equation of state, and so-called "redback" binary pulsars, which seem to sporadically revert to an X-ray binary-like state.

  17. X-ray spectrometry using polycapillary X-ray optics and position sensitive detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, X; Xie, J; He, Y; Pan, Q; Yan, Y

    2000-10-02

    Polycapillary X-ray optics (capillary X-ray lens) are now popular in X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Such an X-ray lens can collect X-rays emitted from an X-ray source in a large solid angle and form a very intense X-ray microbeam which is very convenient for microbeam X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) analysis giving low minimum detection limits (MDLs) in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). A new method called position sensitive X-ray spectrometry (PSXS) which combines an X-ray lens used to form an intense XRF source and a position sensitive detector (PSD) used for wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS) measurement was developed recently in the X-ray Optics Laboratory of Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics (ILENP) at Beijing Normal University. Such a method can give high energy and spacial resolution and high detection efficiency simultaneously. A short view of development of both the EDXRF using a capillary X-ray lens and the new PSXS is given in this paper.

  18. Diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses using MEMS-based X-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel; Shenoy, Gopal; Wang, Jin; Walko, Donald A.; Jung, Il-Woong; Mukhopadhyay, Deepkishore

    2016-08-09

    A method and apparatus are provided for implementing Bragg-diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses using MicroElectroMechanical systems (MEMS) based diffractive optics. An oscillating crystalline MEMS device generates a controllable time-window for diffraction of the incident X-ray radiation. The Bragg-diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses includes isolating a particular pulse, spatially separating individual pulses, and spreading a single pulse from an X-ray pulse-train.

  19. X-ray Emission from Solar Flares

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS), the first space-borne solar astronomy experiment of India was designed to improve our current understanding of X-ray emission from the Sun in general and solar flares in particular. SOXS mission is composed of two solid state detectors, viz., Si and CZT semiconductors ...

  20. Low Energy X-Ray Diagnostics - 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    ray Analysis, 18, 26 (1975). practicA !ity of thermal recording of intense x-rays. 2. R.P. Godwin, Adv. in X-rays Analysis, 19, 533 Many optical...the 15. T. W. Barbee Jr., in "National Science Foundation behavior of LSM dispersion elements. - Twenty Sixth Annual Report for Fiscal Year Extension

  1. Instrumental technique in X-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed review of the development of instruments for X-ray astronomy is given with major emphasis on nonfocusing high-sensitivity counter techniques used to detect cosmic photons in the energy range between 0.20 and 300 keV. The present status of X-ray astronomy is summarized together with significant results of the Uhuru observations, and photon interactions of importance for the detection of X-rays in space are noted. The three principal devices used in X-ray astronomy (proportional, scintillation, and solid-state counters) are described in detail, data-processing systems for these devices are briefly discussed, and the statistics of nuclear counting as applied to X-ray astronomy is outlined analytically. Effects of the near-earth X-ray environment and atmospheric gamma-ray production on X-ray detection by low-orbit satellites are considered. Several contemporary instruments are described (proportional-counter systems, scintillation-counter telescopes, modulation collimators), and X-ray astronomical satellite missions are tabulated.

  2. X-ray Galaxy Clusters & Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettori, Stefano

    2011-09-01

    I present a summary of the four lectures given on these topics: (i) Galaxy Clusters in a cosmological context: an introduction; (ii) Galaxy Clusters in X-ray: how and what we observe, limits and prospects; (iii) X-ray Galaxy Clusters and Cosmology: total mass, gas mass & systematics; (iv) Properties of the ICM: scaling laws and metallicity.

  3. Accelerator-driven X-ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-09

    After an introduction which mentions x-ray tubes and storage rings and gives a brief review of special relativity, the subject is treated under the following topics and subtopics: synchrotron radiation (bending magnet radiation, wiggler radiation, undulator radiation, brightness and brilliance definition, synchrotron radiation facilities), x-ray free-electron lasers (linac-driven X-ray FEL, FEL interactions, self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), SASE self-seeding, fourth-generation light source facilities), and other X-ray sources (energy recovery linacs, Inverse Compton scattering, laser wakefield accelerator driven X-ray sources. In summary, accelerator-based light sources cover the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Synchrotron radiation (bending magnet, wiggler and undulator radiation) has unique properties that can be tailored to the users’ needs: bending magnet and wiggler radiation is broadband, undulator radiation has narrow spectral lines. X-ray FELs are the brightest coherent X-ray sources with high photon flux, femtosecond pulses, full transverse coherence, partial temporal coherence (SASE), and narrow spectral lines with seeding techniques. New developments in electron accelerators and radiation production can potentially lead to more compact sources of coherent X-rays.

  4. The Beginnings of X-ray Crystallography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Those were the days when Science was hovering around the wave–particle duality. William. Henry Bragg was toying with the idea that X-rays are particles and the observation made by Max von Laue that X-rays are diffracted by crystals could indeed lead to the understanding of crystal structures. On the other hand, his son, ...

  5. X-ray Measurements of Black Hole X-ray Binary Source GRS 1915+ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    X-ray Measurements of Black Hole X-ray Binary Source GRS. 1915+105 and the Evolution of Hard X-ray Spectrum. R. K. Manchanda, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005, India,. Received 1999 December 28; accepted 2000 February 9. Abstract. We report the spectral measurement of GRS 1915+105 ...

  6. The X-ray imager on AXO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Kuvvetli, Irfan; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    2001-01-01

    DSRI has initiated a development program of CZT X-ray and gamma-ray detectors employing strip readout techniques. A dramatic improvement of the energy response was found operating the detectors as the so-called drift detectors. For the electronic readout, modern ASIC chips were investigated....... Modular design and the low-power electronics will make large area detectors using the drift strip method feasible. The performance of a prototype CZT system will be presented and discussed. One such detector system has been proposed for future space missions: the X-Ray Imager (XRI) on the Atmospheric X-ray...... Observatory (AXO), which is a mission proposed to the Danish Small Satellite Program and is dedicated to observations of X-ray generating processes in the Earth's atmosphere. Of special interest will be simultaneous optical and X-ray observations of sprites that are flashes appearing directly above an active...

  7. Hybrid scintillators for x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Clifford; Rairden, Richard L.; Betz, Robert A.

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this effort is to improve x-ray absorption and light production while maintaining high spatial resolution in x-ray imaging phosphor screens. Our current target is to improve screen absorption efficiency and screen brightness by factors of 2 or greater over existing screens that have 10-1p/mm resolution. In this program, commercial phosphor screens are combined with highly absorbing, high-resolution scintillating fiber-optic (SFO) face plates to provide a hybrid sensor that exhibits superior spatial resolution, x-ray absorption, and brightness values over the phosphor material alone. These characteristics of hybrid scintillators can be adjusted to meet specific x-ray imaging requirements over a wide range of x-ray energy. This paper discusses the design, fabrication, and testing of a new series of hybrid scintillators.

  8. X-ray modeling for SMILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T.; Wang, C.; Wei, F.; Liu, Z. Q.; Zheng, J.; Yu, X. Z.; Sembay, S.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.

    2016-12-01

    SMILE (Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer) is a novel mission to explore the coupling of the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere system via providing global images of the magnetosphere and aurora. As the X-ray imaging is a brand new technique applied to study the large scale magnetopause, modeling of the solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-ray emissions in the magnetosheath and cusps is vital in various aspects: it helps the design of the Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) on SMILE, selection of satellite orbits, as well as the analysis of expected scientific outcomes. Based on the PPMLR-MHD code, we present the simulation results of the X-ray emissions in geospace during storm time. Both the polar orbit and the Molniya orbit are used. From the X-ray images of the magnetosheath and cusps, the magnetospheric responses to an interplanetary shock and IMF southward turning are analyzed.

  9. High efficiency replicated x-ray optics and fabrication method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Lane, Stephen M.; Hoffman, Donald E.

    2001-01-01

    Replicated x-ray optics are fabricated by sputter deposition of reflecting layers on a super-polished reusable mandrel. The reflecting layers are strengthened by a supporting multilayer that results in stronger stress-relieved reflecting surfaces that do not deform during separation from the mandrel. The supporting multilayer enhances the ability to part the replica from the mandrel without degradation in surface roughness. The reflecting surfaces are comparable in smoothness to the mandrel surface. An outer layer is electrodeposited on the supporting multilayer. A parting layer may be deposited directly on the mandrel before the reflecting surface to facilitate removal of the layered, tubular optic device from the mandrel without deformation. The inner reflecting surface of the shell can be a single layer grazing reflection mirror or a resonant multilayer mirror. The resulting optics can be used in a wide variety of applications, including lithography, microscopy, radiography, tomography, and crystallography.

  10. Nanoscale Imaging Using Coherent and Incoherent Laboratory Based Soft X-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiel, H.; Dehlinger, A.; Janulewicz, K. A.; Jung, R.; Legall, H.; Pratsch, C.; Seim, C.; Tümmler, J.

    Nanoscale imaging of biological samples in the lab as well as mask inspection in extreme ultraviolet lithography near the production line with sub 30 nm resolution require high spectral brightness soft x-ray sources. Laser produced plasma (LPP) sources and plasma based X-ray lasers (XRL) emit soft X-ray radiation in the wavelength region of interest between 2 and 20 nm. Whereas LPP sources easily can be tuned to the so called water window (2.2-4.4 nm) the output of an XRL is restricted to relatively few fixed wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet range. However due to the relatively high degree of coherence the XRL is well suited also for nanoscale imaging using coherent techniques like coherent diffraction imaging or Fourier transform holography.

  11. Debris-free soft x-ray source with gas-puff target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qiliang; Chen, Bo; Gong, Yan; Cao, Jianlin; Lin, Jingquan; Lee, Hongyan

    2001-12-01

    We have been developing a debris-free laser plasma light source with a gas-puff target system whose nozzle is driven by a piezoelectric crystal membrane. The gas-puff target system can utilize gases such as CO2, O2 or some gas mixture according to different experiments. Therefore, in comparison with soft X-ray source using a metal target, after continuously several-hour laser interaction with gas from the gas-puff target system, no evidences show that the light source can produce debris. The debris-free soft X-ray source is prepared for soft X-ray projection lithography research at State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics. Strong emission from CO2, O2 and Kr plasma is observed.

  12. Hybrid Pixel Detectors for gamma/X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzistratis, D.; Theodoratos, G.; Zografos, V.; Kazas, I.; Loukas, D.; Lambropoulos, C. P.

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are made by direct converting high-Z semi-insulating single crystalline material coupled to complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) readout electronics. They are attractive because direct conversion exterminates all the problems of spatial localization related to light diffusion, energy resolution, is far superior from the combination of scintillation crystals and photomultipliers and lithography can be used to pattern electrodes with very fine pitch. We are developing 2-D pixel CMOS ASICs, connect them to pixilated CdTe crystals with the flip chip and bump bonding method and characterize the hybrids. We have designed a series of circuits, whose latest member consists of a 50×25 pixel array with 400um pitch and an embedded controller. In every pixel a full spectroscopic channel with time tagging information has been implemented. The detectors are targeting Compton scatter imaging and they can be used for coded aperture imaging too. Hybridization using CMOS can overcome the limit put on pixel circuit complexity by the use of thin film transistors (TFT) in large flat panels. Hybrid active pixel sensors are used in dental imaging and other applications (e.g. industrial CT etc.). Thus X-ray imaging can benefit from the work done on dynamic range enhancement methods developed initially for visible and infrared CMOS pixel sensors. A 2-D CMOS ASIC with 100um pixel pitch to demonstrate the feasibility of such methods in the context of X-ray imaging has been designed.

  13. Synchrotron x-ray study of multilayers in Laue geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H C; Stephenson, G B; Liu, C; Conley, R; Macrander, A T; Maser, J; Bajt, S; Chapman, H N

    2004-07-21

    Zone plates with depth to zone-width ratios as large as 100 are needed for focusing of hard x-rays. Such high aspect ratios are challenging to produce by lithography. We are investigating the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio linear zone plates by multilayer deposition followed by sectioning. As an initial step in this work, we present a synchrotron x-ray study of constant-period multilayers diffracting in Laue (transmission) geometry. Data are presented from two samples: a 200 period W/Si multilayer with d-spacing of 29 nm, and a 2020 period Mo/Si multilayer with d-spacing of 7 nm. By cutting and polishing we have successfully produced thin cross sections with section depths ranging from 2 to 12 {micro}m. Transverse scattering profiles (rocking curves) across the Bragg reflection exhibit well-defined interference fringes originating from the depth of the sample, in agreement with dynamical diffraction theory for a multilayer in Laue geometry.

  14. X-Ray Background from Early Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    What impact did X-rays from the first binary star systems have on the universe around them? A new study suggests this radiation may have played an important role during the reionization of our universe.Ionizing the UniverseDuring the period of reionization, the universe reverted from being neutral (as it was during recombination, the previous period)to once again being ionized plasma a state it has remained in since then. This transition, which occurred between 150 million and one billion years after the Big Bang (redshift of 6 z 20), was caused by the formation of the first objects energetic enough to reionize the universes neutral hydrogen.ROSAT image of the soft X-ray background throughout the universe. The different colors represent different energy bands: 0.25 keV (red), 0.75 keV (green), 1.5 keV (blue). [NASA/ROSAT Project]Understanding this time period in particular, determining what sources caused the reionization, and what the properties were of the gas strewn throughout the universe during this time is necessary for us to be able to correctly interpret cosmological observations.Conveniently, the universe has provided us with an interesting clue: the large-scale, diffuse X-ray background we observe all around us. What produced these X-rays, and what impact did this radiation have on the intergalactic medium long ago?The First BinariesA team of scientists led by Hao Xu (UC San Diego) has suggested that the very first generation of stars might be an important contributor to these X-rays.This hypothetical first generation, Population III stars, are thought to have formed before and during reionization from large clouds of gas containing virtually no metals. Studies suggest that a large fraction of Pop III stars formed in binaries and when those stars ended their lives as black holes, ensuing accretion from their companions could produceX-ray radiation.The evolution with redshift of the mean X-ray background intensities. Each curve represents a different

  15. Toward Adaptive X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Tim W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peer; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (less than 1 inch) optics with very-large-aperture (greater than 25 square meter) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the surface areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kilogram per square meter or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve adaptive (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, adaptive optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States, and the Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom. This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward adaptive x-ray telescopes.

  16. Multiple beam x-ray diffraction tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kewish, C.M.; Davis, J.R.; Coyle, R.A. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Department of Physics

    1999-12-01

    Full text: X-ray diffraction computed tomography (XDT) is an imaging modality that utilises scattered x-rays to reconstruct an image. Since its inception in 1985, various detection scenarios and imaging techniques have been developed to demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of XDT. Many of the previous methods for measuring the scattered x-rays from an object utilise detectors that accept x-rays scattered from the entire length of the raypath through the object. The detector apertures must therefore have dimensions similar to the largest width of the scanned object. This creates a situation where the detected x-rays are not derived from a single scattering angle. A new method of scanning the x-rays scattered from an object is presented which allows quantitative determination of the spatial distribution of differential scattering cross section within a cross-sectional plane of the object. The new method incorporates a position sensitive detector and an arrangement of Soller slits. The acquired data represents both spatial and angular information. For each raypath through the object, a partial diffraction projection is measured at the off-axis detector and a set of diffraction projections is assembled by combining the diffracted signal from all rays through the object. A reconstruction strategy that accounts for attenuation of the primary beam and the scattered beam allows us to reconstruct a map of the differential scattering cross section in the sample for a given angle. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc. 3 refs.

  17. X- rays and matter- the basic interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    In this introductory article we attempt to provide the theoretical basis for developing the interaction between X-rays and matter, so that one can unravel properties of matter by interpretation of X-ray experiments on samples. We emphasize that we are dealing with the basics, which means that we...... shall limit ourselves to a discussion of the interaction of an X-ray photon with an isolated atom, or rather with a single electron in a Hartree-Fock atom. Subsequent articles in this issue deal with more complicated - and interesting - forms of matter encompassing many atoms or molecules. To cite...

  18. X-ray Emission from Millisecond Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavlin, Vyacheslav

    2006-01-01

    Isolated (solitary or non-accreting) millisecond pulsars with observed X-ray emission can be divided in two distinct groups: those emitting nonthermal (magnetospheric) radiation and pulsars with the bulk of X-rays of a thermal origin, presumably emitted from small hot spots around the magnetic poles on the neutron star surface (polar caps). I will discuss properties of X-ray emission detected with Chandra and XMM-Newton from a number of millisecond pulsars, with emphasis on those of the thermal component, and compare them with predictions of radio pulsar models.

  19. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  20. Materials for refractive x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, M W

    1997-01-01

    An X-ray lens using refraction has been proposed by Tomie, and demonstrated for 14 keV X-rays by Snigirev et al. This type of lens is made from a series of very weak lens elements. I calculate the properties of such lenses constructed of various chemical elements and compounds over the range of 1 to 30 keV. In general, I find that X-ray optics made from low density, low Z materials have the widest useful apertures, but require more lens elements than denser and higher Z materials.

  1. The Future of X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    The most important next step is the development of X-ray optics comparable to (or better than) Chandra in angular resolution that far exceed Chandra s effective area. Use the long delay to establish an adequately funded, competitive technology program along the lines I have recommended. Don't be diverted from this objective, except for Explorer-class missions. Progress in X-ray optics, with emphasis on the angular resolution, is central to the paradigm-shifting discoveries and the contributions of X-ray astronomy to multiwavelength astrophysics over the past 51 years.

  2. The ROSAT X-ray Background Dipole

    OpenAIRE

    Plionis, M.; Georgantopoulos, I.

    1998-01-01

    We estimate the dipole of the diffuse 1.5 keV X-ray background from the ROSAT all-sky survey map of Snowden et al (1995). We first subtract the diffuse Galactic emission by fitting to the data an exponential scale height, finite radius, disk model. We further exclude regions of low galactic latitudes, of local X-ray emission (eg the North Polar Spur) and model them using two different methods. We find that the ROSAT X-ray background (XRB) dipole points towards $(l,b) ~ (288, 25) \\pm 19 degree...

  3. Two methods for studying the X-ray variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Shu-Ping; Ji, Li; Méndez, Mariano; Wang, Na; Liu, Siming; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray aperiodic variability and quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) are the important tools to study the structure of the accretion flow of X-ray binaries. However, the origin of the complex X-ray variability from X-ray binaries remains yet unsolved. We proposed two methods for studying the X-ray

  4. Large area gratings by x-ray LIGA dynamic exposure for x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Tobias J.; Koch, Frieder; Meyer, Pascal; Baumann, Martin; Münch, Daniel; Kunka, Danays; Engelhardt, Sabine; Zuber, Marcus; Baumbach, Tilo; Mohr, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    X-ray differential phase-contrast imaging (DPCI) using a Talbot-Lau interferometer at a conventional tube source has continuously found applications since its first demonstration. It requires high aspect ratio grating structures with a feature size in the micrometer range that are fabricated using lithographie, galvanik und abformung technology. To overcome the current limitation in grating area, an exposure strategy-continuous exposure-has been developed. In this case, the mask is fixed in respect to the synchrotron beam and only the substrate is scanned. Thus, the grating area is given by the scanning length which is much larger than the actual mask size. The design, needs, and tolerances to adopt this process of dynamic exposure will be described. Furthermore, the first tests using this method will be presented. Gratings with a metal aspect ratio of 11 and a period of 10 μm were fabricated on an area of 165 mm×65 mm. First imaging results demonstrate the suitability of this method. No differences in the visibility or in x-ray image compared to gratings fabricated by the standard method could be found.

  5. Insights from soft X-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaf, Jennifer; Issinger, Olaf-Georg; Niefind, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    The diffraction pattern of a protein crystal is normally a product of the interference of electromagnetic waves scattered by electrons of the crystalline sample. The diffraction pattern undergoes systematic changes in case additionally X-ray absorption occurs, meaning if the wavelength of the pri......The diffraction pattern of a protein crystal is normally a product of the interference of electromagnetic waves scattered by electrons of the crystalline sample. The diffraction pattern undergoes systematic changes in case additionally X-ray absorption occurs, meaning if the wavelength...... of the primary X-ray beam is relatively close to the absorption edge of selected elements of the sample. The resulting effects are summarized as "anomalous dispersion" and can be always observed with "soft" X-rays (wavelength around 2 A) since they match the absorption edges of sulfur and chlorine...

  6. Demonstration of X-ray talbot interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Momose, A; Kawamoto, S; Hamaishi, Y; Takai, K; Suzuki, Y

    2003-01-01

    First Talbot interferometry in the hard X-ray region was demonstrated using a pair of transmission gratings made by forming gold stripes on glass plates. By aligning the gratings on the optical axis of X-rays with a separation that caused the Talbot effect by the first grating, moire fringes were produced inclining one grating slightly against the other around the optical axis. A phase object placed in front of the first grating was detected by moire-fringe bending. Using the technique of phase-shifting interferometry, the differential phase corresponding to the phase object could also be measured. This result suggests that X-ray Talbot interferometry is a novel and simple method for phase-sensitive X-ray radiography. (author)

  7. Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for X-Ray Optics at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory works to further science and technology using short wavelength optical systems and techniques....

  8. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung tissue absorbs little radiation and will appear dark on the image. Until recently, x-ray images ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  9. Microfabrication of hard x-ray lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöhr, Frederik

    This thesis deals with the development of silicon compound refractive lenses (Si-CRLs) for shaping hard x-ray beams. The CRLs are to be fabricated using state of the art microfabrication techniques. The primary goal of the thesis work is to produce Si-CRLs with considerably increased structure...... developed. Inverse replica molding in PDMS of the CRLs was established as an effective way to circumvent the limitations AFM probes have when concave surfaces need to be characterized, e.g. due to the finite lengths of AFM probes. Four different x-ray optical components have been designed, manufactured...... of space for sample surroundings and ensure low-divergent and wide x-ray beams with narrow waists. Both results are substantial improvements to what was available at the start of this thesis work. The challenge of making x-ray objectives in silicon by interdigitation of lenslets alternately focusing...

  10. X-ray Optics Development at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dharma P.

    2017-01-01

    Development of high resolution focusing telescopes has led to a tremendous leap in sensitivity, revolutionizing observational X-ray astronomy. High sensitivity and high spatial resolution X-ray observations have been possible due to use of grazing incidence optics (paraboloid/hyperboloid) coupled with high spatial resolution and high efficiency detectors/imagers. The best X-ray telescope flown so far is mounted onboard Chandra observatory launched on July 23,1999. The telescope has a spatial resolution of 0.5 arc seconds with compatible imaging instruments in the energy range of 0.1 to 10 keV. The Chandra observatory has been responsible for a large number of discoveries and has provided X-ray insights on a large number of celestial objects including stars, supernova remnants, pulsars, magnetars, black holes, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, clusters and our own solar system.

  11. Silicon Wafer X-ray Mirror Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this one year research project, we propose to do the following four tasks; (1) Design the silicon wafer X-ray mirror demo unit and develop a ray-tracing code to...

  12. Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that causes inflammation, the formation of tubercules and other growths within tissue, ... death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light areas (opacities) of varying ...

  13. Nonrelativistic quantum X-ray physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hau-Riege, Stefan P

    2015-01-01

    Providing a solid theoretical background in photon-matter interaction, Nonrelativistic Quantum X-Ray Physics enables readers to understand experiments performed at XFEL-facilities and x-ray synchrotrons. As a result, after reading this book, scientists and students will be able to outline and perform calculations of some important x-ray-matter interaction processes. Key features of the contents are that the scope reaches beyond the dipole approximation when necessary and that it includes short-pulse interactions. To aid the reader in this transition, some relevant examples are discussed in detail, while non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics help readers to obtain an in-depth understanding of the formalisms and processes. The text presupposes a basic (undergraduate-level) understanding of mechanics, electrodynamics, and quantum mechanics. However, more specialized concepts in these fields are introduced and the reader is directed to appropriate references. While primarily benefiting users of x-ray light-sou...

  14. Experimental X-Ray Ghost Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccia, Daniele; Rack, Alexander; Scheel, Mario; Cantelli, Valentina; Paganin, David M

    2016-09-09

    We report an experimental proof of principle for ghost imaging in the hard-x-ray energy range. We use a synchrotron x-ray beam that is split using a thin crystal in Laue diffraction geometry. With an ultrafast imaging camera, we are able to image x rays generated by isolated electron bunches. At this time scale, the shot noise of the synchrotron emission process is measurable as speckles, leading to speckle correlation between the two beams. The integrated transmitted intensity from a sample located in the first beam is correlated with the spatially resolved intensity measured in the second, empty, beam to retrieve the shadow of the sample. The demonstration of ghost imaging with hard x rays may open the way to protocols to reduce radiation damage in medical imaging and in nondestructive structural characterization using free electron lasers.

  15. X-ray induced optical reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Durbin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The change in optical reflectivity induced by intense x-ray pulses can now be used to study ultrafast many body responses in solids in the femtosecond time domain. X-ray absorption creates photoelectrons and core level holes subsequently filled by Auger or fluorescence processes, and these excitations ultimately add conduction and valence band carriers that perturb optical reflectivity. Optical absorption associated with band filling and band gap narrowing is shown to explain the basic features found in recent measurements on an insulator (silicon nitride, Si3N4, a semiconductor (gallium arsenide, GaAs, and a metal (gold, Au, obtained with ∼100 fs x-ray pulses at 500-2000 eV and probed with 800 nm laser pulses. In particular GaAs exhibits an abrupt drop in reflectivity, persisting only for a time comparable to the x-ray excitation pulse duration, consistent with prompt band gap narrowing.

  16. Milli X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Eagle III Micro XRF unit is similar to a traditional XRF unit, with the primary difference being that the X-rays are focused by a polycapillary optic into a spot...

  17. Silicon Wafer X-ray Mirror Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this one year research project, we propose to do the following four tasks;(1) Design the silicon wafer X-ray mirror demo unit and develop a ray-tracing code to...

  18. Quantum optics with X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Kocharovskaya, Olga

    2017-11-01

    The demonstration of strong coupling between two nuclear polariton modes in the X-ray spectral region using two coupled cavities each containing a thin layer of iron brings new opportunities for exploring quantum science.

  19. X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) system, and an X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Source: US2012008736A An X-ray diffraction contrast tomography system (DCT) comprising a laboratory X-ray source (2), a staging device (5) rotating a polycrystalline material sample in the direct path of the X-ray beam, a first X-ray detector (6) detecting the direct X-ray beam being transmitted...

  20. Linking Jet Emission, X-Ray States, and Hard X-Ray Tails in the Neutron Star X-Ray Binary GX 17+2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migliari, S.; Miller-Jones, J.C.A.; Fender, R.P.; Homan, J.; di Salvo, T.; Rothschild, R.E.; Rupen, M.P.; Tomsick, J.A.; Wijnands, R.; van der Klis, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of simultaneous radio (VLA) and X-ray (RXTE) observations of the Z-type neutron star X-ray binary GX 17+2. The aim is to assess the coupling between X-ray and radio properties throughout its three rapidly variable X-ray states and during the time-resolved transitions. These

  1. Capacitor discharges, magnetohydrodynamics, X-rays, ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1965-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume 1: Capacitor Discharges - Magnetohydrodynamics - X-Rays - Ultrasonics deals with the theoretical and engineering problems that arise in the capacitor discharge technique.This book discusses the characteristics of dielectric material, symmetrical switch tubes with mercury filling, and compensation conductor forms. The transformed discharge for highest current peaks, ignition transformer for internal combustion engines, and X-ray irradiation of subjects in mechanical motion are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the transformed capacitor discharge in w

  2. Parametric X-rays at FAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Tanaji [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the generation of parametric X-rays (PXR) in the photoinjector at the new FAST facility at Fermilab. Detailed calculations of the intensity spectrum, energy and angular widths and spectral brilliance with a diamond crystal are presented. We also report on expected results with PXR generated while the beam is channeling. The low emittance electron beam makes this facility a promising source for creating brilliant X-rays.

  3. Nanofocusing Refractive X-Ray Lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Boye, Pit

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the optimization and development of the production of nanofocusing refractive x-ray lenses. These optics made of either silicon or diamond are well-suited for high resolution x-ray microscopy. The goal of this work is the design of a reproducible manufacturing process which allows the production of silicon lenses with high precision, high quality and high piece number. Furthermore a process for the production of diamond lenses is to be developed and established. ...

  4. Lacquer polishing of x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catura, R C; Joki, E G; Roethig, D T; Brookover, W J

    1987-04-15

    Techniques for polishing figured x-ray optics by a lacquer-coating process are described. This acrylic lacquer coating has been applied with an optical quality of an eighth wave in red light and very effectively covers surface roughness with spatial wavelengths less than ~0.2 mm. Tungsten films have been deposited on the lacquer coatings to provide highly efficient x-ray reflectivity.

  5. X-Ray Emission from Compact Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cominsky, L

    2004-03-23

    This paper presents a review of the physical parameters of neutron stars and black holes that have been derived from X-ray observations. I then explain how these physical parameters can be used to learn about the extreme conditions occurring in regions of strong gravity, and present some recent evidence for relativistic effects seen in these systems. A glossary of commonly used terms and a short tutorial on the names of X-ray sources are also included.

  6. Monochromatic Mammographic Imaging Using X-ray Polycapillary Optics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sugiro, Francisca

    2000-01-01

    .... Monochromatic x rays can be used to produce higher contrast images. Polycapillary x-ray optics technology can produce a highly parallel, monochromatic, x-ray beam from a conventional radiographic source...

  7. Optics Developments for X-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian

    2014-01-01

    X-ray optics has revolutionized x-ray astronomy. The degree of background suppression that these afford, have led to a tremendous increase in sensitivity. The current Chandra observatory has the same collecting area (approx. 10(exp 3)sq cm) as the non-imaging UHURU observatory, the first x-ray observatory which launched in 1970, but has 5 orders of magnitude more sensitivity due to its focusing optics. In addition, its 0.5 arcsec angular resolution has revealed a wealth of structure in many cosmic x-ray sources. The Chandra observatory achieved its resolution by using relatively thick pieces of Zerodur glass, which were meticulously figured and polished to form the four-shell nested array. The resulting optical assembly weighed around 1600 kg, and cost approximately $0.5B. The challenge for future x-ray astronomy missions is to greatly increase the collecting area (by one or more orders of magnitude) while maintaining high angular resolution, and all within realistic mass and budget constraints. A review of the current status of US optics for x-ray astronomy will be provided along with the challenges for future developments.

  8. X-ray emission from normal stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The paper addresses the potential for future X-ray missions to determine the fundamental cause of stellar X-ray emissions based on available results and existing analyses. The determinants of stellar X-ray emission are listed, and the relation of stellar X-ray emissions to the 'universal' activity-rotation connection is discussed. The specific rotation-activity connection for evolved stars is mentioned, and the 'decay' of stellar activity at the low-mass end of the main sequence is related to observational data. The data from Einstein and EXOSAT missions that correspond to these issues are found to be sparse, and more observational work is found to be necessary. Also, it is concluded that some issues need to be addressed, such as the X-ray dividing line in evolved stars and the absence of X-ray emission from dA stars. The related observational requirements and instrumental capabilities are given for each significant research focus.

  9. X-ray Studies of Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montez, Rodolfo

    2017-10-01

    X-ray emission from planetary nebulae (PNe) provides unique insight on the formation and evolution of PNe. Past observations and the ongoing Chandra Planetary Nebulae Survey (ChanPlaNS) provide a consensus on the two types of X-ray emission detected from PNe: extended and compact point-like sources. Extended X-ray emission arises from a shocked ``hot bubble'' plasma that resides within the nebular shell. Cooler than expected hot bubble plasma temperatures spurred a number of potential solutions with one emerging as the likely dominate process. The origin of X-ray emission from compact sources at the location of the central star is less clear. These sources might arise from one or combinations of the following processes: self-shocking stellar winds, spun-up binary companions, and/or accretion, perhaps from mass transfer, PN fallback, or debris disks. In the discovery phase, X-ray studies of PNe have mainly focused on the origin of the various emission processes. New directions incorporate multi-wavelength observations to study the influence of X-ray emission on the rest of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  10. The universe in X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Hasinger, Günther

    2008-01-01

    In the last 45 years, X-ray astronomy has become an integral part of modern astrophysics and cosmology. There is a wide range of astrophysical objects and phenomena, where X-rays provide crucial diagnostics. In particular they are well suited to study hot plasmas and matter under extreme physical conditions in compact objects. This book summarizes the present status of X-ray astronomy in terms of observational results and their astrophysical interpretation. It is written for students, astrophysicists as well a growing community of physicists interested in the field. An introduction including historical material is followed by chapters on X-ray astronomical instrumentation. The next two parts summarize in 17 chapters the present knowledge on various classes of X-ray sources in the galactic and extragalactic realm. While the X-ray astronomical highlights discussed in this book are mainly based on results from ROSAT, ASCA, RXTE, BeppoSAX, Chandra and XMM-Newton, a final chapter provides an outlook on observation...

  11. X-rays as a probe of the Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. X-rays as a probe of the Universe · Probing the Universe ….. Flux = sT4 umax = 1011 T (in Kelvin) · History of x-ray astronomy · X-ray Production · X-ray spectra · Celestial sphere as seen by UHURU (1970) · Slide 8 · X-rays from accreting binary systems · Slide 10 · Neutron stars: Black Hole: · Primary X-ray ...

  12. [X-ray hardening correction for ICT in testing workpiece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guang-han; Cai, Xin-hua; Han, Zhong; Yang, Xue-heng

    2008-06-01

    Since energy spectrum of X-ray is polychromatic source in X-ray industrial computerized tomography, the variation of attenuation coefficient with energy leads to the lower energy of X-ray radiation being absorbed preferentially when X-ray is transmitting the materials. And the higher the energy of X-ray, the lower the attenuation coefficient of X-ray. With the increase in the X-ray transmission thickness, it becomes easier for the X-ray to transmit the matter. Thus, the phenomenon of energy spectrum hardening of X-ray takes place, resulting from the interaction between X-ray and the materials. This results in false images in the reconstruction of X-ray industrial computerized tomography. Therefore, hardening correction of energy spectrum of X-ray has to be done. In the present paper, not only is the hardening phenomenon of X-ray transmitting the materials analyzed, but also the relation between the X-ray beam sum and the transmission thickness of X-ray is discussed. And according to the Beer law and the characteristics of interaction when X-ray is transmitting material, and by getting the data of X-ray beam sum, the relation equation is fitted between the X-ray beam sum and X-ray transmission thickness. Then, the relation and the method of equivalence are carried out for X-ray beam sum being corrected. Finally, the equivalent and monochromatic attenuation coefficient fitted value for X-ray transmitting the material is reasoned out. The attenuation coefficient fitted value is used for product back-projection image reconstruction in X-ray industrial computerized tomography. Thus, the effect caused by X-ray beam hardening is wiped off effectively in X-ray industrial computerized tomography.

  13. Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free Electron Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, Henrik T.; Bressler, Christian; Chen, Lin X.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) deliver short (hard X-rays, making them excellent sources for time-resolved studies. Here we show that, despite the inherent instabilities of current (SASE based) XFELs, they can be used for measuring high......-quality X-ray absorption data and we report femtosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) measurements of a spin-crossover system, iron(II) tris(2,2'-bipyridine) in water. The data indicate that the low-spin to high-spin transition can be modeled by single-exponential kinetics...

  14. Dual Energy X-Ray CT by Compton Scattering Hard X-Ray Source

    CERN Document Server

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kaneyasu, Tatsuo; Torikoshi, Masami

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a compact Compton scattering hard X-ray source at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo. The compact hard X-ray source can produce tunable monochromatic hard X-rays. The monochromatic hard X-rays are required in large field of medical and biological applications. We are planning to perform dual-energy X-ray CT, which enables us to measure atomic number Z distribution and electron density re distribution in a material. The hard X-ray source has an advantage to perform dual-energy X-ray CT. The X-ray energy can be changed quickly by introducing a fundamental frequency and a second harmonic frequency lasers. This quick energy change is indispensable to medical imaging and very difficult in a large SR light source and others. The information on the atomic number and electron density will be used for treatment plan in radiotherapy as well as for identification of materials in a nondestructive test. We examined applicability of the dual-energy X-ray CT for atomic number meas...

  15. Ultrafast x-ray-induced nuclear dynamics in diatomic molecules using femtosecond x-ray-pump–x-ray-probe spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, C. S.; Picón, A.; Bostedt, C.; Rudenko, A.; Marinelli, A.; Moonshiram, D.; Osipov, T.; Rolles, D.; Berrah, N.; Bomme, C.; Bucher, M.; Doumy, G.; Erk, B.; Ferguson, K. R.; Gorkhover, T.; Ho, P. J.; Kanter, E. P.; Krässig, B.; Krzywinski, J.; Lutman, A. A.; March, A. M.; Ray, D.; Young, L.; Pratt, S. T.; Southworth, S. H.

    2016-07-01

    The availability at x-ray free electron lasers of generating two intense, femtosecond x-ray pulses with controlled time delay opens the possibility of performing time-resolved experiments for x-ray induced phenomena. We have applied this capability to molecular dynamics. In diatomic molecules composed of low-Z elements, K-shell ionization creates a core-hole state in which the main decay is an Auger process involving two electrons in the valence shell. After Auger decay, the nuclear wavepackets of the transient two-valence-hole states continue evolving on the femtosecond timescale, leading either to separated atomic ions or long-lived quasi-bound states. By using an x-ray pump and an x-ray probe pulse tuned above the K-shell ionization threshold of the nitrogen molecule, we are able to observe ion dissociation in progress by measuring the time-dependent kinetic energy releases of different breakup channels. We simulated the measurements on N2 with a molecular dynamics model that accounts for K-shell ionization, Auger decay, and time evolution of the nuclear wavepackets. In addition to explaining the time-dependent feature in the measured kinetic energy release distributions from the dissociative states, the simulation also reveals the contributions of quasi-bound states.

  16. Handbook of X-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Keith A. (Editor); Smith, Randall K.; Siemiginowska, Aneta

    2011-01-01

    X-ray astronomy was born in the aftermath of World War II as military rockets were repurposed to lift radiation detectors above the atmosphere for a few minutes at a time. These early flights detected and studied X-ray emission from the Solar corona. The first sources beyond the Solar System were detected during a rocket flight in 1962 by a team headed by Riccardo Giaccom at American Science and Engineering, a company founded by physicists from MIT. The rocket used Geiger counters with a system designed to reduce non-X-ray backgrounds and collimators limiting the region of sky seen by the counters. As the rocket spun, the field of view (FOV) happened to pass over what was later found to be the brightest non-Solar X-ray source; later designated See X-1. It also detected a uniform background glow which could not be resolved into individual sources. A follow-up campaign using X-ray detectors with better spatial resolution and optical telescopes identified See X-1 as an interacting binary with a compact (neutron star) primary. This success led to further suborbital rocket flights by a number of groups. More X-ray binaries were discovered, as well as X-ray emission from supernova remnants, the radio galaxies M87 and Cygnus-A, and the Coma cluster. Detectors were improved and Geiger counters were replaced by proportional counters, which provided information about energy spectra of the sources. A constant challenge was determining precise positions of sources as only collimators were available.

  17. X-Ray Point-source Populations Constituting the Galactic Ridge X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morihana, Kumiko; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Yoshida, Tessei; Ebisawa, Ken

    2013-03-01

    Apparently diffuse X-ray emission has been known to exist along the central quarter of the Galactic Plane since the beginning of X-ray astronomy; this is referred to as the Galactic Ridge X-ray emission (GRXE). Recent deep X-ray observations have shown that numerous X-ray point sources account for a large fraction of the GRXE in the hard band (2-8 keV). However, the nature of these sources is poorly understood. Using the deepest X-ray observations made in the Chandra bulge field, we present the result of a coherent photometric and spectroscopic analysis of individual X-ray point sources for the purpose of constraining their nature and deriving their fractional contributions to the hard-band continuum and Fe K line emission of the GRXE. Based on the X-ray color-color diagram, we divided the point sources into three groups: A (hard), B (soft and broad spectrum), and C (soft and peaked spectrum). The group A sources are further decomposed spectrally into thermal and non-thermal sources with different fractions in different flux ranges. From their X-ray properties, we speculate that the group A non-thermal sources are mostly active galactic nuclei and the thermal sources are mostly white dwarf (WD) binaries such as magnetic and non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs), pre-CVs, and symbiotic stars, whereas the group B and C sources are X-ray active stars in flares and quiescence, respectively. In the log N-log S curve of the 2-8 keV band, the group A non-thermal sources are dominant above ≈10-14 erg cm-2 s-1, which is gradually taken over by Galactic sources in the fainter flux ranges. The Fe Kα emission is mostly from the group A thermal (WD binaries) and the group B (X-ray active stars) sources.

  18. X-Ray Calorimeter Arrays for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the evolving universe. The grating spectrometers on the XMM and Chandra satellites started a new era in x-ray astronomy, but there remains a need for instrumentation that can provide higher spectral resolution with high throughput in the Fe-K band (around 6 keV) and can enable imaging spectroscopy of extended sources, such as supernova remnants and galaxy clusters. The instrumentation needed is a broad-band imaging spectrometer - basically an x-ray camera that can distinguish tens of thousands of x-ray colors. The potential benefits to astrophysics of using a low-temperature calorimeter to determine the energy of an incident x-ray photon via measurement of a small change in temperature was first articulated by S. H. Moseley over two decades ago. In the time since, technological progress has been steady, though full realization in an orbiting x-ray telescope is still awaited. A low-temperature calorimeter can be characterized by the type of thermometer it uses, and three types presently dominate the field. The first two types are temperature-sensitive resistors - semiconductors in the metal-insulator transition and superconductors operated in the superconducting-normal transition. The third type uses a paramagnetic thermometer. These types can be considered the three generations of x-ray calorimeters; by now each has demonstrated a resolving power of 2000 at 6 keV, but only a semiconductor calorimeter system has been developed to spaceflight readiness. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer on Astro-H, expected to launch in 2013, will use an array of silicon thermistors with I-IgTe x-ray absorbers that will operate at 50 mK. Both the semiconductor and superconductor calorimeters have been implemented in small arrays, kilo-pixel arrays of the superconducting calorimeters are just now being produced, and it is anticipated that much larger arrays will require the non-dissipative advantage of magnetic thermometers.

  19. X-ray detectors for digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaffe, M.J.; Rowlands, J.A. [Imaging Research Program, Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-01-01

    Digital radiography offers the potential of improved image quality as well as providing opportunities for advances in medical image management, computer-aided diagnosis and teleradiology. Image quality is intimately inked to the precise and accurate acquisition of information from the x-ray beam transmitted by the patient, i.e. to the performance of the x-ray detector. Detectors for digital radiography must meet the needs of the specific radiological procedure where they will be used. Key parameters are partial resolution, uniformity of response, contrast sensitivity, dynamic range, acquisition speed and frame rate. The underlying physical considerations defining the performance of x-ray detectors for radiography will be reviewed. Some of the more promising existing and experimental detector technologies which may be suitable for digital radiography will be considered. Devices that can be employed in full-area detectors and also those more appropriate for scanning x-ray systems will be discussed. These include various approaches based on phosphor x-ray converters, where light quanta are produced as an intermediate stage, as well as direct -ray-to-charge conversion materials such as zinc cadmium telluride, amorphous selenium and crystalline silicon. (author)

  20. X-ray optics of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letfullin, Renat R; Rice, Colin E W; George, Thomas F

    2014-11-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been investigated as contrast agents for traditional x-ray medical procedures, utilizing the strong absorption characteristics of the nanoparticles to enhance the contrast of the detected x-ray image. Here we use the Kramers-Kronig relation for complex atomic scattering factors to find the real and imaginary parts of the index of refraction for the medium composed of single-element materials or compounds in the x-ray range of the spectrum. These complex index of refraction values are then plugged into a Lorenz-Mie theory to calculate the absorption efficiency of various size gold nanoparticles for photon energies in the 1-100 keV range. Since the output from most medical diagnostic x-ray devices follows a wide and filtered spectrum of photon energies, we introduce and compute the effective intensity-absorption-efficiency values for gold nanoparticles of radii varying from 5 to 50 nm, where we use the TASMIP model to integrate over all spectral energies generated by typical tungsten anode x-ray tubes with kilovolt potentials ranging from 50 to 150 kVp.

  1. X-ray spectroscopy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Bipin K

    1979-01-01

    Rontgen's discovery of X-rays in 1895 launched a subject which became central to the development of modern physics. The verification of many of the predic­ tions of quantum theory by X-ray spectroscopy in the early part of the twen­ tieth century stimulated great interest in thi's area, which has subsequently influenced fields as diverse as chemical physics, nuclear physics, and the study of the electronic properties of solids, and led to the development of techniques such as Auger, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The improvement of the theoretical understanding of the physics underlying X-ray spectroscopy has been accompanied by advances in experimental techniques, and the subject provides an instructive example of how progress on both these fronts can be mutually beneficial. This book strikes a balance between his­ torical description, which illustrates this symbiosis, and the discussion of new developments. The application of X-ray spectroscopic methods to the in­ vestigation of chemical b...

  2. Globular cluster X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, D.

    We know from observations that globular clusters are very efficient catalysts in forming unusual binary systems, such as low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), cataclysmic variables (CVs), and millisecond pulsars (MSPs), with formation rates per unit mass exceeding those in the Galactic disk by orders of magnitude. The high stellar densities in globular clusters trigger various dynamical interactions: exchange encounters, direct collisions, destruction of binaries, and tidal capture. This binary population is, in turn, critical to the stabilization of globular clusters against gravitational collapse; the long-term stability of a cluster is thought to depend on tapping into the gravitational binding energy of such close binaries. I will present an overview of the current state of globular cluster X-ray observations, as well as our work on deep Chandra observations of M4, where we reach some of the lowest X-ray luminosities in any globular cluster (comparable to the deep observations of 47 Tuc and NGC 6397). One of M4 X-ray sources previously classified as a white dwarf binary is likely a neutron star binary, and another X-ray source is a sub-subgiant, the nature of which is still unclear. skip=3pt

  3. X-ray irradiation of yeast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Alessandra; Batani, Dimitri; Previdi, Fabio; Conti, Aldo; Pisani, Francesca; Botto, Cesare; Bortolotto, Fulvia; Torsiello, Flavia; Turcu, I. C. Edmond; Allott, Ric M.; Lisi, Nicola; Milani, Marziale; Costato, Michele; Pozzi, Achille; Koenig, Michel

    1997-10-01

    Saccharomyces Cerevisiae yeast cells were irradiated using the soft X-ray laser-plasma source at Rutherford Laboratory. The aim was to produce a selective damage of enzyme metabolic activity at the wall and membrane level (responsible for fermentation) without interfering with respiration (taking place in mitochondria) and with nuclear and DNA activity. The source was calibrated by PIN diodes and X-ray spectrometers. Teflon stripes were chosen as targets for the UV laser, emitting X-rays at about 0.9 keV, characterized by a very large decay exponent in biological matter. X-ray doses to the different cell compartments were calculated following a Lambert-Bouguet-Beer law. After irradiation, the selective damage to metabolic activity at the membrane level was measured by monitoring CO2 production with pressure silicon detectors. Preliminary results gave evidence of pressure reduction for irradiated samples and non-linear response to doses. Also metabolic oscillations were evidenced in cell suspensions and it was shown that X-ray irradiation changed the oscillation frequency.

  4. Review of X-ray Tomography and X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shear, Trevor A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-16

    This literature review will focus on both laboratory and synchrotron based X-ray tomography of materials and highlight the inner workings of these instruments. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy will also be reviewed and applications of the tandem use of these techniques will be explored. The real world application of these techniques during the internship will also be discussed.

  5. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Powder X-ray diffraction studies were carried out on doped lithium niobate for phase identification. High-resolution X-ray diffraction technique was used to study the crystalline quality through full-width at half-maximum values. The refractive index values are more for doped samples than for pure sample as determined by ...

  6. X-ray optics developments at ESA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavdaz, M.; Wille, E.; Wallace, K.

    2013-01-01

    Future high energy astrophysics missions will require high performance novel X-ray optics to explore the Universe beyond the limits of the currently operating Chandra and Newton observatories. Innovative optics technologies are therefore being developed and matured by the European Space Agency (ESA......) in collaboration with research institutions and industry, enabling leading-edge future science missions. Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) [1 to 21] and Slumped Glass Optics (SGO) [22 to 29] are lightweight high performance X-ray optics technologies being developed in Europe, driven by applications in observatory class...... reflective coatings [30 to 35]. In addition, the progress with the X-ray test facilities and associated beam-lines is discussed [36]. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  7. The quantum X-ray radiology apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Hilt, B; Prevot, G

    2000-01-01

    The paper entitled 'New Quantum Detection System for Very Low Dose X-ray Radiology', presented at the talk session, discusses the preliminary data obtained using a new quantum X-ray radiology system with a high-efficiency solid-state detector and highly sensitive electronics, making it possible to reduce significantly the dose administered to a patient in X-ray radiology examinations. The present paper focuses more on the technological aspects of the apparatus, such as the integration of the detector with the two Asics, and the computer system. Namely, it is shown how the computer system calibrates the detection system, acquires the data in real time, and controls the scan parameters and image filtering process.

  8. X-ray optics of tapered capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaic, D X; Nugent, K A

    1995-11-01

    The optics of x-ray concentration by tapered glass capillaries is analyzed in terms of a phase-space construction describing their transmission efficiency. The parameters defining the intensity gain are given in terms of parameters describing the x-ray source used, the capillary taper profile, and glass characteristics. We introduce some key concepts in understanding these devices: the extreme ray and a phase-space description of sources and optics. They are used to develop an analytical formulation for the optimum gain characteristics of generalized tapers for use with synchrotrons and other low-divergence sources. This general solution is solved further for the case of conical taper profile. The predictions of this theory are compared with the results of three-dimensional, ray-tracing simulations of x-ray concentration efficiency for conical and paraboloidal tapers.

  9. Bone diagnosis by X-ray techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, I. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo, 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, Zip Code: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, M.J. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo, 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, Zip Code: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Physics Institute, UERJ (Brazil); Farias, M.L.F. [University Hospital, UFRJ (Brazil); Parcegoni, N.; Rosenthal, D. [Biophysics Institute, UFRJ (Brazil); Duarte, M.E.L. [Histologic and Embriology Department, UFRJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo, 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, Zip Code: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    In this work, two X-ray techniques used were 3D microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and X-ray microfluorescence (micro-XRF) in order to investigate the internal structure of the bone samples. Those two techniques work together, e.g. as a complement to each other, to characterize bones structure and composition. Initially, the specimens were used to do the scan procedure in the microcomputer tomography system and the second step consists of doing the X-ray microfluorescence analysis. The results show that both techniques are powerful methods for analyzing, inspecting and characterizing bone samples: they are alternative procedures for examining bone structures and compositions and they are complementary.

  10. X-ray reflectivity imager with 15 W power X-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinxing; Sakurai, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    X-ray reflectivity is usually used for the routine analysis of layered structures of uniform thin films. So far, the technique has some limitations in the application to more practical inhomogeneous/patterned samples. X-ray reflectivity imaging is recently developed technique and can give the reconstructed image from many X-ray reflection projections. The present article gives the instrumental details of the compact X-ray reflectivity imager. Though the power of X-ray source is only 15 W, it works well. The calibration of the system has been discussed, because it is particularly important for the present grazing incidence geometry. We also give a visualization example of the buried interface, physical meaning of the reconstructed image, and discussions about possibilities for improvement.

  11. Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael

    2017-11-21

    A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

  12. Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael

    2017-01-31

    A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

  13. Soft X-ray focusing Telescope aboard AstroSat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K. P.; Dewangan, G. C.; Chandra, S.

    2017-01-01

    The Soft X-ray focusing Telescope (SXT) is a moderateresolution X-ray imaging spectrometer supplementing the ultraviolet and hard X-ray payloads for broadband studies of cosmic sources with AstroSat. Well suited for observing bright X-ray sources, SXT observations of nearby active galactic nuclei...

  14. Grazing Incidence X-ray Scattering and Diffraction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 12. Grazing Incidence X-ray Scattering and Diffraction. Jaydeep K Basu. General Article Volume 19 Issue 12 December ... Keywords. X-ray reflectivity; X-ray diffuse scattering; grazing incident diffraction; grazing incident; small angle X-ray scattering.

  15. XRASE: The X-Ray Spectroscopic Explorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnopper, H.W.; Silver, E.; Murray, S.

    2001-01-01

    The X-Ray Spectroscopic Explorer (XRASE) has a unique combination of features that will make it possible to address many of NASA's scientific goals. These include how galaxy clusters form, the physics and chemistry of the ISM, the heating of stellar coronae, the amount and content of intergalactic...... eV at 6 keV) and efficiency with a field-of-view of 26 arcmin(2) . A deep orbit allows for long, continuous observations. Monitoring instruments in the optical (WOM-X), UV (TAUVEX) and hard X-RAY (GRAM) bands will offer exceptional opportunities to make simultaneous multi-wavelength observations....

  16. Tantalum/Copper X-Ray Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, William J.; Edmonds, Brian

    1993-01-01

    Lewis Research Center developed unique solution to subsidiary problem of fabrication of x-ray target. Plasma spraying enabled fabrication of lightweight, high-performance targets. Power settings, atmosphere-control settings, rate of deposition, and other spraying parameters developed. Thin coats of tantalum successfully deposited on copper targets. Targets performed successfully in tests and satisfied all criteria expressed in terms of critical parameters. Significantly reduces projected costs of fabrication of targets and contributes to development of improved, long-lived, lightweight x-ray system.

  17. Studying Microquasars with X-Ray Polarimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Matt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microquasars are Galactic black hole systems in which matter is transferred from a donor star and accretes onto a black hole of, typically, 10–20 solar masses. The presence of an accretion disk and a relativistic jet made them a scaled down analogue of quasars—thence their name. Microquasars feature prominently in the scientific goals of X-ray polarimeters, because a number of open questions, which are discussed in this paper, can potentially be answered: the geometry of the hot corona believed to be responsible for the hard X-ray emission; the role of the jet; the spin of the black hole.

  18. Hard X-ray Laue monochromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocharyan, V. R.; Gogolev, A. S.; Kiziridi, A. A.; Batranin, A. V.; Muradyan, T. R.

    2016-06-01

    Experimental studies of X-ray diffraction from reflecting atomic planes (10¯11) of X-cut quartz single crystal in Laue geometry influenced by the temperature gradient were carried out. It is shown that by using the temperature gradient it is possible to reflect a hard X- ray beam with photon energy near the 100 keV with high efficiency. It has been experimentally proved that the intensity of the reflected beam can be increased by more than order depending on the value of the temperature gradient.

  19. Radiobiological studies using gamma and x rays.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Charles Augustus; Longley, Susan W.; Scott, Bobby R.; Lin, Yong; Wilder, Julie; Hutt, Julie A.; Padilla, Mabel T.; Gott, Katherine M.

    2013-02-01

    There are approximately 500 self-shielded research irradiators used in various facilities throughout the U.S. These facilities use radioactive sources containing either 137Cs or 60Co for a variety of biological investigations. A report from the National Academy of Sciences[1] described the issues with security of particular radiation sources and the desire for their replacement. The participants in this effort prepared two peer-reviewed publications to document the results of radiobiological studies performed using photons from 320-kV x rays and 137Cs on cell cultures and mice. The effectiveness of X rays was shown to vary with cell type.

  20. Single Particle X-ray Diffractive Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogan, M J; Benner, W H; Boutet, S; Rohner, U; Frank, M; Seibert, M; Maia, F; Barty, A; Bajt, S; Riot, V; Woods, B; Marchesini, S; Hau-Riege, S P; Svenda, M; Marklund, E; Spiller, E; Hajdu, J; Chapman, H N

    2007-10-01

    In nanotechnology, strategies for the creation and manipulation of nanoparticles in the gas phase are critically important for surface modification and substrate-free characterization. Recent coherent diffractive imaging with intense femtosecond X-ray pulses has verified the capability of single-shot imaging of nanoscale objects at sub-optical resolutions beyond the radiation-induced damage threshold. By intercepting electrospray-generated particles with a single 15 femtosecond soft-X-ray pulse, we demonstrate diffractive imaging of a nanoscale specimen in free flight for the first time, an important step toward imaging uncrystallized biomolecules.

  1. X-ray shout echoing through space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    a flash of X-rays hi-res Size hi-res: 3991 Kb Credits: ESA, S. Vaughan (University of Leicester) EPIC camera shows the expanding rings caused by a flash of X-rays XMM-Newton's X-ray EPIC camera shows the expanding rings caused by a flash of X-rays scattered by dust in our Galaxy. The X-rays were produced by a powerful gamma-ray burst that took place on 3 December 2003. The slowly fading afterglow of the gamma-ray burst is at the centre of the expanding rings. Other, unrelated, X-ray sources can also be seen. The time since the gamma-ray explosion is shown in each panel in hours. At their largest size, the rings would appear in the sky about five times smaller than the full moon. a flash of X-rays hi-res Size hi-res: 2153 Kb Credits: ESA, S. Vaughan (University of Leicester) EPIC camera shows the expanding rings caused by a flash of X-rays (Please choose "hi-res" version for animation) XMM-Newton's X-ray EPIC camera shows the expanding rings caused by a flash of X-rays scattered by dust in our Galaxy. The X-rays were produced by a powerful gamma-ray burst that took place on 3 December 2003. The slowly fading afterglow of the gamma-ray burst is at the centre of the expanding rings. Other, unrelated, X-ray sources can also be seen. The time since the gamma-ray explosion is shown in each panel in seconds. At their largest size, the rings would appear in the sky about five times smaller than the full moon. This echo forms when the powerful radiation of a gamma-ray burst, coming from far away, crosses a slab of dust in our Galaxy and is scattered by it, like the beam of a lighthouse in clouds. Using the expanding rings to precisely pin-point the location of this dust, astronomers can identify places where new stars and planets are likely to form. On 3 December 2003 ESA's observatory, Integral, detected a burst of gamma rays, lasting about 30 seconds, from the direction of a distant galaxy. Within minutes of the detection, thanks to a sophisticated alert network, many

  2. X-ray insights into star and planet formation

    OpenAIRE

    Feigelson, Eric D.

    2010-01-01

    Although stars and planets form in cold environments, X-rays are produced in abundance by young stars. This review examines the implications of stellar X-rays for star and planet formation studies, highlighting the contributions of NASA’s (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Chandra X-ray Observatory. Seven topics are covered: X-rays from protostellar outflow shocks, X-rays from the youngest protostars, the stellar initial mass function, the structure of young stellar clusters, the...

  3. X-ray Chirped Pulse Amplification: towards GW Soft X-ray Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Fajardo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Extensive modeling of the seeding of plasma-based soft X-ray lasers is reported in this article. Seminal experiments on amplification in plasmas created from solids have been studied in detail and explained. Using a transient collisional excitation scheme, we show that a 18 µJ, 80 fs fully coherent pulse is achievable by using plasmas pumped by a compact 10 Hz laser. We demonstrate that direct seeding of plasmas created by nanosecond lasers is not efficient. Therefore, we propose and fully study the transposition to soft X-rays of the Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA technique. Soft X-ray pulses with energy of 6 mJ and 200 fs duration are reachable by seeding plasmas pumped by compact 100 J, sub-ns, 1 shot/min lasers. These soft X-ray lasers would reach GW power, corresponding to an increase of 100 times as compared to the highest peak power achievable nowadays in the soft X-ray region (30 eV–1 keV. X-ray CPA is opening new horizon for soft x-ray ultra-intense sources.

  4. Global Properties of X-Ray Flashes and X-Ray-Rich GRBs Observed by Swift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, T.; Yamazaki, R.; Cummings, J.; Krimm, H.; Parsons, A.; Hullinger, D.; Barbier, L.; Fenimore, E.; Markwardt, C.; Tueller, J.; hide

    2007-01-01

    We describe and discuss the spectral and temporal characteristics of the prompt emission and X-ray afterglow emission of X-ray flashes (XRFs) detected and observed by Swift between December 2005 and September 2006. We compare these characteristics to a sample of X-ray rich gamma-ray bursts (XRRs) and conventional classical gamma-ray bursts (C-GRBs)observed during the same period. We confirm the correlation between Epeak and fluence noted by others and find further evidence that XRFs and C-GRBs form a continuum. We also confirmed that our known redshift samples are consistent with the correlation between the peak energy (Epeak) and the isotropic radiated energy (Eiso), so called the Epeak-Eiso relation. The spectral properties of X-ray afterglows are similar to those of gamma-ray burst afterglows, but the temporal properties of the two classes are quite different. We found that the light curves of C-GRBs afterglow show a break to steeper indices (shallow-to-steep break) at much earlier times than do XRF afterglows. Moreover, the overall luminosity of X-ray afterglows of XRFs are systematically smaller by a factor of two or more compared with that of C-GRBs. These distinct differences in the X-ray afterglow between XRFs and C-GRBs are key to understanding not only a mysterious shallow-to-steep phase in the X-ray afterglow but also the unique nature of XRFs.

  5. Compact stellar X-ray sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewin, W.H.G.; van der Klis, M.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray astronomy is the prime available window on astrophysical compact objects: black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs. In the last ten years new observational opportunities have led to an explosion of knowledge in this field. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the astrophysics of

  6. ROSAT: X ray survey of compact groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorkom, Jacqueline

    1993-01-01

    This is the final technical report on grant NAG5-1954, which was awarded under the NASA ROSAT Guest Investigator Program to Columbia University. This grant was awarded for a number of projects on two rather different topics: (1) an x-ray survey of compact groups of galaxies; and (2) the fate of gas

  7. Fourier techniques in X-ray timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klis, M.

    1988-01-01

    Basic principles of Fourier techniques often used in X-ray time series analysis are reviewed. The relation between the discrete Fourier transform and the continuous Fourier transform is discussed to introduce the concepts of windowing and aliasing. The relation is derived between the power spectrum

  8. A microcapillary lens for X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dudchik, Y I

    1999-01-01

    A new design of a compound refractive lens for X-rays is proposed. The lens is made as a set of glue microlenses placed in a glass capillary. The technique of lens fabrication is described. Results of ray tracing calculations for 8 and 15 keV photons are represented.

  9. X-ray optics for axion helioscopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2013-01-01

    A method of optimizing grazing incidence x-ray coatings in ground based axion helioscopes is presented. Software has been been developed to find the optimum coating when taking both axion spectrum and Micromegas detector quantum efficiency into account. A comparison of the relative effective area...... of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  10. Exploring subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degenaar, N.D.

    2010-01-01

    Halfway the twentieth century, technological developments made it possible to carry detection instruments outside the absorbing layers of the Earth’s atmosphere onboard rockets and satellites. This opened up the opportunity to detect the emission from celestial objects at X-ray wavelengths, thereby

  11. Techniques in X-ray Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kulinder Pal Singh is in the Department of. Astronomy and Astro- physics of the Tata. Institute of Fundamental. Research, Mumbai. His primary fields of research are X-ray studies of hot plasmas in stars, super- nova remnants, galaxies, intergalactic medium in clusters of galaxies, active galactic nuclei, cataclys- mic variables ...

  12. Supernova remnants: the X-ray perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.

    2012-01-01

    Supernova remnants are beautiful astronomical objects that are also of high scientific interest, because they provide insights into supernova explosion mechanisms, and because they are the likely sources of Galactic cosmic rays. X-ray observations are an important means to study these objects. And

  13. Reconstructing misaligned x-ray CT data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divin, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-24

    Misalignment errors for x-ray computed tomography (CT) systems can manifest as artifacts and a loss of spatial and contrast resolution. To mitigate artifacts, significant effort is taken to determine the system geometry and minimizing any residual error in the system alignment. This project improved our ability to post-correct data which was acquired on a misaligned CT system.

  14. X-ray signals in renal osteopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieden, K.

    1984-10-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency is associated with metabolic disturbances which ultimately lead to typical, partly extremely painful changes in the skeletal system the longer the disease persists. Regular X-ray control of certain skeletal segments allows early detection of renal oesteopathy if the radiological findings described in this article are carefully scrutinised and interpreted.

  15. X-ray Studies of Flaring Plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present some methods of X-ray data analysis employed in our laboratory for deducing the physical parameters of flaring plasma. For example, we have used a flare well observed with Polish instrument RESIK aboard Russian CORONAS-F satellite. Based on a careful instrument calibration, the absolute fluxes in a ...

  16. X-ray microscopy of human malaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magowan, C.; Brown, J.T.; Mohandas, N.; Meyer-Ilse, W. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Associations between intracellular organisms and host cells are complex and particularly difficult to examine. X-ray microscopy provides transmission images of subcellular structures in intact cells at resolutions superior to available methodologies. The spatial resolution is 50-60nm with a 1 micron depth of focus, superior to anything achievable with light microscopy. Image contrast is generated by differences in photoelectric absorption by the atoms in different areas (i.e. subcellular structures) throughout the full thickness of the sample. Absorption due to carbon dominates among all the elements in the sample at 2.4 nm x-ray wavelength. Thus images show features or structures, in a way not usually seen by other types of microscopy. The authors used soft x-ray microscopy to investigate structural development of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in normal and genetically abnormal erythrocytes, and in infected erythrocytes treated with compounds that have anti-malarial effects. X-ray microscopy showed newly elaborated structures in the cytosol of unstained, intact erythrocytes, redistribution of mass (carbon) in infected erythrocytes, and aberrant parasite morphology. Better understanding of the process of intracellular parasite maturation and the interactions between the parasite and its host erythrocyte can help define new approaches to the control of this deadly disease.

  17. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... open mouth (odontoid view). Occasionally, additional pictures like flexion and extension views of the cervical spine might be needed. continue Why It's Done A cervical spine X-ray can help find the cause of symptoms such as neck, shoulder, upper back, or arm pain, as well ...

  18. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leg, and an image is recorded on special film or a computer. This image shows the soft tissues and the bone in the upper leg, which is called the femur. The X-ray image is black and white. Dense body parts that block the passage of the X- ...

  19. PREPARATION, SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES AND X-RAY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These complexes have been characterized by analysis, molar conductance, magnetic measurements, infrared spectral studies and X-ray diffraction. The analytical data showed 1:3 (metal:ligand) stoichiometry. Molar conductance measurements in dmf indicate 1:3 electrolytes in all cases. Magnetic moment values are close ...

  20. Kinematic X-Ray Analysis Apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Brinkgreve, P.

    1983-01-01

    In an X-ray analysis apparatus, a moving mechanism is provided by a main guide member along which a main slide device can be displaced. Rotatably connected with the main slide device is a detector guide member along which a detection slide device is displaced. The main slide device, as well as the

  1. X-ray spectroscopy of manganese clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grush, M.M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1996-06-01

    Much of this thesis represents the groundwork necessary in order to probe Mn clusters more productively than with conventional Mn K-edge XAS and is presented in Part 1. Part 2 contains the application of x-ray techniques to Mn metalloproteins and includes a prognosis at the end of each chapter. Individual Mn oxidation states are more readily distinguishable in Mn L-edge spectra. An empirical mixed valence simulation routine for determining the average Mn oxidation state has been developed. The first Mn L-edge spectra of a metalloprotein were measured and interpreted. The energy of Mn K{beta} emission is strongly correlated with average Mn oxidation state. K{beta} results support oxidation states of Mn(III){sub 2}(IV){sub 2} for the S{sub 1} state of Photosystem II chemical chemically reduced preparations contain predominantly Mn(II). A strength and limitation of XAS is that it probes all of the species of a particular element in a sample. It would often be advantageous to selectively probe different forms of the same element. The first demonstration that chemical shifts in x-ray fluorescence energies can be used to obtain oxidation state-selective x-ray absorption spectra is presented. Spin-dependent spectra can also be used to obtain a more simplified picture of local structure. The first spin-polarized extended x-ray absorption fine structure using Mn K{beta} fluorescence detection is shown.

  2. Harmonic lasing in X-ray FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2012-05-15

    Harmonic lasing in a free electron laser with a planar undulator (under the condition that the fundamental frequency is suppressed) might be a cheap and efficient way of extension of wavelength ranges of existing and planned X-ray FEL facilities. Contrary to nonlinear harmonic generation, harmonic lasing can provide much more intense, stable, and narrow-band FEL beam which is easier to handle due to the suppressed fundamental frequency. In this paper we perform a parametrization of the solution of the eigenvalue equation for lasing at odd harmonics, and present an explicit expression for FEL gain length, taking into account all essential effects. We propose and discuss methods for suppression of the fundamental harmonic. We also suggest a combined use of harmonic lasing and lasing at the retuned fundamental wavelength in order to reduce bandwidth and to increase brilliance of X-ray beam at saturation. Considering 3rd harmonic lasing as a practical example, we come to the conclusion that it is much more robust than usually thought, and can be widely used in the existing or planned X-ray FEL facilities. In particular, LCLS after a minor modification can lase to saturation at the 3rd harmonic up to the photon energy of 25-30 keV providing multi-gigawatt power level and narrow bandwidth. As for the European XFEL, harmonic lasing would allow to extend operating range (ultimately up to 100 keV), to reduce FEL bandwidth and to increase brilliance, to enable two-color operation for pump-probe experiments, and to provide more flexible operation at different electron energies. Similar improvements can be realized in other X-ray FEL facilities with gap-tunable undulators like FLASH II, SACLA, LCLS II, etc. Harmonic lasing can be an attractive option for compact X-ray FELs (driven by electron beams with a relatively low energy), allowing the use of the standard undulator technology instead of small-gap in-vacuum devices. Finally, in this paper we discover that in a part of the

  3. Mystery of Cometary X-Rays Solved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    On July 14, 2000 NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory imaged Comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) and detected X-rays from oxygen and nitrogen ions. The details of the X-ray emission, as recorded on Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, show that they are produced by collisions of ions racing away from the Sun with gas in the comet. "This observation solves one mystery. It proves how comets produce X-rays," said Dr. Carey Lisse of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) leader of a team of scientists from STScI, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Max Planck Institute in Germany, Johns Hopkins University, the University of California, Berkeley, and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "With an instrument like Chandra, we can now study the chemistry of the solar wind, and observe the X-ray glow from the atmospheres of comets as well as planets such as Venus. It may even be possible to observe other, nearby solar systems." Comets, which resemble "dirty snow balls" a few miles in diameter, were thought to be too cold for such energetic emission, so the detection of X-rays by the ROSAT observatory from comet Hyakutake in 1996 was a surprise. Several explanations were suggested, but the source of cometary X-ray emission remained a puzzle until the Chandra observation of Comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR). Chandra's imaging spectrometer revealed a strong X-ray signal from oxygen and nitrogen ions, clinching the case for the production of X-rays due to the exchange of electrons in collisions between nitrogen and oxygen ions in the solar wind and electrically neutral elements (predominantly hydrogen) in the comets atmosphere. The Chandra observation was taken with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on July 14, 2000 for a total of 2 ½ hours. The comet will be re-observed with Chandra during the weeks of July 29 - Aug 13. Comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) was discovered in September 1999 by the Lincoln Near Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) project, which is operated by the

  4. Principles of femtosecond X-ray/optical cross-correlation with X-ray induced transient optical reflectivity in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, S., E-mail: sebastian.eckert@helmholtz-berlin.de, E-mail: martin.beye@helmholtz-berlin.de; Beye, M., E-mail: sebastian.eckert@helmholtz-berlin.de, E-mail: martin.beye@helmholtz-berlin.de; Pietzsch, A.; Quevedo, W.; Hantschmann, M. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation in Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Ochmann, M.; Huse, N. [Institute for Nanostructure and Solid State Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstr. 11, 20355 Hamburg, Germany and Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ross, M.; Khalil, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 351700, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Minitti, M. P.; Turner, J. J.; Moeller, S. P.; Schlotter, W. F.; Dakovski, G. L. [LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Föhlisch, A. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation in Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-02-09

    The discovery of ultrafast X-ray induced optical reflectivity changes enabled the development of X-ray/optical cross correlation techniques at X-ray free electron lasers worldwide. We have now linked through experiment and theory the fundamental excitation and relaxation steps with the transient optical properties in finite solid samples. Therefore, we gain a thorough interpretation and an optimized detection scheme of X-ray induced changes to the refractive index and the X-ray/optical cross correlation response.

  5. Radiation chemistry of polymeric X-ray resists; Zur Strahlenchemie polymerer Roentgenresists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollersheim, O.

    1995-03-01

    In this study, the radiation chemical reactions in poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) and homo- and copolymers of lactide and glycollide during X-ray exposure with synchrotron radiation from the Bonn ELSA electron storage ring are quantitatively analyzed. In situ studies of the irradiated PMMA and lactide/glycollide polymers with mass spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and ESR spectroscopy combined with ex situ methods as size exclusion chromatography and titration lead to a complete and quantitative understanding of the radiation chemical reactions in both polymer classes. The implications for the application of the polymers in the X-ray deep etch lithography, which is the appropriate process for the production of microsystem components, are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Long-Duration Soft X-Ray Pulses by XeCl Laser Driven Plasmas and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollanti, S; Di Lazzaro, P; Flora, F; Giordano, G; Letardi, T; Schina, G; Zheng, C E; Filippi, L; Palladino, L; Reale, A; Taglieri, G; Batani, D; Mauri, A; Belli, M; Scafati, A; Reale, L; Albertano, P; Grilli, A; Faenov, A; Pikuz, T; Cotton, R

    1995-01-01

    We report the characterization of a soft x-ray plasma source generated by a long-pulse XeCl excimer laser system. The output energy is 4 J at a wavelength of 308 nm in a 100-ns pulse. The intensity of radiation on target is estimated to be 4 × 1012 W cm-2. X-ray emission spectra of the plasma have been recorded using a double focusing spatial resolution spectrometer with a spherical mica crystal. From these measurements, the plasma temperature and electron density have been estimated. Various applications of such a plasma source have been investigated. First images of whole intact living cells from our system, imaged using the technique of soft x-ray contact microscopy, utilizing x rays in the "water window" region (280-530 eV), are shown. The suitability of the source for other applications, for example, x-ray lithography and radiation damage studies, to living cells are discussed. Possible improvements to the x-ray source for the various applications are proposed.

  7. Neutron and X-ray Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carini, Gabriella [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Denes, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gruener, Sol [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Lessner, Elianne [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    2012-08-01

    The Basic Energy Sciences (BES) X-ray and neutron user facilities attract more than 12,000 researchers each year to perform cutting-edge science at these state-of-the-art sources. While impressive breakthroughs in X-ray and neutron sources give us the powerful illumination needed to peer into the nano- to mesoscale world, a stumbling block continues to be the distinct lag in detector development, which is slowing progress toward data collection and analysis. Urgently needed detector improvements would reveal chemical composition and bonding in 3-D and in real time, allow researchers to watch “movies” of essential life processes as they happen, and make much more efficient use of every X-ray and neutron produced by the source The immense scientific potential that will come from better detectors has triggered worldwide activity in this area. Europe in particular has made impressive strides, outpacing the United States on several fronts. Maintaining a vital U.S. leadership in this key research endeavor will require targeted investments in detector R&D and infrastructure. To clarify the gap between detector development and source advances, and to identify opportunities to maximize the scientific impact of BES user facilities, a workshop on Neutron and X-ray Detectors was held August 1-3, 2012, in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Participants from universities, national laboratories, and commercial organizations from the United States and around the globe participated in plenary sessions, breakout groups, and joint open-discussion summary sessions. Sources have become immensely more powerful and are now brighter (more particles focused onto the sample per second) and more precise (higher spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution). To fully utilize these source advances, detectors must become faster, more efficient, and more discriminating. In supporting the mission of today’s cutting-edge neutron and X-ray sources, the workshop identified six detector research challenges

  8. Influence by x-ray facula on dimension measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xulei; Li, Ye; Duanmu, Qingduo; Zhao, Peng

    2015-03-01

    Based on the imaging features of the original image intensifier of X-ray, the light halo caused by X-ray projective halation is analyzed, the result shows the stray X-ray energy is lower than the direct X-ray energy. The screen brightness generated by the image intensifier of X-ray stimulated by the stray X-ray energy is weaker than that generated by the direct X-ray energy. In addition the projector facula reflected from the direct X-ray is focused on the central region of X-ray image intensifier, therefore a toroidal ring similar to the solar halation is formed around the projector halation. The results of the theoretical analysis and experimental discovery show this phenomenon caused by X-ray tube on X-ray image intensifier can not be eliminated and in the system of X-ray size detection composed of them the X-ray halation will reduce the detection accuracy resulting in measurement results' deviation dispersion under given conditions. This kind of nonlinear system error can not be canceled out by the segmented modification of coefficient compensation but it can be restrained through the adjustment of correction coefficients. After the physical testing and comparison of the physical normal size the accuracy of 0.1mm of the compensated X-ray measurement results after the adjustment of correction coefficient has been reached. The results are highly reproducible and the method of the segmented coefficient compensation has been improved.

  9. X-ray scattering measurements from thin-foil x-ray mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; BYRNAK, BP; Hornstrup, Allan

    1992-01-01

    Thin foil X-ray mirrors are to be used as the reflecting elements in the telescopes of the X-ray satellites Spectrum-X-Gamma (SRG) and ASTRO-D. High resolution X-ray scattering measurements from the Au coated and dip-lacquered Al foils are presented. These were obtained from SRG mirrors positioned...... in a test quadrant of the telescope structure and from ASTRO-D foils held in a simple fixture. The X-ray data is compared with laser data and other surface structure data such as STM, atomic force microscopy (AFM), TEM, and electron micrography. The data obtained at Cu K-alpha(1), (8.05 keV) from all...

  10. X-ray optics the diffraction of X-rays by finite and imperfect crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Arthur J C

    1949-01-01

    This fascinating text contains a detailed treatise on the use of X-Ray optics in the taxonomy of minerals and gem stones. An interesting and informative book on the subject, X-Ray Optics - The Diffraction of X-Rays by Finite and Imperfect Crystals is a must-have for anyone with an interest the study of crystals and constitutes a great addition to any gemmological collection. Arthur James Cochran Wilson (28 November 1914 - 1 July 1995) was a Canadian crystallographer, most famous for his contributions to X-ray crystallography and elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1963. This book has been elected for republication now due to its immense educational value, and is proudly republished here complete with a new introduction to the subject.

  11. X-Ray Optics on a Chip: Guiding X Rays in Curved Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salditt, T; Hoffmann, S; Vassholz, M; Haber, J; Osterhoff, M; Hilhorst, J

    2015-11-13

    We study the propagation of hard x rays in single curved x-ray waveguide channels and observe waveguide effects down to surprisingly small radii of curvature R≃10  mm and a large contour length s≃5  mm, deflecting beams up to 30°. At these high angles, about 2 orders of magnitude above the critical angle of total reflection θ(c), most radiation modes are lost by "leaking" into the cladding, while certain "survivor" modes persist. This may open up a new form of integrated x-ray optics "on a chip," requiring curvatures mostly well below the extreme values studied here, e.g., to split and to delay x-ray pulses.

  12. Soft X-ray Absorbers Enabling Study of the Diffuse X-ray Background Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absorbers for soft x-rays need to be made thinner and with larger area, to collect more photons, and with minimal number of support stems. However, the structure is...

  13. Calculation of x-ray scattering patterns from nanocrystals at high x-ray intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Muhammad Abdullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a generalized method to describe the x-ray scattering intensity of the Bragg spots in a diffraction pattern from nanocrystals exposed to intense x-ray pulses. Our method involves the subdivision of a crystal into smaller units. In order to calculate the dynamics within every unit, we employ a Monte-Carlo-molecular dynamics-ab-initio hybrid framework using real space periodic boundary conditions. By combining all the units, we simulate the diffraction pattern of a crystal larger than the transverse x-ray beam profile, a situation commonly encountered in femtosecond nanocrystallography experiments with focused x-ray free-electron laser radiation. Radiation damage is not spatially uniform and depends on the fluence associated with each specific region inside the crystal. To investigate the effects of uniform and non-uniform fluence distribution, we have used two different spatial beam profiles, Gaussian and flattop.

  14. X-Ray Scattering Applications Using Pulsed X-Ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, B.C.

    1999-05-23

    Pulsed x-ray sources have been used in transient structural phenomena investigations for over fifty years; however, until the advent of synchrotrons sources and the development of table-top picosecond lasers, general access to ligh temporal resolution x-ray diffraction was relatively limited. Advances in diffraction techniques, sample excitation schemes, and detector systems, in addition to IncEased access to pulsed sources, have ld tO what is now a diverse and growing array of pulsed-source measurement applications. A survey of time-resolved investigations using pulsed x-ray sources is presented and research opportunities using both present and planned pulsed x-ray sources are discussed.

  15. Behavior of characteristic X-rays from a partial-transmission-type X-ray target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Hamid Saeed; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ha, Jun Mok; Cho, Sung Oh

    2013-10-01

    The angular distribution of characteristic X-rays using a partial-transmission tungsten target was analyzed. Twenty four tallies were modeled to cover a 360° envelope around the target. The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) simulation results revealed that the characteristic X-ray flux is not always isotropic around the target. Rather, the flux mainly depends on the target thickness and the energy of the incident electron beam. A multi-energy photon generator is proposed to emit high-energy characteristic X-rays, where the target acts as a filter for the low-energy characteristic X-rays. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Monolithic CMOS imaging x-ray spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenter, Almus; Kraft, Ralph; Gauron, Thomas; Murray, Stephen S.

    2014-07-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in collaboration with SRI/Sarnoff is developing monolithic CMOS detectors optimized for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this multi-year program is to produce CMOS x-ray imaging spectrometers that are Fano noise limited over the 0.1-10keV energy band while incorporating the many benefits of CMOS technology. These benefits include: low power consumption, radiation "hardness", high levels of integration, and very high read rates. Small format test devices from a previous wafer fabrication run (2011-2012) have recently been back-thinned and tested for response below 1keV. These devices perform as expected in regards to dark current, read noise, spectral response and Quantum Efficiency (QE). We demonstrate that running these devices at rates ~> 1Mpix/second eliminates the need for cooling as shot noise from any dark current is greatly mitigated. The test devices were fabricated on 15μm, high resistivity custom (~30kΩ-cm) epitaxial silicon and have a 16 by 192 pixel format. They incorporate 16μm pitch, 6 Transistor Pinned Photo Diode (6TPPD) pixels which have ~40μV/electron sensitivity and a highly parallel analog CDS signal chain. Newer, improved, lower noise detectors have just been fabricated (October 2013). These new detectors are fabricated on 9μm epitaxial silicon and have a 1k by 1k format. They incorporate similar 16μm pitch, 6TPPD pixels but have ~ 50% higher sensitivity and much (3×) lower read noise. These new detectors have undergone preliminary testing for functionality in Front Illuminated (FI) form and are presently being prepared for back thinning and packaging. Monolithic CMOS devices such as these, would be ideal candidate detectors for the focal planes of Solar, planetary and other space-borne x-ray astronomy missions. The high through-put, low noise and excellent low energy response, provide high dynamic range and good time resolution; bright, time varying x-ray features could be temporally and

  17. Nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boye, Pit

    2010-02-05

    This thesis is concerned with the optimization and development of the production of nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses. These optics made of either silicon or diamond are well-suited for high resolution X-ray microscopy. The goal of this work is the design of a reproducible manufacturing process which allows the production of silicon lenses with high precision, high quality and high piece number. Furthermore a process for the production of diamond lenses is to be developed and established. In this work, the theoretical basics of X-rays and their interaction with matter are described. Especially, aspects of synchrotron radiation are emphasized. Important in X-ray microscopy are the different optics. The details, advantages and disadvantages, in particular those of refractive lenses are given. To achieve small X-ray beams well beyond the 100 nm range a small focal length is required. This is achieved in refractive lenses by moving to a compact lens design where several single lenses are stacked behind each other. The, so-called nanofocusing refractive lenses (NFLs) have a parabolic cylindrical shape with lateral structure sizes in the micrometer range. NFLs are produced by using micro-machining techniques. These micro-fabrication processes and technologies are introduced. The results of the optimization and the final fabrication process for silicon lenses are presented. Subsequently, two experiments that are exemplary for the use of NFLs, are introduced. The rst one employs a high-resolution scanning fluorescence mapping of a geological sample, and the second one is a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) experiment. CXDI is able to reconstruct the illuminated object from recorded coherent diffraction patterns. In a scanning mode, referred to as ptychography, this method is even able to reconstruct the illumination and the object simultaneously. Especially the reconstructed illumination and the possibility of computed propagation of the wave field along the

  18. X-RAY POLARIZATION FROM HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallman, T. [NASA/GSFC, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Dorodnitsyn, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Blondin, J. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    X-ray astronomy allows study of objects that may be associated with compact objects, i.e., neutron stars or black holes, and also may contain strong magnetic fields. Such objects are categorically nonspherical, and likely noncircular when projected on the sky. Polarization allows study of such geometric effects, and X-ray polarimetry is likely to become feasible for a significant number of sources in the future. Potential targets for future X-ray polarization observations are the high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), which consist of a compact object in orbit with an early-type star. In this paper we show that X-ray polarization from HMXBs has a distinct signature that depends on the source inclination and orbital phase. The presence of the X-ray source displaced from the star creates linear polarization even if the primary wind is spherically symmetric whenever the system is viewed away from conjunction. Direct X-rays dilute this polarization whenever the X-ray source is not eclipsed; at mid-eclipse the net polarization is expected to be small or zero if the wind is circularly symmetric around the line of centers. Resonance line scattering increases the scattering fraction, often by large factors, over the energy band spanned by resonance lines. Real winds are not expected to be spherically symmetric, or circularly symmetric around the line of centers, owing to the combined effects of the compact object gravity and ionization on the wind hydrodynamics. A sample calculation shows that this creates polarization fractions ranging up to tens of percent at mid-eclipse.

  19. An x-ray nebula associated with the millisecond pulsar B1957+20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappers, B W; Gaensler, B M; Kaspi, V M; van der Klis, M; Lewin, W H G

    2003-02-28

    We have detected an x-ray nebula around the binary millisecond pulsar B1957+20. A narrow tail, corresponding to the shocked pulsar wind, is seen interior to the known Halpha bow shock and proves the long-held assumption that the rotational energy of millisecond pulsars is dissipated through relativistic winds. Unresolved x-ray emission likely represents the shock where the winds of the pulsar and its companion collide. This emission indicates that the efficiency with which relativistic particles are accelerated in the postshock flow is similar to that for young pulsars, despite the shock proximity and much weaker surface magnetic field of this millisecond pulsar.

  20. Superconductive junctions with trappinglayers for the detection of X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grand, J. B.; Bruijn, M. P.; Frericks, M.; Laauwen, W.; Nilsson, D.; de Korte, P. A. J.; Valko, P.; Gijsbertsen, J. G.; Houwman, E. P.; Flokstra, J.

    1993-11-01

    Addition of a trapping layer to an SIS junction improves its performance as an X-ray detector. In this article X-ray induced pulse height and decay time spectra will be presented as a function of bias voltage. These measurements are in good agreement with a description based on the time constants for trapping, excitation and tunneling calculated by means of a model for proximity layers developed by Golubov et al..1,2The interpretation of the data doesn't require an initial fast loss process for the created quasi-particles as discussed by Van Vechten.3

  1. Selection of materials for soft x-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) filters for space astronomy and other applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Forbes R.; Drake, Virginia A.; Sandel, Bill R.; Mitchell, Donald G.

    1994-09-01

    This paper briefly reviews the more traditional materials that have been used for Soft X-Ray (SXR) and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) filters and then discusses several applications where new multilayer combinations of materials are being employed. The new applications include projection lithography and the detection of Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) populations from spacecraft. Also briefly discussed is the use of polyimides for spacecraft filters.

  2. ZBLAN-based x-ray storage phosphors and scintillators for digital x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Johnson, Jacqueline A.; Weber, Richard; Schweizer, Stefan; MacFarlane, Douglas; Woodford, John; De Carlo, Francesco

    2005-04-01

    X-ray storage phosphors have several advantages over traditional films as well as digital X-ray detectors based on thin-film transistors (TFT). Commercially used storage phosphors do not have high resolution due to light scattering from powder grains. To solve this problem, we have developed storage phosphor plates based on modified fluorozirconate (ZBLAN) glasses. The newly developed imaging plates are "grainless" and, therefore, can significantly reduce light scattering and improve image resolution. To study the structure and image performance of the novel storage phosphor plates, we conducted X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray imaging analyses at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. The XRD results show that BaCl2 crystallites are embedded in the glass matrix. These crystallites enlarge and are under residual stress after heat treatment. The X-ray imaging study shows that these storage phosphor plates have a much better resolution than a commercially used storage phosphor screen. The results also show that some of the glass ceramics are high-resolution scintillators. Our study demonstrates that these fluorozirconate-based glass ceramics are a promising candidate for high-resolution digital X-ray detectors for both medical and scientific research purposes.

  3. HERMES: a soft X-ray beamline dedicated to X-ray microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhou, Rachid; Stanescu, Stefan; Swaraj, Sufal; Besson, Adrien; Ledoux, Milena; Hajlaoui, Mahdi; Dalle, Didier

    2015-07-01

    The HERMES beamline (High Efficiency and Resolution beamline dedicated to X-ray Microscopy and Electron Spectroscopy), built at Synchrotron SOLEIL (Saint-Auban, France), is dedicated to soft X-ray microscopy. The beamline combines two complementary microscopy methods: XPEEM (X-ray Photo Emitted Electron Microscopy) and STXM (Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy) with an aim to reach spatial resolution below 20 nm and to fully exploit the local spectroscopic capabilities of the two microscopes. The availability of the two methods within the same beamline enables the users to select the appropriate approach to study their specific case in terms of sample environment, spectroscopy methods, probing depth etc. In this paper a general description of the beamline and its design are presented. The performance and specifications of the beamline will be reviewed in detail. Moreover, the article is aiming to demonstrate how the beamline performances have been specifically optimized to fulfill the specific requirements of a soft X-ray microscopy beamline in terms of flux, resolution, beam size etc. Special attention has been dedicated to overcome some limiting and hindering problems that are usually encountered on soft X-ray beamlines such as carbon contamination, thermal stability and spectral purity.

  4. X-Ray Polarization Measurements with the EXIST Hard X-Ray Survey Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczynski, Henric; Garson, A., III; Hong, J.; Grindlay, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) is a proposed NASA mission for scanning the entire sky in intermediate and hard X-rays. The EXIST mission includes a wide field of view High Energy Telescope (HET) covering the 5-600 keV energy range, and an infrared telescope. The HET has the capability to measure the energy dependent X-ray polarization properties of moderately bright and bright X-ray sources. Here we report on a study of the polarization sensitivity of EXIST as a function of the integration time. Broadband X-ray polarization measurements with EXIST have the potential to make important contributions to our understanding of a number of astrophysical source types including binary black holes, accreting neutron stars, magnetars, pulsar wind nebulae, active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. EXIST observations of the X-rays from binary black holes can be used to constrain the spins of black holes. Last but not least, EXIST observations of active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts can be used for extremely sensitive Lorentz Invariance tests.

  5. X-ray bursts observed with JEM-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren Kristian; Chenevez, Jérôme; Lund, Niels

    2006-01-01

    We report on the search for X-ray bursts in the JEM-X X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL during the first two years of operations. More than 350 bursts from 25 different type-I X-ray burst sources were found.......We report on the search for X-ray bursts in the JEM-X X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL during the first two years of operations. More than 350 bursts from 25 different type-I X-ray burst sources were found....

  6. A soft X-ray image of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Aschenbach, B.; Hasinger, G.; Pfeffermann, E.; Snowden, S. L.

    1991-01-01

    A soft X-ray image of the moon obtained by the Roentgen Observatory Satellite ROSAT clearly shows a sunlit crescent, demonstrating that the moon's X-ray luminosity arises from backscattering of solar X-rays. The moon's optically dark side is also X-ray dark, and casts a distinct shadow on the diffuse cosmic X-ray background. Unexpectedly, the dark side seems to emit X-rays at a level about one percent of that of the bright side; this emission very probably results from energetic solar-wind electrons striking the moon's surface.

  7. Increasing the field of view in grating based X-ray phase contrast imaging using stitched gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser, J; Willner, M; Schröter, T; Hofmann, A; Rieger, J; Koch, F; Birnbacher, L; Schüttler, M; Kunka, D; Meyer, P; Faisal, A; Amberger, M; Duttenhofer, T; Weber, T; Hipp, A; Ehn, S; Walter, M; Herzen, J; Schulz, J; Pfeiffer, F; Mohr, J

    2016-03-17

    Grating based X-ray differential phase contrast imaging (DPCI) allows for high contrast imaging of materials with similar absorption characteristics. In the last years' publications, small animals or parts of the human body like breast, hand, joints or blood vessels have been studied. Larger objects could not be investigated due to the restricted field of view limited by the available grating area. In this paper, we report on a new stitching method to increase the grating area significantly: individual gratings are merged on a carrier substrate. Whereas the grating fabrication process is based on the LIGA technology (X-ray lithography and electroplating) different cutting and joining methods have been evaluated. First imaging results using a 2×2 stitched analyzer grating in a Talbot-Lau interferometer have been generated using a conventional polychromatic X-ray source. The image quality and analysis confirm the high potential of the stitching method to increase the field of view considerably.

  8. X-ray radiography for container inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jonathan I [Clayton, MO; Morris, Christopher L [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-06-07

    Arrangements of X-ray inspection systems are described for inspecting high-z materials in voluminous objects such as containers. Inspection methods may involve generating a radiographic image based on detected attenuation corresponding to a pulsed beams of radiation transmitted through a voluminous object. The pulsed beams of radiation are generated by a high-energy source and transmitted substantially downward along an incident angle, of approximately 1.degree. to 30.degree., to a vertical axis extending through the voluminous object. The generated radiographic image may be analyzed to detect on localized high attenuation representative of high-z materials and to discriminate high-z materials from lower and intermediate-z materials on the basis of the high density and greater attenuation of high-z material for higher energy (3-10 MeV) X-rays, and the compact nature of threatening masses of fissionable materials.

  9. Soft X-ray multilayers and filters

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Zhan Shan; Tang Wei Xing; Qin Shuji; Zhou Bing; Chen Ling Ya

    2002-01-01

    The periodic and non-periodic multilayers were designed by using a random number to change each layer and a suitable merit function. Ion beam sputtering and magnetron sputtering were used to fabricate various multilayers and beam splitters in soft X-ray range. The characterization of multilayers by small angle X-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy and reflectivity illustrated the multilayers had good structures and smooth interlayers. The reflectivity and transmission of a beam splitter is about 5%. The fabrication and transmission properties of Ag, Zr were studied. The Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy and auger electron spectroscopy were used to investigate the contents and distributions of impurities and influence on qualities of filters. The attenuation coefficients were corrected by the data obtained by measurements

  10. Neutron and X-ray Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hippert, Françoise; Hodeau, Jean Louis; Lelièvre-Berna, Eddy; Regnard, Jean-René

    2006-01-01

    Neutron and X-Ray Spectroscopy delivers an up-to-date account of the principles and practice of inelastic and spectroscopic methods available at neutron and synchrotron sources, including recent developments. The chapters are based on a course of lectures and practicals (the HERCULES course) delivered to young scientists who require these methods in their professional careers. Each chapter, written by a leading specialist in the field, introduces the basic concepts of the technique and provides an overview of recent work. This volume, which focuses on spectroscopic techniques in synchrotron radiation and inelastic neutron scattering, will be a primary source of information for physicists, chemists and materials scientists who wish to acquire a basic understanding of these techniques and to discover the possibilities offered by them. Emphasizing the complementarity of the neutron and X-ray methods, this tutorial will also be invaluable to scientists already working in neighboring fields who seek to extend thei...

  11. X-Ray Polarimetry with GEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2011-01-01

    The polarization properties of cosmic X-ray sources are still largely unexplored. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX (GEMS) will carry out the first sensitive X-ray polarization survey of a wide range of sources including; accreting compact objects (black holes and neutron stars), AGN, supernova remnants, magnetars and rotation-powered pulsars. GEMS employs grazing-incidence foil mirrors and novel time-projection chamber (TPC) polarimeters leveraging the photoelectric effect to achieve high polarization sensitivity in the 2 - 10 keV band. I will provide an update of the project status, illustrate the expected performance with several science examples, and provide a brief overview of the data analysis challenges

  12. X-ray Winds from Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon M.

    2017-08-01

    Across the mass scale, high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy has transformed our view of accretion onto black holes. The ionized disk winds observed from stellar-mass black holes may sometimes eject more mass than is able to accrete onto the black hole. It is possible that these winds can probe the fundamental physics that drive disk accretion. The most powerful winds from accretion onto massive black holes may play a role in feedback, seeding host bulges with hot gas and halting star formation. The lessons and techniques emerging from these efforts can also reveal the accretion flow geometry in tidal disruption events (TDEs), an especially rich discovery space. This talk will review some recent progress enabled by high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy, and look at the potential of gratings spectrometers and microcalorimeters in the years ahead.

  13. The microchannel x-ray telescope status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, D.; Meuris, A.; Pinsard, F.; Doumayrou, E.; Tourrette, T.; Osborne, J. P.; Willingale, R.; Sykes, J. M.; Pearson, J. F.; Le Duigou, J. M.; Mercier, K.

    2016-07-01

    We present design status of the Microchannel X-ray Telescope, the focussing X-ray telescope on board the Sino- French SVOM mission dedicated to Gamma-Ray Bursts. Its optical design is based on square micro-pore optics (MPOs) in a Lobster-Eye configuration. The optics will be coupled to a low-noise pnCCD sensitive in the 0.2{10 keV energy range. With an expected point spread function of 4.5 arcmin (FWHM) and an estimated sensitivity adequate to detect all the afterglows of the SVOM GRBs, MXT will be able to provide error boxes smaller than 60 (90% c.l.) arc sec after five minutes of observation.

  14. Two-channel X-ray reflectometer

    CERN Document Server

    Touryanski, A G; Pirshin, I V

    2000-01-01

    The two-channel X-ray reflectometer is proposed providing an increase in accuracy and sensitivity especially to nanoscale oxide layers. The reflectometer has two independent measuring channels controlled by a processor and the beam-splitting and spectral selection device based on a row of semitransparent plates of pyrolitic graphite. Results of reflection curve measurements in a relative mode are presented for an Ni film and GaAs monocrystal.

  15. X-ray microimaging by diffractive techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirz, Janos; Jacobsen, Chris

    2001-07-31

    The report summarizes the development of soft x-ray microscopes at the National Synchrotron Light Source X-1A beamline. We have developed a soft x-ray microscopy beamline (X-1A) at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This beamline has been upgraded recently to provide two endstations dedicated to microscopy experiments. One endstation hosts a brand new copy of the redesigned room temperature scanning x-ray microscope (STXM), and the other end station hosts a cryo STXM and the original redesigned room temperature microscope, which has been commissioned and has started operation. Cryo STXM and the new microscope use the same new software package, running under the LINUX operating system. The new microscope is showing improved image resolution and extends spectromicroscopy to the nitrogen, oxygen and iron edges. These microscopes are used by us, and by users of the facility, to image hydrated specimens at 50 nm or better spatial resolution and with 0.1-0.5 eV energy resolution. This allows us to carry out chemical state mapping in biological, materials science, and environmental and colloidal science specimens. In the cryo microscope, we are able to do chemical state mapping and tomography of frozen hydrated specimens, and this is of special importance for radiation-sensitive biological specimens. for spectromicroscopic analysis, and methods for obtaining real-space images from the soft x-ray diffraction patterns of non-crystalline specimens. The user program provides opportunities for collaborators and other groups to exploit the techniques available and to develop them further. We have also developed new techniques such as an automated method for acquiring ''stacks'' of images.

  16. Axion mass limits from pulsar x rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, D.E.

    1984-12-01

    Axions thermally emitted by a neutron star would be converted into x rays in the strong magnetic field surrounding the star. An improvement in the observational upper limit of pulsed x rays from the Vela pulsar (PSR 0833-45) by a factor of 12 would constrain the axion mass M/sub a/ < 2 x 10/sup -3/eV if the core is non-superfluid and at temperature T/sub c/ greater than or equal to 2 x 10/sup 8/K. If the core is superfluid throughout, an improvement factor of 240 would be needed to provide the same constraint on the axion mass, while in the absence of superfluidity, an improvement factor of 200 could constrain M/sub a/ < 6 x 10/sup -4/eV. A search for modulated hard x rays from PSR 1509-58 or other young pulsars at presently attainable sensitivities may enable the setting of an upper limit for the axion mass. Observation of hard x rays from a very young hot pulsar with T/sub c/ greater than or equal to 7 x 10/sup 8/K could set a firm bound on the axion mass, since neutron superfluidity is not expected above this temperature. The remaining axion mass range 6 x 10/sup -4/eV > M/sub a/ > 10/sup -5/eV (the cosmological lower bound) can be covered by an improved Sikivie type laboratory cavity detector for relic axions constituting the galactic halo. 48 refs.

  17. Early x-ray diagnosis of coxarthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingg, G.; Nebel, G.

    Radiological and pathological comparisons on specimen of femur head and neck at autopsy have shown a statistical relationship between osteophytosis of the femoral head and ulcerations of the joint cartilage. Especially, there are highly significant relationships between the length of osteophytes and the diameter of the ulcera. The 'plaque'-sign is shown to be a very sensitive indicator of early arthrosis. So there exist semiquantitative parameters for the X-ray diagnosis of early coxarthrosis.

  18. Clustering of X-Ray-Selected AGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cappelluti

    2012-01-01

    that galaxy mergers may constitute the main AGN-triggering mechanism. However, detailed analysis of observational data, acquired with modern telescopes, and the use of the new halo occupation formalism has revealed that the triggering of an AGN could also be attributed to phenomena-like tidal disruption or disk instability and to galaxy evolution. This paper reviews results from 1988 to 2011 in the field of X-ray-selected AGN clustering.

  19. Monitoring Instrument for X-Ray Box

    CERN Document Server

    Cifuentes Ospina, Alberto; Kuehn, Susanne; Schaepe, Steffen; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2017-01-01

    A humidity and temperature readout instrument has been designed and implemented in order to monitor the X-Ray Box used for testing the silicon detectors prototypes of the ITk. The sensors are connected to an Arduino Mega board equipped with 16 analog inputs and a serial port to a computer. A user-friendly software has been also designed in order to give an easy access to all measurements.

  20. Basic of X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacovazzo, C. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Dip. Geomineralogico

    1996-09-01

    The basic concepts of X-ray diffraction may be more easily understood if it is made preliminary use of a mathematical background. In these pages the authors will first define the delta function and its use for the representation of a lattice. Then the concepts of Fourier transform and convolution are given. At the end of this talk one should realize that a crystal is the convolution of the lattice with a function representing the content of the unit cell.

  1. A comparison of Kodak Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed plus dental X-ray films for the detection of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A; Monsour, P A; Moule, A J; Basford, K E

    2002-03-01

    Using the fastest dental X-ray film available is an easy way of reducing exposure to ionizing radiation. However, the diagnostic ability of fast films for the detection of proximal surface caries must be demonstrated before these films will become universally accepted. Extracted premolar and molar teeth were arranged to simulate a bitewing examination and radiographed using Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed Plus dental X-ray films. Three different exposure times were used for each film type. Six general dentists were used to determine the presence and depth of the decay in the proximal surfaces of the teeth radiographed. The actual extent of the decay in the teeth was determined by sectioning the teeth and examining them under a microscope. There was no significant difference between the two films for the mean correct diagnosis. However, there was a significant difference between the means for the three exposure times used for Ultraspeed film. The practitioners used were not consistent in their ability to make a correct diagnosis, or for the film for which they got the highest correct diagnosis. Ektaspeed Plus dental X-ray film is just as reliable as Ultraspeed dental X-ray film for the detection of proximal surface decay. The effect of underexposure was significant for Ultraspeed, but not for Ektaspeed Plus. Patient exposure can be reduced significantly with no loss of diagnostic ability by changing from Ultraspeed X-ray film to Ektaspeed Plus X-ray film.

  2. The X-ray Telescope of CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M.; Cebrian, S.; Davenport, M.; Elefteriadis, C.; Englhauser, J.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, P.; Hartmann, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Hoffmeister, G.; Joux, J.N.; Kang, D.; Konigsmann, Kay; Kotthaus, R.; Papaevangelou, T.; Lasseur, C.; Lippitsch, A.; Lutz, G.; Morales, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Struder, L.; Vogel, J.; Zioutas, K.

    2007-01-01

    The Cern Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is in operation and taking data since 2003. The main objective of the CAST experiment is to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar boson, the axion, which might be produced in the core of the sun. The basic physics process CAST is based on is the time inverted Primakoff effect, by which an axion can be converted into a detectable photon in an external electromagnetic field. The resulting X-ray photons are expected to be thermally distributed between 1 and 7 keV. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. With the X-ray telescope of CAST a background reduction of more than 2 orders off magnitude is achieved, such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant g_agg can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constraints g_agg < 1 x 10^-10 GeV^-1.

  3. X-raying galaxies: a Chandra legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q Daniel

    2010-04-20

    This presentation reviews Chandra's major contribution to the understanding of nearby galaxies. After a brief summary on significant advances in characterizing various types of discrete x-ray sources, the presentation focuses on the global hot gas in and around galaxies, especially normal ones like our own. The hot gas is a product of stellar and active galactic nuclear feedback--the least understood part in theories of galaxy formation and evolution. Chandra observations have led to the first characterization of the spatial, thermal, chemical, and kinetic properties of the gas in our galaxy. The gas is concentrated around the galactic bulge and disk on scales of a few kiloparsec. The column density of chemically enriched hot gas on larger scales is at least an order magnitude smaller, indicating that it may not account for the bulk of the missing baryon matter predicted for the galactic halo according to the standard cosmology. Similar results have also been obtained for other nearby galaxies. The x-ray emission from hot gas is well correlated with the star formation rate and stellar mass, indicating that the heating is primarily due to the stellar feedback. However, the observed x-ray luminosity of the gas is typically less than a few percent of the feedback energy. Thus the bulk of the feedback (including injected heavy elements) is likely lost in galaxy-wide outflows. The results are compared with simulations of the feedback to infer its dynamics and interplay with the circumgalactic medium, hence the evolution of galaxies.

  4. Healing X-ray scattering images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiliang; Lhermitte, Julien; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Zheng; Yu, Dantong; Yager, Kevin G

    2017-07-01

    X-ray scattering images contain numerous gaps and defects arising from detector limitations and experimental configuration. We present a method to heal X-ray scattering images, filling gaps in the data and removing defects in a physically meaningful manner. Unlike generic inpainting methods, this method is closely tuned to the expected structure of reciprocal-space data. In particular, we exploit statistical tests and symmetry analysis to identify the structure of an image; we then copy, average and interpolate measured data into gaps in a way that respects the identified structure and symmetry. Importantly, the underlying analysis methods provide useful characterization of structures present in the image, including the identification of diffuse versus sharp features, anisotropy and symmetry. The presented method leverages known characteristics of reciprocal space, enabling physically reasonable reconstruction even with large image gaps. The method will correspondingly fail for images that violate these underlying assumptions. The method assumes point symmetry and is thus applicable to small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data, but only to a subset of wide-angle data. Our method succeeds in filling gaps and healing defects in experimental images, including extending data beyond the original detector borders.

  5. Healing X-ray scattering images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiliang Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available X-ray scattering images contain numerous gaps and defects arising from detector limitations and experimental configuration. We present a method to heal X-ray scattering images, filling gaps in the data and removing defects in a physically meaningful manner. Unlike generic inpainting methods, this method is closely tuned to the expected structure of reciprocal-space data. In particular, we exploit statistical tests and symmetry analysis to identify the structure of an image; we then copy, average and interpolate measured data into gaps in a way that respects the identified structure and symmetry. Importantly, the underlying analysis methods provide useful characterization of structures present in the image, including the identification of diffuse versus sharp features, anisotropy and symmetry. The presented method leverages known characteristics of reciprocal space, enabling physically reasonable reconstruction even with large image gaps. The method will correspondingly fail for images that violate these underlying assumptions. The method assumes point symmetry and is thus applicable to small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS data, but only to a subset of wide-angle data. Our method succeeds in filling gaps and healing defects in experimental images, including extending data beyond the original detector borders.

  6. Reabsorption of soft x-ray emission at high x-ray free-electron laser fluences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Simon; Beye, Martin; Sellberg, Jonas A; McQueen, Trevor; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kennedy, Brian; Eckert, Sebastian; Schlesinger, Daniel; Nordlund, Dennis; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Sierra, Raymond G; Segtnan, Vegard H; Kubicek, Katharina; Schlotter, William F; Dakovski, Georgi L; Moeller, Stefan P; Bergmann, Uwe; Techert, Simone; Pettersson, Lars G M; Wernet, Philippe; Bogan, Michael J; Harada, Yoshihisa; Nilsson, Anders; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2014-10-10

    We report on oxygen K-edge soft x-ray emission spectroscopy from a liquid water jet at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We observe significant changes in the spectral content when tuning over a wide range of incident x-ray fluences. In addition the total emission yield decreases at high fluences. These modifications result from reabsorption of x-ray emission by valence-excited molecules generated by the Auger cascade. Our observations have major implications for future x-ray emission studies at intense x-ray sources. We highlight the importance of the x-ray pulse length with respect to the core-hole lifetime.

  7. Characterization of the dose perturbation by stents as a function of X-ray beam energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, M C; Rosenzweig, D P; Weaver, K A; Fenton, B M; Rubin, P

    1999-01-01

    External beam irradiation of coronary arteries has been shown to be detrimental in an animal model for the prevention of neointimal hyperplasia in the presence of stents when orthovoltage x-ray beams are used. The present study investigated the effect of beam energy on the dose distribution in the wall of the artery in the presence of stents. We used 250-kVp x-rays and 6-MV x-rays to irradiate a stent placed in a homogeneous phantom. Radiochromic film densitometry and Monte Carlo calculations were used to measure and to simulate the dose distribution in the proximity of the stent. External beam irradiation not only failed to prevent neointimal hyperplasia, but actually accentuated the neointimal response to a prompt mechanical injury in the artery. The photoelectric effect, which dominates low-energy x-ray interactions, produces recoil electrons in the stent, which enhance the dose surrounding the intima. The photoelectrons generated in nickel and iron have an extremely short range in normal tissue, approximately 0.1 mm. Initial estimates of orthovoltage x-ray interactions with the stent indicate a dose enhancement in the orthovoltage range by a factor of 2-6 due to the rise in the photoelectric cross section in this energy range depending on the elemental composition of the stent. Film densitometry verifies this dose enhancement. The Monte Carlo calculation yields a dose enhancement and the dose fall-off with distance from the stent when irradiated with orthovoltage x-rays. Conversely when the tissue and stent are irradiated with megavoltage x-rays, the dose enhancement in this region is a factor of 1.15 in close proximity to the stent and 1.0 at distances greater than 0.1 mm. The 6-MV photon interactions in tissue and Ni/Ti are predominantly through Compton scattering. The Compton effect is dependent on the electron density in the medium, in contrast to the atomic number, which is more relevant for photoelectric absorption. The dose estimates for megavoltage x-rays

  8. Overview of the ARGOS X-ray framing camera for Laser MegaJoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trosseille, C., E-mail: clement.trosseille@cea.fr; Aubert, D.; Auger, L.; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Chollet, C.; Jasmin, S.; Maruenda, P.; Moreau, I.; Oudot, G.; Raimbourg, J.; Soullié, G.; Stemmler, P.; Zuber, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Beck, T. [CEA, DEN, CADARACHE, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Gazave, J. [CEA, DAM, CESTA, F-33116 Le Barp (France)

    2014-11-15

    Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives has developed the ARGOS X-ray framing camera to perform two-dimensional, high-timing resolution imaging of an imploding target on the French high-power laser facility Laser MegaJoule. The main features of this camera are: a microchannel plate gated X-ray detector, a spring-loaded CCD camera that maintains proximity focus in any orientation, and electronics packages that provide remotely-selectable high-voltages to modify the exposure-time of the camera. These components are integrated into an “air-box” that protects them from the harsh environmental conditions. A miniaturized X-ray generator is also part of the device for in situ self-testing purposes.

  9. The hard X-ray perspective on the soft X-ray excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, Ranjan V.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Lohfink, Anne M.; Zoghbi, Abderahmen [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Fabian, Andrew C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Gallo, Luigi C. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary' s University, 923 Robie Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3 (Canada); Walton, Dominic, E-mail: ranjan@astro.umd.edu [Cahill Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    The X-ray spectra of many active galactic nuclei exhibit a 'soft excess' below 1 keV, whose physical origin remains unclear. Diverse models have been suggested to account for it, including ionized reflection of X-rays from the inner part of the accretion disk, ionized winds/absorbers, and Comptonization. The ionized reflection model suggests a natural link between the prominence of the soft excess and the Compton reflection hump strength above 10 keV, but it has not been clear what hard X-ray signatures, if any, are expected from the other soft X-ray candidate models. Additionally, it has not been possible up until recently to obtain high-quality simultaneous measurements of both soft and hard X-ray emission necessary to distinguish these models but upcoming joint XMM-NuSTAR programs provide precisely this opportunity. In this paper, we present an extensive analysis of simulations of XMM-NuSTAR observations, using two candidate soft excess models as inputs, to determine whether such campaigns can disambiguate between them by using hard and soft X-ray observations in tandem. The simulated spectra are fit with the simplest 'observer's model' of a blackbody and neutral reflection to characterize the strength of the soft and hard excesses. A plot of the strength of the hard excess against the soft excess strength provides a diagnostic plot which allows the soft excess production mechanism to be determined in individual sources and samples using current state-of-the-art and next generation hard X-ray enabled observatories. This approach can be straightforwardly extended to other candidate models for the soft excess.

  10. Thin Films for X-ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Raymond

    Focusing x-rays with refraction requires an entire array of lens instead of a single element, each contributing a minute amount of focusing to the system. In contrast to their visible light counterparts, diffractive optics require a certain depth along the optical axis in order to provide sufficient phase shift. Mirrors reflect only at very shallow angles. In order to increase the angle of incidence, contribution from constructive interference within many layers needs to be collected. This requires a multilayer coating. Thin films have become a central ingredient for many x-ray optics due to the ease of which material composition and thickness can be controlled. Chapter 1 starts with a short introduction and survey of the field of x-ray optics. This begins with an explanation of reflective multilayers. Focusing optics are presented next, including mirrors, zone plates, refractive lenses, and multilayer Laue lens (MLL). The strengths and weaknesses of each "species" of optic are briefly discussed, alongside fabrication issues and the ultimate performance for each. Practical considerations on the use of thin-films for x-ray optics fabrication span a wide array of topics including material systems selection and instrumentation design. Sputter deposition is utilized exclusively for the work included herein because this method of thin-film deposition allows a wide array of deposition parameters to be controlled. This chapter also includes a short description of two deposition systems I have designed. Chapter 2 covers a small sampling of some of my work on reflective multilayers, and outlines two of the deposition systems I have designed and built at the Advanced Photon Source. A three-stripe double multilayer monochromator is presented as a case study in order to detail specifications, fabrication, and performance of this prolific breed of x-ray optics. The APS Rotary Deposition System was the first deposition system in the world designed specifically for multilayer

  11. X-Rays: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do I Need X-Rays? (Academy of General Dentistry) Videos and Tutorials Chest X-Ray (American College ... of Radiologic Technologists) - PDF - In English and Spanish Pediatric Voiding Cystourethrogram (American College of Radiology, Radiological Society ...

  12. Exploration of Monoenergetic X-Ray Mammography with Syncrotron Radiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Richard

    1998-01-01

    .... Specifically developed as part of our x-ray mammography program utilizing monochromatic x-rays from a synchrotron source, this technique has produced images of test objects and tissue whose contrast...

  13. Improved intensifying screen reduces X-ray exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    X-ray intensifying screen may make possible radiographic procedures where detection speed and X-ray tube power have been the limiting factors. Device will reduce total population exposure to harmful radiation in the United States.

  14. Calculating the X-Ray Fluorescence from the Planet Mercury Due to High-Energy Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbine, T. H.; Trombka, J. I.; Bergstrom, P. M., Jr.; Christon, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    The least-studied terrestrial planet is Mercury due to its proximity to the Sun, which makes telescopic observations and spacecraft encounters difficult. Our lack of knowledge about Mercury should change in the near future due to the recent launching of MESSENGER, a Mercury orbiter. Another mission (BepiColombo) is currently being planned. The x-ray spectrometer on MESSENGER (and planned for BepiColombo) can characterize the elemental composition of a planetary surface by measuring emitted fluorescent x-rays. If electrons are ejected from an atom s inner shell by interaction with energetic particles such as photons, electrons, or ions, electrons from an outer shell can transfer to the inner shell. Characteristic x-rays are then emitted with energies that are the difference between the binding energy of the ion in its excited state and that of the ion in its ground state. Because each element has a unique set of energy levels, each element emits x-rays at a unique set of energies. Electrons and ions usually do not have the needed flux at high energies to cause significant x-ray fluorescence on most planetary bodies. This is not the case for Mercury where high-energy particles were detected during the Mariner 10 flybys. Mercury has an intrinsic magnetic field that deflects the solar wind, resulting in a bow shock in the solar wind and a magnetospheric cavity. Electrons and ions accelerated in the magnetosphere tend to follow its magnetic field lines and can impact the surface on Mercury s dark side Modeling has been done to determine if x-ray fluorescence resulting from the impact of high-energy electrons accelerated in Mercury's magnetosphere can be detected by MESSENGER. Our goal is to understand how much bulk chemical information can be obtained from x-ray fluorescence measurements on the dark side of Mercury.

  15. X-ray crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yennawar, Hemant; Møller, Magda; Gillilan, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase (slSDH) has been determined using the crystal structure of human sorbitol dehydrogenase (hSDH) as a molecular-replacement model. slSDH crystallized in space group I222 with one monomer in the asymmetric unit. A conserved tetramer...... that superposes well with that seen in hSDH (despite belonging to a different space group) and obeying the 222 crystal symmetry is seen in slSDH. An acetate molecule is bound in the active site, coordinating to the active-site zinc through a water molecule. Glycerol, a substrate of slSDH, also occupies...... the substrate-binding pocket together with the acetate designed by nature to fit large polyol substrates. The substrate-binding pocket is seen to be in close proximity to the tetramer interface, which explains the need for the structural integrity of the tetramer for enzyme activity. Small-angle X...

  16. Improving Object Classification in X-ray Luggage Inspection

    OpenAIRE

    SHI, XINHUA

    2000-01-01

    X-ray detection methods have increasingly been used as an effective means for the automatic detection of explosives. While a number of devices are now commercially available, most of these technologies are not yet mature. The purpose of this research has been to investigate methods for using x-ray dual-energy transmission and scatter imaging technologies more effectively. Followed by an introduction and brief overview of x-ray detection technologies, a model for a prototype x-ray scanning ...

  17. Laser Holder Aids Centering of X-Ray Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulthuis, D. V.; Kettering, D. D.

    1986-01-01

    Laser holder used when alining X-ray head makes procedure safer and more reliable. Laser holder assembly attached to X-ray head to enable head to be alined optically before X-ray exposure. When laser in operating position laser beam shines on spot later illuminated with X-rays. New holder grips laser securely, maintains alinement, does not interfere with head placement, and requires only one 110-V power cord.

  18. Ultrashort X-ray pulse generation using subpicosecond electron linac

    CERN Document Server

    Harano, H; Yoshii, K; Ueda, T; Okita, S; Uesaka, M

    2000-01-01

    As a promising tool for ultrafast material analyses, we propose to utilize the X-ray pulse which may be generated in a quite simple manner using subpicosecond electron linacs. The properties of the X-ray were numerically studied with the EGS4 code. Verification of the X-ray generation was also conducted at the Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory (NERL) linac and clear diffraction patterns of characteristic X-ray were obtained for typical single crystals.

  19. High-resolution x-ray characterization of mosaic crystals for hard x-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Claudio; Buffagni, Elisa; Marchini, Laura; Zappettini, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    GaAs, Cu, CdTe, and CdZnTe crystals have been studied as optical elements for lenses for hard x-ray astronomy. High-resolution x-ray diffraction at 8 keV in Bragg geometry and at synchrotron at energies up to 500 keV in Laue geometry has been used. A good agreement was found between the mosaicity evaluated in Bragg geometry at 8 keV with x-ray penetration of the order of few tens of micrometers and that derived at synchrotron in transmission Laue geometry at higher x-ray energies. Mosaicity values in a range between a few to 150 arcsec were found in all the samples but, due to the presence of crystal grains in the cm range, CdTe and CdZnTe crystals were found not suitable. Cu crystals exhibit a mosaicity of the order of several arcmin; they indeed were found to be severely affected by cutting damage which could only be removed with a very deep etching. The full width at half maximum of the diffraction peaks decreased at higher x-ray energies showing that the peak broadening is affected by crystallite size. GaAs crystals grown by Czochralski method showed a mosaic spread up to 30 arcsec and good diffraction efficiency up to energies of 500 keV. The use of thermal treatments as a possible method to increase the mosaic spread was also evaluated.

  20. Characterization of Metalloproteins and Biomaterials by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Christian Grundahl

    This thesis presents thework on combining complementary X-rays techniques for studying the structures of proteins and other biomaterials, and consists of three different projects: (i) Characterization of protein powders with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). (ii) The combination of X-ray crystallo......This thesis presents thework on combining complementary X-rays techniques for studying the structures of proteins and other biomaterials, and consists of three different projects: (i) Characterization of protein powders with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). (ii) The combination of X......, nickel and copper, and their XRD crystal structures were solved to 1.90 Å, 1.50 Å and 1.45 Å resolution, respectively. As the affinity to iron is low, iron insulin crystals were grown in presence of small amounts of zinc. The two metal sites in the XRD structure thus contained respectively one Fe2......+ and one Zn2+ ion, with respectively tetrahedral and octahedral coordination geometry. The metal sites in nickel and copper insulin were studied by XAS. Coordination distances were refined from EXAFS showing a very regular octahedral coordination of Ni2+, which was further verified by calculated XANES...

  1. ``Soft X-ray transient'' outbursts which are not soft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocksopp, C.; Bandyopadhyay, R.M.; Fender, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    We have accumulated multiwavelength (X-ray, optical, radio) lightcurves for the eight black hole X-ray binaries which have been observed to enter a supposed `soft X-ray transient' outburst, but remained in the low/hard state throughout the outburst. Comparison of the lightcurve morphologies,

  2. Orbital Evolution Measurement of the Accreting Millisecond X-ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    powered millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4–3658 using. X-ray data obtained during four outbursts of this source. Extensive obser- vations were made with the proportional counter array of the Rossi X-ray. Timing Explorer (RXTE) during the four ...

  3. Digital enhancement of X-rays for NDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Report is "cookbook" for digital processing of industrial X-rays. Computer techniques, previously used primarily in laboratory and developmental research, have been outlined and codified into step by step procedures for enhancing X-ray images. Those involved in nondestructive testing should find report valuable asset, particularly is visual inspection is method currently used to process X-ray images.

  4. 14th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Menoni, Carmen; Marconi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings comprise invited and contributed papers presented at the 14th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2014). This conference is part of a continuing series dedicated to recent developments and applications of x-ray lasers and other coherent x-ray sources with attention to supporting technologies and instrumentation. New results in the generation of intense, coherent x-rays and progress toward practical devices and their applications in numerous fields are reported. Areas of research in plasma-based x-ray lasers, 4th generation accelerator-based sources and higher harmonic generation, and other x-ray generation schemes are covered.  The scope of ICXRL 2014 included, but was not limited to: Laser-pumped X-ray lasers Discharge excitation and other X-ray laser pumping methods Injection/seeding of X-ray amplifiers New lasing transitions and novel X-ray laser schemes High Harmonic sources-Free-electron laser generation in the XUV and X-ray range Novel schemes for coherent XUV and X-ray ge...

  5. X-Rays from Saturn and its Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Elsner, Ron F.; Waite, J. Hunter; Gladstone, G. Randall; Cravens, Tom E.; Ford, Peter G.

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004 Saturn was observed by Chandra ACIS-S in two exposures, 00:06 to 11:00 UT on 20 January and 14:32 UT on 26 January to 01:13 UT on 27 January. Each continuous observation lasted for about one full Saturn rotation. These observations detected an X-ray flare from the Saturn's disk and indicate that the entire Saturnian X-ray emission is highly variable -- a factor of $\\sim$4 variability in brightness in a week time. The Saturn X-ray flare has a time and magnitude matching feature with the solar X-ray flare, which suggests that the disk X-ray emission of Saturn is governed by processes happening on the Sun. These observations also unambiguously detected X-rays from Saturn's rings. The X-ray emissions from rings are present mainly in the 0.45-0.6 keV band centered on the atomic OK$\\alpha$ fluorescence line at 525 eV: indicating the production of X-rays due to oxygen atoms in the water icy rings. The characteristics of X-rays from Saturn's polar region appear to be statistically consistent with those from its disk X-rays, suggesting that X-ray emission from the polar cap region might be an extension of the Saturn disk X-ray emission.

  6. On the ultimate x-ray detector for angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slump, Cornelis H.; Flynn, M.J.; Kauffman, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of our research is to describe the ultimate X-ray detector for angiography. Angiography is a well established X-ray imaging technique for the examination of blood vessels. Contrast agent is injected followed by X-ray exposures and possible obstructions in the blood vessels can be

  7. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence techniques and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synchrotron X-ray imaging systems with fluorescence techniques was developed for biomedical researches in Brazilian Synchrotron Laboratory. An X-ray fluorescence microtomography system was implemented to analyse human prostate and breast samples and an X-ray microfluorescence system was implemented to ...

  8. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies of elementary excitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, Lucas Johannes Peter (Luuk)

    2010-01-01

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) is an X-ray in, X-ray out technique that enables one to study the dispersion of excitations in solids. In this thesis, we investigated how various elementary excitations of transition metal oxides show up in RIXS spectra.

  9. Resonant x-ray scattering in correlated systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Sumio

    2017-01-01

    The research and its outcomes presented here is devoted to the use of x-ray scattering to study correlated electron systems and magnetism. Different x-ray based methods are provided to analyze three dimensional electron systems and the structure of transition-metal oxides. Finally the observation of multipole orderings with x-ray diffraction is shown.

  10. Resonant X-ray scattering in correlated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Youichi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Structure Science; Ishihara, Sumio (ed.) [Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Miyagi (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2017-03-01

    The research and its outcomes presented here is devoted to the use of X-ray scattering to study correlated electron systems and magnetism. Different X-ray based methods are provided to analyze three dimensional electron systems and the structure of transition-metal oxides. Finally the observation of multipole orderings with X-ray diffraction is shown.

  11. X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recorded on a computer or special X-ray film. This image shows the bones (tibia and fibula) and soft tissues of the lower leg. The X-ray image is black and white. Dense structures that block the passage of the X-ray beam through the body, such as the tibia and fibula, appear white ...

  12. Orbital Evolution Measurement of the Accreting Millisecond X-ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We present results from a pulse timing analysis of the accretion-powered millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4–3658 using X-ray data obtained during four outbursts of this source. Extensive observations were made with the proportional counter array of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) during the ...

  13. Spectroscopic Studies of X-Ray Binary Pulsars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Several new features of X-ray binary pulsars are revealed from recent observations with ASCA, RXTE, BeppoSAX and other X- ray observatories. Among these, I will review in this paper some recent progress in spectroscopic studies of accreting X-ray pulsars in binary sys- tems (XBPs). First, I will discuss soft ...

  14. Stig Sundell at the bent crystal X-ray spectrometer for the X-ray shift experiment.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The bent crystal X-ray spectrometer is being used to measure small shifts in the frequencies of X-rays emitted from the lower electron energy levels, in order to learn about the size of the nuclei concerned

  15. X-ray framing camera for pulsed, high current, electron beam x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Failor, B H; Riordan, j c; Lojewski, D Y

    2007-01-01

    High power x-ray sources built for nuclear weapons effects testing are evolving toward larger overall diameters and smaller anode cathode gaps. We describe a framing camera developed to measure the time-evolution of these 20-50 ns pulsed x-ray sources produced by currents in the 1.5-2.5 MA range and endpoint voltages between 0.2 and 1.5 MV. The camera has up to 4 frames with 5 ns gate widths; the frames are separated by 5 ns. The image data are recorded electronically with a gated intensified CCD camera and the data are available immediately following a shot. A fast plastic scintillator (2.1 ns decay time) converts the x-rays to visible light and, for high sensitivity, a fiber optic imaging bundle carries the light to the CCD input. Examples of image data are shown.

  16. X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Extended X-Ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitter, Manfred L.; Fraekel, Benjamin; Gorman, James L.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Roquemore, Lane A.; Stodiek, Wolfgang; Goeler, Schweickhard von

    1999-05-01

    Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokamak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters such as ion temperature, toroidal and poloidal rotation, electron temperature, impurity ion charge-state distributions, and impurity transport. The imaging properties of these spherically or toroidally curved crystals provide both spectrally and spatially resolved X-ray data from the plasma using only one small spherically or toroidally curved crystal, thus eliminating the requirement for a large array of crystal spectrometers and the need to cross-calibrate the various crystals.

  17. Observing Solvation Dynamics with Simultaneous Femtosecond X-ray Emission Spectroscopy and X-ray Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Kristoffer; Gawelda, Wojciech; Abela, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In liquid phase chemistry dynamic solute solvent interactions often govern the path, ultimate outcome, and efficiency of chemical reactions. These steps involve many-body movements on subpicosecond time scales and thus ultrafast structural tools capable of capturing both intramolecular electronic......, confirming previous ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Structural changes in the aqueous solvent associated with density and temperature changes occur with similar to 1 ps time constants, characteristic for structural dynamics in water. This slower time scale of the solvent response allows us...... rearrangement of the solute with X-ray emission spectroscopy, thus establishing time zero for the ensuing X-ray diffuse scattering analysis. The simultaneously recorded X-ray diffuse scattering atterns reveal slower subpicosecond dynamics triggered by the intramolecular structural dynamics of the photoexcited...

  18. X-ray Cryogenic Facility (XRCF) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegley, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray & Cryogenic Facility (XRCF) Handbook is a guide for planning operations at the facility. A summary of the capabilities, policies, and procedures is provided to enhance project coordination between the facility user and XRCF personnel. This handbook includes basic information that will enable the XRCF to effectively plan and support test activities. In addition, this handbook describes the facilities and systems available at the XRCF for supporting test operations. 1.2 General Facility Description The XRCF was built in 1989 to meet the stringent requirements associated with calibration of X-ray optics, instruments, and telescopes and was subsequently modified in 1999 & 2005 to perform the challenging cryogenic verification of Ultraviolet, Optical, and Infrared mirrors. These unique and premier specialty capabilities, coupled with its ability to meet multiple generic thermal vacuum test requirements for large payloads, make the XRCF the most versatile and adaptable space environmental test facility in the Agency. XRCF is also recognized as the newest, most cost effective, most highly utilized facility in the portfolio and as one of only five NASA facilities having unique capabilities. The XRCF is capable of supporting and has supported missions during all phases from technology development to flight verification. Programs/projects that have benefited from XRCF include Chandra, Solar X-ray Imager, Hinode, and James Webb Space Telescope. All test programs have been completed on-schedule and within budget and have experienced no delays due to facility readiness or failures. XRCF is currently supporting Strategic Astrophysics Technology Development for Cosmic Origins. Throughout the years, XRCF has partnered with and continues to maintain positive working relationships with organizations such as ATK, Ball Aerospace, Northrop Grumman Aerospace, Excelis (formerly Kodak/ITT), Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Goddard Space Flight Center, University of Alabama

  19. Early X-Ray Flares in GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, R.; Wang, Y.; Aimuratov, Y.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Becerra, L.; Bianco, C. L.; Chen, Y. C.; Karlica, M.; Kovacevic, M.; Li, L.; Melon Fuksman, J. D.; Moradi, R.; Muccino, M.; Penacchioni, A. V.; Pisani, G. B.; Primorac, D.; Rueda, J. A.; Shakeri, S.; Vereshchagin, G. V.; Xue, S.-S.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the early X-ray flares in the GRB “flare–plateau–afterglow” (FPA) phase observed by Swift-XRT. The FPA occurs only in one of the seven GRB subclasses: the binary-driven hypernovae (BdHNe). This subclass consists of long GRBs with a carbon–oxygen core and a neutron star (NS) binary companion as progenitors. The hypercritical accretion of the supernova (SN) ejecta onto the NS can lead to the gravitational collapse of the NS into a black hole. Consequently, one can observe a GRB emission with isotropic energy {E}{iso}≳ {10}52 erg, as well as the associated GeV emission and the FPA phase. Previous work had shown that gamma-ray spikes in the prompt emission occur at ∼ {10}15{--}{10}17 cm with Lorentz Gamma factors {{Γ }}∼ {10}2{--}{10}3. Using a novel data analysis, we show that the time of occurrence, duration, luminosity, and total energy of the X-ray flares correlate with E iso. A crucial feature is the observation of thermal emission in the X-ray flares that we show occurs at radii ∼1012 cm with {{Γ }}≲ 4. These model-independent observations cannot be explained by the “fireball” model, which postulates synchrotron and inverse-Compton radiation from a single ultrarelativistic jetted emission extending from the prompt to the late afterglow and GeV emission phases. We show that in BdHNe a collision between the GRB and the SN ejecta occurs at ≃1010 cm, reaching transparency at ∼1012 cm with {{Γ }}≲ 4. The agreement between the thermal emission observations and these theoretically derived values validates our model and opens the possibility of testing each BdHN episode with the corresponding Lorentz Gamma factor.

  20. AXIS - Advanced X-ray Imaging Sarellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Michael; AXIS Team

    2018-01-01

    We present an overview of the Advanced X-ray Imaging Satellite (AXIS), a probe mission concept under study to the 2020 Decadal survey. AXIS follows in the footsteps of the spectacularly successful Chandra X-ray Observatory with similar or higher angular resolution and an order of magnitude more collecting area in the 0.3-10 keV band over a 15' field of view. These capabilities are designed to attain a wide range of science goals such as (i) measuring the event horizon scale structure in AGN accretion disks and the spin of supermassive black holes through monitoring of gravitationally microlensed quasars; (ii) understanding AGN and starburst feedback in galaxies and galaxy clusters through direct imaging of winds and interaction of jets and via spatially resolved imaging of galaxies at high-z; (iii) probing the fueling of AGN by resolving the SMBH sphere of influence in nearby galaxies; (iv) investigating hierarchical structure formation and the SMBH merger rate through measurement of the occurrence rate of dual AGN and occupation fraction of SMBHs; (v) advancing SNR physics and galaxy ecology through large detailed samples of SNR in nearby galaxies; (vi) measuring the Cosmic Web through its connection to cluster outskirts. With a nominal 2028 launch, AXIS benefits from natural synergies with LSST, ELTs, ALMA, WFIRST and ATHENA, and will be a valuable precursor to Lynx. AXIS utilizes breakthroughs in the construction of light-weight X-ray optics from mono-crystalline silicon blocks, and developments in the fabrication of large format, small pixel, high readout detectors.

  1. The first microbeam synchrotron X-ray fluorescence beamline at the Siam Photon Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancharakorn, Somchai; Tanthanuch, Waraporn; Kamonsutthipaijit, Nuntaporn; Wongprachanukul, Narupon; Sophon, Methee; Chaichuay, Sarunyu; Uthaisar, Chunmanus; Yimnirun, Rattikorn

    2012-07-01

    The first microbeam synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (µ-SXRF) beamline using continuous synchrotron radiation from Siam Photon Source has been constructed and commissioned as of August 2011. Utilizing an X-ray capillary half-lens allows synchrotron radiation from a 1.4 T bending magnet of the 1.2 GeV electron storage ring to be focused from a few millimeters-sized beam to a micrometer-sized beam. This beamline was originally designed for deep X-ray lithography (DXL) and was one of the first two operational beamlines at this facility. A modification has been carried out to the beamline in order to additionally enable µ-SXRF and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (SXPD). Modifications included the installation of a new chamber housing a Si(111) crystal to extract 8 keV synchrotron radiation from the white X-ray beam (for SXPD), a fixed aperture and three gate valves. Two end-stations incorporating optics and detectors for µ-SXRF and SXPD have then been installed immediately upstream of the DXL station, with the three techniques sharing available beam time. The µ-SXRF station utilizes a polycapillary half-lens for X-ray focusing. This optic focuses X-ray white beam from 5 mm × 2 mm (H × V) at the entrance of the lens down to a diameter of 100 µm FWHM measured at a sample position 22 mm (lens focal point) downstream of the lens exit. The end-station also incorporates an XYZ motorized sample holder with 25 mm travel per axis, a 5× ZEISS microscope objective with 5 mm × 5 mm field of view coupled to a CCD camera looking to the sample, and an AMPTEK single-element Si (PIN) solid-state detector for fluorescence detection. A graphic user interface data acquisition program using the LabVIEW platform has also been developed in-house to generate a series of single-column data which are compatible with available XRF data-processing software. Finally, to test the performance of the µ-SXRF beamline, an elemental surface profile has been obtained for

  2. X-ray characterisation of nanostructured materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette

    ¯brous structure. The study was initiated based on the need for a reliable crystallinity determination from XRPD. It was shown that for future crystallinity determinations a new method based on Rietveld re¯nements should be preferred. If additional in- formation about particle shape, size or size distribution......X-ray powder di®raction (XRPD) is an excellent tool for characterising the bulk structure of crystalline materials. Along with the growing interest in exploiting materials with decreasing particle sizes and increasing number of defects, factors that complicate the traditional interpretation...... using a combination of Debye simulations and param- eterised Principal Component Analysis (PCA)....

  3. Next-Generation X-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicholas E.

    2011-01-01

    The future timing capabilities in X-ray astronomy will be reviewed. This will include reviewing the missions in implementation: Astro-H, GEMS, SRG, and ASTROSAT; those under study: currently ATHENA and LOFT; and new technologies that may enable future missions e.g. Lobster eye optics. These missions and technologies will bring exciting new capabilities across the entire time spectrum from micro-seconds to years that e.g. will allow us to probe close to the event horizon of black holes and constrain the equation of state of neutron stars.

  4. Thin Cryogenic X-ray Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, T O; Davenport, M; Elias, N; Aune, S; Franz, J

    2009-01-01

    We describe the construction and tests of cryogenic X-ray windows of 47 mm diameter made of 15 ìm thick polypropylene foil glued on a UHV flange and supported with a strongback mesh machined by electro-erosion. These hermetic windows of the solar axion telescope of the CAST experiment at CERN withstand the static and dynamic pressures of the buffer gas that are normally below 130 mbar, but may reach 1.2 bar when the magnet quenches. They were tested at 60 K up to 3.5 bar static pressure without permanent deformation.

  5. Aviation security x-ray detection challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, T.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a review of the background and some drivers are provided for X-ray screening for aviation security. Some of the key considerations are highlighted along with impacts of the image-based approaches and signature approaches. The role of information theory is discussed along with some recent work that may influence the technical direction by posing the question: "what measurements, parameters and metrics should be considered in future system design?" A path forward should be based on information theory, however electronic machines will likely interface with humans and be dollar-cost driven, so ultimately solutions must consider additional parameters other than only technical performance factors.

  6. BXA: Bayesian X-ray Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    BXA connects the nested sampling algorithm MultiNest (ascl:1109.006) to the X-ray spectral analysis environments Xspec/Sherpa for Bayesian parameter estimation and model comparison. It provides parameter estimation in arbitrary dimensions and plotting of spectral model vs. the data for best fit, posterior samples, or each component. BXA allows for model selection; it computes the evidence for the considered model, ready for use in computing Bayes factors and is not limited to nested models. It also visualizes deviations between model and data with Quantile-Quantile (QQ) plots, which do not require binning and are more comprehensive than residuals.

  7. Hard X-ray laue monochromator

    OpenAIRE

    Kocharian, Vagan Rashidovich; Gogolev, Aleksey Sergeevich; Kiziridi, A. A.; Batranin, Andrey Viktorovich; Muradyan, T. R.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental studies of X-ray diffraction from reflecting atomic planes (1011) of X-cut quartz single crystal in Laue geometry influenced by the temperature gradient were carried out. It is shown that by using the temperature gradient it is possible to reflect a hard Xray beam with photon energy near the 100 keV with high efficiency. It has been experimentally proved that the intensity of the reflected beam can be increased by more than order depending on the value of the temperature gradient.

  8. Ultraluminous supersoft X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jifeng; Bai, Yu; Wang, Song; Justham, Stephen; Lu, You-Jun; Gu, Wei-Min; Liu, Qing-Zhong; di Stefano, Rosanne; Guo, Jin-Cheng; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Álvarez, Pedro; Cao, Yi; Kulkarni, Shri

    2017-06-01

    While ultraluminous supersoft X-ray sources (ULSs) bear features for intermediate mass black holes or very massive white dwarfs possibly close to Chandrasekhar mass limit, our recent discovery of processing relativistic baryonic jets from a prototype ULS in M81 demonstrate that they are not IMBHs or WDs, but black holes accreting at super-Eddington rates. This discovery strengthens the recent ideas that ULXs are stellar black holes with supercritical accretion, and provides a vivid manifestation of what happens when a black hole devours too much, that is, it will generate thick disk winds and fire out sub-relativistic baryonic jets along the funnel as predicted by recent numerical simulations.

  9. Coherent methods in X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorobtsov, Oleg

    2017-05-15

    X-ray radiation has been used to study structural properties of materials for more than a hundred years. Construction of extremely coherent and bright X-ray radiation sources such as free electron lasers (FELs) and latest generationstorage rings led to rapid development of experimental methods relying on high radiation coherence. These methods allow to perform revolutionary studies in a wide range of fields from solid state physics to biology. In this thesis I focus on several important problems connected with the coherent methods. The first part considers applications of dynamical diffraction theory on crystals to studies with coherent X-ray radiation. It presents the design of a high-resolution spectrometer for free electron lasers that should allow to resolve spectral structure of individual FEL pulses. The spectrometer is based on the principle of dynamical diffraction focusing. The knowledge of individual FEL pulse spectra is necessary for understanding FEL longitudinal coherence. In the same part I present quasi-kinematical approximation to dynamical theory which allows to treat analytically phase effects observed in X-ray coherent imaging on nanocrystals. These effects may play a big role when methods such as ptychography are used to study crystalline samples. The second part deals with measurements of FEL coherence properties using intensity - intensity interferometry. Results of several experiments performed at FELs FLASH and LCLS are revealed in this section. I have developed models and theories to explain the behavior observed in experiments on FLASH. These models allowed to extract information about external positional jitter of FEL pulses and secondary beams present in FEL radiation. In the LCLS experiment the Hanbury Brown and Twiss type interferometry was performed on Bragg peaks from colloidal crystal. This did not require additional measurements without the sample and information was extracted directly from diffraction patterns. Therefore intensity

  10. Elements of modern X-ray physics

    CERN Document Server

    Als-Nielsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Eagerly awaited, this second edition of a best-selling text comprehensively describes from a modern perspective the basics of x-ray physics as well as the completely new opportunities offered by synchrotron radiation. Written by internationally acclaimed authors, the style of the book is to develop the basic physical principles without obscuring them with excessive mathematics. The second edition differs substantially from the first edition, with over 30% new material, including: A new chapter on non-crystalline diffraction - designed to appeal to the large community wh

  11. X-ray morphology after vagotomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeger, R.; Vogel, H.

    1983-12-01

    Vagotomy is often followed by changes in the shape and motoric function of the stomach which usually return to normal in the course of a few months. The morphological changes which are typical for the different surgical techniques are described on the basis of references and the authors' own findings. X-ray examination contributes towards distinguishing regular postoperative changes from complications. The necessary long-term follow-ups to discover any possible recurrence of ulcers should be supplemented by gastroscopy.

  12. Glancing angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernik, R.J. [Daresbury Lab., Warrington, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes in basic detail some of the techniques that can be used to study thin films and surfaces. These are all in the X-ray region and cover reflectivity, diffraction form polycrystalline films, textured films and single crystal films. Other effects such as fluorescence and diffuse scattering are mentioned but not discussed in detail. Two examples of the reflectivity from multilayers and the diffraction from iron oxide films are discussed. The advantages of the synchrotron for these studies is stressed and the experimental geometries that can be employed are described i detail. A brief bibliography is provided at the end to accompany this part of the 1996 Frascati school.

  13. Development of an alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process for microelectromechanical systems micropore x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Raul E; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2010-06-20

    X-ray astronomy research is often limited by the size, weight, complexity, and cost of functioning x-ray optics. Micropore optics promises an economical alternative to traditional (e.g., glass or foil) x-ray optics; however, many manufacturing difficulties prevent micropore optics from being a viable solution. Ezoe et al. introduced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micropore optics having curvilinear micropores in 2008. Made by either deep reactive ion etching or x-ray lithography, electroforming, and molding (LIGA), MEMS micropore optics suffer from high micropore sidewall roughness (10-30nmrms) which, by current standards, cannot be improved. In this research, a new alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process was developed using a mixture of ferrofluid and microscale abrasive slurry. A machine was built, and a set of working process parameters including alternating frequency, abrasive size, and polishing time was selected. A polishing experiment on a LIGA-fabricated MEMS micropore optic was performed, and a change in micropore sidewall roughness of 9.3+/-2.5nmrms to 5.7+/-0.7nmrms was measured. An improvement in x-ray reflectance was also seen. This research shows the feasibility and confirms the effects of this new polishing process on MEMS micropore optics.

  14. Bone age assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in children: An alternative for X-ray?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); H.R. Taal (Rob); G.D.S. Ernst (Gesina); E.L.T. van den Akker (Erica); M.H. Lequin (Maarten); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita); J.J.M. Geelhoed (Miranda); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The aim of the study was to validate dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a method to assess bone age in children. Methods: Paired dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans and X-rays of the left hand were performed in 95 children who attended the paediatric

  15. The color of X-rays: Spectral X-ray computed tomography using energy sensitive pixel detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schioppa, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy sensitive X-ray imaging detectors are produced by connecting a semiconductor sensor to a spectroscopic pixel readout chip. In this thesis, the applicability of such detectors to X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is studied. A prototype Medipix based silicon detector is calibrated using X-ray

  16. Characterizing X-Ray and Radio Emission in the Black Hole X-Ray Binary V404 Cygni During Quiescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Vikram; Loh, Alan; Corbel, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    We present results from multi-wavelength simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the black hole X-ray binary V404 Cyg in quiescence. Our coverage with NuSTAR provides the very first opportunity to study the X-ray spectrum of V404 Cyg at energies above 10 keV. The unabsorbed broadband (0...

  17. X-Ray and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Dim X-Ray Point Sources Constituting the Galactic Ridge X-Ray Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Morihana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of X-ray and Near-Infrared observations of the Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE. We extracted 2,002 X-ray point sources in the Chandra Bulge Field (l =0°.113, b = 1°.424 down to ~10-14.8 ergscm-2s-1 in 2-8 keV band with the longest observation (900 ks of the GRXE. Based on X-ray brightness and hardness, we classied the X-ray point sources into three groups: A (hard, B (soft and broad spectrum, and C (soft and peaked spectrum. In order to know populations of the X-ray point sources, we carried out NIR imaging and spectroscopy observation. We identied 11% of X-ray point sources with NIR and extracted NIR spectra for some of them. Based on X-ray and NIR properties, we concluded that non-thermal sources in the group A are mostly active galactic nuclei and the thermal sources are mostly white dwarf binaries such as cataclysmic variables (CVs and Pre-CVs. We concluded that the group B and C sources are X-ray active stars in flare and quiescence, respectively.

  18. Development of X-Ray Optics for the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William W.; Bolognese, J.; Byron, G.; Caldwell, D.; Chan, K.; Content, D. A.; Gubarev, M.; Davis, W.; Freeman, M.; Hadjimichael, T. J.; hide

    2009-01-01

    The International X-ray Observatory requires mirror assemblies with unprecedented characteristics that cannot be provided by existing optical technologies. In the past several years, the project has supported a vigorous mirror technology development program. This program includes the fabrication of lightweight mirror segments by slumping commercially available thin glass sheets, the support and mounting of these thin mirror segments for accurate metrology, the mounting and attachment of these mirror segments for the purpose of X-ray tests, and development of methods for aligning and integrating these mirror segments into mirror assemblies. This paper describes our efforts and developments in these areas.

  19. Proceedings of the workshop on X-ray computed microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report consists of vugraphs from the nine presentations at the conference. Titles of the presentations are: CMT: Applications and Techniques; Computer Microtomography Using X-rays from Third Generation Synchrotron X-ray; Approaches to Soft-X-ray Nanotomography; Diffraction Enhanced Tomography; X-ray Computed Microtomography Applications at the NSLS; XCMT Applications in Forestry and Forest Products; 3DMA: Investigating Three Dimensional Pore Geometry from High Resolution Images; X-ray Computed Microtomography Studies of Volcanic Rock; and 3-D Visualization of Tomographic Volumes.

  20. Soft X-Ray Emissions from Planets and Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, A.; Gladstone, G. R.; Elsner, R. F.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Grodent, D.; Lewis, W. S.; Crary, F. J.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Howell, R. R.; Johnson, R. E.; hide

    2002-01-01

    The soft x-ray energy band (less than 4 keV) is an important spectral regime for planetary remote sensing, as a wide variety of solar system objects are now known to shine at these wavelengths. These include Earth, Jupiter, comets, moons, Venus, and the Sun. Earth and Jupiter, as magnetic planets, are observed to emanate strong x-ray emissions from their auroral (polar) regions, thus providing vital information on the nature of precipitating particles and their energization processes in planetary magnetospheres. X rays from low latitudes have also been observed on these planets, resulting largely from atmospheric scattering and fluorescence of solar x-rays. Cometary x-rays are now a well established phenomena, more than a dozen comets have been observed at soft x-ray energies, with the accepted production mechanism being charge-exchange between heavy solar wind ions and cometary neutrals. Also, Lunar x-rays have been observed and are thought to be produced by scattering and fluorescence of solar x-rays from the Moon's surface. With the advent of sophisticated x-ray observatories, e.g., Chandra and XMM-Newton, the field of planetary x-ray astronomy is advancing at a much faster pace. The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) has recently captured soft x-rays from Venus. Venusian x-rays are most likely produced through fluorescence of solar x-rays by C and O atoms in the upper atmosphere. Very recently, using CXO we have discovered soft x-rays from the moons of Jupiter-Io, Europa, and probably Ganymede. The plausible source of the x-rays from the Galilean satellites is bombardment of their surfaces by energetic (greater than 10 KeV) ions from the inner magnetosphere of Jupiter. The Io plasma Torus (IPT) is also discovered by CXO to be a source of soft x-rays by CXO have revealed a mysterious pulsating (period approx. 45 minutes) x-ray hot spot is fixed in magnetic latitude and longitude and is magnetically connected to a region in the outer magnetosphere of Jupiter. These

  1. Fundamentals of energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Russ, John C; Kiessling, R; Charles, J

    1984-01-01

    Fundamentals of Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of dispersive X-ray analysis. It presents descriptions, equations, and graphs to enable the users of these techniques to develop an intuitive and conceptual image of the physical processes involved in the generation and detection of X-rays. The book begins with a discussion of X-ray detection and measurement, which is accomplished by one of two types of X-ray spectrometer: energy dispersive or wavelength dispersive. The emphasis is on energy dispersive spectrometers, given their rather wid

  2. XMM-Newton X-Ray Observation of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, J. Hunter

    2005-01-01

    Soft X-ray emission has been observed from the disk of both Jupiter and Saturn as well as from the auroral regions of these planets. The low-latitude disk emission as observed by ROSAT, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and XMM-Newton appears to be uniformly distributed across the disk and to be correlated with solar activity. These characteristics suggest that the disk x-rays are produced by: (1) the elastic scattering of solar X-rays by atmospheric neutrals and (2) the absorption of solar X-rays in the carbon K-shell followed by fluorescent emission. The carbon atoms are found in methane molecules located below the homopause. In this paper we present the results of calculations of the scattering albedo for soft x-rays. We also show the calculated x-ray intensity for a range of atmospheric abundances for Jupiter and Saturn and for a number of solar irradiance spectra. The model calculations are compared with recent x-ray observations of Jupiter and Saturn. We conclude that the emission of soft x-rays from the disks of Jupiter and Saturn can be largely explained by the scattering and fluorescence of soft x-rays. We suggest that measured x-ray intensities from the disk regions of Jupiter

  3. Test facility for astronomical x-ray optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Lewis, Robert A.; Bordas, J.

    1990-01-01

    Grazing incidence x-ray optics for x-ray astronomical applications are used outside the earth's atmosphere. These devices require a large collection aperture and the imaging of an x-ray source that is essentially placed at infinity. The ideal testing system for these optical elements has...... to approximate that encountered under working conditions; however, the testing of these optical elements is notoriously difficult with conventional x-ray generators. Synchrotron radiation (SR) sources are sufficiently brilliant to produce a nearly perfect parallel beam over a large area while still retaining...... a flux considerably higher than that available from conventional x-ray generators. A facility designed for the testing of x-ray optics, particularly in connection with x-ray telescopes, is described. It is proposed that this facility will be accommodated at the Synchrotron Radiation Source...

  4. A Test Facility For Astronomical X-Ray Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, R. A.; Bordas, J.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1989-01-01

    Grazing incidence x-ray optics for x-ray astronomical applications are used outside the earths atmosphere. These devices require a large collection aperture and the imaging of an x-ray source which is essentially placed at infinity. The ideal testing system for these optical elements has...... to approximate that encountered under working conditions, however the testing of these optical elements is notoriously difficult with conventional x-ray generators. Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources are sufficiently brilliant to produce a nearly perfect parallel beam over a large area whilst still retaining...... a flux considerably higher than that available from conventional x-ray generators. A facility designed for the testing of x-ray optics, particularly in connection with x-ray telescopes is described below. It is proposed that this facility will be accommodated at the Synchrotron Radiation Source...

  5. Characterization of a triboelectric x-ray spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya-Sanchez, E. Ulises; Romo-Espejel, J. A.; Aceves-Aldrete, F. J. [Departamento de Fisica, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    Low-energy X-ray imaging system has been useful in medical diagnostic in order to obtain high contrast in soft tissue. Recently, Camara et al. and most recently Hird et al. have produced low-energy X-rays using a triboelectric effect. The main aim of this work is to characterize the penetration (beam quality) of a triboelectric X-ray source in terms of the computed Half Value Layer (HVL). Additionally, the computed HVL of the triboelectric X-ray source has been compared with the HVL of X-ray tube Mo-anode (Apogee 5000). According to our computations the triboelectric X-ray source has a similar penetration such as a X-ray tube source.

  6. Technology development for soft X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törmä, P. T.; Sipilä, H. J.; Koskinen, T.; Mattila, M.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray spectroscopy instruments lose part of their performance due to the lack of suitable components for soft X-ray region below 1 keV. Therefore, in the analysis of low atomic number elements including lithium, beryllium, boron and carbon instrument sensitivity is often limited. In this work we describe how the performance of the spectroscopy of soft X-rays is significantly improved when all devices integrated in the spectroscopic instrument are suitable for both soft and hard X-rays. This concept is based on utilizing ultra-thin SiN X-ray windows with proven performance not only as a detector window but also as an X-ray source window. By including a soft-X-ray-sensitive silicon drift detector with efficient surface charge collection in this concept the sensitivity and performance of the instrument is significantly increased.

  7. X-Ray Optics: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William W.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray astronomy started with a small collimated proportional counter atop a rocket in the early 1960s. It was immediately recognized that focusing X-ray optics would drastically improve both source location accuracy and source detection sensitivity. In the past 5 decades, X-ray astronomy has made significant strides in achieving better angular resolution, large photon collection area, and better spectral and timing resolutions, culminating in the three currently operating X-ray observatories: Chandra, XMM/Newton, and Suzaku. In this talk I will give a brief history of X-ray optics, concentrating on the characteristics of the optics of these three observatories. Then I will discuss current X-ray mirror technologies being developed in several institutions. I will end with a discussion of the optics for the International X-ray Observatory that I have been developing at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  8. X-ray polarimetry an upcoming 'new' tool in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffitta, P.

    2017-10-01

    Sensitive X-ray polarimetry promises to solve many different issues in X-ray Astronomy: from disentangling physics from geometry removing degeneracies in models of magnetars and X-ray binaries hosting neutron stars, to mapping ordered magnetic fields in Supernova Remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebulae. It constrains emission mechanisms in blazars and solves the mistery of X-ray emission from cold molecular clouds in the galactic center. Moreover it can answer to questions of fundamental physics. XIPE the X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer accomplished phase A as an ESA M4 candidate and IXPE the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry explorer was selected as next SMEX mission by NASA for a flight in late 2020. In this talk I will describe both missions and their ability to make energy, time and angle resolved polarimetry thanks to a detector developed at this aim and to X-ray optics with a large effective area.

  9. X-ray diffraction imaging of material microstructures

    KAUST Repository

    Varga, Laszlo

    2016-10-20

    Various examples are provided for x-ray imaging of the microstructure of materials. In one example, a system for non-destructive material testing includes an x-ray source configured to generate a beam spot on a test item; a grid detector configured to receive x- rays diffracted from the test object; and a computing device configured to determine a microstructure image based at least in part upon a diffraction pattern of the x-rays diffracted from the test object. In another example, a method for determining a microstructure of a material includes illuminating a beam spot on the material with a beam of incident x-rays; detecting, with a grid detector, x-rays diffracted from the material; and determining, by a computing device, a microstructure image based at least in part upon a diffraction pattern of the x-rays diffracted from the material.

  10. High aspect ratio gratings for X-ray phase contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Jürgen; Grund, Thomas; Kunka, Danays; Kenntner, Johannes; Leuthold, Juerg; Meiser, Jan; Schulz, Joachim; Walter, Marco

    2012-07-01

    Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging (DPCI) has gained a lot of interest in the past years. It is based on X-ray grating interferometry and the image quality is strongly dependant on the grating quality. Periodic line and space structures with periods in the micron range are required for the source and absorption grating. In case of energies > 30 keV their height should be larger than 100 μm resulting in aspect ratios of more than 100. Deep X-ray lithography and gold electroforming (LIGA technology) is used to fabricate these challenging structures. After resist, design and process optimization gratings with 2.4 μm period have been electroformed up to 120 μm, Visibilities of up to 70% for 29 keV and up to 20% for 52 keV have been achieved for monochromatic synchrotron light. Structures with larger periods could be manufactured up to 200 μm; further increase of the height and the gratings quality is possible yielding to high performance gratings also for high energies.

  11. Soft X-Ray Magnetic Imaging of Focused Ion Beam Lithographically Patterned Fe Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Paul J.; Shen, Tichan H.; Grundy, PhilJ.; Im, Mi Young; Fischer, Peter; Morton, Simon A.; Kilcoyne, Arthur D.L.

    2008-11-09

    We illustrate the potential of modifying the magnetic behavior and structural properties of ferromagnetic thin films using focused ion beam 'direct-write' lithography. Patterns inspired by the split-ring resonators often used as components in meta-materials were defined upon 15 nm Fe films using a 30 keV Ga{sup +} focused ion beam at a dose of 2 x 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2}. Structural, chemical and magnetic changes to the Fe were studied using transmission soft X-ray microscopy at the ALS, Berkeley CA. X-ray absorption spectra showed a 23% reduction in the thickness of the film in the Ga irradiated areas, but no change to the chemical environment of Fe was evident. X-ray images of the magnetic reversal process show domain wall pinning around the implanted areas, resulting in an overall increase in the coercivity of the film. Transmission electron microscopy showed significant grain growth in the implanted regions.

  12. Enhanced dynamic range x-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidekker, Mark A; Morrison, Logan Dain-Kelley; Sharma, Ajay; Burke, Emily

    2017-03-01

    X-ray images can suffer from excess contrast. Often, image exposure is chosen to visually optimize the region of interest, but at the expense of over- and underexposed regions elsewhere in the image. When image values are interpreted quantitatively as projected absorption, both over- and underexposure leads to the loss of quantitative information. We propose to combine multiple exposures into a composite that uses only pixels from those exposures in which they are neither under- nor overexposed. The composite image is created in analogy to visible-light high dynamic range photography. We present the mathematical framework for the recovery of absorbance from such composite images and demonstrate the method with biological and non-biological samples. We also show with an aluminum step-wedge that accurate recovery of step thickness from the absorbance values is possible, thereby highlighting the quantitative nature of the presented method. Due to the higher amount of detail encoded in an enhanced dynamic range x-ray image, we expect that the number of retaken images can be reduced, and patient exposure overall reduced. We also envision that the method can improve dual energy absorptiometry and even computed tomography by reducing the number of low-exposure ("photon-starved") projections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microwave calorimetry using X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicula, R., E-mail: radu.nicula@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Advanced Materials Processing, Feuerwerkerstr. 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Stir, M. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Advanced Materials Processing, Feuerwerkerstr. 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Wurm, A. [University of Rostock, Institute of Physics, Wismarsche Str. 43-45, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Catala-Civera, J.M. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Ishizaki, K.; Vaucher, S. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Advanced Materials Processing, Feuerwerkerstr. 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Zhuravlev, E.; Schick, C. [University of Rostock, Institute of Physics, Wismarsche Str. 43-45, 18051 Rostock (Germany)

    2011-11-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New approach for microwave calorimetry using synchrotron radiation powder diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In situ monitoring of the magnetostructural transformation of Co under magnetic microwave heating at 2.45 GHz. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic heat capacity of Co due to the spin-reorientation transition at microwave frequencies. - Abstract: An alternative approach for microwave calorimetry is proposed which relies on the synchrotron radiation powder diffraction technique as well as on the Grueneisen formalism for the analysis of thermal expansion. Cobalt was selected as suitable magnetic material for the present evaluation of the method. First results are reported concerning the calorimetric assessment of the HCP (hexagonal close-packed) to FCC (face centered cubic) transition of cobalt from in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments performed during magnetic (H-field) microwave heating. The X-ray calorimetry method yields specific heat capacity estimations that compare well with results from conventional differential scanning calorimetry measurements. In the presence of the 2.45 GHz microwave H-field, an 'anomalous' behaviour of the heat capacity across the structural phase transition is detected, which can be correlated with the magnetic spin reorientation transition of cobalt in the same temperature range.

  14. Multilayer X-ray optics at CHESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimirov, Alexander; Smilgies, Detlef M; Shen, Qun; Xiao, Xianghui; Hao, Quan; Fontes, Ernest; Bilderback, Donald H; Gruner, Sol M; Platonov, Yuriy; Martynov, Vladimir V

    2006-03-01

    Almost half of the X-ray beamlines at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) are based on multilayer optics. ;Traditional' multilayers with an energy resolution of DeltaE/E approximately 2% are routinely used to deliver X-ray flux enhanced by a factor of 10(2) in comparison with standard Si(111) optics. Sagittal-focusing multilayers with fixed radius provide an additional factor of 10 gain in flux density. High-resolution multilayer optics with DeltaE/E approximately 0.2% are now routinely used by MacCHESS crystallographers. New wide-bandpass multilayers with DeltaE/E = 5% and 10% have been designed and tested for potential applications in macromolecular crystallography. Small d-spacing multilayers with d < or = 20 A have been successfully used to extend the energy range of multilayer optics. Analysis of the main characteristics of the Mo/B4C and W/B4C small d-spacing multilayer optics shows enhancement in their performance at higher energies. Chemical vapour deposited SiC, with a bulk thermal conductivity of a factor of two higher than that of silicon, has been successfully introduced as a substrate material for multilayer optics. Characteristics of different types of multilayer optics at CHESS beamlines and their applications in a variety of scattering, diffraction and imaging techniques are discussed.

  15. SphinX x-ray spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaliński, Mirosław

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents assumptions to a PhD thesis. The thesis will be based on the construction of Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX). SphinX was an instrument developed to detect the soft X-rays from the Sun. It was flown on board the Russian CORONAS-Photon satellite from January 30, 2009 to the end of November, 2009. During 9 months in orbit SphinX provided an excellent and unique set of observations. It revealed about 750 flares and brightenings. The instrument observed in energy range 1.0 - 15.0 keV with resolution below ~0.5 keV. Here, the SphinX instrument objectives, design, performance and operation principle are described. Below results of mechanical and thermal - vacuum tests necessary to qualify the instrument to use in space environment are presented. Also the calibration results of the instrument are discussed. In particular detail it is described the Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) for SphinX. The EGSE was used for all tests of the instrument. At the end of the paper results obtained from the instrument during operation in orbit are discussed. These results are compared with the other similar measurements performed from the separate spacecraft instruments. It is suggested design changes in future versions of SphinX.

  16. Hard X-ray Footpoint Source Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Kontar, E. P.; Gopie, A. A.; Tolbert, A. K.; Schwartz, R. A.

    2010-05-01

    RHESSI has detected compact hard (25 - 100 keV) X-ray sources that are ɜ arcseconds (FWHM) in extent for certain flares (Dennis and Pernak (2009). These sources are believed to be at magnetic loop footpoints that are known from observations at other wavelengths to be very small. Flare ribbons seen in the UV with TRACE, for example, are 1 arcsecond in width, and white light flares show structure at the 1 arcsecond level. However, Kontar and Jeffrey (2010) have shown that the measured extent should be >6 arcseconds, even if the X-ray emitting thick-target source is point-like. This is because of the strong albedo contribution in the measured energy range for a source located at the expected altitude of 1 Mm near the top of the chromosphere. This discrepancy between observations and model predictions may indicate that the source altitude is significantly lower than assumed or that the RHESSI image reconstruction procedures are not sensitive to the more diffuse albedo patch in the presence of a strong compact source. Results will be presented exploring the latter possibility using the Pixon image reconstruction procedure and other methods based on visibilities. Dennis, B. R. and Pernak, R. L., 2009, ApJ, 698, 2131-2143. Kontar, E. P. and Jeffrey, N. L. S., 2010, A&A, in press.

  17. Hard X-Ray Footprint Source Sized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Kontar, E. P.

    2010-01-01

    RHESSI has detected compact hard (25 - 100 keV) X-ray sources that are Pernak (2009). These sources are believed to be at magnetic loop footpoints that are known from observations at other wavelengths to be very small. Flare ribbons seen in the W with TRACE, for example, are approx. 1 arcsecond in width, and white light flares show structure at the approx. 1 arcsecond level. However, Kontar and Jeffrey (2010) have shown that the measured extent should be >6 arcseconds, even if the X-ray emitting thick-target source is point-like. This is because of the strong albedo contribution in the measured energy range for a source located at the expected altitude of 1 Mm near the top of the chromosphere. This discrepancy between observations and model predictions may indicate that the source altitude is significantly lower than assumed or that the RHESSI image reconstruction procedures are not sensitive to the more diffuse albedo patch in the presence of a strong compact source. Results will be presented exploring the latter possibility using the Pixon image reconstruction procedure and other methods based on visibilities.

  18. X-ray tomography on TCV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, M.; Weisen, H.; Dutch, M.J.; Buhlmann, F.; Chavan, R.; Marletaz, B.; Marmillod, P.; Paris, P. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1996-04-01

    The TCV Tokamak offers an outstanding variability of the plasma shape. Using X-ray tomography, the shape of the inner flux surfaces of a poloidal cross section of the plasma can be reconstructed, including fast variations due to MHD activity. The hardware as well as the software of the 200 channel system developed for TCV is described. A new, `dynamical` calibration is used. The actual plasma temperature and some global profile parameters serve to determine the spectrum-dependent efficiency of the photodiodes. Compared to a `static` calibration with constant calibration factors, an enhanced quality of the reconstructed images is observed. The tomographic inversion is performed using a variety of methods such as Maximum Entropy, linear Regularisation and a new method making use of the Fisher information of the emissivity distribution. The merits of the different algorithms which have been implemented as MATLAB functions are compared. The tomographic inversion results are analysed with the help of the biorthogonal decomposition, allowing e.g. identification of MHD modes without using any a priori information on the poloidal mode structure. Recent results on the dependence of sawtooth activity on the plasma triangularity are presented to demonstrate the performance of the soft X-ray tomography system. (author) 14 figs., 2 tabs., 26 refs.

  19. Femtosecond X-ray magnetic circular dichroism absorption spectroscopy at an X-ray free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Daniel J.; Hirsch, Konstantin; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Jal, Emmanuelle; Yuan, Edwin; Liu, Tianmin; Lutman, Alberto A.; MacArthur, James P.; Arenholz, Elke; Chen, Zhao; Coslovich, Giacomo; Denes, Peter; Granitzka, Patrick W.; Hart, Philip; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Joseph, John; Le Guyader, Loïc; Mitra, Ankush; Moeller, Stefan; Ohldag, Hendrik; Seaberg, Matthew; Shafer, Padraic; Stöhr, Joachim; Tsukamoto, Arata; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Reid, Alex H.; Dürr, Hermann A.; Schlotter, William F.

    2016-03-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy using an X-ray free electron laser is demonstrated with spectra over the Fe L3,2-edges. The high brightness of the X-ray free electron laser combined with high accuracy detection of incident and transmitted X-rays enables ultrafast X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies of unprecedented sensitivity. This new capability is applied to a study of all-optical magnetic switching dynamics of Fe and Gd magnetic sublattices in a GdFeCo thin film above its magnetization compensation temperature.

  20. Femtosecond X-ray magnetic circular dichroism absorption spectroscopy at an X-ray free electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Daniel J; Hirsch, Konstantin; Dakovski, Georgi L; Jal, Emmanuelle; Yuan, Edwin; Liu, Tianmin; Lutman, Alberto A; MacArthur, James P; Arenholz, Elke; Chen, Zhao; Coslovich, Giacomo; Denes, Peter; Granitzka, Patrick W; Hart, Philip; Hoffmann, Matthias C; Joseph, John; Le Guyader, Loïc; Mitra, Ankush; Moeller, Stefan; Ohldag, Hendrik; Seaberg, Matthew; Shafer, Padraic; Stöhr, Joachim; Tsukamoto, Arata; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Reid, Alex H; Dürr, Hermann A; Schlotter, William F

    2016-03-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy using an X-ray free electron laser is demonstrated with spectra over the Fe L(3,2)-edges. The high brightness of the X-ray free electron laser combined with high accuracy detection of incident and transmitted X-rays enables ultrafast X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies of unprecedented sensitivity. This new capability is applied to a study of all-optical magnetic switching dynamics of Fe and Gd magnetic sublattices in a GdFeCo thin film above its magnetization compensation temperature.

  1. Femtosecond X-ray magnetic circular dichroism absorption spectroscopy at an X-ray free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higley, Daniel J., E-mail: dhigley@stanford.edu; Yuan, Edwin [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hirsch, Konstantin; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Jal, Emmanuelle; Lutman, Alberto A.; Coslovich, Giacomo; Hart, Philip; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Mitra, Ankush; Moeller, Stefan; Ohldag, Hendrik; Seaberg, Matthew; Stöhr, Joachim; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Reid, Alex H.; Dürr, Hermann A.; Schlotter, William F. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Liu, Tianmin; MacArthur, James P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); and others

    2016-03-15

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy using an X-ray free electron laser is demonstrated with spectra over the Fe L{sub 3,2}-edges. The high brightness of the X-ray free electron laser combined with high accuracy detection of incident and transmitted X-rays enables ultrafast X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies of unprecedented sensitivity. This new capability is applied to a study of all-optical magnetic switching dynamics of Fe and Gd magnetic sublattices in a GdFeCo thin film above its magnetization compensation temperature.

  2. X-Ray or Computed Tomography Which Comes First?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sancar Serbest

    2013-10-01

    The glenohumeral joint is the most commonly dislocated joint in the human body. Anterior dislocatin is the most common type and posterior dislocations account for <1% of shoulder dislocations.  A 28-yearold man was brought to the emergency department by ambulance. At the time of admission he was suffering left shoulder pain. On local physical examination, there was severe pain on the proximal humerus. The left arm was in internal rotation in the adducted position. On local physical examination, there was severe pain on the left proximal humerus. Active and passive movements of the left shoulder were painful and limited. The neurovascular examination of the left upper extremity revealed no deficit. There was no pathologic finding in other system examinations. Radiographs of his left shoulder were performed and no significant pathology was identified in the left shoulder anteroposterior (AP X-ray (Figure 1. Axillary radiography could not be performed because of painful arm movements. Therefore, CT was performed to clarify any existing shoulder pathology (Figure 2. Then intravenous Access was provided; sedation and analgesia was maintained. Closed reduction under conscious sedation was performed with longitudinal and lateral traction on the arm to protect the humeral head. Control CT was performed and this revealed that reduction had improved the shoulder (Figure 3. He was then treated with an arm sling and discharged with an outpatient orthopaedic control visit.

  3. Fast Ionized X-Ray Absorbers in AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, K.; Tombesi, F.; Kazanas, D.; Shrader, C.; Behar, E.; Contopoulos, I.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the physics of the X-ray ionized absorbers often identified as warm absorbers (WAs) and ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) in Seyfert AGNs from spectroscopic studies in the context of magnetically-driven accretion-disk wind scenario. Launched and accelerated by the action of a global magnetic field anchored to an underlying accretion disk around a black hole, outflowing plasma is irradiated and ionized by an AGN radiation field characterized by its spectral energy density (SED). By numerically solving the Grad-Shafranov equation in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) framework, the physical property of the magnetized disk-wind is determined by a wind parameter set, which is then incorporated into radiative transfer calculations with xstar photoionization code under heating-cooling equilibrium state to compute the absorber's properties such as column density N(sub H), line-of-sight (LoS) velocity v, ionization parameter xi, among others. Assuming that the wind density scales as n varies as r(exp. -1), we calculate theoretical absorption measure distribution (AMD) for various ions seen in AGNs as well as line spectra especially for the Fe K alpha absorption feature by focusing on a bright quasar PG 1211+143 as a case study and show the model's plausibility. In this note we demonstrate that the proposed MHD-driven disk-wind scenario is not only consistent with the observed X-ray data, but also help better constrain the underlying nature of the AGN environment in a close proximity to a central engine.

  4. Study of osteoporosis using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Someya, Misao (Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-04-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR-1000) was used to quantitatively analyze the diagnosis and prevention of osteoporosis. The peak bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine appeared in normal men in their twenties and in normal women in their thirties. There was acceleration of bone loss in the 50 to 60 year age bracket (premenopause and postmenopause) in normal women. On the contrary, the peak BMD of the femoral neck in normal men and women appeared in their twenties after which it decreased slightly with age. Comparison showed that the femoral neck BMD of normal women was lower than that of men throughout all ages. The fracture threshold, 0.756 g/cm[sup 2] for the spine, was obtained by scanning 73 females with spinal fractures, the mean BMDs for L2-L4 at the 90th percentile level were used as the fracture threshold. The fracture threshold of femoral neck fracture was the femoral proximal BMD of the 9th decile. Classification by the Public Welfare Silver Science Group's method and by the Singh index, except Grades I, II, and III, revealed a difference; as the severity of bone atrophy advanced, BMD tended to decrease. The percent reduction of MBD 10 years after premenopause was 21.0% in the spine and 13.2% in the femoral neck. Correlation between BMD and weight, weight/height ratio, BODY MASS INDEX was significant. No correlation between BMD and bone metabolism factors in the blood was found in 50 osteoporotic patients. The results of this study showed that dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR-1000) can objectively diagnose and suggest measures for prevention of osteoporosis, and is clinically useful. (author).

  5. X-ray reflection in oxygen-rich accretion discs of ultracompact X-ray binaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madej, O. K.; Garcia, Jeronimo; Jonker, P. G.

    2014-01-01

    . The donor star in these sources is a carbon-oxygen or oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarf. Hence, the accretion disc is enriched with oxygen which makes the O viii Ly alpha line particularly strong. Modelling the X-ray reflection off a carbon- and oxygen-enriched, hydrogen- and helium-poor disc with models...

  6. Parabolic refractive X-ray lenses: a breakthrough in X-ray optics

    CERN Document Server

    Lengeler, B; Benner, B; Guenzler, T F; Kuhlmann, M; Tümmler, J; Simionovici, A S; Drakopoulos, M; Snigirev, A; Snigireva, I

    2001-01-01

    Refractive X-ray lenses, considered for a long time as unfeasible, have been realized with a rotational parabolic profile at our institute: The main features of the new lenses are: they focus in two directions and are free of spherical aberration. By varying the number of individual lenses in the stack the focal length can be chosen in a typical range from 0.5 to 2 m for photon energies between about 6 and 60 keV. The aperture of the lens is about 1 mm matching the angular divergence of undulator beams at 3d generation synchrotron radiation sources. They cope without problems with the heat load from the white beam of an undulator. Finally, they are easy to align and to operate. Refractive X-ray lenses can be used with hard X-rays in the same way as glass lenses can be used for visible light, if it is take into account that the numerical aperture is small (of the order 10 sup - sup 4). Being high-quality optical elements, the refractive X-ray lenses can be used for generating a focal spot in the mu m range wit...

  7. Enhancement of coherent X-ray diffraction from nanocrystals by introduction of X-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian; Pfeiffer, Franz; Vartanyants, Ivan; Sun, Yugang; Xia, Younan

    2003-09-22

    Coherent X-ray Diffraction is applied to investigate the structure of individual nanocrystalline silver particles in the 100nm size range. In order to enhance the available signal, Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing optics have been introduced in the 34-ID-C beamline at APS. Concerns about the preservation of coherence under these circumstances are addressed through experiment and by calculations.

  8. Optical and X-ray luminosities of expanding nebulae around ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwek, Magdalena; Sądowski, Aleksander; Narayan, Ramesh; Roberts, Timothy P.; Soria, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    We have performed a set of simulations of expanding, spherically symmetric nebulae inflated by winds from accreting black holes in ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). We implemented a realistic cooling function to account for free-free and bound-free cooling. For all model parameters we considered, the forward shock in the interstellar medium becomes radiative at a radius ˜100 pc. The emission is primarily in optical and UV, and the radiative luminosity is about 50 per cent of the total kinetic luminosity of the wind. In contrast, the reverse shock in the wind is adiabatic so long as the terminal outflow velocity of the wind vw ≳ 0.003c. The shocked wind in these models radiates in X-rays, but with a luminosity of only ˜1035 erg s-1. For wind velocities vw ≲ 0.001c, the shocked wind becomes radiative, but it is no longer hot enough to produce X-rays. Instead it emits in optical and UV, and the radiative luminosity is comparable to 100 per cent of the wind kinetic luminosity. We suggest that measuring the optical luminosities and putting limits on the X-ray and radio emission from shock-ionized ULX bubbles may help in estimating the mass outflow rate of the central accretion disc and the velocity of the outflow.

  9. Interferometric X-Ray Imaging of Breast Cancer Specimens at 51 keV X-Ray Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Wu, Jin; Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Yoneyama, Akio; Lwin, Thet Thet; Aiyoshi, Yuji; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Ueno, Ei

    2004-08-01

    The feasibility of the interferometric X-ray imaging technique is examined for revealing the features of breast cancer specimens. The interferometric X-ray imaging system consisted of an asymmetrically cut silicon crystal, a monolithic X-ray interferometer, a phase-shifter, an object cell, and an X-ray CCD camera. Ten 10-mm-thick formalin-fixed breast cancer specimens were imaged at 51 keV, and these images were compared with absorption-contrast X-ray images obtained at 18 keV monochromatic synchrotron X-ray. The interferometric X-ray images clearly depicted the essential features of the breast cancer such as microcalcification down to a size of 0.036 mm, spiculation, and detailed inner soft tissue structures closely matched with histopathological morphology, while the absorption-contrast X-ray images obtained using nearly the same X-ray dose only resolved microcalcification down to a size of 0.108 mm and spiculation. The interferometric X-ray imaging technique can be considered to be an innovative technique for the early and accurate diagnosis of breast cancer using an extremely low X-ray dose.

  10. The very soft X-ray emission of X-ray-faint early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, S.; Fabbiano, G.

    1994-01-01

    A recent reanaylsis of Einstein data, and new ROSAT observations, have revealed the presence of at least two components in the X-ray spectra of X-ray faint early-type galaxies: a relatively hard component (kT greater than 1.5 keV), and a very soft component (kT approximately 0.2-0.3 keV). In this paper we address the problem of the nature of the very soft component and whether it can be due to a hot interstellar medium (ISM), or is most likely originated by the collective emission of very soft stellar sources. To this purpose, hydrodynamical evolutionary sequences for the secular behavior of gas flows in ellipticals have been performed, varying the Type Ia supernovae rate of explosion, and the dark matter amount and distribution. The results are compared with the observational X-ray data: the average Einstein spectrum for six X-ray faint early-type galaxies (among which are NGC 4365 and NGC 4697), and the spectrum obtained by the ROSAT pointed observation of NGC 4365. The very soft component could be entirely explained with a hot ISM only in galaxies such as NGC 4697, i.e., when the depth of the potential well-on which the average ISM temperature strongly depends-is quite shallow; in NGC 4365 a diffuse hot ISM would have a temperature larger than that of the very soft component, because of the deeper potential well. So, in NGC 4365 the softest contribution to the X-ray emission comes certainly from stellar sources. As stellar soft X-ray emitters, we consider late-type stellar coronae, supersoft sources such as those discovered by ROSAT in the Magellanic Clouds and M31, and RS CVn systems. All these candidates can be substantial contributors to the very soft emission, though none of them, taken separately, plausibly accounts entirely for its properties. We finally present a model for the X-ray emission of NGC 4365, to reproduce in detail the results of the ROSAT pointed observation, including the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) spectrum and radial

  11. The Correlation between Hard X-Ray Peak Flux and Soft X-Ray Peak Flux in the Outburst Rise of Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, W.; van der Klis, M.; Fender, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    We have analyzed Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer pointed observations of the outbursts of black hole and neutron star soft X-ray transients in which an initial low/hard state, or ``island'' state, followed by a transition to a softer state was observed. In three sources-the black hole transient XTE

  12. Hard X-rays in–soft X-rays out: An operando piggyback view deep into a charging lithium ion battery with X-ray Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Artur, E-mail: artur.braun@alumni.ethz.ch [Laboratory for High Performance Ceramics. Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Nordlund, Dennis [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94720 (United States); Song, Seung-Wan [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Huang, Tzu-Wen [Laboratory for High Performance Ceramics. Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Sokaras, Dimosthenis [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94720 (United States); Liu, Xiasong; Yang, Wanli [Advanced Light Source, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Weng, Tsu-Chien [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94720 (United States); Liu, Zhi [Advanced Light Source, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: For lithium intercalation battery electrodes, understanding of the electronic structure of bulk and surface is essential for their operation and functionality. Soft X-rays are excellent probes for such electronic structure information, but soft X-rays are predominantly surface sensitive and thus cannot probe the bulk. Moreover, soft X-rays hardly permit meaningful in situ and operando studies in battery assemblies. We show here how we penetrate with hard X-rays (>10 keV) in situ a lithium cell, containing a manganite-based cathode. Through X-ray Raman spectroscopy we extract the Mn 2p multiplet from the entire cathode material, thus obtaining bulk-sensitive electronic structure information during battery charging and discharging.

  13. Subgroup report on hard x-ray microprobes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ice, G.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Barbee, T.; Bionta, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Howells, M.; Thompson, A.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Yun, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The increasing availability of synchrotron x-ray sources has stimulated the development of advanced hard x-ray (E{>=}5 keV) microprobes. New x-ray optics have been demonstrated which show promise for achieving intense submicron hard x-ray probes. These probes will be used for extraordinary elemental detection by x-ray fluorescence/absorption and for microdiffraction to identify phase and strain. The inherent elemental and crystallographic sensitivity of an x-ray microprobe and its inherently nondestructive and penetrating nature makes the development of an advanced hard x-ray microprobe an important national goal. In this workshop state-of-the-art hard x-ray microprobe optics were described and future directions were discussed. Gene Ice, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), presented an overview of the current status of hard x-ray microprobe optics and described the use of crystal spectrometers to improve minimum detectable limits in fluorescent microprobe experiments. Al Thompson, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), described work at the Center for X-ray Optics to develop a hard x-ray microprobe based on Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) optics. Al Thompson also showed the results of some experimental measurements with their KB optics. Malcolm Howells presented a method for bending elliptical mirrors and Troy Barbee commented on the use of graded d spacings to achieve highest efficiency in KB multilayer microfocusing. Richard Bionta, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), described the development of the first hard x-ray zone plates and future promise of so called {open_quotes}jelly roll{close_quotes} or sputter slice zone plates. Wenbing Yun, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), described characterization of jelly roll and lithographically produced zone plates and described the application of zone plates to focus extremely narrow bandwidths by nuclear resonance. This report summarizes the presentations of the workshop subgroup on hard x-ray microprobes.

  14. Calculation of characteristics of X-ray devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orobinskyi A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Actuality of this work is related to human radiation safety during tuning and regulation of X-ray devices in the process of their development and production. The more precise the calculations for the device are, the less time is required for its tuning and regulation, and thus people are less exposed to radiation. When developing an X-ray device, it is necessary to choose an X-ray tube and filters taking into account the application domain of the device. In order to do this, one should know anode voltage, X-ray tube anode current, material and thickness of filters, i.e. to calculate these characteristics at the set quality of X-ray radiation. The known published studies do not give any solution to this problem. The scientific novelty of this work is that it establishes the interdependence between main characteristics of the X-ray device: the function of the device defines the quality of X-ray radiation (mean photon energy and air kerma power; mean photon energy depends on the X-ray anode tube voltage and spectral resolution; air kerma power depends on anode tube voltage, current of X-ray tube anode, spectral resolution, thicknesses of the filters and their materials; spectral resolution depends on thicknesses of filters and their materials; thickness of filters depends on the material of the filter (the linear coefficient of weakening of X-ray radiation. Knowledge of interdependence of basic characteristics of the X-ray devices allowes developing simple algorithm for their calculation at the values of homogeneity coefficient from 0,8 to 1, which makes it possible to choose an X-ray tube and filters with the purpose of obtaining X-ray radiation of the set quality.

  15. Advanced in X-ray fluorescence holography

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K

    2002-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) can resolve 'phase problem' in crystal diffraction and therefore it provides 3D atomic images around specific elements. Since first demonstration of the XFH in 1996, view of atoms has been improved rapidly with the refinement of the hologram data collection method. The present performance of the XFH makes it possible to apply to impurity, thin film and quasicrystal, and opens a way to practical tool for determination of local structure. In this paper, theory including solutions for twin image problem, advanced experimental systems and application to Si sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 9 sub 9 Ge sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 0 sub 1 are discussed. (author)

  16. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Ridgway, Mark

    2015-01-01

    X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) is a powerful technique with which to probe the properties of matter, equally applicable to the solid, liquid and gas phases. Semiconductors are arguably our most technologically-relevant group of materials given they form the basis of the electronic and photonic devices that now so widely permeate almost every aspect of our society. The most effective utilisation of these materials today and tomorrow necessitates a detailed knowledge of their structural and vibrational properties. Through a series of comprehensive reviews, this book demonstrates the versatility of XAS for semiconductor materials analysis and presents important research activities in this ever growing field. A short introduction of the technique, aimed primarily at XAS newcomers, is followed by twenty independent chapters dedicated to distinct groups of materials. Topics span dopants in crystalline semiconductors and disorder in amorphous semiconductors to alloys and nanometric material as well as in-sit...

  17. Space Optic Manufacturing - X-ray Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Space Optics Manufacturing Center has been working to expand our view of the universe via sophisticated new telescopes. The Optics Center's goal is to develop low-cost, advanced space optics technologies for the NASA program in the 21st century - including the long-term goal of imaging Earth-like planets in distant solar systems. To reduce the cost of mirror fabrication, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed replication techniques, the machinery and materials to replicate electro-formed nickel mirrors. The process allows fabricating precisely shaped mandrels to be used and reused as masters for replicating high-quality mirrors. This image shows a lightweight replicated x-ray mirror with gold coatings applied.

  18. Polishing X-ray Mirror Mandrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Space Optics Manufacturing Center has been working to expand our view of the universe via sophisticated new telescopes. The Optics Center's goal is to develop low-cost, advanced space optics technologies for the NASA program in the 21st century - including the long-term goal of imaging Earth-like planets in distant solar systems. To reduce the cost of mirror fabrication, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed replication techniques, the machinery, and materials to replicate electro-formed nickel mirrors. The process allows fabricating precisely shaped mandrels to be used and reused as masters for replicating high-quality mirrors. MSFC's Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center (SOMTC) has grinding and polishing equipment ranging from conventional spindles to custom-designed polishers. These capabilities allow us to grind precisely and polish a variety of optical devices, including x-ray mirror mandrels. This image shows Charlie Griffith polishing the half-meter mandrel at SOMTC.

  19. Composite materials for x-ray protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaffe, M.J.; Mawdsley, G.E.; Lilley, M.; Servant, R.; Reh, G. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario, (Canada))

    1991-05-01

    We have developed and tested a radiation protection material that provides similar attenuation for diagnostic x-ray spectra to that of conventional Pb apron materials with approximately 30% reduced weight. By combining a number of elements with different K absorption energies, such as Ba, W, and Pb, energy attenuation for given spectra can be optimized with respect to total cross-sectional mass loading. Alternatively, garments with much higher protective factors at equivalent weight to conventional garments could be produced. The reduction in the amount of Pb used also reduces problems associated with the toxicity of the material during manufacture and disposal. Back strain can be reduced for personnel performing special radiological procedures that require wearing protective garments for long periods of time.

  20. Structure determination by X-ray crystallography

    CERN Document Server

    Ladd, M F C

    1995-01-01

    X-ray crystallography provides us with the most accurate picture we can get of atomic and molecular structures in crystals. It provides a hard bedrock of structural results in chemistry and in mineralogy. In biology, where the structures are not fully crystalline, it can still provide valuable results and, indeed, the impact here has been revolutionary. It is still an immense field for young workers, and no doubt will provide yet more striking develop­ ments of a major character. It does, however, require a wide range of intellectual application, and a considerable ability in many fields. This book will provide much help. It is a very straightforward and thorough guide to every aspect of the subject. The authors are experienced both as research workers themselves and as teachers of standing, and this is shown in their clarity of exposition. There are plenty of iliustrations and worked examples to aid the student to obtain a real grasp of the subject.

  1. Hard x-ray telescope mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorenstein, P.; Worrall, D.; Joensen, K.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Hard X-Ray Telescope was selected for study as a possible new intermediate size mission for the early 21st century. Its principal attributes are: (1) multiwavelength observing with a system of focussing telescopes that collectively observe from the UV to over 1 MeV, (2) much higher sensitivity...... and much better angular resolution in the 10 - 100 keV band, and (3) higher sensitivity for detecting gamma ray lines of known energy in the 100 keV to 1 MeV band. This paper emphasizes the mission aspects of the concept study such as the payload configuration and launch vehicle. An engineering team...... at the Marshall Space Center is participating in these two key aspects of the study....

  2. Optical, x-ray and microwave diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudisco, S.; Mascali, D.; Altana, C.; Anzalone, A.; Gammino, S.; Musumarra, A.; Musumeci, F.; Scordino, A. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Romano, F. P. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); IBAM-CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95100 Catania (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy)

    2013-07-26

    Laser-driven ion acceleration is a new approach for the particles acceleration, which allows obtaining ion beams with unique properties, such as short burst duration, large particle number, small size source size, low transverse emittance. Currently, two main acceleration mechanisms have been identified and investigated: target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) and radiation pressure acceleration (RPA). Electrons dynamics and energies are strongly coupled to these acceleration mechanisms and they can be investigated with optical and X-ray techniques. The main aim of these studies are the identification of few physical observables that can be directly correlated to the proton emission obtained (in terms of reproducibility and intensity) in operations with different target material and structure and laser-target interaction parameters.

  3. Dosimetry at X ray examinations of scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallen, S.; Martling, K.; Mattsson, S. (Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics Malmoe General Hospital (Sweden))

    1992-01-01

    Scoliosis is the deformity of the spine that occurs among children, mostly girls, at the age of 10-16 years. The mean absorbed dose to patient examined for scoliosis at three hospitals has been studied in order to determine the radiation risk. The differences in dose between the hospitals are large (a factor of 10 between the mean values and a factor of 100 between highest and lowest patient dose). According to BEIR V (1989), the risk of death from radiation induced cancer for a 15 year old girl is 1.6% per 0.1 Sv. This means 0.2-2 deaths per 1000 scoliosis patients depending on which X ray examination technique is used. (author).

  4. X-ray diffraction with novel geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopiou, Danae [Department of Engineering and Applied Science Cranfield University, Shrivenham Campus, Swindon (United Kingdom); Rogers, Keith, E-mail: k.d.rogers@cranfield.ac.uk [Department of Engineering and Applied Science Cranfield University, Shrivenham Campus, Swindon (United Kingdom); Evans, Paul; Godber, Simon [Imaging Science Group, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University Clifton Campus, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Shackel, James [Department of Engineering and Applied Science Cranfield University, Shrivenham Campus, Swindon (United Kingdom); Dicken, Anthony [Imaging Science Group, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University Clifton Campus, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-21

    An innovative geometry for high efficiency harvesting of diffracted X-rays is explored. Further to previous work where planar samples were fixed normal to the primary axis, this work extends focal construct geometry (FCG), to samples randomly oriented with respect to the incident beam. The effect of independent sample rotation around two axes upon the scattering distributions was investigated in analytical, simulation and empirical manners. It was found that, although the profile of Bragg maxima were modified when the sample was rotated, high intensity diffraction data was still acquired. Modelling produced a good match to the empirical data and it was shown that the distortions caused by sample rotation were not severe and predictable even when sample rotations were large. The implications for this are discussed.

  5. Multimodal x-ray scatter imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunk, O; Menzel, A [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bech, M; Pfeiffer, F [Department Physik (E17), Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Strausse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Jensen, T H; Feidenhans' l, R [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Binderup, T [Rigshospitalet and Faculty of Health Science, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: oliver.bunk@psi.ch

    2009-12-15

    We describe a small-angle x-ray scattering-based imaging technique that reveals the distribution and orientation of nano-scale structures over extended areas. By combining two measurement and analysis schemes, complementary structural information is available which renders the technique suitable for a broad range of applications, e.g. in materials science and bio-imaging. Through a combination of current techniques and on-line analysis schemes, measurements with a so far unprecedented combination of speed, dynamic range and point density became feasible. This is illustrated by data recorded for a section of a mouse soleus muscle visualizing fine muscle and Achilles tendon structures down to the 10 nm range over a 10 mm{sup 2} sample area.

  6. X-ray Studies of Nano Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexemer, Alexander

    Nano composite materials are an exciting and fast expanding field. X-ray scattering has been used in order to study the structure properties relation. During the last few years the field has expanded more towards the field of thin films where there's been a dramatic increase in the use of grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). The main issue of GISAXS has been the complex analysis framework necessary for simulating and fitting. In addition, existing software has restricted the scientist in systems that can be simulated and the speed to analyze large amounts of data. Over the last few years we have worked closely with our computational research and supercomputer division to enable the use of supercomputers to simulate at scattering data. We have developed a comprehensive analysis framework to simulate and fit a wide variety of materials and morphologies. The framework is designed to supply scientists with close to real-time feedback during beam times. Therefore, HipGISAXS (High Performance GISAXS) has been developed to run simulations on massively parallel platforms such as the Oak Ridge Supercomputer Titan (OLCF). Further, with inverse modeling algorithms for fitting available in HipGISAXS, such as particle swarm optimization, it can handle a large number of parameters during the structure fitting process. In September of 2014, HipGISAXS was used in a real time demonstration that married the SAXS/WAXS beamline at the ALS with the data handling and processing capabilities at NERSC, and simulation capabilities of running at-scale simulations on Titan at OLCF. Doe Early Carrier Award, SPOT and CAMERA.

  7. Identifying Bright X-Ray Beasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are astronomical sources of X-rays that, while dimmer than active galactic nuclei, are nonetheless brighter than any known stellar process. What are these beasts and why do they shine so brightly?Exceeding the LimitFirst discovered in the 1980s, ULXs are rare sources that have nonetheless been found in all types of galaxies. Though the bright X-ray radiation seems likely to be coming from compact objects accreting gas, theres a problem with this theory: ULXs outshine the Eddington luminosity for stellar-mass compact objects. This means that a stellar-mass object couldnt emit this much radiation isotropically without blowing itself apart.There are two alternative explanations commonly proposed for ULXs:Rather than being accreting stellar-mass compact objects, they are accreting intermediate-mass black holes. A hypothetical black hole of 100 solar masses or more would have a much higher Eddington luminosity than a stellar-mass black hole, making the luminosities that we observe from ULXs feasible.An example of one of the common routes the authors find for a binary system to become a ULX. In this case, the binary begins as two main sequence stars. As one star evolves off the main sequence, the binary undergoes a common envelope phase and a stage of mass transfer. The star ends its life as a supernova, and the resulting neutron star then accretes matter from the main sequence star as a ULX. [Wiktorowicz et al. 2017]They are ordinary X-ray binaries (a stellar-mass compact object accreting matter from a companion star), but they are undergoing a short phase of extreme accretion. During this time, their emission is beamed into jets, making them appear brighter than the Eddington luminosity.Clues from a New DiscoveryA few years ago, a new discovery shed some light on ULXs: M82 X-2, a pulsing ULX. Two more pulsing ULXs have been discovered since then, demonstrating that at least some ULXs contain pulsars i.e., neutron stars as the

  8. Effect of X-ray exposure on the pharmaceutical quality of drug tablets using X-ray inspection equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Kazuaki; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Miyazaki, Itaru; Murata, Norikazu; Takahashi, Yoshifumi; Ohkubo, Hiroshi; Ozeki, Tetsuya

    2015-06-01

    X-ray inspection equipment is widely used to detect missing materials and defective goods in opaque containers. Its application has been expanded to the pharmaceutical industry to detect the presence of drug tablets in aluminum foil press-through packaging. However, the effect of X-rays on the pharmaceutical quality of drug tablets is not well known. In this study, the effect of X-rays on the pharmaceutical quality of drug tablets was investigated. Exposure of acetaminophen, loxoprofen and mefenamic acid tablets to X-ray doses of 0.34 mGy (thrice the dose by X-ray scanning) to 300 Gy (maximum dose from our X-ray equipment) was demonstrated, and the samples were evaluated by formulation tests. Exposure to X-rays did not affect the pharmaceutical quality of the drug content. The samples exposed to X-rays exhibited almost the same profile in formulation tests (dissolution test, disintegrating test and hardness test) as control samples (0 Gy). The combination of X-ray exposure with accelerated temperature and humidity tests (six months) also did not affect the pharmaceutical quality. The color change of light-sensitive drugs (nifedipine and furosemide tablets) after X-ray exposure was negligible (drug tablets.

  9. X-rays and photocarcinogenesis in hairless mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Catharina M; Philipsen, Peter A; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that excessive X-ray radiation can cause non-melanoma skin cancers. With the increased incidence of sun-related skin cancer there is a need to investigate the combination of sunlight and X-rays. Immunocompetent C3.Cg/TifBomTac mice (n = 298) were divided into 12 groups. Mice were...... irradiated with 12, 29 or 50 kV X-rays. The mice received a total dose of 45 Gy. They were irradiated with 3 SED simulated solar radiation (SSR) either before or after irradiation with X-rays. The groups irradiated with X-rays alone, 0, 3, 9 and 10 mice (0, 12, 29 and 50 kV, respectively) developed squamous...... cell carcinoma. In the groups irradiated with SSR after X-rays the development of tumours was significantly faster in the 50 kV group than in the corresponding control group (175 vs. 194 days, p...

  10. The Beginnings of Stellar X-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, R.

    2000-09-01

    I review the beginnings of the field of stellar X-ray astronomy, concentrating on the period immediately preceeding, and immediately following, the launch of the Einstein Observatory. The wealth of data was such that, within the first two years following launch, major discoveries were made by scientists from both the Einstein Observatory PI groups and Einstein Observatory Guest Observers which established stellar X-ray astronomy as a new astronomical discipline: Discovery of early and late-type stars, as well as young protostars, as soft X-ray sources; discovery of the "dividing line" separating X-ray emitting and X-ray quiet giant and supergiant stars; and establishment of the "solar-stellar connection" as a paradigm for understanding X-ray emission from late-type stars.

  11. Adjustable Grazing-Incidence X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Reid, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    With its unique subarcsecond imaging performance, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory illustrates the importance of fine angular resolution for x-ray astronomy. Indeed, the future of x-ray astronomy relies upon x-ray telescopes with comparable angular resolution but larger aperture areas. Combined with the special requirements of nested grazing-incidence optics, mass, and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes render such advances technologically and programmatically challenging. The goal of this technology research is to enable the cost-effective fabrication of large-area, lightweight grazing-incidence x-ray optics with subarcsecond resolution. Toward this end, the project is developing active x-ray optics using slumped-glass mirrors with thin-film piezoelectric arrays for correction of intrinsic or mount-induced distortions.

  12. Application of kinoform lens for X-ray reflectivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, M K; Alianelli, L; Dolbnya, I P; Sawhney, K J S

    2010-03-01

    In this paper the first practical application of kinoform lenses for the X-ray reflectivity characterization of thin layered materials is demonstrated. The focused X-ray beam generated from a kinoform lens, a line of nominal size approximately 50 microm x 2 microm, provides a unique possibility to measure the X-ray reflectivities of thin layered materials in sample scanning mode. Moreover, the small footprint of the X-ray beam, generated on the sample surface at grazing incidence angles, enables one to measure the absolute X-ray reflectivities. This approach has been tested by analyzing a few thin multilayer structures. The advantages achieved over the conventional X-ray reflectivity technique are discussed and demonstrated by measurements.

  13. [Experimental proximal carpectomy. Biodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J N

    1992-01-01

    Proximal carpectomy was performed in 10 fresh cadavre wrists. Dynamic x-rays were taken and the forces necessary to obtain different movements before and after the operation were measured. Comparison of these parameters clearly defines the advantages and limitations of carpectomy and indicates the reasons.

  14. Dark field X-ray microscopy for studies of recrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahl, Sonja Rosenlund; Simons, Hugh; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2015-01-01

    We present the recently developed technique of Dark Field X-Ray Microscopy that utilizes the diffraction of hard X-rays from individual grains or subgrains at the (sub)micrometre- scale embedded within mm-sized samples. By magnifying the diffracted signal, 3D mapping of orientations and strains...... external influences. The capabilities of Dark Field X- Ray Microscopy are illustrated by examples from an ongoing study of recrystallization of 50% cold-rolled Al1050 specimens....

  15. X-ray Emission Mechanisms in Herbig - Haro objects .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, R.; Orlando, S.; Peres, G.; Favata, F.; Rosner, R.

    X-ray emission in Herbig - Haro objects is a quite recent and uncommon finding still waiting full explanation. With the scope of explaining this X-ray emission, our project is devoted to model the interaction between a supersonic jet originating from a young stellar object and the ambient medium. We have performed a wide exploration of the parameter space to infer the configuration(s) which can give rise to X-ray emission very similar to what recently observed.

  16. Czech Participation in International X-Ray Observatory (IXO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hudec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the recent status of Czech participation in the IXO (International X-ray Observatory space mission, with emphasis on the development of new technologies and test samples of X-ray mirrors with precise surfaces, based on new materials, and their applications in space. In addition, alternative X-ray optical arrangements are investigated, such as Kirkpatrick-Baez systems.

  17. X-Ray Optics for Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-22

    UNIT SAME as 7b. E EMENT NO. NO- 3484 NO I ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Approved for public release | X -- ray Optics for...Berkeley, California 94720 (510) 486-4000 * FTS 451-4000 X - ray Optics for Science and Technology Final Technical Report for the period 01 Feb 90 to 31...Oct 93 Contract AFOSR-90-0129 December 22, 1993 David T. Attwood, Jr. Principal Investigator Professor in Residence Center for X - ray Optics Applied

  18. X-ray microanalysis as applied to fungal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, M; Ansel, M; de Azevedo Carneiro, J

    1977-04-01

    Analytical electron microscopy combines the techniques of high-resolution electron microscopy and high-sensitivity X-ray microanalysis of samples. Spectrometry of the elements (characteristic X-rays produced by a scanning electron microprobe) was employed to detect some elements of Mendeleev's classification in pathogenic fungi for humans. X-ray microanalysis applied in wavelength dispersive spectrometry was used to study Coccidioïdes immitis, Paracoccidioïdes brasiliensis and Trichosporum cutaneum.

  19. Line-Source Based X-Ray Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Bharkhada; Hengyong Yu; Hong Liu; Robert Plemmons; Ge Wang

    2009-01-01

    Current computed tomography (CT) scanners, including micro-CT scanners, utilize a point x-ray source. As we target higher and higher spatial resolutions, the reduced x-ray focal spot size limits the temporal and contrast resolutions achievable. To overcome this limitation, in this paper we propose to use a line-shaped x-ray source so that many more photons can be generated, given a data acquisition interval. In reference to the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) algorithm...

  20. Development of online quasimonochromatic X-ray backlighter for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gold plasma produces continuous X-ray spectrum (M band) in this range. The spectral, spatial and temporal resolutions of the system measured are 30 mÅ, 50 μm and 1.5 ns respectively. The spectral width of the X-ray pulse is 2 Å ( E = 0.39 keV). Keywords. X-ray backlighter; quasimonochromatic; crystal spectrometer.